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Practice Makes Perfect Linear Algebra (EBOOK): With 500 Exercises

Practice Makes Perfect Linear Algebra (EBOOK): With 500 Exercises

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Practice Makes Perfect Linear Algebra (EBOOK): With 500 Exercises

Lungime:
430 pages
1 hour
Lansat:
Jan 4, 2013
ISBN:
9780071778442
Format:
Carte

Descriere

Expert instruction and plenty of practice to reinforce advanced math skills

  • Presents concepts with application to natural sciences, engineering, economics, computer science, and other branches of mathematics
  • Complementary to most linear algebra courses or as a refresher text
  • More than 500 exercises and answers
  • Hundreds of solved problems
  • The Practice Makes Perfect series has sold more than 1 million copies worldwide
Lansat:
Jan 4, 2013
ISBN:
9780071778442
Format:
Carte

Despre autor

SANDRA LUNA MCCUNE, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus and a former Regents Professor in the Department of Elementary Education at Stephen F. Austin State University, where she received the Distinguished Professor Award. She now is a full-time author and consultant. She resides in Dripping Springs, Texas.

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Practice Makes Perfect Linear Algebra (EBOOK) - Sandra Luna McCune

Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

ISBN: 978-0-07-177844-2

MHID:       0-07-177844-6

The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: ISBN: 978-0-07-177843-5, MHID: 0-07-177843-8.

All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps.

McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. To contact a representative please e-mail us at bulksales@mcgraw-hill.com.

McGraw-Hill, the McGraw-Hill Publishing logo, Practice Makes Perfect, and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of The McGraw-Hill Companies and/or its affiliates in the United States and other countries and may not be used without written permission. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. The McGraw-Hill Companies is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book

TERMS OF USE

This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (McGraw-Hill) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms.

THE WORK IS PROVIDED AS IS. McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise.

Contents

Preface

1 Systems of linear equations and matrices

Systems of linear equations

General systems of linear equations

Matrices

Row transformations and equivalence of matrices

Row-echelon form

Homogeneous systems

2 Matrix algebra

Matrix arithmetic

Inverse of a square matrix

Properties of invertible matrices

Matrix solutions of systems of linear equations

Transpose of a matrix

3 Graphing calculators and matrices

Matrix menu

Inputting and editing a matrix

Matrix arithmetic

Calculating determinants

Transpose of a matrix

Solving linear systems using Gauss-Jordan elimination

Solving linear systems using X = A–1C

4 Special types of square matrices

Nonsingular matrices

Triangular, diagonal, and scalar matrices

Involutory, idempotent, and nilpotent matrices

Symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices

Orthogonal matrices

Hermitian and skew-Hermitian matrices

5 Determinants

Determinant of a square matrix

Cramer’s rule

Properties of determinant

6 Vectors in Rn

Vectors in two dimensions

Dot product of vectors

Vectors in Rn

Vectors as matrices

7 Vector spaces

Definitions and terminology of vector spaces

Linear independence

Basis

Dimension

Row space, column space, and null space

Rank and nullity

8 Inner product spaces

Definition and terminology for inner product spaces

Norm of a vector in an inner product space

Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and properties of the norm

Orthogonality in inner product spaces

Gram-Schmidt procedure

9 Linear transformations

Definition and terminology for linear transformations

Kernel and image of a linear transformation

Matrix representations of linear transformations

Change of basis

Algebra of linear transformations

Linear operators on R² and R³

10 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

The eigenvalue problem

Useful properties of eigenvalues

Diagonalization

Answer key

Preface

Linear algebra is a subject that has application in a broad spectrum of fields including, for example, the natural sciences, engineering, economics, computer science, cryptography, and other branches of mathematics. Practice Makes Perfect: Linear Algebra is designed to help you to be successful in learning this interesting and practical subject matter. However, the book is not intended to introduce concepts, but rather its primary aim is to reinforce ideas and concepts that you have previously encountered. The topics presented are those that a competent user of linear algebra needs to know. You will find this practice study guide to be a useful supplementary text for your linear algebra course. It can also serve as a refresher text if you are using it to review previously learned linear algebra concepts and techniques.

Like most topics worth knowing, learning linear algebra requires diligence and hard work. The foremost purpose of Practice Makes Perfect: Linear Algebra is as a source of solved linear algebra problems. We believe that the best way to develop understanding, while, at the same time, acquiring accuracy and speed in linear algebra skills is to work numerous practice exercises. This book has more than 500 practice exercises from beginning to end. A variety of exercises and levels of difficulty are presented to provide reinforcement of linear algebra knowledge, understanding, and skills. In each chapter, a concept discussion followed by example problems precedes each set of exercises to serve as a concise review for readers already familiar with the topics covered. Concepts are broken into basic components to provide ample practice of fundamental skills.

To use Practice Makes Perfect: Linear Algebra in the most effective way, it is important that you work through every exercise. After working an exercise set, use the worked-out solutions to check your understanding of the concepts. We sincerely hope this book will help you acquire greater competence and confidence in using linear algebra in your future mathematical endeavors.

•1•

Systems of linear equations and matrices

In this chapter, you will learn:

Systems of linear equations

General systems of linear equations

Matrices

Row transformations and equivalence of matrices

Row-echelon form

Homogeneous systems

This chapter provides some basic terminology associated with systems of linear equations and matrices and presents methods for solving linear systems. As you will see, systems of linear equations and matrices go hand-in-hand.

Systems of linear equations

A linear equation where there are n unknowns (variables), x1, x2,..., xn, and a1, a2,...,an and cin n unknowns is an ordered list of n numbers s1, s2, ... , sn . In linear algebra you will need to simultaneously solve linear equations in several variables. You likely have seen two basic algebraic methods of solving simultaneous equations. An example of each method is shown for a quick review.

is preferred. You know from elementary algebra that the graph of such a linear equation is a line. When you encounter two linear equations, the basic question underlying a simultaneous solution is What are the coordinates of the point of intersection, if any, of the two lines that are the graphs of the two equations? This question has three possible answers. If the two lines do not intersect, there is no solution; if the two lines intersect, there is only one solution, an ordered pair (x, y); and if the two lines are equivalent versions of the same line, then there are infinitely many solutions: an infinite set of ordered pairs. This same idea carries over to systems of m equations in n unknowns. That is,


Given a system of m equations and n unknowns, only one of the following three possibilities for a solution to the system occurs:

1. There is no solution.

2. There is exactly one solution.

3. There are infinitely many solutions.


If there is no solution to the system, the system is inconsistent. If there is at least one solution to the system, the system is consistent.

When you are solving two linear equations in two variables (a 2 × 2 system), an example of the standard form of writing them together is

Figures 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 graphically show the three possible outcomes for a 2 × 2 system of equations.

Figure 1.1 Graph of a system with exactly one solution (intersecting lines).

Figure 1.2 Graph of an inconsistent system (parallel lines).

Figure 1.3 Graph of a system with infinitely many solutions (same line).

system when you answer the question: What are the coordinates of the point of intersection, if any, of the two lines that are the graphs of the two equations?

Method 1: Substitution. This method requires you to solve one equation for one of the variables in terms of the other variable, and then use substitution to solve the system.

SOLUTION Solve the first equation for y in terms of x:

Substitute 2x for y into the second equation and solve for x:

Substitute 1 for x into the second equation and solve for y:

. That is, the two lines intersect at the point (1, 2).

Method 2: Elimination of a variable. This method involves multiplying the equations by constants to create opposites as coefficients of one variable so that it can be eliminated by adding the two equations.

PROBLEM Solve the system.

SOLUTION To eliminate y, multiply the first equation by 3 and the second equation by –2:

Add the resulting two equations and solve for x:

Substitute 1 for x into one of the original equations and solve for y:

. That is, the two lines intersect at the point (1, –1).

You can use the two methods exemplified above

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