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American Medical Association Guide to Living with Diabetes: Preventing and Treating Type 2 Diabetes - Essential Information You and Your Family Need to Know

American Medical Association Guide to Living with Diabetes: Preventing and Treating Type 2 Diabetes - Essential Information You and Your Family Need to Know

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American Medical Association Guide to Living with Diabetes: Preventing and Treating Type 2 Diabetes - Essential Information You and Your Family Need to Know

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404 pages
9 hours
Editor:
Lansat:
May 18, 2009
ISBN:
9780470435571
Format:
Carte

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More Than 3 Million American Medical Association Books Sold

From America's Most Trusted Health Authority, the Ultimate Guide to Understanding, Preventing, and Managing Type 2 Diabetes

Millions of Americans have type 2 diabetes, and millions more are at risk of developing the disease. The good news is that it is both preventable and treatable. In the American Medical Association Guide to Living with Diabetes you'll learn everything you need to know to prevent type 2 diabetes, take control of it if you already have it, and reduce your risk of life-threatening complications.

This book provides clear, easy-to-understand explanations of what type 2 diabetes is, what causes it, and how to determine if you are at risk. You'll find a detailed, easy-to-follow program for preventing diabetes by eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly, and reaching and maintaining a healthy weight. If you are living with diabetes, this invaluable guide offers in-depth explanations of the recommended lifestyle changes that can help you manage the disease, stressing the importance of rigorous testing and control of your blood sugar to avoid complications. You will learn about the available medications for treating diabetes and about alternative and complementary therapies. The book also includes sections on gestational diabetes and the increasing threat that type 2 diabetes poses to at-risk children. By following the recommendations and guidelines in the American Medical Association Guide to Living with Diabetes, you can reduce or eliminate the symptoms, avoid or minimize the risk of serious complications, and become more physically fit, energetic, and alert. In fact, there's no reason you can't be healthier than you've ever been.
Editor:
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May 18, 2009
ISBN:
9780470435571
Format:
Carte

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American Medical Association Guide to Living with Diabetes - Boyd E. Metzger, M.D.

Index

Introduction

More than 19 million Americans have diabetes—a condition that can produce life-threatening complications. Of the two major forms of diabetes—type 1 and type 2—type 2 comprises 90 to 95 percent of all cases in the United States. An additional 13 million people have the precursor to type 2 diabetes, called prediabetes. Worldwide, type 2 diabetes affects more than 190 million people, and some experts predict that if the current trends continue that figure could surge to over 300 million by the year 2025.

Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the United States, and annual diabetes-related medical costs total more than $100 billion. The predicted future increase in the number of cases is fueled by several factors. Americans are becoming increasingly sedentary and overweight; being overweight is the major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Age is another factor—most cases of type 2 diabetes develop after age 45. In addition, Hispanic Americans and other minority groups who have a high incidence of type 2 diabetes make up the fastest-growing segment of the US population.

The good news is that type 2 diabetes can often be prevented, mainly by eating a healthy and balanced diet, getting regular exercise, and keeping your weight within a healthy range. If you are overweight, losing just 5 to 7 percent of your weight (that’s 10 to 14 pounds if you weigh 200 pounds) and keeping it off can cut your risk in half.

If you already have diabetes, close monitoring of your blood sugar levels along with healthy eating and regular exercise can help you manage your condition and avoid serious complications. Even small changes in your lifestyle can produce big health benefits. This book is designed to help you learn how to make those changes in your daily life that can help you avoid type 2 diabetes or, if you have type 2 diabetes, maintain good control of it and reduce your risk of complications.

PART ONE

Type 2 Diabetes: A Modern Epidemic

1

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a medical disorder that affects the way the body uses food for growth and energy. When you eat, the carbohydrates (starches and sugars) are broken down into glucose, a simple sugar that is one of the main sources of fuel for your body. As food is digested, glucose gets absorbed into the bloodstream, which transports it throughout the body. Muscle and fat cells respond to signals from a circulating hormone in the blood called insulin, which is the key that unlocks the doors of these cells to enable glucose to enter and do its work. People who have diabetes either don’t have enough insulin or their cells have become insensitive, or resistant, to the effects of insulin. As a result, glucose doesn’t get into the cells and it begins to build up in the blood. This buildup of glucose in the blood is the hallmark of diabetes.

Previously known as adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes, type 2 diabetes used to develop almost exclusively in people who were over age 40 and overweight. Over the past decade, however, the number of children and young adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in the United States has climbed dramatically because of the growing epidemic of obesity that often begins in childhood.

The high blood sugar concentration brought on by both forms of diabetes can cause serious long-term complications such as nerve damage, heart disease, kidney failure, blindness, and amputation. An uncontrolled blood sugar level can also cause severe short-term complications such as loss of consciousness, and can even be fatal. Many people with type 2 diabetes can control their blood sugar with diet, exercise, and weight loss, but some need to take sugar-lowering medications or insulin injections.

Type l Diabetes

Although the major concern of this book is type 2 diabetes, which is far more common than type 1 diabetes, it is helpful to understand the difference between the two forms. People with type 1 diabetes completely lose the ability to produce the hormone insulin. The specialized beta cells in the pancreas stop generating enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels normal. This type of diabetes can begin at any age but is most often diagnosed in young people. The peak time of onset is between ages 8 and 18.

The Endocrine System

The endocrine system is a group of glands and tissues shown here that secrete hormones into the bloodstream to coordinate and control many essential body processes. The pancreas is the organ most involved in diabetes because its most important job is to regulate blood sugar (glucose) levels. The pancreas produces the hormones insulin and glucagon (which regulate the body’s use of glucose, fats, and proteins). The pancreas also secretes digestive enzymes that help break down food and convert it into glucose. The pituitary is the master gland that makes hormones that control several other endocrine glands. The hypothalamus, just above the pituitary gland in the brain, controls hormone secretion by the pituitary and is the main link between the endocrine and nervous systems. The thyroid gland produces the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which control the rate at which cells burn fuel for energy. The four parathyroid glands release parathyroid hormone, which helps regulate the level of calcium in the blood. The adrenal glands produce hormones including corticosteroids (which influence metabolism and the body’s response to stress) and epinephrine, or adrenaline (which increases blood pressure and heart rate during times of stress). The ovaries produce the female hormones estrogen and progesterone; the testicles produce male hormones (androgens, primarily testosterone).

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system mistakenly identifies specific body tissues—in this case the beta cells of the pancreas—as foreign and attacks and destroys them. The precise cause of this error in immune function is unknown, but experts think that some people are born with a genetic susceptibility to it. Then, at some point in their life, an environmental trigger such as a virus or a toxin activates this genetic susceptibility to bring on the errant immune response that produces type 1 diabetes.

The symptoms of type 1 diabetes tend to come on quickly and severely, unlike those of type 2 diabetes, which often remain unnoticeable over a period of several years. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include weakness, weight loss, excessive hunger and thirst, blurred vision, and increased urine output.

People with type 1 diabetes reach the point at which they do not produce enough insulin to survive, so for the rest of their lives they must take regular doses of insulin, usually by injection under the skin. Insulin cannot be taken by mouth because digestive enzymes would destroy it before it could reach the bloodstream.

Type 2 Diabetes

People who have type 2 diabetes make insulin, but their cells do not respond to it in the normal way. The body’s resistance, or lack of sensitivity, to the effects of insulin characterizes type 2 diabetes, formerly known as adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Many factors can cause people to have insulin resistance, but being overweight and physically inactive and eating an unhealthy diet are among the most important. In the United States, 85 to 90 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese (more than 20 percent over their ideal body weight).

Type 2 diabetes usually develops after age 40. However, with the surge in obesity in the United States and around the world, the age at which this form of diabetes is diagnosed is dropping. Today, very overweight children and young adults are developing type 2 diabetes at rates unheard of just a decade ago. (See chapter 14 to learn more about children and type 2 diabetes.)

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes is a medical disorder in which the body has difficulty using insulin to control the level of the sugar glucose in the blood. When type 2 diabetes first develops, the pancreas still produces a lot of insulin but not enough to maintain the normal processing of glucose in muscles, fat, and the liver. This decreased ability to process glucose eventually causes it to build up in the blood, leading to diabetes.

The early stages of type 2 diabetes, which often last several years, produce no symptoms. But even without noticeable symptoms, high glucose levels can damage nerves and blood vessels and cause complications such as heart disease, kidney failure, stroke, and blindness. Initially, the pancreas keeps blood sugar normal by releasing more and more insulin. But when insulin output starts to decline, blood sugar begins to go up. Eventually, the pancreas becomes exhausted—its output of insulin falls progressively and the amount of glucose in the blood continues to rise, while muscle and fat cells are starved of the energy they need. Over time, this situation can lead to symptoms such as thirst, weight loss, frequent urination, and lack of energy similar to the symptoms of type 1 diabetes.

The Role of Blood Sugar

To be healthy, your body needs to keep its blood sugar (glucose) level within a narrow range: between 70 and 110 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of blood, measured when you have not eaten for several hours or overnight. The blood glucose level rises after eating, but in healthy people it seldom rises above 150 or 160 mg/dL after meals. Doctors generally measure blood sugar levels after a person has fasted because sugar levels can remain above the fasting level for several hours after eating.

The pancreas is one of the key organs that maintains blood sugar levels within normal limits. The pancreas is located across the midsection of the body just behind the lower part of the stomach. The pancreas performs a number of important functions. For example, it secretes digestive juices that contain enzymes to break down food into particles, or molecules, tiny enough to be absorbed and used by cells. But perhaps the most important job of the pancreas is to make insulin, a hormone that controls the way muscle and fat cells use and store sugar.

After you eat, your intestines break down and absorb the carbohydrates (or sugars) in the food and release them into the liver and the bloodstream, which carries the sugars throughout the body so that your cells can use them for energy. As the level of sugar, or glucose, rises in your blood, the pancreas quickly begins to churn out insulin, which stimulates muscle and fat cells to take up excess glucose from the blood. These tissues store the surplus glucose until your body needs it, bringing the blood glucose level back into the normal range.

The pancreas also produces a hormone called glucagon, which has the opposite effect of insulin. When the glucose in your blood starts to get too low—such as when you haven’t eaten in a while or during vigorous exercise—the pancreas secretes glucagon to prevent the glucose level from falling too low. Glucagon signals the liver and muscle cells to release the glucose they have stored into the bloodstream to allow the blood sugar level to rise. Glucagon also stimulates the liver to produce glucose out of protein found in the body.

In these ways, glucagon keeps the blood sugar level from dropping too low and causing symptoms of hypoglycemia (which can include sudden hunger, dizziness, shakiness, nervousness, irritability, confusion, and drowsiness). Severe hypoglycemia, which can lead to seizures and lack of consciousness, requires emergency medical treatment. When functioning normally, this delicate balance between insulin and glucagon precisely regulates the sugar level in the blood, keeping it within the healthy range.

However, this intricate system can become disrupted under certain stresses, such as obesity, especially when fat is concentrated around the abdominal area. If your cells are resistant to the effects of insulin, your body needs more insulin to maintain normal blood glucose levels. If your body cannot increase its output of insulin sufficiently, your muscle and fat cells can’t use glucose fully and the liver starts making more glucose. Blood glucose then increases and can eventually lead to type 2 diabetes. Elevated blood glucose is the hallmark of diabetes.

How the Body Processes Glucose

The pancreas and the liver are the two major organs that help control glucose levels in the blood. Glucose, which is absorbed from digested food into the intestines, is the sugar that cells in the body use for energy. The pancreas secretes two hormones, insulin and glucagon, that have opposite effects in response to blood glucose levels: insulin lowers blood glucose and glucagon raises blood glucose. When blood glucose is high, the pancreas secretes insulin to stimulate liver, fat, and muscle cells to take in glucose from the bloodstream. When blood glucose is low, the pancreas secretes glucagon to stimulate the liver to release stored glucose into the bloodstream and to increase the rate at which the liver makes glucose.

How Insulin Works

Insulin is a hormone secreted by an organ called the pancreas. Inside the pancreas are several hundred thousand clusters of cells called islets. One type of islet cell, the beta cell, secretes insulin in response to the rise in glucose in the bloodstream. Like all hormones, insulin circulates in the bloodstream and can affect the function of cells, organs, and tissues throughout the body. The muscle and fat cells in your body have receptors on their surfaces to which insulin can attach as it circulates in the blood. Once insulin attaches itself to a receptor on the surface of a cell, the cell switches on other functions in the cell that attract and absorb glucose into the cell from the blood. The cell then converts the glucose into energy or stores it for future use.

If your pancreas does not make enough insulin, your muscle cells cannot take in sufficient amounts of glucose for your body’s energy needs. Without insulin, your fat cells release their stored energy too fast. The excess fat gets broken down in the liver to form chemicals called ketone bodies, which can build up in the blood and cause a life-threatening condition called ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can lead to diabetic coma or even death. You can eat normal amounts of food but lose weight or even become malnourished because your body is not properly processing the food. This can occur if the pancreas is unable to produce insulin, as in type 1 diabetes, or if your cells have become resistant to the effects of insulin and your pancreas cannot keep up with the increased demand for insulin, as in type 2 diabetes.

Insulin was discovered in 1921 in Canada, and the first insulin preparations for treating diabetes were developed in 1922. The discovery of insulin was a major step forward in diabetes treatment. Before the availability of insulin, people with type 1 diabetes died within months to a few years of their diagnosis. The early insulin preparations were derived from the pancreases of cows and pigs. Although these insulin preparations treated type 1 diabetes successfully in most affected people, some people had adverse reactions to impurities in the insulin preparations. By the 1980s, scientists had discovered how to make human insulin in large quantities by inserting copies of the human gene for insulin production into bacteria and manipulating the bacteria to make insulin.

Insulin’s Role

Insulin is a hormone that enables muscle and fat cells to take in glucose (sugar) from the blood to use for energy or store for future energy needs. In a person with type 1 diabetes, the pancreas has stopped producing insulin; without insulin, the cells—even though they have receptors (keys) for insulin and doors to let in glucose—do not take in glucose. In a person with type 2 diabetes, the cells have become unresponsive to insulin; although insulin attaches to the receptors, glucose has difficulty entering the cells. In both forms of diabetes, glucose builds up in the bloodstream—quickly in type 1 diabetes and gradually in type 2 diabetes.

How Type 2 Diabetes Develops

Type 2 diabetes is a disorder that has two major components: insulin resistance (when the body is less sensitive or responsive to the hormone insulin) and reduced ability of the pancreas to make and secrete a sufficient amount of insulin to keep blood glucose at a normal level. Among healthy people, there is a broad range in sensitivity to insulin, and a person’s sensitivity to insulin can fluctuate at different stages of life and still keep glucose levels within the healthy range. For example, whites tend to be more sensitive to insulin than Mexican Americans. Older people and people who are overweight or obese tend to be less sensitive to insulin than children and people who are thin or at a healthy weight. Insulin sensitivity tends to decrease during puberty and during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. These are all normal ranges of insulin sensitivity in healthy people—their pancreas increases its output of insulin as the muscle and fat cells become less sensitive to the effects of insulin and the level of glucose in their blood remains normal.

Normal Variations of Insulin Sensitivity

The chart here shows normal variations in insulin sensitivity among healthy people. Most hormones are required in similar amounts in everyone and have similar effects on them, but insulin is different. Healthy people can vary greatly in how responsive their body is to the effects of insulin; problems develop only when blood glucose cannot be kept at a normal level.

Some people (such as whites) are more sensitive to insulin than others (such as Mexican Americans), and this sensitivity can fluctuate throughout life but still effectively maintain blood glucose within the healthy range. Increasing age and being obese can make the body less sensitive to insulin, and insulin sensitivity tends to decrease during puberty and the later stages of pregnancy.

However, if the function of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas is impaired and the increased insulin output by the pancreas no longer sufficiently matches the decreased insulin sensitivity, glucose begins to build up in the blood. In the next phase, as glucose continues to build up in the blood, symptoms of type 2 diabetes eventually develop, along with related metabolic changes (such as abnormalities in cholesterol and other blood fats).

Insulin Resistance

If you have insulin resistance, your body’s cells are not responding as well—are less sensitive or more resistant—to the effects of the hormone insulin. Insulin resistance is a key factor in the development of type 2 diabetes. At the level of the cell, insulin connects to an insulin receptor on the cell surface that normally triggers a specific communication pathway inside the cell, relaying signals telling the cell to perform certain functions. For reasons that are not fully understood, these cellular signals fail to function normally, blocking the cell’s ability to respond to the signals from insulin. Normally, insulin signals muscle and fat cells to take in the sugar glucose for energy. The disruption in this communication pathway often results from the presence of excess fats in the bloodstream resulting from the effects of insulin resistance in fat cells and the liver.

When the cells are no longer sensitive to the effects of insulin, the pancreas compensates by producing more and more insulin, up to twice or even three times the normal rate. Researchers are trying to understand what triggers this increased production of insulin.

What Causes Insulin Resistance?

Obesity and lack of activity are thought to be the major causes of insulin resistance, although other environmental factors as well as genes also play a role. Age is also a factor: insulin sensitivity tends to decrease with age. Excess stress can cause cell-damaging inflammation, which increases insulin resistance. Hormones play a role by acting directly or indirectly on muscle or fat cells to increase their resistance to insulin. This may partly explain why women tend to become less sensitive to insulin after menopause, when their body produces less estrogen and other female hormones. Women become insulin resistant when they are pregnant (see page 243). In rare cases, insulin resistance can be brought on by a medication or by some medical conditions (such as Cushing’s disease, which results from an excess of corticosteroid hormones in the blood).

The Consequences of Insulin Resistance

If you eat more calories than your body burns, you store the excess energy as fat throughout your body. Some people store a higher proportion of fat in and around their abdomen and less around their hips and thighs. When excess fat is concentrated in the abdominal area (producing a beer belly and an apple shape) rather than generalized under the skin throughout the body and around the hips (producing love handles and a pear shape), a person is more likely to be insulin resistant. Abdominal fat also makes a person more likely to have abnormal blood fats (dyslipidemia)—an increase in potentially harmful fats in the blood called triglycerides and a decrease in beneficial high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.

Insulin Resistance: Causes and Associated Conditions

Insulin resistance is influenced by a number of factors, both environmental and genetic. The two most important risk factors are obesity and lack of activity. But age, family history, and ethnicity are also important. Less commonly, insulin resistance is brought on by a medication or a rare medical disorder. Insulin resistance in turn can accompany or worsen a number of conditions that often occur together. If you are insulin resistant, you are more likely than people who are not insulin resistant to have diabetes, hypertension, abnormal cholesterol levels, heart disease, or polycystic ovarian syndrome.

As fat cells get filled with stored triglycerides, they become less and less able to respond to insulin, and they start discharging fatty acids into the bloodstream. These fats released by the cells quickly end up circulating in the bloodstream as triglycerides and other potentially damaging fatty acids, increasing insulin resistance and setting the stage for heart disease.

In addition to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance is associated with several other conditions, including type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovarian syndrome (see page 29), high blood pressure (see page 93), and atherosclerosis (see page 166).

Some people who have insulin resistance and a high level of insulin in their blood, primarily children and young adults, develop dark patches of skin on the back of their neck, on their elbows, knees, or knuckles, or in their armpits; some may have a dark ring around their neck. This condition is called acanthosis nigricans (see page 207). People who develop acanthosis nigricans may have a higher risk of going on to develop type 2 diabetes than people who are equally insulin resistant but do not have acanthosis nigricans.

Prediabetes

Before a person’s blood glucose levels have reached levels high enough to be considered type 2 diabetes, he or she usually enters a stage called prediabetes, characterized by borderline high glucose levels. Without intervention such as major lifestyle changes or glucose-lowering medication, a person with prediabetes is likely to go on to develop type 2 diabetes and is at increased risk of having a heart attack or a stroke. From a diagnosis of prediabetes to the onset of type 2 diabetes takes an average of eight years.

Doctors diagnose prediabetes by the presence of impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance (see page 28), two conditions that can be identified by blood tests. Ten to 15 percent of adults in the United States have either impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance.

Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, often referred to together as prediabetes, are part of the continuum that can lead to type 2 diabetes. But having prediabetes does not mean that going on to type 2 diabetes is inevitable. Many people with prediabetes can take measures to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. The most important goals of these measures are to prevent blood sugar from rising any further and, in the best of all situations, to lower blood sugar to a healthy level. Doctors recommend that people at this stage work hard to lose 5 to 7 percent of their body weight and exercise regularly for at least 30 minutes every day.

A healthy diet (see chapter 4) is an essential part of preventing type 2 diabetes. You will need to make major changes in your eating habits to improve both the quality and the quantity of food you eat. Your doctor or dietitian can help you develop a dietary plan that supplies all your nutritional needs and fits your lifestyle. Generally, a healthy diet is low in fat and calories; provides carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in percentages recommended by your doctor or dietitian; and is rich in fiber. It includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes, along with fish (at least two or three times a week), which provides heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids.

In research studies, a medication called metformin has been shown to be effective in treating impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance and can help halt the progression to type 2 diabetes. However, metformin doesn’t work as well in lowering glucose as lifestyle changes do. If your doctor has told you that you have impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance, your first goal should be to make the extra effort to eat more healthfully and exercise to lose weight.

Doctors can detect impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance using the following tests:

Fasting Blood Glucose Test  The fasting blood glucose test is usually done first thing in the morning and measures blood sugar after a person has gone without eating for 10 to 14 hours (usually overnight). Fasting glucose levels of 100 to 125 mg/dL are above normal but not high enough to indicate a diagnosis of diabetes. Instead, these levels indicate impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or prediabetes.

Glucose Tolerance Test  The glucose tolerance test is done after a 10-to 14-hour fast. Blood is taken after a

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