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Better Healthy Living Book Two The Nutrient List

Better Healthy Living Book Two The Nutrient List

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Better Healthy Living Book Two The Nutrient List

Lungime:
859 pages
20 hours
Editor:
Lansat:
Nov 6, 2013
ISBN:
9781311537690
Format:
Carte

Descriere

This nutrition reference book covers the gaps that other health books leave out. Contains detailed information on all major nutrients. Lists up to 38 nutrients listed in each food with 12 food groups. Lists over 1300 diseases where a nutrition deficiency may have caused the medical condition. Lists over 2000 drug/nutrient interactions with details of each interaction.
Layout of this book. This book has been set out in 4 sections as follows:
Nutrients
A list of all the major nutrients (vitamins and minerals) has been included. Each nutrient has information on how the body utilises that particular nutrient, food sources which contain that nutrient, the processing losses of the nutrient, the Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA) for the different age groups, factors (diseases) increasing demand for that nutrient, health problems that can be helped by that nutrient, effects of overdose and toxicity, synergistic nutrients (these are the other nutrients required in order that the nutrient is properly utilized by the body. No nutrient works on its own.), and finally drugs affecting the nutrient and in some case vice versa.
Food
These food lists give a list of nutrients in each food so that you can modify your diet so that you are getting the correct amount of nutrients for Better Healthy Living. The foods are broken into groups for quick location. 1.Beverages, 2. Breads, cereals, grains, grain products, 3. Dairy Products, 4. Deserts and sweets, 5. Fish and seafood, 6. Fruits, 7. Meat and poultry, cooked 8. Meats, variety, 9. Nuts, nut products and seeds, 10. Oils, Fats and shortenings, 11. Soups, canned and diluted, Vegetables A to L, 12. Vegetables M to W, 13. Fast Foods. There are up to 38 nutrients listed in each food.
Diseases List
There is a list of over 1.300 medical conditions with a list of nutrients for each disease where a deficiency of the nutrient may be associated with or have caused the medical condition plus a list of nutrients which may assist in healing that medical condition.
List of Drug / Nutrient Interactions
This is a list of over 2,000 drug / nutrient interactions listed for ease of use in alphabetical drug order with the nutrient interactions following the name of the drug.

Editor:
Lansat:
Nov 6, 2013
ISBN:
9781311537690
Format:
Carte

Despre autor

Ian Keir lived in Sydney up to 1991 except for a couple of years at Blaxland NSW in the lower Blue Mountains west of Sydney. Now lives in Brisbane Qld. He prefers a challenge and when he has mastered that challenge moving on to a new challenge and this has resulting in studying many disciplines from Automotive to Zoology. This knowledge has given Ian Keir the knowledge to write on many subjects. The books written so far have been a graphic design book ‘Quick Pick Colour’ (paperback) and 2 computer books ‘Install Windows without the Hassles’ and ‘Update Your Computer In Easy Steps’ both e-books. The present book in production is ‘Better Healthy Living’ and should be available in the first half of 2013.

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Better Healthy Living Book Two The Nutrient List - Ian Keir

Overview

Overview

The purpose of this book is to show you how you can have a better, healthier, life by simply modifying your diet so that have a good nutritional balanced diet which means a strong immune system which means a good enjoyable life free from disease and isn't that what everybody would like to have.

On the other hand a poor diet means a weak immune system and the risk of serious illness including cancer, the possibility of a shortened life span and nobody wants that.

Essentially, the immune system is our body's Department of Defence. The immune system protects us from potentially harmful invaders by recognising and responding to them as a threat. When the immune system is functioning well, it acts like a powerful, well-regulated army. It consists of several highly specialised types of cells, much the same way an army is made up of many different specialty divisions.

Just like any other well-run army, our immune system requires good nutrition, regular exercise and adequate rest to function effectively. Deficiencies in certain nutrients, stress and lack of sleep can all compromise healthy immune function. The great news is that if our immune system is not functioning at an optimal level, we can support it by simply checking to see which nutrients are missing from our diet and simply eating more foods which contain the missing nutrients or in the case of illness with a few well-chosen supplements or using supplements when we cannot obtain sufficient of one or more nutrients in our diet especially as we more and more highly processed foods where most of the nutrients have been removed.

We also faced with the problem that if we do buy so called ‘fresh’ food that we no idea no idea how long it has been sitting on the shelf gradually losing nutrients as it sits there, especially in supermarkets where few employees would have any idea of the age of the food and whether it has been stored in a warehouse and how long before it has been delivered to the supermarket!

Layout of this book

Nutrients

A list of all the major nutrients (vitamins and minerals) has been included. Each nutrient has information on how the body utilises that particular nutrient, food sources which contain that nutrient, the processing losses of the nutrient, the Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA) for the different age groups, factors (diseases) increasing demand for that nutrient, health problems that can be helped by that nutrient, effects of overdose and toxicity, synergistic nutrients (these are the other nutrients required in order that the nutrient is properly utilized by the body. No nutrient works on its own.), and finally drugs affecting the nutrient and in some case vice versa. Also there a list of nutrient/drug interaction for each nutrient with an index at the end of the book listing over 2,000 drug/nutrient interactions in drug name order listing the nutrient list for each drug showing which drugs have many interactions and some having little interaction. This list can be very handy if you are taking a certain drug and want to know if there is any interaction with nutrients.

Food

These food lists give a list of nutrients in each food so that you can modify your diet so that you are getting the correct amount of nutrients for Better Healthy Living. The foods are broken into groups for quick location. 1.Beverages, 2. Breads, cereals, grains, grain products, 3. Dairy Products, 4. Deserts and sweets, 5. Fish and seafood, 6. Fruits, 7. Meat and poultry, cooked 8. Meats, variety, 9. Nuts, nut products and seeds, 10. Oils, Fats and shortenings, 11. Soups, canned and diluted, Vegetables A to L, 12. Vegetables M to W, 13. Fast Foods. There are up to 38 nutrients listed in each food.

Diseases List

There is a list of over 1.300 medical conditions with a list of nutrients for each disease where a deficiency of the nutrient may be associated with or have caused the medical condition plus a list of nutrients which may assist in healing that medical condition.

List of Drug / Nutrient Interactions

This is a list of over 2,000 drug / nutrient interactions listed for ease of use in alphabetical drug order with the nutrient interactions following the name of the drug. This list should always be treated as a partial list of drug / nutrient interactions mainly for reasons of size restraints of the book itself and the fact that conditions change where a drug may have different nutrient interactions as new information becomes available on the drug or nutrient.

Disclaimer

All material provided within this website is for informational and educational purposes only, and is not to be construed as medical advice or instruction. No action should be taken solely on the contents of this website. Consult your physician or a qualified health professional on any matters regarding your health and wellbeing or on any opinions expressed within this book.

The information provided is believed to be accurate based on the best judgment of the authors. However, the reader is responsible for consulting with their own health professional on any matters raised within. Neither the company nor the author/s of any information provided accepts responsibility for the actions or consequential results of any action taken by any reader.

Chapter 2 Introduction

This book was originally a website called Better Healthy Living and it has now been converted into a book. In preparation for writing this book, I thought it necessary to do further research in order to improve the book from the website which was nothing more than just a list of a number of vitamins and minerals and a list of nutrients in a number of various foods. In doing the research, I came to the conclusion that in the 21st century we should be a lot healthier than we are.

Australia is recognised as possibly one of the healthiest countries in the world and yet prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults aged 18 years and over has continued to rise to 63.4% in 2011-12 from 61.2% in 2007-08 and 56.3% in 1995. This is a shocking figure and could possibly be similar in other 1st world countries. The reason is that we have become couch potatoes with our idea of sport is sitting on the lounge watching football on the television with a beer in our hand. Another thing is that we have become averse to walking, preferring to ride in the car everywhere even to the local shops which would be a quick 10 minute walk. Also one of the main reasons for our obesity is our obsession with convenience foods possibly better known as junk food.

The other thing that became obvious to me was the state of the medical profession in the 21st century and the brain washing of doctors by the pharmaceutical industry into getting the doctors into prescribing more and more medication with the attitude that this pill will fix the problem. No pharmaceutical company wants to heal a person that would mean no more medication and a lower income for the company while the policy of the company would be to sell more and more medications so that they can make more and larger profits. A good example of this would in the case of increasing resistance to antibiotics because of over prescribing of antibiotics by doctors. Pharmaceutical companies are not interested in producing more powerful drugs to replace the antibiotics simply because there is little profit in it and the pharmaceutical industry is only interested in promoting drugs with the most profits.

One of the other things that should be done in the university to teach the medical students to cure rather than just to heal, or better still to prevent illnesses from occurring in the first place by using practices to show how illnesses can be prevented by using good food policies such as selecting foods that help to produce a premium immune system.

Chapter 3 Take care of your body and your body will take care of you.

If you bought a car and left it out in all weathers even though you had some where to park it out of the weather, never took care of it, never had it serviced, put the wrong fuel in it, never cleaned it or do any of the things that you should have done to it, then it will quickly turn into an unreliable rust bucket with a worn out motor and you would probably call it a lousy car that would only have a short life before going to the wreckers.

And yet the same sort of thing could happen to you if you mistreat your own body by doing all the wrong things like smoking, drinking heavily and eating all the wrong foods like fatty greasy fast foods and other things which you know you shouldn’t, which would probably result in poor health, always getting sick, taking a long time to recover from an illness and possibly having a stroke or heart attack or other disease which would cause an early death well before your time.

If on the other hand you take care of your body, your body will take care of you. If you eat a properly balanced diet with a balanced list of nutrients resulting in a strong immune system then there is no reason why you could not have a healthy long life without getting any serious diseases like stroke, heart attack or even possibly the dreaded cancer and if you do get any illness then you could expect a quick recovery because your strong immune system will quickly destroy the virus without the need to take strong drugs with their strong side effects which sometimes can leave you worse off than when you started taking them. I am not saying not to take a drug if your doctor prescribes it but to try and make sure that it does not attack your immune system because if it does then you leave the door often for other diseases to cause you illness which would probably have never happened if your immune system had been in top form.

Chapter 4 Recommendations for Fat, Carbohydrates (including sugars) and Fibre

In order to receive the correct amounts of protein, carbohydrates (including sugars), fibre, and recommended maximum daily salt intake for infants, children and adults has been set out below as a population average % of food energy.

Saturated Fatty Acids : Not more than 11%

Polyunsaturated fatty Acids: 6.5%.

Monounsaturated fatty acids: 13%.

Trans fatty acids: Not more than 2%

Total fats: Not more than 35%.

Non milk extrinsic sugars: Not more than 11%.

Intrinsic and milk sugars: 39%

Total carbohydrates: 50%

Fibre as non-starch polysaccharide:18 grams per day (only applicable to children over 5 years).

Chapter 5 Which is the best supplement

Some supplements can only be supplied when combined with salts or minerals. With each nutrition this chapter will look at each of the nutrients and the advantages and disadvantages nutrient combination

Vitamin A

Natural vitamin A is available either as retinol or retinyl-palmitate. Either micellization or emulsification improve absorption. Micellization is the process of making the fat-soluble vitamin A into very small droplets (micelles) so that the material is dispersed in water. Emulsification is the process of emulsifying the vitamin A with another chemical (such as lecithin) so that it can mix with water. Despite manufacturers' claims, regular vitamin A is absorbed at a rate of 80 to 90 percent. There are three primary sources of carotenes on the market synthetic all-trans beta-carotene, beta- and alpha-carotene from the algae Dunaliella, and mixed carotenes from palm oil. Of these three, palm oil carotenes are the best form. Palm oil carotenes appear to give the best antioxidant protection. The carotene complex of palm oil closely mirrors the pattern in high-carotene foods. Vitamin A is usually sold in capsule form containing Retinyl palmitate at various strengths.

Vitamin B1 Thiamin

Thiamin is available in most nutritional supplements as thiamin hydrochloride.

Vitamin B2 Riboflavin

Riboflavin is available in supplemental form as simple riboflavin and activated riboflavin (riboflavin-5-phosphate). Riboflavin-5-phosphate is the principal form in which riboflavin is found in cells and tissues. It requires more energy to produce, but is more soluble than riboflavin.

Vitamin B3 Niacin

Vitamin B3 is available in nutritional supplements as either niacin (nicotinic acid or nicotinate) or niacinamide (nicotinamide). Each form has different applications. In its nicotinic acid form, vitamin B3 is an effective reducer of blood cholesterol levels. While in its niacinamide form, it is useful in arthritis and early-onset type I diabetes. Doses in excess of 50 milligrams of niacin, but not niacinamide, typically produce a transient flushing of the skin.

Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid

Pantothenic acid is available most often as calcium pantothenate. The most active and useful form is pantethine.

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is available as pyridoxine hydrochloride and pyridoxal-5-phosphate. The latter form is the most active form. However, intestinal cells remove the phosphate molecule from most of the pyridoxal-5-phosphate ingested before it is absorbed.2 Therefore, for most people the pyridoxine form is satisfactory as long as the necessary cofactors for conversion (riboflavin and magnesium) are available. The exception is people with liver disease. Since the activation of pyridoxine to pyridoxal-5-phosphate occurs in the liver, people with liver disease (particularly liver cirrhosis) may have difficulty in converting pyridoxine to pyridoxal-5-phosphate. In liver cirrhosis, and possibly other liver disease, supplementation with injectable pyridoxal-5-phosphate may be more advantageous than oral pyridoxine

Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid, Folate)

Folic acid is available as folic acid (folate) and folinic acid (5-methyl-tetra-hydrofolate). In order to utilize folic acid, the body must convert it first to tetrahydrofolate and then add a methyl group to form 5-methyl-tetra-hydrofolate (folinic acid). Therefore, supplying the body with folinic acid bypasses these steps. Folinic acid is the most active form of folic acid and is more efficient at raising body stores than folic acid. Folic acid supplementation should always include vitamin B12 supplementation (400 to 1,000 micrograms daily) because folic acid supplementation can mask an underlying vitamin B12 deficiency. The danger is that while the folic acid reverses the macrocyte anemia, it does not prevent or reverse the neurological symptoms of a vitamin B12 deficiency. Nerve damage can result that does not respond to vitamin B12 supplementation.

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)

Vitamin B12 is available in several forms. The most common form is cyanocobalamin; however, vitamin B12 is active in only two forms, methylcobalamin and adenosyl-cobalamin. Methylcobalamin is the only active form of vitamin B12 available commercially in tablet form in the United States. While methylcobalamin is active immediately upon absorption, cyanocobalamin must be converted to either methylcobalamin or adenosylcobalamin by the body to remove the cyanide molecule (the amount of cyanide produced in this process is extremely small) and add either a methyl or adenosyl group. Methylcobalamin also produces better results in clinical trials than cyanocobalamin.

Vitamin C

You can find Vitamin C in a number of different forms - crystals, powders, capsules, tablets, timed-released tablets, etcetera. The actual vitamin C in these different forms varies. Ascorbic acid is the most widely used and least expensive form. Buffered vitamin C refers to the use of sodium, magnesium, calcium, or potassium ascorbate. Buffered vitamin C is used primarily because sometimes the acid content of non-buffered ascorbic acid bothers some people's stomachs. The only real concern with buffered vitamin C products is that sodium ascorbate may be a problem for people who are sodium sensitive. The same is true for corn-free vitamin C. Most commercially available vitamin C is derived from corn. In people who are sensitive to corn, vitamin C derived from another commercially available source, the sago palm, is recommended.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is best known for its ability to stimulate the absorption of calcium. However, there are actually different forms of vitamin D, each form exerting a different level of activity on calcium metabolism.

In the skin, sunlight changes the precursor to vitamin D, 7-dehydrocholesterol, into vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). It is then transported to the liver and converted by an enzyme into 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, which is five times more potent than cholecalciferol. An enzyme in the kidneys then converts the 25-hydroxycholecal¬ciferol to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2D3), which is ten times more potent than cholecalciferol and the most potent form of vitamin D3. There are two types of vitamin D supplements available for over-the-counter purchase (vitamin D2 and vitamin D3). Vitamin D3 is the type that most experts believe should be utilized in clinical practice (Wolpowitz & Gilchrest, 2006). Vitamin D2 is also known as ergocalciferol, and vitamin D3 is also known as cholecalciferol. This is important for patients who have purchased a dietary supplement that does not indicate the specific type of vitamin D in the product by number but have listed the scientific name. Most experts now believe that the only form that should be purchased is vitamin D3. Vitamin D2 is also very acceptable, but in the author’s opinion, most individuals should switch to D3.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is available in many different forms, either natural or synthetic. Natural forms of vitamin E are designated d-, as in d-alpha-tocopherol, while synthetic forms are dl-, as in dl-alpha-tocopherol. The letters d and / reflect mirror images of the vitamin E molecule. An analogy is your hands you have a right hand (d) and a left hand (1). They are mirror images of each other. In the human body, only the d- form is recognized. Although the /- form has antioxidant activity, it may actually inhibit the d- form from entering cell membranes.1"3 Therefore, natural vitamin E (the d- form) has greater benefit than the synthetic (dl). Natural vitamin E supplements containing mixed tocopherols, including the tocotrienols, appear to offer the greatest benefit. The best forms of natural vitamin E in these products may be those where the d-alpha-tocopherol is bound to either acetate or succinate two natural weak acids used in cellular metabolism. Binding results in the formation of d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate and d-alpha-tocopheryl succinate, respectively. These forms of vitamin E may be more advantageous because they are more stable than free d-alpha tocopherol. Once the body ingests these forms, it splits the acetate or succinate off the molecule to reform alpha-tocopherol.

Biotin

Biotin is available commercially either as an isolated biotin or as biocytin, a biotin complex from brewer's yeast composed of 65.6 percent biotin.

Boron

There are several different forms of boron on the marketplace. For general health and osteoporosis, sodium borate or boron chelates are suitable. For the treatment of arthritis, look for boron as sodium tetraborate decahydrate.

Calcium

Several studies indicate some calcium supplements may contain substantial amounts of lead. Lead is a toxic metal that primarily affects the brain, kidney, and red blood cell manufacture. Lead toxicity is a significant problem in industrialized countries like the United States. The level of lead in the body is directly linked to IQ and criminal behavior. The higher the lead level, the lower the IQ and the greater the risk for delinquent or criminal behavior. Avoid natural oyster shell calcium, dolomite, and bone meal products unless the manufacturer provides reasonable assurance that lead levels are negligible. Although refined calcium carbonate has the lowest lead content, the body absorbs calcium chelates more efficiently. When selecting calcium supplement you should make sure that the manufacturer has specified that the calcium supplement is lead free. Patients with insufficient stomach acid output can only absorb about 4 percent of a calcium carbonate oral dose, but a person with normal stomach acid can typically absorb about 22 percent.4 Patients with low stomach acid secretion need a form of calcium already in a soluble and ionized state, like calcium citrate, calcium lactate, or calcium gluconate. Patients with reduced stomach acid absorb about 45 percent of the calcium from calcium citrate compared to 4 percent absorption for calcium carbonate.4

This difference in absorption clearly demonstrates that ionized soluble calcium is more beneficial than insoluble calcium salts like calcium carbonate in patients with reduced stomach acid secretion. Calcium is also more bioavailable from calcium citrate than from calcium carbonate in normal subjects. Calcium citrate and other soluble forms (lactate, aspartate, orotate, etcetera) are the best supplements available for optimal absorption.

Choline

Choline is available as a soluble salt (most commonly as either choline bitartrate, citrate, or chloride) or as phosphatidylcholine in lecithin. Most commercial lecithin contains only 10 to 20 percent phosphatidylcholine, while most phosphatidyl-choline supplements contain only 35 percent. There are newer preparations now available containing up to 98 percent phosphatidylcholine. Ideally these are the preparations that should be used since they are associated with fewer side effects (anorexia, nausea, abdominal bloating, gastrointestinal pain and diarrhea are associated with high doses of lecithin).

Chromium

There are several forms of chromium available on the market. Chromium picolinate, chromium poly nicotinate, chromium chloride, and chromium-enriched yeast are each touted by their respective suppliers as providing the greatest benefit. Which is the best form? There really is no firm evidence to indicate one is significantly better than another.

Copper

Copper is available in many different forms complexed with sulfate, picolinate, gluconate, and amino acids. However, there is little data to support a claim that one form is better than another.

Inositol

Inositol is available commercially as inositol monophosphate.

Iodine

The term iodine is commonly used to describe any iodine compound. Technically speaking, only the elemental form of iodine is iodine. Iodine complexed to sodium or potassium (the most common supplement form of iodine) is more accurately referred to as an iodide. The body appears to handle iodide and iodine differently. Iodides exert a stronger effect on thyroid function. In contrast, elemental iodine is primarily involved in functions outside the thyroid such as the modulation of estrogen action on breast tissue. The reason for this difference is, unlike thyroid tissue, breast tissue lacks the enzymes that oxidize iodide to iodine. Thus, the breast tissue requires elemental forms of iodine. Organic sources of iodine (kelp, iodine caseinate, etcetera) are preferred to inorganic iodides (potassium iodide and sodium iodide).

Iron

There are two forms of dietary iron, heme and nonheme. Heme iron is iron bound to hemoglobin and myoglobin. It is in animal products and is the most efficiently absorbed form of iron Nonheme iron is in plant foods and is poorly absorbed compared to heme iron. As indicated earlier, heme iron is the most efficiently absorbed form of iron. The absorption rate of nonheme iron supplements such as ferrous sulfate and ferrous fumarate is 2.9 percent on an empty stomach and 0.9 percent with food. The absorption rate of heme iron, however, is as high as 35 percent.1'2 In addition, heme iron is without the side effects (nausea, flatulence, and diarrhea) associated with nonheme sources of iron.

Unbound nonheme iron is also more likely to spin off pro-oxidants and lead to the formation of free radicals than heme iron. For this reason, many practitioners elect to use heme iron over nonheme iron sources when iron supplementation is necessary.

Despite the superiority of heme iron, nonheme iron salts are the most popular iron supplements. It is easier to take higher quantities of nonheme iron salts than it is to take heme, and the net amount of iron absorbed is about equal. In other words, if you take 3 milligrams of heme iron and 50 milligrams of nonheme iron, the net absorption for each is about the same. The best form of nonheme iron is ferrous succinate.

Magnesium

Magnesium is available in several different forms. In general, all forms are equally absorbed. Absorption studies indicate that magnesium is easily absorbed orally, especially when bound to citrate (and presumably aspartate and other members of the Krebs cycle). In addition, magnesium bound to aspartate or Krebs cycle intermediates may also help fight off fatigue.

Manganese

Manganese is sometimes included with chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride in multi-ingredient products promoted for osteoarthritis.

Look out for manganese that is hidden in some supplements. Certain supplements, including those commonly used for osteoarthritis (e.g., Cosamin DS), contain manganese. When using these products, it’s important to follow label directions carefully. At doses slightly higher than the recommended dose, these products provide more than the Tolerable Upper Limit (UL) for adults, 11 mg of manganese per day. Consuming more than 11 mg per day of manganese could cause serious and harmful side effects.

Molybdenum

Molybdenum is available commercially as sodium molybdate. Another form, tetrathiomolybdate, is used in the treatment of Wilson's disease. Molybdenum is almost completely absorbed from the intestinal tract as absorption studies show a high rate of absorption (88 to 93 percent) at dietary intakes between 22 and 1,500 micro-grams per day.2 Molybdenum is conserved at low intakes, and excess molybdenum is rapidly excreted in the urine. There is probably no advantage of one form of molybdenum over another.

Phosphorus

Best supplement is lecithin.

Potassium

Potassium supplements available in health food stores are either potassium salts (chloride and bicarbonate), potassium bound to various mineral chelates (aspartate, citrate, etcetera), or food-based potassium sources. Best supplement Potassium gluconate/chloride, sustained-release potassium, seaweed, brewer's yeast.

Selenium

Selenium is available in several different forms. Studies show inorganic salts like sodium selenite are less effectively absorbed and not as biologically active as organic forms of selenium, such as selenomethionine and selenium-rich yeast. Therefore, the preferred form of selenium supplement is either selenomethionine or high-selenium-content yeast.

Zinc

There are many forms of zinc to choose from. While most clinical studies have used zinc sulfate, several other forms of zinc are better absorbed and utilized. Zinc forms bound to picolinate, acetate, citrate, glycerate, or mono-methionine are all excellent. Although manufacturers claim superiority for their particular zinc chelates, data indicate each of these forms is well absorbed.

Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 is primarily available in tablet or capsules. Based on bioavailability studies, the best preparations are soft-gelatin capsules that contain CoQ10 in an oil base (soybean oil).

Vitamins

Chapter 6 Retinol (Vitamin A) (Retinol; Carotenoids)

Retinol (Vitamin A) helps form and maintains healthy teeth, skeletal and soft tissue, mucous membranes, and skin. It is also known as retinol because it produces the pigments in the retina of the eye. Retinol (Vitamin A) promotes good vision, especially in low light. It may also be needed for reproduction and breast-feeding. Retinol is an active type of Retinol (Vitamin A). It is found in animal liver, whole milk, and some fortified foods. Carotenoids are dark colour dyes found in plant foods that can turn into a form of Retinol (Vitamin A). One such carotenoid is beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is an antioxidant.

Antioxidants protect cells from damage caused by unstable substances called free radicals. Free radicals are believed to contribute to certain chronic diseases and play a role in the degenerative processes seen in aging.

Food that contains this vitamin:

Apricots, dried, 50 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 1,800 mg

Apricots, 3 medium Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 1,500 mg

Asparagus, 100 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 500 mg

Avocado, 1 medium Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 290 mg

Beans broad, 100 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 250 mg

Beans, green, 100 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 400 mg

Breads, grains, cereals Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 0 mg

Broccoli, 100 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 2,500 mg

Brussels sprouts, 100 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 400 mg

Butter, 20 g Retinol 180 mg, Beta-Carotene 130 mg

Cabbage, green, 100 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 300 mg

Capsicum, red, 100 g 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 1,460 mg

Carrots, 100 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 12,000 mg

Cheese, 30 g Retinol 105mg, Beta-Carotene 1,350 mg

Cod liver oil, 20 mL Retinol 3,600 mg, Beta-Carotene 0 mg

Cottage cheese, 75 g Retinol 25 mg, Beta-Carotene 15 mg

Cream, 30 ml, Retinol 140 mg, Beta-Carotene 75 mg

Cream cheese, 30 g Retinol 115 mg, Beta-Carotene 650 mg

Eel, 100 g cooked Retinol 1,900 mg, Beta-Carotene 0 mg

Egg, 1 Retinol 70 mg, Beta-Carotene 0 mg

Endive, 50 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 1,000 mg

Fish Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 0 mg

Guava, 100 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 440 mg

Herring, 100 g Retinol 100 mg, Beta-Carotene 0 mg

Jackfruit, 100 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 1,130 mg0

Kumera (orange sweet potato), 100 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 6,780 mg

Leek, 100 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 470 mg

Lettuce, 50 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 500 mg

Liver, cooked, lamb, 100 g Retinol 35,400 mg, Beta-Carotene 60 mg

Liver, cooked, beef, 100 g Retinol 19,200 mg, Beta-Carotene 1,920 mg

Liver, cooked, calf, 100 g Retinol 18,100 mg, Beta-Carotene 670 mg

Mango, 1 medium Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 3,800 mg

Margarine, 20 g Retinol 115 mg, Beta-Carotene 80 mg

Meat, chicken Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 0 mg

Milk, regular, 1 cup, 250 mL Retinol 95 mg, Beta-Carotene 80 mg

Milk skim, 1 cup, 250 mL Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 0 mg

Oil, 1 tablespoon Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 0 mg

Orange. 1 medium Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 170 mg

Oysters, 1 dozen Retinol 90 mg, Beta-Carotene 0 mg

Parsley, 5 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 350 mg

Passionfruit, 50 g flesh Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 375 mg

Pawpaw, 150 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 1,365 mg

Peach, dried, 50 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 1,000 mg

Peach, yellow, 1 medium Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 600 mg

Peas, 100 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 300 mg

Persimmon, medium Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 480 mg

Pumpkin, 100 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 2780 - 3,380 mg

Rockmelon, dark orange flesh Retinol, 150 g 0 3,000 mg

Salmon, canned, 100 g Retinol 100 mg, Beta-Carotene 0 mg

Spinach, 75 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 4,500 mg

Spring greens, 100 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 4,000 mg

Sweet corn, 1 cob Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 360 mg

Tamarillo, 1 medium Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 930 mg

Tomato, 1,150 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 900 mg

Tomato canned 1 cup Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 630 mg

Watercress, 25 g Retinol 0 mg, Beta-Carotene 500 mg

Yogurt, 200 g carton Retinol 70 mg, Beta-Carotene 95 mg

Processing losses

Heating vegetables (green, yellow) 15-35%

Recommended daily allowances

The best way to get the daily requirement of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the food guide pyramid

Infants 0 to 6 months : 400 ug/d

Infants 6 to 12 months : 500 ug/d

Children 1 to 3 years : 300 ug/d

Children 4 to 8 years : 400 ug/d

Males 9 to 13 years : 600 ug/d

Males 14 to 18 years : 900 ug/d

Males 19 to 30 years : 900 ug/d

Males 31 to 50 years : 900 ug/d

Males 51 to 70 years : 900 ug/d

Males > 70 years : 900 ug/d

Females 9 to 13 years : 600 ug/d

Females 14 to 18 years : 700 ug/d

Females 19 to 30 years : 700 ug/d

Females 31 to 50 years : 700 ug/d

Females 51 to 70 years : 700 ug/d

Females > 70 years : 700 ug/d

Pregnancy 14 to 18 years : 750 ug/d

Pregnancy 19 to 30 years : 770 ug/d

Pregnancy 31 to 50 years : 770 ug/d

Lactation 14 to 18 years : 1,200 ug/d

Lactation 19 to 30 years : 1,300 ug/d

Lactation 31 to 50 years : 1,300 ug/d

Women who are pregnant should avoid any vitamin A supplement due to the risk of birth defects.

Women producing breast milk (lactating) need higher amounts. Ask your doctor what dose is best for you.

Effects of overdose and toxicity

Exophthalmia, fatigue, headache, hyperkalemia, hypercalciuria, increased cerebrospinal pressure, insomnia, irritability, nausea, nerve lesions, painful bones joints, peeling skin. High intake of Retinol (Vitamin A) during pregnancy may cause birth defects. Chronic Effects Abnormal bone growth, amenorrhoea, anorexia, bone and muscle pain, increased blood lipids, itching, jaundice, loss of hair.

Synergistic nutrients

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), Vitamin B3, Thiamine, Calcium, Carotenoids, Iodine, Tyrosine, Zinc

Drug Interaction

Check with your doctor before using Vitamin A supplements if you are taking any of the following medications:

Significant - Monitor Closely

Alitretinoin - Significant interaction - Monitor Closely - This drug increases toxicity of Vitamin A by pharmacodynamic synergism Additive retinoid effects.

Bexarotene - Significant interaction - Monitor Closely - Increases toxicity of vitamin a by pharmacodynamic synergism. Additive retinoid effects. Avoid consuming vitamin-A containing supplements in amounts exceeding FDA recommended daily allowance.

Etretinate - Significant interaction - Monitor Closely- This drug increases toxicity of Vitamin A by pharmacodynamic synergism Additive retinoid effects.

Isotretinoin - Significant interaction - Monitor Closely- This drug increases toxicity of Vitamin A by pharmacodynamic synergism Additive retinoid effects.

Mipomersen - Significant interaction - Monitor Closely- This drug increases toxicity of Vitamin A. Both drugs have potential to increase hepatic enzymes; monitor LFTs.

Minor

Acitretin - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Busulfan - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Capecitabine - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Carboplatin - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Carmustine - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Chitosan - Minor or non-significant interaction. Decreases levels of vitamin a by inhibition of GI absorption. Applies only to oral form.

Chlorambucil - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Cholestyramine - Minor or non-significant interaction. Decreases levels of vitamin a by inhibition of GI absorption. Applies only to oral form.

Cisplatin - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Cladribine - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Colestipol - Minor or non-significant interaction. Decreases levels of vitamin a by inhibition of GI absorption. Applies only to oral form.

Cytarabine - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Dacarbazine - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Decitabine - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Docetaxel - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Floxuridine - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Fludarabine - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Fluorouracil - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Gemcitabine - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Ifosfamide - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Irinotecan - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Lomustine - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Mechlorethamine - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Melphalan - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Mercaptopurine - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Mineral oil - Minor or non-significant interaction. Decreases levels of vitamin a by inhibition of GI absorption. Applies only to oral form.

Minocycline - Minor or non-significant interaction. Risk of benign intracranial hypertension.

Nelarabine - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Neomycin PO - Minor or non-significant interaction. Decreases levels of vitamin a by inhibition of GI absorption. Applies only to oral form.

Orlistat - Minor or non-significant interaction. Decreases levels of vitamin a by inhibition of GI absorption. Applies only to oral form.

Oxaliplatin - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Paclitaxel - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Paclitaxel protein bound - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Pentostatin - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Pralatrexate - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Streptozocin - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Thioguanine - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Thiotepa - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Topotecan - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Treosulfan - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Vinblastine - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Vincristine - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Vincristine liposomal - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Vinorelbine - Insignificant or minor interaction. Antioxidants such as Vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs.

Chapter 7 Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

Thiamine is one of the B vitamins, a group of water-soluble vitamins that participate in many of the chemical reactions in the body. Thiamine (Vitamin B1) helps the body cells convert Sugars, Carbohydrates into energy. It is also essential for the functioning of the heart, muscles, and nervous system.

Food that contains this vitamin

Almonds, 50 g 0.12 mg

Asparagus, 100 g 0.15 mg

Barley, raw weight, 100 g 0.12 mg

Brazil nuts, 50 g 0.5 mg

Breakfast cereal, fortified, 30 g 0.28 mg

Brown rice, raw weight, 100 g 0.59 mg

Cassava, 100 g 0.23 mg

Cracked wheat, raw weight, 100g 0.48 mg

Dried yeast, 10 g 0.4 mg

Fish, cooked, 150 g 0.14 mg

Ham, cooked or canned, 100 g 0.38 mg

Hazelnuts, 50 g 0.2 mg

Kidney, cooked, 100 g 0.38 mg

Meat or chicken, av. serve, 150 g 0.12 mg

Milk, 250 mL 0.1 mg

Oysters, 1 dozen 0.12 mg

Pasta, raw weight, 100 g 0.22-0.49 mg

Peanuts, 50 g 0.45 mg

Peas, 100 g 0.31 mg

Pork, leg steak, cooked, 100 g 0.59 mg

Rhubarb, 100 g 0.11 mg

Rolled oats, raw weight, 100 g 0.5 mg

Sweet potato, white, 100 g 0.4 mg

Walnuts, 50 g 0.15 mg

Wholemeal flour, 100 g 0.47 mg

Wheat germ, 1 tablespoon 0.2 mg

Wheat bran, 2 tablespoons 0.13 mg

Wholemeal bread, 2 slices 0.12 mg

White rice, raw weight, 100 g 0.08 mg

White bread, 2 slices 0.06 mg

Wholemeal pasta, raw weight, 100 g 0.99 mg

Yeast extract, 5 g 0.55 mg

Processing losses

Unstable to light and heat.

Meat roasting - 40-60%, milling of flour 60-80%, baking bread 5-15%, vegetable cooking 60-80%

Recommended daily allowances

The best way to get the daily requirement of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the food guide pyramid

Infants 0 to 6 months : 0.2 mg/d

Infants 6 to 12 months : 0.3 mg/d

Children 1 to 3 years : 0.5 mg/d

Children 4 to 8 years : 0.6 mg/d

Males 9 to 13 years : 0.9 mg/d

Males 14 to 18 years : 1.2 mg/d

Males 19 to 30 years : 1.2 mg/d

Males 31 to 50 years : 1.2 mg/d

Males 51 to 70 years : 1.2 mg/d

Males > 70 years : 1.2 mg/d

Females 9 to 13 years : 0.9 mg/d

Females 14 to 18 years : 1.0 mg/d

Females 19 to 30 years : 1.1 mg/d

Females 31 to 50 years : 1.1 mg/d

Females 51 to 70 years : 1.1 mg/d

Females > 70 years : 1.1 mg/d

Pregnancy 14 to 18 years : 1.4 mg/d

Pregnancy 19 to 30 years : 1.4 mg/d

Pregnancy 31 to 50 years : 1.4 mg/d

Lactation 14 to 18 years : 1.4 mg/d

Lactation 19 to 30 years : 1.4 mg/d

Lactation 31 to 50 years : 1.4 mg/d

Effects overdose and toxicity

Nervousness, oedema, shortness of breath, sensation of heat, sweating, tachycardia, tremors.

Synergistic nutrients

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), Vitamin B3, Vitamin B5, (Vitamin B6), Thiamine (Vitamin B1)2,Choline, Magnesium, Molybdenum, Phosphate,

Drugs affecting vitamin

Check with your doctor before using Vitamin B1 supplements if you are taking any of the following medications:

Significant - Monitor Closely

Azithromycin - Significant - Monitor Closely - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Clarithromycin - Significant - Monitor Closely - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Erythromycin base - Significant - Monitor Closely - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Erythromycin ethylsuccinate - Significant - Monitor Closely - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Erythromycin lactobionate - Significant - Monitor Closely - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Erythromycin stearate - Significant - Monitor Closely - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Roxithromycin - Significant - Monitor Closely - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Minor

Abobotulinumtoxina - Minor or non-significant interaction. Thiamine increases the effects of this drug by unspecified interaction.

Amikacin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Amoxicillin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Ampicillin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Atracurium - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Aztreonam - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Bumetanide - Minor or non-significant interaction. Drug decreases level of thiamine by increasing renal clearance.

Caffeine - Minor or non-significant interaction. Caffeine decreases levels of thiamine by inhibition of GI absorption. Coffee, tea are high in anti-thiamine factors.

Cefaclor - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Cefadroxil - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Cefamandole - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Cefazolin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Cefdinir - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Cefditoren - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Cefepime - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Cefixime - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Cefotaxime - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Cefotetan - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Cefoxitin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Cefpirome - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Cefpodoxime - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Cefprozil - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Ceftazidime - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Ceftibuten - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Ceftizoxime - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Ceftriaxone - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Cefuroxime - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Cephalexin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Chloramphenicol - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Chlorhexidine Oral - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Ciprofloxacin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Cisatracurium - Minor or non-significant interaction. Thiamine increases the effects of this drug by unspecified interaction.

Clindamycin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Dapsone - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Demeclocycline - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Dicloxacillin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Doripenem - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Doxycycline - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Ertapenem - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Ethacrynic Acid - Minor or non-significant interaction. Drug decreases level of thiamine by increasing renal clearance.

Ethanol - Minor or non-significant interaction. Ethanol decreases levels of thiamine by inhibition of GI absorption. Applies only to oral form of both agents. Thiamine supplementation recommended in alcoholism.

Fleroxacin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Flucloxacillin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Fosfomycin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Furosemide - Minor or non-significant interaction. Drug decreases level of thiamine by increasing renal clearance.

Gemifloxacin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Gentamicin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Imipenem/Cilastatin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Kanamycin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Levofloxacin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Linezolid - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Lymecycline - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Meropenem - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Metronidazole - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Minocycline - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Moxifloxacin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Nafcillin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Neomycin PO - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Netilmicin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Nitrofurantoin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Norfloxacin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Ofloxacin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Onabotulinumtoxina - Minor or non-significant interaction. Thiamine increases the effects of this drug by unspecified interaction.

Oxacillin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Oxytetracycline - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Pancuronium - Minor or non-significant interaction. Thiamine increases the effects of this drug by unspecified interaction.

Paromomycin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Penicillin G Aqueous - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Penicillin VK - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Piperacillin - Minor or non-signification interaction. - Will decrease the level or effect of thiamine by altering intestinal. Applies only to oral form of both agents.

Pivmecillinam - Minor or

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