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Diabetes Mellitus And Its Complications, A Simple Guide To The Condition, Diagnosis, Treatment And Related Conditions

Diabetes Mellitus And Its Complications, A Simple Guide To The Condition, Diagnosis, Treatment And Related Conditions

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Diabetes Mellitus And Its Complications, A Simple Guide To The Condition, Diagnosis, Treatment And Related Conditions

Lungime:
148 pages
1 hour
Lansat:
Oct 12, 2017
ISBN:
9781370170579
Format:
Carte

Descriere

Diabetes mellitus literally means sweet urine.
It is a common chronic disease which happens when the hormone insulin produced by the pancreas is missing, lacking or not working well.
Insulin unlocks the cell to allow glucose from the bloodstream to enter the body cells for usage or storage.
When this mechanism fail, the high amount of glucose in the blood leads to the glucose being spilt over into the urine, causing diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus is a nutritional disorder, characterized by an abnormally elevated level of blood glucose and by the excretion of the excess glucose in the urine.
It results from an absolute or relative lack of insulin which leads to abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism as well as in the metabolism of protein and fat.
Its incidence is much higher at present than ever in the past.
This is especially true in case of the advanced countries of the world due to widespread affluence and generous food supply.
The most frequent screening tests are the determination of the fasting blood glucose level and the two-hour postprandial that is after a meal.
The normal fasting blood sugar content is 80 to 120 mg. per 100 ml. of blood and this can go up to a level of 180 mg. per 100 ml. of blood two hours after meals.
Anything above these norms can be termed diabetic levels.
Diabetes occurs in all age groups, from young infants to the elderly.
The greatest incidence occurs in middle or older aged persons.
The main types of diabetes are
Type 1 occurs often in children and young adults although it may occur at any age.
It is more serious because there is practically no insulin produced due to damaged pancreatic cells and therefore insulin injections is needed for treatment.
The cause is not known.
It is now believed that Diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease that affects the islets cells of the pancreas.
Complications are more sudden and life-threatening.
Type 2 is more common.
It is found in
1. Adults over 40 years old,
2. Overweight and
3. Physically inactive.
The insulin produced is not enough or may not be working effectively.
Type 2 diabetes can be controlled by proper dieting and exercise.
Most Type 2 diabetics will also need oral medication.
Diabetes is more likely to occur if the patient has:
1. Obesity (body mass index > 23)
2. Family history of diabetes
3. Hypertension (>140/90 mmHg)
4. Previous gestational diabetes
5. Coronary heart disease
6. Polycystic ovary disease
7. Hyper-lipidemia (high blood cholesterol >5.2 mmol or 220mg/dl and tryglycerides >2.30)
8. Inadequate regular exercise
9. Age above 40 years, more common in males than females
10. Smoking habit
The following symptoms are typical of diabetes:
1. Frequent thirst even after drinking lots of water
2. Passing more frequent urine during day and night
3. Weight loss while having good appetite
4. Constant tiredness
5. Poor healing of skin wounds
6. Itchy skin particularly around the genital area
7. Constant hunger
8. Blurred vision
Diagnosis
1. Random blood glucose (anytime) is 11.1mmol/l or higher
2. Fasting blood glucose (after 8 hours of overnight fast) is 7.0mmol/l or higher.
3. Oral 75g Glucose Tolerance Test show presence of diabetes
4. Glycosylated Hemoglobin HbA1c
Complications:
The high blood glucose concentration in diabetes reduces the blood flow to many organs and nerves resulting in much organ damage especially the:
1. Kidney (Diabetic Nephropathy),
2. Heart (Hypertension and Impotence),
3. Brain (Diabetic Coma),
4. Eyes (Diabetic Neuropathy) and
5. Nerves (Diabetic Retinopathy).
Treatment:
Oral Medicines
Insulins
Healthy Lifestyle

TABLE OF CONTENT
Introduction
Chapter 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Chapter 2 Diagnosis and Treatment
Chapter 3 Diabetes Retinopathy
Chapter

Lansat:
Oct 12, 2017
ISBN:
9781370170579
Format:
Carte

Despre autor

Medical doctor since 1972.Started Kee Clinic in 1974 at 15 Holland Dr #03-102, relocated to 36 Holland Dr #01-10 in 2009.Did my M.Sc (Health Management ) in 1991 and Ph.D (Healthcare Administration) in 1993.Dr Kenneth Kee is still working as a family doctor at the age of 70.However he has reduced his consultation hours to 3 hours in the morning and 2 hours inthe afternoon.He first started writing free blogs on medical disorders seen in the clinic in 2007 on http://kennethkee.blogspot.com.His purpose in writing these simple guides was for the health education of his patients which is also his dissertation for his Ph.D (Healthcare Administration). He then wrote an autobiography account of his journey as a medical student to family doctor on his other blog http://afamilydoctorstale.blogspot.comThis autobiography account “A Family Doctor’s Tale” was combined with his early “A Simple Guide to Medical Disorders” into a new Wordpress Blog “A Family Doctor’s Tale” on http://ken-med.com.From which many free articles from the blog was taken and put together into 1000 eBooks.He apologized for typos and spelling mistakes in his earlier books.He will endeavor to improve the writing in futures.Some people have complained that the simple guides are too simple.For their information they are made simple in order to educate the patients.The later books go into more details of medical disorders.He has published 1000 eBooks on various subjects on health, 1 autobiography of his medical journey, another on the autobiography of a Cancer survivor, 2 children stories and one how to study for his nephew and grand-daughter.The purpose of these simple guides is to educate patient on health disorders and not meant as textbooks.He does not do any night duty since 2000 ever since Dr Tan had his second stroke.His clinic is now relocated to the Buona Vista Community Centre.The 2 units of his original clinic are being demolished to make way for a new Shopping Mall.He is now doing some blogging and internet surfing (bulletin boards since the 1980's) startingwith the Apple computer and going to PC.The entire PC is upgraded by himself from XT to the present Pentium duo core.The present Intel i7 CPU is out of reach at the moment because the CPU is still expensive.He is also into DIY changing his own toilet cistern and other electric appliance.His hunger for knowledge has not abated and he is a lifelong learner.The children have all grown up and there are 2 grandchildren who are even more technically advanced than the grandfather where mobile phones are concerned.This book is taken from some of the many articles in his blog (now with 740 posts) A Family Doctor’s Tale.Dr Kee is the author of:"A Family Doctor's Tale""Life Lessons Learned From The Study And Practice Of Medicine""Case Notes From A Family Doctor"

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Diabetes Mellitus And Its Complications, A Simple Guide To The Condition, Diagnosis, Treatment And Related Conditions - Kenneth Kee

Diabetes Mellitus

And Its Complications,

A

Simple

Guide

To

The Condition,

Diagnosis,

Treatment

And

Related Conditions

By

Dr Kenneth Kee

M.B.,B.S. (Singapore)

Ph.D (Healthcare Administration)

Copyright Kenneth Kee 2017 Smashwords Edition

Published by Kenneth Kee at Smashwords.com

Dedication

This book is dedicated

To my wife Dorothy

And my children

Carolyn, Grace

And Kelvin

This book describes Diabetes and its Complications, Diagnosis and Treatment and Related Diseases which is seen in some of my patients in my Family Clinic.

(What The patient Need to Treat Diabetes and its Complications)

This eBook is licensed for the personal enjoyment only. This eBook may not be re-sold or given away to other people. If you would like to share this book with another person, please purchase an additional copy for each reader.

If you’re reading this book and did not purchase it, or it was not purchased for your use only, then please return to Smashwords.com and purchase your own copy.

Thank you for respecting the hard work of this author.

Introduction

I have been writing medical articles for my blog http://kennethkee.blogspot.com (A Simple Guide to Medical Disorder) for the benefit of my patients since 2007.

My purpose in writing these simple guides was for the health education of my patients.

Health Education was also my dissertation for my Ph.D (Healthcare Administration).

I then wrote an autobiolographical account of his journey as a medical student to family doctor on his other blog http://afamilydoctorstale.blogspot.com.

This autobiolographical account A Family Doctor’s Tale was combined with my early A Simple Guide to Medical Disorders into a new Wordpress Blog A Family Doctor’s Tale on http://kenkee481.wordpress.com.

From which many free articles from the blog was taken and put together into 800 amazon kindle books and 200 into Smashwords.com eBooks.

Some people have complained that the simple guides are too simple.

For their information they are made simple in order to educate the patients.

The later books go into more details of medical disorders.

The first chapter is always from my earlier blogs which unfortunately tends to have typos and spelling mistakes.

Since 2013, I have tried to improve my spelling and writing.

As I tried to bring the patient the latest information about a disorder or illness by reading the latest journals both online and offline, I find that I am learning more and improving on my own medical knowledge in diagnosis and treatment for my patients.

Just by writing all these simple guides I find that I have learned a lot from your reviews (good or bad), criticism and advice.

I am sorry for the repetitions in these simple guides as the second chapters onwards have new information as compared to my first chapter taken from my blog.

I also find repetition definitely help me and maybe some readers to remember the facts in the books more easily.

I apologize if these repetitions are irritating to some readers.

Chapter 1

Diabetes Mellitus

Chapter from ‘A Simple Guide to Diabetes Mellitus by Kenneth Kee 2012’

What is diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus literally means sweet urine.

It is a common chronic disease which happens when the hormone insulin produced by the pancreas is missing, lacking or not working well.

Insulin unlocks the cell to allow glucose from the bloodstream to enter the body cells for usage or storage.

When this mechanism fail, the high amount of glucose in the blood leads to the glucose being spilt over into the urine, causing diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus is a nutritional disorder, characterized by an abnormally elevated level of blood glucose and by the excretion of the excess glucose in the urine.

It results from an absolute or relative lack of insulin which leads to abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism as well as in the metabolism of protein and fat.

Its incidence is much higher at present than ever in the past.

This is especially true in case of the more advanced countries of the world due to widespread affluence and more generous food supply.

The most commonly-used screening tests are the determination of the fasting blood glucose level and the two-hour postprandial that is after a meal.

The normal fasting blood sugar content is 80 to 120 mg. per 100 ml. of blood and this can go up to a level of 180 mg. per 100 ml. of blood two hours after meals.

Anything above these norms can be termed diabetic levels.

Diabetes occurs in all age groups, from young infants to the elderly.

The greatest incidence occurs in middle or older aged persons.

It is estimated that 80 to 85 per cent of all individuals with diabetes mellitus are 45 years of age or older.

What are the different types of diabetes?

The main types of diabetes are

1. Type 1

2. Type 2.

Type 1 occurs often in children and young adults although it may occur at any age.

It is more serious because there is practically no insulin produced due to damaged pancreatic cells and therefore insulin injections is needed for treatment.

The cause is not known.

It is now believed that Diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease that affects the islets cells of the pancreas.

Complications are more sudden and life-threatening.

Type 2 is more common.

It is found in

1. Adults over 40 years old,

2. Overweight and

3. Physically inactive.

The insulin produced is not enough or may not be working effectively.

Type 2 diabetes can be controlled by proper dieting and exercise.

Most Type 2 diabetics will also need oral medication.

Gestational diabetes occurs only in pregnancy but may be an indicator of diabetes later in life

What are the risk factors for diabetes?

Diabetes is more likely to occur if the patient has:

1. Obesity (body mass index > 23)

2. Family history of diabetes

3. Hypertension (>140/90 mmHg)

4. Previous gestational diabetes

5. Coronary heart disease

6. Polycystic ovary disease

7. Hyper-lipidemia (high blood cholesterol >5.2 mmol or 220mg/dl and tryglycerides >2.30)

8. Inadequate regular exercise

9. Age above 40 years, more common in males than females

10. Smoking habit

What are the causes of Diabetes?

Causes:

Diabetes has been described by most biological doctors as a prosperity disease, primarily caused by systematic overeating and consequent obesity.

Not only the overeating of sugar and refined carbohydrate but also of proteins and fats, which are transformed into sugar if taken in excess, is harmful and may result in diabetes.

Too much food taxes the pancreas and eventually paralyzes its normal activity.

It has been estimated that the incidence of diabetes is four times higher in persons of moderate obesity and 30 times higher in persons of severe obesity.

Grief, worry and anxiety also have

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