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# Practice Makes Perfect Linear Algebra (EBOOK): With 500 Exercises

# Practice Makes Perfect Linear Algebra (EBOOK): With 500 Exercises

## Descriere

**Expert instruction and plenty of practice to reinforce advanced math skills**

- Presents concepts with application to natural sciences, engineering, economics, computer science, and other branches of mathematics
- Complementary to most linear algebra courses or as a refresher text
- More than 500 exercises and answers
- Hundreds of solved problems
- The Practice Makes Perfect series has sold more than 1 million copies worldwide

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### Practice Makes Perfect Linear Algebra (EBOOK) - Sandra Luna McCune

Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

ISBN: 978-0-07-177844-2

MHID: 0-07-177844-6

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**TERMS OF USE **

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*Contents *

*Contents*

**Preface **

**1 Systems of linear equations and matrices **

**Systems of linear equations **

**General systems of linear equations **

**Matrices **

**Row transformations and equivalence of matrices **

**Row-echelon form **

**Homogeneous systems **

**2 Matrix algebra **

**Matrix arithmetic **

**Inverse of a square matrix **

**Properties of invertible matrices **

**Matrix solutions of systems of linear equations **

**Transpose of a matrix **

**3 Graphing calculators and matrices **

**Matrix menu **

**Inputting and editing a matrix **

**Matrix arithmetic **

**Calculating determinants **

**Transpose of a matrix **

**Solving linear systems using Gauss-Jordan elimination **

**Solving linear systems using X = A–1C **

**4 Special types of square matrices **

**Nonsingular matrices **

**Triangular, diagonal, and scalar matrices **

**Involutory, idempotent, and nilpotent matrices **

**Symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices **

**Orthogonal matrices **

**Hermitian and skew-Hermitian matrices **

**5 Determinants **

**Determinant of a square matrix **

**Cramer’s rule **

**Properties of determinant **

**6 Vectors in Rn **

**Vectors in two dimensions **

**Dot product of vectors **

**Vectors in Rn **

**Vectors as matrices **

**7 Vector spaces **

**Definitions and terminology of vector spaces **

**Linear independence **

**Basis **

**Dimension **

**Row space, column space, and null space **

**Rank and nullity **

**8 Inner product spaces **

**Definition and terminology for inner product spaces **

**Norm of a vector in an inner product space **

**Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and properties of the norm **

**Orthogonality in inner product spaces **

**Gram-Schmidt procedure **

**9 Linear transformations **

**Definition and terminology for linear transformations **

**Kernel and image of a linear transformation **

**Matrix representations of linear transformations **

**Change of basis **

**Algebra of linear transformations **

**Linear operators on R² and R³ **

**10 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors **

**The eigenvalue problem **

**Useful properties of eigenvalues **

**Diagonalization **

**Answer key **

*Preface *

*Preface*

Linear algebra is a subject that has application in a broad spectrum of fields including, for example, the natural sciences, engineering, economics, computer science, cryptography, and other branches of mathematics. *Practice Makes Perfect: Linear Algebra *is designed to help you to be successful in learning this interesting and practical subject matter. However, the book is not intended to introduce concepts, but rather its primary aim is to reinforce ideas and concepts that you have previously encountered. The topics presented are those that a competent user of linear algebra needs to know. You will find this practice study guide to be a useful supplementary text for your linear algebra course. It can also serve as a refresher text if you are using it to review previously learned linear algebra concepts and techniques.

Like most topics worth knowing, learning linear algebra requires diligence and hard work. The foremost purpose of *Practice Makes Perfect: Linear Algebra *is as a source of solved linear algebra problems. We believe that the best way to develop understanding, while, at the same time, acquiring accuracy and speed in linear algebra skills is to work numerous practice exercises. This book has more than 500 practice exercises from beginning to end. A variety of exercises and levels of difficulty are presented to provide reinforcement of linear algebra knowledge, understanding, and skills. In each chapter, a concept discussion followed by example problems precedes each set of exercises to serve as a concise review for readers already familiar with the topics covered. Concepts are broken into basic components to provide ample practice of fundamental skills.

To use *Practice Makes Perfect: Linear Algebra *in the most effective way, it is important that you work through every exercise. After working an exercise set, use the worked-out solutions to check your understanding of the concepts. We sincerely hope this book will help you acquire greater competence and confidence in using linear algebra in your future mathematical endeavors.

**•1• **

**Systems of linear equations and matrices **

**In this chapter, you will learn: **

**Systems of linear equations **

**General systems of linear equations **

**Matrices **

**Row transformations and equivalence of matrices **

**Row-echelon form **

**Homogeneous systems **

This chapter provides some basic terminology associated with systems of linear equations and matrices and presents methods for solving linear systems. As you will see, systems of linear equations and matrices go hand-in-hand.

*Systems of linear equations *

*Systems of linear equations*

A **linear equation **where there are *n *unknowns (variables), *x*1, *x*2,..., *x*n, and *a*1, *a*2,...,*an *and *c*in *n *unknowns is an ordered list of *n *numbers *s*1, *s*2, ... , *sn *. In linear algebra you will need to simultaneously solve linear equations in several variables. You likely have seen two basic algebraic methods of solving simultaneous equations. An example of each method is shown for a quick review.

is preferred. You know from elementary algebra that the graph of such a linear equation is a line. When you encounter two linear equations, the basic question underlying a simultaneous solution is What are the coordinates of the point of intersection, if any, of the two lines that are the graphs of the two equations?

This question has three possible answers. If the two lines do not intersect, there is no solution; if the two lines intersect, there is only one solution, an ordered pair (*x, y*); and if the two lines are equivalent versions of the same line, then there are infinitely many solutions: an infinite set of ordered pairs. This same idea carries over to systems of *m *equations in *n *unknowns. That is,

Given a system of *m *equations and *n *unknowns, only one of the following three possibilities for a solution to the system occurs:

1. There is no solution.

2. There is exactly one solution.

3. There are infinitely many solutions.

If there is no solution to the system, the system is **inconsistent**. If there is at least one solution to the system, the system is **consistent**.

When you are solving two linear equations in two variables (a 2 × 2 system), an example of the standard form of writing them together is

**Figures 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 graphically show the three possible outcomes for a 2 × 2 system of equations. **

**Figure 1.1 **Graph of a system with exactly one solution (intersecting lines).

**Figure 1.2 **Graph of an inconsistent system (parallel lines).

**Figure 1.3 **Graph of a system with infinitely many solutions (same line).

system when you answer the question: What are the coordinates of the point of intersection, if any, of the two lines that are the graphs of the two equations?

**Method 1: **Substitution. This method requires you to solve one equation for one of the variables in terms of the other variable, and then use substitution to solve the system.

SOLUTION Solve the first equation for *y *in terms of *x*:

Substitute 2*x *for *y *into the second equation and solve for *x*:

Substitute 1 for *x *into the second equation and solve for *y*:

. That is, the two lines intersect at the point (1, 2).

**Method 2: **Elimination of a variable. This method involves multiplying the equations by constants to create opposites as coefficients of one variable so that it can be eliminated by adding the two equations.

PROBLEM Solve the system.

SOLUTION To eliminate *y*, multiply the first equation by 3 and the second equation by –2:

Add the resulting two equations and solve for *x: *

Substitute 1 for *x *into one of the original equations and solve for *y*:

. That is, the two lines intersect at the point (1, –1).

You can use the two methods exemplified above