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The Rubber Formulary

The Rubber Formulary

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The Rubber Formulary

3/5 (2 evaluări)
1,190 pages
6 hours
Dec 31, 1999


A stable usage of rubber compounds in the production of components for almost every industry has created the need for this handbook and formulary. Convenience is the primary reason for such a book. With the variety of uses for rubber being as broad as the imagination, a formulary which includes an overview of the history of rubber, as well as sections on ingredients, processing methods, and testing, is a welcome addition to any manufacturer's library.

Rubber products include seals and gaskets for windows, pressure and vacuum hoses for automotive and aerospace applications, bottle stoppers for medical and pharmaceutical products, center cores for all types of balls, belts for tools and machinery, shock and vibration absorbers for everything from motor mounts to sky scrapers, insulation for blankets, and even large film coatings for roofing applications. Additional industrial and consumer products are being designed out of rubber compounds every day.

Whether you are involved with selling raw materials, producing rubber compounds, or designing rubber components and products, Rubber Formulary is the right sourcebook of data for your needs. This first-ever collection of 500 suggested formulas has been provided by raw materials suppliers around the world. Written for both technical and managerial personnel, this collection of formulas and basic texts will also benefit students and other individuals just entering the field.
Dec 31, 1999

Despre autor

Peter A. Ciullo is a chemist. He lives with his family in Connecticut.

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  • If the masterbatch shows inadequate dispersion or is too high in viscosity for fin- ish mixing, it is remilled to prepare it for the next step. Remilling is most com- monly required with high carbon black, low oil natural rubber tire compounds.

  • They consist of two rotor blades turning toward each other in an enclosed metal cavity. The cav- ity is fed from a loading chute through which the rubber and in later steps the fillers and compounding chemicals are added.

  • Other curing agents can be used with unsaturated elastomers, but sulfur domi- nates because it is low in cost and toxicity, broadly compatible with other com- pounding additives, and able to predictably provide the desired vulcanization prop- erties.

  • Rubber stocks about to be assembled for vulcanization may be in a number of forms, such as calendered strips or sheets, plied up slabs, extruded tubes or par- tially combined with fabrics by frictioning or skimming operations.

  • The time to scorch is dictated by the processing and the addi- tives used, so that a well designed compound will have a scorch time slightly longer than the equivalent of its maximum anticipated cumulative heat history.

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The Rubber Formulary - Peter A. Ciullo



From Columbus onward, European explorers of Central and South America found the natives exploiting the elastic and water resistant properties of the dried latex from certain trees. The indigenous peoples already knew how to crudely waterproof fabrics and boots by coating them with latex and then drying. They also rolled dried latex into the bouncing balls used for sport. This dried latex became quite a curiosity in Europe, especially among the natural scientists. It received the name rubber in 1770 when John Priestly discovered that it could rub out pencil marks.

By the early nineteenth century, rubber was recognized as a flexible, tough, waterproof, and air-impermeable material. Commercial exploitation was stymied, however, by the fact that its toughness and elasticity made it difficult to process. More importantly, articles made from it became stiff and hard in cold weather, and soft and sticky in hot weather. The quest to make useful goods from rubber led Thomas Hancock of Great Britain to invent the rubber band and, in 1820, a machine to facilitate rubber processing. His masticator subjected the rubber to intensive shearing that softened it sufficiently to allow mixing and shaping. This development was followed, in 1839, by the discovery of vulcanization, which is generally credited to both Hancock and Charles Goodyear of the United States. Vulcanization – heating an intimate mixture of rubber and sulfur to crosslink the rubber polymer network – greatly improved rubber strength and elasticity and eliminated its deficiencies at temperature extremes. Upon this mechanical and chemical foundation, the rubber industry was born.

The source of rubber latex at that time was the Hevea brasiliensis tree, which is native to the Amazon valley. Brazil became the primary source of rubber, but as rubber use grew questions arose as to this country’s ability to insure adequate supply from its wild rubber trees. In 1876, Henry Wickham collected 70,000 Hevea seeds in Brazil and sent them to Kew Gardens in London for germination. Few seedlings resulted, but those that did allowed the British to establish a plantation system throughout the Far East.

Dunlop’s patenting of the pneumatic tire in England in 1888 ushered in the age of the bicycle as a prelude to the era of automobiles. Tires need rubber, and the demand grew sufficiently great that in the early years of the twentieth century all sources of wild rubber in tropical America and Africa were being tapped. This demand, and the higher prices it caused, turned the plantations in Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Malaya (Malaysia), Singapore, and the East Indies (Indonesia) into prosperous enterprises. By 1914, plantation rubber had overtaken the production of wild rubber, and by 1920 it accounted for 90% of the world’s supply.

The ready availability of high quality plantation rubber facilitated the advances in production methods and product quality which catalyzed the development of better automobiles and their reliance on rubber products. The demand for rubber also prompted research into the synthesis of practical substitutes. As early as the 1880s, organic chemists had identified isoprene as the main structural unit of rubber. By 1890, several researchers had made synthetic rubber-like polyisoprenes. With wild and plantation rubber readily available, however, synthetic alternatives remained mostly of academic interest. The Allied blockade of Germany during World War I changed this by demonstrating to Germany, and the world, the strategic importance of rubber in war. The Germans produced more than 2000 tons of methyl rubber by polymerizing 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene, but its properties were poor and its production was abandoned at the war’s

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