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Kidney Diseases, A Simple Guide To The Condition, Diagnosis, Treatment And Related Conditions

Kidney Diseases, A Simple Guide To The Condition, Diagnosis, Treatment And Related Conditions

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Kidney Diseases, A Simple Guide To The Condition, Diagnosis, Treatment And Related Conditions

Lungime:
171 pages
1 hour
Lansat:
Mar 24, 2019
ISBN:
9780463440773
Format:
Carte

Descriere

This book describes Kidney Diseases, Diagnosis and Treatment and Related Diseases
The kidneys are the 2 bean-shaped organs in the urinary system.
They assist the body to pass waste as urine.
They also assist filter blood before sending it back to the heart.
The kidneys do many essential functions, such as:
1. Maintenance of overall fluid balance
2. Regulation and filtration of minerals from blood
3. Filtration of waste materials from food, medicines, and toxic substances
4. Producing hormones that help produce red blood cells, promote bone health, and regulate blood pressure
Nephrons are the most essential part of each kidney.
They receive blood, metabolize nutrients, and help pass out waste products from filtered blood.
Each nephron starts in a renal corpuscle made of a glomerulus containing numerous capillaries enclosed in a Bowman’s capsule.
Proteins and other large molecules are filtered and moved out of the oxygenated blood in the glomerulus and pass into Bowman’s capsule and the tubular fluid contained within.
Blood goes on to flow around the nephron until it reaches another capillary-rich region the peritubular capillaries, where the filtered molecules are reabsorbed from the tubule of the nephron.
Tubular re-absorption is the method by which solutes and water are eliminated from the tubular fluid and transported into the blood.
Re-absorption is a two-step method starting with the active or passive extraction of substances from the tubule fluid into the renal interstitium, and then the movement of these substances from the interstitium into the bloodstream
Because of all of the critical functions the kidneys do and the toxins they encounter, the kidneys are susceptible to different problems.
Some of these disorders are:
1. Chronic kidney disease
2. Kidney failure
3. Kidney stones
4. Glomerulonephritis
5. Acute nephritis
6. Polycystic kidney disease
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Caliectasis
9. Acidosis
10. Uremia
11. Hydronephrosis
12. Pyelonephritis
13. Kidney cysts
14. Nephrotic syndrome
15. Azotemia
Kidney disorders can cause a variety of symptoms.
Some frequent ones are:
1. Trouble sleeping
2. Fatigue
3. Inability to concentrate
4. Dry, itchy skin
5. Increased or decreased urination
6. Blood in urine
7. Foamy urine
8. Puffiness around the eyes
9. Foot or ankle swelling
10. Reduced appetite
11. Muscle cramps
Diagnosis is by:
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measure how well the kidneys are functioning
Ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) Scan reveal any tumors or structural disorder such as cysts, stones
Kidney biopsy to find out the type of kidney disease
Urine test for albumin lost through leaky kidney
Blood creatinine test is high if the kidneys are not working properly
Treatment for kidney disease normally focuses on controlling the underlying cause of the disease.
Drugs and medicines such as ACI or ARB for high blood pressure, statins for cholesterol
Dietary and lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise for diabetes and hypertension
Reduce weight or alcohol or smoking
Dialysis and kidney disease
Where there is serious dysfunction of the kidneys, Hemodialysis is done by pumping into into a special machine that filters out waste products and fluid.
Peritoneal dialysis is done when the peritoneum (membrane that lines the abdominal wall) does the functions of the kidneys.
A tube is implanted and utilized to fill the abdomen with a fluid called dialysate.
Waste products in the blood pass from the peritoneum into the dialysate
Kidney cancer, polycystic kidneys, glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, kidney stones are serious kidney diseases that may cause pain and lead to kidney failure.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Introduction
Chapter 1 Kidney
Chapter 2 Diseases

Lansat:
Mar 24, 2019
ISBN:
9780463440773
Format:
Carte

Despre autor

Medical doctor since 1972.Started Kee Clinic in 1974 at 15 Holland Dr #03-102, relocated to 36 Holland Dr #01-10 in 2009.Did my M.Sc (Health Management ) in 1991 and Ph.D (Healthcare Administration) in 1993.Dr Kenneth Kee is still working as a family doctor at the age of 70.However he has reduced his consultation hours to 3 hours in the morning and 2 hours inthe afternoon.He first started writing free blogs on medical disorders seen in the clinic in 2007 on http://kennethkee.blogspot.com.His purpose in writing these simple guides was for the health education of his patients which is also his dissertation for his Ph.D (Healthcare Administration). He then wrote an autobiography account of his journey as a medical student to family doctor on his other blog http://afamilydoctorstale.blogspot.comThis autobiography account “A Family Doctor’s Tale” was combined with his early “A Simple Guide to Medical Disorders” into a new Wordpress Blog “A Family Doctor’s Tale” on http://ken-med.com.From which many free articles from the blog was taken and put together into 1000 eBooks.He apologized for typos and spelling mistakes in his earlier books.He will endeavor to improve the writing in futures.Some people have complained that the simple guides are too simple.For their information they are made simple in order to educate the patients.The later books go into more details of medical disorders.He has published 1000 eBooks on various subjects on health, 1 autobiography of his medical journey, another on the autobiography of a Cancer survivor, 2 children stories and one how to study for his nephew and grand-daughter.The purpose of these simple guides is to educate patient on health disorders and not meant as textbooks.He does not do any night duty since 2000 ever since Dr Tan had his second stroke.His clinic is now relocated to the Buona Vista Community Centre.The 2 units of his original clinic are being demolished to make way for a new Shopping Mall.He is now doing some blogging and internet surfing (bulletin boards since the 1980's) startingwith the Apple computer and going to PC.The entire PC is upgraded by himself from XT to the present Pentium duo core.The present Intel i7 CPU is out of reach at the moment because the CPU is still expensive.He is also into DIY changing his own toilet cistern and other electric appliance.His hunger for knowledge has not abated and he is a lifelong learner.The children have all grown up and there are 2 grandchildren who are even more technically advanced than the grandfather where mobile phones are concerned.This book is taken from some of the many articles in his blog (now with 740 posts) A Family Doctor’s Tale.Dr Kee is the author of:"A Family Doctor's Tale""Life Lessons Learned From The Study And Practice Of Medicine""Case Notes From A Family Doctor"


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Kidney Diseases, A Simple Guide To The Condition, Diagnosis, Treatment And Related Conditions - Kenneth Kee

Kidney Diseases,

A

Simple

Guide

To

The Condition,

Diagnosis,

Treatment

And

Related Conditions

By

Dr Kenneth Kee

M.B.,B.S. (Singapore)

Ph.D (Healthcare Administration)

Copyright Kenneth Kee 2019 Smashwords Edition

Published by Kenneth Kee at Smashwords.com

Dedication

This book is dedicated

To my wife Dorothy

And my children

Carolyn, Grace

And Kelvin

This book describes Kidney Diseases, Diagnosis and Treatment and Related Diseases which is seen in some of my patients in my Family Clinic.

(What You Need to Treat Kidney Diseases)

This eBook is licensed for your personal enjoyment only. This eBook may not be re-sold or given away to other people. If you would like to share this book with another person, please purchase an additional copy for each reader.

If you’re reading this book and did not purchase it, or it was not purchased for your use only, then please return to Smashwords.com and purchase your own copy.

Thank you for respecting the hard work of this author.

Introduction

I have been writing medical articles for my blog: http://kennethkee.blogspot.com (A Simple Guide to Medical Disorder) for the benefit of my patients since 2007.

My purpose in writing these simple guides was for the health education of my patients.

Health Education was also my dissertation for my Ph.D (Healthcare Administration).

I then wrote an autobiolographical account of his journey as a medical student to family doctor on his other blog: http://afamilydoctorstale.blogspot.com.

This autobiolographical account A Family Doctor’s Tale was combined with my early A Simple Guide to Medical Disorders into a new Wordpress Blog A Family Doctor’s Tale on http://kenkee481.wordpress.com.

From which many free articles from the blog was taken and put together into 800 eBooks.

Some people have complained that the simple guides are too simple.

For their information they are made simple in order to educate the patients.

The later books go into more details of medical disorders.

The first chapter is always from my earlier blogs which unfortunately tends to have typos and spelling mistakes.

Since 2013, I have tried to improve my spelling and writing.

As I tried to bring the patient the latest information about a disorder or illness by reading the latest journals both online and offline, I find that I am learning more and improving on my own medical knowledge in diagnosis and treatment for my patients.

Just by writing all these simple guides I find that I have learned a lot from your reviews (good or bad), criticism and advice.

I am sorry for the repetitions in these simple guides as the second chapters onwards have new information as compared to my first chapter taken from my blog.

I also find repetition definitely help me and maybe some readers to remember the facts in the books more easily.

I apologize if these repetitions are irritating to some readers.

Chapter 1

Kidney

What are kidneys?

The kidneys are the 2 bean-shaped organs in the urinary system.

They assist the body to pass waste as urine.

They also assist filter blood before sending it back to the heart.

The kidneys do many essential functions, such as:

1. Maintenance of overall fluid balance

2. Regulation and filtration of minerals from blood

3. Filtration of waste materials from food, medicines, and toxic substances

4. Producing hormones that help produce red blood cells, promote bone health, and regulate blood pressure

The urinary system comprises 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, a bladder and urethra.

The waste material such as excess minerals, urea, uric acid and fluid are filtered through the kidney glomerulus’s to pass out in the urine.

Blood cells like red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are important to the body and are kept in the body.

Nephrons

Nephrons are the most essential part of each kidney.

They receive blood, metabolize nutrients, and help pass out waste products from filtered blood.

Each kidney has about 1 million nephrons.

Each has its internal set of structures.

The nephron is the main unit for the kidney function.

Each nephron starts in a renal corpuscle made of a glomerulus containing numerous capillaries enclosed in a Bowman’s capsule.

Proteins and other large molecules are filtered and moved out of the oxygenated blood in the glomerulus and pass into Bowman’s capsule and the tubular fluid contained within.

Blood goes on to flow around the nephron until it reaches another capillary-rich region the peritubular capillaries, where the filtered molecules are reabsorbed from the tubule of the nephron.

Tubular re-absorption is the method by which solutes and water are eliminated from the tubular fluid and transported into the blood.

Re-absorption is a two-step method starting with the active or passive extraction of substances from the tubule fluid into the renal interstitium, and then the movement of these substances from the interstitium into the bloodstream

Renal corpuscle

After blood enters a nephron, it enters the renal corpuscle, also called a Malpighian body.

The renal corpuscle comprises 2 additional structures:

1. The Glomerulus.

This is a group of capillaries that absorb protein from blood moving through the renal corpuscle.

2. The Bowman capsule.

The remainder fluid, called capsular urine, passes through the Bowman capsule into the renal tubules.

Renal tubules

The renal tubules are a series of tubes that start after the Bowman capsule and end at collecting ducts.

Each tubule has several parts:

1. Proximal convoluted tubule.

This part absorbs water, sodium, and glucose back into the blood.

2. Loop of Henle.

This part further absorbs potassium, chloride, and sodium into the blood.

3. Distal convoluted tubule.

This part absorbs more sodium into the blood and absorbs potassium and acid.

By the time fluid attains the end of the tubule, it is diluted and filled with urea.

Urea is byproduct of protein metabolism that is released in urine.

Renal cortex

The renal cortex is the outer portion of the kidney.

It comprises the glomerulus and convoluted tubules.

The renal cortex is enclosed on its outer edges by the renal capsule, a layer of fatty tissue.

Together, the renal cortex and capsule contain and protect the inner structures of the kidney.

Renal medulla

The renal medulla is the smooth inner tissue of the kidney.

It comprises the loop of Henle and renal pyramids.

Renal pyramids

Renal pyramids are small structures that consist of strings of nephrons and tubules.

These tubules move fluid into the kidney.

This fluid then moves away from the nephrons toward the inner structures that collect and move urine out of the kidney.

Collecting ducts

There is a collecting duct at the finish of each nephron in the renal medulla.

This is where filtered fluids leave the nephrons.

Once in the collecting duct, the fluid transports on to its final stops in the renal pelvis.

Renal pelvis

The renal pelvis is the funnel-shaped space in the innermost part of the kidney.

It works as a pathway for fluid moving on its way to the bladder

Calyces

The first part of the renal pelvis comprises the calyces.

The calyces are small cup-shaped spaces that gather fluid before it moves into the bladder.

This is also where extra fluid and waste transform into urine.

Hilum

The hilum is a small opening sited on the inner edge of the kidney, where it moves inward to produce its distinct bean-like shape.

The renal pelvis passes through it, together with the:

1. Renal artery.

This carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the kidney for filtration.

2. Renal vein.

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