There is no question that enhancing circulating testosterone concentrations over normal physiological concentrations in the bloodstream is effective for increasing muscle size and strength.

However, evidence suggests that circulating testosterone is not as important as once thought in producing gains in muscle size and strength when changes in testosterone are from strength training alone.

So here’s the question, is circulating testosterone that important for size and strength gains, excluding those individuals using steroids and those who have low testosterone levels from a medical condition? To answer that question, a brief lesson on hormone function is needed. The effects of testosterone on your body, like any hormone, are dependent on two things, the circulating amount of the hormone and the receptor in the target tissue.

For a hormone to work there must be a receptor. Conversely, if there are many

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