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4093 IC - Circuit Sourcebook for the Makers

4093 IC - Circuit Sourcebook for the Makers

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4093 IC - Circuit Sourcebook for the Makers

Lungime:
391 pages
4 hours
Lansat:
Feb 14, 2017
ISBN:
9788565051279
Format:
Carte

Descriere

Chock full of projects based on the 4093 IC, this book will be of great interest to makers, hobbysts and students (STEAMers). Readers will have the opportunity to learn how to apply this CMOS Ic in their primary uses while building these detailed projects.
This book includes instructions to build over one hundred projects. They include shields for microcontrollers, lamp controls, timers, audio, RF, inverters, alarms and much more. This book offers the readers a satisfaying, practical way of learning about this topic in electronics:
Teaches how to use circuits using the 4093 IC as shields for microcontrollers
Focuses on insights gained through completing each project
explore the imense capabilities of the 4093 IC
Lansat:
Feb 14, 2017
ISBN:
9788565051279
Format:
Carte

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4093 IC - Circuit Sourcebook for the Makers - Newton C. Braga

(P)

Presentation of the New Edition

In 1999 we published a book on the CMOS integrated circuit 4093, an edition in English only for Newnes who was named CMOS Projects and Experiments - Fun with the IC 4093, which was a great success, meeting today totally exhausted. The publication describing 135 projects using CMOS integrated circuit 4093, selected from my vast collection, was published in Brazil earlier in the form of articles and isolated circuits. The publication ran out, had their Portuguese version so far, but the 4093 circuit remains more relevant than ever. With the advent of microcontrollers and the new philosophy of the makersand the STEAMERs, or projects doers with many different purposes, the 4093 again proved to be extremely useful, whether for independent assemblies, as well as shields for microcontrollers. So checking the need for a publication with projects using the 4093, also useful for teachers and students, we review that book and with many upgrades made an English version soon will also be translated into Spanish. This new edition brings a more modern approach for the 4093 with suggestions for shields and breakout boards, as well as applications that were not possible at the time of its first release. It is, therefore, a new book with a new approach to one of the most useful integrated circuits that we know. As far as the 4017 and the 555, the 4093 should be considered an essential component in the bench throughout makers, experimenters, teachers or students.

Preface

Some special components, such as the 555, 741, 567, 4017, and other popular ICS, can be used as the basis of a large assortment of electronics projects. The 4093 CMOS is one of these components. Using this versatile IC, the author compiled this special one-component cook-book that furnishes the experimenter, maker, student, and technician with a large selection of practical circuits.

During the past several years, the author, as a contributor to U.S., European, and Latin American electronics magazines, has collected a large assortment of electronic projects using the 4093 CMOS IC. Practical circuits, as well as ones that can teach you a great deal about electronics or be part or of a microcontrolled project as shield, have been selected and included in this book.

This book has a dual aim, as we have two kinds of electronics experimenters: (1) those who want to improve or expand their understanding of some other areas of interest, such as audio, radio, microcontrollers, instrumentation, security, or even games, and (2) those who want to gain an understanding of basic electronic circuits and the 4093 CMOS IC, which is the basis of this work. Both are makers that want to do something new with this component, using them alone in a complete application or as part of a shield or breakout board in a project with microncontrollers.

We should also mention another kind of reader: the high school student who wants to use electronics in scientific explorations The STEAMer. Many projects described in this book can be used in scientific experiments or middle school science projects.

Most of the projects described here can stand alone as individual devices. However, wherever possible, the circuits have been designed so they can be ganged with one or more other projects as a shield or breakout board for microcontrollers. For example, many projects of audio effects and sound generators can be joined with the audio output stages outlined herein to drive several types of loads ranging from low-power piezoelectric transducers to high-power loudspeakers.

They can also be controlled by the outputs of a microcontroller acting as sound effects, motor controls, or other king of shield in many projects.

We also have simple projects that use only a few low-cost components. These can be assembled in a single evening even in a class using a solderless board, as opposed to the more complicated projects that employ several ICs, transistors, and other parts. To make it easier for the reader to choose appropriate projects, each project title is labeled with a P to indicate that it has practical uses, an E to indicate that it is designed for the experimenter to teach him something about circuits or devices or a "S’ to indicate that it can be used as shield. You will find also projects with both marks (E and P), and these can be used for either purpose.

Chapter 1 describes, in simple terms, the 4093 IC itself. After this brief introduction, the remaining chapter provides 135 projects in a straightforward manner, grouped by general types. It begins with simpler projects and progresses to the more complex. This format should enable the reader to learn the theory of the device quickly and prepare him to use the circuits most advantageously. The projects also have informations that allow their use as shield in projects using microcontrollers such as the Arduino, PIC and others.

The required electronic components are listed with each circuit diagram. Secondary parts as sockets, chassis, enclosures, miscellaneous hardware, and so on are not specified, since the reader is free to choose these non-critical items according to his preference and demands.

The manner in which the circuits work, and acceptable modifications, are explained in practical terms so the reader can acquire additional knowledge of practical electronics as he progresses through the book.

Although many of the projects (the practical ones) are fun to build exactly as they are discussed here, you may think of possible modifications. I recommend that you go ahead and modify the circuits to suit your personal ends. There is wide latitude for circuit modifications, and most of them will be of value to experimenters who want to see how things work, even though each project,s primary value is for the builder who wants to produce a practical, functional item.

Because our projects utilize a wide range of power supply voltages, we have included several different regulated and unregulated power supply projects so that the reader doesn,t run up an expensive bill for batteries. In applications where the 4093 is used with microcontrollers, how to power them from the microcontroller’s board is explained.

The power supply requirements of each project have been tailored to one or more standard voltages that cam be easily attained using commonly available batteries or power supply transformers. The voltage, in most instances, will be similar to those for projects described in the author’s site (www.newtoncbraga.com), so a power supply from this book can also be used for many projects from other sources. (*)

We also recommend visit the author’s site where many other projects using the 4093 IC can be found. There, can be also found in the section Simulated Circuits the simulation in the Multisim software with files that can be directly be downloaded to ypour computer or laptop.

As a whole, I believe this book will serve a definite purpose and fill a possible void in your repertoire of exciting electronic items.

Newton C. Braga

(*) Also site em Spanish (www.incb.com.mx) and Portuguese (www.newtoncbraga.com.br)

Cover of the original version (1999)

This is the cover of the edition published by Newnes in 1999, today na out.

Sources for the 4093

The 4093 integrated circuit can be purchased from many dealers. The reader can visit the site of the author and acces the tool to find electronic parts in the Internet the site of Mouser Electronics or directly at www.mouser.com . Only take care to choos the DIL version of the IC since the SMD cannot be used with solderless boards.

In addition, you can find sources for most components on your local dealer since the 4093 is a very comon IC.

Chapter 1 - The 4093 CMOS IC

1.1 The CMOS Family

The 4093 CMOS integrated circuit is a member of a large group of compatible building blocks. With these blocks, we can build circuits that make simple decisions, so they are also classiiied as digital logic circuits. The CMOS group of integrated circuits is composed of several types of devices that, because they have the same input/output electrical characteristics, can be interconnected without the need of intermediate circuitry. They can be conncted directly to the input or output of microcontrollers making then very useful to build shields or breakout boards.

There are many digital logic families available as TTL (transistor-transistor logic), RTL (resistor-transistor logic – not used today), and others, but the 4093 IC is a member of the CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-silicon) family, which has some important advantages over other families. These benefits include very low cost; ultra-low, noncritical power requirements; and an ultra-high input impedance.

These features, plus the inherent advantages of CMOS ICs over other logic devices, permit the logic system designer/experimenter to achieve outstanding electrical performance, high reliability, and simplified circuitry in a wide variety of equipment designs.

Some CMOS features are as follows:

All devices inputs are open circuits and thus are easy to drive.

They will run on ultra-low operating currents, particularly at low frequencies.

They have high noise immunity-typically, 45 percent of supply voltage.

They operate in a wide voltage range: 3 to 15 V (A-series devices) and 3 to 18 V (B-series devices).

The inputs are fully protected.

They feature large unloaded output swing: the output goes from ground potential (0 V) to the positive supply.

They generate very little noise in power supply lines.

The manner in which CMOS integrated circuits are fabricated and the characteristics of all families can be found in several specialized books, normally classified as digital electronics books, and in articles published in electronics magazines and sites in the internet, such as the author’s (www.newtoncbraga.com). If the reader wants more information about CMOS family, and digital electronics in general before to starting with our projects, a brief look in such sources might be valuable.

1.2 The 4093

IC

The 4093 CMOS integrated circuit is formed by four two-input NAND Schmitt triggers in a 14-pin package. All four positive-logic NAND gates may be used independently (Fig. 1).

Figure 1 – 4093 CMOS IC, functional diagram.It is avaliable in 14-pin dual in-line (DIP) package.

Other packages re used such as the SMD, micro and plastic carrier, but to work in a solderless board or make common building using printed circuit boards the DIP is the recommended.

In Fig. 1, we show the package used for this IC and also the NAND symnbol and Schmitt trigger symbol. In terms of logic, the action of the circuit is the same as the action of the common NAND gate. The figure also shows the truth table for the gate.

The output logic level depends on the input logic level. A zero appears at its outputs if both inputs are ones, and a one appears at its output if either or both inputs are zeros.

We should remind the reader that a zero (or a low legic level) is given by a 0-volt voltage, and a one (or high logic level) is given by the positive supply voltage-also called +Vcc or Vdd.

For the 4093 IC, and all devices of CMOS logic family, +Vcc, or the positive supply, can range from +3 to +15 V (A-series devices) or +3 to +18 V (B-series devices). For circuits that operate in a linear mode over a portion of the voltage range, such as RC or crystal oscillators, a minimum supply voltage of 4 V is recommended (In this book more parte of the projects will operate in the range between 3 and 12 V).

The difference between a common NAND gate and a Schmitt NAND gate is the snap action with hysteresis that it provides, also called dead band. Let,s explain:

In Figure 2, we show the transfer characteristic of a 4093 ICS Schmitt trigger. The general shape of this characteristic is the same for all values of Vdd (positive supply) until Vp is reached.

Figure 2 – Transfer characteristic of the 4093. The difference between Vp and Vn is called hysteresis voltage.

At this point, the output goes low (0 V) and remains low as the input voltage is raised to Vdd. If the input voltage now is reduced, the output goes high and remains high as the input voltage is reduced to zero.

The hysteresis is the difference between Vp and Vn, which is typically 0.6 V for a 5.0 Vs power supply.

Figure 3 shows the input/output characteristic of a 4093 device. Note that Schmitt triggers are bistable circuits that are driven by their inputs. They are useful for squaring up slowly rising or noisy inputs, contact debouncing, and oscillators. We can conclude that the 4093 offers unlimited possibilities for the experimenter, and in the following pages we show many of them. The reader, having a large imagination, can explore the basic circuits and get much more from them.

Figure 3 – Input and output characteristics of the 4093 IC

1.2.1 – Circuits simulatation using the MultiSIM

Each simulation program adopts a certain type of representation, even if the symbols of the components have a pattern, the way they are inserted in these programs varies from program to program. We use the MultiSIM version 14 Educational Edition in this book, and for this reason it is important for the reader to understand how the 4093 appears. Because the 4093 is made up of 4 NAND ports, when you enter them on the screen, the program does this by using the letters A, B, C, and D for each NAND port.

In the case of the schemes presented in this book which were simulated in the MultiSIM, the reader should bear in mind that U1A represent pins 1, 2 (inputs) and 3 output; The pins 5, 6 (inputs) and 4 output; The pins 8, 9 (inputs) and 10 output; The pins 12, 13 (inputs) and 11 output.

In the simulated diagramse in this book, we added as a didactic reference pins 7 and 14, because in the MultiSIM, when we added the 4093, it automatically already makes the connections to these two pins (Power and Earth).

In the simulation we observed that there is a difference between what we show in the drawing and the actual simulation in some cases.

For example, in some circuits where a speaker or piezoelectric transducer appears on the output, there is no sound in the simulation, because Multisim does not always have these features available. To simulate the operation we connect the output to the input of an oscilloscope to verify the presence of the desired audio signal.

Another possibility is to connect the external speaker box that some versions have and allow you to use the sound of the multimedia system.

In our case, at the end of each article that has the simulation, we will give instructions on how to do it.

1.3 Basic Configurations

1.3.1 NAND Schmitt Trigger

Of course, the basic internal circuit of the 4093 is designed to be a NAND gate and therefore to operate as a logic unit that makes some simple decisions given by the table in Fig. 1. Accordingly, the basic application of this device is as a NAND gate.

The ultra-high input impedance of the device, typically 1012 ohm, allows the utilization of large input resistors in a circuit such as the one given in Fig. 4.

Figura 4 – The 4093 used as NAND Gates controlled by SPST switches

As we also see in that ligure, the input voltage determines the output voltage in four possible conditions. We will use this basic configuration in several projects.

The maximum output current of each gate depends on the power-supply voltage, and at 25º C they are as follows:

1.3.2 Inverter

The simplest possible logic block has one input and one output. We can make this simple block with the 4093 Schmitt triggers by wiring one of the two inputs to the positive supply (Vdd) or wiring the two inputs together as shown in Fig. 5

Figure 5 –The 4093 wired as an inverter

One input of this block can be used for control in shields. In this case the 4093 is powered from the microcontroller source (3.3 or 5 V) and the gate is enable by a High (1) logic level at the control input.

The truth-tables in Fig. 5 show that, when the input is a one, the output is a zero, and vice versa. The block inverts the logic level applied to its input and so is called an inverter.

Inverters are used to generate the complement of a logic signal or to change the definition of a logic signal from positive to negative and back again. Remember that in digital logic, the complement of 0 is 1, and the complement of 1 is 0.

To indicate that the block changes the signal, we use a small circle in its symbol output. In Fig. 6, we show how to use this circuit as a rise-time enhancer. Extremely slow signals or ultra-low frequency sinewaves can be converted to fast-rise outputs in this way.

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