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Vitamin Guide

Vitamin Guide

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Vitamin Guide

4/5 (4 evaluări)
193 pages
1 hour
Jul 10, 2014


a full description of all known vitamins and some other micronutrients with tables of recommended daily intakes, deficiency symptoms, requirements, beneficial effects, precautions, therapeutic uses, tables of food sources. what are vitamins - do we need vitamins - should we take vitamin supplement s- can vitamins be dangerous - how much vitamins should we take - natural or synthetic vitamins - when and how to take supplements - choosing your supplement - absorption and bioavailability - when buying vitamins - vitamin a - vitamin d - vitamin e - vitamin c - thiamine - riboflavin - niacin - pantothenic acid - vitamin b6 - vitamin b-12 - folic acid - biotin - vitamin - ,choline - inositol - para amino benzoic acid - bioflavonoid - omega-3 - omega-6 - coenzyme q10 - vitamin rich foods.

Jul 10, 2014

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Vitamin Guide - Ola R Hegge

Ola R Hegge

Vitamin Guide

Copyright © 2017 Ola R Hegge

All rights reserved

This book is based on the Boken Om Vitaminer written by the same author, Ola R Hegge, and was initially published in 1984 with revised edition in 1985. It was the first book about such topics written in Norwegian. Now this 2017 edition is completely revised with latest research and information about vitamins and minerals.


The contents of this book are based on studies, research and studies of physician`s practical use of vitamins and minerals. The information is solely for informational purposes. The resources listed are not intended to be fully systematic or complete, nor does inclusion here imply any endorsement or recommendation by the author. The author does not make any warranties, expressed or implied, about the value or utility for any purpose of the information and resources contained herein.


Neither the Author nor the Publisher take responsibility for any possible consequences from any treatment, procedure, exercise, dietary modification, action or application of medication which results from reading or following the information contained in this book. The publication of this information does not constitute the practice of medicine, and this information does not replace the advice of your physician or other health care provider. Before undertaking any course of treatment, the reader must seek the advice of their physician or other health care provider. Liability for individual actions or omissions based upon the contents of this book is expressly disclaimed.

Cover page design Ola R Hegge


CHAPTER I - Introduction

What Are Vitamins

Do We Need Vitamins

Should We Take Vitamin Supplements

Can Vitamins Be Dangerous

How Much Vitamins Should We Take

Natural Or Synthetic Vitamins

When And How To Take Supplements

Choosing Your Supplement

Absorption And Bioavailability

When Buying Vitamins

CHAPTER II - Vitamins

Vitamin A

Vitamin D

Vitamin C

Vitamin E




Pantothenic Acid

Vitamin B-6

Vitamin B-12

Folic Acid


Vitamin K

CHAPTER III - Other Micronutrients



Para Amino Benzoic Acid




Coenzyme Q10

Vitamin Rich Foods

Recommended Daily Allowances



What are vitamins?

A vitamin is an organic compound required by an organism as a vital nutrient, but in tiny amounts. Such a nutrient is called a vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism, hence must be obtained from the diet. Despite the attention vitamins get today through media few people know what vitamins are and how they work in our body.

Most of us, adults as children, are aware of the fact that vitamins and minerals are necessary for having a good health, and are important for preventing some diseases. Yet, not many people know how important vitamins and minerals are for our physical and mental well-being.

Vitamins or natural vitamins are organic substances, and they must be made of living plants, animals or in our body. They can also be produced synthetically, but even in this process, they are often made by living organisms. It was only around the turn of the century, that some began to understand that there was more to food than just proteins, carbohydrates, fats and minerals. Laboratory experiments showed that although all these nutrients were present, one could find cases of malnutrition. Researchers began looking for the missing link in the food chain and hence vitamins were discovered. There have been found 13 types of these very important nutrients which are universally recognized as vitamins. However, some experts believe that perhaps there are many left to be discovered.

There is a continious vitamin research, and most importantly is the research that gives us knowledge about how these substances affect and function in our body.

The first vitamin discovered was vitamin B1 (Thiamine) in 1910. Vitamin A or Retinol was found in 1913. In 1920 the vitamins; C (Ascorbic acid), D (Calciferol) and B2 (Riboflavin) were discovered. In 1922 vitamin E (Tocopherol), in 1926 vitamin B12 (Cobalamins) and in 1929 vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone and in 1931 vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) and vitamin B7 (Biotin) 1934 Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine). In 1936 vitamin B3 or Niacin. Then in 1941 vitamin B9 (Folic acid).

Experiments and studies continue to give us new and useful knowledge about all these vital compounds. There are indications that we have only gone a short distance in the knowledge about vitamins.

Vitamins are either classified as water-soluble or fat-soluble. Vitamin C and the B vitamins are water-soluble and vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble.

Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water, and are normally readily excreted from the body via urination and one can see or predict from the urine our vitamin consumption. As these vitamins are not stored in our body, a consistent intake is important. Many types of water-soluble vitamins are synthesized by bacteria.

The fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of fats. They accumulate in the body, and one has to be aware of the likelihood that the fat-soluble vitamins can be overdosed.

Do we need vitamins?

All our bodies and organs need vitamins and minerals. Not just once in a while, but all the time. The different organs and body parts, directly or indirectly, use vitamins and minerals in processes such as digestion and metabolism. When a function is to be started like digestion of food, it needs a catalyst. In our body, such a catalyst is called an enzyme. You can say enzymes act like spark plugs do in an engine. Enzymes are required for almost all biochemical processes such as digestion, cell renewal and growth.

An enzyme is composed mostly of a protein molecule which is associated with a coenzyme. Often a coenzyme is a vitamin in itself or it may consist of a substance prepared from a vitamin or mineral. Our body cannot produce such coenzymes, therefore it is vital that essential vitamins and minerals are added continuously into our organism. A lack of only one vitamin may cause various diseases. This is because vitamins and minerals often work best together and because they affect nearly every function in our body.

Dr. Bruce Ames, a well known biochemist at the University of California, has hypothesized that when the intake of vitamins and minerals is lower than the recommended levels, short-term requirements for such micronutrients in metabolic reactions take precedence over long-term needs, thus resulting in long-term, cumulative oxidative damage to macromolecules as DNA and RNA. Proteins decline in mitochondrial function, accelerates cellular aging and may lead to an increase of risk of age-related diseases. Micronutrient intakes at the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) would allow sufficient amounts for normal metabolism. Intakes of the RDA or higher may be needed for optimum health promotion and chronic disease prevention.

Should we take vitamin supplements?

Everyone knows that vitamins are found in vegetables, fruits, meat, and fish, but do we get enough vitamins in the foods we normally eat? Some argue that we do.

If we have a good, varied and balanced diet and live a life without any stress, yes, most likely we do get enough vitamins and minerals from the food we eat. Thus any extra supplements should not be necessary.

However, only a few of us have such a perfect diet that would supply adequate vitamins and minerals. In addition, most of us have a busy and demanding lifestyle. People living in heavy polluted cities with stressful jobs and with little time to make sure the nutrition is optimal, would benefit from taking a regularl supplement of vitamins and minerals. Sometimes we get ill and these supplements will help us to recover more quickly making sure the body is supplied with adequate nutritions. However, supplements do not replace a good balanced diet !

Much of the foods we eat are cooked or fried or have been prepared in ways that destroys a part of the important substances we need. Many people get their daily calorie intake from eating too much snack food and sweets. Most often these substances provide little or no vitamins and minerals. Therefore additional supplements are even more necessary. Other factors that increase our need for extra supply of vitamins and minerals are stress and disease. A person can still hold out with an inadequate or poor diet

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