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The Big Red Book of Spanish Vocabulary: 30,000 Words through Cognates, Roots, and Suffixes

The Big Red Book of Spanish Vocabulary: 30,000 Words through Cognates, Roots, and Suffixes

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The Big Red Book of Spanish Vocabulary: 30,000 Words through Cognates, Roots, and Suffixes

Lungime:
2,683 pages
22 hours
Lansat:
Sep 16, 2005
ISBN:
9780071505871
Format:
Carte

Descriere

A new, and dramatically improved, three-pronged approach to learning Spanish vocabulary

The Big Red Book of Spanish Vocabulary is much, much more than a Spanish vocabulary reference! This unique and complete resource combines three complementary approaches to vocabulary building—cognates, root families, and suffixes—to instantly increase word familiarity and aid memorization.

Whether for active face-to-face communication or passive comprehension of written or spoken words, an in-depth knowledge of vocabulary is the key to foreign language mastery. The Big Red Book of Spanish Vocabulary makes acquiring this mastery simpler and more straightforward than ever before by providing:

  • An extensive thematic list of Spanish cognates and an alphabetic glossary of Spanish root families—both with more than 14,000 entries
  • A comprehensive listing of the 130 most common Spanish suffixes, with 4,000 common examples
  • A frequency index listing the 5,000 most frequently used words in Spanish
  • An alphabetic index cross-referencing every entry in the root, suffix, and frequency sections
Lansat:
Sep 16, 2005
ISBN:
9780071505871
Format:
Carte

Despre autor

Scott Thomas created the Gospel Coach Training and Certification system and has coached hundreds of pastors. Scott has served as president and network director of Acts 29 Network and as an elder at Mars Hill Church. Scott has a Masters in Missional Leadership and has been married for thirty years to Jeannie, with whom he has two sons. He planted and replanted churches for sixteen years as a lead pastor. Scott has taught for Resurgence Training Center in Seattle and is a conference speaker in the US as well as a consultant for both Western European church planting and Canadian church planting. Scott wrote Theological Clarity and Application (Zondervan, 2010) and has written blogs for Acts 29 Network, The Resurgence, Mars Hill Church and ChurchPlanting.com.

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The Big Red Book of Spanish Vocabulary - Scott Thomas

Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

ISBN: 978-0-07-150587-1

MHID:       0-07-150587-3

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THE WORK IS PROVIDED AS IS. McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise.

Contents

Acknowledgments

Using This Vocabulary Book

Explanation of how to use the dictionaries in this book

Abbreviations and Grammatical Notes

Thesaurus of Spanish Cognates

Thematically-ordered lists of 14,000 English-Spanish Cognates

The Wide World of Words

Everyday Vocabulary

Dictionaries

Books and Libraries

Journalism

Literature

Pleasures and Pastimes

Entertainment

Sports

Game

Television and Video

Movies

Photography

Amateur Radio

Personal Computers

Travel and Tourism

The Arts

Art and Aesthetics

Music

Dancing

Theater Performance

Visual Arts

Architecture

Knowledge, Faith, and the Paranormal

Philosophy

Religion

Magic

Daily Living

The City

Home Furnishings

Food and Nutrition

Beverages

Automobiles

Work

Keeping the Body Beautiful

Clothing

Cosmetics and Grooming

Gems and Jewelry

The Inner Self

Feelings and Emotions

Character Traits

Sense Impressions

Actions and Actors

Experiences

Forms of Address

Personal Names

Titles

Roles and Relationships

Society and Culture

Family

Education

Organizations and Meetings

Sociology

Anthropology

Affairs of State

Law

The Military Establishment

Politics and Government

Buying and Selling

Economics

Business

Money and Finance

Transportation

Aviation and Space Travel

Boats and Ships

Land Transportation

Living Things Great and Small

Plants

Animals

Biology

Medical Matters

The Human Body

Medical Practice

Physical Disorders

Drugs

Death

Age and Aging

Understanding Our Universe

Science and the Sciences

Mathematics

Physics

Chemistry

Meteorology

Putting Science to Work

Technology

Agriculture

Communications

Electricity and Electronics

Textiles

Quantification

Measurement

Time

Size and Degree

Counting and Arrangement

All About Language

Linguistics

Phonology

Grammar

Writing

Using Language

Languages of the World

Our Planet and Its Peoples

Geography

Place Names: Physical

Place Names: Political

Common False Cognates

Dictionary of Spanish Roots

Alphabetically-ordered lists of over 2,000 root groups, containing 14,000 terms

Guide to Spanish Suffixes

Over 130 suffix groups, alphabetically-ordered, containing 4,600 terms

List of suffixes, grouped by part of speech

Spanish Frequency Table

5,000 most frequently-used Spanish words, ordered by frequency

Alphabetical Index

Alphabetical index of 17,000 terms appearing in Root Dictionary, Suffix Guide, and Frequency Table

Acknowledgments

First, we’d like to thank our friends and family, who often helped us to clarify our definitions and strengthen this vocabulary guide. Second, we’d like to thank Nicholas J. Brown, author of the Russian Learner’s Dictionary, and Rob Watt, whose Concordance software we used to develop the Frequency Table. Both gave us valuable insight in the initial stages of the project. Third, we’d like to thank our editor, Christopher Brown, for his vision to unite these separate vocabulary guides into one volume, for his practical and patient advice, and for his constant encouragement. Finally, we wish to give special thanks to our friend Chris Hadden from Redmond, Washington, who graciously used his extensive computer expertise at all hours of the day and night to help us with the technical aspects of putting this guide together.

—Scott Thomas and Gaby Thomas

Many experts contributed to the preparation of the cognate section of this book. I am especially grateful to the following: Dr. Eugene Albert, Dr. Richard M. de Andino, Anders E. Augustson, Dr. Joan Fayer, Carl Victor Freedman, Marcie Guttman, Milton Kaplan, Emilio Lopez Irrizary, Dan Knapp, Professor Edith Lebed, Dr. James McCoy, Dr. Eugene V. Mohr, Professor Roberta Raymond, Dr. Felix Schweizer, Chris Roberts, and Stevens M.Wright.

—Rose Nash, Ph.D.

I would like to thank several people for their contributions to the suffix section of this book: Dr. Carol A. Klee, Associate Professor of Spanish at the University of Minnesota; Dr. James M. May, Professor of Classics at St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota; Mitchell E. Blatt, M.D.; Joe Thurston; Michael Ross; and Lola Lorenzo.

—Dorothy Devney Richmond

Using This Vocabulary Book

The Big Red Book of Spanish Vocabulary is composed of four distinct, yet inter-related, dictionaries whose purpose is to enable you to greatly expand your Spanish vocabulary quickly, in an organized and efficient manner, whether you are a beginning, intermediate, or advanced language student. These four dictionaries cover cognates, roots, suffixes, and frequency of use, and are described in detail below.

1. Thesaurus of Spanish Cognates

Computer-computadora, famous-famoso, entertanment-entretenimiento, and inform-informar are examples of a large group of words known as true cognates—words that look alike and have the same meanings. They account for one-third to one-half of the average educated person’s active vocabulary (estimated at 10,000 to 15,000 words) and because of their striking similarities enable language students to learn a large number of words very quickly. This cognate thesaurus takes advantage of this fact and serves to bridge the two languages by listing thousands of such terms categorized for easy learning.

The thesaurus is arranged so that the groups in the first section deal with subjects of general interest, while the later groups are more specialized and technical. Each topic in the thesaurus has its own appropriate format. For example, a complex topic such as Mathematics needs many headings and subheadings to properly organize all the specialized terms used in that field, while a simpler topic like Personal Names needs very few. Regardless of however many headings and subheadings there are, they are arranged so that the general terms for that topic come first, followed by more specific categories.

The specific entries are set up like the following:

TRAVEL AND TOURISM

GENERAL TERMS

ASPECTS OF TOURISM

types of vacations

The English term is listed first, followed by the Spanish along with its corresponding part of speech. Brief notes may be added to the entries for clarification, as is the case in tra(n)sportación, in which the parenthesis surrounding a letter in the middle of a word indicates an optional letter, and vacation, which is singular in English but plural in Spanish.

One further point worth mentioning is that there are, of course, times when the Spanish cognate is not the only translation of the English cognate. But even in these cases, the cognate is useful for communication. Take, for example, in the topic Clothing, the entry "zipper = zíper nm" Some Spanish speakers refer to a zipper as cremallera or cierre, but they will always recognize and understand zíper.

Finally, the thesaurus is organized into the following sections:

• The first section covers everyday vocabulary—familiar, easy-to-remember words that you can put to use immediately.

• The main section of the thesaurus covers special-interest vocabulary and includes one hundred topics organized into nineteen separate theme groups covering a multitude of subjects ranging from art, electricity, and communications to aviation, geography, and sports.

• The final section is devoted to some of the more common false and semi-false cognates—words that look alike but have different meanings in English and Spanish. One common example is library (biblioteca) and librería (bookstore). These cases of mistaken identity are important in language learning because by knowing them, students will be able to avoid errors in translation.

2. Dictionary of Spanish Roots

If you only had a limited amount of time in which to learn the following words, which group of words would you find easier to study?

Group 1: castigar (to punish), periódico (newspaper), pescar (to fish), alimentar (to nourish), mandar (to order), and raya (stripe, line).

Group 2: comer (to eat), comida (food), comedor (dining room), comestibles (groceries), malcomer (to eat poorly), and comilón (big eater or glutton).

In this Root Dictionary, over 14,000 words have been organized into more than 2,000 word families based on similar origins, such as those listed in Group 2 above, and developed on the concept that it is indeed easier to learn related words than it is to learn unrelated terms. Each family of words listed in the dictionary consists of words having the same root underlying each of the entries. By ordering them in this manner, word study becomes more organized and easier to manage.

Sometimes, of course, you may be assigned or take it upon yourself to learn a list of words like those in Group 1 above—words with no readily apparent connection. In that case, you could consult the Root Dictionary where you would find two words related to castigar, five words related to periódico, seven words related to raya, eleven words related to pescar, thirteen words related to alimentar, and fifteen words related to mandar. By learning their related terms, you could leverage the study of those six original words into fifty-three with only a small amount of additional effort.

Each entry in the dictionary has the following format:

Please note the following.

• The most commonly used word in a grouping—the headword—is listed alphabetically within the dictionary and appears in bold.

• Beneath this headword, the related words are listed according to part of speech. Verbs are listed first, followed by nouns, pronouns, adverbs, and adjectives.

• Only words in common usage have been included, thus allowing the learner to use the words included here with confidence.

• Entries are cross-referenced to both the Guide to Spanish Suffixes and the Spanish Frequency Table. The cross-references to the Guide to Spanish Suffixes are solely to terms that appear as examples in that guide. There are, of course, many other entries in the Root Dictionary (without cross-references) that contain a suffix described in the Guide to Spanish Suffixes but that are not exemplified.

3. Guide to Spanish Suffixes

Far more than most modern languages, Spanish relies on suffixes to denote parts of speech, modify the word root, or even convey subtle nuances of meaning. This guide will help expand your vocabulary and comprehension through mastery of the most common Spanish word endings.

Familiarity with the logic of Spanish word endings promotes a geometric increase in vocabulary for each new term learned. For example, most students learn el papel (paper) during the first weeks of study, but learning the suffixes resulting in such terms as la papelería (stationery shop), la papelera (waste basket; paper case), el papelero (paper-maker; stationer), el papeleo (paper work; red-tape), and el papelito (small piece of paper) often comes much later. The suffixes involved, -ería, -era, -ero, eo, and -ito, will often be helpful in expanding the use of other basic terms as you learn them.

You will find that, armed with a basic knowledge of Spanish terms—such as those covered in most first-year courses—and an awareness of Spanish suffixes, you will be able both to recognize and create new terms, and you will become more self-reliant and less threatened by Spanish literature and conversation.

This Guide to Spanish Suffixes contains over 130 Spanish suffixes, chosen on the basis of their frequent recurrence throughout the language. Some endings are far more common than others but all are found in words you will encounter in everyday usage.

The specific entries are presented in the following manner:

-lento (-lenta)

Meaning: like; relating to; full of

English equivalent: -lent

Found in: adjectives

Spanish adjectives ending with -lento have at their base a noun and indicate that the person or thing described has characteristics of that noun. When describing a feminine noun, these adjectives take the ending -lenta.

The suffixes are arranged alphabetically, along with the important features of each particular ending: its meaning; its English equivalent (when one exists); and the part(s) of speech of the words formed. This basic information is followed by a short paragraph that discusses the meaning of the particular suffix, how words employing it are formed, and interesting features and/or unusual constructions characteristic of that particular ending.

Next you will find an illustrative list of words exhibiting the suffix. Each Spanish entry is accompanied by its English equivalent and the stem to which it is related (many of which the learner will recognize), as well as that stem’s English equivalent. When a term refers to a person, only the masculine form is given in order to emphasize the word; however, formation of its feminine counterpart always is discussed in the paragraph preceding the list. In addition, the Spanish entries are cross-referenced to both the Dictionary of Spanish Roots and the Spanish Frequency Table, as appropriate.

Most of the formed terms in this Guide to Spanish Suffixes are related to other Spanish terms; however, some words come directly from Latin or Greek. When this is the case, these terms are noted accordingly. In addition, when a term appears that is used only in a specific context (e.g., technically or colloquially), this also is noted.

4. Spanish Frequency Table

When learning Spanish, one worthy and reasonable goal is to be able to read and understand everyday Spanish such as one would find in a daily newspaper and to be able to converse on the topics reported—topics such as national and international events, sports, society, religion, and entertainment. But how does one know which words make up everyday Spanish? And how does one decide which are the most important ones to study?

The Spanish Frequency Table was compiled to answer these questions. It was drawn from a sample of over 10,000,000 words found in a daily Spanish-language newspaper in Mexico, El Siglo de Torreón, a periodical written in everyday Spanish. From that sample, a list of over 5,000 words was formed and ordered according to frequency—on the assumption that, in general, the more common a word is, the more important it is to learn.

Although such a list cannot aim to be definitive, several questions arise relating to its formation and usefulness for the learner:

• Will the Spanish be representative of the Spanish spoken around the world? In the newspaper chosen, the Spanish is international: El Siglo uses several news agencies as sources, including Reuters, the New York Times, El Universal, La Jornada, and Notimex.

How does one deal with various word forms such as plurals and verb conjugations?Variant forms of the same word are counted together under a single heading to obtain a more appropriate frequency count. For example, voy, vas, va, vamos, vaís, van, etc. are counted as forms of ir, to go (fue is the one exception to this as it can mean either went from ir or was from ser.)

•What about the temporal nature of news events, so that the frequency of a word (such as a country’s name) may change from year to year depending on circumstances? Editorial judgment was used in deciding which terms should be included and which words should be left out because their ranking seemed unduly high because of current events unlikely to repeat in later years (for example, talibán is a word that was excluded).

Words in the Frequency Dictionary appear in the following format:

Entries include frequency rank, headword, part of speech, and definitions. Sometimes, as in the above example, other explanatory information is included:

Indicates a set expression or common phrase that uses the term

Indicates sample sentence(s). Examples are provided for the top 1,000 terms to demonstrate the proper use of the word in context.

Indicates a similar word form, where the only difference between the entries may be the presence or absence of an accent or a feminine or masculine ending.

The words listed can be approached in a number of ways: studied in the order presented; accessed by using the index to find the frequency ranking of a particular word; or referred to as a checklist in order to monitor one’s progress in learning Spanish vocabulary. Many learners will find it useful to fill in some gaps that they have in their vocabulary development.

There is one additional detail students may find interesting. In the one hundred newspapers sampled to create the Spanish Frequency Table, the most frequently encountered Spanish word is the word meaning the, el and its various forms la, los, and las. These occurred 909,735 times—almost 10 percent of the total—while the word ranked 5000, agujero, meaning hole, occurred only 97 times, an average of about once a day or once every 100,000 words. It can be argued whether it is really more important to know number 4639, subasta (auction), than number 4723, pastilla (pill). Their relative importance, of course, depends on circumstances—such as whether you have a headache or not! But, in the end, learners who master the 5,000 words in this dictionary will have no trouble reading nearly every word of a Spanish language newspaper and will be able to converse freely on a wide variety of topics.

Additional Approaches for Expanding Your Vocabulary

One characteristic of this guide to studying vocabulary is that you can start where you like and ultimately wind up with a powerful vocabulary. You may choose to begin your study with cognates, suffixes, or roots or to sequentially follow the frequency list because each section has been written to help you leverage your time. In the paragraphs below you will find a few suggestions on how to use the vocabulary guides.

Thesaurus of Spanish Cognates: In the beginning of this dictionary is the topic Everyday Vocabulary. Here you will find familiar, easy-to-remember words that you can put to use immediately, including a basic list of more than one hundred high-frequency cognates, common short-form words we use in informal speech, Latin expressions, greetings and exclamations, and loanwords that English and Spanish have given to each other. If you have a special interest, look at the topics by theme group. Also, take a good look at the false and semi-false cognates in the section on Common False Cognates. Learning these will help you avoid mistakes in translation.

•Dictionary of Spanish Roots: When studying a vocabulary list, look up the words in this dictionary. You will be able to learn many more related words with only a little more effort and this extra effort will help solidify the meaning of the original list word in your own mind .

•Guide to Spanish Suffixes: At the end of this guide to suffixes is a list of the suffixes arranged according to their part of speech. This chart also contains the corresponding English equivalent (when there is one) and the meaning of the suffix in English. You may want to use this list as a checklist to monitor your progress in learning Spanish suffixes.

•Spanish Frequency Table: Measuring progress on the essentials of a language is a useful and often overlooked element in language study—both for the motivational surge that is encouraged and for the practical aspect of knowing what is missing in one’s language study. Whether you are a beginning, intermediate, or advanced Spanish student, you may want to use this list to monitor your progress in learning Spanish vocabulary and as a list of useful words to know and use. By the way, as you study words in the Dictionary of Spanish Roots and the Guide to Spanish Suffixes, note that they are cross-referenced to the Spanish Frequency Table, enabling you to quickly find the entry and mark your progress.

• Index: Each Spanish entry in the Dictionary of Spanish Roots, Guide to Spanish Suffixes, and Spanish Frequency Table is included in the Index. An entry followed by a complete Spanish word indicates its place in the Dictionary of Spanish Roots; a dash followed by a suffix indicates where to find the word in the Guide to Spanish Suffixes; and a number indicates its rank and location in the Spanish Frequency Table.

Abbreviations and Grammatical Notes

1. In definitions, commas are used between words that amplify the meaning of the word and help make the definition more clear. Semicolons are used to indicate a separate definition of the word that may be similar but is distinct.

2. Adjectives are listed in their masculine form.

3. Nouns that can be either masculine or feminine are listed with, -a to indicate a change for the feminine form.

4. Nouns that can be either masculine or feminine that end in -ón in the masculine, such as enojón or comildn, are listed with the ,-a as well, although the accent mark is not used in the feminine, e.g. enojóna and comilona.

Thesaurus of Spanish Cognates

The Wide World of Words

EVERYDAY VOCABULARY

100-PLUS HIGH-FREQUENCY WORDS

CONVERSATIONAL FORMS

clipped words in both languages

greetings and exclamations

imitation and baby talk

LOAN WORDS

from Spanish

from English

LATIN EXPRESSIONS

DICTIONARIES

GENERAL TERMS

KINDS OF DICTIONARIES

standard

specialized

DICTIONARY INFORMATION

type

phonetic and orthographic

grammatical and semantic

word combinations

usage labels

typographical indicators

other information

PERSONS

BOOKS AND LIBRARIES

GENERAL TERMS

ASPECTS OF BOOKS

types of books

parts of books

words describing books

book preparation

other terms

ASPECTS OF LIBRARIES

types of libraries

holdings

tools and equipment

other terms

PERSONS

JOURNALISM

GENERAL TERMS

ASPECTS OF JOURNALISM

news media

newspaper sections

articles

news-gathering and reporting

other terms

PERSONS

(See also AMATEUR RADIO; TELEVISION AND VIDEO)

LITERATURE

GENERAL TERMS

ASPECTS OF LITERATURE

genres

elements

styles and themes

parts of a work

humor in literature

FORMS OF FICTION

FORMS OF DRAMA

FORMS OF POETRY

FORMS OF FACTUAL PROSE

SHORT FORMS OF WIT OR WISDOM

FICTIONAL CHARACTERS

generic characters

science fiction

folklore and legend

famous fictional characters

TERMS IN POETRY

basic terms

major categories

kinds of verse

kinds of rhythm

figures of speech

sound patterns

classical poems

PERSONS

writers and storytellers

historical storytellers

Pleasures and Pastimes

ENTERTAINMENT

GENERAL TERMS

FORMS OF ENTERTAINMENT

participatory

spectator

participatory or spectator

events and celebrations

PLACES

TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

PERSONS

(See also DANCING; entertainment under MAGIC; MUSIC; THEATER PERFORMANCE; VISUAL ARTS)

SPORTS

GENERAL TERMS

ASPECTS OF SPORTS

types of sport

places

contests

other terms

COMMON SPORTS

ball/racket sports

water sports

other sports

Olympic events

martial arts

fitness

RULES AND ACTIONS IN SPORTS

specific actions

other terms

EQUIPMENT

boats

vehicles

other equipment

PERSONS

athletes

competitors

other persons

(See also GAMES)

GAMES

GENERAL TERMS

NAMES OF GAMES

board and table games

casino games

other card games

word games

other games and toys

RULES AND ACTIONS IN GAMES

general

chess

cards

bridge terms

billiards

PERSONS

TELEVISION AND VIDEO

GENERAL TERMS

ASPECTS OF TELEVISION

types of television stations

programs and programming

transmission and reception

TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

PERSONS

(See also ASPECTS OF FILM-MAKING under MOVIES; ASPECTS OF PERFORMANCE ARTunder THEATER PERFORMANCE)

MOVIES

GENERAL TERMS

ASPECTS OF FILM-MAKING

elements of a film

filming and editing techniques

screen processes

popular characters

popular genres

other terms

TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

PERSONS

(See also LITERATURE; PHOTOGRAPHY; TELEVISION AND VIDEO; THEATER PERFORMANCE)

PHOTOGRAPHY

GENERAL TERMS

ASPECTS OF PHOTOGRAPHY

types of still photography

taking photographs

tools and equipment

processing film

AMATEUR RADIO

GENERAL TERMS

ASPECTS OF AMATEUR RADIO

types of licenses

components

measurements

other terms

PERSONS

(See also FORMS OF TELECOMMUNICATION under COMMUNICATIONS; programs and programmingunder TELEVISION AND VIDEO)

PERSONAL COMPUTERS

GENERAL TERMS

TYPES OF COMPUTERS

HARDWARE TERMS

SOFTWARE TERMS

COMMUNICATIONS

MEASUREMENTS

PERSONS

(See also ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRONICS)

TRAVEL AND TOURISM

GENERAL TERMS

ASPECTS OF TOURISM

types of vacations

lodging

long-distance transportation

local transportation

travel arrangements

classes of travel

documents

starting and ending

seeing the sights

PERSONS

(See also AVIATION AND SPACE TRAVEL; BOATS AND SHIPS; LAND TRANSPORTATION)

The Arts

ART AND AESTHETICS

GENERAL TERMS

PRINCIPLES OF BEAUTY

ATTRIBUTES OF THE ARTIST

THE ENJOYMENT OF ART

MAJOR STYLES

PERSONS

MUSIC

GENERAL TERMS

COMPOSITIONS

religious forms

dance forms

theatrical forms

other forms

INSTRUMENTS

sound sources

keyboard instruments

string instruments

wind instruments

percussion instruments

Asian instruments

other instruments

MUSIC THEORY

basic concepts

kinds of scales

notes of the diatonic scale

intervals

chords

textures

harmonic devices

polyphonic devices

melodic devices

notation

parts of compositions

other terms

PERFORMANCE TERMS

dynamics

tempo

execution

embellishment

places and events

other terms

POPULAR MUSIC TERMS

MUSICAL ACOUSTICS

TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

PERSONS

vocal performers

instrumental performers

performance groups

other persons

OBSOLETE AND HISTORICAL TERMS

(See also ART AND AESTHETICS; historical storytellers under LITERATURE)

DANCING

GENERAL TERMS

TYPES OF DANCE

theatrical

social

other classifications

NAMES OF DANCES

modern dances

historical dances

TERMS IN BALLET

PERSONS

(See also ENTERTAINMENT; MUSIC; THEATER PERFORMANCE)

THEATER PERFORMANCE

GENERAL TERMS

ASPECTS OF PERFORMANCE ART

types of theater art

kinds of productions

elements of performance

places

audience response

PERSONS

individuals

groups

(See also spectator under ENTERTAINMENT; FORMS OF DRAMA under LITERATURE)

VISUAL ARTS

GENERAL TERMS

FORMS OF VISUAL ART

CREATING AND DISPLAYING ART

art objects

design

tools, materials, techniques

places

COLOR TERMS

general

classifications

qualities

pigments and dyes

other color names

description

STYLES AND GENRES

PERSONS

(See also ART AND AESTHETICS)

ARCHITECTURE

GENERAL TERMS

TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION

dwellings

religious

military and penal

public use

other construction

ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES

parts of buildings

structural

MAJOR ARCHITECTURAL STYLES

MATERIALS, TOOLS, EQUIPMENT

TERMS IN CONSTRUCTION

PERSONS

(See also TECHNOLOGY)

Knowledge, Faith, and the Paranormal

PHILOSOPHY

GENERAL TERMS

BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY

major fields

other fields

WESTERN PHILOSOPHIES

ancient philosophy

medieval philosophy

modern philosophy

political philosophies

other philosophical theories

ORIENTAL PHILOSOPHIES

TERMS IN LOGIC

general

operations

statements

other terms

PERSONS

(See also beliefs and doctrines under RELIGION)

RELIGION

GENERAL TERMS

ASPECTS OF RELIGION

types of religion

doctrines

beliefs

prediction in religion

holy places

religious titles

organizations and offices

scholarship and translation

other terms

NAMES

founders of religions

major world religions

other religions and groups

deities

holy cities

sacred books

holidays and celebrations

PRACTICES AND TRADITIONS

rites and ceremonies

eating and drinking

birth and death

objects, charms, symbols

clothing and appearance

sins and crimes

prayers

other language uses

music and art

supernatural beings

MEMBERS OF RELIGIOUS GROUPS

larger groups

Protestants

Jews

Muslims

Catholic orders

other groups

HISTORICAL TERMS

persecution against Jews

other terms

PERSONS

groups

scholars

special-purpose practitioners

RELATED TERMS

MAGIC

GENERAL TERMS

FORMS OF MAGIC

pseudosciences

entertainment

prediction

phenomena

communication with the dead

other terms

TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

words and actions

objects and symbols

substances

supernatural beings

TERMS IN ASTROLOGY

signs of the Zodiac

PERSONS

Daily Living

THE CITY

GENERAL TERMS

URBAN PROBLEMS

SECTIONS OF THE CITY

major categories

nonspecific locations

particular sections

PLACES

streets and traffic

business

education

recreation

dwellings

religion

beautification

other places

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

PERSONS

individuals

groups

HOME FURNISHINGS

GENERAL TERMS

KINDS OF FURNITURE

ITEMS

living room

bedroom and bathroom

windows and lighting

floors and walls

outdoors

appliances

PERSONS

FOOD AND NUTRITION

ASPECTS OF FOOD CONSUMPTION

places to buy or eat food

tastes, textures, quality

other general terms

KINDS OF FOOD

meals

major categories

soups

meat and poultry

seafood

dairy

pasta

bread and cereal

vegetables

fruits

nuts

sweet foods

sauces, spices, syrups, flavorings

fats and oils

dressings

popular ethnic dishes

other foods

PROCESSED FOODS

additives

processes

PREPARATION AND CONSUMPTION

tools and equipment

recipe instructions

food service

eating and digestion

religious and historical terms

NUTRITION

general terms

vitamins

minerals

sugars

fats

PERSONS

(See also major food crops under AGRICULTURE; BEVERAGES)

BEVERAGES

GENERAL TERMS

ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES

kinds of drinks

wines

liqueurs

mixed drinks

other alcoholic beverages

drinking practices

public places

TERMS RELATING TO WINE

NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES

DESCRIPTIVE TERMS

CONTAINERS AND ACCESSORIES

PERSONS

(See also FOOD AND NUTRITION)

AUTOMOBILES

GENERAL TERMS

ASPECTS OF AUTOMOBILES

models

parts and equipment

maintenance and repairs

driving

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