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Prascnlul volutn esle lrtrd.ucercailin li,tnba

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attglcrd lucrdrii D-trud a Inginer Gogu ConslanlJtrtau, lipdrdfd penlru lritna oard-Nn1918 la . Lottilra, tib-un numllr- limi,tat ilc cxemfilare, ' kolarato sccrcte guvernulBr'itanic, ilii cauile
tt clliceliilor bc cdre lc aaea noua teo e tn hniriul- anncior gi. nijloacelor ik rdzbod.

f tminologia adoptald este aaea Nntrebuinpl ht clcclriaitatc, cu care gliinla sonicitatea :, tt o tnarc analogie, carc loailil nr. 1, ' Lt lincla rccstui aol,um, -atlottrl a ila-la htealit gi ti-a Pro|us i',W*|, aupra afl,icaliilor ,inilustriale, s-a al iloiloa aubru ablicatiilor ,inilustrial,e. "-0 ",3r containlci linutll ilc D-sa la {h-jat.1i_taxlul Romd,nd tcdinla ilin 14 Noembrie 6i t,r.totlt) la acclc aplicalii,, asttel,cd aoluca lt lald sa poatc consiilcra prdna Publ,iI horiai 5i idcil,or D-l,u,iIngincr Gogu . tllrllrucl*, D-sa a linut astlel ca prdna e olcrci salo sil alafi tn limba sa
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3. (Gott ) Cowla i*cscu eJost un*trilinbc cci mai strdhtcili oamcni aJ a)ocll salo,tobihtll n* inpin* de marc exceblie. urmql tcfliA $ Nalloaald do Poifuii 9i $oscle" ilin BrcurSii, le carc a tctnlca pl ilc lrorroliei a,Jdctd uconicic din limii ani ilc inginadt toti AnghctrSaligny (co*structontl marclai lod metalic dc feslc Camwill ) sd Elio Railu ( cuttoscuthiihotehniciat) . Etr lisl,ral anawild 9d Railr cunoscuthiilrotehnictan) EI linat I lmht malematici,Jizbd 9i tehnicd, penbu mt*icil 9i litoro O *r.rftd Jtrrd ptogct, documentlnilu-se iacontenit Nn ceca cc cto tfibut n@bocit,cl a ilofind,it dc la htcclut o brcEihirc stiintilicll -lenoicutala ailhgtnilu'i-sc intuilia exbaotdi*afiin lnpcleghoe t l ti t tchnicii, Cnbosibitritalca a asocia dc lenomene btnd. itanci hlln a veni cu idef,noi t* brobleme corrsiitl;ate ifeituciibitre, Chi4r rkll ttttilillor inginerc1ti,ln 1004,el etraboreazildse tifdrcgtc 9i q hpryh.i armat (carcJuscsc daabia brantat), ilc o ingurioill ai ailmhalia. $i cam tot ilc alunci lwefuse a Ji prioulal |lgf'ti sorrlcltate loate fiai tlo tnit, cttttt srtwe cl, datoilil - , $Uixlil be carc o crccazllsi o lurrilarr.arteoziltn h ttbebhttil. absbhitil. 1010bteactltn Aiplia.'tarlt ccre aua una ilitIn Ini010 lleacll 8n Anglia, lard carc ai.r)ea ilbr c, lndu$ttii ale.tinbufui, undc lace e*bcrienleconcludenla I un marc sutres, o catc nc.;stebtatf Iit-adnh. ! 6c tri'fscmiu la cowursitl rcglaria thului la nitrciiirelc lanbu adoaficPrintrc palcle cllcci, Accastllrcglarc era rcatrirutd lffil gt a attul o dfa ntar( importanld4n lrimul rdzboimot d agamare lll ta unoi conJcrhgc lui Georyc a Constantinescu Politehnica la ti6 1920), viccrnoc$ah.l aerulai din Anplia, trafri6 | 020 , viccmncgah aenlui ili* Anglia, Sir John John ) ,,Sc ilatoltgeloarlo huk ilomn*hti Consti&incscu ir Si mihalictular aaionrccil noi (utgletii a lc sincrotrildrca la tfilt{ ugtcmalia awfra gcrmanilot ln aa, agautm an atttLo". ll Juiamaialll Thcorv of Sonics a loct bubtricatiltn ant , tJ h nrlrl I t22 ln Roritlnia. $i ntliti sd rZmarcilm cit, la o ro h trt . ,lnxt-o Ia $coalaNaliowld daPodurt $osatre Bwv Naliowld ila Poihni gi $osatre Bwt+ din ilitt 9i gl anolra,alinn rr cil prcglllhoasa gtilnldJicd bazd,,scil* dc ,,qlinnalrq Prcglln a gtiintt|icddo bazil d* 5i td mai nmardm cll lntr-o disculio tlcspre soniclW". ttllc tottlclidfii cn muica: ,,ln ow way it could bc saiil llt da*,ghlotoJ rl;rtslcal llatmony, bccdusoit is in thal

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l,r itu flitttru

, \ l,, rit'ulr'i" , ( inr!,' Oonsttutlinescu prezintri nuinero&sc aplicalii gi str'ld tnria gi ingenioascle x.ttilizdri frdctice t\"ltt , \fttriDttttult ftntrtt. tL :flica I't ' 'rt' l, l,nftr'ttt ::i dit (r,rL nnrll,: Iu au,Jost dusc tncd !>tnii la cafdt ;i ut'uitri r'l ltt,ltrsr, rlroslorr li sr ulLutgti sttgrytiile clin capitolul ,,ApLit:aliilt sorticiqtit tle act'ualc1i da posibilc, cxltllu ,,tlil tlr li?rrst 1i lt ittttrcvntc, l1t1tltc i ci1. ltu\t' t r 1t.t' .llilo t dtt |,t L'.fti hti (,rorgt Constantincst:tt, Noi ttu mai ht.sistelnt n\llttt | | tt I i I t ttI tt I tt i , J iiud cotti'itr;i tii o l1lorc l)&rte din tI c binecunoscu't ;t ' tttt'tltl \n lrt lttcri tfrt1futt.ldl, l,,lt o rtrlt (rrl1 sr: ailas/f It!. trl|tt! i [1t,rlLutt int(rcs, dar st ctt ]ttstttne ttt, falri dc autor. De lvttlttr ,1 1111,1r,u',ftnltlt:nu'lc;i ultttirulit l.ercu cvcsttndd. t nlll'1, n',,t\lJ ftl|t,iruliL: s- orrital .f !.;t dtr (-)ogttC or,stantin sctt;i la implirtirea lllll tl' ini lr li ulrsttt'tltL stt, itL t r,tclntlOongrcstthti utr XVI-lctt el Utl,itltlii tttl, rtt,rltltttlr lt ishtrit:;i JiktsoJit & ltiintti dc Diiti:il dc istoria;tiinld, l,r llu,tuil,li, litt trtt,tr.l 19,\1 ,ci tl oantuti dL: stiinlti rontdu,i, utglt:i ;i tlirt al'te llrr t ,ttr ntl .s iutrr,!:ii dt ctL ur,ai i all. nirtl. l',rltui,r li..\'. liontdn.it tifirettL: ctt (rctfliotrahi lrQrtirc acwstti ttortd tltr a toltr,utttltr.i lorcstL: si fioatii. tdita;i ctl de-al dailt:tt aolum (czt' r'tttyi tttt'rtttt\, t itnlti), r'.r.is/r'rll inci nctifdrit. ;i l'rtu tltt'r'tt tt(tsltt'i uolu L, toi ardtdttt, cri. Gogtt Cortstantirtcscuesle
t't t t ttt tiD|tnt! i n D t l , t l r ttlil0 t, stii. ,\ca(1. I l l ,l l .A N IIA LA N

I-ucrarea tle fafi t:rrc aparc sub iuglijirea unui coli:ctiv Iorrurrl rlirr plolr:sorl{atci }Iarinescn,ingincr Mircca Petcu si ingiricr (ionstantil .[iartrr, l.rqfindc rcetlitarea primului volum opcrei capitalc a lui CI.IOI{(il.l ( ( )N STAN |INESCLI, volurn carc se rcfcri-rIa TEORIA SONICII'.\'I'Il si lrr.Lcl fost tr-adusrliu limba englcz-ir prolrsor' I)ionisit: Gcmali, tipiiril do irt 1922si completat cu te\tul Conferirrleipc care (i. Constantircsr ir ti. rr trttl-o la Acadcmia llorniLltir 1919,prccurn si r:rt uranuscrise.lc cirrr L'-.r ilt pt-. Irrclr:rlintatprofcsoruluiNlatci \{arinescu cn ocaziaultimei s;r.lc vizit(. fi'r(.ul:l itt {lr-L irr 1963. (iir al 2ira volum a1 accstcioperc si cale st' refcrit la aplicaliilr SONI( l l,\l'tl, voluln c;rrc trrbuia sir aparr'r iub ingrijirea lui G. Corrsiaut int'sc u, trrr rr vizut incir lunin;r tiparului, ca llrmarc a nortii salc in 1964.,,\ctullttrcrrlr',tcxtul acestui aL 2-1ca'r'olumsc girs( $tc srrb {ormir dc ntartuscrisitt lrilrliolr:ca locuirrlei salc din Anglia, la Clouiston Lakc. Pc clc altir partc, rhl liirrrl ci-r uoi in larir au lost realizatc,sau sint incir in curs tl,. r,',rliz;rr,', la rrrrr.lc irplir:ttii alc sorricitirliiiniliatc ca unlart a ideilor cupriuscin volurnul l, s ir considr:ratoportun ca pirriLla cditarca volumului 2, accst{)aplicatii si. lirl (:lrpriuscirt Prcz-cnta Lucrarc.I)cqi in ltunl.il restrins, prin irnpolt:rn{lr ',si lu:lrt:rli(att:llor, clc vor suscita intciesul p(rtrLl () cii nrai t,orr"un,r,.it"." plr'li ir lrrlulot' aplicatiilorsonicitirii. ( olcr:tivul i;i propune, ca prin tipiLlirt'rL prczentci lucriLri, s:'r far:i-r crrloscll oiuncnilor nostri dc ;tiirijr'r, ingiueriLrr-, ccrcctirtorilor dirr institutr., rlrrrl.n{ilor (lin institutdc dc inviL!iLrnint tchnic supcrior, partcu tr:orrticir rr o1rr.r'r.i r':rpitrlc zr lui (,torgc Clonstanlinr:sr:u prccum ii siLdr:zvirluic lrLrgrrl cirrrp rlr.rrplicafii alc accsteiS'|IIN-lE carc cstc SO\ICITATEA. Prin posi lrilil,rlr::L rarc li se olcrit acurn dc rt o sturliir, cu complctitrilc uterllionirtc, l;i vor' lrrrlcirdn scarnacir csto vorl)il dc o lrrcrarc tiNl(lA in litcratura nousttr'i ;liinlili<:iL.Slntcm pcntru prima oariLirl prt:z.cnta unci ttiintc c1rc dq5i rrpitrtii. in l9llJ, cstt: gi irstiLzi ilnstllncl irr nrxl convingiLtor a"ctrrdir, gcniril r tr'.rlor rrl popoluhri nostlu. t)perl lui (;. (-onstiurtin{:scu ocup:r ln tt:hnir.ir, lrrrrrl p,. r'irlrr oprrclc ttrrui NIihui linrirlcsr:u, uttui (;(lorflo Iincst:rr,rrnrri liltr.otgllc lVlarittcsctt il oc:ttpr'r litcrrrtrrr:-r, in inrnrrz,i, r,.spr'ctiv i, ln;tiitrtn. {-iti, lofql vir l)lllcl rrrrrtili rlt:-r lungrl filclor (r. ru-rrrr.:rz,i-r, sr: t:rt:cazir. 5licrrrrt o gcniul t1tna11, lrtlll, irtllr:grlrrurrrrl'pc t:rrrt: rlc' it ini!ilLlh, pirlrolrrirlrl la itktt::r | ttrl]c lxrnlru r. :rjurtl;t: lr:zrtltrtrtl final, isi ,,'iL sciurlr cir slrrr:tlcosr:llirr: lir <liL rlr, 'l'lrolrr:rs r:an: irl ucr:rrtlrl:rslctr';r .l,ltlisort rrrcl<xh.i Ir.tuIr tnlr Iir'r: r'r.r ncvoit rt lolor;irttirxlir r:rtrPit irt crlrt{iil, s:rl , r,r':r r,.t ,r Iirlrtl s.'rsl)llrli! lx:\. it:t't ci!
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r l r :9 1 ) ( f, tl i r n sl r i r i r l i r r 5 i

,; ,u,,rtitiuiu,'ii,iiiiri,ra h,lilli'i:Ttn:'H['".? rtrbllcrrst:lL irriitlogi intr.rr o r r:L.r:Ir.ir.rtri|.. ,;, prrn ntrll(xrLo sonic(: tlrlDil lnrxlcl rtl ".eu.ta

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l,cntru cci care au vocati

,r.r.,;:i, Yill':l':"'lll"?lt"i?,,,fi,',";i; Illt,";;;11,1;;;.,,,,i;ii,lf;1,,,1,,ffiii.':.#;l trrn docuvintc trcactdindomcniul. sit clt:,,i",i"l,iii.ii.'iii',fll;;ili"#"ffil;i.


Adlrs?lln multumirile noastre, prezidiului Academiei R.S. Rominia lNlturii Academici pcntru importanta pe care f ;-;;il;;_, reediti.rii vo_ lumulul

r,,ru.it'a.i"C. AJ;fi#;";li.,i:p.ii$f"i"Jit'*vliiltl:t,

decreaiie nroccsur
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iOtI DrocnAr|cl
I', ITUIIIU INTNODU(TIV
0,1. Actualitatea ti pelspctivelc sonicittrlii 0.2. Ciocane 0,3. Motoare rotati.re 0,{. Tcrmosonicitatea, . . . 0.5. Stocarea energiei 0.6. Semnalizdri sr cimouri sonore 0.7. Electrosonicitatea 0.E, Aptcatii speciale 0.9. Cum a creat Geotge Corttanlinescu gtiir'la sonicitd{ii

25 26 26 27 2t 28 2E 28 30

I al opcrcilu-i G. Consiantin.i.",i, .""ai"i" il?J nult rosimtit litcratura in noastri ""r"- "_pf" Stiinfifiil
prcf. MATEI MARTNESCU,

membru coresponilent al Academiol R.S, Rom.dnda

trTtATAT Dtr TNANS ISIE SONIC-IA EI\IDNGIEI

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33 Introducere 3,f Principii lizicc elementare 1l Curenfi sonici in tublri scurte. DeJinitii Efectele cal)tcitafi, ine4iei, hicfiunii si perdilaDlei in curenlii so ici -53 66 Curenti ln conducte lungi E? Curenji sonici in condlcte lungi, linind seama de fricliune 'l coria deplasamentelor. Motoare l0t 'Iborie crocanelor mecanice t21 liniilor de transmisiecu seclitDc vari Curenti de inalte flecventd..Considtrarea !3{ rbilI 111 l,bii lncercate r 53 'l'rardormatod r56 Apllcsliilo sosicitalii 156 Xll. [. Motoare gr getreratoaresonice sincron" t 6l XII.2. Genrator de itralte trecvcnltr ! 63 XIL3. Motoare soaice asif,crone 168 XIl.{. Motoare cu colector 169 XII.5. Pomp sodce . . r69 XU.5.l. Pompe cu membran! t 7l XII.5.2. Pompe volubettict cu acfronare sonicl . rt2 XII.5.3. Pomph JAI, supape t71 X1I.5.4. Pompe volnmetrici cu debit variabil t16 XII.6. Gencrator soDic pcltru sistem de tracliune XII.7. Aperate otilizate in instalatile sonrcc la2 X I I . E , C i o ca r rso n i c . '.... ' I li3 XlI.9. Sistem sonic dc pompare XIl.l0. Comanda suFlplot de admisic li cva(larc ti airrjtctiti tlc combostibil r83 lo motoarele cu ardere intertf !04 imptlsurilor do l{,tld Prirr li(hidl l'raDsnriterca XlLll. , . [08 XtI.12, Corlrcrlonl

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198 202 2tE 226 230 245 217 24E

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Inginerul C'eorge (Gogu) Constantinescu, unul din marii inrcntatori ll lumii cu care se mlndre$te tara noastri, a fost ales ln 1920 mernbru coUDondent, iar in 1963, Nlembru de Onoare al Academiei R.S. Rominia. ttli-a nlscut la Craiova ln 4 octombrie 1881,ca liu a lui GheoreheConstan"la liceul <tin tlncacu,originar din Ploiegti, strS.lucitprolesor de matematici Gnlova, al cirui dircctor a fost timp de 30 de ani. Matna sa Ana, nlscutl ltoy, de origine francezi, plecati. din Alsacia dupl rlzboiul franco-gerrnan din 1870, ajunge printr-o fericiti providentir no mclcaguriletirrii noastre.Plinn de {armec, clnta cu mult talent la pian. ' Copil precoce, George Constantinescuttia si. scrie si si citeasci iniintt: do a sc duce la 5coal[. Liceul il face la Craiova, unde talentul seu pentru mrtemirtici uimegtc pe profesori gi pe tattl siu care tinea totugi ca iiul sir rlb[ o culturi gencrali. solidi. Gcorge Constantinescu devenise rnatematiclonul clasci lntrecind qi pe profesorii sii prin soluliile ^eleganteii simplificate po cnrc lc gisea pentru rezolvarca problemelor pusc. In afari de matematici ll plttceaufizica ;i chimia cirora le dedica timpul liber 9i in cadrul unui mic hborator improvizat, acasi., repeta cu mijloace proprii experienfele demonftrtiv(! dc la poali gi imagina noi variante. Spiritul siu inventiv ll lndeamni. la constrr.rcliaa tot felul de dispo,ltlvc iontru uturafea rnuncilor gospodlreqti alc familici. l)entru sort rr m:ri micir, refractarir la asimilarea primelor cunostintc dc m;rtcmatici. conitruicftc o ingcnioasirmapini. de calcul care ii perrnitea sir ob{ini in inotl lutonurt rezultatelc opera]iilor aritmetice. In afara prcocupirrilor dc ordin estc atras $i de muzicii, cintind 1a pian cu mult talcnt. tohnir:o.qtiintific, Glllint ln scctr$tl pasiunc a sa, originea preocupirrilor salc do m;ri tirziu relorltolro lo. claborarca unei teorii a armoniei muzical('carc ll va ducc orin-ctrr: It.o rcmnrcabili.asocialie de idci la acr.aadmirabili opcrir ;tiinfi{ic:i., rrto SONICITATEA, crcatic a gcniului sr'ru. . Picrzlnd pe tatll siu inci de cind era in clasa a 5-a, Grorgc (ixstanca tlnorcu lgi a*sulna, fiu ;i fratc mai mare, sarcirra dr: r;rspundcre dc ir intlo ftmilia sa. Arninlirca anilor pctrccuti la lit(ul diri (lraiovl, ii va fi |llll (,alitf,tilc pedagogicc alt: profcsorilorpc curr: i-t avul Btottlorrtnr scumpr-r. r:it gi ntmtrsfr:nr t:olcgialir rlintru profcsori ;ii clcvi, i-au lis:rt o prolOolo, lUnrlil rrfr,ciirrn,: Pcntru ircci arrr. lhriorrrln slurliilor ingincrc;li <k: la $ oala Nir(iorrirlir llxiuli rii f,orl, srh: rltxrscbitr:, ruirr: intlrr ifcsl ftle, rlI lrr ivcilliL r:rrlili'Ltilo -sc urirrltr: i.rltck,$i glntr.o tttur,,origirtirlitiilcli (:lrt{,z.inrlir irL'i. .\sti.l, rk.li prolcsonrltli. in ,lr. Fgdurl, cur" r.ra Anglr,'l S.rligny,i-;r rivcrtiz;rt y. r.l.r'i sll ir. ir.r,.;rsr',-r rr (i. r'lrilr pr.ricrrlos, ( orr bntlrttl prrlrr ri rlin lx,lorrrrlnr;rl,nrrltrill ncsigrrr, 11 cr. llhillnflcrr Proirvlcrru ht lrt,'l tr.tt riir rlc rliplrttrl, rr ;rrlfr,l rl' 1xrl,r'cr.;r

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indispunepe Anghel Saligny, cart: rr.irrrrrrt,.ilr. tin.rrrrlui;rlrsolvcul rccal_ crtrant, recomandarea. ficuti elcvilor s.rt, Ll rrr.., .rtr.rlisrur.nll:r care G. Constantinescu replici. ci.-aceastl rrrrI r.r irrr1,rr.rlr,.r lotrr;i rlc a conitmi rn.canerasa asemeneapodurj. In c,,i f.r\,..rrr ,1,.l.r.rl,solr.iir.ir lt.olii Natio_ r)ale .le f-oduri ti $oseleatit cit a aclivirt ill :.r.rvrr Slrrtrrlrri, lingi-r'in_ irrl pc ginerul Elie Radu, cit gi in cadrul inlr,.t,rirrrlr.rrr rl:ur. (1. constructiit,,rrtr, in asocia{ie inginerulTibt.riu bir.nti:r,., ,l:rl rri.i..rrr:r cu slu 4,,rrirrlrrr in ds_ meniul construcliilordin beton armat, rrIirrrrirrrlr rrr rrnul rlin cei mai r,r, rcprezentati!'i pionieri in acestnou dr'r.rrirr.rl rr'lrrrrrr.lrrlir ri citt.va din aceste constructiicare sint totodati fi :rr1,,r.ir.rr,.,,1,,.r,.r|,.rrlir si care starl irli ll ast[zi mirturie a marclui slu talcnt ;i crrr.ir.j, o r,1xx;-r rare betonul in rrrmat era.privit cu cea mai mare neincrctl,ri. r[, slrrr:irrlilli 5i autorilili, lutit la noi in tarir cit ;i in stririnitate undc ir (lirt lo( l;r t[rrnoro;rs(accidente: podul_pe_ ioscaua dinspre Doftana, plangccleinrolrilrrhri llinisttrului Lucrirnlor Publice, clirdirca Carnereide Comerl ;i I)alirlrrl lirrst:i (azi Ministcrul Comerlului gi respectiv Biblioteca Central'ri'dcSi:rt). t,,ui,,i .lin Parcrrl Expozifici (azi.larcul Libcrt:r!ii), pod de o rarir frurrrrisr.ir, r.L:ganlir arhilcc_ Si lonrc,5,man-lc. poduri. dc la Adjud, Rirciciuni, Itourirn si Ikrihasca (de pe Srrct), consolidarea prin lucriri do beton armat a Canrcrli l)r,puta1ilor, plan;eul. Turnului Moscheii rle 1a Constanfa. 'l'oate irccstc constructii au fost rcalizate intr-un timp dc numai 6 ani. Cu toate aceste succese obtinute in lari in tlomeniul rol)structiilor LJgl armat, GeorgeConstantinescu $i-a dat soama,ca urrnarc a grdutnil,j likrr intimpinate..inacestinceput de cari;rir, cir nu vir putca gnsi in !ir[ innccesarl pentru punerea in va-loarca ideilor salc prii,intl traisr4isia l(:lcge.rea prin.lichide, idei care l-au urmlrit inci. -din timprrl anilor l)utcnl mec.anice. (lc l.rceu, cind ciuta legile armoniei muzicale.De aceea,in 1910-pleaciL in Arlglia, !a-ra cu.-industriacea mai avansati la acea epoci, in spcranla de ir"giLsiacolo.sgrijinul ti in{elegerea carc avea ner,oiie, scop;l vatrifi_ de in , i'rriiac('storidci. La Londra reu$c$tc con\-iugi un caDitalisrj^ a Jir:anta se lnilnelc cercetariin domcniul transmisieipuierii mecaniie orin lichide. _{si_ ft,1, ir nasterc primul laborator de SONiCITATE, instala'r foarte nrorlest ftrtr-o $urd. peresiti,- pe malurile Tamisei. Aici reu;egte si ob{inir primele rczultate concrete, dar care nu au avut inci. darul de a aducc un venit r:rpitalului investit, urmarea fiind retragerea capitalistului englez din aceasti irfur:cre, cu atlt mai mult cu cit o tev"er."r" i Tamisei inu;de laboratorul intprovizat, George Constantinescu neputind salva. de la inunda{ie decit !jgvr1_din. piesele mai importante ali instalali or sale. Intre. tinpr sglicltild brevetarea inventiei ,,Transmisia puterii meca. nir;c prin lichidc'', in S.II.A. i se rcfuzi acci,.staDe motivrrl ci lstc o a'bsurJost nL.voie garanfia, sub prcstarc tl-c de jrrri'Lrnint, lrnor p(,rsonal :!11i,1,'.-A lilnJi rlin lurnr't tchnici engleziL, cart: iu v:-rz.ut frilt:lionind rnotoari.sonice ir lirL()rilI()ntI po malurile 'l'amisci,1.r'nlrrr r onvings rlc a l)r .\l|minirtorii oficirrlr ri <lr. Ilrcl'te din Ncrv York dc i,.alitirtr.rL inv,llici ircclrria r.are p,. :rt.r'slir.xanrirratori taxau rlrept ,,un rtt:lIrn rl0 rorrtitn". il ( rr ocrrzilr lrccsicilrrurr.liri, (icorgr' (lrnslatrlincscrr f:rr.r. l()l.l rrrr ir loirrjitr S.II.A. rrnrb il vizilcazi pr. I,irlisorr. nirr.rr ilrrslrrrl lntil cu ir)\,,.rrl,rt{)r ii Ir'iLtjuitqilc sr.hitnlr .rrrr,.tr.Irr un rl('pirr.r'i ;rsupr.r lrrrzir..rL.",.r ,,:rrrrtorrir.i
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rnrrtcmaticii.Georgc Constirntinescunu ne sPune daci cu ocazia acestci hlrcvcderi el a in;f,tat mai mult dc la Edison sau acesta mai mult de lrr rom6,n. rrrlr:rlocutorul Revcnit la Londra, trebuic si aitepte Primul rizboi mondial pentnt ,,r SONICITATEA s[ se irnpunir ca o ;tiint:r gi tehnici nouir, cu aplicalii constatir cu amilticc din cele mai importante. GeorgeConstantinescu 1'r.r, i.i, r,rncci aplica{iilc accslci itiinle Ia arme dc distrugere,ln timp dc rizboi, r ,rrr ldus suicescmaterialc pe care aplicatiile in scopuri paqniccnu i le-au prrlrrl aduce. Acest parados'i;i g6sc;tc exirlicalicprin aceia ci invcnliile ln ilrrtp tlc pace dcranjeazi pe cci iare au investit iapitaluri intr-o industric, trebuic si a;,,r1,ltrrluri care pcntiu a fi disponibilepentru noi pla.samente primclor ini'esti1ii, iir industriii6 deja existcntc. in timlr t,.pl,. :rrnortizarc,L ,l,j lizboi, lnsi, pr;bteml amortiz:rrii capitalului investit nu sc pune, astfcl trtr'll invcntiile ln m'asurain care dau o supcrioritateuneia din pirtile t,clill.f,rntc sint intotdcauna aplicatc cu operativitirte ii lrioritirtc ln 1911 detinea supremalia acri;tni.,prin aviatia sa rn:rt lrr linrp cc armata germanl"! gi mai binc pregS"tit:r falir de cea englczi!,Amiralitatea englezir rrrrrlr:rorsl de ,rl.rltnirt;r miilc de vieti sacrificatcin rindurilc armatci sale, datorit[ Puia lr,rii rhr tlistrugerca avioanelordc luptit germane, iniliativa instituirii unrri |o|lorrrspcntru gisirea unei solulii de a miri putereli focului de armi dcPo nviorrxrls salc, prin realizarcatragcrii printre palele elicci ilvionului, in tincare, ctl prrl zlxrrului. L:r acest concurs sc przinti. gi Gogu Consta.ntincscu -tle intjlr;rr:r:lc modestecarc i s-au pus la clispozitic cittre Amiralitatea llriiu llnir:lt, rcalizeaziL nurnri citeva luni primul (lispozitiv sonic de trager(: ,ullornrtir prin clicca avionului. Lir dcmonstra{ia acc;tui prin model, iuriul , orrr:rrrsrrlrri constituit din sirvan!i cclcbri, printre t:arc: I-orcl liayleigh 1i l'lrornson,rirrnine uimit de r:ficacitirtcl dispozitivulrri sonic realizltl l, l. tirului, tlc elcganfrt;i de simplitrtcl r|r. (lrorgr. Constrntinescu,dc preciz.ia rrlrrIici, r:iLfi de posibi]itn!ile-noii ;tiin!c SONICI'1.llstc priml aplicati{l i rln rnrrr',: a lrnvr:rFiurl-r accstci ;tiinltr ;i carc r(hlcc invcntirtorttlu romin irI i{ ||rl tirrtl), t:chrlrritaten. (h rrrnllrrr. accstuil)rim slrccrts, lrvi:rgrrvcrnttl cuglczclt;i \Iitristrlrrtl ir lh.l nl S.tl.A. ii r:onandiLlivrarcir u. 50 000 lrsctni:nc'trlislx>zitivccrlre rtpligrl-Llrirtrl at:rulrti, r'rrlf rviorni'l(n'rlcluptir, cuccrcitePentru tlilli suprctrtirtiir 'Iotorlirtir st:rtrrl t'nglt'z ii in rrrlft,l rlhlitrrl ri"rzlxriului favoarcu ac{tstorr. rruui lirlxrrrtol tL'prrrtr,ll rlirpozific fontlurilc neccsaropcntru inIiinfrLrr.rr r:tt il I S(]N l(l WORI(S, pc carc (ic'orgc(lonst:tntiur:scu ittzt'strcirzir nltlrll r'ol pcntru t:ontirrurrrcir rlcz t itrt'rr rurcllirrilor srxricr' lllrlrtlrliuh' nr.r(.siu'c ;i 'l rl' in sirrt crlitittr:, lttcritrr';t lur 'l lu'ory oI Sotlics, {ld rilrrr ptittlr' r'{'zult;rtc llritirrtir:iL rrrt nrrtnr-rrirrlr rL' A||lr.rlillrlr.;r r'r'sirins , xt'tllyrlittr', \ittlll(' I'lltr, ii
r a t , t r . l P l t l . - r l n l t) l ti . ( i l o r '1 g r r ( ]o n sl i r r tl i r r r .s|r r Isl r ' r 'i zi l r r l i r t l l r l xr ti r .l o t- ttl sr 'r tt r l i l l u l l l i r , . u r l l rl i ( l ( ' r i l i i l tl i r , l ) r i n l r r ' ti r r r ' 1 i tL ' r 'i i l tr ' sr r v:tttl ttl tr t'tl tr r l o l J M . r r i r t,':,, r t, r r r ,: r i r '1 1 i sr ',rtr r r r ',r r 'p r r ci i r r An l l l i r r l l i r r ti s i tr r tti :r i ttttcr tfi i lllrlrglr,, r l r t r ', 1 l r r , 1 i r tt'r 'tttr r I r o ttl "u r . ( i Itl o t1 IIr c i \l ;r ti ttr ",r r t , sl c i ttr p tl si r r tr r I r l ,' flhh, F F l t v n r r t l r . i t t i r l r ,'i l l ;r l xr tr r l o r . i n l r tttr r l o tttl tti tt :r l l l i i r r {r 'i ';i l r 'l r r r i ci i , l {i l rl r . ( a .r ,r ;i r . ( .o r r r .|r r r r Ii tr r ,,i r , Ir r tr l r l r r l ,'r r r ,r tr u 'tr t r l r ' 1 ti i tr {:i 'u ' rr t$ trrrt,,rr.rl r r 'r u r n .i r l ) r ,r l r r tr r .r i l i r zi r r |,r '.Ii r ',r Ir r I r .i r l r o i r r l tti {6 1 {h 'l l r . o h l l i r l r r , i llrrlrlr' tt, i r t r r tl tr r ',r 1 1 l .r r .r r l ,r r r ",,t, .' I'r tr .' r r \, ttti i l i ' '.r l '' l l f i r r l r , t r r l , l , r r ltr r "r ; 6 1 1 1 1 l l r r g r , r l r t ,.t ,1 ,. r r r r l i r r r ,. A,,l I,,1 , l r l r ) l ', \'r t', tr !,r r .r Atr t r ',l l tr r vi l ,r l r l r ' A , , r , l , , r r r r r l i ,'tr l tr ,r , l ,r r , , , rrr r rr, | ,r t ' ,r !r ,'1 , ,'r r tl r tr l ,l r r ','r / l r , l \l .r tr r r , ,r t. f,llfl ' ' | |1 | , | , ,1 ,r , r l r ', r ,r tr ' ,r ,l !r l l r r tr ttl ,r l r 'I r "r l l l r 'l ,l r .r l t r ', l l l l n 't ' ' ' | | | | | I t ','r tt,i l $l' r r l l r 'l Sn u r l l tl l l l l l n r . l t t . t l f l h r t l xr {r l to l l q i l l r n fl l fl l l l l $ n r l r to '

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r:tr'l. r l, , r S ( ) Nl( , \ | r' trl rrt r' :rl o rrl i r.rrr..r 1 .r r,r.t l rrr.r' r.l r.l olrl ,.i rrl r.nti r. l rl c rn l rti ( , r ' or 1gr('ir r s lr rrrl i rrr.s r' rrrr rk rrrr,.rrrrrl I r ,rrr..rrri r.i , .i prrl l l i i rrrl trrrri cr. i rr i pl ,, trl rrr r { ii ir r lir lr ir h " . (a ,o r' 6 r.( o n ,l .rrtrr(.,r rr ,,r. rr.i rrl orrrcr: n A l gl i a undt: i l rcl 'r r t r r s r i l, r iir l) (r ' c i r)tr.r' (.s (.1 r. i rk . 5 l ,rl rrl l ,,rl l L' 2,r' tl r: i n bazl l cgi i pri vi ntl Irr\i rcsl ilr r it , . ir ( i- r ll' S ti rt i r i r\' (.ri l (| r' rrl r.l o r.r r.rrr.s i rl t i nrl ugi l i l de pc urma spc( l l rl i i l( , r ir lir t pr tl rr' tz l rri rrl u i ,Irr l rrrrrl y i 1x' (.r.ol gc C onstanti nescu i n ri ttrl t t l ; r , , ' s lor ir , p(n trl r s u n l c l (: r' i rr,. i s -l rrrI)l i ' rti t i n l l rma l i vri rri i cl tre A mi r.rlil:rllir llglt zr-rir cclor -50000 1l: 1111111lq11. SONICE pcntru tragerea prin r.licr., irr litrtlrul rirzlroiului. Iividunt ciL cra o intcrpretare abuzivi. a legii, r'(\.ir ( (' s :r v;izut in lrrma cilitigirrii dc cirtrc^ Georgc Constantinescu a prorr.srrlrri pc r:arc i I-a intcntat statul Englcz, Intrc timp, in lariL, Societatca S()Nl(lA rx'rgcir spre falimcnt datoritl incapacitiLlii Consiliului de -{durirri:,lt;rlir: (:iuc ir clczut cir scopul accstei Socictirti este simpla incasare cle r irlrr. irr'{ionirri l divitlcntelor, firrir ca ninteni s:! sc preocupc dc partea tehrritr"rcrrrr.ccr'{:iL colllpctcntir ii luncir efcctivir in uziniL si1rc santierc. Georgc (irrrstirntirrr:sr:rr rcstituit SocictiLfii intcgral capitalul invcstil. In fclul acesta iL lr rr soklat prinlir inccrcare a lui Gcorgc Constantint-.scu tr punc in serviciul. dc creafici salc tchnice qi a geniului s.ru cre.rtor. lilii f-r'rrr:tt:lt: hr AngliiL t:outinur'rct'rcctirrilc salc qi invcnteaziL iaimosul CO\VERTOIi l)l', (l(lI'l,LI (tor(luc conlcrtcr), cu aplica{ie la tractiuncir iruto. Primclc lllorl(,1)ilc t:chipiLte cu accst con\-crtor sint e\puse atit la cxpozitia industrirrlir rr Inrpt:riului Britanic dc Ia \\'cmbler', in 1924, cit gi la Salonul autotturlrilrrlrri <k: lir Paris, in 1926, undc standul Georsc Constarltinescu faco I'r'ttz it { ir :(.lt t it c ( r it s ti to c a z i c , rc v i s ta c n g l e z i , ,1| c Gri phyc" , di n 10.01.1926, lt rllicolul ,,Lcaders in thc March of Progrcss" (Conducirtori ln mersul sprc progrcs) rcdir figurilc a l7 mari inventatori si oameni dt ;tiinll in 1900-1925. Printre acc;tia, alirturi de Albcrt Einstein, Cunrlfrvirlul glir.lrrto llirrconi, I-ord RalLcigh, 'fhomas lldison, \Iaric CuriLr, se a{lI Si (i'oll.l(: (:onstirntincscu. ln 1933 facc o nouir tcntati\'5. de a. punc inlen{iile sirh, yi cirpircitiLtcitsa il serviciul lirrii, inchcind un contr:rct iu Uz-inele IIalirxir pcrtlrrr rrplicrrca Convcrtorului la locomotivcle ;i automotoarele fabricillc (lc irr:cs{c rrzinc. Primul arutomotor a fost probat pc linia l}ucure;ti-Ollr,rri{rr, rlirrl rczuLtatc {oartc br.rnc. Cu toatc accstea, sistenul nu a lost irrlrrptitl, rlat liiud prcsiunile oxclcitate dc citrc {irmele striinc asupra guvr.rnlurlilor ;i oamcnilor politici, pentru introduccrea automotorului de Ialrrilrrlit: stririniL, Georgc Constantincscu povestc;te cum s-a inccrcat a se prrrrr.l;r clrlt: lcci<lcntarea provocatir a automotorului siu, in cursa Bucure;ti()llr.ri1rr, 1x'rrlru discreditarea aplicatiei convcrtorului la automotoare, acr irlr.rrl r:lrrc ir fost cvitat gralic f:rptului ci Gcorgc Constantinescu care conrlullrr irulotttotorul a observat din timp amplasarca unci trirvcrsc pe linia k'r;rli crr ( irr(, sr' lrrlrirrca (lcrai('rcir automotonllui ;i zr'rdl'rrnicirt pc aceast:r iL rrrL .rr r r plir ' : r { it . ic rr:a .,ti cs a l c . l (c rrrl i a t l i (l 'zgustat dc nxrral uri l c pol i ti i lir.rtilor rrollri, (,rrrrgt: (lonst:urtincscrr [j;-rscltr:totu$i o multumirr suf]clr',r:,r,r ir conlirr'trrl 1xr c:rrc il lrrc clt s;tviirtril nr:rrrolog (iltcorght' llarinescu, (r lrir, :r' inllr'{irr: inrlelung in problcmc lcg:Ltc dc aplicar('ir solticit:!tii irl rrr,,rl ir it t r i.( ilr r . or g l rr.Ma ri n c s t:u s ta l ri l c s tc o a tral ogi c i ntrc i nfl uxul ncrvos r;i lrrrln(ii sorrici, cirrc a dat roltk: mai tirziu lrrin aplicarciL sol)icit:!tii i;r It.rl rrt t r lt t t r t l ( lili' r ite l o r a { e c l i rr)i :rl e t,rg u n i s mul ui rrnran. S cnsi bi l l ri nrunci r rlc r.r.tr:ct;rrc;i lctliziLrile tehnicr: alc tincrciuhti studios li crltrrzi;rsl (n:org(l , ( rrttsl:uttitr.st:rrlirspliLtc;tc cu gcnt:rozitatc strirrlaniilc itccstolir, :L nliul irl(lu-li '.'i rl l gr c r r lir lil. pr it r c a tc l trr:r' trl < i r ti n i -rr i n \' (nl i ttr)r, i n l upl ;r r.rri rIr.i I' 1rl r:l rIrrl r . I ) r I I r .1i ilr lif trtrrl tr rl i rl o l i l i i r.o rrv x l i l i ti i rrr.,l or.i rr.i u.r'rr rv, ,r posi l ,i l ti

r l i tl rtr' :r rl l r i trr 'r r r r r i..rr r cr r : , lh t olr il. rl) . r . ir t t ( . . \ sll( 1, r 'isplit , , t , r r r r t t l l) r i t t llll th' 20000 h' i it r t lt r {ir r r lir r o- ( lif uz( }nr lli : t it t git t t t t t lt t i \ lir lr 'r ll, t r it lr 'f ir lt , lr r r l s;rr,atrl ul rri(l l t|olglt r llaLilr csr : u,inr t 't t ! il' r 'lr t r ' it l) licilt it r r r ir i lit zit t lit r , gr t l, r s"r tourcl -' tL' ti tcult f it r alc C. I r . I {. - ului, 1x'liniir l3ut ur t lt i- l'r 't r '; li, r r r l r r ( Llr s l i ci i i ntl ,rrt.rr r t l in , xplolt ar r '. Iltiintors in -{ngli-, George Constantincscu lucreazir tlin ttou iu st'r'ri, irrl Amiratit:-rjii Britanicc qi in 1938, lr iz.lncnirc;r cclui d(-al 2-lt'a rirzt-roirtt,,tt rlial, il girsim contribuin(l <liu non prin aplicaliile inr-cntiilor salt'la r-irlrrri.r rlrmatclor aliatc asuprn :rrntatt'lor hitlcristc. Dupl'r, rirzboi, sc rotrit!( l.l vih sa de pe rnalurili lacului Coniston la 500 km de l-ondra. '{ici, tlt'PrLrl'' rlt' a se odihni, lucrcazir.Icbril la noi invcnlii 1i descopcriri. Ast{c1 irrvtntt irz;l tt ma;in:r <lc intcgrat t'cua!ii cli{crcn{ialc, creeazir rnetocla {oraiului :orri, pcntru c\tractia tilciului dc la marc adincimc 9i deparafirlarct souicir l !i iciului. l\firrind {rccvcnt'a vibratiilor sonicc pinir" Ia 20 000+ 100 000 1Iz. strr i, rliazI efcctul :rccstora in medicir.rirprccurn ii aplicaliilc Ia sctrtrritlizrrt Ir prin rrltlilsnnctt, ll ttrt |.ltdar c:r ;i la trrrnzu'r:ir aliajclor', la tlcfcctoscopia lizarea tclclonit'i ti tclcgra{iei srrbmirrinc prin modularL'a und('lor sorri(r.' ln calitatc dc mcmbru ii,' nno,,r" al Socictirlii inginerilor tivili tlin I-onrltl, t cca mai tt:ch,r societat r dc ingincri din lume, tine in cachtrl irccst i Socit t i !i (rci Confcrintt' clistinst' cu mcdalia dc ;rur a SocietiLrii. l\.iltl;r tirlutrL llr 'l octombric 19.{ti,arc ca titlu,,Scicntist Ycrsus Enginccr", l)rllrc in evi(I,'lr1rl corrtrilrulia ingincrilor la progrcsclc ;tiinfci. r\ 2-a, la 5 urai l95l fLr ().irrirt rrnir,crsiLriiccntcnarului socictirtii, tratcaziL dcspre 100 tlc lrrri itr tlt'zr-ol1ltltrr ingincrici lncctnicc". ln a 3-,i Confcrin{ir. {iirutr in irplilic l9-59, trprtrrl ol)cra s:r iitiintificiL SO\ICI|ATE-{. (icorgc (lonstantincscu urmir.rc;te. cu interes prcf:rcctik' car',' att l,u itt {rrrir:;a tlc origir.rc,dupir r'\.cnimentelc istctrice de la 23 .\ugust l9'{{, crrlc nll l)utciul sl-L nu rcgiscasciL lln putcrnic ccou in sullt-tul si-[rtintotd.illllil lr'grri rlc pirmintul nital. \oul climat crcat in tarar, il attitgt'. l;i t-xpritrri rkrlirt{ir dc l vcni in fariL, {afr'r dc cmulul siru ingincrul )latci }littincsctt, cirrl ('l;to prin intcrvcn!ii pc lingiL {orulilc superioarc d(: slitl , l)f,(rrrrr ri l)r'r'Ai'rt ptitt or/.lirnizarcaclc conft-rin{c in circlrul ASI'I';i al -^ca(h'nli('i, (rlllloillt( r( rl l;rlri lrti (ilorgr: Constirntincscu in rindurilc ingincrilor' ;i outrrt'trilor uo;lti r| r' ' ;l i i rr{t. A s t li'l G cor gc Llonst ant incscucst c invit at it r t xt ot ulr r ir ' l96l r lr ' ,' rl r,' ;\rrrr!' rr iir I l. S. I lonr inia si vinr 'Lir t lar ir pcnlr lt lr lt r t nt lllijlr t t it cot t ' l ,rrl rrt t l i rl i zi"r lilcnoii or ( lini socialc inst it uit c in t ar r 't . lut r - ulr voir r j I }, '. r r ' l l l ,rrr' ;r;rl crr r gind3000 km si vizit iut l pr iucipal- l, r or ir ir ' ir l( ' {iuii, r 'slr 'it t t pr" rror.rl rl ,. pr t 'f accr ilc adinci r caliz, at t . lt r - un t ilr - t p: t lit ( l( 'scllr t , ( lc lr lt r s ir ct lializr - u- ii,I ) r r pr "r lr - r 'cr '; l pt t t t Iut ttt,rrl i r (ri l ii int r - un lir st i. r nt i( . r ' al int lr r si I ri urvi t r,ri rl l rl nr r t ll, dc car c il lcagl'Lt ilt 'l r r t t t it r t ir i,sc illt ( ) ir f ( r liL I lucr t r t ; li. t ;\tr' t, i ttl t o:,r, r lir t {iL solcnt nir a lnst it ut r r lr r i polilclt nir ', lir st lr i! olr lir \ t '! ior r ir li ,l r' l i rl trl i ;i $<lst lc, , , Alnr ir t t r ir t i'r '' r l, ' Lt cr Lt , 'r t Pt 't 'lt t : r l( t t ilt ) i ill t t t t lt l'tilt vr 't ir l i i l tr.t rl ' ' Ir:tzit ; r car ir . r ti sir L', L( . cut t ost lolr r t f r t {iL r l, ' t t t lr t il, ' s|r vicii lt r lt ls| ir r r r llr r r list ir r r : {ic p,rtri l i ;i l rrr r r ii pliu cr - r 'a{iilc : ir lc ir r gir t llt lli, ii t ot t lt t i r r l l'olilclr r r icii <lir r llt r r r r r '11i, it ) lr ( ' ir l ,,l X X :11)l t l l ONO lllS ( ; \ [ ; 2, \ " ttto ' l t ri i (h' r' ttlt t zir r st t t ii \ |n|r r r {i, ( l( n( ( l( s( r is. llst , r lt t |. r r r r c|r t sit l) ar l( t r ll r r tt or,rzi :r i rrrplir r ir ii vit slr i t lc Sl) r L r r r r i,r lr ', \ , r r r l r r r i,. ir r lr , r , r 'r lir r {.sr r Lr t r t t . r ' Itt ,,rt, i rr. rror r ll- r lillr r l r 1, , , \ l, r r r l, t t t r l, ot t or r t , '. r l . r r r ', 1r r iir r . r ll l( ) t ', lll! l l l l i r' .rl { .ir i i . i, l rtl t o yr lir r ( r i ; r Sr r ( ili r lr ", t iir ll lr 'lt t t ir l r r r \ r , r , llr r r r , r 'r t l r t t t llt r r r l. rrl l tl | tl tl ttl i rl c il. r r . llr r lr ' . r r , r r lr r , , r lr lr r . r {ilr r . r r r r ir r t ii l, r t t oi t t r {. r r i ( l. r 'r lr r l r
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l,::..1i]:,1:.i,1r . rl t'l ,rti r lr , |l, r . r r s.ulldcl o r, p e n tru i n j e c l i ;r s o n i c i ] a . motoarcl c D i csct ei c. La A l) , . 1( ' rc ons ta ti c u p l i c c rc a p l i c a rc a soni ci tj ti i l a pomp.rj rrl sorri r, l1.1..:rllrr!'rrl,i .,,rrl l rrr t l lL' cu irp.i dc adincimc. Dupf, o activiti.tc init.n.,.', ciepusl iri r.rrtJr'ir ir(,ilttzaull progresului tehnicii sonicititii ln tari, facc () sr:urtf escali (r'| (ntrtrr.r tir LoDstantl unclc vizitcazir moscheia al ciLrui planpu dc beton 'rltrr.rl ii r(..luin1este de prirnclc snlc lucriri i" aorn"ii-t 'tr"tonului irrnat, i.r I,r0uri.r'.rl ltcestei tehnici. ftxrinte de. intoarcerc a in -A,nglia, incr,:dinteazi lrrolcsolrrlui .\Iatci }larinescu .rn.rnuscrisul cuprinzin.l r:Jinplcti,rilc aduse Itrrlrrlrrl.i tlc ,,'fcoria sonicitiiii" ir.Lvederea edit.irii celei dc a <loua cclitii ir il( ('sl('i-()lr)rc ;; j; . .capitalc a sa. E-stc ultima vizitir pc carc o facc i. t-, (trrltrrr'. ln 1961 se stinge din vinJir la vila sa dc pu rnalrrrilc lircului Coniston lur(t(' s(' Sils(jitc 5i rnorrnintrrl. (.11. t t lr , t r lc as a ,.d i s p a rc u n u l d i n c c i -rn a i str.i rl uci !i r.cpr.r.zc n tanl i ai ,....,. iil{l'l!.lj1l ronliincsti, ir1\'entator clcrtnit.celcbru prin aplicagiilt, nc,ii Stiintc :i ONl (l l j I ) ( ' ( : ar o a cre i rt-o i n tr.-c rc p o c i i n ." r" .i r" " t,,.' ,..,;ti l ngi ti .i i n 1ar:u ll()rslri-l (orrslituia un act rlc croisrn cilra cerr.a sacri{icii, .., ac,,1,r carci l_,r 1>c fricrrl (it'orgc Constirntinescu infruntiutl insin5;urarca r;ia,-,i,ri,titii, pentru ar ourt'nirii. fructul gcniului s.-ru,.rclucind prin acclst:r ur) p."fio, o,n"_ lllll,,ll.,l,, ' llir t ionr l li l u l n l r . r t iir i i s ,rl l ' n a ta l ,., i rr l rl c c j re i i n sti tuti i ,l ,.i rrv:.Lti mi nr rr pri _ llltl lrlr.r preg:rtirc prof,:sionali'1, firi. de carc nu rtr fi putut clicli im_ .l('nx l,r'(sr(n r : r lul, r lif ic ir r ; ti i n l i fi c c i rrt, c s t(. S O N IC ITA TE -q.. . _ l rt . lr un: r lr r l S o c i e ri -rl i i rrg i rrr.ri l o rd i n An g l i .r 1vol . LV l l , r.rnuan,..rnrrlr' l(r(i(i, rl. l), societatc a cirrui ncrnbru de onoarc a fost G. Constantitl('s(f g;r,iitu trrutittorul nccrolog: rt ,,1)1. (;eorgc Constantincscu, rlespre a carrui noartc s_a scris ln ultimul tttttttr'r"r lcvistei noastrc, s-il niLscut in llomiLni a in lggt. Iil rrl a relatat ln ttvislrr, srrtict;itii. noastrr (19.s9, p.70) cum_ tati.l siLu, carc a fost profesor (lr: r*irtr.rl,ttici-r, i-r Iisat mostenirc o bibliotecr"L c' cr-rrti de matimatici l()irrlc I,urc ii cunt intcrcsul s:!u pcntru armoniile muzicalc l_au determinat 5.1l| slllrlr,'z,.sr.rios li ucunrulcze cunogtinte temcinicc ltrivind rnccanismul ^r..'r ^ne l)lol),lg:rrii : n(t('lor'. lD lrcecu;i rcvist:! este reamintitiL scurt intilnirea sa.in l9l3 crr l,ldison ,,cril clrc a invcntat s6nori"L ciuda fapin _inregistrarea Irrlui cir ilrtocrnti clL Ilectlrovcn r:riL complet siurd,,. l-rlr:r:rr,rast ,,'l'coriu sonicitir{ii", pc care cl a consitlcrat_o ulcreu ca ()l )r.rr ( r ' ir r t r i int pr li ;rn ti i rr s ,r, i r fo s t p u b l i c a ti r dc A nri ral i tatc i n l 9l g, dar r'l 'i rr sl ir s liz r , ill) r oi l l n 5 (),1 : i rrri rn .ri l i r-z i rr .sl e fl rrl i ' nrob;rbi l ca' oi si L rr l i i rr{r . l. st . r r : r r k ' v . -rr;rl]r,ri n l rrl l rL ,r.i r:rrrri n t,.L .s i ri or.i i rl r;i Ii i nsi ci n. l Irr v t ' r r { iir s lr c t .a rrh i r.rrrro s c rrtirr fo s t tu i tl rl i r,rrr si ncroni zati cu aj u_ t . l .rrrl ci r . ir r pil. lii : r ' i .a r.k rrrl . l rrPrri :.1 r)u tl rt r:rr i rr rl i n l 9l ' r-19rg s i i f,i A . r P r ir r lr r , 1r r rIr.L ' r.Ii r.r.irl r. s l r' ()l (,i r. r.r .l rsl :rl ' irr rLrl rrr supcri ori tatc li A l ' rztxri o (:(tl )l ('l t l( ) ir r .ir r . r ' rl P li ' r' ;l r' P rrr.r' r' ;r r' f,x 1 i rrr rrl {i rl i rr .r.r.1ri l ri l (;l i ci rr(.i rl r ri l trt.rs ir r y it r{ h r r r r : ,(ti :, (l o i tl l l .i ( o rr:,l trl l i l l s r.rr srrl rl i rri i rrrlIi r' l r.rIi ,.r.r,Ir l ,rt. l rttl t rr lr r rr . irr l' lr r l. .
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l i r r r r i l l ' ta l l ' .r '..i r ttl r l l l t l l r .i sl tl l tl stl l l 't sr tl rrl l ,.rr'' r lt t t r 'r r t t it t lir r 'i'r t i ;;, t', tttttl l ',l t ,'l 'r ': r 'r r l 't 'ttt .r tttl r i l r tti l l. 'r t lt ' ,l '::; r,u rhl ol a rl c rt l, t i "t t l r t t r 'r . lr 'r r r "i t r / r r ll'r l l rnl r l rrol ' rl tI

te

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r . r \ ll

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lt

( l( r r .tlt'

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, : i. r 1 i p l i rrrl l s i r.o rr:,l rrri l irrr r l i r.rrl r.rl or tl c 2l i W pr: pri n_ ..,.-,..,' . . - . t ls r'tl 'l rl ulur. . ,lr;',.,r1 I r l n rl o l r.l c r.tl o s o tri l rrr rl rrl , l l i l t.(.(.\,onl i r. ,,\ccasti i ni cm_ ttr'.rrr-ll) l) I n' t io: lr I . so l i c r.-| c s c c u n d i t, l rri u tl c urt,rrl ul rl r i a rcl caua normal i r (l {' :r, ln. r ' lr , . r r h. r . L r.l ri r.cI.u n g i rn c a d c rrtrtl i r . soni ci r va fi aproxi rnati v } ,: rrr:l]r. I r('(r pr.utru o conduct:r sonici dc o lungime I _-U X 7,-50metri ,, ,:. / , ) l) t ) I ) ] 1' s n l n c i r o n i c l l v a Ii i n Ia z i i sau ol l ozi ti unc,.er,.r (.c \^l L s corcs_ p u n rh . ir r r ' r r r r t liliik . c r.l : m l i fa v o ra b i l c . l):rr. r'lrirrr rlacii lrrngimea deviazi. de la aceste multiplc <1cjumit;'rJi de ,_ ruttrli, \islr.nlul Iuuclioncazir, cu condilia importanti i" . o.ap,,_ r'tl rr.l ,. ir P r r lr i. r_totr g c n c n rto r (r" z i fi E. 4 , p . l 0' l \.ori :r S oni ri ti ti i t i l. ",.",, prt,ci rnt tr l i K. 5. P - ll) . Dlc i i c i o c a n u l c c o n i tru i r i ., un ,cron" tor. tl cl _,i rtl rzi cu L t(tsr1 l, : r ' P olt t c a s i rn i l rL u o rc z i s l (,n l i r s i m D l ar, ar undt,l o -i c i i n con_ " oni cr. (lrt( li \i)r corr{ine fundamcnlala harmoniciL plus harrnoniciL. srrpcrioare rIr.r'.rI : r t , . . , . \ r r , r lizco m p l e c ti i n u c u s o i rri ., i n s lt i n rnod practi c capaci tatca lr lil Ar' .r'.11.'rirlisoilrbc curentelc dcvatute, iar cur-cntul Iundanrental sc forlllfirzi itllr-() rrndiL progresit-[ 1tt' cind ciocanul ]ucreazir, 2. I)rcsiuncir soniciL dc irlplitudinc H poatc fi riclicrLti't cit dc mult, tr.l;rli' lir P.t'sirr..a rnedie..C' n'tati'nilc cl" iri 1r,,girr,. itr, 1.. Souicitatici l l l l l {i rs r l |or r v r . nubi l d e l u a t p ,,,1 ,, i -1 0 l i i c mr, ^FI' : .i 0 l 0t) l i (.tu:. ,: r\1rrtllr, splc cxcrnplu, adoptirrn H .- S0 lgc! r,onr lua p- .. --dac'iL 55 k,rr':, 1r,,,,,, . lo5 k/ar. I)cci co'ciuctelt trr:l^rie tlalculart. s,-, ,.i,zistc irfi,sl('r lrlsil li rnaxirne, dc as(,llrcrrcA prjrctii e.rpircitlitii t.tc. l)r oLrscr r.at fi t'slc ci'r pllsirruca sonicir H cst,. nIai il.rltit cirrd riocrrnrLl nu lur:rcazir,, clcci c.J)ir(itirt('ir (un cilinth'u de ofcl rle pikl-r) trebuie c.lculalir I. (, rnli l)r(.sirrn(. lrtirlt i-Ltlr. 10.5 li/ce. Accirsta, bincin{clcs, sc explic.i cit timp lLrngimtir (()uductci nu der.iazir l )r| i r_m ult dc 1. , - \ l i ,,/2 .A l tfe l s i trr.rti rrn i c ri ti c c-P ot:i i i i r l or: ci l d(. e:i cnl _ plu in fig. 23 la p. 58-.59. ( - u pr iv ir , . l a c o n d u c te l c fl ,' x i b i l t., i rr .casl ,r,. o D rol ,l ,.rni (i rrc nu , 3. ir lorl ir)r.r rr.?,olVati'L complcct ;i sunt inci nec(,sar(.{ r.rc(.1:rrif rrndamt.nta lr.. 1. . ,(-,t privin{i la-frccrcnla loviiurilor tlc ciocrn, irceasta va depinrlt. , rl r' (r. I l( . h' llt ( lus t n a l (.. l .rc c r-c n l l r < l e 1 0 0 Io r.itur.i /s,,cun(l i tl ar(, i nl crc..anti r ;i r'.lxrsilril siL dca bnne rczultatc pcntru {oraje in piatri. St'iu cli amcricanii irrr irrcclcut.sir aplict' ciocanr: cu 000 to00 lovituii/sccun<iii aclionatc prin Irlillllcto-stric!i.n. clcctriciL. Accstea arr fost preconizatt Dentru adin;imi loirltr.rntri, insi'r rczultalclc au {ost nulc Si pr'oicctr.rlalxrnionat. .5. - (liocancle sonicc constrrrilt. .lc mine crau cu 2-5 cu .50 lovituri/ ;i sct:ttndir ;i. Iurrr:tionau pcrfcct crr cficicnti loartc inalti. i3incinlelcs, dacir l rirnslonnit lorul clt:clrosonit: r-a rculi binc, frccr.cnta tie 100 iovituri La r'i rrr';tr t t t t v ir llr ( . / c n ta n i c i o rl i fi ru l t;ri r.. l i m(,l l ti (,n;rt .r. 15u. n.,nffl r ,r,,r rtt tlti*i' l'n.fici'. I)r'oblt'rnu csir. insr-L pi"" n;o"ri pirtilc oscilantc trclruit' llrlrrnsatc, <lt'ci <lorriL 'rr gclt('rirtoarc in opozitici r.or trclrui sir lucrczc sin_ t'rorr. APoi crrrsa arrn:"rturilor vl lrtrlrui siL {ic r.uprinsir intr.c limite binc de_ litrilr', fir. lrr plirrr'L incirrcart', fic [;-r in, irrtrtr,,. \-im locul siL mcnlioncz aici r.;-L Irrrrl r.I t r . nr is r . L ; r l: r r rk .s i g rrr.i t l .-a l i l rra t i ' c,' si cl crarc. i n ori cc caz, tri tl l rl r. |l ) r , lr . r r r l; , P l: r n rrl{ r. ,.r:rl (i l s i 1 ' i u l rl tc i s intcl i pc drumrrl ccl bun pcnI trr :r r . r ' il; r gr c r r li{ i rrl te ri < x rrr,. ( lonll) ilr ir l i rrrri c rr r.i rl c l rrIr.Ir' . i rl r. r.outl .l Li tni rl rl rrrr fost fi crrtt, tk, .6 , s1 t.r'i rr liS liia l' r ' r ' r r l 1 i s -rr rl ' r' r' rl i t .i r.r' ' rr,rrr i l r ri ,, prrrr.r' , (.sr(. ' r(.c:rni (.:l

r i. r 'r r r ,l' ( ll ir ( 'r ( ot lllir ,i ,l i i r' ,.,r,.r* i ,,r..rrsr r r r r r r l. l, r , , , r r r t lr r ', . s, ,l, ,t lt ir t r il r l. ( t ) r lt lnir ] lr r l lr t ' t ir r r l {'r r i ' \ l) ir r l ,ti i t,,,i ,' i r,t i rtrt t'r lir r l , l , . r r 'lict |r r l: r ir t lr r lr li {llLl rrtt,., rl ,' ( i tl l I 5 : ll) ''u, lr r ir r r l 'l' lr . lzi lur r ul ln( 'r "Ll) ltll\ 'l r l t ll t I ( x 't ll ,' ('(ncrittorii sonici (rotrrtivi) att o clit'l/.,r1r'rt llt(rrttl fttrtrtzltt t:otnllrtlsorilor' ce diL 1 (:!r ,'u:ttir',i.',:,,tit ' qo';;, ..ti,t,,,tn,'i" tczorliltor cttm 909; li c.t:a ' 811,,. I)lt:ir sL'miti adaugri pierdcri dc 10-200,1 in cort 0,Ji ,;l;; ; o,; sist cll l ' l rrl i uo cc l Dut llI r ; t ( ) t al ilpr ox. 60lo Pe- accst e lr azc' cu un ':;,';;,"t;;';:';ll,il;ii,'J."^,i'it'., l rr(tr.. esti enormir,"chiar dac't lnotorul elcctrit: r'i in ?r ccstcir / '' l ,r,ri rt (l ' ,1, tl oso nici ar r nt i scat le ci{r a de 60( }ola 40}'o. Chiar Ya putca {i livratir LL forrrj' cortt,f,,"ititt,i i'r s ,,,ii m'ni trtultir t:ttcrgic perccsivli ' .l r'l ttl c omf)l l l l l i l l . lr r rlir r '" 1 ' , fi ' .,,r 1, Si, ; ; '; , i 1r , , 1't i'. , 'i t l, 'j r . '. r '' t t t r t t lr t i.o l) allo . {lin alx \ xl lil ac( ilsl: r il t r t ''m or it t l rrrl trrl " r t.r. rl rtD i eut r t t - ' iit r r r "' r '"'l'''''lin trri tt' rrl .rr ..l rrti ,, du, t i( 'r 'r l, ) S. 'r t i, ' : i . \ P1r li'r l Souic< ' \-llloilr(' ll r\r'r"'l !ll(rn1ol-lulornl(:ilziL progLatltul luct'l-trilol Prezcntc lt in SoniciL r t r t ,1,,r,,,,,,,,i ti i *, . 1, ', , t inlr ii inqincii ct ' vor si- !sc - spccializezc ;;;i :,t,., .r' :rzi rr: i s, 1, lir r : i c; r nr r l. r ': r r t : t 'l' st t t l r h'I t r r 'r t r ' -t:' tliu scrisoart:n t:r (2t-2-58) cir anr {osl lli lr la(lrt Inar(' pli-Lt:rt." insi't nu arll 'tflt' I'i.iL in uf,," ,,i''i".'iii,iii .l,i ,,uJor" al l.acleni.i Il.P.l(. -'rczent sit atr(l pi'r"rri f iiyrii,ti,,i".L ,1. 1" -\, rr,lcnric lli-a .firrrt Pl'-'t.t]."'--tll-1*-cnea' 'Pr ', , f csot lilncr it us, ii- <lcspr '' do. t r r t ,h,r.rrr,. r.r.l ri rrl r r . u l) n( lr . n t olr lir r nu, r' n inullir m ir il' m el" cildr t r or t st ' r ', ' ,i " ,i " i ,ti j , i " ;' ,i - l; ; , f "'3 "pr i'r r i- i tlinsJl carc llrl ln-iL uitat nici't iit , . ll rlrtir{rr rrr(it (l(' sitni-!tatc;t"t'ui""rni"ti ci-rtrtl
txtt,tl ""' (

l l r,rtl r'

ttl tl xrtl i tl l l .r.

l ,l l l ),1

(.1/,l l rl ,

5r' l )oi l l l .

r' rorrt' rrr

I' 1"""

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rrl ,rl ;r, re. est(: unuldiu c{'i Itrltr' lirrrlr itn prinrit vLlti ;i clc liL ing l iaz'i;art ,ca ' it l r lot t t t lt it t l Sor lic Si ( it r r r : ilr l ,, rrrrl i rr rr' ,,,, ,,,1, ''1,iir t nr , s in i, t , iit il"'. t "1' ' .rai ,t ,i .' t l' ior aj' t.tl l r il't r it la pr o5'r cst r lt . lr nit ci (lL ('tt trtivilc h tincri ingincri, tc rog iir' ,(:ontact .cu. (ll sccrctar prim

in accast'r liir.t',i" i,.'l't^ii"*i" ii l''Il ' ci'ruiu i-ant scris ", ",1.',;;,ii.'li Ir lvlt|t l. p-uncttrlr' luni;iLscrisoarc'in carc nm irlccrcirl s[ ating l'r'ttttitt rrccastit tl" tt ' spritrtlr.ttttltrtlilor Irtll,rlc rlirr s,risorilc t"f",'fu'iugiitii'ii"* trllttr lti Oroiioit" pcntru progrc's iltrl nllrrr r,'r ttl pcrsc\-crcnlL {olosul tuturttr' ,,r ,, | t"or"ii.,, citrt: riplit:irripracti'c, sprc |' |rrI r rrrrr ''o'.ti'tclc' tur t',1ltt,,,'i,'i',, gintlul ;i cu lrrrtlclc 1or" tlrc trIarclt of ItroAllr'\,ll tlitllir ;i o copic l talrlotr'lrri"l'iotrt'crs itr r ;lr,r'.", rlttP,-rrl|tt rri cetut. olt cclt' trxri bitrt'r'oit tc Ar,rti, lc log. soliei 5i Ictilt'lor'lill('s('ntiln(rllt('l(:
l|tllllrl t,ill,llirlt l i sttcccs i n vi i l o r ( l i l l p a r t( 'a l ) o i l str i t' ( 'r t r l L :r {o stc,

a .l l,currur.r.utir ucririlorii. r(ntn, liiiiiil,ii;' t;;;ii,.;;i;:";;i" il"i r,un"r"rrirri irt sonicc tara lLomltrcasci't $tlitt1"i ,iiiiiii,i"ii,i'r,,iil ii .u p.iti..' t. ,iptlt^t"n -;i'l:rr (:um si \-or

rcrirt(,r (l:r(.i:rcr.irstirP.silril. r.r:Jii : ,r,,ri*u,*nil-"i.1r,"iri itiro. ,ui,Jiir"'

l' l \ r 'l f i t [ ] , \ l l l \ l s{ l l r l , r r , r l l , r l t r r r N ,, " lln r,,r l[l,r'


l l tr ' r 'r " 11| \ \l i l l i i r \l

20

1ll

O. STUDIU INMRODUCTIV

O.I. ACTUALII'ATEA SI PERSPECTIItsLE SONICITATII

Stnrliind lucririle inventatorului G. Constantinescuse constati c5. elc llit foarlc l.rinc fundamentate teoretic, iar realizS.rilepractice sint ln conOffdnnln crr {coria gi prczinti avantajeleprevizute. Ele au fost recunoscute ll llast;rlc de pcrsorrilititi rtiintilici de prestisiu international in lumea itllnlifi' tr crr loid Raylcigli. Sl. J. J. Thonison 5i Sir CtrarltisParsons,conIl0lporani r:u G. Constantinescu.Ace;tia au vizitat laboratoarele sonice dc b lirrrrln, ;ii tu fost irnprcsionati de reaiizirile tehnice - generatoare gi lotorrc sonicc - ln care propagarea undelor ln lichide era folositi pentru I ttansnritc putcri considerabilc de zeci de liW intre un emitltor ii un ll0!pt(,r. 'l'rirrlru:creacirlii ,,Theory of Sonics" in limba romini a fost {lcuti (:tr o lttr:tarc comandati. ci ca o rnani{cstrre a considcratiei omului de nU ftllntl $i spccirlistului in hidraulicS. prof. I). Gcrmani faliL de ideilc orij'lnrla uh autorului. llecttno:rstcrc;r r''alorii lucri,rilor lui G. Constantincscu in domcniul Fnlcltlttl rr fost fr.cuti dc Amiralitatea Britanici care a linanfat laboratorul da runlcltutt: in carc s-au dczvoltat multe aplicalii in anii 1918-1920. Utilitetca sistemului de sincronizarc a tragerii cu mitraliera prin palclc dlorl, lrluclnd nvia{iei hritanice suprcmatia in luptclc aeriene ale primului tfibol nondiul, a cieat invcntrrtorului un prestigiu enorm. In 1926, intr-o revisti britanicir G. Constantincscu era citat printrc lumii : Maric Curic, Allxrt Einstcin, 'l'homas Edison, A. G. Bcll, lffltlll lltfllhlmo Mtrconi ctc. ln rrlthnii ani ai vicfii, proclamarcasa Doctor llonoris Cauza al Inpolilchnic din liucureqti yi llegcrcasa cl Mcmbru dc Onoarc al 1SU_trrlrrl 'lt.S. llomlnia, tromplbteazlt o-srmarf, onumcrarc a recunoirttorii {h&rrrlol ing. Gcorgc Constantincscu. fi tlnrprrl vit:Iii a valorii opcici r:mirrcntrrlrri Aoorltfl ro(:unoallcro {ost cxrnfttcrttir post mortcrn pc pltn inturnau .. 1i tic FtUl tn cs(lnrl u:lrri rlr:-rtlXVI{ra ()rngrcs'iritornational isioria ql iin(t:i, ntnntorirr cmircrtlrtlrti ilvr)ntltor r()lnlhl ir fost or*rgiltiL lit irnulirtircl, ll p.tSlrt ttrrrlrrirtrr;lclii sirk. rk. ilrr;rlli orrsprli strilitri rlin" Arrgtirr,Arnr:ricrr,

llrllr,

l hrl l tr.ol iiI r lr r r r . r lr , scr ir r i( |||iciI iI I r ! Isir r I r ; or r , r : lr ,ilrr rrlrlir:rLliihr rotticilirlrrlr r r rrll tcrttiiIr lrrtr. rlr,scrirt sotrisirrl r;orr,r:1r,,

prorittttl nvrrnlrrjrt lr.ltttir:o.r.r:olrrrricr', sr, r:xplicl [lptttl r:it r : r:uttl rdrphrrlltr, lrrtttc,r lllR,1, lrr vltll prir'tilil, l;i,r r'llu l-u lrttlntplnl ltr tnHll lnvr,rlri/ .lirlr, rrrh,vrlt,rI rrrlnr:lorrlr,lr, r'it rrr'lrtllr rtlo tttol olrrr,lor l l tl l rurl r lllr lll t llr llil ln t t uu1, 11, , un1'11,lr r ( i, I irrrrllrr lirtr,rr: 1i rrrr r 11 rt rr
l l l t, Irrttlo t lt r t t r , ,r lr t t r r rlr r t r lI r "r lt , lr t r t t r ! l t ll fl l tl rtl l l t t lr 'r rit t \ 'r r I lllhI vI hr r r r r r . ,
l | | r I l I I r,| | r I t I t |. ' ,r tt!

l,.,ll

airicultirr, in_ l i trtIt t r . r t , . r r t r r r r r .i i n rl i r i n c c rr:rl s i ,.rp l i c ,, , rrnor e-rpcr!i rr.r u;;;^;),,,i ti ;; t" ( r(.(,I-fa() r'irlr'. ('onstantitlcscu a c.heltuit o cnorrni p"",au a con\:tllgc ,]lll'1.: ,l..r]: h. sinr r.onrpr, .il,it,.cu mult ,"ui """agi,, ir s(. _uli (tcf
PrlI :rparatclor dcmonstrati|c l_iru la l,r.r'r,lrrrr:^ u'lo[ rcsorturi tia.,i"ilcc ;r chiar a ..r'or Irtttrrli sonicr:. ,\ga cum s-a afirnrat chiar de la 'idr:Lulice,'acumuf.tu"r"apaiiti. ,onr.it.t"o .,.t" tr ( r)r('slxD(lcllti cu .lcctricit.rtt.a iar transmisiile sonicc "il sint similarc cu Irrrrr s r nis iile lc c t r i c c d c c u re n t a l te rn a ti r c ( or r s idc r ir r t l i L :r:rl o g i i r d c m a i s u s rL d cr.i rati i , cornpri mrr,.l l rchi tl cl or r'r.r , . r ' llr v l. l|nt : r c l l d e m ()l )s tr:rrc l a t.u n trrl i ri lor dc sarci ni el cctri cc i nrr_rrn r'(,r(l(.nsirlor. I)acir consirlcrirmsaltul er.olutiv al elcctrotclt;icii dc la expcri.n_ 1 r'L 'r l' r ' lt c lr os t ar i (i p i n a r l a a p u ri ti a rc o ri c i I i ni or tungi si -" srst(.mel ortri l ;rl :rl r ' ( ilr L. s - it lar c u t i trtl .- n ti n l l ) fo l rl c Iu nl , dc secol r,,surpri nde rapi rl i _ lirl(.i! (u care itrvcutirlorul a parcul-s accirsti cvolutie in dorireniul sc'nici_ li1ii. (lontcmporanii nu l-au urmiiri cu aceeigi vitezi. futut 'l'ir's'risiilc sonicc se rcilizcazi pri' r-ibralii iaria inccputul secorurui, ).r' cor)si(lcra cli cncrgia dc vibralic constituie n ioa-:, a" degradatl """.grc j.:,11..'l]])l- l".ll Poarc ,trirnsforma decit in c:rldurir. Iira clc nccoiccput'ci dinll'-urI slsl('llr dL' \'tbratii sc poate obtine lucru rrrccanic ctr randarn6nt riclicat.

a gi ndi t ;i a i nvcntat crr ::: 1 , , , 1: l. r ll ""'''{ i: . , , j, 1' 1. , , ] ' 1 r' .r ,r 1 i .r ,l ' .1 )i -,)i l i \' , l u l t l ,.i n(cl cgcrt.al (.o!) tcrnpor,Lni l or. .n . r l r ' llr \ , . I l l l l trrr rl ,.ri .rri t r,,l rl i z :rl ri L .nrrrrrai dupi L i ntl t.| l i ni rna trrrol r o rlilii s r x . iir lcs a ri m :rtIri a L ,. lrr conft.r.inta <k'sprt, sonicitatc, tinutir la $coala Na(ionali cle p,:tluri :,t .

rrrrrt, rr,./:tri.rt,,, si rr:rlloi S.t ;i : l',,1:,ll t' . :11,i1,,,,,,1 lr ,'lrr, rl rr.rl l . ri r i rrrc rrl rrto n[ic rc]uatc <krzi.oltatc..p'.rn,,, .5 -nl ul t rl

rrrr lrrr r u l, , , r r , . r , r l lr . r . llr ot n. ul ( il

lllltlto nlitri

invcntii

imporl.rtrit.

f.s.l'rlir

ll'curt.;ti i'r9r9, autorur,,o.it"i- un"t"'iiir

ir.cetrl. rdr lllf rsentiali-r unclecazuri,ca accl:rat p.np"girii .,:i_ in ;.ll.l.li.l.t,.iilll',,l,lrf,e\te Irl:tllllol ^co"n<]us llct[de. Lonstruirt,tr

l r{ r)r( r l|r nlllc ir r ( . a l tc rn a ti v i i r fo s l c r,ru t i n {cl )ruari ,: l 9l 3 ;i sc rcferca l a t' lr:rnsr)risir t.rifaziLti- crr gcncrirtor ;i rnotor sincron, IiLriLnici o relerire la r'()||rpr.slr) ttatcir lluldului siru la propagarca rrnor unde in linii, de;i feno_ rrr.nul plopagiLrii cra studiat ;i inaliza"t tle inventatoi. ( i r , r " r r de I ' r c rc t p c n l ru s to c a rc i l c n (.rAi ci i n rcci l ri cntc cu l i chi tl sub l )r'i .\tt ut , ( s t r . d, . lusi r i n d o c e m l rri L .l 9 l 5 ti i rc r ,.ptatr-rn i r.l nuari c 1917. . i fulri de primul I,icri,r . . in carc arr ap:rrui -\c,."t, tlr-rala j de ..1 ,,l i l|r \ 1. t ) llr lu ( lo n r(' D l ,,Lrri li .r| u l s o n i c i tj ,l i i _ s l l g e reazi -r fapl ul cj i dt.i l e t-s,.nti tLl e .rl (. s( , r i( ir it ii" ( . r ru Src u i rr!c l c s ,. d c s p t,c ' i a li ;ti i .oi t pornrri . " nl r Dir urrl c.Ulz|lr. c('lr mlll rrnportantc carc au fircut ca sonicitatca sir rrrr s, r ' . i- r pir r t L. :i-sirr fo s t l i p s l t d t.i n fo rrrra !i i t cl rni co_l ti i nti Ii t.c. C artea,,' l .c_ rr r,rlir sr'rI( tliit " :r lu-st ptrLrlicirti in (,n;{lczi in tinrprrI primul ft-zboi _limba , ,, loirrt(: putlr),. .c\L'mPlarc, lucr0rca iiind considcratiL iccretiL. Dupi I .rZl' x) 1,lll(]I ir r r ' ; r l '] II I I] 1 I ' Du i L l | l i l l Io s t .i c r' rc l :r,(l i u .n u iI fosl rcti t)i -rri t;r sru di fuzai :' t. S.rt Il"tr Irtuttai o lratlrrr.r'rr:irr lirtrIr.r rorrritn.r, intr_un rrUmir ttl foartr: mic rh : r'rc t nplir r r : . Ingiur:r'ul (irrrstutrtirrcscrrir fost urr irrvt.ntator car-c a lucr.at pe cont l_rr()l,lllt lirrr. rlolr.ir sir r.irrrL-r fl Ir'otlrrsrrl ulrrrcii sille _ inr.cntiilc _'in con, , , . , t jr v . r r t . rj r,.r\,., l )rrl ri rl .z .rrru i l .i i r.i l r: Irrovrx:rrl c tk: prcl uarci ! unor l l " :il li ll trr'rrlr t ( h' r ir lt r . r r rrr.l ,.i rrIrIIrIi rrrl (.r' ii rrrl rrs l r i trl : fi rr.i r i D l rLl i r.U vr:rri t.r, cl a rl Ivi rr l l l I t , [ . I t r' r,rrrl i rr r t)rrrrrrri r;rrr,i trv crrl i i Lrr.:,ti l ., i n i rl i rl .i r ir P t0l rr_ l rtl o r , r ,ot r l, r lr , r I lrrr.r' r' tl L,&

nt Irt rrr' ,' sl ,' r 'ondilii r epublicar t a ci- Lr I ii t ct a iudicat ir . llrri rrtrrlt, sprc sfirgitui activitrllii, in3. (1. (ionstantincscu i;i t'labort 'le lrrcveta, dcoarccc sistcmttl tlc brcvetc acorcla autorultti trrt,rrttil si nr.r rr rri,.r\':rl rk' lirnp rclativ scurt in carc llutcir irencficiar dc drepturile de ,rrl,,i .\sistauu, tst{t'1, la un fcnomen foartc curios in carc invclltatortll in,||1r ,,!l|lril)ui(. l:r o cunoa;tcrc foarte sumariL a lealiz,irrilor salc, 1a o pttrzcnl,rr, ttt,ri tnrrll r:ome'rci:rlir mai pu(in ;tiintific-t, f:tcut:t cu scoPul dc a atragc 5i trt, r! .rrl ur)or c apit r lilt i c. r r c . iL invest . nsc: - r{ont lt t r i pcnt t u dezvolt ar elL l \. rIIl tl or. ( orrsirlclitirl r:rrrtz,clc tlc tnai stts cir cxplica!ii llcntru ncploli{erarca l r,rtr,rri si i kl sonice, sc punc pr oblcm a t lc : r evalua : r ct r t alit at ca sonicit ir ( ii l 1l l ,r, .l )' .( i \' (' l (' ci. Irr rrlliutclc dtccnii cltrzvoltarca ;tiinfli ;i tcltnicii au litcut progrfst' hrtrtlr' !rrrri, 5i nilclul de t:utro;iintr: llt ncrltlt' al ptrsoualultti anflrcnitt ill L ,ultvrl.ili I c ltttic o-intlustrialc a cvoluat sPectaculos ;i prol,rLl'il itltr-'lcgcrt,,rll' rl,iiii nu ar fi {rinati clc idci cronrttc';a , ,incomptcsii'ilit: rt ca lichidtlor' . \tt:rri rl ul m at cm at ic ut ilizat in m od olr ilu'r it r le t ehr r icicnii ult int t 'i irncdiatr-L;i o alrordart' 1r'tt,r,rliilstc fo:rrtt' putcrnic 5i pcrtnitc o in!t'lc6Jert: I tr,' rl r,,ul i r s(nicit ir ! ii. Act igit r 'r t i t clr nico- lt iint if ic, c, ) nt t m P( ) r al) cit u: llnn5 rll ,rl,orrlt,zr,1.rrolrlt,nr:r oscilatiilor (lu putrrt in instrrla[ii hirlt'arrlicediutr-rtrr r t,' ,1' ,'r ,t'r . , , t . Act ivit xt ca ohilnuit r - L , , 'lcr r lt r lt r i, 'ist ct nclor aut onlat ( t Irtr' 'l'' i ntr' ,l , ti ' r' tni rta r |ir slal) ilit ir t ii sist cm r t lt r i ; i t lct cr m init r t 'r l r cgiur ur ilor t r at t ,l l r' r , I l i l i zrrtcr t clt r m r : nt clorcle <: r ccr t lic hiilr aulicr ' . - cla: iir : ''- it r sist t 't r t r r .rttl r,rtr.rl .rt rl cl lt t linir t li. unlnod sllcl ial t ll'lr t t lu 1x'nt r u t : alcult t l llt occst 'llr t 11,11171r.tiiirr ir naliza siabilit ir lii, si. t c: nul 'lt ' ar : t iut r i s'' consit lt r iL clt 'sclt is . lt '!r' .rl)li( r sislr'tttultti scmnalc altcrnativL' ti,' frtc\':r!c <iift'rite car.. st'proir j urg.t I,ri rr r.Ir.rr r r 'r r t r ,hidr aulicc dc Pr r t ir t . . , \ naliziL 1r - r 'cisiL I cnont t 'Dt lor Ir, i rr. r,,.,rrri rrl r,1 l,r,lt , t cor iilc sonicit ir t ii. S, : linl slilm r r d, r cot t t pr t sibilit ; r icl ir <lt l l rrl ,l rrl rrr,r,,,i rr llt r . lc , lichid c; r r c sc it i- r sr sc r inst alr {ir ', r r ust L' r 'or Pt t t ilor in t cor it r sonicit it ii' it t sit ct t alt scr , p. \ lir i nr ult ' ir r giDt f i Itt rrt,1 .rt' | l i r [r 'l r : a rrrrl orrr,rti l l i rrrr int r odus ca no! iuni t r oi, p( {r t t u c. ilcr r lul sislL't nl'lot lt it lLat t (::rpircitntea hitlr;rrrlit ;-r, lo{iutri cu cttc sottit ilhr , rrI I 1rr.rI ir rr (Ir lrirl:.ar.rlicir. l rtl r ' r l l l tr' ,rr,;' r it t t t t r xl obilnr , t it . int A l ,t,,l rl r.rr. it r c t ehnica act uiili- r r L, r 'ak. ul ir sislet nului hir hr r r r lic 1i 'lr l , rri rr,trr isitsoniCccSt ( , at it ( l( ' nr ; r r t , it r r it S( . I n) at t it f ir lt r ir t i- r sot t iI il l ,rrr ,i t put l al r' ,r ,,r l trrrtr.rr r isir . <lc cr t . pr ir oscilalii ir lt l) ot r i( ( l|1, . 'r 'oLr anclorlt 'liclr ir l Itrpl , tl rl l ,i \l l l rl ir r l sist cm clor lt it lr at r lict ' in r ciiinr at nt olt t t lx r lll: r ll( 'nt ' l t,rl l trt ' ,l|r 'r 'iir lilt i,r cgir nt t l llr nK) nic l) l'r lt ) ir ncul ( st ( t lll iilz I ) it lli( - lllr r l , {l I.rl 111l 1t l tr r r r zilst ir r pr . nlt u ul sisllt t r r lr r l. 1. . 'r sit r r lt ccaslit1l; r t - lit t t llt t iz. t t - r ' t" i I l ttl l l tt' l i t ii ir r sr : anr niir , r il, l) lir , r , il1\ '(t ) t ir r tit sor lir it it ii t llr 'i . i1i'r r h
rtl l l r /r'r | (l | ' i rl l l .

ta

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l t r r r p r r r r r .t r h . r 'r .r l r .r r .r r l l xr si l r i l i l i r {i l o r 1 r 'l r n i cc r I r ti tl i zr r tc r t r l i sl xr zi ti . ( l i tl l i - tsl l r l - t sr ' ;l i c r r - l tr,Irr r tttir' Pi sl o i tttr ', ci l i ''tl r i , to l ,i r t..l r ', i l l ) i l r i l l ( i tr p r l zcttl cr t l ttttl l ttt:l i p tr r l ttc l t , l r r t r , l , 4 1 t t [ . t t u r il ,.tr t,,, tr l r q i u i L .r r r r r .l l c si tr l o l tr l tti ' lltr 1 t r r t r r i p t t {i tr t o sl i si l r r l r tc r l l r i l l i r i ttr ' l r r r l r tl sl r tttl t.'r :,,r l l :'r 'r i l tttr r tr ' ';i l i p i zl l l cl t r .l " l 'r l r i r r [ 't ' i i ti r l ci p r r xl ttt l i .t r l l ', l r ,r r I, i r II,r r r .r |, ( r '1 ,'r r i r r '. Ir i r It r r tIi r ,, r h ' t r ,r rr ., rrI i . ,i i IttI( II|||i tIi | t , llflllr,lor rllrt l l l f i , t | l ! r ') , l t t l tttt i tttIr cr Ii tt|r 'II| |r r 'tl ||l t l tl i l i r r r tt ,t ,i ' ,I r' I t t t t I t t i r 'o ttt tttI'ttI ,,t,,1 ,,tr Ir l l r t,l r ,r r r l r r , ,i ,l r 'l l l ,o tl i ( ||l l l l l r l , , t l ,tl I l ,,r r l ' \r 'ttt l| an rt|llr, t , t l l 'r l r , ttr ,r l r ' r h ' tr ',tl tr 'r l r ' r l r l l tr r l l r l l 'r l l 'tl l l 'l ' , ' l i tl l r l l t l tl r l l t 'l l l lP"

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0.2.CI(Xt,u\E

rl,' rrr:rrisc pot obline ;i menline nedcfinit de mult timP cu inciLlzirincglil,rl'r1..\lotolrcle sonicc au caractcristicadc a se adapta singurc,autotltat, [1 r.rlr'inr'r,astfel incit motorul primar, dc exernplu un motor Diesel, si-L-;i rn.rlilir cu cuplu constant 5i tulafia neschimbatl atunci cind cuplul ;i tuintr-o gami. foarte largl. Aceastaestc o pror'rti,r nxrtorului sonic variazi-r \'aloroas' a transmisiei de puterc pentru motoarele dc autornobil' Inkrlilt(' irt,r;irrilcdc tracfiunc, laminoarc, pcntru industria petrolicriL etc. l'lxistir plrilrilitatea de aplicarc a motoarelor sonicein domeniul important aI_truicare sitrt mai ie{tine, mai u;oare ;i mai cfii;tlilrl dc putcre 1)iesel-sonice utilizatc astiLz.i. rtltttr fatiL de tclrnica I)icscl-electriciL;i I )iesel-hidraulicir

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0.4. TIIItMOSONI(llTrtTIlA

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( a.trcratoarcle sonicc si

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0 aplica{ic intercsantir a sonicitirlii cste trausmisia cirldurii la tlisInnl;i intr-un rnod sirnilar incirlzirii clcctricc. Conducta sonici. coutiltinrl sorriti', la la lp.i lr,atc transmite energiesonicit<1c u.n icncrator o rezisten(iL r'ltr, sc poatc gf,si Ia mare clistan!i.. .\ccasti cucrgie cste transforrnatiLitt r'[llrrrir, in timp cc conduct:rde transport rirminc rccc. Rczistentagcnctcazi abur de la clemcntrtl mari si se poate extrage apir ficrbintc saru Intttpr:raturi Apa sau fluidul utilizat ca mccliu dc transmisieiu levi nrt cit-r!. lnr;i.lzire. r'ulll i;rr dacl. sc doregtesc poatc utilizir nutnai o singuri leavit (re(ca soniciL zrr tttottrtf.rt i). () aplicalic importautr'L irccstcitt'hnici cstc indicatit pcntru inciLlzir,:r a tth.ittrilol viscoase levi sau in rczcrvoarcin anotimpurilc rcci. O cconotnic in llltlx)rtanti. a putcrii dc pomparc se poirtc olrtinc astfel in condilii dc sigtrtrrtr(.i rlin punct dc vcdcrc al perir:olrrlui inccntliu iu industria pctroltrlrri, tk. lrt .rtz,itoarclc dc comlrustibil grcrr, lrr incirlzirliLsp:r{iilor cu malcLiaL'r'xltlv,ivl r:tc. lcL Nlr.lorlapoatc fi Iolositir 1'rr.rrlrrr [icrlrclr.ir si distilarca tnirlt'r'i:t rt' | || | I. Ir|,I I i I(' , clt:rnentelc int:i-rlzirc fiiutl si;{rrr('t:lrirrrutrurci titrtl sittl cotttth' ' ' inflarrurlrilcsarr t:,r|lozivc. Plr'l Irrlrsirtc in :rrnt:stcr:uli rlr' I rr rkrnrcniunorr r1c uplic;rrclL tt'r'uursouicitir(ii posilrilit:rtcrr cslc rh: rlitcct rlinlr<l sttrsiL t:l-uklurl'r. I rr\. t.,r ;rlrncsul ;i a fj('llcrir1-:u1t.r'r, l',rpllir:nlcle r:fectrratt:pc lrrololiptrli ittrlrt'1tt:"t{cst: lttirnrit ci s-at' ;r pttlr',r.rjrtrrgc rr:zrtltir1r'r'r'praclic cottthttt'lit noi solu{ii r:t:ar ittltrtti lir ut lttrlr rrr.l''(u girz.

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, \ , r 's l r : r r l l i l o l r r to l tct.- r tttttl l c r l l tr r l tr i i r l r tp l i r ':r ti i i r l cr ttl sc l tl r 'l l l l r ' Asttcl r L . r 'r 'so tl r r l i :i o tti r 'r 'r Il o ti cl ci tttr tci Il tIr ' d r r r , | , r , | i r i I i r I r . q i l r r r o l ti zr i l i . i r r l r r r r tl o ( r 'l u l r r i , :r t.r 'ttl tti r' , rt t t 1rt i t t t i I I sr l l r t's{ttl r l , r l o s i t r ' ( .r o !i r l i r r l ,i ltrrl l t t l , 'r r l r . r 'i r r tri r r r . 1 | 'r l i r r l r ' l .r sl i r l r ,l r r .,i l i r r t, ''o tIr tttI, ,,r tr i r , l r i r r ,l r r r r l i , l r i ,l ,,'l ttl t,.r zr r l g l r 1 't , " t r l t t r ' lt|,||l r ' l r ti ||r '. l xr ;r l r ' |l r 'l tt,t ',,r rttti \,i o l |.tl l r ' ;t r ''ttt.l ( i i r l o ttr r ' \irt r l r l r r l l l ,'l r l l r 'r l l l r ,r r r l r o r ,r 'l tt ttl ,tl l tt.r l r , ' l r l r r r ,r l . lllllnl., l 'r ,r i ",r r .t.l l tttr \i r l tttttttl ,,, r tl r ,r l , l :l ' r r l ,r l ,.r ,,r r o .l r r l '.i l tl , r l , 'r ",' |||rr ,l, l.r,rll, r r r 'r rr r ' Ir 'r r r In . n t r t t r 't ,,1 ' l l r l l r r 'r r l l ttt.r tl ,,t l ,t l o r |' r r n ,r l r r l l r "l l l r l l l t/,r l r ,l r l r l u l ..\r,,lr

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.\r r r r r r r r l; r t r r r iro rri ri tl c .l tt,s i l rn (, s (,.i rl )l i (. i li i _rscul cl c dc pcrcuti c, prcsc s , . rl ,. n r,l r - l) ul_r . t r ,f olj r., l :rn s i rri d r. p r,ri L .r l r., l o rpi l c. rachcte etc. ti l,l[r'ctrrl <h. arnortizarc al rt,ioirrtelor soniic red.uce sau elimini. vibra_ liilr. plirr alrsollrirc:r si trans{ormarca lor in cilduriL,

rrrl '.rr'r ' . r t ic , .pr in r oci s a u p ri n a ,.r:fi e p ri n u n de di rccttl , fi e pri " , ll, r'lirl(' si.r r''lractatc. Accst.a sint indicate " i ra.," _ lxntru detectarei obstacolclor ;i plcrlnirr,ir ciocnirilor in ccati! sau intuneric. Irr contr;rst cu metodr:le clcctrice, sunetele generate sonic pot fi r'lir rr.r P.'t rrr (lisr.rn1" scurt o ;i sint ust tt.l irrdica pe't-ru protcc tia u,,iianr.loi r' te rc zl 'o alir . ir r aP r opi| re a s o l u l u i , l a i l t| ri z a rr s au l a trcctl rca pcstc i ni rl .!i mi , (a.ncratoiu'clc infrasonicc sau ultrasonicc sint u;oarc ;i compacte com_ pirlrliv crr <;r'lcclcctricc, sint u;or rli: fabricat, ugor <Ic inticlinut gi nu sint Irft.r'lirlr. dc apl-r sau umiditatc.. Asenenea instalalii sint inclicare pcntru ex_ plotlli gt'otl'zicc, c:iplorirri sul-,tei.anr: pcntru pctrol sall n)increun, ca o \:a_ tiitttlli inlocuitoarc a mctodei cxploziilor subieranc. in.stllatiilc sonicc pcntru _gLnrr.rrcaimpulsurilor. pot fi aplicatc peniru r,r'n||llllizi"rri fcrovialc, undc c]iar trecerca trcnului -generca'ziL impulsuri, r\r'r'slr':r-sirrt tran.suli-seprin tcr.i la di{erite distan}e unde pot scmnaliza, p ro l r.j ir r r l t r c nr r l in frrti ;i i n s p a tt.. Sislt'nul sonic nu nccesitir rucxlificiri sau adiuRiri la lor:omotir,c sau la r'rrl .:rrL' r ulur c ; i c s t c i n d c p c n d e m rl ,' rc tc a u a c l c ctri ci sau al te sursc dc putcre. Ac('st sjstrm cstc aplicabil la prot_rlcmesimilare in cart: sir.rt r.rlcesurc ittlltlrkxr'rri prin _comenzi dc la distanti. Semnalele sc propagir cu vitczir -poate sttrrctrrlui in lichidul folosit ca mcdiu d{r transmisie, iar ai:e.sia fi apa srrr ulr.iuri co nu iugheat;-Lsau sr.rlutii antigel.

0.6. SDMNAL|ZIRI fI CIMPURI SONOLE (. rrlr.rt,rrr(.h. sonice pot produceundc sonore frecven{e joasesau de . ,, || l ,t r', lx r r nt lt nr , 1r:rn s m l t(' rc i ru n o r s | mn a l c putcrni ce pentru .omuni cati i

soAvind in vedcrc marea simPlitatc si grcutctca rnice l ciocanelor acesteapot {i utitiiate pentru tlicrc:r 5i fasonarca ricc dc inalti. frecventt, mctalelor, a pietrelor,.sticlei etc. au Tra.nsmisiilc de impulsuri hidrosonicc au multe aplicalii Posibile ;i hritaniccin timpul li duPi Pnfost aplicate cu succesli armelc avioanelor rnul rezboi mondial. Alti aolicaric importanl:r cstc ir)icctiir combustibilului pcntru .motoJ.'" *r., 1'liczi lir cilrt conducta de alimcnlarc cu conlblrstlDrl rdc f)icscl indcpenisle totositl ca mediu pcntru transmiterea- puterii la injectoarcle rlcnte, cfe la un gcnerltor ccntral de impulsuri' dc calUn clomeniu interesilnt clc aplicalic cste dezvoltarca rnalinilor legate-de rezonanla culat ionice capabilc sI' rczolvu ripid Problcmc .dificile se pot cari altfel nccesitir luni clc catcule migiloasc sau chiar nu ii"tti"tfl. mctode obi;nuite' ioluliona prin turniLttt a O aolicatie specialira sonicititii cstc acecir' imbunirtlfirii -,jri." 'i"i.* Urp..i*"nt.l" .., rlovcdit cir turnitri cu granulaLlii mctafioi"a" f"st oblinute'cu accstc mctode' Nu rurnai mctalelc' dar chiat' i;;;;;i;";

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1]1tt.l]]t-,'::']]' tirnpul procesului de turnarc cu encrgii sonrcc prin matcrial Prodncind ;i mcnfinind ornogerlrtatea rrl lrmptrr ii ,iifori.re l x' ri oadci dc' o lidif icar c cornlrustibil ptrlCu acelali tratament aplicat amcstccr'rrilor clc acr cu aplicarcrL cste irtlicatii trcutrtt \'cl'izat, ardcrca este mult i;buni\tiltitr-r ;i Itrl l ' i n,l . de gaz' c: r zan' clc' dr'l'l'llrrc ('t)n clomeuiu lrltLrrcsant du lrp1i"'rc a inpulstirilor sonicc sr u ] r r o'F\ t inr gct ''lo; ic' tr, i l l i ' tl ar d,' d ur dt ar scuit i t 'st t e"lla al ' r plor : Llii rle metoda e\ll()rlll()l zi,linriutclor cle pctrol sau mincralc, ca laiiantir lirtl"L 'gcneru.toar'r'cornPactr ji,, a pi'ocluce undc solllct |('r'|clltru i,,ri .,"rotrui iiru irlr uritvc dc tlilrc Putere, a,.- ti t"'pt"1ttgc ltrill soi in toatc clirccliil'

p"t 9i o'ric;'m;ie;ial plasticsau amestecuri Ji 1:l"l:;,:ll ntcnse t"tf,

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0.7. ELD[;l'ROSOItCtTATtsA
A(flsta cstc o nouir tlczvoltar-c intercsanti. in car.c curentii sonic: sint gr.rrlrr{i tlirr:ct tle curentul:rltcrnativ al rclelci de Dutcre. tra;,:[or_ -,\sernenea rrr.rtorirl('ctrosouit:i ar putea t:onducelir solutii noi fentru lo(.omotive tlci.lrice, irIittl( lltir1(,r[ircct dr: la firrrl dt: calc dc tcnsiune inaftl cu lrrc\.(.ntir inrl.slrialir. intr-o ascrucne:r scheurii, sit:gurul echipament clcctric pc loconrotivir, irr' li lr:rrrsforrnrrl onrl clt'ctrosonic, tr:rnsmisii puterii la roti lircintlu-sc cu ttto (o i rt r . s or t ic r . r t y r a l r' s i ro b u s te . 'l r':rrrs[olrrr;ltonrl clct:Irosonic estc l.cvcrsibil, cl putinrl gcncra rncrgic llr.r'lrir';i liilrl irliln('rlirt rlc lrr rt:tr.arrr sonicir. Ascmcn-ca1r-aniformatori piot l i l o ti r.liv i s ar r s lir lit i (i n c :u ' r' n tr s i n t p i c s r: i n m i scarc). C cLcctareuva dcci de ( i rrr. l i l) ( s l( , plt . k ' r ' i rl ri l .

ina'liit frr'cvrnti li{cctele {iziologit', procltt"' '[" genclatolii sorrici dt' rnctlicrr]'. '\scmt'uc;r culontl fo1 ri r,i'rrzori uot ii loiositc lrurltr11 si trpur-i ( 1, r, :.rrr i ..]r(l i ,.,,' ,,,,ii " ' ,,ar, t ; in 11. : ulr ii ; i . r r . r r Lr ir r .os, r r r sr '[ ir - i p"r ic, r lir l ct LLcncllolll'a/ . ll lll:,,, A rr.stra ir c! ) nt r st cr r cf cct t . lc ct lr onluhr i clr ct r t t : ,iir',,,t Prin sist(rmuI rlcr\1)s [)i nsucc t t r t a( 'llllll- l{'l. il1- ( 'lr t r r t t lliplr . lot al- lliclr t iiir r t lt r st r . ilr lr 'ir lt 'sr , t r it . i tt 1cn,1.t aplicllcit inr'r'lliiLl' tlllii st: dt'splintl rrrrrlliplt'lt' posilri)itiii r'lt'schist' rlc trt' ttxtolr' irr ingirlr,riir ttrotlir-trir 1i ttt'rtlitlcrt ;tiin{ificir' firtir It)tliIiti!1ii sit t tt 'lt . t t it r " lllr tl t' l ri ttl sttti si t:it l) t llr r ll cllt sict: lr ir lr ar r lir '( " ( it llicl ' |t r I t t t t r ilt icc ( l( ' s( m i( it ir t ii r A .t vl -rz, u1Lir rcr l, ' r lt . r 11i sr r s ir cluir lit ir t r . aqi pt 'r 'splct ir t uit i r t [ r 'r i'tt it iloItt l krttrcni rrl ir Plit lr \ iilr r t t lt t t icr ', r [ it t slt t <lit r l"t r lt lir t r r lr li" t llt ct iuii ii it ct r ': t {t lt tttl l ti . l ui l i i tlt 's t lit lii ir t lst : l lslc ir t t ilt t ; t 'l t l'Pllsit t t t lit 1| | i rr(i fi ct' ,(| ( x. iI Zi|. I - il|'i|t lr . it llit lt 't t t lr lt . it t t t t t 't . it t r ist t t r t ll'l'r 'lr {it . ilt iir r {ifit t r . , t - s| icr lt t r cir {ii t r i ir t sPit ir th, rr' rrrrn,' ,r. i t r r r r xlul r . , 'l I lur i ir r r lt 'r r lir 'pr r xt 'sr r l r r I r 'slt 'i ttl l l | t' i Isi ' | (| l l t 'i||llill( li. l'. lI |'. I lll'li( l\ ||llr . r t t ilt t r r t t it llt iir r I iI r r lr islr lr |r . ( 'r 't t r gr . \ '{t llr ir lllir it clr llr l l nl l l l ;rttl i ttt.s|r t 1r r r : 'I r 'rit iI lr i '' r r "r r l "1l) ' 'l' . t t r ir r "ll\ ' iI .l | l (| | u| i | 1,.i i .,| ,..r' ..., |. 'l. . ir lt it r r lr ir r 'r I r '. |. . 1r I t t t t llt t |. I t t t t t lt t I t t t I |; |li|||. , ( ll. ('lr it |||| ir r i r lr t l. r '1" ' t,-tl th" rrl ttl i l t,r r '1. I r r "lr lt 'r r lr r t r r r r , lillr l' lulr lr r l 'r 'r llr r ll|

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Ilr,rrrrrrs I,llisorr, irccst ilustru iur.enta.ttlr.zicci! c11 mult rrmor, tlcaltl r'1 , , i y r lr r lr r r r r [ r r c l o i n v t.u ti c s i u r o rl e s c o p t' ri rt:, cstc trcvoi e de numai 1(1i irr',1 ri r . r t i,s i ( ) 9' r j, lntn s p i ra ti t. C u s i g u ra l ta -ri l s r -r t:ardar:i LIl di son ar { i curo sl u l nr ; r 1( llir li( i, r h ' rrru u ld c l a i n s p i ra fi c l i L l e zrrl tatrrl fi n:rl er fi {ost par' 1rr'\ Il l . r i I r ' P |r lt ; i I Lr D ru l t rn a i p u ti n a r tra n s l )i ra ti c, fi i D tl scuti t de ncnumi r r,rl l l , ir r c t lc iLr i r . r r t iri ri tr' . l l c c rs a rc a tl L rrc i c i u tl rru P trtctn i ncarl ra otri cctul ,, rr' t,,r ir ir I ir r r l , r jr r l rrr.rI , .I 1I. .I i , . 5plt dt osclrirt' clc l:dison, (;('ors-r'('.(mstirnt scrr ninuia lrn:rlizl mair)f llrrrrrlir'i cu rrtultiL rnirit'stric, ccea cc i-a prrtnis sil I)lLr( rugir drumrrl dt. la rrl, ,r irtitialrr llr rczultirtul final intr-riu liml) r( cor(1. Sr-L ciuliLrn rler:i siL-I rrn r,i ri r r 1r t ( ; r . or i{ ( .( ' o rrs ta l l itn c s c l r d r,i ! l u n g rrl :rccstui rl rum pl i n cl c i nti LpcrltrrL cci care se clcrlicr-rct'rccti-Llii ;tiintificc ;i aspiri l.rrrirlr', Iluri a11:s :..r ',t rrrLuci cotttrilrutia la imbogl-LlirciLpirtlituollirrlui ;tiintifit: nnivcrsal. lrLlrr rl.c la carc a poruit, sa!-i ziccrn inspiratit', ir fost irc('ca c1cir consirlerrr Irtol)lllr!r(ir strnctrrhri prill undo, studiat in itcuslic:r, (:li r11r cill p:rrticul,u r|r'l ta trs t t r is ic a put lri i rn c c l rn i c cp ri n v i l rri rti i r h' l u nn capi Lt l i r ci l i Ll al t i r) rtttui trrlr ucusti(. l)lrt('rca tisticl transntisiL ltrin tulrrrri lrcusticc ('ste insi'i lrl tl u t < [ t ' nr ic iLr lin c l rl rz l rn l rri i c h s ti c i tl l i u i tl 'rul ui . I)e nscrncnca,aampl i l lrrlitti rtt.ri nrrrri rlt' r'ilrrntii, trirnsmisia putclii cstc practic limitatar dc fcrrorrrr.rr,.lr t;rloLicc cirLc o insotcsc, pc lingi! {irptLrl ciL t'r:urrtiilc propagirii sc rottrlrlir'i t orsirL'r'nlril in actst t:az, ncrlaiputintl fi lezoivat.i prin metodclc
r l l l l ( ) ( r ' l l l ".

a ' L| ,| 1| t,Ir,| | ,.,r, 1, , l, r , , . r r t r i , 1, ,r , r r lir r LLI m ii dc at m osf er c ii lr - iur l in vLr lcr t , l rl r rrI ri l l rrri ri l, r ir r lr ir lir r r t ', r lllinc per iculos put ind clucr la spar gcr cr r ,,,rr,l rrr , i . Irr I r . lr r l r r rr ': 1r r l l) ut ut G cor gc Conslant incscu sa'r " i{icc t oait : l r 'cr ,,,rrrl rrzi i l r. l IoI il'i I r ' ir r slul; r t iir sa cxl , r r im ent alir , ccea cc i- a dat dcpliDa r rl l rrr.rrr{ i i rr r' : r I . r LiI iI r r t r . :ipot ezci ir dur isc ; i ir concluz. iilol t cor ct icc dt r lr r sc . l ,rrrtri ttrlrl r' l rr :r cr . r r : r l; tl) lu' ( 1. ( 'ot t st ant inf scr l nu s- ; r opr il lr r accst p nr r r r l l l .rl , l ol rr;i i riil ( il it nl) ( niiult , ii ir ir o a clor r act api'r a in\ 1: st igat iilor , r '1r r l rrtl l zi o rt()l lir 1( ( Di( ir lr iur sr t i'i, i 1'r , t r - ii it ', , : Lr t , , , |r it t lilr r at ii spcrilir : i I t .rrr,rrrri s:r' i Iui t . rii qr t it r lit lr ir ir '. t lr r r : nr i. ic llt ai( r t ir t i r lc t . f cct c t er ur icr car ', Ittrrrl ri rz:-r rns Dr i: . iir il sr ln(t , ir t lLcr -. \ st icl, iu lor slLir <r llr 't sci dc la t , rur pr l ri l | | 1,. l 3 l ' l i rl ( i I L. I nol) ir sar r ii . ut t i'1ului p( 'nlr u a ajuni{c la ( ii{er it cl( , 'f ( ct {' l ,l l r( ul i rr(, foLr sit t t lt t r t t r xlr r lui I {a, , lt igh, it r t r Lt at ul ciasic: 7lr , or - r 't ; l sot t n, l, t,,,' tl l r' (l ottstr r nt ir t r , 'r 'ur r t r r t t azr - ( Lr - r . lm ul lc15: por ncst t de iir ir it r t icr r LLr ilr r ,,r ' ..r :ri ungi r l rr 1t cr ,r 'll. I lr r nir r r l r lL la- 1 t lef init ii sir upkr si iulunc: . liiili , rl ,rl ( i r. rri rsi r, lr iI t ir r r r '; r si |t Tr lit lr nt a, r lat liincl r 'l- rr r ccst clnir r ir ) r i : il1 lnr l I' rr, i ,rl i l rl rsoi rr t r ' r r lc t t iir I ct it i, ciLt L int t r \ in iu oli. r ' t t t at r iic'st ar Ill ci, st r i, i l ..l r' .rrrl ri tc r cllt ii ir t ir e t lr ', r 't r - ilicat e Plin cr lxlit , nt c, const ala!( i il. ( sl, ' t' l ,r1r r,i l l ana loge cr r ir cclclr cr r r t lt 'r r gl- r lc cl( ( ir pa( ! t ir t cir ,inr luit lr t lr r , int r.,' r.l ,nl rt seri c ) i ( lcr i\ r r t i( , Diir ilr i r it iiuit c in cilcuit c Llcct r - ict : ', r r r lr l dr ,rl l , trr.rIi r,. (r l ):rri l r' g iLr cir . 11r vcr llcir zaL lr ( nt ii solr ici t lin condr iclr : sinl . ir r r r l, r il, ' Slr , rr .r,r' l r' :r (i rl r' ( ll \ 1'nl( 'ir i'r cur culii ll( ( t l'ici alt cr nat ir i r lir t r : ir r 't r ilt L'1, , t r ir r , z jr iliLL r t t r r l r r r r l, , lir iii ' l rrtrrtot i | r. 1r lo1r I iI ir r t t , ir ir ( ( 'st ( ) 1-riL r ur - DI 'L lisL'. t , ' r 'L
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ii,il,i;;;i1;;i',ii; 'l:rl:r lil,,i:;;;i,,,itriiljli,j,i il, ijl],Ti:tg:: ;"-,jir | ill'il;iiillt;;l|;: r'i ll'l;iit,^"r'liiil'iill'i:':ll,*illl];', li;:iii i:,ir rir,ri: ;iliul,l,i'i'ii:;,,,'ti,;',:t: ,l;;:;:;l:,ti;'i;.1l;l;:iiij:;j:::;i
Cu.rtnli ht ( rn:r/s, il'r.m:

il,:;,i;l'"Ji;,llt , ;i,ll;l;;:;,ij]:,,lllli:,: ll,:l;ljliil't:

',';;;:, ;iii1,;;:l;iiiiiriri,rri;jri:lJt{irir.;li jri ,,i,1 il,iii,,,,i1 'l;,,,lT:'it,'t;il;j:1,

C API'T'OL 1 'I-

TII

curtEvfr so-ufl iN TL,BUITT sflrnrE. DEI'tNrrlI

Jltr.i:i plinc, dc Itt tul-ruri ',:,tu;:i?"lili,i z-- vitezalungimc scurti, dacir: <,.r tstc suprafalasccliuniitrrbului, Jluldrrluilntr-un monent oarec"ie, ln'cm/s, i - rlel'itrrl In cmz, j . i.c,+,.

,rlltnt it'i sau. curcnlisorr.icr. Pentru oricc mi;carc dc'ilrriii

Sir prcsupunentci curentul esteprodus dc un piston carc sc uti;ciL inrr-.rtr . r llltulrrr rlc () cm3 scctiunt, cu o miparc armonicitsimplir. Fie: r -- lunginrcir rrrltiv;rlrntir a manivelei motrice, in cm, s - r'iteza unghiularil a manivtlci xrtt fulsafia, in radiani pe secundi, rr - numirrul dc rotalii al manivlti ;to rlcrtrxlr'rAtrrnci dcbitul ce trcce din cilindru in tub, in fiecarcmontcnr va rr i:Isin (.?t+\r), ir)

1 3 ' :T \i ' d ' ::z


ht vll,.' I'l'tcc u"t D , 2/(l

'

(r)

l,.,ir,r.

I Vrrltttttrrl ul crrrsci pistonrrlrrivt fi <lirt rh' rcla{iir 2tlt.

f t lt n t rrlrrl,v , r l i

lr A l ,rtti l rr l o r r . s|t r r r r Lr r volr r r r t r r lt Llr lls; r l r lc pislor t ir t cilinr lnr in lir nlr r r l l l l l ttl rl ttgtttl l r r r ': i', f iir r r l It\r' l s l tfi l I i tt t ttti t. ir Itt t ott' ,r', t l. r , , r r r , , r / ; r lir 'lr ir lr r lr r iit t ( r . ; r vir ,ir r ir r t r r lir r llt ,\ 1'(ir t ir lir t r ' . l

I l l l l ,,l l {l In I l rl

, 1,, .1,1,,,,1' ,, .r. r" . , , " ri i ",,,r,,1,1, ",,1' ,(,r1, ' l rl l l , ' , I l i ,,l , 1,,,, ' , ,,,, rr' !l ' ' ' !",1,,!! ' , rrl ' / , " ' l

. n | l . rI l " l t r, l ' rl

rrt | l rr ' , rl , . l l t i , ' , 1 1'

{0

l' t , , \ , t ut nl, l, t t,ttt,, ,,.n t ( l ttr\tru u s r)r//1 r...()l l si (l (,t..11.(,l t l l l l i l (r.i l l t(.r, l )t(,si l i rtr\'1. r . r . lr .r , r r r l. r r .r ,r,rr,r.,r.r rl r.r,l l i l (n .,rl l r.rni l l i \.i . l ntrl rru tub i n < :arc 5 r' l l l l i ' | ! L t ' lr t l' hlt |] , I r,,.l t i ,r si /, r' .r fi rL : o l i rrrrri -r"ni l i rri L; 1.oul avci t I' ll:,rt(Ltt I ,j,J) | i5,,,,

rtrtl I'cl'iin(l

""

(3) {.,- unghiul dc

;"'l R :' brliso' tl d+ I i,;t, i,t.^ - - r:",1 (s ct\V : (o,,/") +( sIt"t\V d 1'

(j )

rrrrrL, //_r.:1 ,. rrr.rrlr r r r r l I , r ( . . i t r ii illlr . r iili\ r . , ir l kg,/c n! xl, I r1. r f l 1 ,, l)ll ilrtl".r nr ( . r li( ir lI ll' . Nlilirrtrrl :L lrso lr r t r l lr lr . s ir r r r ii ir r t ulr v lL I i :rl rrttci

' l ' rcbui eob scr vLt c: - t vr t ezct 'licllct - ''com par at ivm t ir nar i'pot f i valoart--i lui ft' mai mari pcntru accc-a5i Inri|l{iLlr:in tul)rrri rhr (halnctrc ' ' ' ' " ' ' i ' i " r,I" r, kicliunii vl f i dt pulcr l I I 'dt llor il: - r "

tntrc-

.lr^^ - , lr_ -. H
,,.irrtlxirrtrrl tk' lricsiurrc absolutiL r,iL fi

lY
ltllnhnl ft /ii, oblinc'm ll'

(ri7')tllnr'
J o

(8)

?^",:t^,+H.
y', l)ltcr'L cste prcsiunca intr_uu punct oa.ic<.art, al {cvii iar p" prcslunca i trl r'-rr n alt punc t , d i fc rc n !a H s i n (a 1f rf) l ,r- ft (4) vrr [i.rlr:firritiL frcsiune sonontott,ict, ca il.stat].llirr( lntre cloul-t punctc iar fI este ,rtttpli t rrtlinr.ir r.i. l)rcsiunca sonomotricc cficacc r.a fi .lt

.l C ( l/ 7 ) \ ) ^', t {I l

(AYi')\td1 - itl'zl2. J

(e)

r\r'r.ttt pritr rrrtnlrc ll' l i .ttnfl tr

tiPi/ .-=IIIIL =' H.t' I.j.

,,

HIV z.

j:j,:,1':.,1,,.;:lll::ll.t,:,.':1.:'llil;i in t:orpur ri.iii.r"riii \.on, presu.1t"'ii presrurrc. prcsiunea sau. sonomotricc nccesari
l::']::1..:.1:c nt lt t es t e p ro p o rl i o n i ll i -r (.u :ii::.1.:lr -dc l tl rxl t|l r , ( ur c l l rc n tul r* ' .
Itclulir

llrigiutc. lntr-rrn curcnt altcrrrativ dc li<:hidintr_o tct\-ir.,sc "i,-r,,,;,; prod.uc

peitru a

lntre presiuneu sonomotricc .fi ;;i cufentul sonic poatc scrisi.

r,,.ru','r'ir.',t, ''in'l llt,i'll;,,l,l"li.li'..ti,,;::::i:1,:l:jln:l ,,.,i',. :ililX'',':l',,lii ,:lllill.:l;:il'1r' iiiil::lll,lr;i1,,"'iii,r'1.i"',r,r"', ir


,1,

punctt" A sc giLsi grculitlilc intrc tlortr-r Sl crt'L' it s(' ti.iulslrlilc putcrc silLl l,' t{"ul' ctl (:(t)p r t'ta l , ci l r ( l tlansmisia'"t,IT-".1]].:'^]'l:*li^ii'ii'i;',','lltliil]. tl a r l sr r l sr a s- l l r . I:rr't' Diill unil

r''.'i^1,

- - - ^ .- .^ ,- i ^ r

i - +r ,.1 'r r -

illiil,l,i;i';.lli;11fli,ll'.,l",rill\i.:ii,i.: lil,lllif,;,:,ll1ll', :l i'"r,u'.r.[i"r ,'aripc'tr. 1,r'.,ritc *i,1,,;5ll rr.


r " r /'/' t t l l l l l t l l l l ' 'i l t 'i r .':.,'2 ,. r .fi ca .r ' ;i st:cti n 'ca tt:r 'r t .t'ti ct' |i r r t i i o r t ' \'l l t': ? u r csl r r ; i 'l (x) /i : l t( ti \' 1t1,, ttr {e vt' , , , , , i i t , - t1 i p ti tttr r r r tu i t tl i l tt'l c r , r l , ', , t i slt il\1'lu llrulcazi't sir firl tlansnrisl"r' trrl^llc I tllll il(t'r'iI$l pu1('r('

h _ Iti,
rtttrk' /i r.stt' cot'ficientul dc fricfirrne, in lig .s/cm5.

(.5)

tlispo.ibile prczcnt' in v;rloarca lui /r r,,,,i,1:'liri ,llil",llll:,'olili"i"ffiri"nt"'


Il

*:llll:il::i,l*Illii;l,,li:'ill"llili,l:' ii" :?|:. r;;,;"J'lir.i * .r.,i rr r.rrt,/s , ,,'"t:ll,i.l;,ill],ii':;l r'.t!, ,, t. r1 c l i rL rrr,,tr-ri l ..i ,,,1' ,,t i ,,i
' i,rt p r.rr I r ' t ri1r ' z r L lrpit tcvi i , i r.r cm, c . 0,()2 f, t), I li,//rr,,rl *+*,. l i r. P llic r r ( t ( \ ir ( .t(. i l s l tl )ri r :rc t,s L rris u l ri c cl l i P st,sr, , rrsl l r.l (.r-ri t(r.i tsti lo r rrrrl ;i t lllr r r ir . { ( , r r 5 i ([r.r.,ri .' ! rl rrrrtrri ;r :rIro x i rrt;r ti r-i t. c I)i r r r . r ' r r r r { ir ( 6) s rrl rs ti l rri rr< l r, i l !.c n r r In . A' (.,./i rr,,) ,o l r,j ,t | (t,t,t)i t)V ,,,)i rt o ).

e-ilr,.rl 2g<,tLI .

(6)

i l t r r r r'i.Lt'rtrt ( l{ / / r / i .. : ,..,,i .,.,,. .,,, - l rtl tl t, - -' i ;,,i ,i i rr t . , l, '1ir r( ?) ' r r r r r t lt t t t git r t t r t li. cr 'r lt 'i {cli t 'st ( r ir ( ( r cir lr (/L'/ro,) (t'y't), ,/i, r i''
/i, r,, //rr', ' tr.

rrrttrttt't

'i'' ,'t'"'" / ( ''

:1"il]

"t'"'l'

si't ttclrtritr itv(:rn 'li/:

lrl

I:ruiui;l'-n'1,,1'#t?Jl"iil,1ii,l"lii"ll-.:"1 mai economicd.


Incrt mai este cc.'oruic ,":1f";,,1".,'",,ll,lo ,"""r. "
Exenpl,u numeric

il'Lff :;i. ffi il, avind un ..r,,;l:, g, *?::': i"""'i:.?Jti"i'i;'::i;,"r,#lil,i:;,:l*,il:lH:-Tllllt,,l Tt,j,-.^"il."i' ; l vlhzl^eficace--d-e .-U: l'i'i"'::11,il,: f I : 1oo
ei R ' ("{i'ru)t' a_ o,o d + rr,(ro lr",;ff3:^,Y:,-]'l-: * (o,o;rl":.::F:_,*: Ia,t -D;pr"*';;,.i,ii ;,,; i#, .:1." ':"[,,.';,i: I o!:;If*, ",,,,t ^h ": T"lf ',i:l,u-. flnit de refaga rcr),.czcntat 5 de. !: prin

CoeJicienl capacitatasonicd. Coeficientul de capacitate sau mai simplu d.a itattt, C, este definiti de rela{ia C :81k. Cind un deplasament de lichid se produce cauzat de o schimbare de esiune ln lichid, de exemplu prin impingerea unui piston contra unui re, precunl sc aratl ln figura 6, in general cregtereadeplasanrentului cste rortionaliu cu crc;terea presiunii. Constantar de proportionalitate estc citatea sonicirC. ln cscmplul de mai sus, capacitatea C a unui condensator constind dc -un pi-s{611 secfiunc <o, asupra cirruia lucreazir presiunea lichidului 'care cstc linut intr,-o pozilie mijiocie cu ajutorul unor resorturi, este datir bcuatia (10) l-:<o./:f,fu, I estc larialia dc volum a spaliului ocupat de lichid,7 ' vtrrialia lonLaliL pozi{iei pistonului, <o- scc{iunca pistonului, /r - r'aria{ia prt:a in lichid. Daci. pistonul este lin[t dc un rcsolt avem in fiecare momcnt / : ,-l/;, .1 cste o constantl. depinzir,d de rcsort 5i Ir o forlir lucrlnd asupra rt:-

ui. Avem mai departeF : toft,in consccitL!:-L J : A<,rh. Amflituilin ea deplasamer C:lor (to) ;i (tl) ob{incrn Din ccualiilc li
( il)

este volumul dc mctal al rcsortului, in cm8, o - cfortul admisibil g^d?fr?ifi#":Yii#g2i6^.if ";j:,"-:::'*.esteun.rezervordes- -Bin kg/cms, G - coeficicntul dc clasticitate transvcrsalita metalului, j:i:.'^-.y:j.1.3;i;{.;i1;iir,r"a1"'"'1,'"Sii" .t.tl"i,;,ildffiTjf'ifth1l"

ir'fii,""i,ffi fi $#t.r.}i['T$T"j-um:l:m'**":r'#:it::
r u rr rucnnd intr_un cilindru gi g.not a" ,il
Fig. 6. - Condensalorsonic cu lltstorl ta rcsortuai.

u:o;#fienturui s&rt resate anterior, ",",ffi;#%:HiffiilftT'H.*if;"1'u,n I:rdt, rezr:tti A:rO. An-g*t,,

I;:JlA:l<nzlc' circulari rlsuciti in spiraltr cu llpentro reso uri din sirmir. sccliune b ,.. (x;lozlFJ,
(t2)

d.G oentrrr rcsorturi cilindrice. ilAccastus()poatosr:ricrnti simplu

I) = nFl,
irr rerortululli J) rlilmclrrrl lncdiual spiralci, cm, irvcm
o corr$tuntf ctrc dopintlc numai tlc /i qi o. l)acf, d csttr

( t3) diamctrul

l' .o,a@tlrtlo,

condonhr'r ;;Ati. 'iiffi; ,.n ,.

ff,ji":,T1',',",j"f;:l;.1'l'xi.ii!lli:fi1,1i... *:HJ: f,|lf*i,:,l,,ilfi.T;1ii.tffi,#Ftx.Ti*XHli,,i,S,i,t*nl,iilfiitlt - nfflIt, 'ulllli"':,.".111'ill$

$??l'$Jri["TTlf;J,t'r,Pri;frt[?l"i]lJJi:_'^lrcarocir.curtruncurcnt *t""ffi ::;1m.uprfirur"i:""iff Jffi1

firfi,ffi ,,j',tfi#tili,$"*ntf "*t$f il]i{ri{irr,r;,nl

,t*.vTfrifr;,

Valorilt:lrri r tl Dontrur dc otcl pentru difcrite valori ale l u i o srnt datu rrc r*rrt,lrl .u o'n"ii,?ltutt

ln morncnttrl in cirro illtorvinc : Aritclt:<ltl cotnprcsiuut: sttt tcn'siunc y irtul'tcr iiri tk: Iottit; \'oln ilv('|it t" -,.,rf:!. 1. Dacir varicm forla :tT ' AF - A:F'"L"

>J-

'

variazit'toate cu Al' astfcl cl J, Jr, .,., J,


5 500 0, 0741 060 0,0.t0 0, 0,0821 0,0?e o ,0 7 1 0 ,0 7 { l 0 ,0 7 3 1 ,0 7 0 0 ,0 27 | o,o2q I o,ott) o ,o6e I 0,068 I 0,065

:A/:+ a>l'" - c n c

luem iltr"rr, valori pcntru C, D, I si G ii d;;t B;"J*;'".rirlr, resortului rcoleagi iar


d' latura pitratului sccgiunii,"avcm

ln care c c dat in kg/cmr. ,- Acestc ecuafii, agadar nc permit si. carcuri.m rcsorturilc necesare unui condensator de o capaiitate anfmitl,-mcnit t".t. L-r* liort maxim dat. fi.cutedin it.*l ."" i".ii""i . Pentruresortulrilc daci

trP:<,r'?.AJX *:*nj
CCr

I : r,--1-' ri d;ti de

B ' :1,4 B

pistonul;stc--ti11f dc doulL in Astfel, dacl avem nu co-ndensator c-are unuiadin re,uri egalelucrind pe u*ot'", tJl"i'i"'t ql:":^"1tl"rr.t:tca relalia

tl
tt' ==0,88d,
ll gl d.Iiind volurnul slrmci resortului echivalent cu secfiune circulari.. . Slrma cu -sccfiunc pi"tratir" va irnpun"-pri" ;;;;;; rcsort cu mult tml geu; carc fiind complect cu circa25o/o

"li1l,'"'ili""iiLi."i"i"t'i' c- l |l c1 ' l l c:tl


c : ctlz.
mai sus Prin relatia

"

Totusi, cfortut admisibil. r, d.esec.fiune pi.trati, poate ll luat corisiderabilmai mare",_l^:lt._1_r^::".t*i decit pentru resorturi d.c secgrune rotund,i., S cconorniade otel pentru resorturi iotunae nu -* ,1it "Je rnarc cit pare h prlnra impresie,date dc formulelede mai ;.. "ste -"" '' Cagul, mai multor rcsortwrilucfind,sitnuh,an, . DacL mai multe resorturi lucroaztr direct asupra pistonului ,;ri ;;;J;;;lil ,j3i.torir" forto date de "*",.ita I:, : fotzlCr,Fr:JuzlCr,..., Fotla rezultanti = i,^,, JazlC,.

rerortul flcut rli' strmf, ."Jfiil1""f.".*#-fi fu"

mailungdecit

CaPacitatca C a lichide din tuburi sau butelii. coloanel'or

".$:fi n' '*"' i:''"\ltil.1l"'*""",,xi1liif ::f'1Hj'iSi,J;',is h - E}lV,


' c ..=v l It,

c :8 1 h ,

F:X 4

:J "D

;:.

I)aclt inscnrnllm capacitatca rczultantit cu C, avcnr

,.u rh, n r,, n ft rn hr 1.{'riu, ;i;;d;r-;;;;;ii'ii;:itu'ucorrrcr ,irrrrrrut,rl''11,,'lll il 'l:|t..,,::..1i:lli:'1.r.orrrlt1i,, c, li.i"",i'r,i',i,i'l,i, "iiir",ii:ii

ili.ii;'Tiiii,ii'ii.,,li,,,l,l;Xt$,fiLl?,1 'j.',,'i u_pistourrlui;nscnrr'trr,r,_fiu gnrcrf du ,.nro l,ii.irl, t"

pisr.,ulul ii,,-.[",]*,i"",ri,1';,il-i,i;l'ii":'

tl c ..=l c t * tl c t * ... + 1 1 c , . l fic c[ tlc acr:r:u;r li,:i,-fl,,':1",*..1.:tl;,.{"ll.ruill 1cso11rril.stnr

( ir llir 'r t . r t ' . . r r.r l r ,l r.r i t 'l|' z -rl tl l ttl h ' " d k ' l ' ' I nr' . dl -

dc Vour rkrliri cocficicntr.rl incr(ic I cantitatca


L : )l , <,t2: P;gcr!,

di' r(,sp".:tiv, 'r'i"''''ii"".. 1x'rr'!i, t" ;"i:"'.'i."'ili",1'; i;::'l';l"l;:,!l;;:llr"r''"


a : Etdrlr lr

,....., lr , , . i

/ i- , r . s l c l o ,,Ii r.rr.rrIrrI r,rl ;rs l i r.i l rLl o tL i rl metal u.l ui !

in care P : .Llg, g {iind acccltrralia gralitaliei. Oblincm astfcl L( t Lii<U) . h Ecuirtia rtccasta dit lelatia rlintre presiunca sonon.totricecart' lrtt t".rz I asupra unci nasc ;i curcntul i creat di rni;carc, masa {iind prcslr1rrr..,l'' gat:i riid dc un piston carc s( ni$ci'Lintr-un cilindru cu sccliunct (') ( ) r' r 1'I de masi 1i pi st onul ci 't or f i pr i|it , ' , a o i) r cr t i( ' sonici. Considcralia convenlionalit a unui pistou atalat la o rlas.'! itr( rrrrrrr.rr scopul tlc a da un in(elcs poz.itiv cantitirlilol o 9i ?. asupra cit'ot'rt :' 1rt'' sonomotrice. Astfcl daci o forli. lucrt'irzi ,lir" I supiunc ci-rlucrcazl Drc-siunca unci mase, ircbuie sii presupunem ci. ca lucreazit prinlr'rrrr 1ri'l"rr irsupra de ilimensiuni alese arbitrar, cu scopul de a alrillui un inlelcs ctttr'ttlttlttt t O coloanL dc lichid cu hlngimca I va avc:r rtu coeficicrlt tlc ittlt ti' '"rrr' '

t : Ei4t,
rlirr <l;rciL cste groslnlca pcrctilor ri
o e :rd h -' ' ^ ' rrslfr:l ci-L ' lr d 1 ' :c rfE r:rtrL l | E tL

4 :t:iEt:rtd.hllErc ti c __ 2,5vlr2lE( : 1,Z5aDIlEre, rrnrk: l) cstc diametrul gi or secliunea tevii. ('apacitatea totaltr a tubr.rlui plin dc lichid, finlnd seama de compre"". sibilila(r.itlichidului ,i dc flasriciraiea metalului, ,; il-

L - .iIlS^,
i coloiLtr' itt ' trr' in care 1 tstc dcnsitatealichidrrlui,in kgicm3,/-- lungiurea gi <o secliunca interioari a levii, in cm2Pttditanld. Sub denumirta 'Je perditactlritour lnlclcgc or-icr' .fi"rrl' r'' sau scurgere ile lichid prin mici dcsciidcri sau oricc altir pierdc'rc tl, , rtr' trl datoriti presiunii. Curentul care se pierdc sub prcsiunc PIin mici deschidtli (st| f,rrrlx)r lional cu difcrcnla de presiunc. Notind cu .S un cocficient pt' cart'-l vont numi cocficicutttl d' 1ur'lr tanfi, vom avea krgea gcncralir

c : z", l+ 1g)l fla Lr \ r' )J LL


I'cntru tuburile dc lier gi api Er : 100E aproxirnativ, astfel cI

8oel ^E \ (lum termenul D/gOeeste ln pra^ctici. mic comparativ cu unitatea, t,ttl,'nrconsidera scriin'd :1.7;;,t il#&;tru leavaia rigidiL, C E, valoarea D \ li' ='(' "l'

c:_!y(r +

p'l

. i .- .5n
Cu uniti-r{ik'alcsc, 'S la {i misurat iu crtrsikil s 5i sc poalt r''r|l rL I i dimensiunilc sint inversul aceloraalc fricliunii. Fiind vorba de un tult lung alc cirui lt'girtuli nu sint pcrlutr', r'orrr outea privi uitrdcrta totalii dc lit;hid prin scurgeli ca uuilornl (lislril)rril;i ile-a hingrrl iubului: in acst caz coeficlentulde pcrditantir, clatorit sctrlgc rilor prin lnchcicturi poate fi clcfinit Pc unitate de lungime :t tttlrtrltri. IiXI::lI PL(tL I ,lttorili nuii fltiti circtrlttr. Si crnrsitlt titrt tttt crrtdttrsitlot C,rbrcilalttr
f o l n r ; r l d i l t t r - o p l l tc.- Lci l cr r l r r ti t t'l a sl i l r - r Ii xr r l i l r r r tti tl g i tti l , ( i l n '( r l l l r \t"r r i r t'i

-b ;/'

r,:r(ir,, r'\t( lrrcslunc:r \()noll1otricolir rur motnt.lti. tlirl, yt a rrtlczlr rn:rsr,i ,4/, r'oul rrvr.rrlc rrri {i;rfini lcir rii It,.t rfi rr r l rr. , r l' r r ; r t . r . r 'rr.,ttrc n l rrl r' ttn r, , il<lr ilt Llz'ldt ,

corp rt. ,n"ii ir liniit;ii,,,i;.:;;,'d,;'; ."r" 1ri,..,.r,,,, 1,,tle c,crirr, ',.',,,1,:::,1,p;,:,.'l]],.i-l:t:fl'ti r,,,rrn,rl,i ,lii.,.ii,'r rni;c:-n.ii. 1u.

Irrrlit. l-urn s-t \.;r/_uf-capacitatca cstc o caractcristiclL carc <Icpinde rI. cl a s lic it lt r ' . I nc r t i a c s tt. r, p ro p ri e trrrt. .,,.,. , t" pi i ,,i ..' ,t,, i ri ,,.,, ,,, mi yar" . stt (:(msid(:ri'rm un

in figura 7.
() tl i [r' r' cr r {i r lt ' pt csit t t t r '/ t / t . ' r . t r , r t , . 1r t t t t r |, , r r o r lr 'pl. r r . r r "l'' /r, r | |l, r '. . r 1 1'rit r lr o lr l r r 'r ' l. r "lr r 'r ir r lit r r l'r r l l i cl ri < l l l , tr' 1t t |z|t t lr t li t lt 'r 'olt t t r t r t l l. rh' forttti rl i ci ci lr r 1x, zi{iir ir r r lir , t l r pt r t t lr lr i. r I r r lr r r r l, r t llr r i, i. r r l. r I r l. l, r lr lr r , r ir r 'l , r 'r r 1'r . r|li'r i I l i i r' O " r r |r . r l, r ! . r 1r li, r 1', r l, r 1'1, rr,r I r r , r r lr r r , 't t r l ).r,,r /, l,

ll

lr,,

( 14)

ull(hr,4 cslr..r)r'r, rl*nllt depinzlnrl rrnlrrirl, rlintcrrsiunilt: natura pliLcii qi iti rL' rtrxlul lrr lirrr. rrr oilto fi:xntltla pr,rifcrir,.ltcntrtt volumui deplasat'ar.cm _ _\Jl t(xr). D . 2r\ -r,.rtlr .' J o0

ii

de Abtc presiunii,E - coeficieintul elasticitate ptigii Si:q:9:ii"""pt^i"1i, "I


,l f

ctrc t este o constantf, depinzind dc modul de {i-xa19al pllcii 9i dc. dispistonului ca:c. ar produce.acccagideplasarc 8 ca 5i iii"'o, i"pot"t^ pentru aceea$icurst /; Prm dellruIle avem circulari

8: O,f : o/\ o(:)d:, -J


0

Fig. 7. - Condensator s()nic cu memblantr clastict.

r o:o,/o:l
C :

a
J

( o:) d:

yig I :

/Qf,II,

(xlr)z, atunci expresia se simplificl in


ll

s : ,2.[rd" : o[ raz. di
_ (erma Forma suprafefei deformate va fi ln general definitl de o relalie de

rr h cazul in care presiunilc sint aplicatc Pc plail Printr-ull piston dt' <oin jurul centrului plircii, avem C = Aaz' lllrll
I II III IV

.rtrrJr+ dr-u+
|.--'---''1
L.

F-;_--l

v : lo(r),
O(r) fiind) o funcfie de :, astfel ci'

fig, 8. - Vodurilc de solicitarc pi r6czarc a pltrcilor cldsticc.

t:o7(o1,ya".

(15)

Ftru cazuriilustrate in figura 8.


I n 0 ,0 1 7 r ':0 ,3 3 h - 0 ,2 2
II

tabloul urmltor valorile constantelor ?, gi co: Qu/Oslnt (lat(: pcntrlt

J
(
I

Prin definilie C : Dii. Dac[ vom lnlocui I qi ] prin valorile ,Ior, ob.. lrncr4.

Iu
0 ,0 7 0 ,2 5 0 ,{3 l s( 't)

rv
0, 17 0 , {0 |- }d l i 'r

0, 07 0, {6 0, 2E

c :,4a,\ o(:)d:.
J

Dacd. presiunea lucrcazl numai pc o porliunc a suprafetci plitcii, lingi {cntru, precum dc cxemplu in c:rzul cind prcsiuncacstc aplicatiLprintr-un piston dc o scctiune o, ccurLlia(14) devin6 J:AI;"Aak' iar variafia de volum d8 estc volumul dcscris de pistonul cu sccfiuuc nlioi <,r. Accst volun cstc I :/@ qi obiincrn

.Placl agczattt lilnr gi prcsiune uniform (listribuitit. la conccntrrtlt c(ntru asuprir , Plucll incnstratllrigid gi prr:siuno de rozlua, ltr I !lnc[ libor npzall qi prcsirtnrconc(.ntratit centnl pc lln corc
mrrl rlc cfori ln nt,'lul iu cll' putru crrzrttiirr fi

'batru cazuri sint: Placlt incastratlt rigi<l qi prcsirrnc uniform distribuitit,

C -- }lh , ' Aot'.

(t 6 )

' ;o ,u !., o1a.0,2r {-,o,.. o,l l {j rr(-;i ),",


I

('

2r, \ ,; .tr,l-3i'

In acr,stcuz, li;nrlsr, diafro$mt lucrcaz[ cr un l.csort iar for.nrrrlr (16) I po;rt('{i comp nrttr,cu ucccirglbltll l)0lltfll r:rrPrtcilul,';r lluui Ir,Nort. I)rrplt Inoria t'ltrsii(illliii plllciIrI r.iI('rrl uro ir\1,||tl Ar, t,t. l tl ttLll l'.tt,

f,tr crt lllnd prorlunm lol||llt rruprR pl[,|], tlt(:)r,rtrr rhrlll prltt Inut'lrr durtir'lltllllr plltr'll,rr r'lrnrluro;l nr,Ilu i r'fllot |ltru errrul'l ,,, O1(r) (, ' l)r, tDs(r) 1 .. 1,1,1r. * -

tixtrMl't,(it. tt
I u.arliu *nt'i l'ldai t itaulurc. Iric dlll mirsr unui clcmcnt al plircii la o distantiuI rh: cuttlru. l:ortrL rlatoritll incrfici accstei mase ar fi tl.F : (d3yldtz)dM,
diLt d lll .t :-r-t 2, t * 6. r : vszt/2 -]:L & =P d:,

c A l>I To l' t : l'

I v

lll'Il(ll'ltl,B cAPAfll'jtTlI, INHITII]|, l'ltl(illtjNll SONITX IN CURENTII

$l rrEnDrTANl'Dl

unde 7 este densitatea plicii, in kg/cms, g : acceleralia datoritir gravitatiei, li P : greutatea pldcli de raza r. Am gnsit lnsl y :/<D(z), ast{el ci. z este independent dc timp

d'] : o(") dr . '


Jt2 dtz Ast{el obtinem

:'::tk:3{'":::Ki;i#r{,ii!I",,{,"p::;tr:K;{':#:::i: va Ii ,'"".1"d" a" volum <latoritl curentului


: 'a t;ai'
h : 8 1 c,

ap:3_. 9'{ o1"ya" g dtz


tl'

P r :3.-44[oG\dz :.n . ' d 2 J ' s d/! s ,l ,rJ


Daci. insemnlm cu .Pr greutatea echivalenti. presupusirconccntrati la contrul plicii, ;i care ar produce aceeagiforli de ircrlie F la cursa 1f, arnem Pr:@. P.

r:-|lrar.
Drc[ d :Isin(al f O), avem h : - (Ilac\cos(a'+ $ : (Ilaclsin(a/ l- o - r/?)' va fi irtfel *aximrrl valorii presiunii sonomotricc H : IlaC moment vom avea tu: H sin(at-f O - n/2) : Il sin(al 'f t!)' 1 ]:iif*^931t.'.: <[ar ttn' ff.';,fie rr*"I+ p*i"iai ca 9i curcntuldin condcnsatot' al riic dccit aceia curcntul"it.1i1?.' ii'ri ,i'.itii.ii rcPr(rzcrltit I Li,"ii' figti" b, rur* on. vcctoroA - r l)cntru a :Q-*17. -ptit''iitt"t", *, c[ prcsiuncasonor.n9jr.r,c, t:,[:

comparind cu:t1ti,,FYrilfi: o, eif,),avem aceasta


Ajungem, prin urmare, la concluzia ci. o placi ribratoare poate fi con-de grosime qi densitate ca ;i placa suprafa!f, siderattr ca-un piston de aceeaEi solicitat de un'dilpozitiv cu reson O1, dati dc foimula O/O:torlpiston fictiv cu o capacitate C : lQq, sau C : .4o2, dupi. caz. -a"L 'placl vibreazS. in direcga' cl l;-";oi m"i *-t.i'p*iop*" normaltr suprafelei ei, punctele situite p-e cercuri-concentrice avlnd Ei$cili cgale; sc ruai presupune cI nu existi. vibratii ln directia radiall. Pentru frecvcn{ele intrebuinlate obiEnuit, aceastl presupunere este legitimI; dar pentru frecvenle foarte ridicate se petrec alte fenomene 9i alte -datit vi-bratii au lo6. Pentru scopuri practice, analiza mai sus este suficient de riiuroasi; iar pentru ca-zulcbndcnsatorilor in care se intrebuinleazS.pl[ci circulirc in loc d6 rcsorturi, formulclc obtinutc slnt utile.

iil'iffitii
iitii

bil;";jr sEnomotricc,'.1 invt'tesc $i cun ar fi lcg^fi ca iii .i"r t l;f:f:**: *i "l*3:"l,o,li,;,{{ virmorncnt ln "/r.'Lif ox4 ox iri'i'ii"i";ililo ln po'*to'i roprczintlt ficcnru

J d r o$Poct lv

EXEIICIT'II
1. A sc clsi capacitatcir<ltrtoritltcxprttlsirtniiuttei sft:rc tlc tlitnltrtru d il si frosim(: r, iocfi.:idntul de olasti(:ilrttc mctalrrlui din carr' crto flcutI *d,rlqliro. itciit, tiina liy Solulia: ( untti cilinrltu rk' lttnglmoI 2, A srrlrilsi oinrtcilntcu thtioritlt trxp.ttlrittlrii I filtttl irclrl*, tL'- tlrrttll r'rrtir'flr',' .Srr/r/rit (:- l, rlirrtttr,ltu si ",rtu,i,t[,' i 0,il1\, -{t,.,rlt(lilr'lrir.)(l

r - . - - . r simtrolic r r \ . / 'l'- . fi,.J"ili,li'Jti."'lt- I/aC, putomscriohr mod "i, m r wr r i^. (I/) " r/2 Il vnctorul .stot:tt ln rtrmn lildlcl c[ ,': . 1iriiil,ii rirnboltcro

I ctr ohtlnom rlml)ollco JaC' 0curlldl ilinaamUtop[rtl A16

'* FI - lrCll'
r!! fr'llll \otlolllr'' l ttl rll ntltlIlr'{ -- lll nrlr (rr n/l ir {vlrttr lrrtll

y;i }"s:'t r5,rl;i,{,.ffil;i#i5,-{ilH#"'"Hir; 4:r


(Il : jaCH.

trcld, I)at'lt irvom trgczirtqin scric r^ntr-o contlrrt.iiL: fric{iunc,capacitirtc,

Iiftcl. conbinal tl Jriclirutii, cu.lxrcitdlii, iu,rlir,i Si .ltuiiI,tttlti


: 1sil)cr(litantir,sct'icrrr Hr: lll, Hr- - jllaC, H".- jLaI, H.t .IlS.

itr.lr-o

(r),

I'rcsiune:t sonomotrice intre extremitl]ile tubului va fi

( H) :H L+H '+H '+I{4:( R +1/s ) I!j ( La- l l c a) l . .r.iA. - D,asrama ro. zec"o n ;".

( 5)

l.iF, 9. - lteprezentarcn 'rcctoriali. a presiunii so_ , nrcc ir a curentului sonic.

t o r i a l d a u l l u i ci r cu i t

2t1(1.-+)I _l

(n*l*),
va vedea cL vectorul Il este rezultant4 unui vector (R + l/S)/,

,ol nll$ottlf;."rluinJa

ccuafia care leagr'curcntul cu prcsiunea sonomotrice

:L diagramade vectori,ie vede'ci l"lou."a Trasind!,i nom"rlii a tui fiva ii

11 r unrrialt vector(La --1lC1)1,-inavans fati ai t cu'i1Z.

fl avcm'8: ct;r;:;fi'

Dtplasamentrl solrc cstc totrlearrn, in f..ji

;i'*:"l3nli,i"i
(1) : jaA'

cu prcsiunea ^- --^^:-.sonoqotrics

H:rv(FT1iryTT';=lefi
vectorul l[/ va {i ln avans fa}[ de vectorul.f cu unghiul r.!dat de ecua]ia La _ tlCa

Rer,alia xnryccurenr, itttrt . liie rlo inerfie; daci. curentul *r;to'uior!{rii{*ea sonomotrice' I coeficientul i:Isin(ar*O), ovcm h : Ld;ldt : Ilaci. puncm II : LJo, or-"
h:Hsin(at*O*r/Z). prin urmarc, ci- prcsiuncasonomotricc cste de {orml --,-,_,9".r"d*, t#ili112 ln avans clecurent; fali

rsv:_n+Vs

Vedem ci {:o clnd LCaz:t. Aceasti condilie corespunde cu o stare de rezonantl intre capaclrare

Llaros(at * e), h:Llasn(arlOtr'll).

Itfril

putem scnl lntreuuin,tr'nd deci

sinu_

[unea sonomotrice,datoriti iezistenfei de frictiune, esie ln la'2,i. turalra, cu cttd presiunea.sonomotricc, datoriti. unei reactanlc, difcrl ln fazi'cu -de tatl curent. . .Treb-uienotat c6. rcactanta poatc fi considcrati car s(, producc numai 'lner.fie, punlnd Lt: llCq2 gi considerlndcapacitatcacri o incrfic ncrd.,Ast{el reactanta totali ar fi mai simphi scristr consirlcrlnd, uumli
. lL t4)a .

Lantitatea. -.tl!a y9m numi-o reactanli; ea arc aceleagi La dinrcnca $i coeficientul. frictiune, dar diferi ile fricfiunc prin aceeacl de

;r"i,iii,ii+il,"jl',ii"l.?J?r::if; ff?:""s i";,*;,,:ll,u:: ninusoidarf, ;" il.,fi;"#;;:iTii rnf;rzr ri :lTl:.J.:.:1,:i;i;


.t,_,slt. i l ,. n| ,
Itt fl zi1 r rr r tttr,trlrrl,

qo \rctorul carc ronr^,i._rx"u do rec_torul cnr" t"pr"rinil nJ f. ""!t -^.mcric Pudttanld. Puditanld. Dlcil curcirirrl c-stcdc_. forml sinusoirlali, deoarece avem :,11.,"111.1

\2) tl$::,,:fr,t pif L'Ls rcprL'zcltara prin. p.nn- prolecpa -"-"'-"'!v pe OX a vCctorului'I/ 'l:I,"i,*::To^lli?"^,".,s. ;l%.f'" l"n'"zentati.ir.i proieclia rnui cu Lat Si in avanscu lrTilrir

(H) : jIzI,

O incrlie poate fi consideratilca o capacitatcncgrtivir <lirtiL dc Ct-llIraz. ln acclaqi. rnrxl putcm privi cocficicntuldc fi.it:liunc crLo incr{it. sinrR pul tlllnt" ca o.crpacit:rtesirn"bolictt; exemplu,rirloirrt,aincrlir:i dc ;lj, (! puntru

o rozistunfl R tr fi

il;i,'r:;"rf.,;

Frirliunt, l)t,flllu friclirrnc irvon, do ilsr,rncn(lit,

(3)

lJfcr'.tul.th, punc hr,purnlcl t rlzintcnfr,, incrlii, caprrcililli pcrtlittnlu qi .u lrll' t lll lqo(l rut$lo{., ln dccrl,criz,, rlg1.[. irsr,rlirittnr prin Il, ,5',/,, (.', rlif,rritclo14lorl lo nronIl! pllfrllol (llflr lll TVom

., _ l r.t) j . ntn.

(,r)

ll

rs{,,- '(- .-lltl---.


'5 I l/ /(

fiind inerlia (serie) pentru unitatca dc lungime a liniei qi C capacitatea rralel) pentru unitatea de lungime a liniei. Acca.statlctcrminl ecuatia difcrcnfiali cu derivatc parliale

fi,

gi condigia de rezonanlir va fi

-"rll::i'\"',i'illlil,'ll#*"t" ( l i ) : (:R +:ti s )I + 1[,r> r \


e Z L :8 tl c.

rczistcttlr', ircr'1ii, r:I1,ilt:ititli percriia:rle 5i .r :r7c) r


'r I

azk :r ' -"r ;;' azh *;


Solrrjia accstei ecuatii, binecunoscuti. in acusticl, este

h _ 9t@_utl + ?z? +ot),


care 9, ;i e, sint furrctii arbitrarc ;i

,4
{ + -JlS
'

u : t 11[ Le

JPc-l;tu [lE;l';;'3'HHl";::
)rt

Rt

,.

(1): (rs +:r/RX{ a j@zc (rla)ztlL)8. _ sonomotrice runctii nresiunea sint generale, avem Ji"tttriL;lyil[l:au
r\:Ri, h ,:A 4 )\i d t, h :L .d ildt, h1:;ls, Itr presiunea sonomotrice int:

un punct 1:1r*1"*1"*..., f ffind suma geometricir vectorilor rcprezentlnd a Ir, \, I" etc. Analog oblinem formula lrntru 1

ln acelagimod pentru ciiferiJicurenli concentralila

litcza sunetului in mediul conlinut dc linic. Corespuuzi.tor condiliilor la cirpctele liniei, apar o scrie dc r.rndelongirle, circ strirbat linia. qi se rc'ilectr-rintrc cipctc,la orice perturbaJit' Lsi intr-un punct oarccare al liniei. llai rnulte detalii pentru liniih: slnt datc in capitolul V. Ltttru nutqttic, Lucru mccanic efcctnat dc un curent sonic se rroatr' prccum urmcaza: Fic dl miEcarca unci scc{iuni transversale de lichidl lntr-o conductlL lir <ointr-un intcrval dc timp df. Lucrul efectuat prin deplasarca intrc douir puncte sub o presirrnc sonomotrice /4, ar fi dlt, : h,odx : h,o(dxld.t\cJl , deoarecc dl/dl rcprezintl vitcza instantancc in lcavi. (o' d'r/d/ i' fcl ciL avcrn:

atrtt i*'i[ * ;;iliil"ii'ii;*':Ti'ifl"

care rrictiune, tevii' are capa-

dlr : Li(lr, rr' : {lial.


* DaciL /r' qi i sint funcfiuni sinusoidalc dc formi . h .. Ilsin(nl -F tt),
f

h :l rr+h +h " |-tto , h : Ri + (tlc)\id, + L. dildt ils + curentulnecesar intr-o te1vi, in carefricfiunc,ca !i _"Plg.S, il pcrdiiinlr rtrtl"l.i"l".ii"r saulntr_unpunctcomun, ".,o""l|tt;tn"ttt"

t ==lsin(al 1. rf),

lf ., HI\ sin(rrr {1)sin(rrl r}r)<U, 4 { cl In connidr:rafic

, : s/,+ c. dhld', (rttt\t* + ntn. +

'l

rungi poare.n 11$11,,fi,.-r::'*''?:^;:$:i.I-'lrli.:gl,:" rrrr;tirnir,coeii"n"ou.iif'lX"jiliil:r .f""ri6, a,qi.fii',iiii i.tiili:iiilill"jlji:nff J.lrff,lflfiiii;


ohrl t

rln(a/{- tlil)rin(ar g!) .- (t/f)icor({r - {u) - r:os(2al {r * {r)1, -F *

w * (Itllzlt(t
lllmt

/n)tor({1-. {r)

t "

oirl l '

rtr,

0 l *.,,t) h t'

,l r,

"t -" (t/2d[iln(zd, {r .t-Qr) - rln(lrl6 | tr 1* r ) l l , rl${lrut, hrtto crln

lnrnultind accitstl cxpresic ct (llZ)HI,


V r . r k ' r r tr lir r ltr.r,i rs l i l()nlllll r.;l lrrcrrtl L mr.rliupc sccunrlilln tirlpul unei l x.r'i ( , it ( lr . ( ' s t ( !

gisim {ormula datir mai sus

w : (t IL\HLI + (t lz)Hzlz. |
A nu sc inmulti valorile simbolce ale lui I/ 9i 1 pentru a oblinelucrul {ormir' formir,simbolici din cauzi ci lucrul nu poatc fi exprimat -in aceastZr puterea meianicir nu cste o funclie periodicir crui *",ti" pc secundl sau

\ irghiul 'i, ;i / in iigrrra t z .

*"

(ll tlz)ros(,J1,{,). (l) tsll urrglrirrl rlintrr, vcctorii rcprczcrrtincl .I/ pe

ll'

rri$. ll. ' l)ccalnjnl i,,rre 'rr.ctorrrpr.sirttrii sorrii.crti


r "f( 11'r l s oni (

Ii i A .

(i |l c rhrl t{ . rul ri ,l (' p"l (:r..

fac to'

I)co:rrccr: putcnl sct'ic

tr rl2 =.. lyz). (rlvtl _-H . r,.t, (H "r


lI' . -- H& - 1,.r coso.

d:"':fi i.l. ll'l'"'fJ# ##;;f ;":,:]y';;'l'i;;ilT:r',1'T:::i":.:".,:;r;#:'


curentulcu 1' ;i prcsiunea sonomotricc cu (tI) "r?:t:r(tifi".' il.,i:l'ezcnt'.m tV : (tlz)HI cos<u (r/z;arr. :
Astfcl, nurnai (ornponentaH, producc lucr.u, d rrr p r(,u u ((. l u cru, cealaltil componcnti . ceal atti ff" , esto o component:'r fiirii lUCfU. ln p ,Cn cr r l n r r to m cn,i ,,,, ilr il I putcm spu.Dc lucrul cstcprotlui. cr-L ^i ll.9i"j'ltl nutnai rlc vcctorii .11 /, carc siit parakili ;i sau ii fazi.
l , ' i g . 1 3 . - - l ) t,su r r r p n 1 1 .p ,;1 ,7 p g 1 .r ,,1 .,1 I n , s r " r ' ( : s o ' r i ,:i // i,r c.,r n DU ( .,r r r -rL li"i ( , r t s ' I cn ( 1 , /t". ";r

dc pro<Jusul 'ccto'ilorca.c '.",rr"rl;',t."|"'olll,"1l"]1.,#:;'ili,^":tc{reprcz'eDtat

Astfcl, prcsiunilc carc t'ezultir intr-un curcnt cc striLbatc int:rtii sntt nici-un lucru pcntru a intrclint' mi;ititi, nJ produc lucru sau,nu -c('r prcsiuni rlifcri in {:rzit cu 90" {a!iL de urrcnt' d"orrr".J a."st.,
Iintrgiu 'fotttt.litlti t tt'nr'itol>ucifuili'Lucntl inmagrzinat itrlr-o citP:ttitittr' poatc fi calcLrliLtcu fclrntttlt

r ' - [r ,;.1 ,
J
l('lntia tlintttl curcnt ;i prcsiuncirsonomotricccsttr arn girsit (:i-r

l, , I Ii.tr, tJ
H,

i<ll ' Ctlh. Substiluintl,ob(incnt

l)aciL lvcm:

(il) _ r{t + jqz,

lucrul ar- fi. .sumrlucrului corcspunzf,tor cclor doul pcrcchi dc vt.r.lori g111." t^ " "" ';;i sint ptralcli inl r. r'i, luumc 11, .1, ;i 4 ;i t--

(r) : rt + irl,,

tv ,. (tl2)IrJl (tlzlnrIz. +
Acr:strr.zultlt sc Doar(. ,:l]ti:1,. alr nrorl;obst,rvintl tlncll7 c?1, i:tl" (fig. l{) cstc un unglri'lrbitrlr $r irl,r,rn: II, ,/(('r(4rI y), ,/, //rrin(tlt1.t;, 1, / r'or7, /, /sirry, olrl l lrr irr
ror,tlr ruii r{rr(rlr| ,,) | rlrrl rlrf(O 1

('\ hdh = (:h\z t. A, J tlt' lllnrl o constnntil Intcgrlrrc 0, obfittttntpur sitttpltr zcto cin(l , 9i cll t)lr,ll prcsuputt|tn lut:rulr!||[u lt _ chtll. {/ vllottrr'nlnltxlntl n lrtl {/ ve fi tlrr[ i rrrtl n hrntlir' In'rkxlk'tt, u.-t'lltll,.

Entg|.rt tiut.ticd, nnri iurrlii, ln rtctllpl u mod oblinem lucrul acumulat Inlr-o i|lcrti(., prin fornrrrlrL

, l, -- curcttlrtl In [/c, /r l.'ir': ,l , ctrrcntul in intrc I iii c' - nrcsiunca sonomotricc 'AtLurci.cortsidcrindcircuitclc D'l( li fil.t.scPartt care Prin unnarc I:Iz(l-LCaz\,

tttrt'ntrtl itt 0rr'

I)ar am girsit r:h

\nw
h : r- dild,t.

' \H\ "= iLaI" $ ( '\ " iCaH


I, -: - l.Carl2, da1 1 : It $ 12'

Astftl ciL, printr-o metodi. similari.. cu aceea urmatl m"ai.sus,oblinern ;xrnlru maximul dc valoare a cncrgiei .ir"ti;"; i;;;;;;"io ,.,..-o ,rr.r1,.,

u : LI2lz.
ln c.elc c.(.. rrneazi. dlrn exemple rle aplicare a u , teoriei launele cazuri -----dc curcnti sonici in circuite, care conlin sepaiat ."p;taeltli i;"rt,ii. Exemplul I A sc gisi perioada dc rczonanjl a unci pllci circulare vibratoare. Coeficientul de inertie al oistonului .,,a fl I : pr/gffi, iar capacitatea

undc
Iz:

Il$ - I'Ca2\, Ir:

- LCa2l(t - I'C ar\

(H): j---!:^

I.

f1' /" dt'r'irr Se vede ci" In poate li mat marc ca I ;i cr't H -;i.curtntii l. estc lndeprnlta' i daci condilii de rezonantir I:Cat = ,..,,, i it'cnt DccAtunci..r.,.,,,

ifi;il;li;H

;; ;il;ilt.1*"c

R i' circuitu[
(1,) ': iCaH'

c:1f)(),.

(I1) : (R t jl'a)I,,

LCa2 : l, tgtl c'a 2m.,undc cste rr rj," .,iur.fiiiorp" 5"liiji. eiira ."""iirul

de . Condilia de rezonanli pentru.o ast_fel placi. i"stc

o liin<l

| =- J,C6rl)ar fl
l'1 -

PtA!)f,Lfi.

soi

: !,49
3Qr t,

o,.

Astfel cl { (IJ : (- I-Caz iRCalIr, (1) : (l - I-Caz iltcolt"' a LCaz: t, condi{iapcntru rezonanll,avcm Dac'a (t\ - iRCaI2, \I,l: - jllRC,l"

PQtlQ,

.[Pa\lg :

a: VstT ,.= Op)VEsn-;,


undc 1 cstc gl.r.utatr'ir spccifici a pliicii Iiternplul II

(H) ... l- i(l{'a) ) LlRr:)t' Astfcl cir aritmctit:

|ncond'cicrc i,i;"';l,i.l"r!:lli,"l'i,ii,,lT:i','ji",Ji,':i#T,.H: r,; r"s;i"


rlcnsirtorr/ u cliruicirlracil:rti. t,ste (..

Sll prr.supuncn ci a\.(.r

penirtt ir lntlcit dt: Cu ft suficicntdc mic ai {rccvcnfasrrficicnt lnaltll ta unitatca fafd de (Ia/R)r, oltlinem I'tttl lR' H ' LI lC R Ii xmtftrul' I I I

rr -,1rr:Q\lfT(iiff.

Irig.

15, . Circuit 6onic.

lrloc(f|8.16)un.8.|ncfotorproduc|ndculcnlsdnicintrrntlttclt.lr'gn|r' (t"

fii'Jlll il"fili,ffl": *lfif [i""i'*l.lrluHf xl#l'"T $::i:i tl irn b rr. ',


Sfi,prcru;runerrr.clrcuitut clt clto lnr.hirprlntr_un up1rlt cu mll(nrr. ,.('nrxlivtl. | /, ul cnnrrc't'frt'rrnt r't,r1rr' rrc drfhirr(u ,i r'iii. ,nr" 1..l'u l r.nl ^l g[rl r.rrrcnll prmirrnr,u pl rortorrrirl rkr,, 'lltorllll

c"ptcrtli]i incrlii 9i r'(''i'$tcnl(' ll:-JIL-il dorI tuburl contlntnd

}f' rctonotr{co , 'I[TlpA f! n1*lu,nor crfl]ntll,lr ;l 11'urrtrcum , Arnrlr,orrlllftt I l'r' ")' irt) - l,tt", I l'.r,'l'r('rr

t.l (lar astfcl incil


\r r l

#
=t

I" ' r ' s a l Cr '

I r _ R2 + tz \l

id L " ja L ' -

.trrr rL fi i ncir lzit lllit t t t t l't 't t t sonic, 1i f it '( ', ',i;,ii,:;i'tliit

t-rt;;i

(1 ):(1 ,)+(1 ,) ,
, R" + iaL" '

t',iu*fti"j"tl i;ii';'f;i;;i

'"

,i t"utti*,1"i ,cliival,irt''. A st'13isiltrcsiutrta,sottotrxrItitc ,i" !",t.rtto,. si r's.tlrit ptntiu intil'it"o rlislxrziti'rrlrri

rit-cunoultcDr a" ti"t..SiL.pr.stt;'rr'''trr i'tl.|::11:1..,1,.11

r r it t loua lilpr t cit ir t r : f oLt r t r t t ir

unde R:n,-L
I

RljaL' R- r_r, I -r L" --

tt!)ou 1rs: r . R! ja L

fricliunc. Avcm ccualiilc: (I'!)' (1")-, iaCI!, (1,) : iaC,Hr' H - Ht : R11, (1) -= (1r) F

cl
5

=c2
lH

rt
Rl

t,

tt

J,.
R2

Fig, 16.- Circuft sonic crr Icmentc cofip{xrentc.

Aritmetic

Astfel glsim

' ln notalic sinrlrclicir, putcm scric

R I iaL fi pcntru a gisi varorile numt lrice alc vectorilor 1, gi .f, avem

61 :7 G''t iaL')(&+ iaL',)

,r, .- ii(c
-: I f

+ c') 19-9rl-tl - jac'nl "n

-FfTT;NT --Ftr+an-'

If o., , . lRaci * iG I c, ! rrca2cifl. (rrCtR)2I .-

pentru valoarea numerici. a lui jy', avem

,:,|/ry+g#
,, ^"" ,:::::;:.r7, un seneratora, avind un

tle Curcntul -1 arc o astfcl dc componcntr'rin fazi cu If tlatir H Ra2Ci I + (dcrR)g putcrcir ntccanicir absorbitit vtt fi
W :-'

H I'

l lzuzCill

2[ $ (aC,R)'z]

tTH ,*r=r.ru,ill."."*;' T# "::'it*.ffi ';ixl lrutrt


^" -.__._s1.q.,",op,
I'ig. 17. * Circuit sonic cu rezi3tonfl,

Slu inlocuind pc I/ prin valoarca sit at'itnrcticir iu funclic dc 'l l!(:lR -,_.

w...

zl(C + Ct)t | (d(.'(:r/t)ri

Valoart'irfricfirrnii pcntru carc ptller('a mccanicl ]y' cstc tln Intximtttlt acu'n tlittll tlc

(lll^l/t

0,

O lproapcdc gcncrator. *,r.,r*-::l-1"]tl!" densetor cr ordinar, mentinut o._presiunc ry"lg fi considcrattr un con_ Io consiantl "gail.i;lrr"siononmc.li,. pnnclprll,dcssupro dedesubtul rn*iffl'Ffd.iiin rllrporltiyrt. rncllunrllrxrrbin<l9i .prdrlunli orrerglc, cxcrrrptu tut.,--ilndc rrn iiiui,l,,i,.,r rrLrnrnr Ini(:

.tr,",,','F;lt* l"-i*tirlilryi#.ti"ililgi,tistilt iil: "l[]xT.';Jili;

/r "(" t C,\lu{t('t' obllncm vnlonrc, l)ncll /l nrc rtcctrtlt /t!;'--. w !r" " {ac(c I cr)
ll* -' I

Ii tnrflrr nunlio 51 r,.rr, u(.nl (:it illr.nl ltn gr,n(,ritlt)r 1>u r:onstlntl dintr-un piston osci,_.. ."p lill{rr ir ch'lti cu'si'rcst(' rlc 6 ,.'r, s.i:{irrnr,tr pislonului dc i lm., iar numir.rul (l('rotirlii Si l)r' Ininul 9-55. Irrcsrrprtrrrur capacitateaC este o butelie de r.11, o1t:l ..turrri volurn rlc 2oo0i.rrr:,, ii,.f,i,fiifi" ri,.i,oi"1"iiii"j avind un .rx,fitir.rrt <1. cl;rsticitatc dc 2o0()ok,{h,,ri;';i.,gliii;; "pa, eieciut tichidului in
t ' otttlttt lt., u r,cm'

lll, tt fi Coeficientultlt' flic{iunc, din crrpitolrtl

e 1 , u r e ,r , L sq , _ 1 [7 o,o I n : -r0d7 1557 ,,. roo-x-ti,o ttio:<o;o I .n . * vwlLt


dc Astfel incit cocficicntr,rl fricfiuutr

,r ,r .

R: f t

I
<ox l0o

t7 ,91 l0('x 0,282

:0,14kgs/cm5 :

1,3?' l0roNs/m6,

,t I -:raa:3

-2ntr - tr# X l0O X -i :

= t00 rad/s, 1 500cmc/s: 1,5. t0-3mr/s, mE/N,

cc nt' tli
I-

0,14x108x0,282 :

t7,9

2280 cm : 22,8 m.

C == VIE : 5 00OlZ0000 : 0,25 cm5/kg : $,Zj . l0-l Ct: Z 000lZO :0,1. 000

llaximul puterii nrccaniccla generator va corespundc cu o rczistenri.

Vedem c5. un astfi'l de tub este prea lung pentru a se lntrebuinta in ,cL. ast{cl cli va {i necesar de a lua un tub de drametru mal mlc' Dacit luirm un tub de diametru 0,32 cm, oblinem Q : (144)' (0,32)' : 0,08cm2. Viteza a:300/0,08:3 750cm/s, 2",:2 650cm/s, i t : 1 0 5 ,

R=(+cl

0 ,2 s ,1 +0
t00 y 0,2-5 o, t x

aCC,

0 ,1 4 k g s/cm5 :

1,37. 1010 s/mt N

,-

pulelca va fi ll. -I .500,X 0,1

4x1 0 0 x0 ,25(0,2s+0,1)

: 6 440kg.cm : 0,85CP :625,3 W

1 4 x 1 0 0 x0 , 0 8 : 107cm : 1,07 m. 'ert" llsrrotnt difcrcnta marc ln rezistenll produsircle o miciL schim' ln dianrctrullcvii cc formcaziaparatuldc fricfiune'

l'Lesiunca sonomotrice va fi 11 l.'r uu ll,_ to0 ( 0 e 5Fo J) f '*


.

9,1 , t/ o.t rz or, -t(o25J:52k s / c m' z : 5 ' t ' 1 0 6 P a .


X I 500/2 : 39 000

apalclr_rn_ in cai'dc5,r, astfJl.i i..t"*i-i'"- prt"r""i^ l:1.j.::/:_ilo lr cos(J)-_ gcfr('Ialor " .putcrcr. 0,85/5,1 0,167. va
Vtloarca numericir a lui 1, gi 1, sc poate gi.si, de asemenea.
i\\'em:

Iist.c intcresant de a nota ci produsul HIIZ:52

Iz:aCH:100

x 0,25 x 52:1300cm3/s, : 302 cm3/s.

It - d(:fll{t+(ctc,R)i:100 x 0,1x sz1frllroo x o,r-x o,rE.,:


Sl plt.supuncrncir fric{iunca cstc rcpr.czcllttrtiL un tuL rlc 0,6 dc crn ,. (llillll{' tt tnt(.nol; s(,ctiun(.ir va fi <o ._ cne, - @14)x 0,6r 0,282 llluxirnul vitczci vir fi u -. I l<,t , SttZlD,ZtZ | 07()crn/s .. - t0,? nvd vitr,zl t,flr:acrv* fl 1i |/ur tol1ly I 7t0 cr||/n 7,.10 [r/r, a

c A l ,t 1 .o i . t, t.

l:lrliltN'ft IN c(rNl)1,('t'li t,tjNGI

l)lrr r:cutliih (t) qi (2) obfinctttprin rlilcrlnllcrc: (,osll.v lJsinps), d(I/)ll:'- .-. ja(/-) .(f . ' !'.(.4 d(I)/tlr - , ja(C) . (If ) : 4(,4,cospr -- B, sin prr), ja(L) .(Ilols, ii -lr =. ja(C) . (Il)olp. lnclt pcntru r -0, -A:

I)ncl (If) qi (/) sint valorilc lui (.1/) qi (.f) ia rcccptor, lungincrL corrIiind l, obfincm:

l";i:Tii:.ffi",f,1"1,*.**.'*ilin_rn: .,-(11) + j(4 f(Z)Tletsin s{::iii!iiq''*.:,?rff csrc nccesar line dca ,""."-i" (/I) cospr F,, lii,,T,1li,l'i,liljl li.i,,.{ii
schiurb[m {orma

K,lf *1"k":g,."*i", \; :i** '{::3:i:,:,,,::: :i'rl1ffi fil;:"ffnff,n


"r".-ii'".,"pT;rdii
,,

(I/),.,=(.f/u) pl - illo'1 Q1Q siniLt, cos [ (I) ==(1u) cospl- j(do)YaCE sinFl,

( 3)
(4)

';fi l ",l""t conal ;i ii' J"i'i;ft ift'f l i i"lilll".,.1t' '."(i];,Ttff"tt"' it" r"'giiimbolic" sau vcctorial' i llT"t'Artl. valorilc alc prcsrunii sonornotricc

(Io): (1)cos { ;14 l/-1cyg-finpl. Fl

,nll*11':,.iliff ":,1 f,';f t*#""T': "liiili'd,?:1"",t:'.,lii""ffiftTi'#;:l i


d(I1): (t).lid;"- ja(r),Ldx, { astfclci d.(Il)ldx Rg) : jar,(r), I
DacL considcri.ra Q,):L_jRla.

dau solutiacomplctiL problcmci. Cana Accstcccurlii sint gcncralc,;i (I) qi (C) slnt sirnbolicc, astfcl c[ p : al/@=-' 1q va fi o crntitntc,
simbolicl.

d(1) : (I1)sdr i d(I)/dr:s(H)

Dac[ ,lt pi S slnt foartc rnici, sau clnd a cste foarte,mare,valorilc lui j (C) sint practic cgalc cu I, qi C, tcrmcnii complccqi . Illa $ j .,Sl'r nd ncglijabili. Sub accstcconditii formulclc gcncralc(3) qi (4) dcvin:

ja(H)Cdx,

t 1aC(H).

(no) : (E) cospl{ j(I) [tie shpl, (1,) : (I) cos g j(//) r(eiT sinpI. ptl
clt dc timp. Sc rr:dc, rkr tst'rncnba, pcntru v:rlori alc lui I datc de:
p"t ,2l.ll., (l/') : (I{), (10) . (/), (I{,) 9i (/o) siut iunctii irrmonicct1c l.

o ci miparcaurmcaztr lcgcsinusoidnll faflr dc variabila t:lt atlt J

(c ) : c - j. s la .
<t(r)ldr: ja(c) .(H).
.(L) .(r). : d,(r)ldr2 &2(C)

occstc ccualiidcvin: d(.Q/ds: jae) .e),


Difcrcnliind accstcccualii, obfincnr d,(tl)/drr - a"(C).(Ll .(H),

Lungimca I dltl tlc p]r

(t) (1) -= I r sirrpr {- R, cos1l.r:. e,) (l(tcnnirra. qqnstantelc,. consi<L,rilnr pittrrl r.o rhrt.lci sit c .,..,.. l9]rtr.t1ir ut fic pr,,*l,rn,,,i *i,u,,,ii ir,1",, ,:i,ri:iii"i _l*.gcncra.tor' (ff.) yi (/u),r.r,spcciiv, yf ro nccttt cuplll. ';i Alrrrrr,i nvr.rn r, lx,nlt'rl 0, D, ( ),,,1i lt, (/),,.

I)irciL puncmacump ._-,I/E) .6, oblincm dr(I1)/dx! t -f "(H) _. o, dz(I)ldxz p,(1)- . {). + Solulia gcncrtlt'L accstorccuafii ostc: l (1/).-l siup.r: Bcospr;, -l-

ilo 2n cstc trtttgimoa uttdii. Accstc t:oncluzii,totugi, slnt oxactc numai lntruclt I{a sau 5'/a nr ylllnbilc fnllt rle L 9i C. gcncrnlc 5i ({) pot Ii scrise, rsomcnct, (.1) l'ormulrrlc dc

cos UhtVOi" Urtv(!:i ptf j(r)[@sinl, .1. (r,)yfli ,, (f /p.icospr j(r) [jtJsin pl.

..1g)Ktri, g-c, d-(0f8, n-tr.llt$, do-(re)ffii


,' 1 .* l uu r {- Jd r, .lto rln * Jo j corr .1", rln r, ll

(s)
(6)

dc uscmcnca lr ". Ao I -. Jio c, cor sin i,.r;corc*jiedn c . Vom numi can r.rllt(' h Si i .bftsiurrc L{'rrr rruru cantitirlile $t | fnsiunc lrolo\iryaQ (7) (8)

olel. Pcntru 't am utilc.Daci R 9i S slnt ncglijabile, g,ns!!;misusFl Cttiw formule '
Viteza de wtild a esteegali cu lungimea de uq'll impirtitr'r prin orda unei pulsafii, astfel lnclt:

Pentru apll 0.-?to, pentru ulciul rnincrnl tf :9o

(l/1)0) Si 'l ^r

gi cuferrt poforli_ rentru a schirnba formulclc ,,xprirnaic ii li ,., fi i.11ii,r; ti (n) in ei (1) Jt-ave:n d:dt si..inlocuim prin (If)/@ gi r; prin (r)/je. i onal.

constant' Vre zrr,-a"i 'n - pl 9i p.: o\re, de asemenea, --V\EE == pt:ri' u -' : t, :),1(zula) alp,tt : \Yre -Vpi^r' p': alv:?z/}.' : Ztctr'f dlt'

Sc _vcde neglijind pc R 9i S, c[, O.t *; : H l/e- 9i curentul onal i : t VL. lrlporli


valorii energiei

'profor]ionali

devine ''

pltrati,a dubluluienergiei p66t;i;fr;,&:,J pe curenturproporlionalesteegal cu redlcina pitrate a a"U,if"i cm, pe ctnd *r,"r'jei ci nettce
uaxime pe cm. Deoarece avem ,o : r"cosa * jla sin c, vedeq cl, ln cazul cird l 9i z; slnt ln fazI, h3 +,po :' hz sosz a ;zsing c f i2 cosza hz sinzq : * fuz 1t. I 4 su'na energiilor-maxime cinetici. gi potenfiali pe unitate ,^ runglme este ^ ce ,..-1"1{te-:e constant5 de_a lungul conductei. cornod a intrebuinfa aceste nofiuni de curent qi presrune propor_ .. -Esje

Vedem, prin urmare. ce in acest caz presiunea proporfionali este egali. cu_rEdlcina

. -S3Jo-"1 .potenfiale cstcHzCl2 qi maximulva-lorii'ener$ei .fi"ti.;-;;

pe unitatea de lungime a conductei

prat"o;

ii Yiteza de undi variazi phi la un punct oarecar-e presiunca. lcm-cu

iiii:

arlttnd valorile.luiriii_t q:,{T ctrct mineral, u este :i,T; ""1"tbu U sfirgitul cnrlii. Peritni -uleiul 91"j:::,Pt"tti:1t-ti ;rd a;t
Alticarca teoiei ptesiunibr 9i cwenlitor Proporlional'i Eremph l

000cm/s.

ci , r. Si. DresuDunem avem o conductl lungl (fig. 18) cu -un condensatot liniei 5i.f d1 zu- frr, hz presiunilepropor$6naiela capetele ir ii"*t"'."pft. " puncte. Ire ko-': nt cedetea prcsunrr proproiortionali la aciste puncte. Fie ho-', lh, caoe tii urentii orooortionali la aceste
inali: ii piimul condensatoi 9i hg - rr din al doilea.
18. - Conduci[ lungl condeng&toare soDrce la cspct.

r#l-

fionali ln cazurilein .ut. ,pirute, p.".o* fiTi;_ -in1r" gate pe.cdnducte. Astfel, ecrialiile_ cire dau "ooa"n."1o".J'ril;;;ri, presiunea ,.Uli, *l"nt li sonomotrice, glsite in capitolui IV, anume: (I) : jacV, pot fi scrise (H) : jaLr, t,

.Fre Il

do:ir

sus. Aven atuncr: ir : ir coso f jft, sin ct, sin 11: focosa f jti2 c, ti ia:i, astfel lnclt: ro:icosu{jl4sincr. ,\ : hcos 0.* ji sin o,
: o( ca mal

t4 V6 : iacn V6lG, @)V6: lartl@11@ye_1. VfeT


Daci notlm ,1':VOi6, ob]inein:

sint Daci capacitlfilc condensatoarelor Cr ti Cr jaCr(ho - ht), {i: jaCr(hs-h), {io


-

,ri : jach,
h : jalrlti,

(e)
(10)

ho*h, -illlaCrlio,

h, -li - j(Slaceli

Sc vede ctr acesteasint idcnticc cu formulelcordinarc, f liind inlocuit prin {rr $i ill prin /r.

I_nt"rri pcntru a transformaIormulelc exprimatc in i 9i I in formule ^_.,,_ ordrnarc,estesuficientdc a lnlocui numai lr pr'in 0ff si-i nrin .f. Dac[ R 9t S stnt neglijabilesau dac[ f.;";"; inahtr, avem ",,l;i;;rtc

q*veir..

r vlE * ulli, trtfnl Inctr* * ol/iillf,

Pentru unltrtcn rle lunglmo r cotrduct.,i.ntn gitrtit /, * .,./xo qi (: .-

'lo lrcosc stn * Jd a - i($la0)i, ({/o)cosol, } 4 (r!/cC)rlnr) +id(l - r|fc{lCsieino - (1/C1 t/C1) sino) jAsinc' -p rlnc i(coio$ (r|/cCr) , do-Jcotc + l(t - t(0/aCr)d) I ur*'clcrpocltltltocondontdtootclor ohsi'cgsic,hctt C " C1 C1 rl4t :'l' nd dopsrtd d'ttrl {/lc - (l - ccr)/dnr atl(r/l), /6 I 4. li rlttr

Dacii r kn tlu (l) nvem condifia .', +/(,C (cos -t)/sina- -ctg(ul1) _=ctgkr_ o astfclincit c : (,!la)tg(E- alz), 6 : _ a.f jtsin a,

Corrdilirt Irtuhit d[ l c . (rl/*) . cts(c/2)- ({la) ts(a_-u)lz.

II E xcmpkttr

(r)
qlZ\,

un prtrt'-t ca Si oresuDunem avcm o conducti lungi cu o iner-fieIa lingiL cayitrrl 'lirr intii cir inerfia eite a;czatL o"t".iti. "Si"il"*p*"t drcapla, ca in figure 19. -"i
,.,,.i ,,A r!i .tfr,rnl nl

lllnst Fis. 19.- conduclb


ut r,pus 6" ' , "r r , , , , i'.

h^ ;^
" "

b -

X5||
lxl-

n,

*:tib",::n.cstc .. Trcbuie rcamintit indcpliniti cind.l:1,12 attrc- rungrnea conducfei"[ jumltate di, i;rgi;;;t; cstc-^o_ und.d. Rezulti, pnl urmare, ci., daci. c sc anropie dc rc, este a" a%.ii,-pi"tr* a putea trebunta condensatosre mici.-d6_a in_ proie"t" condlir*ioli..i" urtf"t ., .i rre rezonanti ln opozifie, adici astfci ca ho:_i1 _,. ,j;: Lapacitatca cea mai mici__necesarliri practicii, . cind .cxista rczdnanti {n.opozi}ic, va fi aceca corcsDunzStoare. ;-:3'C ., .iil:,r". C _t!la. , Aceasta cste, d.c ascmenca,, capacitatea minimi. neccsari. clncl existi rczonanti dirccti. conform formulci'(l) ^" ^ cu e:"/t.-Trebuie notat c[, cu cit

,""d"?;"i;'"$ltj" I :'j:"lig"tl,niti, ycdem ,'aroarea c . cii , ou c' pc cindin condifia .capacitr.fii infinit;tnd ; ;";pil; t"JTt" ta,'ti.dilpi -(

hp:. _ h.

(z)

I'

lZ: J

presiuncaqi curcntul proporlionalc lrt tirpitlttl l'ic ft. si L. r-espt:ctir', ' pt'esiuneaii curentul proporlionale la capniul.ditt-tltciLplrr ttine., i""i ft iii -fi?'1dc ihertic 5i 14 p-rcsiuneaproporlionaltr ld st iltr1;r .o"ii.l"'ntul

hs*k:

jrlaZl, astfellncit:

volurnulresorturilor ra

iecarccapil, nriq!'iL!9!*t:hLi;ix;xl;;,''fi,Ht1-fiI,#;Hi|1f independcnt devalor'c i,*,il,r,i'i,-"ilii;ftiriii:Jf


ikff"',f,i ;.t
C : (,lla)tg(el2), a <z;fz
1^

''

.";il;:l'rXl:"

c rnaimici, cu atrt csteruairnare

ho': h cosa | 1i ('lml f sin c), io : icos cr* j(ft | j,!al:i) in e: i(cos a - ,|al sin r) -F jlt sina' Dacl iner{ia se.afli la stlnga ca in figura 20,
Fic, 20. - Co'rductitlrrnllt cr o inerlie Z l;r coPltltrl sprc gctlcrittoa.

: (r!la) (n - *lz), tg a > rf 2. ln formuhrgt'ncrall giLsittr rnai sus : i (cosr * ({/cCr) sinor) j4(t -- r}farC,C.) io + sin* _ (l/cr .+ tlc2l wla) cosdl. I)aciLsuprimirmconclcnsatorul ficlnd C, Ct: oo, avcm
hn

I'lsi', coso.+ jisina, ro: f cosc* j/asin a, 14-hr1'W hr -- /r, ='= /ro: 7,,tot,. -t- ji sinc * i{at (i cosa } jft sincr') q : ,L(cos - r!a/- sinc) f jr; (sincr{ rfaL coscc) 'lxr/, .= tg <D,oblincm io cosrll: ,Lcos(c -1-tl) { ji sin (c * tD).

punlnd

l,i"i-,li",ft .u".tlluflt.cbmPle
I)aclt ftccm c

gi punind +/aC, tgp, obfinenr liscosp. l sqs(q - p) -f j; si. (cr- p). : Cu accastllconditic nu *,pg"t. ovc.r,fts:,[, astfel cit nu c posibil dr: tr tir trui trc

h (cosa | $laC.) sin c) jl (sin c _ (r!/aCr) f cos cr)

f)irr iurirlogiir cu cxcmplul ppecctlcpt aiungcrn la cxcluzia cL o cortductlt {i bnltrrsuti'r nrin ineriil ln loc dc condcnsatoar." S;cvc<ti' imcdiirt ctr o t:ondrictir.balansatir cstc o lungimc dc conductlt, continc astfcl tlt: incrtii si caDacit:lti lncit sit litr cchivalcnttr ln ccca ctt

ci, ;;';;,:;ffi;;;;";;;i;iJ; ii'."i"iii't <lcIiLt:apcrclc cu o cirliductn ir curcn' t:u lrrrrginrc t'gu,lit ull m'ultiltu de lungimidc -somiundh im['dc
dat[. Lt oltu**tlu fin coiitluctl unilormlt' pcriodiiitatca S-tr iiririaqlm or:ur! cctll ln iarc rlotil iticrfii slnt a$czatch capctcle

nllnil'un ;fifi;

;; nunai r unul l

fq In.fte,zl). ,,

p, obfinctnho*,.111"n* n.

I'rcdrrnc*ln cnnlttrtl 4rncrrtot nr fl rrlr,r.rr crr ul 'ii,,' Irni rnrr.r,r[.r.lt r,,r, lrr Jrlttutr:u r.nccpt'rrtl, illr to! iirrlopnn,t,,ui ,.i,r,,,iti, i"il' ",'

tlf, al, - (lorrln{lll Irrrr{ll brlan.rll $r ltn'rllr, lu llFr'l "'

lh,untlto u iltt,r tr (ntr,ilgu(lrr..otl0 t'

l|r10

Itt!r'0It '

*ffi,,1i

il,t,,

f,rrlu ftx.d! |lCa; ohllrrenr unr:itlirr ccuafia rt ge neralir,

/ao 61st1sn r!a/.sinc) jt(l _ "* + {krt,,L1) slrra.l.(1, {_ tf arlcoscl, ,o : r (coso rlatg sin c) * ji sin c. Condifia dc balansare fi Zr : L",. l3 I. si
cosc - {cZsinc: cosc-r!aZsinc:_1. l,

Aceasttr ccutf,iccstL., asemenea, dc aplicabili la cazularltat h figura 23, C C carrl condensatorul cste lnlocuit cu o butelie de capacitate g ln caro h conductacste lnchisirdc un dop sau robinet la capitul opus teneratorului. ln acestcaz r:0 Si oblinem ho:hcosd, : fo : j6 (sinaf (cCl{,,)cosc) j}o (tgc + acl+), Avem prin urmare (10): jt|llro(tgc + aCN) : jfio (rl tS.. * aC), Ho:Iol@C*{tS"), IIo este,prin urmare,infinit dacl tgc : -aC/{gi este zerodaciro : rr/2. Eremplul IV
upunem cL avem un generator ln -4, figura 2{, dtnd un cutcttt generatorului gi f la un aparat receptor in B, valoarea presiunii la generator fiind IIo.
intrc ,1t.24, - Linie lung5, nocrotorul I Si consumatorul 3. At, A

(r)

(2) ln primul caz ho : 6 5i 'laL: (cosa l)/sinc : - tg(all) :tglt _ ulz), pontru valori de (a- a.l}l <flZ or >lr $i < 3nl2. ln aI doileacaz ho: - h qi (ulz), pentnr valorilecrlrr. QaLr: ctg

Exemptrwl III

pc o pa'in rtrdrrii-i,-.i-riiril.:Tt""t*t"

S{, presupunem ci avem

c ln paralel un generator cu ..4


h. lJ

rig. 22. * Generator sonic ce al.imcnteaz! o liaie lunet inchise la caplt. '

Putem gisi valorile lui II for B 9i puterea disponibili. Avem: : /16 /r cas6p 1; .itrr, ro : i cosc * jl sinc. a ln cazul specialtr _care aparatnl receptordin B nu are nici inertic nicl itate, Il gi 1 vor fi totdeaunah fazl 9i obtinem aritmetic fi : (f cosot)r rf, (Il sinc)2. -| ""' Dac[ If' este valoarealui H la oprirea aparatului receptor, f -0, r rll/' sino, I/' Io/qr sind. Este evident c[ H' estetotdeaunamai mare declt ]I; dar dacl Io csto va lcrabil mai mare declt l coso, presiuneasonomotrice varia lbarto la generatorclnd sc va opri aparatul receptor. Eremllu lumetic

Averq: Izo: 77 s.t, * jd sinc, ir: icosq f jl sinor,

ti2: astfel inclt :

iocho,

t'o: dr + ds: d cosc* j[ sinc + j(dclq)ho: : rtosc * ji sinc { j(aC cosa_ (ccl{)d sinc _ ltlplh : d(cosc (cclr|l)sinc) f ji(sinr * (aCi{) cosc).
i,
|rlg- 21. MrntlJ rorrkr oolllv|!lnrt c rl,l rllI lifu. I

Flo
f 500 cm3,

Avornatuncl

cosc 0,44, sino 0,9, 3J, tt I00 kg/cnl '1,-

o:

63"50',

. 6r/r 4 * fFni-t:ilnTr{|FrJ5ir - 3 rt?cm?r r,157 16-1 i( , l

I r..erll . 10.rr.

Prcsiuucn r{lurtqottlg| h goucrttor viL li chld aiaratul rcr.r'irloL ur(c dcconeciat; gi .1Ho =- [(tl c,rscr;, [(7iin-ffi : 45,6kd/cr1,

4,47 . t1o pa, ci.d aparatul rcccl.,t,r.v,r fi in functiunc. Trcbuir, .lrsr.rv*t ci. prcsiunca sonomotrrcc rcccptor cstc mai mult dccit dnblul acclcia tlc la gcnerator. la Mclodd graJicd pentru, calculat utren!,ii in contluctc \ Prin. irttrebuiirlarea .metod.ei g#ige mai jos; putcm a1unge ,-arltatc ftrrtr calcule aritmetice la- valor e di{eritclor cantititi iarc trebuie determinatc,in problemeleprivitoarc-la curenfii fluizi in conductc: metoda totusi este apllcabili. numai daci frictiunea gi pcrditanla se pot neglija. ' t,Fie,/r'" si i^ presiuneasi curcntul proporlrorrale la generator;i h, i va_ -["i".,i

Sit construiru acurrt tliograma tigurii 25 yrtt',ctrmurnrcazh' ri flcind urt uuglti a cu orizontalir OX, l'r' Sc tragc drcirptrt, 01 in linir O1 se intcrccptcazh o porliune OHr: h. Se trage o dreapttr f/tll perpendicular[ pc 01. Sc unegte11cu 1 qi pe dreapta lll ca diamctru se tragc un cerc; deoarcct ' unghiul .F/ff.l, este drept, circumferinla va trece prin punctul I{, Prin fl1 se trage orizontala F{f6 gi ordonata IIrHo tnind circumfcrbrlu, rcspectiv la punctcle 1o gi Ho. Vom avea atunci vectorii (io) 9i (ft) dali de: (io) : olo, (ko): ofio.

ll$";l:--,j': slnt oelazatc.

ci"iitali la r'cceptor. v;*i;;

;;;"1

i- care qi i h

Pentru a dor.cdi accasta si. considerim punctelc B, C la catc ortlo'i{atcle prin "F/1qi 1o taic linia OX gi fie *1 pu'nctul de intcrsec{ie al orclo. natci prin C cu circumft'rin{i. Dreapta I/,,.ul !'stc paralclir cu OX, astfel cir figura lft. ollJo estc un ifrcptun- tri. Analog, Iigura HJAH csle un dreptunghi.
{ Avem pLin urmaLc

Putem scrie atunci

t. ,

AI : HHr:

l1r.

si, "#l;I*l?;, leagiracesiecantitlli sint: esteln cvadraturi. Ecualiiie generale care (h)": (h) cosc{ ji sincr, ,(l); :; a j(ft) sinc, "o." Substituindpentru (Z), oblinem: . (k)o: nt cosc{ j (i sinc { la,cosa) | (1) . . (r). : i cosoc h, si,'a1 j i1 sinc j. cantitatea Ztrllt,I fiind lungimea con, , i"."9.1t".ecuatii,a reprezinH ductertl I lungimeade undi. Si punem: : hzl)'. tgp : & (La - rlCa), (2)

,&1.riind componerta (i), rui

at i

h,, componenta care

Pc dc .altit patte, avcm in mod sirnbolic:

: (rroo) oB -f jBHo,

l tl "

dur
..BHo - OI sina f 1't coscr I sina f /r2coscr. Substituirxl accstc r:alori, oblincm: (OIII\ =' hacosoc i (i sinx { ft, cosct), $ cc, prin 1:r'intaclin for:urulclc(t) stabilitc mai sus, dit Ito: OHo.

ln ,ou,l
IrtA. 25. - l{ctoda grafic5, p cu l nr cal crrl ul cor(.nl i l or so n ir:i i n corrrl rrctc l rrrrgi .

== rrvcm(O1o) OC + iCIo, ^,',nin5;


CIo. - BI\: : OIIr sincr lr sinc

0C' . - Ol'cosq.- 1.ll sinq.'= ri cosq,- h sinot,

cl cl1 rvcnr

oi

._. _ l_,

. ()/n) ,.. y'coscr /t, sin* I jll sina, -

/. gi {; fiinrliu.r'lirr cirPir.irrrrcrr Prrxlrrc .rrlr. rli[,.r'r.rr{af'zr iri r'r'ccr)t(,r.. rk. ;i Lonslnntt,vcrl(' o ( nlil..1f,, rirllofi,'.'ul, vtloirr.r.ir l)(,utlrr .i ilpil fiinrl ilrrltt (lF ll)r{rxlttlnli\' (l]* 7.,t, fiirtdnlln lrcllr||rli rrrlrrrJtei. r,r ('

io - ()ll0. , O'll ," ' Co|rnnr,'pltnr'tdld /"' ' ,llt rl,.lmporlnrrlll, {lt't,utfcr nv('lll llnplrlrtlAOI

1l 0l * Al l ol * hol i ,

( ot t t I r r r r ir r r.| r rr.,r' ,1 ,r (rr rr' l i rl i rr (2 ), ,1 ,,1 ,, rrrr r;rr.r, tl vr.rl r.nrr.i : ti ..l ()l ":

' l'. t t t t tl>lt t t t t r t t t t t t t l( ) ( Xl kt t lll/ : ; ' ( S c ccrt' it st ' llr '{iot t ir . ) I r onll) ii cat e : r l'so: r t l'r 'Z'5( lI I r ( c\ t l) ! ir t ut ct t t ult t i sr r nic <lt : 'l( |o 1t r ' l )i strrttt:Ltran sm isici est c t lc 35nr ii , <. 6, 'l : 42' rrri rrrrl , a< l i ci 6, 7 pe sccundir , ast lL'l cit t : Zi la pornpiL nu trcbuie sit iutrciro:L 50 kg/t;ttt" l)rcsiunca sonomotrice l Supra{ala secliunii conductei dc transmisie cstL' '') ' 2'85 ctttr' irsll' . =20. ci { . 7 x2,8j 2l '100cttt' Lrrngimca dc undit va fi f : 1 130/6,7 ':2l'1 m 3{ro Z;:lfL conductci I : 3 500 crn, avcrlr e i)"nlt""" lungimea 3 5OOl 2l40 0 . s9". >: (r"rt' I)rci [, cstc componcrlta Irri (/r') in luzr-rcu curcntttl Irr prlttp'"t 'rrrrr't {'stf rcccptor;l) |i i estc curcntrrl proporiionni, ir|crn PcDtrtl l)utor'l rrrr'( 11' : HJ lZ = 19 000 kg crn/s ' ' 1'86 li\\" S i -rprcslr llut r t 'nr r r r lt nghi. t lt 'iazl- LllLf ccePt of ( I r '. {. i. '. 1\ r 'r . t t t lt lt t t t r r

,i \l ,

I l( n)

tlll.t,

:lstl(.1 c.r.-401 (.sl, l|rrAIriul p.:rl {o]ruLrlt.i (2,;. \'r.rlL.rrr, rrrm:rrc, ci in priIl oonslr'c1ragr.lir:;-rrlir.t.r:{iir li'iilor O.l, Ol li t)A .t,.1,i,i,1,, ,rumar clc con_ sluntt,lc condrrctt,i;i rr,:rr.t^nja reccpt.rului,' iu.. lii:;" de valorilc lui , r, ?, ,o s l ? o . "i,i (lu ajutorul accstei diagrame, difcritelc problemc sc pot rczolr.a in_ Ir-rrrrrrrod foartc simplu, unelc din elc vor fi tiatatc acu,r,. Probletnq I presuDunem ne cstc dat.curentul r la rcccptor S:-L ci si cir lucrul dc efrrt-rratdi comp-oncnta a presrunrrsonomotricccarc r cstc in fazh <:rrz, ;i.r l)r(.supunem cunoastem,de asemcnca,rt:actanta c:r rcceptorului pi ulrghiul c. Avem dc.gisit p;esiuneasonomotriccla rcceptor, unghLuldc fazi il 1r: r'irlt lLccasta face cu curcntul, precurnqi prcsinrrca'sonotnotrrce, (.rrr(,ntul ;i rrnglriulde fazir la generator.

Ir:
<lin t:urt: ob!int'rrt ^r .

:3" IIl fi '- ':o1 1l z ' - ts k s /'c m : 11 10r 'l 'a


2 )< 19 000/.1-i.,, I 090 crr:lr: l,0g ' l0 rrllr'/s'

Apoi, pe bnia OZ (fig, 26) se iau scgmt,nrclc: OI -. i ;i OIIt .. hr. (lcntrul ccrcului diagrarncisc va giisi pe pcrllcncliculrriidrrs:r pc 11rI lrr rnijlocul acestui scsm;nt. rnijio-cul lui 1IrA, dar cunr ltu cunolstcm ..,Ccntrul va fi, se ascmcnea, lxrzili:rpunctului,4 pc linia Ol , trasi-rm locuI gcomctricrrl rrrijtocului' lui .lI,l-pcntru di{erite pozilii a1clui ,4. Bstc o tlr.captir paralcli'r oIl trcclndprin mijlocul p"rp"",ri.ur"i"ia'u.,iiiii-ir, "r.irt""ici'accrito. "rt" cu
-., - -lnl"r.".ti" a t ccrc ut ul. 'I rasind ccrcnl r:u ccnlrul .t si razir .t1, punctclc I{rll accstci linii cu pcrpcntliculara pc I{, / \.a (ia centrul .! 1i Io sc girsesc

',,r,

,,t"l11lTr"tl'ii

liniile ox'

oz si ol-' dtoatccc r'rn6;hirrrile si p z

i,"'?iii

i,' sitrt "mogt ttl ttt "' 't I)coart'cc lormltlcle gt'ncrale pctltrtt /l i /to pcsr / i, / r l -ti , ' I . l l) r ill \ . r l( , r il' l"l < .c rrri r,.sl c:tcr sr , . r , ; r r iir l, iL, , pullr r r inlocr r i .,,r' ," sl rttti zi l ,, r r c 11 . . i / I o ; i i. iu pr in I ll, ; i I ult ' : ) 'l'5 +' 1090/ 20 l n mod r : I t ccst l, pir ir . 'm 1ua: i1 ' 35, t '= 50' I rcs()tl :r ciltltl Itcactan,ta itt motorul pomPti (stL' .Pr(v'-r/-uti ptintr-tttr 'v'( cnpu,i l ate cs l( / . Avcm alr lnci t $9 - , r / r 'r ' lt'' \lt)2 " - iltl ' ltt I)coarcct: un6ihiul <lc faziL cste tlc'{5o, lvtur:

l-:lli:,t..ti .diagraura r0 lr /0 vir lr necL-siu. numai dc ir tna-rsurt sr:6rrrr:ntclc OII, OI{o Si OIo. .t" ,,, ::Hl,i:l"f1o1

ostc.complcri. I'crrtr.url ,t,i;r;i;;

l:^toi;t,.i',ri L.

cstt: unghiul dc faziLla rr:ccptoriar trnghiul rloo1 accla

l>roblenru I I Si! I)rcsrrpurnilnr;ir nc-irrn dilt canlititlilc i,r, IIr, d Si p. a t:<lnstr.ni .l)r.nlrrt .rliagrarnlr, cu rr:ulrrrl O si raz.ir(,1/,,sr: dcst:r.ico cir._ (trtn l "f r nl; r , s r . lr t r g I i n i i h . O .Y , OZ , r)I' r.rL rl u i i usOZ intcr'<r.ptcnzirOIIt .., I\.i1 /1, *r lr.agr: 6 lirrir. pur..1:1,1 ,.-l'r' .sc. (:u (r,\, t ir iu( l ( : ir ( . llln f(' ri n { :rrr p rrri c l u,ht. i l /,,. l 'rir r . / , , s l r lr t rr . ,' 1 1 ,.r .rrrl i r.rrl :rri i O .Y , ;rrr.:r,sl lr,;Li rrI r.r :,r.r. r . ;u | ;r Ii ni ;r (,tl l P r. I r l )l It{ t lt t 4. (,r' t r t t l r : ir r l; r l lrl rIi r1 7 1 r.rrrr, i .,r, l t;r.,r..rz ,i;rl trrrr.i 1l r. //,l l rl r rl i ,rrrrr.l rrr I'i slr ' , v ir l. r r l r . r rl rrrr.r r' ,i ,.i rr,,r,rr.r.,,l u i| r,10 l orrl c r.r.l .l .rl l r. 1,. 1,,rrr, .,,. ol rl i rr i rr r lr li, r t r r r r r ir r ri rrl .i

ii .uul I , st, ncgati\', avcm tgJ ;, 0,b{. astf,l cir P 35/54,5 . . -. 32".i6. (iapacitttc:Lncccsaritvir {i crns/kg" 1.: a tgpl,! , , 42 >'.0,64120 1,35 -.. rt nri/)i 1,37;< l0 ' (irnstntitrtl diagrirma(fig. 26) in modul I, Ittrlicrrlirr prrrltlcntit gitsim: ho ='' OIIo : 33' () I \t . 65, cu r.tu uughi dc f:rz-ir li i, o I 29"30'. oblincrn: I )irr :rccirslrr
II" 3 .3 l i g /r 'tttr '

A
/-

z/
... ).",
$," / , ''

ot ' tt1l . I r| .' a

a
t0 20 JO 10 tO h, i, ho, to 60

l,

,lin

2o :" (r5

cntr/s. | 3(X)

(,r rrri jI x r lc ir vlt t it r 'l( l; l: ilil( llll( ) : lll( ll) ( I I t 'I r l I | \ | t ' t lt r li Pt t lcr |r t ri l l rrrxftl .ttl ll' ( ll '' i Itrr,r,rri r t. A', t lll r r r ,il , r vlr r t ll' llt r r lxl l l l l l t//) r rr' , , t 'l'lt t '
.j .0rl l l l |'.1 l '||' ,l ,,l ,l ' ,,,, rr ,r tl lr lll

( i ' 1, rrl rrl l l r' rl rr rrl l t,L' r5 rr l ,,t l i W l l r,, ..,r,l |! t,l ,1, 11 Ir l ' r!rl i rrr!' ' ,t - t), l l I l l na' , | 1' 1,1

l l r ,tt,, h

rt

tt

liroart,n r,rlo 19000 - 18600, 400, ndicll o croarc rclativi dc 400i , /fq (XX) . (lr{)21sutr rircu Tln, cc(.irc(. cstc rk.stul dc satisficirtor. Sir.g.lsirrr tcum valofilc prcsiunii sonomotrice la gcnerator . "produce $i rcccptor .si curcntul lrr reccptor cind pompa funcfioneazil {ilril a ]ucru. G'enc_ r-ltorul prodrre(.lcclaii curcnt 10. In cazul considerit i,:0, iar cercul dlagramci (fig. 2?) va trecc prin punctul O. punctele H1, B coincid asemenea, -De cu U. Rezulti c[ dac5.traslm o orizontali prin O 9i pe aceastaluim O/o : do,obtincrn punctul ,Io pc circum{erintir. Atunci prin tlasarca ordonatei prin /o, care intilnegte OIl in ,4, obfinem punctul l. Circumferinta se poate trage acum pc OA a diametru, astfel c5. punctele I, Ho gi Il se pot oblinc imediat. Gisim astfcl i : OI : 66,5, h" : =- oHo : 39, h:OH:36,s. tJnghiul de fazL la rcccptor precum tlig, 27, - Clalculul gnfic al Drosiunilor d curentilor sonici cirrd reccpiorrrl IuIcfi la gcncrator estc de 90'; avcm mai ,, departc ffo : 39 kg/cm', 11 : 36,5kg/cmr, lion('az.i tu gol. I : 66,5 x 20 : 1330 crns/s. ' Este de interes a dctcrmina limita uutcrii mecanice disponibile la reacPtor. Trcbuic si gisim valoarea particulariL a lui ff1 la caic valoarea lui .{- lnceteazir dc a fi o cantitatc reilir. Uitindu-nc pe diagraurl, figura 2g. obscrvd.m c5. accasta corcspunde cazului cind punciele Ii, gi .I de"pe circumferintl coiucid. ln aceste condilii punctele ,{ gi II ,/ trebuie sir coincidir, de asemenea.Cercul plin urmare va {i astfel ca l\nia OZ sia iic tangentl, de asemenea,gi orizontala ,! dusi prin punctul comun llr,l va trebui sir taie circum{erinta in punctul 1r, Constructia pentru a gisi cercul este, prin urmare. urmi,toarea: Cu centrul O Si taza OIL:io se descrie arcul M.I1N; sc trag liniile OZ, OV, OX ca in cxemplcle precedente. '/ l i Apoi, din orice punct J de pe linia BC OZ se trage JK perpendicular pc OZ, tirind OZ ln K, Prin K se tragc vcrticala sralicd 1'!: ,?f - Detcrrri_rlorea a putcrtiKO' tlind orizontala prin J in 0'. Sc moximc poatc ri tranirniii'i"";iii". cc uncAtcOd, gi lie f, puirctrrlundc accastir OO', qi fie ft "negtc linie taic arcul if.IrN. Se trage orizontal . )e tragc 1r1 orizontal prin f,; apoi prrnctul de intersccti. al nccatsi

inl(rrscclic nl ei ctr circumfctinllt 'l\'ltgind ortlonatir pl'in / Punctul (1(r punctul J/. Accasta rczolvir cotrlplct problema 9i avcm: k:oll:57's' ho:oto:38' h:i:oI:50, fir :50 kg/cms, \raloarca limitl lJo:33 1*7"*z' I{':57'5 kg/crn!'

1:50X20:1000cm3/s' a lucrului este Prin urmare 'lV : HJlz: 50 x 1 000/2:2s 000 kg cm/s : 3'3 HP' cf, costD- l' Vcdem din {igurir ci }/o 9i -Io sint aproape in laziL' astlcl cunoscuti' Aceasta se colnlirme prin regula :24 600 kg cm/s' w : Hololz: 38 x I 3OOIZ

di{eri numai cu l,6oL de valoare gitsitir mai sus' aratiicit de mult sc simplificir calculul prin irrtrclrttirt' e."ti "-"-pi" i""lta"i eiJi"". Dacir se cere a se construi curbelc caractcristic(! Pt)nlrll

t:['fi:;'T

Pcntru o conductlt Conhurl,uniJorm .Ecuatiilcdifcrenfiale fost gllsitca ll: -incdrcalc. lichidului'-au de rri, tinind seama lner]la$I ""piiit"tt"

ffi#iilA;;";;Pt"',

indiqrcnsrtbilll' aproape devine. mctoda. d(f/dr : ia(c) ' (H)'

d(E)id* : ia(L) ' (I),

S5'consider5.macumoconducttravlndunnumS'rderamifica|iiuniftlrm numllrdato' ioit. i"-" fo"Sofui,ramificatii furnizind curcnli egali la un se datoregtenumai comprcrl' Variafia curentului I nu de reccptoarel ci qi unui <Iebit distribuit Pe unitatca dc lungiuro' l''lo lii ii.rriitrti debit 4. Avem atunci d(r) : ialc) ' (H) dr { qdr' (il) d(I)/dr " la(c)' (1/){ a'
pcn(l'rt prcsiunca sonolnotrlcc tl(Il)/dr - lrr(t) ' (l). tlin l)ifcrcnliirrrl(12) r;i srrbstittrind (ll), oblittcnt ja(/') ' [ia(c) ' (ID l.'/l rlu(//)/rltr .'i,r (/.) 'tl(/)/tlr (12)

Itit'littrtlrr pit'rdcrilcr punltttl 1i NrgtiJtrrrl ;i

- - *r ( r ) .

1 q . ( fl ) *i tq ( t.) .

( t3)

orizontale OZ dL punctull/. 1L. ' cv ^,h.{ so tflrgc ,frc v(trtical nrin /,;. "punctuldc intcrscclic ncortclvortl/lC I a1 ....,.. _:S:,|lj,gl, vcriical prin '" r:ulc o/'i[ cu Sc trngcilrcurnfcrlnIn prrnclr,L, prln I/,tI.

i;";i,,i';; li."'

' l,*twt' ( t,t) y -o ,t1il17,lr'1 'l,rql. ur(/r) dhr jltnrr Uttnrt,nlt,'r0u plrrrbrtttirlrm d(fi)/rlv, '(il)'ilitln|nr hrl(l ti' (ts)
1lr(/)/rlrr I ltt(l) .' it,

tl

Din (11), punlnd (IIl - z -l_ la&lp, _ z I jaqLlaTl : z + j . clac,


dtZld*zlFzZ:0. Solufia accsteiecuatii este . Astfel incit avem: (H):A Z: I coqrr f Bsinpr. gloc,

(r6)

coqr*{ I sinp*+i. (I):{coqr**Brsinp.t.

(fi,)

a u, rs3#1?-?l,fll"g*l^:,1*gltl1-gl acestcaplt, p.""t*, j :] .rgceptorut, rrcegr curentulla "to""i ci astfel


A -H -j .c l ac ,
Diferenfiind (lz) 9i (r8) considerind (rf qi (rz), obtinem: 9i d(Eldx : iat@ :p (_ .,{ sinpr { B coqrd d(I)ldt6: joc (H) + : p(_ Arsinp* e 1 B, cospr), punlndr:0, avem:

A,:r.

ugor minte. Atunci curentul din linic va Ii curcntul r.eccPtorulur-/ + q'J.' circ va da o Dresiunc sonomotrice in cuadratur[, egall cu aLl (I * qllzl' iar gcneratorul'va avea de furnizat un curent total egsl 9q I-t qllz.'l- qlp plus- curentul in cua&atur5. aClH datorit compresiunii lichidului' Atc:rstil iegull totugi este riguroasl numai dactr linia esie foarte scurt[ fa]ir rl'lrrrrgimea de und6.. rllt Transnrisia ile und,etn leso/tt ri ,nctdlice. In discutia condcns:rtoa tt' din capitolele Drecedente n-am considerat efectul inerliei resorturilor, ttr" cesare'pentru ; da elasticitatea necesatl. In cazurile in care frecvenla. r:slr' inaltl 3i in care elasticitatea este date de resorturi mctalicc, cstc cvitlt'ttl ci asenienea inerlii vor avea un efect material Putem considera un resort metalic ca o coloanl avind un colficirrtl de inerlie Z gi o capacitate C date pe unitate lungime. ln coloanele lichide coeficientul .L are valoarea 1/gO Si C valoarca O//r', unde v este sreutatea specificl a lichidului si E coeficientul lui de clas(iciintr" Dacl'D esti diametrui spirelor resortului, a cf,rui Sreutate-.p(:ttnitatc lttlt' resortul ca un tub de acest diametru rrtnpltlt sime este t, Dutem consi-dera iu o m.tetie bmogeni, avind un coeficient de elasticitate dat dc rc'lntia

E .Jl t: H :F IA
ti o greutatespecificl dati de

jaLI:
astlel c[

r:cp'
rc'soriulttiltr unde F este forla totall aplicatl pe resort,f - compresiunea -pe presiunea pistonul legat de resort $i Presupusa irvctt centimetri. If -j o suprafati de.set$uneO, ll:7.D214, seiliunea tubului fictiv ;i rJ - grcrt' tatea resortului pe unitate lungime. Putem apliia atunci la un astfel de resort toate formulelcglsite prntru transmisiasoriic[ ln coloanelelichide din conducte. Astfel, neglijind fricfiunea, o migcarealternativ6 aplicatl la un copltt cl rl resortului ciriull ln unde avlnd o vitezl u : U VIT, dar cunoaqtcm

fip: BaIE,

jaCHt q: Arrr: nra llT:C,

B:trVqe, B,: jE[et p ql$. tl, tvlA, B,11,8.1, obfinem **':T,::"'#:l ::tt3"li, j: 9r"::-'t,"fl*i ale cu generalorul',' curentla capitul
i*1e l'a"- r"..lt"i'"*""'"" (I/o) il-;;; - fi coqrl+ jlt {Lle siapt (qlac)(r _ costlJ)), a (.Io): .I coqrtf (s/s.) sind 4 j tfe1Lu coEJ. DacI pl esteloartemic, putmpune sinpl: g/ gi coql : I _ t.zplZ 9i avematunci:

ilr-4.
Rezultl ctr"

E:tl An ,
lllnd lungimea resortului, astfcl cl

(H;): H + jLr[4C N * klac)(v"t l4]l


sau

(ro) r I qt jve Hsr : + tE


(/o) I+qt+jactt. (Ho) H * jalt (r + q . tlz) : |

I'
I'

(te)

r.c-.J- .9 -94.. gtl E 8t


Pcntruun rccort dc lccliunc circulorl aveln A * E NDrld.G,

(201

considern gj-al.curontutul qr.,,reufrcf tmptrrtlr doul dirtribult cr fnptflt ln doul otril uniform )uu rmprrgt tn r,_!rtl.ege, qllT unriiir, t"miilfilii,*i..i",ii,: rltor tl ccrlrltl Jumltato ",1!1ft)],rt:31 Ari.r.rn rcurgtnou.ro rccontor. tn rccoptor. AccnntI"^.,..rr ., rilul]t'i,J'1irrr.

Putem,prin urmarc,

,r!u. -l -, ' rc* .,t nDr tl f$

(lrrr Ar(\rt{rle:r ,' rl) , (ilrNla\ ,.y,,, lrnrld'to fitC dt rrsitrtca matcrialului lt dln cirrc cstc fllcul. rcsortul, astf(,1 c,l 8nD? N2yn LC ._ , gd2l:4).

dL fiin<l cocficicntul tlc inertie al secfiunii dr 9i proporiional cu dr' I)rrr' / crtc plol.rot'{ional cu migcarca scctiunii d't ;i putcm punc dH:h(xd:;ll)Lo, & Iiind o constantl gi Io - coeficientul de inerlic a-l rcsortului, consitl't;rl ctr un corp rigid qi complect liber. Si iirscrinirir prinZ coeficientul de incrlie al unui rcsort clcfirtil prirr rclatia H:aIL:hlL, J fiind curcntul la distanla l, adicirla capftul libcr al rcsortrrlui, ;i l/ liunca sonomotrici (lati dc l)r(!-

tt, ,, |"

2DN lfn4i

,i |"ai;''

o : u i rf r.

zDN | 2ao'

lnlocrriutl t'i prin valoarea0,3g5E, unde E este cocficientul de elasti. <:ltrtc lougiturlinalirl matcrialului rcsortului, oblinem .:' a :0,t24 (atlDN) ViE1l,. .

/Vold.Cantitatea/gEffi este viteza sunetuluiin matcrial: pentru olel


otr cstc dc circa .5000 m/s. Astfcl, de cxemplu, pentru un resort in care d:lcm,D=l0cm, N - 10, I ==50 cm, vitczi undei va Ii z :0,124 (l x so/l 000) .5 000 : * 3 I m/s. Dac[ accst rcsort este supgs la o prcsiune periodicl dc 50 parioade pe - lccunrllt, lungimca dc undi. va fi I:31/50 * oi.Oj Ca alt cxcmplu si. lub.mun resort avind D : 3 cm, Nll : Z qi d :0,4. -. Avcm .4 { : o,l}4 (0,4132 . . s 000 : 3,78m/s. S[ Prcspunem ci. acest resort cste supus unei prcsiuni altcrnative de .\r'cm atunci

n ==\dH .

g:.Al:e\rdr:h::Lo, z tJ
o

ci, L : LolZ. Rezultir cL cfcctul maseircsortului cstc acclali ca clcctul a dollh corla ficcareavind iumitatea masciconcentral5. ccle douir capctc.Accnsltr
ie aplicl la rcsorturile cilindricc. Pcntru rcsorturi conice, o analizit analogir.df, propor{iiltr tlc tttasll t'tl tfebuie conccntfatc la capete pcntru a calculi coefiiicntul dc int'r'{ic. l)rr iegulir, pcntru rcsorturilc dilindricc ortliuare, sc poatc spunc ciL incrlin llu' toiitf icsorturilor cstc cchivalcntir cu o datir ;i jumirtatc masa t'usot'tttlftl ldtroilnd Ia captrtnl la carc cstc aplicatiL forla altcrnativir' ill.,lrll' datoritit unur rcsurt l{r'('rr, Astfcl, pcntru ar calcula capacitirtc:r tlcular pcntrri frt'cvcnlc inaltt', ;itrtcnr proccda prccutn trrnrcirzit.I"ir'(" r';tDocitat(:rt'chivtlctrtit carc va da-act'crtlirt'actarrfi ca rcsorttrl ii ', fr'r'\'t'rrl;r. rt hle {,' captcitut,'it rosorlului Prcslll)rrs fi fr'rrl grctltrtt('li fir' 1. r'Irr'IicicttIItI dc int'rtitr Lu llCu..' llC'a,

pesecundi.. 1tt^e.,,I?Y!!-s,0flioade de semiundiLulgiirca deuntl va fi i, : r3,7Sls0: u,z/J m, rar lunglmea :9,137


l,l2 *. are exact. aceastir. lungime, sau un multiplu al ei exact, vl ll.t{r rczonanlii ti se poate rupe sub prcsiunileinaltc care'se vor -, ,,^ l]?9-I::9ltul acumula :r In cl, cnlar dacir ar ti supus la o forlir altcrnativi micir. it!,tto. condcnsa.toarelor, linind seantdtle incfiia t.csortt ni.ln p."c_ ,,-. 9 ! !:, $cl,.rcsortunlc intrcl)uintate la condcnsatoarc sint ;tit dc scurte fa_ti dc lungtmea dc und"trincit transmisia miqciLrii de_aIungul lesorturilo. po.t" fi privitlt ca instantancc. -

1 :i9 .2 9. -

pr6pxgal ca undel or i n resorl uri mcl al i cc.

I lC'
!vr,nl

I l(:'. 1.il'

(t lCl \t . ttl.{:).

l l cl l / l r . r r lr .volr r nt t t l 1i y0 Ar ( 't llit t cir spr , cilicit nt clir lt t ht i I |sot t t t lt t i,

sf, considcllnr cfcctuli'crfici datorit ni*scir'ctalurui r.sorluruiirrsusi. sl'r p'cirInrr)crrcr rr'sortrrr (fig.'29)r.sr. ri*'ir in 7, ii* , i",iiir,:rl,""iil-'(:rrro|l, racrunl(rr llr (risranIa.r ttnct rl,.;1. r)r,rrrnbclc prlrli irlc st'r'lirrrr|'i rl,v

' d

1. *- 1,,lll2jLlt,

o ,t .,,, 'onravco dlf*cnltt r"-:il;; r,r;,,;',:ll

fllnd rrclhrrlt'n Ilrlor rlrtl lu cotllIIt cu rrrot'llrl, I rl rI 'r r l l l l llll'lr, rIr gltrll In r|lltulttllll

tt.t'!t,1 ,t

lU9'

Atunci C : zG(lQ)zloz B. Avcmdupiraccca : a.rLC (\olg .(Gloz) . (a112 . Dactr inlocuim aJ pin 2V, 7 {iind maximul vitezei oscilafiei.avem azLC:4ftoGle""lV rRezultl ci
11

ln mod analog,reamintind c5.C este proporfional cu Q, I do . dI d8(1) '


d,xz
- i u .- tl |

{2

dx

-:

d.x

u.

(24)

Rezolvarea acestorecualii esteposibili in diferite cazuri particulalcr'. Exenplul I

V:Vlt

_ 4 .yyTlgozl.

Curenli sonici in cond,ucte secliune neuniJormi. Ecualiile: ctt

u? ::,ttlg,
d-r

\zt)
(zz)

Si presupunem,ciconducta este de o form5.conici.. Atunci Q : Qoblxdz 9i oblinem 1do2 O d.r astfel cl ecualiile (23) ;i (24) dcvin:

d!r) :
d;

io1c161.

' dzHzdH

- '"

ax' dr/ dre

+ - '- - - - |
t: 2 r

,:

p.'r l :0,
:V.

,[rltc mai sus slnt general aplicabile. este o sectiune variabili. de-a lungul ei, cantitntile (I) . ,-. Daci-totu{ fl (C) sint {unclii de secliunea conductei qi nu mai siit independente de'*, cpm er fi in cazul unei conducte cu secliunc unifor.mi. .,. ^le g-..oldg-.ti cu secliune variabili., diferenliind accsrc ecualii;i conrldcrlnd (Z) 9i (C) ca varidbile, ob{inem prin urmare

r __t&41

dI dr

"

Solulia generali.a acestor ccualii cstc (H) : (r lx) (.4 coqr..r B siqr*), f : At (siqrr - prr cospr) { Bt ( coq.l.r{ pr sinpr). (Il Erenpl*l II

o'!')
d.xz

I + a,(c\(L\(H\- .d(z) .d(1{):o , ', ', ,


(L) dr d.v

Pentru si presupunem cE fric[iunea Ei perditanla sint .' llccare zero. ^simplitate produsul (C) .(t) estc independenfdc r;i punlnd ln acest caz 4llCL : tt, ecua{ia devine

Fie o conducti conici. ln lorml dc trombon (fig. 20) descrisit dc ccutlir


? fo En'.

ff+nlor-+ Y:', +?
dar Z : 1/gQ

ti r .do
dx g0z d.t '

Ftg. 30.- Socliuttolongituditrol[ Intr-o conductl cu prolll cxponolrtlrl,

crtfel cl

Avom d L rl d o dr L
O r pr * 11713l'r

{l

dr

ll obtlnom

$lt 1. +.1 , lln. !1{) - o, *,17y rlrP rl,l


tl d,r

rdn 7i''Tn-'n'

Ilcualiikr(23) 1i (21) rluvin:


d'll .,...,tH , ...t.L ,tt -:. J rrrf/ _ O, uld.v dll _ -f
( lx'

C AI) I'L OL U I,

VI

(ufiDNTr SONICT CONDUCTE IN r,UNcr, l,'rNlNi) snAMA DE FflCTIUNE

d,I , ^ _ zln r,,:r


dI

_n

Solutia acestorecuatii estc: H - e-*' (A sinx|gtz- mz ! B cosxVe - n\, I : e" (Alsin rJlf - rn;tf B, cosxfyz *Tz'1. In ecualiilegenerale gd.site anterior, avem .1(I1o): Ilcoq.r.l jlf(L)ftesinpj, (e _ rcospl ! jHl[@)l(!)sinp.t,

( t) ( 2)
d -- jp,

: unde pt: a1[@1, qr1 L * j(Rla), (c): c - j(s/d).


S5. presupunem cd, Rla nt este neglijabil qi si. punern lL: a.Vem atuncr

JIW=6,eq:
tLdIp a(C)

e(C)

vs:6:+::%:#,,.*,'
DaciL neglijlm perditanJa, avem (C) :Cr, (L\: f - j(R/a) ;i cospl: cos(c- jpy : cosalcosjBlg sinalsinjpl : : coscll coshgl{ j sinal siDhpl, sinpl : si1(61 jp)l : sincrl cosjpl- cosalsinjpl : : sinal coshpl - j cosc/sinhBl, Substituind ecualiilc(1) 9i (2), obfincm ln coshplf jtinal sinhpl)J. "Uo I/ (cosc/ coshpl- jcosctl sinhpl). I j(laC) (a - jp) (sinorl 'Icrmcnulal doileadin dreaptoostc sinhpl - jl3sinalcoshpl )(IlaCl (ti sinulcoshBl j* cosal coralrlnhpl)*, 4 )(tlaC)l* sin*l coshpl p cosel sinhp/* - l9 -

"[J(roordrlnhpl p rln*lcorgpl).], .1. (llu) /l udtrl crnhfl (tlrc)'(rcrrld rlnhpl p rtrrat.rorhl,l) 4 l. -

(r t"tL(,/rc)

tod tlolgl) l- fl rlud rlulr$/1,

. , ' r , r " ,l l l x ' Itt (/u)

/,,, i rv rrtr

/ (cosal coshpl l_ j sincl sinhpl) g

i- itl lr( l@: I g') ("-1. jp) (sinc/coshpt j coseJ sinhpl),


t lirr cllt.

o-. Ct., tt $iz)VCL iii lrrrrrirrrl , ,tlf (tlo\., II coshpl tlft,lc sintqt {

sitl\$t. it(hlz't\VI.l(.: snntlt.

(1)

(10): 1 coshpl+ HvclL sinhpl -l- i{(klz{lvclt'


Putcrca mccanicl datiL la Sicncrator vat fi

((r)

(/u)

1 cosal coshpt -l- ]I [aC l(e2 ] pr)l (a cosol sinhpl f p sina/coshpl)] -l jl-H laCf@zJ- p!)l (orsincl coshgl * g coscdsinhpl) f f sinol sinhpl-r. (a)

slnt generale' Pentm a determina constantele 5i p z ,,r,,.,''tot",:t"ot":ffiil"

(lcoshp/ | IIV(:It'siilt()tl -y II'0 - (1/2)j(I/ coshpl lllLlC sinhpl)

rr: a - jp : aye6 : aVe[E-TFi;;


tlin carc n" - 92 - j2rp : cgirlind componentele acestor vecrorr n'9": azCL, leg: aRC. az67 jaRC,

-l I - ar ( J-).r"r',r:tl :. trnlln t (coshlplsinlrrp/) sinrrp/ coshpl)rrr ( j' .r'r'Or)-]. + VWp + H"Vcli.


l. l ltimul tcrmcn poatc fi neglijat pcnlrtr frrtvcnJt' inalt' ;i totrrlttr dc diamctru marc, tvind in :rct'stc;rz tl'o:U12)[H1 coshzp/-1-\t12)UlVI.l(' I rl!V( lt. sinlt2p/) ] Yedcm cir putcrea la gcncrirtorcstc mai m:rrt' rk:cit putcrclt lrt r.r ';tl.t W =..HIlz, Dif&cnlt fiintl cnergia picrdutiL sttb lbrmi-rtlc cltltlrttlr, itt r .'tt dnctiL. llll , | ;i sirrlr2fll DaciLI cstt:suficicnt clc mic, prtttrmprrtrccosh2pl in carc caz

.\poi egalind modulclc cxprcsici pentru

q2+ p" : a,Cl[Lz t@: rlin care obtinem:


.2l Rz l aL),

aCWIjjE,

{recven}a este.in,lri,. , ,Dac[ iil putcm pune cu o suficienti rigoare pentni sc6puri praclice. 1i

p: vutzl'ctvdoT-p_ termenul (R/aI), este mic fa}i de -rr.


p: 1.nlz)tte lT

unitate

rr,,-.r.lrl l Jtt(r, "


zL z \

1 u,).l. I.
)J

":alet,

Putercn cerrttlt p('ntru (:l gt:nt:r:rtorul sl"r [utrcliotrt:zc (ll l'('il'plrrtlll 0 ;i lstft:l avctrl puicr('l tlisiprrlir pr' ltllir' du:onectat sr: ob!itrt prrnind ,f

d.2+ p2 e2CL. Constanta a este valoarea lui_ in presuplnerea ctr.conducta este lip_ F siti'r dc frictiunc. Accastir constanti'cste'atrin6i-ol;;";i";;;;i-; urii"i; rkr undi-r ti avcm d: Z?r/1.

lf;

(I/r/a)rf sinhzpl

('ll2) //; tshp/.

am tulr-Ve : +, .,.....avca: a ,. ? ": g: lL \'(,nr 9.::,...onru Zrllt, (Rl?)rl. Accstc formulc simplc slnt suficicnt dc.riguroascpentru calculeleprac_ licc l:r corr<lrrclr. lungi in'carc nu avcm pcrdrtantc. .,\rn girsit, in capitolul III, ciu R .: Al-, asifel cir. avcm

fi^*4:::::!,ut dc amorti:ate,icum

I)acir, p cslt nrnlt', ohscrvirnl cil pirt'tlt'rcil <lc pttlt'rt cslc tottsicl''tltlrilll p cil r r l: r i nr ir 'lr r r ilt il' ;i estc pri n r t r nr ir r c t ccom andabil r kr a'sl r ncnlir x' ir c :/, cslc cxPrt:sia invcrsir ;t !il|z, i stt Am glsit t) $IZ)VCI., tlrrr /f / V28700O . hl?t t , p ncl rrl ui i n l ichid, aslf i'l lnclt it vlm : p Itcntrrr cal<'r t k'L'Df it clict 'Dt r lenr si'rinlr cllt inli- t t t r t t r t nit I Q it r ch'[ olt t t t t lr " Irr rr:uaIi i l r ( 5) si ( t r ) , 't r cglijt nr l r r llim ii l, 'r 'r ncni cor r lilt in<l pr ' 1. r lcall sir r l fo rtt. ni i r:i r inih f r |r : vcn1ir r 'slr : it t : t lt ; i, ilv( 't n Pr r lllr t l ( . t t t t t I r tItt 'I t ' it lt . t lt t t t hrngi tnl csl r . r t t t nt t t lt ilt lr t t xncl r ll hr nf iint ii r l' t t nt lil:

I "=(hl4lrer:
.

Iln /n

// r'oslr(l/| / yr./( ' !ti'rltp/, / corrhp/| //[t'l/. rinhfti.

(7) (rl)

l, sira/

I ):rr.i'L contlucllr cstc rrrr urrrlliPlu t,xar:t al luugimii tlc rrnrlir,avcnr cosaJ_ "'^"

o, ilr. ti,r.rrrl,.l,. (3) lsr.rir.r.llr. 1i f.ij-,i,:"i,i,' (//,,) r.,rJt,flI (//rrr.)ct silhpt j(tla{:)p snirrpt., (/u) I r rt,hltt| \ ltr lt,,itrtgl I i(tlrtt.)ttsiiltpt

No/rl, l4trrnliilc(Z) pl (tt), Inltorlrtllnrl nlttrirtlilr' ltlolxrrllonllc I r1ii, pnl 1l rct lrr': hn /t rrt'rltfl/ | r ''irrlrfV' ...- trnrltp/ | I rltthft/,

8f,

rr!,

, | , .i , | | | r . I I r ,I | . ti

, ; , , , , lr . ,

r,r llltlj/,

,,,, 1, , r l r l r l t / , ' , t r , li r:| | (, :,( lxrl <l|rlrrr , . r iir r ( r ) I ( t , t , lr r r r , l, r r r , l 1,, / rrr I\,rrirrr l, r ir r lr r r r t , t , . lr r r r l r , r r r t r r / t 1,, i 0 lr rliciL, (lcoiu-c(.c , _(),(.l r r r ( lt lr r' , ,,rslrp ,i./si r r lr pl I lr , l, r r r , . r ,r, rrr /r tt,, t,l[Li, astt,t ^o<,, (.ir. rr it-{) t(Jn (lti(.li ir r linit r J , . lr r r r , 1, 1, , , 1, , , , , l ; ' , , , , , 1 , ,rl Irrrir.'i,...,1 r,. Jrri rr Ir.i rl i unc cst,,

vi l czi r r' l i ci rc(, lx'lr lnr : r r ) l) linc t 'f icict r lr r r r t r r r it t t i I ill ; t ct 'l; t ; i lillll) l) lllt 't ll t r l(t l l i rrr, rrr. fJ (r ) niliull t ) r it r spolilcit ( I i: I I I I iI I lI I t I i ( ( t ll( lt lct ( li: r ot l( lll( llt 'll t llilll i ,.rr,ri rri l i rrtl ( : ullit . - r I i r ) lir r i il( olt ( ] lgi( i vol r lr t t or t lPlr r it t i\ '( '[ ici( t l{( ' t ] lir i t i .l i crrl r' . Ii rcttlltr cficienla maxinit a unei conductc dc I lor lttttgitttl lt rtr" A sc gl-Lsi rrilirrrl 25 CP ]a un rcctptor, undc valoarca lui .I1 cstc dc 30 l<g/t:rtt!. ll' 2-i CI'> 25 ' 1 600 -= 190 000 kgcm ' ' llJ 3lt2 \\:.

t;;l .,,1.
lrrr rrrl Ilr,r lirlt rir, i.r,r.c,ptur:

I't'ntt tt ltp r-r

r
III Zll' i<'tll)

. IIV( t,.

1<nll,
.1s00(X) liil ( rrl.

1t'r ' 30! ,... 2 ' !90 0{X)

,r,sr rjl'(i|:

' \ ]t | '

,:

1,.),,,i, r I t J ""'
|

caz lrrc nrfr loc cin(L(tlil)VLIO.. t. Ac('itsti'i.tclatit. arati cit pcnt_nl;r olrtitrt,r,lir.ir.rrllr .-.:. rrrir:iirrrii trirls-. in nrrtcrea('ncr.gi!.i, lr.cbuic si ,,r i cinctic:L;i cnugilt Potcn{iali lil r-cccptorl-T,-4-,:_ " tt.lz, ,,r1i,,,i,",:,,i,rAi,r trr.buic sii {ic cea1l. p,i,li ,,,i,.rr,, cstc cazul.. l* lrcc{rr(' p*.ct al liuici.ii 1r.;r'surisic (.on(liti.r ii.r,r;s;.lri,j'i,r,r,,lrtinit:,. ,\sar lar.

.-\cr'irs1a i5 i ;Lr . t ,r , r loilr ( , il t r r ir r ir r r i- r r . ir |( l r r r r r r r i l r r r r l ( , : , 1 r ,l l r ) t u i n i l l t ,

3f l0 000iI . 900 . 60, - ict n: . ;\sth' l int : it cr (lialuctrtll ncc''sitr P(ntru con(lucti at li 11' 8,7i lrrt' Asadar, Il axi urrt l t [ r 'it t zit llt lt 't 'r 'pt ot - ,spt t ' it <llr [ it r t 't lit it 'nt a t t t lt sit t t , l r , t lt ' /l l l'll! i r r r r /' zloiv2 2t 0 cur / s, i; t r Yit t 'zr t t f ict ct i', , ?. l0 \ri rl oat cr tlt r i / , : r 'iL I i ( t : zi cLLpit olt r lI ll)

r ++ i# l'Ii
29t
coslr O . l4ll t , l) lI ,

02,2 it
14. 1 i0{) sinlr O ,l'lli

k Zt,

0,zt2 5{x) 2. 14.1

r ) , 2 1 z . 1 0 0 0 { ) 0,I.ls, 0
l, l50"l l6l

r.o".-

| cosh2pl-f sinh26l ilyC,;i

. ,,-rpr arrm:

;i r1 arLrrrccastir ;rlolr.t_, IVL: r' cinrl

11u.: Il(coshpl + sinhpl) =. 1lcBl, ,/,, . 1(coshpl _Fsinhpl) _ IcBr,


situ
ll I L. 1r,1.rrlc- .,

{) . s{. . I l. l6l .r' l i ,.l i rrri i r , .\;ar[' rr ', r 'licir : t t {r r: t r f i ( l( ] \ il) '', , i l) r r l(r 'tr r r r (( t : : I r ; t I 'r s( t lt r ir t ( ) r vir ll ) 2') 'll\ \ ' 2. i t ( ll' 21, 3361i\ \ '. lt iLlr h t c. L; r r 'lr ( ht i2t ) 25i {),S 6 2( ) ( l' I' rrl crcr r lisilr ilir lr t linic cir r r l t t 't r '1r I ot t t |( : sl( '( ) lt r it iit t gct t t t r t lr t tt t l t lllt t l i rrrl i rr l rrtt rlir t r t c iLr I i ll";
\;l rl

( li{) . lo: . 7

/ 60. . i. . o, l. i0

l"l . l{X)liKCnr '

rlin car-c olttiuern lo

ll',i T' H"-]I '' -..1--o-Fr


liltrlrtl gr.rrr.rlrlr, (l) (//,,)

1,5(ll'

I l9rJ\\'.

i tt tr ttt,l tttl t /r r r r ,4 t. l ) ;r ci - t l l t.i tr r l i r l r tr ttL l r ' tl t.i n l t,i ttl r t l ttt,'tttl ti g i si l c i r l l l r 'fi r ) 1 , r l \'r 'tl l : r ,i ( 'l ) //r o sr /r o sl ta / ( l l 'tt ) \a co scr /si ttl r p / l ( 1si tta l r :o sl tp l ) I

i !r i",,,,,,r ,,,r ,,r ll :l i ,illlr , l" lil. f t . s l . . l r r r\r' rr , ''/r,r,,r i , , , , ,,,' ,r ;i,,,ii,.,ii',,.i ,,r ,,r , ,r

( ;rrrlilrrlr:;r e I i - c-pr t'rccu uali a lrrrr,ri ii pcntr.rr. t:rfrtli nrici it lui pl r.rLcstc a1111-1i111i1i',. .! !,qntu L -1.r. N ==hll\u." t..,.,,1.i' " rrtrrurrr. ,t Ptirr. .t ;r ol,lirrl'o.,.ticicD1ii r.itlicrrl.-r,tIr,l,rri, .. ,,. \,r t.r. r)ri.l''ll r it rl,. rrrir. l]j,liltl, rxrsil,ili;rr r.r,r.r.|rI,r-rrI tr,,l,rri.i,'irr1,rtrr.ll,.l r.r irr :r(r.t Inrr'l lrr.sirrrr,.r. ,.rri,.rrl1l ii i;;:',;,,i, l)r(,lx,rli,(,iurl,,'i;, r\{,(.itslii (.o.(l'zirr r,sto.rrtr,lir irl.'t(.il rIr.1rittrl: r.rrr.rrlrrl rt. [i rt_Irr. /

r orlrft/ [t lrxr/ sirrlrft/)I .l/ siua/sirrhpll, I i,,\l ltt:llr '.;111/ r'osltpl)| r (/,,) / r'o:rll/orlrfl/ | (lllrl llttr",tl sirrlrp/I p rrirra/ (r I illtl ,t,tt.) sirrriror,lrp/| p r o"r/ "irrlr[t/)1 / I'irrr/sirrlrp/l hl2r, t'l tltt, ll ,rttl rrr( I ]i a rir l{r,,rttrttllttt r!i'||r n' I [''

r0

,,:ill;l:ll,llt,, ,,,,, i,'llll,iI :;1"i,;;, :l'i"lit ,;ltl,illlt,,,ii,l,;il:,,,lll; ll

f l | | t l r ' r , r '! l r ' \'l l r '/,t ,ttl r 'l l tl ttl ( l l t,'i ttttt ',,1 l l ,i l l l l l t,r i ',tt'r ] l l l r "r 'tvfl l tt r '.1 l tt 'r r r , , r l r . l r r t t t t t t l r , l l l l l l l r l l r ,r tl l l l ,l l i ',i 'r i . r i |' r r l ttttr l tr ' .r l r , , r |,tt{r 't l l , 'r ,l l t, ( l t'o ,l t|r r ' ,t ! | t t , , r l ,l l l ,( tl i |l 'r

l'r ,i'..,iriii.i.' iliil ,r.'11,1'j,i'1" 'r 'r iJrr; a'rtii'i,t


ln ir r . , , s l, r r z / (tlu) (Io) -. o s i i t\rm p e n tru I1 o , 1o: ., /1 (coscl coshpl i j sinal sinhBt),

,,,...

a, . , t r , r , \ . r lur ,r !r rrl r rft,rl rrl gt.ncratorttl urpri ntr-o schi m_ l rl rx l rrs .rs rrprl r 'io".t" rlr'l'r

,ni.i il,n-

.\' l abi liI alt , r lxr r r lr ' I i t t t iLsut ir t r "r it t t r r lxr r 'lul pt

S r - r ' or r s ir lr . r .rrr rrr.ri i rrl i i tl rz trl .s i rn p l u . ---- -^- " ' .." l i r (rl ) it t ul I ir r ir . i r r r rl r, ru , ;L fl i rc c c p to ru l ' . i n r:arc nu cxi sti . ni ci o mi gcare

a '

II" 111- .
adicr-r

4a Y I- '-\,r I-imita dc stabilitate cste atinsi cind AI4lAa:0, : cos2.s.l - tanhpll?pl.

(H lul)l-acosoJ sinhpl -i- p sina/ coshpl * j(c sin at coshgl _F

-i- Pcosalsinhpl)1. Lucrul efcctuat de gcncrator ar fi ll' : (IIAIZaL)ie cosaa/ sinhBl coshpl

f p coshrplsinoJcosa/ a _f a sin"a/ sinhpl coshpl _l_p sinrpl sinq/ cos*/l : : (H2lzaL) (c sinhp/ coshp/ * (pll) sinlat cosh2pl): : (ItrlaaL) (csintr2p/ p cosh2p/ * sin2rl). pr".y?olem aclrm ci frcc'enta se schimbiL .. i.tr_.n astfel de mod ,;i: --,.Sn unghiularla sir ctclinir

ln cazul.conductelor foartc lungi, accasta se rcduce la coi2a/ l), care di /:(Znrll)1,18. s.ru al: (Zm!l).rla:ZrIl),, In acest caz echilibrul este indiferent. Cind cos2crl: _ l, olr{irrr.rrr pentru toalc rrrl,rrl, cazul instabilit[!ii maxime ;i instabilitatea pcrsisti]" carc Ircntru .tanhzpl F coszc/.i o. 29t ln cazul unei cunducte Ioartc lungi, condilia maximului rL' irr"l.rl'r litate se reducela 21n+l, L : -L rtt Accastaaratir c[ nu este posibil do a menline {unc}ionarcrr . lrr', vcntil care producc pe linic un numiLr impar dc sferturi de unrl:i. Acestcconsidcraliiau o murc importanll practic:rprin:rcccrr rii irrlr ,, conducti lungi conditiilc pentm maximul dc stabilitatc sint tolorlirli oplirrrl li pcntru transmisi:rcncrgici, constind anumc iu accca cil cch' rkrriL r,rlr'1,' ak'liniei sint puucte de varia{ie maximiL a prr:siunii. I)acir liniir este scurt:r, pr.rtcruspun(!: tanh29/ . _

lll"il

a + ia. Spo.uiio'.".p,#:,to, at lucrului

A\lt ._ (H!i4qll (sinh2pt-l_2/p cosh2pl cos2al).\a. I)lr arcm c .,r1r,, astfcl ci Ac: Aa/a gi in celc din urmiL AIr, (Hrl{aL) (sinh2pl $ Zgt cosh2plcosZxt) \u 1a. I)acI linia cstc un multiplu de scmiundi, avem cosza/_. |. ('antitatea din DaranteT_i,! in cazul acesta estc prriiir,a ;r obscrviLrn ,li:.::,ll,l.'.l"ta

g",,"r,,tu. rlcscrestc rezultintl :::.fl::liy lrotrcc .r:rfrnrI !] ,lrrcrul .efcctuat _1L pri'cipalt.. \'edcrn a)r<lar .i .uu ,.".J.o"iitii o accclerarr: rr f,r".1ionoi",. *, r,.r.rl()rului ;i a linici rinde ta staiilitat". A.;;:i;.;;i,iti p",rtru Iorrlr. r'irlorilc lui a t.art: satisfacconditia. "r,stii sinlr 2pl . | 2rl) cosh2lJt cos}et >- 0, l .\rlt 2ts1 o' i cos211':' ;i

a'-ind ci rna;inr rnorricc curc actionca-zi g"n s:;:',:ii". crcetc, iitonii (.slr. rnrirziari, :f. (o n rt t lt a rl r I,-r:rl],11 c a put erc .r a c c s tu i a s i n u rl .r.i n i r cxccsi v,i . I)aciL frr:cvcnta sc nricsorcazii, Aa cstc negativ ;i AII cstt,, dc ascmenea,

:,:l

tincic .,1"rd r,i.-ii,i si-t ;;-.t,*fi;

z2t

1i ,' orrrl i (i rr<lt ' st alr ililat c sc r t 'r lut c llr I 1-cos2c.l> (1, ((' r' i r (( (si c r . slr ct lx. nlr u t or r t c vukr r ilt r lui a. l { ,' zult i, pr - in ur nir r ( ', cil pcnt r u linii scur t c or ict ' f r ccvt t t ! ir lst , r ot t t t pi rl i l ri l i r crr r . t lr ililr r r r l slir lr il. ( i'l t r ni llt uir . st abilit iLt r ',1<t t u; i,sc oI r {it t r '. r I t t t t r r itrrl lllxrrtul lll'/.\rr cstr: rtrrtttcric rrn ttlrrirrlrtttl: ltclicl"r cos2el L l )ati r 'os2al - . . l, ir vcn AI lr / Ar r , ( ) ir i ollscr vr lnr cit 1x: o lir r i. r l, ' o l rrrrgi rnctnr xlt 'r ir t ir ,r : r : hililr r ulcst c inr li[ cr t 't t l at uuci cin<l lir r iir , sl, it r r pr r r l i t:' r i ul r urr r r r r r nir lir upur r |, lr ur gir ni t l. sli. r I r lr ' unt lir . In rot xlr t zir ', r 'slr ' r 'r 'ir lt 'r r 1 r o lit r ic ( ur c ( 'st {' 1lt 'oict t ; t t irPlt t t t t t . r li cirrP rrrri ttl rl i v r r t r r lliPlt t lr l lr r r r gir r t iir l'sct t t it ur r li lxt r lnl f r {'(\ 'r 't lt r t r or t sir l,r t l. r l trl r' 1i cci r llai f ir l'r llill) ili ir r clcir r : r ' lt r 'ir r '; t l st alr ililir t cr gct t cr ir lor t t lt t i r l, '
| l | | l r . t '. . ( ) , r t t , r l i zl ,i ttti l .r t.i l xr i r l r ' l i l .r r :r ti i tt i ;xr l czl r r i r l tr n tl r 'r 'l l l l r 'r l r l r l l , r r , r p l l t r r l r l l l ,r tl r r 'p l o t, ,l ,r t , l r i tr r tl tl i r r I'zvo l l r t tItl r ,|i ttttr i t ttt:tt r l , l r ;r tl r '. ( f i r r l r . x i r l i r tl r r r 'r r 'l r l o r l r r tr r {to tti ttr l l ,r r r P.i l r r l ''\tt' r tl ,r l l i ttt|.i , r r r ttt ,r \'t'i t l t r i r . r r r t .'r ,.l , r r t,1 ,' r r l r L r ;l L l l r r r r tr . :.u l ,r .tl r t\r ' I u r n \r \l r 'tl t r l ' tttr l r ' ,l ;t |r, , , 1 , 1 1 1 , q t 1 ' t ||r r l r r r ttl ,, g r tr ,tr r l l , l tr r r .r ',r r r , 7l l 'r tr r 'r /l r ,,.tr r |,tItIr r Ir ',t l ||tr r ( t,r tt;r ttt | ,, ril{ r 1l|| ',

i t r lir'l-r

Sr. pollt. lr.irgl o ronr.lrrzir, ilti(,rr,siurtir accasll"r rlitr r:oldi{ir,, Si lrrr.strltrrrrr.ru r.i.r r.onrIrrcIr|, lrrrrgirtlr.rrlrrc;r.orrrliliir<l.r,irrr.r.os2qy'-. irrr. ., rir'srrrlrilir;rl.rr o' rrurrirrri.srr' :rtirrsr'i rirrrr ,.,riz"i,..i.''i,,, ,l:rrirr;irli(:i "',r/,, rrrs2a/ I, tlirrrl .lal 2rrr :rrrr n/ rrrn, ,,rl,stiiriir,,i a zanfrl 2rf,, rrlrl. ir r.str. " lrrrrliirrrr.rr,,l, rrrr,li,,,;;:;;, l""";;iiijj l)r' ,rirr rr.errlt;r lrr.rr.r.111,1 ,,;t.,r, r.i l |l1, rr,,l|t,1ir l ri.r ...r r lxrlr Itr' 111,t,',' rrlr rr rullirt ilitr.,l ,1,. lrrrrllrrrri i\,r.,|n.,i lrli ,1,.,":,,;, ,;;l,,, ;;

u3

lr t ir lt r r r, I I rrrrIr' I r. i I i tn :rl i z c i s r. | | o ,rl l ,tti ll l t l u (r.l cri rl ci t ori cc S i stem r:l rrr.sr . (.s llli ir r r , l, r r r .r| l ,tr.z rtti l trti r l (.r,,il r ,,l ,rtr,r| .r,r' l ri l i l rrtr dc putcrc. l )ac:t sc i n tcLc r r L. : r z , rr r ' / , o n i rl r)i rrc x r Ii rri r., r,I i rI rrI t | ,r I r.,r r.rr.i l 1.. A cri ;ti r estc, dt' 1 i l scl l l c llc a, r ' z r t l r r r rl ttc l r' l o r' l l tl ;rrrs i rl r. l rttrr rr rttrl t, :,i tl ot.i l f(: ;rl l i nC Tl i i S aU S Il l o i o i l ro s ill( r or t r . nll tri Iu l l c l i o n i l l (l l )r: l i n tr. I' ir r t ' lt r ilt it t liu .i i l L :rro n tu tl .t' . l ,i r.rrl r,rrl r. r. trrrl r.r i u l i rri i l : soni cc au rl r, Io st co ns idc r t t r : in ca p i to l u l VI, l ri rl i rrrh r r,r. r.l l ri r.l ,. l ri r' l i rrni i ;i al e pcrdi tanlei, in gcnc,ral. Un caz parti(:uLrr irrilrr':,rrrrI sr. prrxlrrr;r:irtunci cind linia ,'stc .inchisiL la capirtul rcccptor, :rst[{,1(..i irr ;rr.r.stpunct (:llrcutul l cste ttu l ,.Ac c as t a s c pr od u c c c i n d re rtl rl o l rrl i ri ti rrrl , c,. gn crdi ornl :,t,.r' co n ti n r r ir s i f unc lion c z c ( rr i ri -c c i rj [tr' (.\'' (.n (i . Iti l , P.cntnl a calfula. putcrca absor.lriti rli, lirrir., irr tLsr.l'r1r'nt:a conditii, sc 0. (]rlr:rrlt:lr:pot fi siniplilxrt utiliza {orrnulele rlin capitolrrl \'I prrrrirrrl / licatc obscrvind ci. raportui p/or cstc iir nr(xl (,l,itnltil rrrr nurnr'ir mic, astfcl {:ir sc poatc neglija p'?faliL dc cre.Se ol,!irr rrstfr.l r.r.l:r{iilr. sirnpli{icatc:

cxpdmit alrlol nlir'l'ocll tLnitatc. Aceasta sc ptoclucc atunci cirtl prndusril clit gf .. i. m ic. . Din c, lc d, nt ai : t t '' st Lr ile cr it icc sint 11 cz"nlr t " l'r r r r Pr i i r,,r.' .t rn:Lrimc irr' il ii;., sr"ril'.-ii"a putcrca absoLbitir ar putca atingc o asemcnc, rle umrirtortti excmplrr: l.i',"rr,tti trlplti,, ti"i"i. Ac':tsta cstc- ilustratit L.rtntllttl 1

A0 : f1(cos): I/(cos Coh I jsin Sih), 1n : jl/'|(sin) : I/(],(cos Sih -l- jsin (irh),

(e)

ir carc ,,sin ', ,,cos" sint notatii pentru sinal 9i cosal, irrr.,,Silr", ,,Coh,,sint notatii p{'ntru sinhpl 5i coshp/, atlici.functiilc cirtulrrrr,;i hipr.rlrolicc obi;rruir,.. Putcrea absorbitS" fi obfinuti'Ldin componcnteleva vqr:torialcdc mai sus (vezi capitolul I\') l[ : (,ffl,/2)sihcoh. oblinlnd, clc ascmcnca, rclafiile scalare:

0l i ni cnr or io{azat ir CSI Calillent alit <lir cct dcungcr ll. l. it t or culllll) I : , I l I clll t u t ) pulslLt ic , r : '. l; 0t ldiiuli, / sct lt r t 'l ' l cti ol at cl c 6 m ar r iyelir cu / : /\ 5"t t t '' lt Lu] ' llllll / cu. r nlllilt lt Jinc - \ , c D todur' " ull dcl) liliJlncnt " f "l l, 5eI n' r '11 ' i r ll lr o t ""1iuu" int cr ni r l' c' 5i O.^;l --'f ] t it - , , t " : tudinca viicz-ci souice 1o/c'r 500 cm/s' ttt'' putcrea sonici prin rpi, cu o ritczi a untlei tle I '5{)t) I-ir.riatraDsmite g : 6'6 Lr. o ftt'clcutit rl' rr tri/sccundit 9i un factbr dc propor lionrl i irLtL' '-_'itz'lurigimc ' Llc rtudiL 7' -= tultr = 6'3 ' 10r cttt . . -a" Hz, t1i1d r, zi.,l ,! =. i; -= 15,2 ;i a -= Zt;l)' ' 1 ' l0-3' ,,.",t",,"o, i,, ,f" t ".niirr (7) (.'lr1'r sc I)aci'1, ilr' \,itcZa cficacc dL' 'l5t) cl]r/S' sc ol,tittc tlin Iolrnrrlir =' 1'75'l{) "1rt t t l ol ul Ii l ) h - 5, 26 ; i f act olul . le m or t izar " ! ' lt izu tirt'l r'' ln rccstc contlitii sc poatc calcula putclca absorbitiL i:r liuitr oprit (cipirtul dc linic inchis)' ceptorul cste (10)) I'cnim o linic irrfinit lungiL se ol.rliuc o piledclc finitiL (rczi

I t : I i l z + : 1 , 8 5 ' l O al ; g f' c n / s ,

ilo : Ilfcos'z + SnF, 10 : 'l,Ijfsiil

+ Sih,.

Iletonat$t crullcc. Considerind cazul in carc lungimca linici cstc rrn intrcg dc s{crt de un<lir, l, : nt.. },14,pcntru ,r par se ol)tinc (cosal)2: I qi (sinel), clcoalc'cea - 2rf), gi I =-.nt. ),14 iar aI : m rl}. Pcntru naimpar, dc cxcmplu m' : Zk f i, sc objinc at : (2h + 1) .ilz, ccca cc di. (cosctl)2:0 ;i (sinal)s: 1. Introducind accste relatii sc obline pcntru ?tapar: Ho - HCoh, 10 : r,r, : (rpAijlz)Tgh, It', '{]Ilsih, - (1ilz{)Cotgt,. l)cntrn ru impar, rclaliilc sint: 1o ... QHCoh, 'rlt, (I3lZ \Teh. IIru : (r!H1il2)Corgtr. Estc intercsant dc notat ci'Lpentru liniilc {oartc lungi putcrca alrsorlriliL la rczonunlir nlr po:rtc dcpirli valorilc: Ilir , . Ilsih,

lirrii Tgh - Coigh - I 1i rrrl.rrl' irtlicit ll.troapc 2,5C1). Pcntru aserncncir in( it /0 ' +I10' .t ti lr'itOi sittt r'gal,'aslfel " a " n.,l,i.i', p, t'tt,li, sr'cstimit rtrnPlitudin' pr'sirrrriiH', i'r ':rPilrrl 1' ', ot n('fl l f II,t ' ' Iol'r/ - 7501t5,2: 49,3kgf/cnrr'
P r.nt r n lr t t t ( it t t , ir [ init iL a lir r i. i puterea absorl)itit cstt

I"j Z,l

Sitr'(loh y Cbhr- cosr

ft

Sih. Coh
I

2+ YSih!+ sir'

cos:r l ):r,.i lt r t r Fit t t t . rlinit i cst c t lll llulllir par (lc l/4, Pclltrtr ci!r(: {) , l) lr l( 'r cr iLlr solbit i cst c ;i si rr! lJ. ( iot gh. ly, t . . jl . . l. gh, ll, ,

tlt: 7/4 l \: tk': r lt iL l)irrl(', (lirci! lttttgiutcir Iirlit'i cstt: !tn nurlliu' ir plrl vr t li: lr prrl r,rl l ;rlr sot ilii /|. 'l'gh, Il'., .1 ( ot glr. ll". ' V rr olilr ' 1r , 'r r lr r t, l ; i /r ' i r tt l o sl tl i r l r ' ir nlr 'r 'i( ) rlr t ( 10) ; i lt r lt t lt t t r : l ' ,l

/t:+11612s.lt B:Ii;lal,

(il))

' '|//,j/r ,,ritt

tilz'\.
tI r i z'l l l l l l ti '

rl i tt r';rr t z iilir , ir r t r : r . s t < :tz p l , , o o ;i ' l g h -., (i r tgl r.. I. 'l ' r nr t li, ilt ( ' ; , t s i i r l (,| .l .l i rrti l i r trrt c s l c c | i t t| l i ti l l l i l tr. l) l Itl r.fr. C i r. l ,0l | l c . ' 1r1,.r l i rrIrr' , r ' I r iI Ir r ' lir r ir ' . s r' .l r\i ' rv i r 1 l r.l )rrl r.rr. rrr l l rrtrri rrri U .r. ' |r l xr.rl r. fi ,l rrl r i r r lir r r r r , ' lr r liv ,rrttl r' 1 l rrl rr r,rtr,(.l 1 1 l r,rt ' ,,r l i r' rrI l rrl .l .rr rrrrr l ttl r' ,r

h'l l'1ilr"r"l r.'rru lrt.rlttr ll'',r I'glr '' ,l,i,l'i""t,ti' i,, 'tt', .l ,,,,.,'.r,, '''i'r li/ rrr' (lJ/)l' l'rlrr rlll' ,, 1,t,.r,1,'r1' irt ltttitlrir tt I'trlt't rlr' 'rlrrrrl 'l t,ti,,r
I i" I f 'r , ,r 'r tr r ttr ,l ,.r l ttr t r , ,1 | r l r ' l tr ttt,r l r l | l tttr l i tttt' 'l ' tttt'l t {1 ,0 1 '1 ,( r r l 6 l r ' l {t,'l l l ) ', l '[l l l,lr l i l l , r r t \r u r t ,l r t r l ,t 1 1 / t,t

s . t x r r tl . r '"r l "t I 'r ;tl tttl r i l i l ttt l 'r ' l tttxl ttr 'r ' ( ) sl l l l r ' l l ( r l l l l l l l i

( t t t t t it r , r lr , . r lc rr.rrtp l rr: /l | ,,, l l r 1 ,0 2. l( ) r r ligc r r t / s s trri ;rIrr)\rrr.rtr' rr ttrr l' r ' ( lr . ir lt i pir rtr' , 1 ri c l rIr.rr' .rrrtr, r , il' , 1i( ,o tg l r l ,ti ) l t, I t| | r

I' ti r,| ,ti ..r rl r. pl l ct1 cstc I4I" : l ' , , ,.,, , ,, ,.rt,. o vi Ll oare mi ci L. \, I to' l i 1i ., [r/s,

(i rrrl i ci r r lr t os int at ir ' 4 0 (l l ' , (.r' r' rr . ,,,1 , , rr r,l , r.rr,rt r, rnarc i n l i ni e. 1ri ,.rrL.rc St'.l l l l l t lr ' t puur : apr i o l i i r::-Lr. r,' r I' r,,,1 rr,, s ci I,r,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,t,. rrr., {oarte prob a l ri l ,- r ' ol l' upc linia i n ti n tt.rl , .r r.,..,1 ,.,,r,r ,, l .rl 1,rrl r,rr, i l (l (, nl i rre. l' ent t t t a c alc u l a p re s i rrrrr' .r ' r.rlr,rt,r /f,, ,,, prrrrl l rrl i l i zl r n.l a.l i a 1

+ "i,,'
ca L c rlir pt ' t t t r u c os z : l, sin! 0 (r.o rr' .,l )rrr rz.rl or / ),/2)

Ilu:

tcrgh

= 7t0

l (r,.1

l i l l , l i l l /( rnr.

I)u aici rczultiLneccsitatea :r plasr )rr crrplilrrlg(.rtlrllor o capacitate de irla cunl s( arati. in ligura 4 din capitolul U. ;\r.r.;rsl.r ln(.kni stareacrivir ticiLde rez.onanliL liniile avind lungimca rur nrrLlliplrr jrrrnirtate in tk' iungime <lt:undi'1. l'iri capacitatc,ascmenea linii rrr fi in coritliliil ririrl:rtcin fi6.ura 2 <lin acclasi caoitol. Itxaminind pr.rterilcabsorbite Ifr, IIl, Il'.,, ll l sr' olrs.rviL ci. tr,fi si -_ llt,,sint pieldcri normalc,adici pierdcri care se niic;r,.,,ari cu scurtareat linici, lcr.sl,-. pierd,.ri Iiind propor{ionalclu Tgh((r1;. hr contrast cu accsteaIl', ;i ll', sini pierdtri critic(' car(' cresccu scurlarca.liniei proportional cu Cot6h (p1)factor carc cstc loartc nrar.e, tocnlai irtuuci cinri produsul pl, cc exprimi amortizareirestc mic. I)c lotat ci rczonanlclc dc rnai sus nu pot avea loc rlccit dacl linia (.stc un _multiplu dc jumititc clc lungirnc de ,rri,lir'.",, numiLr impar du sferturi dc lurrgime de und:'i. Astfcl, cea mai scurti linie pentru carelezonantele criticc pot sr'raparil este cea cu lungimca de un sferi <1t: Iungimc de undiL. Pentru frecvenj-e ordinul 2.5Hz ;i o r.itezir :r un<Ieiin api de 15o0m/s, de ir(:orrst-a Lrscamnir o lungime ),/4 : l5 m, iar in ulei )./4 : | 2,-5 6. lotu,si dacir alirturi dc frecventa fundamentaliL iristir ;i armonici dc ordin srrpcrior, linii rnult rniri scurtc pot producc rezonanle critice. Accsta cstc r':rzul cu pornpele ;i motoarele ]ridrostatice hidraulice. Sc r onsiclcrli r:;rzul unei pompe cu trei ciiindri producind curent contiuttu redrcs;rt,pentru carc prima arrnonici"r arc o liec\?nli n : l50H:z, <lr: (r oli lrt'cvcnia fundamcntal-L de 25Ht. Aceasta inseamnir o luneimc rk: llrrdai .I 250/l50 ,,=8,35m. O linic <le i. 4,16m, intre lompi;i"motor, at'..putr'l_ inlr:r in rczonan{ir,gi :rccla;i lucru s-ar producepentru toatc lungi^12...= rrtil tttultinlrr< )./2. [r, (i.rt tliri marc pierdercdatoratiLputerii criticc IVz, \lt2 . B(lotgh (pl) irr c;rrr. f ,7.5.0-6 ]i L =.^lZ.:4l6im, f (i!. i,'15-416.tO-4 clctt:rnrinir f| *r 1,26.llt x cu o anrplitudinc 0,0-54 /{, ,40,Jcnr;}s ;i l} (4O,5)r/(2. .15,2) 5.{ r:nrr.<Iarr pierrltn.irr.ritir'iL lxrntnr ll", lt{'rtrs\(gll ^ ltlpl 5.4.lttal1,Ztt ;i irr lirr,rl ll',.
r' \..

S -:r | tr' :u 1t t t s. r 'r , t r ; r r L, , l pr i: l r : Lr r ii ) i] i. i. ( : ar r e, , i) lr ant a ale lo, ' liLt - iL ii', it ri st inj('rliti"rrlc {iLpiul ci pompa crr tr',.'icilinrlii iLrr.re.rzr-r.rorlLcserLzii cu5i rt':rr.ul sonir: {undarlrc[tt1 dc 25 Hz. Accasta e justificat dooarccc iccilIt|lt' r rLi u\:u'i alc |r'iurti .uut\)riri pr,),ilrc lase reflexii, intr-un cicht {rnt(liirlenLiLl, inttc lcccptoL ii gelrcr:rlor, astft.l ci. electul eslt cchivalcnt cu o lini, rrlinuntutii l.r rLn cipiLt cLl uo curoDl sotiic cu frecvenliL rnli marc si crL ,.rl',ttul ccliLlrh inclri: ll,, t.'""1r,,,r1 ,u' oanc, distribuitoarc t'tc., pitst cnlc nrr pot ulmiLri in nriscarea lol arnoniPi.-rl r:r'1,-: inaltir fie{r\rnti. clc in anriliziL dc rttai sus s-ir r)rcsulrLls aserlencil cl-i lactorul dc nrnrnti dc zall jl t.stc coustant (l( ulungnl linrri. irr rciLlitatu cl \'.rri.rz:!cu vitezit clir' tit'iL iar erpr-csiilc liipr:r'lrolicccir siuh (91) ;i cosh (p1) sint, dc ascnrcnea, r'rr. lirLlriie, tlcpinzirrl dc curent, in ficcale sccjiunc a linieri. In stirile critice colr:pund crostcrii autorlilto it uurarntilor si presiunilol factorul de amorlizrrr cl'c:tc cu rni.riLc:r valorii unghiului p/. .A,ceasta rccluce picrrlerile crilir',' in atrunlitc se(:tiuni alc linici si Ie creltc in irltc:le. Acesl lu.cru poatc Ii vl rifir--at c:pcrirrtcntiLl miLsrrrlncl terrpr.r'atura linici in tlilcritc loculi. l),r,., lirtia cupr-indc rnai ntultc lrrngirrri clc un(lir. se poate observa o difcren{i. irrr p(ntantir dc tcrnpcraturir :r. porliunilor la jurni.tatea distanlei dintrc rtruhrrr, rlr ptcsiuno ma\imir fI, carc rirmin reci, fafr-r, nrxlrui, undc culen{ul / ,' dc rla\iur li sc producL. incl'rlzire. Clc;tolea prcsjunilor la sti.lilc crilicc de r'ozonantir dc ulai sus cslr:,' ( onsccillti. a {rurctionirii supapclor de suc{iur.rece pclnit intrarca fhrithtlrti in linic in timpul cavitajiei irr citlul r1e variatie a presiunii, pln5. itttt-rttt rrttrt tui, rnontcnt cinrl cavitatia incetcazl'L iar presiunca. nlcdic reminc collsliurl;i.

,\-olti Llsttfit le lii .lritliunii i tt i rni i l i ziL( 'iu( 's. i r lat t r t ai sus s- a llr lr supusciL,coe[ icjct r lt r ]r L I r ir {ir r t r , ' /l ;i L,x' fi ci t' nt r r lr [ t ' pulr l. it anliL . t sint const ant c, iar lt 'gilc t iur ' ! , : r ; i, i 1't , ,iirrrr,,lr sotrlrrnotlit:t 1i crrr-crrtul:Lu fost atlntisc a Ii:

h - tii,

( il) ( t 2)

p tt'sr tl ttts,' r r tctl i c p cn tl tt l l ;i .S, L i r r '; r l cr r h i r r l ( :o l l si ( L ( 'r - l i o vtl o ttr ' \'o r tl cxa tr ti ttt a ctttl l Pi tr i r l l t ,r ' r . r r r l r r t t l c i n l i r r tl l r r l 1 l ti o l tIr 'i tl l vi l l ;r l i r '. j r r sl i [i t:l l r i : I 'r r r ( l i r ( r . i r s l i l i l xr l Izi r l xr r l I l i ( l r r {'n l i vi r l i i r tr l r ',r o l tttr r '\i ttttr : l tttr l o tti tr i t si ttl l l l i r , l ) ; u i i r 'tcr tt l tr
/ i ,r |'ri .r|||rIrl r' ||I r ' L r rr' l i r i l rrl rtl / s l l ) rl l . ,1, l r i r !i rrrr /i r".l l r|l ' fot ttt:r

li l i , l .r{r,r {ll) .r l l l r| | ,rl


;/ ,r/

',', t ', ', , t ) t


trr r

'.":t

, l, r , t llr llr /
I/

llr r ',
rl l i

7,.15.11)rrls11 rll/,,.
,,.,, ,,ir ,,r lr t,,r

tt,r)/('l'. o pir.llr.r,.intlxrrl.rll,r.
I,,,t ,,- ,,1 r !,.t,,1,., (\)

I | \)

\ . , t , . , ' , . t ,.,r tr ,

Ambiguiletonrutnnulut ,,:t" oste datoritl faptului cd. serniperioadele in succesive cnrc curontul rm mnruri opuse,fricliinea este inversiti.; ad.icl in coeficientuldt: frr.crrro rclrlntbl scm;lul, nu insi si mdrimea. ltl . Cind curentul i rc schlmhl din pozitiv ln negativ,ambii termeniai expresiei pentru prr:sinnen sonomotrlctil tgi schimll semnul cu toate c6 i2 rlrdne tot pozitiv. Vom considera scDorattcrmcnul *. 9zI2sin2at: hz. S5,punem hz : pzp!, funclia y.fiint astfel incft pentru faze intre 0 gi zcsd.avem , : sinzr $ Irntru faz intre n qr Zzt,y: - sintr. Putem dezvolta atunci 1r y in serie Fourier, astfel ! : Ao t Arsinx { Drcosx} Arsinzx + B2coszx ... + Forna termenilor A^ li, B^ fiind dati de relaliile: A^: (Zl2r)\ ! sinmx d*, I
0 2/r

cstc d,atede {ormula (13) dc . Valoareacxtcll it prusiuniisonomotricr: mat strs, care polrtc fi scrisir l, : IlRosinr {1p,.1(8/lr)(sinr/3 sin3r/1 .3.s. . .)l gi aproximativ h - I(p, f 8prl/3n) sinr.

Fig. 11. - Reprezentarea grafice a fuMtiei l,: - sine;r.

B* : (Zl?nll y cosmxdx.
I

Trebuie sf, i.p{lr t are va"loarea,,*sin2t" Avem astfel:

aceste integrale ln doul perioade: intre 0 9i r, gi lntre zr 1i Zt, y are raloaiea ,,-sin2;',.
.tr 2r

ln figura 31 slnt trasatecurba exactl pentru y si curba aDroximativl tinlnd seamanumai de primul term,enaI serieii;la exlriinarea .oibelor aoaro gYdgnt" cg pentru calculele din practicl putem, flrl mare eroare, nelfllo totul afarl de primul termen al seriei, ca d priml aproximafie. Chiar ln cazul cel mai ri.u, clnd h :0, corespgnzlndcu scurgereatur- _ bulenti. prin orificii, eroarea nu este mare. Dlci se cer-e rigoare mai mare, se poate lua ln considerafie gi armo. o .
nlca a dorra $l obtlnem

1, : (8/3zr) - (8/15n) sinr sin3r :0,85 sin* - 0,i7sin3r. Energiamediepicrduti. prin frictiune este,lislnd la o parte termenul ln p. sau-Ro,
2n

l-

: (lia)

2x l[ sin sinnx d.* - [sin2xsinzrrdrl

,I

J'

ztc r- : 1r7"y d.x-'(.inr., .o.r,, dr]. [(sin cosmx

TJ J I 0

w : (tlzdl hi.Jt (4gzrzl'z) tilt' a, - sin{sinl* ar...). : [( J \3 3.5 J I Toateinteialele ,t't a" to.orl
ln

2^

Flclnd integrlrile, oblinem Ao : 0, B^ : 0, At : (8/3n)sin*, A n:-(8ln)(m-z)m(m{z \ 9i ln final y :(81") [sinr/3- sin3.r/I.3.5 sin5:{3.5,7 sinT*/.5.1.9...!. Aceste scrii reprczintl curbq,: : sinlr (pentruvalori de .t lnlre 0 gi n), J, . 9i -/ - - sinrr (pentru valorl do r lntre n gi Z?r), ...|ebq9 notat c[ prlnul tornon rl rerici estc cel nriri importlnt $i (lacll neglulm coilelfl tcrrnonl, putom rcrh eproximotiv , _ (t/Jr) itnr,

lr sinr sinnrd.r (l/2)\[cos(r, - l),r<1, cos(nr l)rdr]: + \

22

dJ

,.

Acclrltr rtl roducosimplu, finlnd rormB d do tormcpul tr t$ rru p1,h

tl, - fl(rril

' \ s l f r , l ir r r . il , rr, rrr ll" (/' l i .' ) (l r, r;j l ,11j 3r:).

- , \ ; ; r <l :r r

(I),- Illtltr -l'j(c,t- l/1.,r)l'

l( r ' z r r lli, 1r r r r rrrr,rL ,., r.r,l ,rr' :r Il i rrl l u ntai pti uul l crnten al seri ci ;i r ., i r,tro d uce i n I' ai oarca obl i nutb" peni ru rl .tro g liji. nt1x : r ' r . il, r l1 r, i | ,, ,.l r,,r,, rrr Ittcl ttl ut et iir r I r r : L, rrrrrl ,r.l ' t. ,i ,: rrl l ,r l ),rrte , o s t e 1.rr' ,:i t bi l ca i n cazui i sj rfposi r'i ;rh : it t u, ' t r t r , iI r |) | ,,rri i(I(,r \r:I,( r' r(,.i i ! ,l i n s c ti l l ui I si proti uci r vari ati i i n.r l )r)rtr t lll( ]ill nat ur a r' ,' z rrl l t t,l o r' . In ploblenrcL irr r'.rlc se rcr(, tliri nliuc pl'ecizic, cousiclcrind fricliun,'a t.ir variind (lul)ari(lrir pitralului, i.\'ind il) l'cdere ci seriilc armonicelor lui /r.(nrverg lcpcdc, estc suficicnt a lua nurnai doi termeni, in nrodul acesta luind

A sl l cl olr lilcr r t :

H -- IRl]/| { )l!(Ca - | lLa)',

I,: I ltlLa\17 +Fi@f,- ry,Y.


G

/l,:
l)cntru iU : A\m ?i/2.

9a1:(0,1i5 - 0,17sin3n), si:rr

Iiq. 32. - Cjrcuit so ic lD ciirerezrstenla Poatcgenera armonici importaute.

lt-,2:9212 (0,Si -; 0,1?)=. |,02 pI,,


citto (liferi. nunai cu 2oo diu 1'aloar-ca dalir dc h^," : prl2 s\n2x : 0"12. Analiza cazurilor in care u11 i{cncrirtor Dloducc curent absorbit (i,) irrcrlii, capacitili 5i fiicliuni dc tipui lcgii piLtritului, sc poatc efectua prin Itlctodil dati mai sus. Dac:i.sc cerc nLrnlai o prinri aproriirlalic, putem ad itc r:lt frictiunca urntcrz:r lcgca propon i0nalitir jli s:irnplc /,:1ii fi-luim p!'ntru l{ valoarea n :t-t.SSS"i. ])aci sc ccrc o piecizic ntai rnirrr', llrrtcrn introLhrc,.. prcsiun, .,'n,,o trtotticc suplimcntiLri lil f.rpetclc organului dc fricJiule avind o flcc'.',::rrL rlc trei ori mai marc ;i o amplitrrclinc cgaliL cu 0,17921.. Daci. cste ncloic a se ccrcctir o lcgc a fricliunii diferiiir, mctotia datir. lxrrrtc fi inci aplicatir. I'entru aplicaliilc practicc totu;i, cste rnai simpln iti suficicnt de rigulos dc a sc c rclatia clintlc prcsiunea sr,nornotricc ;i cr.ir,nt, sttlr fornta /a --,lti ;i dc a lu;r pclitr-u ./i o valoiuc nrcdic rlc-a lungul un,-i D('lloitdc. ' ln geueral ,11 ii clc torn.r', 7" . . rlr(i). al \irm atlmitc pcntru Il o r.irl<':Lrt' pru'lind pcntru , r) uctlic constiLntl-L villoilrc nedic, asticl ca vuloaica cfir'irct: lr ltri il

Accsrc lormule silt ob]inute in ipoteza c[ pf,strinr numai utl t|tItt|rt din seria lui Fourier Dentru lr. Daci linem seama de faptul ctr Z are o serie de armonici, estc Po',il,il ca pentrul rinul din acettia, stzicem a\ ,ft-lea,si. avem C Lm2a2: l.
Pentru aceasti frecvenli., inerlia Z;i capacitatea C sint in rez(trattlar un curent tlc o frecvcnlir de zl bri mai mire se va scurge pin irr('rli(: ;i ii condensatori; acest curcnt, daci. nu e nici o pierdere dc energic in citctti' icle iner,tici $i condensatorului, poate deveni foirte marc. Astfel daci'L A'//.rr cstc o fracliuirc foarte mici, apr;ape intreg curentul f va trece prin {rir:lirrrrr'.r ll ;i un curcnt {iLri. lucnt, considerabil, de o frecvenll de rll ori rtlar rrrlro ca. cca iniJialir. sc va scurgc in rezonatorul format de inerJie ;i capircil rlr:, pcntru accasii arnonicir superioarit. I;orn' t t l' 1, ' r : isit " m it i sus l) cllt t u 1, qi 1" ar da in acc't caz lt t r t t r ir i 't t rcntul. lrccvt:nlci. fLrn<larlcntlLlei."." p-oii" ii neglijabil; curentrtl p( rrlrtl irrnlonictlc srrpcrioalc irr condcnsator ar fi considerabil mar mare' I)rrci r tr r lr t si r r vcnt / , Cr t ! - - l, cst e int posibil ca r ezonant a cu , . r llr l', 1r ir I lr ' srtpr:r'i0rrr,: ailri loc. si I'rob!tnui. A srcghsi r:ocficicttIrrl rL' pcrdiirn{iL S printr-o dcschiclqe dc scclittrtt:a r,r i rti r' -rrrt l) r 'r ( ! lc ir s( z, ilt it t dt ut nul cur cnt ului. l )rrli-LPl'sirrrrr':r sonorrtolrirrr cstc /, li curcntul cste i, ltrt'ttt pritl ,lt'". I l l l l l r)
I

i .- t,, . . rlvz,
rllrr llccastir r:tclocl;'L tr-rbuic lintitatir la cazuri itr (:arc nll Poiltc avcar l,': o rczollrnJir t:u atnlorricclc srrpcrioarc rrlc lrrlsiunii ::ouonlolrit:c. I )tcir. ascnlcrt,-ir c[ct:te <L: rr:zonnrt!ir sint posibilt, pr'olt('lt]a cstc difet-itiL ;i iltluen]a a.rmottict.lot rh: frccvuttir supctioari poatc [i corsidcralrilir. Pcntru ir ilustra accasla, s:'! ( (nrsi([('ri[u urnlr-tloarr'lrnro]rletni. ln figulu 32 in G rLvcirrun g('n( r'lt()r' pr'<xltrcirrtl r'ur'('nt i ru) lsin rrl. -= Itt /i r:slc lrn :rpitrat d,r Iric!irrnr: ulrrtinrl lcgt'ir yl-rllululrri ;i arrrrmc o co ttrl r t r : t ir . , r ulir r L' tl i l rtr,.l ru tn i r: l l (i r tl c l rc cl :r l rl l i l i i l ol rL.:rl i rrtcntare l , 1 f. l rr / ) y i , li s inl , l o rri i rrrrrri Ii c i r{ i i rr l rrr' :rL ,lr.ol (i rri rrrl l r.sl xtl i l o i nr.rti t: I l i tt ti t I r ; t t iI r t I t : ( , ' ; 1 ttl s i ttttl rrs o trrttro l ri c r.r' s i r,/ri l rt ( l rt(,nti i i rr r' ,' 1,' l rci r,rrri rrri r\r'r'trr (/)
l l l |i l l i . , ,r |r,l tl

5r.

It4)

l ri . i r r it , zir li, lr ir lr r lr i 1, r 'irolili, ir r ; i / t r lif t 'r cr r l: rt L: pr csit r t r er lt ' r r t t r l' lt ' r pi rtr i rl , r' r if i, ir r lr r i: ; lir r r r lit r lr ir lt r xlir r it t t t ir : iL t ir

,
A t ', , t r r ,r '.1 r ,l l

pllzslnll,
l ) i 'tl i r tl llll

( /,) I (/u ) I (/1 ) ,,,i ,l ,rr;r rrrl rrri l rrr l rr,rrl rrr A ' ,r r,rl ,,.rrr. , tl l t lilt 1 l ,tl ftl r,t1l ,

r r l ttl q l r l l r l i l , I t t r 'i t t r ' '1 r " '1 r .!fi t'r 'r tl i r l cr sp l l i l i l i l u i r l r r l r r i , Ir , ir {1 ,( r l , o r l l i c i r r i r r l r l l r l x.r .l r . sr r l r {i tc r '1 1 r r l i 1'tt l i tl r r

,.,i,

1,,,'f.,,,1r,, ,|

r1;l ',,'ltlf ,h

',h

{t 1}

9i deci

ln modul acesta, oblrnem

s.*rymn
w *.\lrlt _ trt2;t,

( l6) Dar

Vedemctr S nu estc r:orrrlnrrtCl rtophrrle da i, Energiamedieoierdutl po ro"urull irdf tJc||riuo, drcl admiteu pen_ tru S o valoare meiiie, ar fi unde .If esteauplitudinea lrri l. Putem obline, de ascnrcncl, vulorrou lcottol energii din {ormula

W :

(1l3l2ngi,2u')

[sint* d

dr.

a* II sincr : r/1,

astfel lncit obtinem W :2tFl}rgvzuz. Comoarlnd aceastdvaloare a lui 17 or aceeaobfinuti mai sus, anumo W : Izl?5, gisim S - }ng*ot?!\l, 9i punintl I - SH' oblinem S : prl,lt tgla.tE. Pentru api avem .S: 15{0por//F, ln care & este coeficintul de contraclie, care variazS,<Iela 0,5 la 1,1 dupl forma aiutaiului orificiului prin care se Iace sorrgerea. O vatdare medie pentnr aPd ar fi (l?) S : 12oorr,lllfl numuic ExemPLu,

w _(tt\lihit.
J Dar am gisit

i:p,rVT&ii,
dln care h : Tizl?tL\nzg

il obfinem

W:(rlzTspz.n\lF&.
; . Daci o' este funcfia arnonic5 simpli, d:
T

lsinal,

aver4

W : (ylsl|T&Lz.r\lsnsat dt.

A se slsi Dutereapierdute intr-un robinet care nu inchidc per(cct, merimea ori-iiciuiui<,rllsit deschis,fiind o zecime de cmz, iar presiunol I1 sonomotdce : 100kg/cm'. Dnergia pierduti pe secundl ar fi W : S H z l z ,S : 1 2 0 0 astfel lnclt W : lZ,100zlZ.:60000kg cm/s, iar outereaDierdutir,ln CP, este7,9CP. ' Este evident, prin urmare, cl o deschidere scurgerede o supnde Curentul fa{tr comparativ miil provoac[ pierderi de putere considerabile. cste dat de orin rleschidere : HIIL, I ,-zWlH =- 2.60 000/100 1 200cm8/s. W Amplitudinee vitczcl va Ii V * Ilu I 200/0,1 12000co/r, + Acclts crto o vltell lorrto olrc ll cfcctul rpcl ctrc sc mitcl ln contrct c{ motdut, lo lrrmon.t vlterl, lroduco roPldo rupr ncddr.e tl nodonr m.trluhl' Ertl olrr Dttn urrrrrc al ln rr m|r crlurl trohrlo rwi lrl mrl Drr| |?Ur dl r lrcl Inchldrrllo Prrldct ltrnF D0ntm ! rvltl mrlolro no$luRturl, - 0,1/y100:12cm5/kgs:t,,.1s-romfNs,

Substituind pe r ln locul lui at, ob{inem


2E

Dar
2n ? 2E ?

W- (TIsl4ng,;''l'z)[ sins*dr. ;
pn

sin8*dr : (cosrr - l)d(cosr) : lcosa*/3 cosrl \ \ l' : o.

t t lo

. .A-gS.trezultat, lulnd integrala lntre 0 qi Zr, estc incxact deoarece Iucrului ln timpul unci pcrioadodifcrl 1o^"!t funs totdeaunapozitiv, surnac0 zerc, Itroorea provine din faptul c[ la invqflsrco curenfului pr$lunoo ronomotncce!te, de asemcnee, inversa.tl, utfol cL lnlognlu qrto do rcran gpur pontnr cclo doul somipcrioade. Prin urmlru crto hjcorrr r, cfd tui-rii p jlmptl rrncl rcnript,ontlt.7)2 ,;l l.l rlulrll rpr.r. obllnn lucrril afr.ctunl I ln llurjrrl rrurl prr.loirrh, trtnploto,

I \t' tt| | l t' 1 ,

Vl , l ,

,,

'rrr()t|IA l)Dt't,AiailttilTllu,l], il{ol.t)Alu.]


llolht{txxr||ln

il

' ,

curenfisonici,estebii. d Ji'.ii,irtiii.i n,,i"o'ia.1t pri;it;;; lcflonate.de -iintru lr miqclrileoomunicate fluidelor ae miy.fiilc ,:.,1^ti"i, pi'st"".r"9i clllndri.
Am definit prin termenuldeflasamenl uuui piston saual unui curent, al Olatitatea A:(;ar, in care I este cureDtul(frg.33). J

lnain_tede a proceda la discuiiu dlfcr.italcr tlprri do motoars rotative,

Fig. 33. - Piston autrenat dc un nrecanism bielimanivele.

(2) Deplasaurcntulrlatorit lotaliei rrrui cilindru in jurul unci tuirrrivelc sau unui cxcentric fix. Rotafia unci manivele, legat' cu un pistorr printr-o biel?tlungtr, dl1 pirtonului o miqcarealternaiivl sinusoidall iu directia axei lui. Daci zo este amplitudinea manivelei gi a viteza unghiularli, ervtnr f : - ro co' A.l. Cantitatea z s-ar numi maniael'a san excentricul deplasamcntrrlui. \'onr avea de-a face mai tirziu cu manivele rotdtiae si maniaeledlkrnal.iac. ln rrr,xlul acesta defini{ia manivelei sau excentricului este extinsi gi include o nranivclll care este variabill nu numai ca pozitie dar gi ca mi.rime. Relalia intre deplasament gi manivell va fi insi totdeaunt 8, !.1r. Daci cilindrul se lnvirte5te ln locul manivelei, sensul rotatici fiinrl acelagi,.curentul va avea aceeagi valoare dar va fi de sens opui. Pulcnr reprezenta un deplasament alternativ printr-un vector a cirui valoarc o.[t rof,l, rotindu-se cu aceeagivitezi unghiular6 ca gi manivela. Pulcm airrrrcl intrebuinta notalia simbolicl. Daci deplasamentul este reprezentat printr-o linie, deoarccc avr,ul t : d8/dl gi varialia este sinusoidalL, curentul va Ii reprezentat printr.o linie perpeirdicular'f, pe prima. Figura 34 arati deplasarirentul datbrit ro. taliei unei manivele, actionind un piston intr-un cilindru fix. Curcntul ppo dus va fi i : d}ldt. Dacl cilindiul s-ar roti iar manivela ar fi {ixl, ajungem la condilil eretati in fieura 35, avind i : - dE/&. ln caruil general cind direcfia rieigcirii alternative a pistonului difcr!, de direcjia deplasamentului, precum se aratl in figura 36, avem pcuttu curent i : d(8 cosp)/dl. dc osil

Reamintind ci i : lQ : Adrldt , ln care u este viteza curentului in momentul , intr_un punct la o distanji I de pozilia medie a pistonulur,avem
Fig,3{. - Deplasancntrrl I chd cilirdrul oste fix. Fig,35. - DeplasomcDtul S ciDd ciuldrul cste lrobil jor Dl&nivala cste Iix5,. Fig, 36, --lntr(! dcphrnment si dir(.clio miscitlllnl. ' teuoiiv eriit!,url docllrJ.

a:toar:or*c.

(u
\z)

ln modul acesta,dactr se dl centrului O un deplasament 8, Ilclnd ' ctr sn unshi 0 cu axa pistonului, curcntul total ln cilindru, presupus sc rotqteci o i,itozltunghiularluniforml 4 in direcliaslgefi, va fi d(8cosp)/dr,
/ lllr, .r7,- (Jlrrl ollindru. y'
lui nrolrll tl o (loplrr& t m!nlulul o.||trulul da rotr. llo rl nn tvol.l,

D::i sinusoidalt gi dacl luim originco rimpului in ___ 1 Tt..9 funcfie_ momcntut Ctnd plstonul este la punctul extrem, avem
8 : Qzocoscl . Din definifia de mai sus obfinem

i : d'ldt. ln oplicerorteorieilo motoaror vom oy!!' rlu conriderrttloul.crrurl: fntr.un cllindru flx. prin m[crror, pi*onrrlul logct .,- _ In n lv r lil r l| l l o x Oo o {!)_?.".p,}."nonrul c c n tt.l c fl ,l n ti v .

-' Drl p prln [, i- * i0pqrrr fldbrjuoco * r,'totrllnrm d.poit6

--1T--

(.| ' \ ( ( , r \ ll . r r ll: r ' ,i , (:l l tl l l l l l r,l .rt rl ,. l ,rrrrrrrl .r ) r.sl l cchi val el )t cu doi crrt, tr! i r r r pt : r llr ; i, l rl rrrl rrl i (1 ,. rr.rr\,l , r,rt.rt rr, ,l ,. ,' l rrr16;i ntt' i nvi rti nl /2 (l u s(: c l! v it r ' z t lc ttrtg l ti rrl l t, ,, ,r ,rr | , r, r,..pr.r' ti v. l n modul acesta ' r, rl r.Pl rr s r Lnt r . r r lr r l lx l a l t l i r:o rrs i rlr.rl rrr r.r' l r i r' ;rl r.rrl rl orri r tl epl asamentc ll , r:rr ro l i n (l ll- s { ' in r lir r t ti i o p l l s { ( rr rrc r' ,.rr' .i l l z i ul A l ri l l l rrri r a. ri

_lr()t()AnD CONSIDDR-1.1,'TI GENDITAI-I]

ln capitolul II am arb.tat prin principii elementare ci, daci. sc comurrrr,t rrrei coloanelichide presiuni altcrnativc, trenul de rrnde produs, carc r'rtrrrlii dc-a lungul coloanei lichide, poate ceda intreaga lui cnergie unui pt,lorr situat in orice punct a,1coloaneilichide, cu condilia ca pistonul sit nr. rriflr) clr aceea$i viteza gi in fazf cu stratul dc lichid ce sc afli in conlqr'l irrrrrliat cu el. Aceaste conditie estc indeplinitir de un reccptor compus rlittlt rrr piston, o biein;i o manivcli, analogecu pistonul, biela;i manivela cu 11r'rrlrirlotrrlui, condilia ca manivelelegencratoruluisi rcceptorului s[ sc Irrvlrlr';rsr',-r aceea;i vitezi unghiulariu ;i la o anumitir rclatie de fazi, cu rlrpirrzirrrlrlt' relalia distan!ei dintre pistoanc cirtre lungimca dc undir, a It, rrrrlrrirL.rrnde carc circuli. in coloanalichidir. llstc clar, prin urntare, cir rrl rr1{ ltlor sau motor de acesttip poatc absorbi encrgiedin ircnul dc undc tttttttiri rlirr:irfunclioneazi.la aceeali vitczi. ca gcncratortr], lJn ascmenca Irrolor il v<lrnnumi motor sincron, lislr: t:vident ci un motor cu un singur piston, o biclii ;i o manivelii, lsllr'l crrrrrs-ir consideratmai sus, va cxercita un cuplu carc valiazi. in tinlcorrlra rrnei sarcini, l)ul ul('i rlvolutii Ei daci sc ceLr o rotatic contirirr.i c$((. n(:(:osrra se intrebuinla un volant. In afarl dc cazul, totugi, cind un rrslf('l (l(: motor ar fi pornit si atins accca;i vitez:a ca generatorul, el nu va fi in sl;rrc sL invinge inertia volantului sau sir rlczvoltc un cuplu. De aceea cslc rrr:cfslr a da unui astfel de motor o vitczir unghuilarl foarte aproapc tl rr,cr'.rir gcneratorului9i dc a-l prinde (agifa) la o {azii proprie pentru-a
(ll. zvrlllil r)u tcrc-

l otrrl rri si r i tlit r ll: r villz, r ', t r r r ( ) t latir llr o sit t r it t t i r olir {ir '. llr r t t sllt 'l r L r r r , ' Iol il v<rrrrluf rli ur nolot sincrut lrilc:ut. U n cx cnr phr sinr lr hr r lc un ilst lcl t lc lr ot ( ) r ( : sle illr st r ir I in I igr r r . r t ls. I-:r rrcesl motor rotorul consti dilttr-un disc inclinat, -4, Iixirl pr: tltr:trl'ot,' B care sc invirtc;te intr-uu lagil C- Statolul estc fonntt tlin lrci r ilirrrlrt tlispuli uni{orm in jurul discului, ial trei trenuri rle undc, dif(rrirr(l itr l.r/i lr cn l20', lucreazi. asupra pistoanclor D iu trei cililtdri, api'rsirrrlrt rutrlr.r rrnci plici inclinate. Este cvident ci. un asttcl tlc rnotot viL lttt:trt pt,.ttttt s-ir dcsclis urai sus, adici va Iunctiona nurlai la o vitczil sircrorri r u lt( rl lrtorul, sau altiel nu se va lnvirti deloc; a;atlar, rtici o virri:rtic r|, r'rlr r,r ru va {i posibilir cu un astfel de motor. S i pl c supunem ir cum ci in loc dc placa l, ir cit r oi ir lclinit r ( ' pr ' . r t l. r , ' |str: {ixir, lrvenr o pl;rc:r sau un scgrncnt 1', prrr:urn sc aratiL irt figur:r :]'1. .,,r

Iri :. 19. - trl or.rf i l s i rc ti )n 1r i l rrz rl .

l):rt:i. intr-un rnotor sincron in loc de un singur piston intrebuint5.m Itci pisloanc, solicitind acelagi arbore si mi;cindu-sc dc-a lungul unor axc

sfcrici"t,firati'L pc lrrln)lcl( /i itr rrrrul r /,irlir l)o uIr lagi-rr in hrrnrr"rrlc crtlll"L ttrr:l ri t:,S i L l )r csul) ur lr r cii. t t t t cxisiir f r icliur r t ' t r ici it r ( r c pislt t it r r clr ' / ) ', r l, l. ', . r 7 , ni ci i nl l e pl: r 'ir 7' f i cupi ; f ic pist oilr lelc act ionalc dc lr t i t r '(t t lt ri , l, r r t r , l,, l )r((' um s-i t r lcscr ist nir i sus ill oir zul nr r llont lt t i sinr : t oI r ilt t st r ai ir t lr llr r r . r llt S c vt:tlc'ir r r r r li: r lcir ir r r ccst cilz llr \ ': l r r vt ir kt c o r ollt ic iu llt nr l , r \ r lt l ori zoul al , nici ; r scgr r r onlulr r ill , pc car t : il vom t t t t t ni t r anst t t il; - r 1( ) rr,r ( r . l tolotulrri 11. fol cc sc vrt ittlitrtpll cst(r cit I rilr)slnili!torttl 7'vlt oscilit itt , rtlr.r, i rsl frl t:a l i nilr r L', , ir nt ; r i t t t at r : ir x'lin; r lir : u f r '{t 'i lr r i l}lir t r ( 'sit llcn( 'r (zl r ! r r r r , r r , linic sc v: r r t t ilr 'r rpt sr t pr lr f al; r cot t t t lt r i r : u vilr : zit sit r tr ot t ii. i ;rt rrr:r' asl ir I)ru:i r cxislir I r cr '; r t c it r lr c lnut snt iliLtont l ?'; i r olot r r l , li, f i'r li : r li r r r rr o rczi sl crrl ii llr ir r vir iilr ', ir lil lt ir nsr t it ir loll! l ( it f i r oior ul s{' vor ir r vit li l. r vi l czl si nclr r r i i: r t r : oI t t I r it r lt t i: vlr f i r t lt ivir llnll- t cll nlolor t t l sit t t t olt it t jil. t l t f Itr Ii grrra .l S, t r . r r r sr r t ilir lor r r lr t t cr t {it t ir t r Io it r r lin: r lir ' ( : ot ) slit nli"ralir r lr ' . r r r r l 0I i z()u i l l .l I l )rrri : r 'r nt r l. r r ol: r lir r t t r olot t t lt t i s{ i'l) lr t ll r leisllr r lii, l) lit t nl) lit . r lr '. r rrrrr.irrtci tti, r r lil t olot r t l cil : 1i I t irt t:;rrri I ii I rrr t t I ili vor it t t llit t i t t t ctst t l it t , t r l t rt' ,.i rr.r.,l u, i. llolor t t l lr , lt t r , . vir t ot r lit r r r ir ; r r llu r oll: t t lt l l lllr lll. Sr 'lxr alc vlt lr . r I t . r I t Lt r r iI iiI ot r t I r r il. r {, r r ll r ( , 1( r rr 'r 'lr 'l}t i) lx) lllot r , r l. l l, r t 't ilr f it ; r ,l ttti .t' trr, t vil' / ir it r r . t t r ' , ,rr rl rl r.r,' rr l, r lt r r lt l lt llr . r rt t tI 1| rt rt | .rr lt . r t olol t t lt t t ', , 1 "it llt ot t , i. ,,r. , l, or 'r ilir lil r lir r lr r ' l tl rrrp ;,t,, r lr t r r ' 1, t , t r l, t , r lr ', r t t t 11ll r l; r lot t l. t lt t r {ir r r r ii
l l l l .r tr 'r l t t tI r Io ,rI, |, r l t .r r ,.r "l 't I r l l l 'l l t' I t ,| | | ,| | | | I i I I | , | ',.t r ,r l l t , 1 , ; , r , r r r t t , ,.r '.ttr i r ,r l ',r l ,tl r .r .l r /\t'l l 'r l ,i l l ,r r Ir r ,l l r t \tl r r ,r , , i f r f f i l f r , l i f , r r ,ttt r r r tttr t u tr l tttt, I'r tl tl t.tl t tt'ttt.ttttt. .l tl l l l l I l l l ) l l l l 'ttt.r l ,r vtl , r ,r

\ ,';rli
\L .,r l r)/ \.
D ,/

I ri g.

3l i . - Motor tri frz;r1.

si n(i r(m

tk:fl rzl r lr :l; r l2O " s ulr rL r:!i rrrrr':r l l c i c o l o rrrrl l i cl ri rl r., i rt r.:rl c r.i rrrrl ,i l l l rrrrri :r rL : rrrrrl. r l: f ir z ; r t r :l: L l 2 O" i rrl tr.r.l r., :;r. v ,' rl c i rrrr.rl i :rl r l i r vi l l zrr rIr' ,,i rrr.rorri Ii rrr ci sr. vl r r l, z - v ollir un (u l l l r u rti l r)rn r, .r' ,l l r.l i rrri l rrrr vol :rl l ,,.rrro.rl l .i i rrr.rl i r. n u :i i rl ni\ ' r ' r , ir t r ' ;, r r l rl rrl ,1 , l l rrtrri tr' . l o l rr,,ri ,v :r l i rri r" ,ri rrtol orrrl r' .r l i i rrr:r r l rrrl ,i l rl, . r l, ( ' t t r i r r ' r r l r.r rr| | r' r' ],rri| l rr l rl rrl | l t r.r rrr,' 1,'rrl ,.r | | r' .rl .r l r.r | | . l o,.l . . r lt , . r ' , l l r' l r .r .rr r , I r' r ,r { t ,r .,.r l tr. .rrl rrtl l rl .r l r,| | l l l ,r I' , Il l l , l|o It.r l r,l ' lr '

rnt

,l O ; r ll. r l, , r r r r r rl r rrro l l ,rrrl rrr rrr .r,,,r' ,1 .r trl ql )ri r.s| i tt;l l i ! i 11fi gur.a 40. r.r Mo l o ttt l t t r P t it t r lt ' t t tt i rl l { l l ( l l ,rt // | .r' l rl l r., rr,t l l i l tsnti l i -Lt()rul ,i uportat d c p i st oir , n, : lr : ; 1, (,' u rri l o rrrr { l r. l ,r , tr j rrrrrl , rr, rrrrrIl ri rrIr.il l i . tl n al doi l c 1i, i n cl , lj _es t t :llr ( , \ ' : r z,u itrr i rrl ,rrl ru l l r,.l u l l r /l r r rrrr LrA l " tr Li i e cste di spus trt ir l n trc r : r ' lr '< lor r iL r r . l t' . l { o l o rrrl rrrrr,t,r i l rr tt,tri l i rrl ri pl .cvi zuti cn pi stoanc R' , C' , t piis iur l i rs rtp rr i rrr' l rrl rri/' . ^',

t;lllrillil,i:,;.'l.t,i,itl,:l,iti:iJr,t; ljl,l;l:lj;l:l
ti ci cst(' ctl alit t t t lt i t t t it t ' , cu I r ir I r ilr i i tt , i t.,,i i " i ' 1" cr t r '''int t li: r cslr ' lr l: r silli' 'r llt r r ilf "' ir \ 'r n ( r nr r ilr l

nri rtl rl t'u

; t t t t l rI r I r t r I i r r, t

.rl r' .i l tl t.

\' ' t l ()ri

s -l tl

i tr\i l l l

l l tl l l (nl rl

\r' l )\!l l l o|l l \r' ' .i l l

ararriinrisrrr.{ll,li::-lllf ;;',,,;;r;:.;,,., dai.orltr ii.,\ll,;lllli.',lill,,,,lll: dt'Jrlasamcntc rotirtlvc

l i r: . { l

i \ 1 " 1 r' f i t ' i n

!"tr

n r0 rr" { rL 7 n r'

lijs. 10. -

]Io to r n sin cr o n tr ifa o t

c.r Cf,",,,." l i cl ri (l i , i r

()tor.

Cilinclrii rotorului sint in comunica{ic intrc ci prin mici orificii. I'istoanele r1, B, C ale statorului lucreazi. in cilindli 1ic5i, in lcg;ituli cr,i trci conductc conlinind lichid, supus1a presiuni sonicctlcfazatcintre cle 1a 120', Aci:asta inscirmnir ci pulsatiile lichidului in celc trci corrriuctc de alirncntare sint proilusede un gcneratorformat din trei pistoanLr defuzateIa [20. Aranjarncntrrl conccntric ari.tat in figuri. este pur gi simplu diagramatic,iar in prirctic:rstatorul ;i rotorul pot {i a;czatc rLlirturiunul tle iLltul. Inelelc 1) gi Ii sint soli<larc cc.ca privcste miscalcl ccntlului lor comun O, da.r' in cc sc pot ir)virti indcpendcnt in jurul acelui centru, lunccu'ea fiind inlcsniti printr-un lagirr cu bile a;ez,atintrc elc sau oricc irll (lispozitiv contra fri.cu citrii, binc lublifiat. Acest ntotor cstc pcrlcct arrirlogiu pr-inr:iiriu allt nrllttt iu figurt 39, rczistent:rdc fricfiunc dintre tlausrrri!ilor ;i rotor' [iinrl Ia a rliltrc rlif,.r'i!iiriliuLlri rii inkx:uitir prin rczis tcnJa scurgcrr, lichirlrrlrri
r()l o l u llll. L I n all t ip ( l( : m o to r c s tc i l u s l l a t i n l i g rr t:r ' { 1. l ,rL rrr' r' slrr(,l or r\,(nl crrl tl o rri r pis t o; r nc , 4, li, l l rrx h rc i n d o l l rr:s i u n c rrl tcl rri rl i vi -r, , hri r,.rzrL rrsrrpr;r i rrr:l rrl L r/i) in r lilr x : { i t X,Y . l rrr:l u l ,f) r' s tc c o rrr: trl ri c crr i rrr' l rrl /i , r' rrrr' :rpi rs,r i ;i sc rrt i; r ' irt : r r pis lor rrrl /' l l to Io trtIrti . 0 i l i rrrl l i i , irr cl rr, l ri sl orrrrcl , /' l rrr rrl z,r, rrrrtrrruic i pt ir r r t ic i o ri [i c i i p tl l rtrr s r' :tr:rl i i rr l i 11rrti , rl A ur v iz r l r ; i rr tttrrtti v l l ' t ,rl l , rrrrrl i r' .i l ttl ti n,l i rl r r, .rrrrrtrrtl ,i i r,rl r,. ci r ,,..r , r , lr r r i. , ; rlr r , r l r' l r i rrl rr rrl l l ' | | rr rl o trrr rtr,rrri t| l r, ,| | I' r| | ,rIi \,. r\' | | r' l l i l ,

t i r c a r o t o r u l tr i

.ia?tr. ;t;iil
fcl ^ttv

sir ,,ri',iir,,rli,,,,,,1,l,i',,ltul, putcm prin invir.til.& r'otoluhri Ir.r''r.rtrr p l ( r l r tl l !l


,r * i r r r ,l t r i ,. i r r l ,,r 't,l .
l l l i l 11 . ll ts ttrtt' ttc l t' |ri tl i trttl .al l tl c

vi l ,z,l ,

1 1 ) l i l 1 i \r ' l r 1 l l l l l g l r i r r l l L t- t l tl c c"l o r tl o r ti ti cl 'l a sl tl l tt:1 1 ( i r r l c1 i 6 l u c cl ttt a cti .l tL l tzl .l l stl l ) l :t

o " o a l *. r , a , i

rlt . lrctr' tt{:t ,',,," ..:i,-;t...ti.t';',,,i r11'in'rliciitsttpt. cttt.n!il.t s.r'tici


l nal tl r' .1" 1' l t

l )l ()(l tl r, ' l t' (irr(' (l:rrrrrrl '.;i,";.,:;i,, l )(,i l tIi,r'"rl,,ir,i\ii,,.,'1rr crr.si'ui rtr('loiLrl sc ,.,ii,]. t"rt" nstttttt)tt' \.otll nlrllli )n.L!!)n)'' ',rtl(' ,',i,piui^'1,,,,t, viicz'.lr'.'\stf'lrl' rtrolortrc ( l ( r ) l l l l t- i l l r '

N r'si ttttll tl t

r ''l r ' r 'i r r ' l ) r '\- ( ) i ( , r t ( t t l o l t t , t l '. l .l l l l l r 'l r 'l l \l l ( l t .l ( \':i l ( ) l n l o l o a r r ' r i I r r p l r tl i r l :r i u tr : tl c i r sr ' p to tl l t' r ' r 'l l l ) l l l l ' i r r tl , l {tl ( ,1 ) l :l i tl r ) t. rtl:ttivi 'i n r r r ': l , t t t t il o tttt i r r ti r tr |r tl r l vr r l r r l i l i ' r 'i t sl l r l o tttl 5 i l o l o tttl L l t : t t r ' t.l l tP r l ( l l r .l ( tl . 'l l .i t'" "" ""t' Il l r tr 'i r l r 'ttl r l ' r l i \i tr r ( l ti ( i r 'r '/"tl r " l - 't r r r ( ) l ( ) i r r .l r irrl* l " , l f i , i i , , i ^ , .; ,,1 .,'tr r ,',',','l 'l "r l tr r l l tl r t'r ;r l r t r l r ' \'i l ( zl l sl l l ( l {}l l l ' r h 'l , t t t ', r ' t t t . ,t l l r ' I l l l 'l l r l l l r ,r \ttr l r " l ( 1 r' Ir r '1 .'l ttr l tl tt1 '1 't ttl 'ti tl tl l l I l i l t) t'l l l l l i ' i i r t ( r t t r t , , l , r r r tt l tr r ' l l l r r l l ' l ' 1 'r ' r l r i l 't "'l '1 i r r "tr i ' r l r ' ttto l o 'r l ' II|||tt 'r l l i l r l r r i l "r l r t'l tr r l IIIIII l r r t l r r r t .r r l l tl l |r ( r r '( l ,r tr r l r , l r 't i , r ' t l r l t .l l ( 'r l o f t tl i l l l l t \ tti ',tttt,i r ,/, l 'r l l .l r l 'r r l r l r |'l 'r tttr l l t'r l t 'l l r r |o l i l l l zi l l l l l r r 'r 'l r i r l l tl r l r ''l l r l r l r l l l I' I||i '|II||Ii II' ' t t t . r l r l t t r l t r tr l tl r r r r r .r r ,l ' r r r "l 'r ''t' ; r 'r r ttl 'l r r l "'l l ' l .:1 !l .l r r r r / l 'r r r r r r l ' l '' ' l i r r l l r l r ,l r l 'r tl ' l r t t . r , r 'r l " , r , ' r l tr "l l r r l r l r l r l r , l r t r l , , r ',i r r r i ,,r r l r l '| t ' ' , "1 r tttttt l r l r r l r 'r 'r l l tl 'l ( l ' "'r r 'l l l l 'l 'l l tl {l

llr

lt::il?,

r ltanivr.lir lrri yi o lrrr.l.i ttrrlJit.ArrrPrl

Pistouuluilucre;rzir presiune o

/r ,l/ sirr(,,/ ,1.O). Accasttr presiuneprotlucr. r.rrplrr urr inslunlirrrcrl ..=//re sin(a1, g), rl,l vitcza unghiularl- a rrriurivt.l,.r; ar Jiind * irl,{I v(, l ir\t.a

1;,,TTi,,1{,I"f,#(.,/'l

q}), (ltr sinasinp : (r/z)l.cos(np)-

M:(rHap) lcos(a, - a-1 ,1, q, _ cos@fr1 -l_ _ + p _Fql. pulseazigi valoarea medie timpul lui in unei perioade .,,,u,n t,t""'l.f""ot"

l\rlr.rrr :rrl Ir.l .irrr1rIrIicrr rrtonstrtr pentru cazul curenfilor poiifazrrti rI.c !ia l)r:rrtlrtrr g:'rsi plrxlus de un motor polifaza'tavem nel'ole nulllirr r:rrplrrl sccundar pentru fiecarefazi, a lua suma 9i a o tlivirl,: 'rl: r, clk:rrlir lrrr:rrrl1rr: prirt vitezt rotorrrlui. Si. presupuncm apoi cd.avem un motor at m faze gi cl voim a calt:ttlrr cuplul constani corespunzltor vitezei sincrone. Fie f curentul @axinr tlirr tr-o fazi. ;i Il maximul presiunii sonomotrice. Avem pentru lucrul rnecrrtti, al un.:i fazc Wr: (t IZ)HI cosa, O fiind defrzarea dintre curent gi presiuneasonomotrice.Cuplul motolrrlrrr va fi XtI : (mlZa)EI cos<D , valoarea rnaximi" estc M : (ntlza)Hl : mrQIIlL - (nlz)JII , ln care r este lungimea manivelci, Q - sectiunea Jiecirruiadin Pislorrttr', m - numi.rul de faz.e, A ,: z() - amplitudinca tleplas'rmetrtuluiitti t rttr cilindru. Daci energia absorbiti de tnotor estc If iar' \'itcza Lrniilliuliit,i ,t, avem, de asemenea, M : Wla. ltr' Analog, <1aciconsiderirmur1 Senclator avind rz {azc, cr.tplulr:rttr: buie aplicat rotorului pentru a producc m curenfi, defazali crr 2;/rtt, r',r lt M"- mWr1u, unrle IPi estc energia cheltuitd in fiecate' Iirz..i. Dacir fazeleproduc lucru intr-un circuit avind o lrzist('nfit /1, o ittct t gi o crpacititc C, energiirpierdutiLva fi Il" : (li})Rt!, irtr(h / ' .tr' lie curcntul unci faze. Inerlia I ;i capacitateaC n-au nici un efect asuprt vrrlolii lrtplrtlrtl lntrucit nu plovoaci. nici o pierdcre dc encrgie.

w.:1r1n1(a at,
* 7'fiinrl durataunei perioade pulsafie, de astfelci aven.r M. [sin - Q HAl27') (a]---ar * { _ o)/(ar _a) _sin

G,+ ot + { rltI o)l(a, { a)l[. Vcdemci daci.a, nu cuplu estezcro.penrru c.1 {trrl,ii ".1lrlg1l:r.f: ar.est .lcrmenisint fun;tji penoqceo.etrmp. (ilnd lnsl at : a, avim 9i rf _- O M : (t HAp) [cos({ _ O) _ cos(2at ,l T + o)],

:IH"''&i"':':"Ii3ii:
.I\[ai unshi J;pt' uri mult, constant, cici num5.r. -daci

medie estezero' este uu ci


cilir

*,g_??iif,tr:e,li,ru'"f *; -!-"i, i,?iil:'."u#r.':'lr:."'.t


suma

J,',' .lnfuT'1l T cos(Zat -il'',":}'"| 9 q O) tlevine !

Exenlle A sc girsi lrtngirtlcaunci rnanivclc pentru un motor tlif:Lzl1 r'rtr ilirrrltr rlt' tlcstitutt a producc 20 cai putcrc la o vitczl"L ('t)t)r,' <lc 2,5cm tlirrtttctt'tt, sonomotricell fiind dc 100kg,/cntr. volulii pr: ulinrtt, prcsiutrt:a (irplrrl rtr.t:r'sirt lx)lltrtl a olrlinr: 20CI) la fri't:l'eufatlu ll) pc st't'Lttrrlri, vir fi 2 42(} crrr kg It 2{}' ?6' ltx)/Zr' l0 rii irv'rrlr2 4Zl) (nl2l trll (.V2) ' l(n) A, rts(fll t:ir A l(t,l r:tttir1r'ttltrt
f i r . c r r l r . f i r z il . l l i r r :i "r , l u i r r r r l ttti r tr ', l ttl t- r 'l r tti tt{i r ttl Pi sl o r t.ttt: r l ,r 2 ,5 t:l tr tl i l tttt'l ttt, 'l J/n 2 ,5 1 3 ,2 1 i ( :tl l . r r ',r fi r I u r r l l i t r y 'r r t tl l l ti vch i A t t t v;l r ,r r l r ',"r | | I | | | | |i I t | ' I t ! t'i l l t tr tttr ' l xr l r l |zvr tl l l l tttl r ttl r l tt ttr tl tt;ti r l .r r i v i l r , r , r t l , r t , , , r r' ., 1rrt t t , I r' r '\,t( | t l l \'l l l '/..r Si tl ( l ttl l i l . ||l {,l l r ; ( . r l ,.zvo l l ;r l , r , r r l rr t v,r r i ,r l r t l r .||l l n |L r ttttr i tr h . r 'tt|z,r ,i , i |l r .,l t r r ,6 ,r l i r '' r .r t,' l i tt,l r ' ,i r o tl l l l zc r "tti .r l i .r r r r r l r 1 , l r r '. r tIr |Itr tl tr |,r t l u ,r i l tr ".,r r t !r l r '/,r I tr ",,tr ', ,tr r "'l r ttr l tt l ttl r l r ",i r l |r l l t( ;r \'l t|1 ,1 , .l l l 'l l ||l i r t ,( .r v l l | , r , . i , , 1 ,r ,J t l ( , t r , , t ! l l r ' /i r ttr l t,u l r t,r l l l l l l l l 'l l l r .r tr ' l tttr l r ',r ,r r r r 'l t.tr ','r ' tl tt'l r r tttl

:liix,ln'l/"ff"i:$ il!1'',-"li1J?# T,ffi*i;


Irit i. 4, 1.. l r i s i , , n n r n i / . lt ' s i l , i , , l . 1 t u r r r f L .

cu o prcsiune defazati, fafi de aceea a ciiindnlui *-"*'-." rrrmetor,cu unghiul d.intreixele citinaritor. lrrplasamcntul I cste in [i,,cirrcmoment D ==rO cos(rz,l1 r)).

( rrrr.ntrrlstutic va fi t =_(l8/d, , , _ rr,r()sip(a,t _f ,f). Lrr<.rrrl r:f.ctrrrrt in fi{\::rr(. l.(,urcnt . hiit; ,si .(:r.5lir t..l'tir. \.r "' "' r'11,rfrr lrrlrrrl n.zislcnt, . . - llt,ll: rrstfcl r r:ir ,,r,.;;, t',t, rh0sirr(,tl l,ll. Ar.r.crrli lorlrrrllt a foll 11,tlit;irrrrr,i r,rr:;, tir:

u0

{ll

irstfrl incit pctrtru ,,,,u lli';.;;li;i,illl'l;;: ll:,,;;;i :,),,J,,,;',1.,1;,,;,1,,i1u,,,';L::\l::T lxrrnirc / iiJ,,ii.:,:,i;;


t t r: ; lr'.1 xslr.

trC l ,rri I

s ,-L l l ,

l l l .rl

l tl i {

silll

!' gi l l

I rl

; ; i lll'llll deoarecc cupr,,r ,",,',llil;:;il,l"":l';:;iiil:': l;'l'rJ'il:i""'JL'.';u, llll,J r,i'.r',",,,.",it"'iiil,'l,,,li'ii,,


Atlr,ldt = .lt

o ,rrr . r r r r r r l. r r r r r l, r . lr

A,

Zllt r 'l, lnt \ .

,,,i,,,;]li:l;ill l..ji"lll;,,":11,,T:jil:1 ffili: rlIQ sin(a,t


J {) sin(.,tl- ()) :

\ "r I)aciL./ cste momentul de ilt cr lic volr t nt t t t ic al r olor lr ilr i t lr jut ttl axci, exPrimat ln ccntintctri, \'olll i!\'crr sliu, in

, A : (-;! j : ztrl qa3 _!,\


rl ., {iind ;.{rcutatca spc'ci{ici a ntctalului din cale c comptls roi('nrl i. lrLl'il ta Pomi dacir o arc o valoarc crltrsirlL ittr, . tili".t ci t rotorul nu

-;i -,- (r fl!!iz) lcos0,r

Iislc tlificil a ir rt cg.r-11 c o J s ;i rc u r,{ .,(, a dl r u stl u!:c ;Lproxi ma t.,,r ti 1xr:rlc girsi pcntru ntotoa-rclc l o l L l a z ]tc . [' c l i t ]1. i r.1l cl de rr,,,ttare

+ + _ (i,)_ cos(7 + + + ql. n--lr

(tu ltel2),.os(,1_ -,rrr {_O) _ AJ.ttdt. In ntontcntull:0 arr:r Drr1rii t'rr'l'ul 0 \'olll ?\'2 4r :4j Irrt(rl atulci punc fcnlrrr ,,"L 1',,.-0 p{'r'ro' tiacit' (L( ;rccastit perioadi )I

E xuttflrt
t ttt rtt fi l i rz,a tl c qi rat ic: r r ot olulr t i pcnt lt l cr m ot ol't ll siL poa( it pot t t t : n1, r'iteza clc sitrclottisut fiil'l 'r -- 100' <le lotatic l1 t' i . .r" m axiI nul r r z, . i r le gir a1ic. - \ t unci A: 20) i2l98l

{ ' r' ' l Si luf,m un motor dc 20 CP al ciLrltirotol cirtiroltc 2() li!


'!

iiiiii,

"j"

i.".i""'i:"iil:",)l f,'i|:;"u
(,r, -

<ie

a )t : u (tl tt _ j )i . Motorul va poi.rri d.rci 0 cslc <lcstul , . rlc rnrc, riirr lrcbrrie si. fie mar nltc rllcil pr,rioada dc- timp 7'. Sir presuprutcrrl iondilia inclcpliniti. Aii-r;cr rrr.cm uit nllt at ea d.otttlt , . (mrH!tl2A) (t., -( .

+ + - d)) iuc o vuloarccuprinsii intrc zcro un;tatc. Dacir motorul ia prca ;i lr.ntnl a porni, astfcl iucit in accst tlnl) s:r putcm considera putin tintp aceastircaD_ tll;llc (:a constant:r,punind. h . coslq ---ot -l+ l- ,t,). olrfirrcnrsimplu q : hiutrlIctf2A, sau clacr,rar : d si I _ 0 a: h\mrI.IelZA. Constantei ft i se poatc <l zcro

cos.. : g6s(1t-:7

t
I
I

20 'i600 ' l: , ''{' l( X) 'i, -Z ' t' r rtr i di n cal c r : 3, 4 cm . Daci. a ar f i 50 in loc dc 100 lt m olr lit r t (r'rrlr'l \icdcnt, Drin utmare, cit motoarclc sincronc sint gl'cu (l1 l)()rr)rl ( ut r 1r . r lr r . r '1r . , , , r r i nerti ci si ar 'f i im posibil de a por r r i uu ast f cl r lc lr t , l, , r . '' l"' I vol ant chi ar de dici dim cnsir r ni. \ um ai la h" \ i r ) lc f or r lt " i" ''' porni {irir dispozitive spcciale. La astlcl clc nloloarc ('s1( rr( r)Lrr'rtl bil dc a cir dabi l de-a int r cbuinla volant e loar t c r . lsoar ( ', l'c 1l: cl) ur c,1t . l) r . l'r : r Llr sl fic de diametru mic. ilotoale boLil&:dte ttsittcrott,:.Cu tnotoirrcle Poli{llzilt(: irsilrrr(!rr" "1" lt' trr posibil a oblinc uir cuplu de poluirc' :i l)r c:rrlitlrrL t 'L in lt.lt ' '1 ' r '\ Lcll1lr ( ir r t llll'lr , ( oll: llr lr lr r ! r r l un cul cnt sonic unci m at r ivclt ' sit u llllui tnlti srts' motor ca cel ilustrat in {igrua '19, clL'strris t t' iu C uren{ii car c cit 'L: ulir {icclt r t m r , t r t cnt in cci t lei cilir lr Li- l ll rr : ,l sin (a/ - J; \; ir : l sin (al -; 2;;3), i, -. l sin cl, cornuoncntcle unui dt:plasltncnt o-. ' Lir acegti c,rreufi .'u. cotl'spurdc dcl asanicniclc tltlr: tl'r:

..,, ,'*,i--{"io."#iu' ;,i;ii'p:l"ill'","*ii";:'l:"


ll{' Iltill Illt( :iitt r,!a l c t t

conditia eiunitatc.

'{,'il,,",1;,_:l,rf Tf; ;,1;,,?i::,'illlllu.l,l l,li,.i"?/tl ,,,,il,lll"i,,oni* ,,, .


. l . , ilv ! , ) . t , . , , t2 . ( rr r.il rrr fi n t lr i nt iu. t . r . ; r lr lt lc ir lt r i 17,r . t r ir l i l _ r . l r I i rrtlri rrIrr.clc tr lxu.rri l/? t1,l)l(,z . lr t i' ( l { r . ir r , { iu' r , r r r Lr ' |t , r i. ir r L i ,i ,,,,,ii ,.,,r,,t,,1ii, i,, ,..,,,, itliltK{, r'ilr,z; L r ir . s ir r ( . t - or r r s r l. \i.rt.rrt. _ lllirr rt l. nt : r r i. , r ; - , r rl. itr.rlic it trt,l'iL'

d-r:\trd /
8. :

a... -.

( / / , r ) cos ( ] 1, l', (l/tr) cos(a/ 2tl3)

)- ({a) cos(nt 2nl3l,

tl. l(' ' rl, tur)l()lll

sii trr: nlrri nrjc rh.it ,,,,,,,,,,,i,;'illll:ll'.ttl


l,ir: l/ ll' (t

lriit{iLrl

lr,lrri,'

ul( r . 11 q1 11 . 1q, 11 . r t t ( . . r it | | I | | | r )| .| | | | | i . A \ 1 . l l l ' 1\ t , t ll! . t ,

n2

! 'e d c t r a tn l tci ci L ,) tr si c u l l tct:tttt, tl tr r rtttp l i l r ttl i ttr r A f'r , i l r l i r ti r r vi t( z,i - t r l sl i L t) l i t i r t j r r l r r l r tttr ti I'r ttr r I l i x. co du-sc crt o r t ., I I i i ; c l t r cr L l tr tttctttl r ti O, |t.i i r r tl r r t:r r '', '" 1 :r " 'l r r f i i ' r 'i r r 'r r l r l l r ti tt{i I v i t c z i r t t n g l ti r r l a l i r t:ttttst:tttl i t, r 'o tl sp ttttzi ttr l vi l ( '/r 'l r 'l l l r 'l r r l l r " , l l i i t : u , t- r :l tr :n l r r r l u i i r r r .l r r l r r i ,/r \"r l ) r 1 r ( l l r r i r r , i l i r r r l r i i t,r l r 'tttl ttt , tr tl .ttl t . i r , . i r , : j ', , t l c t:i r t'o t vr tl o t'i l t: ttr ttl ,I, Il tttr tttIr . l ' l 'r l l l i r r l tr r l t' r |. 1 'l l r r l i i ( ' r rr vi l ( r i t t t t t ; JI t i t t I I t ,I .r t.l l r ttl l tt \r l r '/'r ,r r l ,r l t ,t l t , 't r l r r l . \ :,r ;r i r 'l o ;r ttl l , to l o tttl r tt ll r r I r r r l r r r r r l l r l r "l l l 'l l tr r l 'l "l r r l ,r ' \'"r l r 'l l ',r 'r l . r t , t t t ttl , '1 "r r t ,,, t r r !1 1 ,,/,r ,l ,\ l r tr l tl tttr l tt , l , , l r l , r '. , r r r tt,tl r r l '. :;;;r ;l ,i =f ,..., ;

\ lif r ' r t 1. ir s . r r n l ,rri \1 1 .r r,.rl ,r ,r I,u r,.l rl n i { ) r,sl t: .\/!} , !) fi i nd sccl i utea rrrtr_ l, ls l( ) r r r l s lr r ( o trrl ri . l i o l .rrrl , Ir rrr l rn trr(,, r.st(,sub i rcti unea unei nta_ rri 'r,'. r [ r : lr r r r l; ir r 1r : / a /!r tl d !), , ttrlrttrlrr-sccrr vitczir unghiu)rrrr"L rr ,lr. Sub aceste condilii curentul in fiecrrlr. r'iliutllrr rLl rotor.ului viL fi tlc forrna:

llxplrsirr lrri ,1f irr [i rruncr

It :

(3lz) . SaAj/(Sc+ Czo2).

Valoarea maximl a lui .&1 pentru o pulsaije a este dati, de re.latja \ == Cor, prin urmare

. M^,, =-(314)Ailc : (3lz)cui: Qiz)c@alal),.


ru,,". : (3/2). SHila. ,

j,

Cuplui de pomire cste l4o :


lncit

J sinl.(a ar)tl, 1r: - J sini_(a 73 : - / sinf(a - ar)t - hl3],

QIZ) . S ila , maxirqul fiind

nr)t !Zrl3),

Itt crLr: f
I t lol()f lut-

- (IQr/C))(I - arlt), Q, fiind supra.faja secliunii unui piston a1

XI,IM^"' : 314:

| - arla : s,

Iric M cuplul rezistent si 11, presiunea sonomotrice in rotor. Ilotorul lrlc rLt:fiouat-deo rnaniveli tictivl r:.\/O gi r'1punem consiJcra ca un gettr:r'.rlorirvind o maniveli / care se inr.irte;te cu o vitczi. a - a, ;i dezvolllttrI trr cuplu M lntre manivcli.;i rezistcnia antagonisti. Spre a -giisi cuplul ttlrls,rr pcntlu a lnvirti gcneratorul, este su{icient a cunoalte lucrul efecfuat
rr' ' lll' . l l t l l l)rodusI.

liir.5 t:ocficientul de pcrditantiL a1 curentului dinlr-o faziL a rotorului. l,rrcnrl ntcdiu e{cctuai itcr secincliL in rotor va {i dat de ll'1 e4 dd W, :

*) ' 35'H'lz ' .,r ;" :rlt.L p.rrtc, cuplul M inmultit cu vitcza unghiulari a /U ,,1, , f t ) . : i[ pu n c m ,r -.rl : c [. a l l l r]c l (.f

ItI - 3slIilz(rt - t.tr') : 3SHil2r. . cstc curentul in lotor;i ,!, C perditanta si crLpat:itatcirirr iie -l).rcr"r./ r;rtr. lirzir, avcm in notatie simbolicii:

s {rind, alu,necatea motorului. Energia comunicatir. rnotorului l'rind, Ma si energia consur'r)ai: ,il/,/r, cficienta rr este dati. de q (o - dl)ia : I - s. - trtarlklo: 1 Astfel peutru a oblinc eficienlc inalte, alunecarea trebuic IIr,||(I||||| | s cit mai mic6. posibil. De exemplu, dac5. un motor este destinat rr ,l, z r',,ll r cupiul slu maxim cu o alunccare de 5o/o,eficienfa urasirnir. posilrili , t, ,t, 95o/o.Cuplul de pornire ar fi de 5 o//o din cuplul maxim; dacit s. ( r'r, r .r' obline cuplul maxim la pomire, S trebuie sporit intr-un motl orrt,r'.rt, lr \ valoareaS: dC ti imediat ce motorul a cipitat yitezi, perclitarr!:r trr' buic redusi la valoarea a S:(nat)C -':seC, in scop c1c ol)lirr, t rrl)lrrl tnaxim in vecin!.tatea vitezei srncrone. llotoare monoJa:ate asincl'o 'e. La motorul ilustrat iu ligtrrrll I . lrr' ar viteza de rotalie a rotorului ;i 1curcntuL maxim din stalor. Dcplasanentul ) r'a fi o' : - (Ila) cosrrl: -- .\cosc/, r trtrrrlrrl itr stator fiind i: I sinal.
l)ar dcplasarnentul allcrnatil poatc {i cor:siderat t:a rczultanta a doui. deplasaurente tlc jurlirtatea amplitudinei, lnvirtirrrhr-sc in st:nsuri opuso cu o r.itczir unghirdari-r a. Vtloirrca fict:ir.rci conlpone ntc va fi (I l2,a)cos at, , i rttl :rr r r plr lr r r linr ':r l, 1r l: r r m r . r t r {'lor r elat ilo \ - ir f i s; ;rc l l Z,r ..i v;1 r 'or , 'spunr h.ir nliur i\ i. lc f i, t ivo t le o I t r ngirrrr' {2a(l r. (,ttrr:nlr r l / lllr x[ r r s ir r r olor , vt f i ir t r r uci sum a a tloi r:ttn:n{i rLriot'rr{i rttilt:itlii lolonrlrri in rlport t:u cele rkrrri th:Jl l tsiur t r . nl(r '( ) lir livr )r : ousir lcr '; t t c. ' V i l t:zch: r r lot r r lr t i lr lr r I or 'l r : t r r r lust r Lr r r irr lcplar i i r n l ( : r r l ( : , v ( ,r ' l t: c( t tt ttt, q ,\ tr - l ( t.1 . A l I l K l "l si t ttti ti sr t:r r 'a r r 'r tPl r r l tttl r l i r r ( l i r l ( r 'i l 1 l ( :r. o ; r| ; rri rr t r1 rrI rrI rri l o l l r l i v cr r vi l r .zr r r r r 1 1 1 Ir i r r L r r '.r l :r r r u t r l o l 0 t l t s r r rr 'r 0 r r r .r t l r r 'i 1 ,i :l l o .ttr ,.r ':.1 | t..i ti . 4 :t. t) ( .r .( ,,r ,t{ n cr ci r r r n .r r r ';r h r i r r l l ( :'tr i i i v' i n ttr r t( h t|( r 'r :u r r r r r r r '!t r r ctr I i 'l ) r r r i '

(-/): ls I JCa-, rr,,

_= Hi =_ J,16l, c",").

I'rcsiunc:r rezultanti asupra tratrsmititorului, prirnitl din partca pisloirrrrlor statorului la un rronenl tlai, cstc o for{ii constanti. ci nirr.iinc. Arr':rs t . - rlor ii , . s lc p ro p o rl i o l rrl .r rrr rru rrti n rl pi sl o:rncl ,l ,l i rr st:rror' :i ,.u .url'lil_u([incr prc.siunii strnomotricc 11 si sccliunea Q a pistoanelor- statorului. l)ur:ir considerirut rotoru] ct iLviird at:eler;i numirr dc pisroauc ca 5r sral.lttlt., I tNrclitr,rtc(L pistoanelor rotomlui asupra transmititbrulrri di o a1tir. lor'(:"1 rczultantir, propoltionaliL cu nurnirrul pistorLnclor tiin rotor., presiuncn r,ottotuolrico fl, tlin rotor ;i scctirrrrtr;1 a pistoanclor rotorului. Q, I1'rrtr-ll ir sc nlcntinc trlLusrnii i'Lt orul ht, pltttirt, cck douiL {or{c lczullrrttlc, tl:rtoriio :Lc!irurii pistoanclol stirtorulrri ;i rcacliuuii pistoanclor rotorrrlrri, lrt:lruic sr-r cgali, irfrrri-r r'tzrrl r:lnd tiansrnilirto.,,l ,r.t,, ro"rte gr"l't' fie tL. = iii lrcrrvcufrrhrrrltir. l\Ltorrr sr:ric <lcr.iFlO . l/rQ,, incit fl! -./J/(.!, i,C!a) , (/fr)/{),)r ;i ,1./ (3lzl ..rJilz(.\2 | C2rd2)a. I l' it s r ' t t lr t l( : ir, o m :rv ./, . rl A ,/rl / , A, l i i tt r I r lr P lr r s r Lr r u :n l rrli rr o f:rz :' r rrl o l o n tl rri. I)rrr l r r' :,i r.o Irrrrr' !i r. l l r.ri orl rr r[i l i i r[' o llt ls r L{ il o r, rtr;;rl i r(l i rr;rv r.ttt i rr r rrrl rrl i ,.:ri rrtl xrl i r'(/,) ;i /a:\1, i :rr' l rl r r lt r r rI rII I )I i I r|(I i | |r. /l .a ,\,.
'r |,r. rrir.r t,. , . , r r ,lr r ! ,,"' 1 ,,,,,1 o , r , l, ",,' ,r r ",,,r ., 1 1 .,. I lil, .,,) l? .' , lll' ,

rl/

(r/.,) . r.,a,\i/(\r I { xrx)

\l

l l l r l l r r r rr l , tr '.tr !'r .r l ,r l r tr t l r ',r l , l r l r ,r l ,r l ,.r r r ';tr l l ,r r r t,r ,r r Ir r r l l r r r o to .r t'r . r| 'r| | | r | | , | | | r, r l r r r l .r vi l r l r r ,r l l r r l ,r r .r r r r r r r r r r .r r l /, ',,r r r ,l .i .r rr r r .l .r l r r ',i i r l , r l l , , , r l r t t r | r,r r r r ,l ,r l r r ,r ,r I ,r r r l |r r i tr ,||l /., ,r r r r l x l ,. ||t||l r r ,r r r ||tr ',r l r r , l r t ', t r r ', , l .r r r ,l 'r l 'l

'

( rrlrlrrlr,,,rrlt,rrrl lr .rlrrrrli rlilr.r'r.rr{lr ,rr ,l/ ,\,\"1o,/(,\" rllcri) e2l(.sr Csel).. -l Irr rrr',rrst,r l,rrrlulir rrnl irululiit crr factorul 2 in loc d.e 3, dcozrrcce
tttolot - rrl lrrtrstrlr,r,rl , r r r . r I r r r i |i. 1oir lt : in loc tl c 3 . l,rt lxrt-ttill tt a . r, si i!\'elll -)1u .= j. 11"ru1,', cir !-lotol'ul nu POare l)(n'tlt slllgtLt (-t \,r ((.r(. 1tr inrplls pontlq it st llrrpt il tnirsclLr.. Sr'Llrttttcrrr 1 .t , 4 - t t t . = s ( r , it nnc i a, itll - s ) +. 1 - 2 r l l i (l aca s ( \ {t. t)ri(-, ir.\'(rl

) I - t , . (rrJ r/.S rs /(l f

(C a s i 5 )r) -- z l (t 1- (2C rrl S )r)r.

I
x

( tt|lul cstc l)ractic rna\irn cind ,9: Cd.s si \c(l,,nr (ai ix'ntnt a( cirsti-! vrrl l rti. lr , r nt er t ul irl d o i l e a d i n P a ra n tc z i -rrl c v i nc (:e ci r (- ( . c s t e neglija l ri l . ( r r plr r l nr ax im c s tc , a ;a d a r, i rl )ro x i rn u l i \ ' ,1I,,,,..= rrs.\r/2.9:

t,

zi(t -i 4ls!)- s2lz ,

\!12.C,

(o('.r c(' fste analog cu r-aloarea giLsitr-L pcntnl motorrrclc in tlci fazc, a.\.inri lirclorul 2 in loc dc 3 ca multiplit ator al cuplului J1, : J't4/-, rlttoritir unci silillu c [azc din rotor, Xlo[ourc crt, colcclor, Motoarek' dcscrisc l]rai sus dczvoitar ur cuplu (le pornirr: comparrrtiv mic, car,: po:rtc fi sporit nunrai prin dispozitive carc irtrPlicir o picrclcrc tlc cncrgie. Ascmen(.a motoarc nu sii)t al)tc [),ntru clr'-lri in catc sc cerc o vitczir variabili! fiLriLpicrdcrt ric putcrt'. Iu scolul, a5arl:rr, tlc a obtinc cupluri (lc potnilt' rnrrri estc ncccsar a irrtr(,1)uirta o coltstnlctiLdifclitiL. 'l'r'LsiLturacaractcristic:r r:rccstui tip du motol rst( c.i (urcntii produii (lo pistoanele rotorului slnt colcctafi ti distribuili in mod potrivit dc ciLtre lln organ {ix pc calr-l vom nunri (olcctor sau distribuitor. Acestui tip dc ntotor ii vom clir tlcnumirea gurericir dc ttrolo,vt cu colaclor, Ro',orul cste {ornrrt rlintr-un nurrlilr dc cilindri rrniform spa(ia!i purtind pistoanc ii capabili dc a sc in\-irti in juml colcctorului {ix sau distribuitorulrri. L,n olgan, pc c:lrc l-am numit mai sris lransmili,tor, estc intcrpus intrc pistoancl. stirtorului ;i rotor ca ;i in variatclc tipuri dc motoare asincrorle dcscnsc lual sus. O formiL t|' rnolor-cu colcctor cstc ariltatr'Lin figura 44. Itirtilc lst'n(ialc sint err:rtatcin linii plinc. llotorul R cstc Iormat dinlr-un rrrnrirL dt: cilindri ptrrtin<l pistolLnc 1) dispusc unifornt in jrrrul unui ccr': l')ti cilindtii conruuical cu un spatiu cilindric impirrlit plin o dia. lragrtrit 7 in <lou pi-Lr!icgalc (I, r. l)i:rgr;rnra 7 t'stc concentlir:iL cu rotorul r-L atcstui;r si-r. invitlclsci"r. libcr astfel clL t:ilinrlrii rotourlui siL fit sc iii lx'urtito irnL'n rr, l. (]r'lt rL-\riu<:omic I,llii s (:ccsiv irt cotttuniclIfic crt tk\rir c<lm1lltr't (I, 1,. slnt Ir'r'hrllgilc irr u[:rlir rlc rot()r' PIin tlorriLtt'vi rlt' iL';irc l)llllirl('rtc (l l i rr.Ir.r ' r r t c l, . r ' onr tl ,.:r,' rrtl i L , t: i l s c tu { n ti r, l )ri n l i 1(r(l (.rl , l r. S t . r lolul c r r pti l < l c tl o i c i l i rrtl ri l rr' :rx a XX , :rl i rrrl i r' ;i ri l r' .l yi /i . l l j tttttl t olot t t lt t i s t ' r is r' ;l c rrrt i rrc l ,/i i r! (()rl i r(l rrr Iri storrrrl l r,/' .rl , r,rl orrrl rri (l rr rri rrl o r rrl i rr,l rrl rri /r qrrrl r.rr i rrr| rri rrr:r l )ti n l r llr ilut i ir hr r r t ' r' i l o i rtr'l x rtri v i l r' , rIr' I rIrl rrrrIrr.rrI rl r rrrr .rl rLri l r.rr Ittl rtto t lr is lolr r r r , lo tto l o trtl rri u r rrl l !ri i | ti i rcl /) , r rliot t ir l t lr ' | i rl rrrrrtl l , s l .rl ,' trrl rri ,,i ,r, tro rri rl l i rrr.l rrl/' l rrrrtr rrrr Lr/' ,i r rrr l ,i l, . , r r t ot i, , r r , rrl l rl i ,.1 r' z rl i r In l rr\tl tl rr ,ttr,r l t,r,l l

Y ty l r-. ll. \fol or s oni c c u c ol ec trn

statot- irr' lrtl'tt /r' ' l)acir o mi;catc altcrnati\':t cste comunicatir dc pr r - r ducliaunot . - cur ( r r li ir r r ilt t r 'lr r r t " cint i ccasl :' tmi ;ca I t va a\ '( 'l cil colI S( a; i b' llc t ot . 't t r lr r r ' t(' l rrl ui i i acc; li cur ( 'l) li l) ot I i col( ct ali^la icliiile xl acest ui t ip ( l' lr r ot ( ) r ' \ '. r r r 'r r 'r l l l nai nte ilc a lr ccc I t st r r t liul i. or ct ic eclri\ al('nl t rr rrrr rt'l,l .ri .otoi ii fu un nrrmirr (lc pistoanf, ca in figuri' estc

O s('ctiun(' aic ciror.axc rfli't .,, anui 1,irir"n",lc o.r,nrnniti '.' lJ;i'"ll];l,,ll,ll' l,c lirir zZ ,lirr l anul diagrrgmci7', rrsl t0t'rrrrll" 'ti',^ii,'' titrtP " ".lri,:r,ii,1.ii-iir,l tlitti'ut.t,'pt^ii'iiirrrlului '/9;'inac.,la;i ii-*"r " ;l tr i tt jr t t t t l ct 't t t t t t lui t liaf t agnr ci i rrvi l i r'
ii;,: i' ,,;;; ;.'iii,i,l, ,,, c.ttl-rttl"-ttrtiiurtlui, lu, t,,,trk: itrtctsrrli. al lirriilor .\l ;i )'l',
ttt S i 3 r tr ':,1 r tttI, r .i tttt r l ''p l l tsl l tttr l tl ( ) i r t ( '(! r f ( l r r i t r r t t,x i tl l t r r r l ttcr '1 tr r r r r t t t t t r i l , r l r ri tt i r r r 'l r r l ,/i ,\' t':i l tl t l 'l i r si r l l l l l l l l l l l l l l ;r l {l r ' t t l r 't t l v t t l i l r 'l l l l l i l l l l l l , L tttl tIIItIr ' i tl r l i l ''( 1 i 'l rl.ll,r:,,rttrltrlr' , l i i r i l , l , , r l ,t l r ,r ttc r r l , l r 'l r 'l r l l r r r ' 5 r 'l /',l .tg ttt,r 4 i t. r 'r ' 1 , r , . . r r p t t t t ,t ti ,., i tr ,'l r r l I r r r 'l r r " tr 'r l l 'l l ' ,, i l r "l ,r r r l i,,r,ui' 1u ' tttr r r t '. r i r , i t r r r,l i l 'r r r l tl l l r l l r "l \.r 'l ttr r tr l r , , rt r l r ,.t z'l . l { r 'r r t Ir ||tt|ttt,r l l l l ,,r l tl l l r l 'l ',l r l l l l l l r r 'l r 'r , l , l , r i l l r tl l r ,'( r ,r l l \,' l l | "l l r l l l 'r , , , , , \ ll r l r , I |l l "l l l i l r r l

z- .- -

/r
o
,,,,'

Y r.-\.,

v1
w
rr, ' l

/}_\_ - - ;r -)$g'."''na/

, , , , I ' rl , , /

',1

r' 1 '

l) r . P lir s : r r r r r . r ri rrl l ri rl rrl rtr lir

l rri rr i rrr.s l t)i ston va fi

I)r,'l:rsurrrr.rrlut.,rri]r,i,r,,r1,i'rrp*"r,, fi prirr ,,,,,,r a'a .rmare ..\ t)r.f, orsinp.

,,,,,,,,J:''illl',.;''ll,'li:1,,i',"i1 ,liHJ:i,x"irii:,n;?::ffi.i'.""i#i#::"1,:ll.;.i
lirhirlrrlrri, trebuie sr-r ir\tmO : i osin p, sau A : I.zsinp.

.o0,o,, avea oo,n Dentru ,,, n.,,,tliij i f*f,',Ii, ?"1#t,,lijit,lt 3;:ru"1ngl,,


9, = z,cl.f ,
l.uirrd suma.

pr: z.zrl.p

$i

e : o,'--f,'sin (hhlp;.

;i,;li[fi-{"Til\;"1,.?:,t'ff;"1"'rii'""'.t"ir':*
Ile{crindu-ne la figura 46 lx,||lrlr plstonul ir c;irui axi este ItulirrirtiL un unghi 3 iatri dc cu txt ZZ, vatiltitt dcplasamcni ului rlrrloril rot:rliei rotorului va fi 8, cor, 'cosp - cos(p 1. :1y = : e(o/l sin I , r fiind rrnghiul inst:rntaueu de z rolir{it'. Vcdcrn atrrnci ci deplasa_ rr(.nlul total al lichidului in-acest , ;rz va fi

iii:l"H:l,l/,t"::':i1"3:.T.T*,:::ilTti"t;1"illi,*i"X":Jf;f ; d";;"t';;ru pe ,'tv, iinia


W

ctg .oblincm O : <o (rf)

in Motor cu colectorauind.cone:ciu.ni faralel. Un motor cu colector rL' tipul arltat ln figura 44 poate fi legat cu un generator precum se aritli in figura 4?. Pentru simplitate rotorul este reprezentat de pistonul siu cr:hi vilent i a, b sint ie;irile fixe din colector, care comunici. cu rotorul 9i l/t conexiunile statorului. Cele doul tevi, care duc de la stator 9i colector irr .4 ;i b, sint in cornunicalie printr-o teava comuna cu unul din polii trrrrri generator bilazic G, pe cind ce'lelalteie;iri B 9i a sint legate cu cc'lilall p,,l al generatorului.Generatorulpoate consta dintr-un singur piston cu <hrlrlrr efec"t,o fa{ir a ciruia este in'comunica{ie cu,4 9i b, pe cind cealaltir frr{;r este in comunicatie cu B 5i a. Sl presupunemci inelclc transmilitorului sint limitatc in miparc 1,rirr ghiduri paralel-e cum se aratir in figura 44 in linii Punctate, astfcl c;r rriri G, un dcplasament sir nu poatir :rvea loc in direcJia ab sats ba. Si prcsupunemcii aria de sccliunc a pistonului statorului ('slc ((irlii cu aria dle sectiune 1) t pistonului echivalent al rotorului. Dacir cut't'ttlrrl produs dc g('neratorcst,' i, ur:estasc va imperli in doi curenli ti,, ir, ttttttl t icurgindu-seinstator ii celilalt in rotor,;i lom ar"eain fiecarcmorrtt'ttl care polte fi cornunicat-transmi{itorrrlrti cr'll Singulul deplasamc'nt deplasamintul in direclia lD. Fie'accst deplasament Fie a ;i a' vilczr'1,' -8' unghiularc lle generrtolulrti ;i rotorului respectiv. Din cauza rota!ici, 'r' .t,8. va produc. in iotor tttt r'urr'r)ldirtatnict. ^ I)aci neglijirrn picrdclile prin perditanfi ;i frecare, turentttl i vrr lt -cri I1; sortomotrice ;i dcoarecccurcntttl i' I'slr', rl' ln cuadrartulir presirruea D, cn in asemenea, cladiaturiL cu deplasamcntul urmeaziL 8 ;i 11 sittl irr [;rzi.

ci pentru rotatieinstantaneerotoo a ,,'1,,i,::,':":ffiyu:;l*n:,"'4la directia ZZ, iJeptasarrrr.rrrur richidurui rncr;*r:S:f:ii#?J,',1i3,i;.* cst-e

I
4
\

'/

m\
,,inn ) I
t'-t/

'K

ii3-E

Deoarcce 3 cstt' o furrclic pt'rioclicl'L tle a ;i ddl, l/ 1 Pulr : r n sct it it l cunoJtl em ri i|' notalie simlnlicr-r (f1) = - ja.\ , in care A este t ampl i t udi nca t leplasar n, t t ulr r i d. ' .\vcm ; r lr r n, - i it I t ) , 'lat i( ' silnl'oli' i

(1,) (4 == I ("r,) ,

(1) 'j,rA -i-,rrJ

1 ,.

uI

(o/r Slll . I I'iA. {6. -

r
t)ePlls,a.nrentul pistonului sirD^t la unRnrli lilfr tlc.rLx zz.

si pentru aruplitudineir ,I a r'ttrclttttlui la g"icr"tur lr_--A'(rti + a!) . astiel in<it A : I lV &1 -W. I-ucrul cfectuat dc lotor cstc r r , D[ . Cuplul inst it nt ancu, pr in M4t - hi 2 rrltttirrr', cstL' LI . 3h. Anl gi'rsit rrtiri srts lir d;i I sittt irt fazi. :rstfcl r:r-r rlircir ittst'tturirtttprin A 5i 1I a.rrrpl i l rrrl i ni L. l c i'slor ( l( ) uir cr r t t t it ir li, pulr 'nt | )urr('
h ll ll .l ttl ,

I)acir ltistonrrl cchivaftltt:rr. rt :rtic <10 scr:{irrnc (}, A, . c(Ir,,

.\ sirrrrl
lll rrtl /I,\ r.irr .

llfit: S c l t c rn : r c , l t i r: t l rt t t , r ;r tt (: u (: rn . , 1 , , r. \,,uic l ru r' l r)l rn u l

, rsl fr.l ri: t lr ,

o rr,:' i l l t,i t.t

f,

orsin p, ircr:t'a;i r.lir

lir, olrlinulir mti

v ( , l l l i l \ l ,l

l 'tt lt ' t t t ir r - r r r l s lr rrl i rr rrrrr,l r..r.i rz rrr.i rl r. tl o r.ol ..in,ltitit.,r l l y ;111.,.,, .r.l or.,rtl i l i ri rrl rr* sr,urtrtr..,r .,ir,ri,., ,,,,,,, l:,.tj:11..' l:t r.irr , I rl r r.,,l r, .rr.l .r rl rr,,l t,rl luii,'i,,i,,,,il',.,, .:1,,];l]t rr.tr.(.rr. r t r l, lr ' 1i, .14. i rr i r11rrr,r ,.i rrl i rrr l rri rrl r rrrr ",",.,,, p t,,lo rr l r lr r r . r lr . r r l

( rrpl rt l, I I ) '1t lr r ir r t t t t t t . r t , , pt t l ". r z. r ', . i r '. t lo; t t , ', tlr r l lr r , ', li, v'r li r 1/ , l ,i r, / r , r lr . r il. r lr . , r , lr r r I ir r r r r l ir r r , t t r . 'n. , . rr r r 1i, . r r r , t r lr t l t 1 , r l|. t t t ; r t t l t ll ! t ll , \ r / , 'l , r , \ . , r '. 1 l , . i , \ , l ll l, fl rl .l l f Il ' rt | , ' I t I t t t t trI lt t t , \ l, t l, t , t t , , r li't , t l, r lll, il r l1, , 'l, lt t r rt t r '

Y - Jlt(rr I rl)U ,

iu, it

l'ir' .\,,, rlr';'1 , 1, r r r l r t l l ] i lr ' t , r l|t lllI i; , .l/ l;/2 ( ll | ( , r , , r l

ir \ r I l

iltilt

clic

aJ,,, rr' ' f l

V t ' r lc r r ( . l' L : r r PIrrl(s l r. 1 l l l l ti tx i l tl rrr Ii trtl rr1., zcr.o, ei tl i ci rl a porni r,:. t _ l );rrri lr L' A c r r rpt . n1r' i rr,i l l z :r l { rrri l i i rl r, 2 rr, lLcl i ci r-otol ul l rrncfi on-eazi L cu o ti tczi r lr r lr lir ir c c L :i s i l r.ro rrr' ,, rrp l rrl rl l va 1i cl c ci nr:i ori mai :1.,t,: l )r)rn irc t rr r:rr lllul nollr ll. Vi:rlcnr, ayatlar, ciL ac('st til) (lc ltolor estc potrivit penlru scopuri dc . lrirctiuuc;i caz,rrriin carc sc cerc o autoreglar.c a puterii. I)utcm cisi presiunca sonontotricc prccurn urmcazir

a, : I2l@2 i l)corrreccJ=,=aAo, rvcn

lli) . rnai rli:paric .l,I==

^lc Vcdem zrtunci cir ,FI cslc, dt. lrscntcltca, ma\imum la pornire si (lescrc:te . r'l ttrl v it c z l t r c s t e. l ' tc r(.t l n o c i u l i c i " L \a i i
W -. Xt[c\:.tAii2ctl * (trla)"],
r:ltto irrc un maximum pentru \aloxr( ;r lui ir- Ia care etipresia lf a1{ arl,t, rrlo n nlinimum. Accaster sc intimpl.i cind ar : n ;dic:r la viteza - cle I{||r't'{)nlsm. l);Lci. cosO reprezintl factorul de putere, a\iel]r (HIIZ) cos <D: lV

=-\olclll + @lldq.

L -

Sol{l + (,tllrrY ;i

;r,tttl rl r I 1. { 'sir r , r / l' r r r r r / '1, f iinr l i r rt r1 I i I t t rI i rr' ' r ' i ,zrrl 1rtrrrIt t t it t r I r ir cr it lt r i sot r ic t t ,i l ,r,, t t r glt iLt lat ir clc r ot at ic il c\ ( ( nlli( t t t t t i slt t t llt t lsit {iir , ir t t r r r I iI r r r i/' ,, ti mP L r l, i[ sccundc. ;i j l )aci r. accst gencr at or est c polif azat ; i iir ''; r r e lir z'- rar c sr t pit pc r lr '; r r l (lr' niisie si re{ularc c;ncctatc la un ii|crrit dc turcnt colltiuurr, rtiit (:lllll s ir ( '\ ccr r lr ilr r lr r r s.ri s1;ai srl s, lr llm lm l im pr r lsudlor ', Pcnt r u f iccat e r - ot a1i( ': t rr;.i ,ni rt' l ci t. \ a f i ?' ( nulni'r ul d, {azr '1. i rr nrl . , . l i; nr r it f , z'lc sit t t coal r li. t r ilr r r it ' in jlf r r l ' r 'nllr r lr r i 'l' r '"t r lt ' ol, a1 r\centri (uhii lst lt l ciL cclt ' 1) im pulsur i r ozult at c sint , t lc ast lt t t t t lr r ' t t t t t form di stri l r uit c in t inp. Consiclcrincl ca variirbilir -1: ' rrl, stttlli! curcntilor ctlnulir!i irri.r i rlt ciin liccare faziL in circuitul dc curcnt contiDur.l poattr fi calc:ttlatir rrsll'l Presurrunind ciL debiiul unci fazc urn:trc;te <lcplasalca pisiotrtrlrtt c etteratorul'ui, atunci o iumitatc clin p.rioarla dc rc'olulie a cxc.nlti.ttlttt iunaoa d" rcfularc cstc tltschisiL, iar iir cclalaltl-LscrniPerioad:r cstc itlr lti 'r r'rttl,,r Crir.cirtrrl in timpul unci rota,tii complt:tc poatc fi cxprimirt pri't' . Foulir:r discontinui.

();rsr'tttr'rt,

rr

l toi Ll t

li

rl ,ttti rl ,

l i rl ,r

ri l

tl tl l i l l l (' l i l l ()l

s ()l l t(

l l l ()l l ()

a- IJ $) ,
i n carc

fi costD: ,ttlVtrla!.
\' : r lour ol a( F s l i i e \D rrs i i r.i tc z ,r,,l a 1 ' o rni rc,i ti ndc uni l ate ri nd -orc ,rr ti rrl, i la inf inir . A ;a d ri r, ,5 1 (' i ]rtn l a j o i d e o fac, .-i frrni ti oncze motorul l ,r rr,r\ inr ur n de r - it c:i r p o s i l ,i l l ; r v it ez a dc s i n c ro n i s m c o s ,l r: l ,l rZ -:0 ,7 1, ta o vi tczi L cl e doui ori rrri ri rnar e c os q) : 2/ /t: o ,l i g . ln studiul de mai sus am lLcglijat per-ditantcle, cle care insl nu e deloc intr-o ar.raliziL mai conplcti, dc a tine -.carna; este su{icicnt de a urma 11ri'rr, rrtr lrroccdcu anirlog cu accta dat tnai sus pcntru cazul motoarelor asincrone lirir colcctoarc.

1 curl',, cit cca rePlclclltlttiL tlc' rc'la{ilL tlrr rrt'rt I)aciL se atlaugir j'=. 1, curentul rczultat tot;Ll pompat in cilctritul cxl('rior \"1 su-(, ;i se ia f li ,:xprimat de

'i' intrcgi de la 1 la inlinit. ,r tiind numerelc

i ( . ') : i2''^ l '_ f ,


L

r f , l i ': r : lJl , . (2rr)'?-

Yin a:arq

S /{.r' .- /rs), f.to


t - Zr l I'

( l)

(1)

e-si ,r ul l gl ri u l it lt r c <louir I azc colt st 'r : ut ir t .


Tl i i /4 \ \,.^l ' ri nn

''-

I l - r '- r

si l l ( tf- /r :;,

_ Lr'

2I

, i '- r cr ) s2 ,/( .\

F,/d e ) I

( z/;;_ t

l'
({,)

IltJresarrc. curentiloy sonici polifuzali l)r:utru_t t-rlrtinc curcnt r:onti:tuu dc ll un gcnoratot: sonic cu P faze, la sr. rrrorrlr:rrzir ficcarc faziL o snpapii clc rrdmisie ;i una <lc refularc iar in acest l i .l , l i r o \ : ir r iir lic s irru s o i d a l i "iL l i n i :r s o u i c i i , o artunti l i r;;ruti i utc tl c l i chi cl rr vrr fi rlt.scitrc:r plin supirpir rlc lr'[ulrrr',: ttunr:i ciurl flrrirlul arc prcsirrne l.ir Itl rl r', r r lt lr r lii r lt ' o itrc i i l r' ;u c t:rr fl u i rl l L l i l i r.i i rr i ul cn,l rl ul dc srr< .!i trni ,. l ) ; r r ' irlr r r lr . r r t lr rri s i i L . l c l rrJ i l i l c s i rrl l c g i r l c l i r ul r < .i rrrrri urri r. r rr l rrl l ;i rrri si , l i r r : lr r r ' ,lLlr r r r r:i r: s l rrl ri l c i ;l r:u l rl l l ri l rrrri cl i r.r.c{i ouiri r. Il rrj rl . A r.csl i r s rJ (' r.ri l r' l rr ir r ligr ir r lr r t r . i | o l r1 x . Iri rIri rrIIi c l o | ,i tJ rrrri Ir..rrrA r:rr.l l u r.sl (. r.()trl i trui i r'i rrrt r.I rrri I r.rrI t l , 1r |r rl rrr Ii | I Irtr. rrrIIrti r. i r r.l | r.rr1ti r.r rri l x rr) x,l l n. tl | | tz(.i l z.i rl tl rttr i trtl , r r l, , r lr ' 1r t r , ir r r r,.,,.i rl rrrrrrl , ,.rrr(rrrrr, i rr,i r,rr i l rrl rrrri ,l i rr.r orrrrl rl r.rrrr,.rrl {i

Sc stic ci'L

'i'.ir{ En
\ r r l o i t l cr t
s i tt (/' c /2) .)t , r)l ,l l l l |

'

r l,)

2t 'irr(/'ci sin(c/21 (l

-i', [ , L

r1

. ]. /,ra )o

' i tt

rlr'r i

sirr(r

'l l ,l

.,\: '\:' "'


,? ,, - "

//r(\ | /")
t:ttl ) |

(1,' )

ul

I)entru ficcare armonica!rlo orrllnul l sc noatc scrie

'f,'"n.;2r,1,.r: +## Ae)r

.*"1r,(.+4#")]. (7)

Arnpliturlincntccstei armonici va fi At-t : I . (tltt), (zlts\ : o,tl I, adici mai mult decit de 3 ori valoarea de Ia maSina trifazatir. Multiplul de frecvenli a primei armonici a unei magini cu 4 ftz.c r':l fi P). : 4 x 1 : 4 ori fundamentala. Numlrul de rang ra al armonicilor, care apare in relatiile (6) 9i (7), tttt semnifici cl existl oarmonice in acel Ioc. Singurele locuri in scria rh' armonici existi, slnt detelmirurttr numere lntregi n : 1,2,3, unde asemenea numai de relatia (8) n:N:PMIZ:intreg. Astfel pentru o ma$ini bifazati., nu existi armonici cu exccpfil rnn' l, gurilor 3, 6, 9 etc., iar lrntru o maginl at 4 faze, numai pentrtt tt 4,6 etc. Pentru 5 faze, rangurile armonicilor date de condifia (8) siltt tt '* 5, 15 etc. 10, Formula (10) de posibilitatea de a calcula efectele combinate alt' frcvenlelor fundamentale gi armonicele datorate redresirii.

expresieeste cgali. cu zero pntru toate valorile lui z cu ex.. Acea-stil coPlraacelorapentru care nE: Mn, M intreg. Aceastadetermini conditia t : PMlz. Cind aceastiiconditie este indeplinitl, relalia (?) deviue
t:o

(S) p cos pMx ,

coslZn(x Ee)l: P cos[Znr+ (P - 1)Md: +

dcoarece conform condiliei (8), existe sin (Pel?) .2n sin MPzt sin(elZ)-2n sin MP

(e)

. .Valoarea negativi (- P) corespunde unui num!.r par, iar raloarea Porlttve I corespundeunui numlr imDar de faze. Corrdi{ia (8) aratn cL n liind intreg, dac6 p este un numir par, M ar -. t, Z, 3, ._._.Totuqi, pltol, .1"ftS orice numir M daci. p este 'impar, M lrcDule sa lre un numer par, -de exemplu M' :2, 4, 6, . . .etc. .. Aceasti reguli este echivalentl cu a spune cL produsul pM trebuie ![- tic un lntreg, aga cum s-a ari.tat in refatia (8). Cu substitufra de sus, curentul total iniectat in circuitul de uti_ . -"; Iizare (c.c.) in timpul unei rotafii a arborelui generaior poate fi exprimati prin

y r..r:P J fr+t
rc |

totP t r * . | ,
-(P MY _ t J

( 10)

slnt

f fiind_amplitudinea curentului in una din faze. Factorii M : t, Z, 3, ... dacl. P este par ti M:2,4,6, ...daci P este impar. Fo.t--rr]1 (10)_gat6.ce acest-curent total contine ioun plrfi, una fiind constanti Yt: PIlr iar cealaltl, o serie de aimonici al6 crirentului cu amplitudini din ce in ce mai mici cu cit ordinul de multiplicare al frecventei cstc mai mare. D".qi a este pylsalia fundamcntali a unei faze, pulsaliile armonicilor .
multlDlu de ,l-_ll4-

Ampiitu<Iinile11 ale acestor armonici se obtin multiplicintl curentul continuu constant I'1 cu factorul zILPM)z - 1l At.: Yt 'zll(PM)'z 1l . l)c excmplu, armonica mai micl pentruo instalatictrifazati p :3 cea c.orcspundc M j 1, din cauzl cd. P : 3 cste impar. lfultiplul _numi.1ul-u-i dc fr(.cvcnli'r fi 3M:6 ori fundamentala amplitudinc.a va gi
At-z:Yt : ' (2/3.1) 0,065f.

'

( t t)

cu ,{ fazc lt 1t ccumEilrrrlc[urmolicllcorcspun{c . . i/ , l'cntruo instalatic ll l, dcorrrdcr/, -,l erlrr un n0ltlAr Dar. llt

\ t' t

"l

| |

't'tt0 lA It 0(:;t\ tit,( lt l xt,t\t|ltt f

I)irci it\'ctrl o grcutatc tinuiir iutre donir rcsotiuri sub iDfluentr. ull,:i l o r 1 r' t u, 1, , , , t , " , 1, ' l l rrr:q u l a x c i rc s (' n l l ri l o r, { r,.u1.i l i ,j r v;r i ncupn sa orri l ,.z,, ,lrrf i o .rnurnitir leg,:. Dacit, a;iLdar, dinrensiuuile relatilc ale icsortur-ilor si sirrt 11r.r'rrlr'i{ii astfcl alcsc, incit lcriouda nnturqli detiltyeie a gr.cutir{ii (lisatiL l i l u l i .u . os c ile du p .i c c { o rfi p c :-i c d i c i a i ncetat ri c a l ui ra) ,,ui rr.i ,l " .u |r'ri r'i r r l. rI or ir ' i im pr i rn u l r' , s i s tr' m ri li o rrn a t c i I g r|utatI si rcsorturj sc numrste |r tt : o||dlo/ 'l'colctic, un astfel dc rezonlrlor cstc caplrLil (l(,:r 1n:rri aurplitudinea rr,r'i)rr.l iilor' lrri l)aci cxisii frccare, .pinl la inlinit, tliici nu r,-sti {r.r,r'rirc. lolrr;i, accasta lirnjtt:azi-ramplitudinca Ia o iLrruntit;-r r.aloarc. Sii presupuncm ,rlrrrrr cii in loc de a consrlmir cncrgiri i! lt.r,carr,,c.lr. estc risipit.l intr_un llrri"r-^ (l(: lovituri, ltrr:curn sL. inti]Tr|)rr, .lr c-rcrn;ilu, dlc.i grerrtatctr cstr: ,,p ri l ri iu c ur s a c i r l r c :l tr-c u n ,,1 ' s t.rc o l l rr l i e care l ori turi L, asi { el ci r l Lmpl i trrrlilea rnisciLrii sir fic liniiratir. in acest caz o desci-rrclrc rle cnerg.i,;'r,a ,rvr';rlu l. , nr : r ' l. r [ r ,tu r, p e rc u ,.i rrn ,.. r.r.d ,,irnctl i at .i c]1,,!!i i L Sc l rr.rrLr:i ,trri i ,l , 1 ,rrr r lt ' ' [ . r it ez u g rc u ti (i i i n n o me n tu l l o r.ituri i ;i cstc pr;poi ti onal i cu nrrrsrr piitratul act'stei litczc. Estc elident mai d(,partc r.i c,,n niai put"r_ ;i ,irr'i lo'iiurl fi obtin.tiL at'nci cind lczonat.iul esic astfel con^:tr rlir 'a ittril r'iicza izbirii sr-L fic maxinrir. St: Poirtc arr"rtir l-ratcrratic cir, <lacir for{a pcriodicr-Lcarc Illctcazi i .rl )r. f lr c ut ir t ii c .s i c c l a to ri ti ri n c i s c ri i d e unde-l ongi trrti i rri rl c, ci rr.l i url i rrIr-() _c onduc t ar , )lu c ri n d a s u p r-.ru n rri p i s i ,,n lr,grt dc 6 gr-,,ui i rtc,condi ti rL, i rrr( (lit lr 1: lx unutf c r c l l S l l u l rl v i l l l r.i i rrl rt:r1 ,.:r S :r j i e j l t cL.l ri l i l rrui 11col l ti rcl r rr ,,1' s luc ohr l r lc iz l ,i 1 , s n l , p t..s i n .i ,:r c \o rc i tati t dc r-esori ri ri si P rcsi u:t,.:r rrr,\l rr. dt ll c onduc t i O rrltir conditia rrcc('sirriL <le ltert..:,ir'tc .sta it.(.(.:r (:l |(,llil.. t,:r.,tl u t ilc s ir lie as tfc l p ro i c c l tri t:, c a'r:Lxinrul l si r-Ii c rrrr r(,2(rl i l i or s i s tc m u l J(.t-l 1rLl l x ti ,.rr lic ilir t c api r t ic trl a ri r a l i n i c i . I)i n i r(c s tc (l oui r conri i l i i sc porrl c 11;r), uLL ttttl rl i ;r l t t t it it t ' r ' t rlr ltrl i rl ' r i r rl s o l i rrl i l l t r,,/,)n :r1 " ntl ui . )l r, i i rr l oc < k, ;r r.rrl i z:r l tr'zo tl r lot r r l lr r . r r lnr l rl x i ru rrl rL l rl rr.rrs i rrn r' ,nri t.j l t IrrrI I rI i t rrr I i I I rrrr l ri :r.i r.i j t, zo r:tlolr r lr r i ir r ir r i rrtl t' l ri tl ti l r' :r o l rs l l rto l rrl r ri , r,rr,.r.ti :r l ori l tl .i i rl r,:rr, _t,, |.rl ttIttt r |ir r i r lis lu rrr' r' o rrrl rl tl , rrl rrr| i , i n rl s rr rrti rrs rrrrr rI i I rr, I i rr, .r l :r ,.rr,. I , (,rt((, nliI t ( . r r Lr i r lr .P l trl Lr' s l (' i rrrPi r,rl i rrrtirl l ' l r.rr.trr| l ri rrIrr| .i l ,:rr.r , .r I.i .r(,rr.rl r)trtfrri . \ ' or r r Llr ' 1ir rIi rrr; rI i t rrr I i I Ii 'i I l tl i t\ i | l ri tr 1 r| rr ! si rrri i tu trtttl tl i /nl i ttt o r r l ,!i nti . l )rrri |. t r r l i( r ( ) r ' ir rrrl l )l i h r(l i trr' ;rs trl r rl rl o rrr.r i rr' r,:rsrrr, ,tgr:r ,tl 1,,;,n.1111,11 'n ' \'i r r r i( s o' ir r lir r rr,rr l ri rri r' i rrrl rl i s | ,i rr,;r, r' ri rl r,rrr i rr rrr.rrri ,rrtrrI i rrrl , ' rr ,I rrrI rI rI I I{ I I rIr' i| \ ' , r ( lr .\( l ri z r,ro , r' rrr' il l tr.l ll r l | i r t; r l i ,rl rrrrr i rr ,,.1,,nl ' i I r r , r 1' li, . r { iill i rrr I rr.,I r i .rIr' ,r1 ,.rl z o r.rto ,rrr.l or, r i rr,l .,. (,,r,. ,.r (, rr,,rtrl ',r rl r'.r t t t . r t it r r r r l, 1, ,1 ,,r, rr .i ,, .q 1 rl , 1 ,r1 lr, 1 r r, rrl .rtrl ,rr rr rrrr rrrrrrrrrr 1 ,1, r ,r r l .rl , ,r, llr lr ( t . r , l, ||r.rr rr.r .r| | l ,l rtr,l rr r,' l ,l rrrr, rrrrl rl rl rrr,,tr,ri ,,r l r,, L,t,

( cit l ' )ri :l i t r , lr r '; i ir r plr r r iir 'i t iLu- r t t - i, t t l sr ' r cr c s: ! sc const r uia: r i ( lar ( ] ( 's1ir r i f ( \r' nl r)l rt.rttt t io, , t t t r t r (ll I L( 'r , ( t ll'sii: all llnl|lil t Lt lint r oiir t c I naf ( l' ( lr z r czt ilt llul ( lor it sc poat c ob{it t t 1' ., ,1.,'1,,' ,rtr, r , , , ', . , i, . in r i( st aproirl)c tlc atnpliiudinca rllir\illliL illl' llri I rczonirtcLuhLi 11r;ri ,,prlir"'r nr,,...,1 lrnplitudinca opl irniL. -frr'biric ()1)scrvatcir (lirci rrr:/,( 1()rtll lL' 'cart:ir cncrilia sil priD lrrli )nli r('l)rczf1)til1d vitcz:L siin t til' :L s-a tlt:scrisrtllti slls, clll'i)1'[ suarfsi\'o, l)rectllr ( ) clr r l) 'r c( t lt ir lu: r ( if s1{ t li: cr ) r r lr l . rri " .ui ri f r llzot r . , t or ului, nr r cst e ,i " ,,,i t" ,, i n m ot lcut ul lor ir ii lit t r za ir ccc lr r usc cit 'la t l lr Lloat c lt t r r " ,t , zcr,r. r\ccaslir.(ii scolrtinuita tc iL cufontr.llui sU poatI tLrnutui tlt.lttrn',r!i tuliri Iurniz-at rczor:rtoru]tli. ( ( ) ll I r l' 5r D o at c vcdu& t : t def . r r ur at it cst c lllai pr oliiint at iL i) { n111! am Plit udinLla r lla\ r ir r r L lr l ;rml l l i trr' l i rl ii ont ilnc ; i clisl'r t r c cind se at illgt r l r ' I iriti'i-ti .'"r, ctr'rba vitirzei curcntrrlui fstf o critl)i"rarnollicit lcrfocti ,i, i i"i,ii,ri,, i--a.lo""rdJi.. iftlicir abatcr-r'., i' Iormr-1,ir curbci ctrrt:rrlttltti olrliDc o tlclolii-tlt!it' Il.rltl curl)a arrnoilici-rperfecti-r.\'edcm ciL P(rntru it .Lr,r'l i,i1,io curentului t're6uie adoptat:r i, r,izo':rtor o am'litucli'tr 'r'ci'ir tl, maximi. tudinea r't"l' ' E{ectul formt:i ncarmonice a curdrtului, datit dc utr ciocatt' ttt ' rt' armonice superioare in conducta dc transrnisic' Itt trtz'ttl introduce lr ici undlt e aclion. r t c pr int r - o ) inie dt ' t r anst r r isit pr ir r ' r 1"l i' " " " " i i i i f" J" ..a.1" a"tot-,t1ii nu caurcazl diliculii!i, der in clzul Itzotrrtlorrttlot 11r' rr lrtt l rtr r aitaatt,j" rlc {oric, defornra{iit' curentuhli poattr plrrv.r ir.".tlir r ir ' t l' lt . '' i rr 1unt ti on ar ea alior unelt e, xclioDat c sim ult an l) r in ac( iaii gcner : : runclt cle m ici cir ( . 1r 'lct er f or t r liv l) ot I i, ilt r I it cI I r t r ' 1"r r t t 'r l * i ti " . l i .t , , ,t, hrcnt ctt t*inimrl 4t qrttitle, 1:c.i.ci astl, l trr rrt rt 1rI i t rr I r' ' ri r- ii";'iii sittrilrrlt lx)1 lt l'r"r" | | "' ontimir. Ciocancle clc {oriir sau instmrlrcnl(le .1rtlt' lrr rl' ' rr' ' ' r'cnlni rr da o I{t)/ollnoticttticd a ctttntului Calculcl; prititoru(' l (' ncrci fi i l .l lot r t r ir . clt r Dclcusiulli sint aplicnbilr , cir 'lLsit t r ir t ' I lr ' I ir 1l( t \ 't r r r lr lr r r r r ' I L I se, lt , sclt r iiLin or icc alt nlod u( silll( 't r ic, i n cri i ,, tr ( : r zr ir i 5( " n" r gia r ' lt ' ' i ,i r,l i i t,tnttt"', i" : t pi . i: sit lplu cf t ct . in ascnlf r l( 'l " cl ect rrmplit ut iin(ir ol) t inr : ! . i V ottt slr t r iir r lnai inlii cilzul ilr cale cller gia sc t I st r Lr ' I r r r lr r \ ' ( . clt 'lir llt : t lz- llli sint int clm ccliat t : it r t r L lr r ' lr 'l r ; t L I .i r un ci rz lil: ili. ( ir it t ll r t t r rl ,ri h' n ci rz lilr r ili ir l ( ilr t ! f ll{t - gilL ( : it c f ur nizat it uni{olm "r r ' fr i r l i unc rtlr lit t r r t . t \' ,,ttt r ', , r 1, 'lt r i, t lr it r l ilr r lr zr t l linljii lt l t lt lt t i cir x'at r t it lr : t li 1" t ' Lr 't 't i L , . rrl ( i r) l r.| ri r r., I ) lr t t . llt \ it I ) lili( ; t r . 0r r sir lr : r 'llr illllcullll ( 'l) ( r liii( f t t t lt izr r l, Dit i o r l' i( lr I I r ; r I t ' | ' I, , , rI ,i i r , ,' tt i i , , 1, lir r r " 1; ir r il, "t ( r ir ( it lt t t st r it r lit t r lr li '' r - t I I I | )| I I i II I I t ( :l l l l l r 'l l r l l l ' 1 r r i tt'l l l ,r I l tttttl r tr i l , r r r , r t l r t l , : ,1 ,
Ir |si r r tr ' ir, I 'r r l i 'l r r r l l l l ( i {|III( ) II||III' i t r l r t z , r . i t r ( tr l l l l r i ( ) r ,r l tl l o t r l r .r l 'l "r l ':r l i l r I ( ) t( sl ) r l l l r l l l r r r "r ' i i ;i r ';r zttl I rr|( |rIlr||ri l r r r l , r l r 'r 1 ,l i r :l i l l l i r l i r r l i r l r l xr l i ' r r , , l ; r i r l 1 ,r ,',i r r r r i i ,o tti Ir r r r 'Ir i r , i l l l l r zl r r 'tt r 'ttr l tr l r l l ' I | i :l r ' / r r r r i r r r 'l i r i 'r r 1 'l ' i r r 'r l l l A t t t r ,;i zttl ,r t ,l .t, ttttt,r ,r 1 ',,r l , ' ttl ' r ' I't' I : ' ,, i ,'l ,,.r r r .r l i ' l r i 'l i , a , r 'sl r ' ;r l ,r ',r l i r r l r 1 'ttl '"r 'zr ' r ilirllr "t' ', r r l t r r l t l r ) l li , r ' /t, .r l r .tr t tt r r , 'r r ' l,t l, rll (, I lr r | ,l r ,1 l l 1l r r tl r '\ Llt 'l t llrrr rr ) | | r I r l r l 'r r r {r l r r r 'r r t

r 'r l r r r r r r "r l 'r l r 'r r r l l r r r r ''"r r r l "r

. /t

r,;rl rrrrr.r.rt.r.tl r , S . t .P r r r t r . t r,rr / In .tttt.l l t )l )r(,si ttl t(,sol tomotri cc armoni ci _r ll s ir r ( \ . 1. ( l) ). I ) if r ' r ' r ' n{ iir r r lrtl l (i :r (l ) i rr rrrp o r.l r.rr .r, ol r{ i ncm i l- LCt!(<ltilrl 12) ,r(.<lhldt _ aCll cos (.v { aCH cos (_v* <D)

I t t t l r . r 'r .r r r r r r .r 'r r r r i ci i n ttr tt r .rr tto tttcr l

r ",l , r l l tl i

rL'

dL'ltlt - II4l4t .

(n)

li rh.oirr,'rr,/- 1i C sint in tozolralltii LCt2 : I, i + (d?r:id.r!): c i n d l :0 , O). l) : r ' r - rI r r c s ult u n e m ro :0 , e)

sol ul i a ecuati ei estc

I)acir mont ntul consitlcrat cstt' ll rttt irttt'rvaldcstul tlt'lung <l, lirrrl' de la inccprireaoscilatiilor rczonatorului, lolntultlc (n) 5i (S) pot fi rirrrlrlt ficatc prin neglijareaprimilor tcrurcni din parantt'zi, fi avcnl :rl)roxitrrirlr\ i : (r lz) aCHx sin (r r q)) , iar cnergiainmagazinatiicstc tlati. dc L' : (CEl8)x!. Daci scriem expresia lui r in lorma r.:1sin(r+(l), in carc l cstc amplitudinealui i la un moment rl;rt, avclrt I:(aCHlz)'.t gi substituind in exprcsia lui L', ob{ineur L -- l'iZo2C. : Reamintind ce LC a.2 l, oblinem L: : Llzlz (")

i ..,,A sin _rf B.v siu (.r.* ,l). clL in .,[-rrirrrl originea timptrlui ntolnr.ntlll carc r _ 0 y!:0, r( .rtlIr,(I) (Li ho : L(di ldt)o : L,t(di dx) I o. I )ir.-.r-cntiind relalia (3) gi substituincl, obtir.rcm

(3)

Ir [irrr l

A : (Hlz)Crt sin <t), B : HCdlZ, i : (tlZ\dCH l_sin;r @ f sin sin (f, + O)1, ^, (4)

I ltl )

(!.\.': ft/a) rrrr'tiirrrl,.r [i(1.r, obtrnem J J' : (CH|IA) fsin rcos O - .r'cos(.r + O)1. l:rr,.r'giir inma"azinatir in orice momcnt \.a Ii

(5)

t- -.\n i a t - L i l tz + (Q,c) r ,idr , !


rlitt rlloirrt'ce

Accasti formuli arati. ci cncrgia inrnagazinatl intr-utt rrzott.rlol , 1. t'galir cu maximul energieicineticc :r mase'icare lormcaziLrtzott:tl,rtttl. lrr analiz.ade mai sus am neglijat {ricfiunea in circuit. Dacit lt'zonrtt,,tttlr".lr' cu intr-clruinlat in lcg5.tur5" o afini, cate clcctucazitluctrt rtr,,.rrr,, .rr dat r-rcxistir Iric[iunc in circuit, condiliilc difcriL pulin. I)a<:r-r, cocficicntnlde fricliunc este Il, prt'siuncasonorrrollit, , t, ,l.rl'r tlc crrrali:r

t r t,- R i I r ,d i l d+ ( l /c) i r d /.

( lt )

)r
olrlirrcur

dr -: {).r.

;i -r._--0, atunci . = (tlzl (Li, | (QzlC).v2\, U srrlrslilrrinrl i ;i r,, oblincnt pc (i , (t/8)CHsirr sin x - 2.r sin +_ .r cos (r: -l- 2rD)l

li Iiirrr o constanti. l Sri prcsupunem cl-t L: este zcro cind i :0

Lt :Li2lz +Q_1'/2C Ii, +

I)rrci r / t cslc o f r t nc( ic ir r nt onicir dc lor nr a h: H sr l1t l, r '(uir lr . r ( l, r I 'r t t l rl i [r' r' r,n!i r.r r . L<l2ilt lt 2 \ lldilnl I i lC - - Ha cos , t 1. I' rrrrir r r l t r r lr llilr licir r r l t u C, o1r {it t r r r r 'r i ; i /.{ ,r1(rl!i/rl.r'!) I /i(i,r((lii (1.1) i , CIla cos.r' l. l, ( \ 't lit lia ( l( '\ ilr , ( / / r r t os. r .

/ l )l rl ' i ir vlt r r , our li( ilr r l, ' t 'r 'zot lt t t ll- r . ( r t ? r l! i/ r lr ! | A'( , r r li/ r lr ' I i

(6)

S ol tt( il r r r, 'slli cct lr lii lslr ' r , 1, . ir , r os( r | , |) | ( / / / il) sir r r

:t t r'ttl'i t'irlolrrt. r.sl1 indt pt,n<llnt:-r rL. tlr irr or.ir.c rrr<lrrtcnl rft. .r , kzr. tlul Il t . r r r lt . ' r ( ; r ( . u ,.rA i .ri l l ,:(,rl )i l i ' r th. rrn rczonlrlor. r.slr.prrlxrrlion;rlir r:u p i i l r,rl rr l t ir r r pr r lr r i.
I ' irtcr'6 ilt rrrt,rlir. lil ul t ) l( ) lt c lt ( t it l

vir ll l l 2 t' j l ul . . (7) .rrtt[tttl .tl r,r rL. r,rt,.r]i rr.

I'
r lr,

(t l$l (',tru!t
r lt , . t t , l

\,1|,.1t. lrrirr rrrrrr.rr,., rrrr rlzorr.tlorr.\l r . r.i {


', , lr' t"|ll.r l . t,.

llllil, "'1 lt r ' lr ', r t l. . r t t i, i lr r li r l, . r t r t t . r t , , li( , t ll rrrl rrrr.l rorr r lt {r ct r . r f l ptr.r rl frl i' lt t ; i, t r , t ; r l r . r / . lt l lir |||t t |'|' |||| |r ' |t i||ll( , . r lt t)ttti l ulii liht t t , Sir I rt r',,t t I rt t t tr' | | t I ir I r| | '' 'i | | | || 'i | , ot t t r t t t r ill r '"1, ' zr 'r r ) r i r vrrl ttt r , r t r 'r r r t t , r lr lt t t l , ii r r r tr / r ' r / t [ , t ; , t lt t t t ri, r l. r ri / r ". lr ' . t t t t I 'I t I t t r I it t |I r 1l r l, . r \ 'r 'lt l r rrtr,rrl rrl rt ilr r t t t ot t t i't r I t t |/ 'it / , , i| | | | | tI i | | | t | | t t,' rt , t t t , t t lt t lt t t , lt r r l / /1 /,,rr;r ll; t llt t

(|])

taa

trt

t.,.,1,."' :rrrr1Ii t rrrIi rrr,,r r'i r rr.ltc (rr.ptirt(.u tiurpul, gi for.mulamai .. .. .rlc,,r rPirrtirrirhr lrrtr.rll ,.ast.opri6scilafiilc,adicirina_ ;ll;,1l. l,l,sr'-\ultlr.uttti llll, (il /r Ill prl(.tir.i'l rr.lonillor.Drrs osciiaficsc oprcsteduuir un ln ln -(1, .lIrl) l')lt, (tirloririrfal)tlrl'i .ir. L,gr.rr a tr.icfiunii' diferii pulin de'acec^ pr,'rupnsirin analiza iltti," rrl,r srrs. '.rrlir A,f a lrnPlutidinei 1 intr-o perioadi dc timp Ar..fl:rr::i:;t,d:^a'aria!iuuca

Ecuafia (13) tlt:virrcat uuci

/1:( R + R ' ) I:Ir I+ zw l l


9i obfinenr
IlI2 - HI * Zltl :0,

din care

rI:

- (RlzL)Io exp(-(R/zz)r) _ (RTlzL)r Jt: .


l,

I : (H |VFF - sffillzR.

( r .t)

Iicamintirn cl, l {iind nurni-rrul perioadelor secund5, pc . avcm lZ.: obtiuern l/. ,f -- - Rl2t I. . cantitatc vom denumi-o tl ecr nt uI r ezon oruhti. --\ccasti'! eme al El sc r':r insemna cu r, astfel incit avem u : RlZnL .

De aici rczultir in mod evident cS. r,aloarealirniti ce se ooatc' olrtirrc Dcntltr lucml cfectuat estc W : H2l8R. " ln formula pentru .I, din semneie pozitiv gi negativ trebuie siL lrrhnr numai pozitirul, tieoarecepentru lll :0 irebuie ie aiem // : R/, prrx rrrn se arati pril relafia (14), astfel lnclt ob{inem definitiv

r : HlzR +v@lzR)' zwlR.

( t1)

.Lgadar, daci, misuri.rn timpul prin numirrul pcrioadelor, punind , : : rr/,r, gi-tsimuniirul ^pcrioadelor m'la ciri o implitudine i !,:T _putem dati'L este atinsiL. Daci considerim ci amplitudinea este negliiabili cind 1 scadc la o srrta parte a valorii sale initiale, relafia

\iedern ci pentru valoarea limit[ a lucrului efectuat, amplitudinea cstr redusi la jumirtatea. amplitudinei oblinute atunci cind nu sc cfr:ctrrc,rzl nlcl un lucfu. Iu cirzul in carc R este neglijabil, avem din (14)

dl

tog(Itlld : - 6lzL)t, 4,6- (RlzL\t: Rn421L um :

I - zWlH.
Am gitsit cir cnergia, lnmagazinati lntr-un rezonator la un tnolnent dat. este exorimati orin relatia U : LI2|Z. Si preiuounem'cl lucrul' efcctuat ia'forma :ur.eibercusiunrj fitrolo la cursei rezonatoiului. Este clar ci in moncntul Dercusiuniise Detrecc o schlmbare brusci. in cnergia inmagazinati, iar micaorarea energiei cincticc tr ll aProximati\'

gi avem ,, : .{,6/8. . De exernplu, daci'r un rezonator are un d.ecrcment 8:0,1, rnalntc de stin^g-crea oscilatiei ar Ii,m:4,610,1 :46 pcrroaoeror lre''\'('ula cstc dc exemplu 23 pc secrrndiL, timpul scurs ar fi t : :46123 :Zs. 111111

numtr:rul gi dacl

LU : Lr M ,

( 16)

. C,t:trl osc-ilaliilor cotttirtui tIt. ant.fl,iludine ma.nirlrd, Stud.iul matematic . al. t,:zonatoarclor., linind seama-dc fricfiuue sau perditanti., se poatc sim_ plrllea prin intrcbuintarca notaliei simbolice. Ionna sirnbolici. a ecnafiei generale (ll) este H : RI I j(La - tlca)I . f)acil, agadar, La - llCa: 0, avem simplu
nf u -

sirnbolul J inscntnind aici variatia lui U Si f. Itlesupunind cir aceasth. vnrialie a energiei estc micll in cornprtrrtlln cu tr, nrmanicir de furnizat iezonatoruliui ln timpul unei pelidado T 'rucrsia Inaintra pi.r'cusiuniiurrnirtoarc, trcbuie ^s5. fie AU : l'lz7'- llr/rl qi prtn urmrtc rlirr ( 16), obfincm \I : WlLltt. Implrtind prin .I, avcm

(1 3 )

lincrgia furnizatS,rezonatorul,,j cstc intrebuinJatir mai intii la pornirea . tlcptati-ra nrigclrii piniL cind amplitudinca curcntulu'i atingi: ;i uccclt.rarca. virl{r.u'('ir nh\ir)i'r dc ecuafia (131. Itrcsiuneasonomotricc/f gi curcrrt"ul "rlatiL I srnr atullcr ln lirzir ii ytutcreamecanicirfurnizati estc

tv - HIlz -- RI2l2.
I)ac;'rr|zorratorul r.stc lt.g:tt <lc o ttrrcal t cattt cfcctutrazit Ittcrrr dc t, oiurvrl(' \';ll(,irrcrncrlit',prrtt,m nd[rrgt frictiunii Il o frictlunc fictl,vd dnt it rtr. r'tlrr ti:r

pcrcutantl tor, atunci clnd trl este lcgat dc o unealt?t slnt Estc util dc a rcamiuti c!\ doJotm4ia9i decrementul cantitlfi sirni' eslcidcntici cu dccremcntulrezonatorului,dacl se atlmilo Lrc gi deforrnalin cste datoritit I{, c[ fr:ictiunca ctrc intcrvinu ln cxprcsiapcntru dccrcment, lucru lucrulul mllloctu nfoctuqtdo rczonntoi, hr ifoteza cf, nu sc furnizeaztr pcntru u lnlrcui picrdcrcodc cnotgic. tlronatorulrtl Arn \'ltrut cit (lcc;oncntul orc vllorroe tL - ItlZnL, Drctt htloculmpo Ji prln ftlclluncr oclivulontl R', dntorittt lucrului

: LIII : WlnI-12 WlznU: nWlaU\: produsir rczonlde ,.r daJormalia curentului Cantitatea vom d('numi-o

R' iftcturt do rcronstoi, ; zl[llr obtlnrm

It' ." ztrlP.

olro tla Ilcntlcl cu ut.rflt [llrlll nlrl rln, Vlrln

\ - VllnU''

Jr

( t?) hnlntl tuvlntul dr,'rr-

, , po|ltrur dcrernr ullird |. dalu|lt

l rl i i i (rv lf r lr l lt lor nu l i t;x ,rrl rrr rr rl r,,,.rrrrr.r rr\i nl l ?/r (l :l i ol i t l ucrul ui r' fectrrat rl c l . z ot ut lor - . l) r ' [ r r nt lr t it r r, i n rl i c i r s r' l ri rrrl ' i rri l r. rrx l r rsr.i n curent pri n unel i e pcrcnp i ru tl c s r r r r r r r r r . llt ' r ' a rc l rrtl .:rz i y rri l i rrrl ru l s t rri l a fi ccarc pcri oadi , pecum si tti c ir x lr r r c L. < lt fo l j l -r s l rr l ro rrrl rr.i r' .

Allitdrtta

teoriei

Sir prt:sLrpuncrl ci ave lllr ciocan constlnd dintr-un corp Teu, legirt rL'un piston (lrc cste mcnlinut lntr-o pozi{ic medic prin resorturi gi supus, Pe o frrfi'r,rctiunii unui curcnt sonic, a cirui perioadi de pulsalie este egali crr pt'rioarln naturali de vibratie a ciocanului, adicrt LCa2: L Rcsorturilc condensatorului trebuie s[ {ie astfcl ca presiunea medie rlin coloana lichidiL sir fic balansatir. Fie -Floprcsiunea rnadjr.; rlc.?.sta \.a lroducc o deplasarc, l,o, a l)istonului si ccualia nliscirrii ra fi

Ho +_t, : Lcti.lclt (A/C)(,i,t_ r..), ! I fiinrl prt'siuuclr sonomotrice ri curcntulsonic;(lar rlrciL gi prcsir:nea ritcdic
t:stc lralansalir stlrtic 11. -AfolC, astfel lncit obtinLrm

t:onsidcrat acun, cu conditia dc a lua, ca originc a ltri .ir poziti., ; r..r', yristonul ciocanului o ocupi sulr ac{iunca presirurii mcdii. Pcntrn a <'tl.'t\ine 'clndmaximu.I d. cJt:ct prir:, lolirea ciocanului, e.i.r trr.ccsar cir, lu rrromcntul ciocanul poit ln sus din pozifi:L iiri,i,,:cpr,tis, "lf" prcsiulr:lt sonolnot!-ice I sii lic ncgativir, pentm cir ciocan'rl ..- roit iL fi rirlicat plirr sc:itlcrea prcsiunii srrb vakrarea ntedie. Accs1.a. cste t:az,ulniculiouat rwLi sus, al unui cirx:an luciind cir arlitli-. t uclinca optinti'1. In gent'ral ccuatiilc g:rsitc lnai sns dan (l) : Oi,tinrnt atunci --. i -- (llzlHCut sin -r., == -l- (nclItl) r' (sin r -j- .! .cos .r.), ft : -

h : L<lilrlt -f @lc)t, cecacc cstc irlcnticcu ccualiaconsidcrat:r sus ;i cstc aplicr.i.:il mai cr.zrrliri

so'ric rrr rn |'r t, {i. - l )i,r-,l,,nrc',*.jli]iii;,""I,ji.,i" curcriturui


lcsorturilor.6r (" \' ()l tl l l l , l r !l l c ri l l tl l tl l /i .. \i t /i,, /i, s rl rt vollttnllt' rlctirlului Ic : /i r ) , r r ] li , f i, 1i , leoat t ce B1 * 6r :tst [t'l r'.-t l-lt 1i1"1t s ll( /t,f( olr {t t"r t t t ct

il sin .r'.

V alor ilc lr r i r ' ;i i s i n t ri rl )(' r' l rti . l n ,u rL ,i , i i grrr.r -l \. Iri tr accstc cui l rr: tt:zultir cit J' csle un rrtaxintunt cind .r' == r !i rli.|,rlr. clrrpirun tirtp, rliLt rl r' 19 l t , ir r li c rr .r = _ ^ - * 7 7 ' 2 5 ' - 1 .4 9 . Valoarc;r lui i ln accst rnolncnl, citre cstc monlcrrlul iz,lirii, a:,Lc 2,2IICI.. Valoarca nraxitriL a lui l va Ii ./ , ICIZQ. lir u: r giir c ioca n u l u i i n mo mc n tu l i z b i ri i sc ol r!i l c prrrri nrl r' .. ; -1' -l - 1 '7" 25' f i q) . , - n l n e x p rc s i a l tri L i , ti obl i ncrrr' l i 2,4C 112. l) ut : ir t r : k r t k ru i L re s o l tu ri a l c re z ,o n trto lul ui :rrr,:rp.rci t,i 1i t,, (i . ;i si pt rl i sl r r r s r ., r r ir f ig u ru 4 9 , rrv c rn l l C , l . l l Cr l l (' .l) r ' r lc ullir ^p trrtc rc s o tl rrl C ' , trr' l rrri c r.orIr1rl i Ir1IrI o ,l i ,.l rrrr(.i/ srrl > pr. ,r- p tcs it t t t r ' 11, , . lr t p r;r, l i c i r //,, r.s l r. [r' ,rrtr ' .rpr,r.ryu. ,1,. // ,r ],,.r,.rrr,,ri c IIrI ltl.lll. din t:;rrr: l/(.'1 /f)|Ct, l) r ll ir r f . iir s i lttti ri s rrsl l / r.,' ;r) (1,{ ) $ l Z \l l t , i rs l fr ,lr,r rrl rl i rrl rrr l 7( , f ) ir rir r r r r . r r r r rrrs i l r1 .;rrr tr.r, r l ,l /,,1 .1 l l l l t , r| t r l \t l l ,,r 1,. ,t1 l l r q ,i ;rr ir r r r t r r ir r r ' / / ,, (tl ).l l l ,,l l .i l l . 1 ,1I Il .

li"
ol r' l

(t -

2lr)B

' 0,3628'

rcsottttti'ltvcltrln:ttltrt lll (13),olr{irrrrlii|l crrPilttlttl petrtrrr l)iir l,'rrttttl;t /| ,r(l/t ) ( /r!)! t(r\14)ll2C'
l ) r 'l l l l tl

( ',1 /r , {,1 ) ( i l r cn l cr t r L 'stttl i t ( 'xl l cti ti l ttr l ' rul l l ,] ( / lr r l ( n l ( l ( ' 1 ,4 rr1,l i ,.rl i rl , l 'r 'r , l ir 'r ' ,rl ' ll
.rrrl tr,rl ,tl . ' t, r tt t'rr, l /i l .r ,1 , ,r' ' tt|r' tt|It, l l l l l r"nrl l ' l |r' l l l l l l r,r r' ,,l l ttttrtl rrt' l rtl rrt rl l tt l r"r' t l "\l l l l l "l l rl l l ,t r.rt r' l otl rl l 'r

, I r.rl ' l l ,r l l l l l l l /.l l .l

lllll r' l rl l t

r"' l r' . 1' r";tot { i otl rtl tttttt.tl ti rl l tt trr tr' l rrtt l ttti ' tl ' tl

r 'r ttr tl 'l L " , , , r , t 1 , 1 , 'i ' t ', ,1 ,'1 r 'ttr |r 'tr l r |r ''r l l " r Ir t \ '. r 1 , , '', r l ttt t",l r 'i l r l "r |l l r 'l r l l , r l r t l , i t r l , ,'t ! r l l l

lll

l 'r 'r r l r tt r l l l 'tr l l .

r 'l o t l tttt

'tr l tttt

l. r r r r ' rr ', . r l r | ( . r l r l l i r n r i : ( i t l ) i s l ( ) u l l l u l l l i ,' I i, r i' r , l, , r, r t r , t ||. Ir. () ( lllsi /, rslt. .lillii (le

l !.): t( .

(.;:Z)l t!) j

t,5.U I!).

1 l )utcrl rr : r lr , ot l, ili ir accsl ( az \ : r la / / , / / / : , . i lr t ( r r ll t 'lt t lt t ; r l it r lit r t l't 1l 11111 si ugrrrc osr : ilr r lii viL li fIIr{, . ;ll I lt U : Hllztt I)ar am gisil mai sus

l),,,ir(\'(, irvctu clr.rLriu rcsorturi in rezonator -cies_ ;i Lrrrsirl,r,irr tiL fiecare din suc.".i, s" "te trrrl . r ' rr,rl ,l ,r,.l u .o cursi cgal e cu f, rl aci i nscm_ n .rrrt..( / t, u I)t' ,,f.: l OrtC l e nC C nsafe nl Il t a compri rla ecalc dtn aceste resorturi cu cantitatei f,

U :2,4CH2 : (,81r)HJO , astlel ci. avem sauaproximativ r - (,8lrcz)J ,

rclalia de mai sus aratb.ci FC : Frar_ irt; s,au,ir, B tl : b= ,,1-.Bt Fr7B" ;i deoarecd fi+ -i- 6r, l uzultil: F .: F, 1, Fz , Ft :0,638F : I1e, 1;, : 0,362F 0,5?HQ : .
dl

/ * Jlz.

P c rrt r u practi , al rrrrrri ci .,.r-r,. l u. , ,c a l crrl ul . C l l rl d .l n ..c 0 n d l l rLl Cdtscul dt(. rnl i S rrq, .,drL- l a o P i rmi , ,.-r,. i rr ,.,,rr,.i i ,l r.,..urIdn_ l T p l rl u d l u n r
OilDlt Oe a n r u { !.d a l )r'(C l l n) It! ,.JZi .

I ' r'

,,

( ii...r,

. ,,

.,.

iat ' ; '

Avcm.datc canlitililc: [/ cncrgia ]a liccar-e , l o \i tu ra . i n k g c m; H . | rc.i urrra .,,nomorri .. ,l i rr l u rr:r d n tra n s n l isi c, i n Ji g/cm2; ,r -_ D l l :a,i - trL_ rcntului, iu ladiani pc sicundi; P I rrrlu;rtca ciocanulni, in kilogr:rrne; D1, I)" - clitimtlrlle resonuulol.' Dirr'relatia U - Z,lCH2, cirlculiinr rr,.iraci-

c ,\ |oi din conditia tlc rezonanlr-r ai ZC

l ,,L r,i fc\,)ftu ri .

L , z.4l-l! 1, e51i1.1"1r,

Q -= (a/3t,3)l/Ptl

(irLrsase obline atrrrrr;itlin rclatia : J ftHC)i2O. lrorla maximir" asupra r-esortur.ilorr-ar fi Fr: I), HA' , rrF, J,
?i, .- 0,-i7llQ

Putem prin unnare trage urmitoarea concluzic:. cJeclul ourtiu nlrl al unui ciocari, avind o cursl dati, poate fi calcr.rlat simplu prin l.'rrrrrrl,t W - HIIZ, Il si 1 fiind maximul presiunii sonomotricc fi maxinrrtl r ttrltt tului date de ecualia f : reA,ca qi cum curentul ar fi dc o {ormiL sirttr:"i'lirlfl simpl[ si in Iazi crr 11. Acest e{eci maxim cstc ol.rJimrt numai dacii cirrrrrtttl esti construii astfel, ca impreuni cu condcllsatotrtl siLu, si fie in tczott;tttlil cu D resi u neasonom ot r ice ihpr im ali, 1i: i lie in cchilibr u, la plt t t ' r t t l 'r t t 'l undi se pr oduce ciocnir ea, iub acf iunca r esor lur ior condcn<r i"llllr r r 'r r l presiunii hedii a tiniei, presupusi. ca lucrind static' ^ P e de alt l par t e, dcest e'condilii ale t t nui ciocan, lucr ind ct t ir t t r l'lt lt r di nea otrt im i. , pr ; ( iu. in acelasi t im p ccr t m ai m ar e dc{or m afic ir ' ' r r r ' t t l si asemcnea cioiane trcbr.ri,:si'fie dci dinensiuni relativ mici, lsllr'l ' .r rtl absoarbiLun curcnt relaiiv nic dir.r linia de transrnisie princilxlir. l u cazur ilc in car c se ccle o d( 'f or m alie m icl, se pot aPlicr r l. r t t 'r t lr 'lr ' (latc pcntru caz,rrl irnrplitudinji maximc. I)c cxemplu,- pentru a r rrl' rtl.r ttlt r:i ocari clc f or ji'1,cr uc il gcncr ir l ccr t ] o r idicar c dest ul de sus lt r r ll( i 1r r r r liill rrr ;i o rl rulilaii r ( lir t iv nr i( i'L t le r r t cr gic pc secundi, pr occdir nr l) r r ( r r r t r ti ttl rzi r: p lnlt r r t olr t int 'o <t t lsir {t t at t l nllt r c t st c r econandalr il : t it t lt r lt t t t r lr t rrtt Lczo r r illor , <or : slincl t lir t t - , , nr lr 'iL t l, ciocau de o int r '{ic t ot r r ir l, t , r l't lil, l )ul l i rl i r (l( ' t lot l- t t , sot t t t t i sir ll , , r nir riliLt i. Jr r lr . r c, le a incer t a lr ol'lt t r r ' I t t t t i ovi ttrl i l , 'ilr lr r l r t t , t r it t t , it r ll'r t t t , nl r ondi! ia ca dcf or m at ia clll( 't r llt llr r t 'r lr ' rrl i rul nl r'lzi r ir xr r r r r r l : i lil, ii o r r r t r t nt ilit ialt t ar c m ici. Sir Pt t st t l't t t r ,t r t r it rIr' IoInru{ir r r r , f i lr r r lr 'r r r lr r ccir I li( i\ }f r l, alr : or I , it sint da1c, ; i t iL 1't ''r ir t t t |it r sorronro liir ', / / , I r : r ', 'r 'r r {irt r si t t t t slt . / sint cr t r t oscr t t c;put cnr r I lilt t I I it I I r r lirrr,rsi urril, ' r 'i. r iut tt lt ti.
A vl t tt l .t tl tttl r l r' :

rcsottndlor \'or fi ;ii volun.rcle


8' ,r l;., I

I \,rllr'l rrlr{irrcrrr I. I'lii""' ',.r l),rr /.


I l ,r ',i ) . tL ttl o ,

t.ll'lll,

rr,

lVfuLIr .

. Dirurct.elc si..rsi cclof cloui. rcsor.t.r.i s. cirlcul.azir rrs'r |r.i' fornt.lele c;rp i lolr r lr r i I I I

II"f ltrtrtll.
/' l( x| . ll'l. llt t t t t r , , <t Zl'Vlr llt l
'l t'

dt:
Asl ftl

ityFJ)t,

,{ ::

;tVt " t,., .


s inl t h , I r . rr r r i r r r r r , . I

to iLl c c ic nr c r r lc , lc c ior : ar lr lui

I r r ttt,u l r r l i r ( r 'r ,l ;r l l r r 'ttl r r l l i r l r t t t t i r r i r l r '.

r i r x r r ttttl r ti 1 i r r ', {i r r tr l l r f i ',Io tttr Ir Ii 'i r tt

Nr,,lri. SiL co r r s i< lc r . ir , r r . li r ir x ir t lul ( . s l( . u l t t ( . ( ( . 1 ) l i , l itl (,ttlti l.rrtor rlr, ( ; r r lir ir lr ir r , l pLr . s ir r r r . r r: , o l i r , r s r ', r r r l l t r r l irr t,,r.,1 .,i ,i l:fffr'.trfltfi.ll,.rrrrilrrt,. ; r : : ' : ::. llitl r.,lr. r lr ' o lor t t t , i : , it r r t , . oir lt r li, il\ . i l , l , , t . r r l , , t l , , ' rrr;t.,irtr,, I t,tl).

t Jl!

tll

\ t,t

l,,t

I L

t \

(:lr ttYll Dr,l lN,llJ.,l tlt t(:vDN'l'a

,!:':ilit'n,!:J/;%,:;ii:f fi,"::J:i:i:,:":;!,1:.,e cu secrrunea ,",.,#;i11:.:#


d(ff)/dr : ln ca:e ja(t) .(1)

d(1)/dr i ,,tc .@ l, l' : l


(L) :L_jRla

(r)

ti

(c) :
A:lt gisit pentr-u R, cind I :

C - 15 la.
lcm

h.ilg^. Avern de asenenea L:.1lgco, astfcl incit daci l: (L) =."el_la)ir _ jhld).
Attalog putem scric .! = l.rf, 6u

R:

l, avcm

C : atlE ;i (C) : (orE)it _ jh,la), i 5i sint constante cir.or ale p'imul clc tisco:itutcr;i ultimul oe -ii h6ttte:isur-s,au plasticitatef"l?i,1flt0.1,:u' l#':,:1.;llif,rtrt
ru tem dctrnr ...rrsco:r1ir1crr, unei {orme particularc oarccare a materiei R

sau A, astfet ca cnergiapierd.itil.in llt : Rl,iz : hLl2iz,

?,1"r" interne si

de inalti 9i amplitudiner rrrialrilol lrri 'll r / t ' !i ri" *ii.i""i ;;":;;;i; tompcrilurii mici, in raport cu valorile lor absolulc' Putem prin urmare include solidelcprintre di{eritclr'-lcluri tl' rr'rl.rli -aplici",lu-te acelea;i ccual,ii' in rnorlul rc.sl r r' lr'ttil n, ."i"-i"' .,iJl"-, l.ttf ilrr'lttt'rlo in",Jicf, i"t o sirnritiub tensiunemaie 5i suPl:i l:L-vil'rafii o coloanl lichidi in ribralie longitutlinal:'r rr"l.'r1i .ot"pntoti cu ' r'rr lrl "o^G-li t ii.J'rrii.iuii" t,t ambclLcazlrri' \'om a!ca tt1['] 'lt' c('rl.itl' i.."^iiipc unitate dc srrprrfa(r-r' rrlnr'';l l'r' ilari'"atialia linsiunii sau compttsiunii lt' // tt;ii;t; ;; intinderea sectiunii transveisale;ea corcspu.dc ctt 'r " -in kg/cm'. mesunte l'| |t;|||.| vom avca dcci de consideral arruthrl in barir, adici- vil('Zi| particulc, inmulliti cu aria secliunii transversale' rlrr lrr' 1l Din cxDfrienti cunoditemci nici un mctal nu este pcr{r'r'l lcnsi'l,.,r. l,,rrrl ,;i 4".:,,"pur,.,i" o l,arir dt.mrtal 1a tcnsiunc, apoi ridicirm r'tr ir"-i" irtinnt.., cract Ia acciali lnngimc ca inainte' Aceasti-ptopticlrrl" " histerezisti.;i.1ri' r.'l'r"r th' i;n:t, .,.r l,lnurl',t'.,1ltrdilutlti, t'Ttsficitdlii -s.r iui,ot ,tnttlriiL ,i cst.' r"pr, zirrtit:r prin SIl ctr intr-o coloani liclri'l'' : r.al Vom rlir, pr il nlmltrr', tltt :etts ntai gcne dclini!iilot ft it {irrrr' I r" ilr Iorlir intirzictrratr" !'rli rll de rrrr:zcrrtltiL ,irtr.tanllL,/?,va cttptin,lc<-'iice si 1' rrlitanta,reprezlntll:il)tilr I r'lr"l rlrl ll irrr.,ntul,drrtoriiitlli;r'r:rii cotl'trltri, rtlcrcltil,'mi;,:at:.'infazi crr presiulrca tl:tl"rtr "t r"t ;i loaiit 1,i, .s, va inclLr,l" 1,.i1. lotrilitrr'ltrt'rlo (inztrlgt'tr, ll 1t;rtrsntisiti r'gicprin rrttrltr pr:tL1ir,dc ' 1r' tal d c s":l i tttt. r 'r ttl r l 'tl 1 1 '
v r r f i a t : r l it i tr ,:tt,' , r t, ti l i i t vr r n vcr ti l , l r i L l ( tl l sr r co i o "tt,", S l 'r s l r r r l i c r r r i r r : l i i r i l , l ti ti r l ' r r l ,to i r Pr '. r \ r u r i r si l ttr ti stts

I r r r r ' lt l ,r,n lr r r r I r I r 'r iI r k. Ior dir r lr r r 'r r ir i r r r r lr, lit t r 'olt slat t l|lr '/ . , ( ] , / 1, r: dc pr opr ir '1ir {i- r r t ' r lif . t ilclor . nr r r lr r ir r l. t sl' r l'l"r t iir ,,' t,t, i i i it ut , " il, t t i, 't ot " lt ,l i f| ri tcl < -'rt lr t r i illt ' aceslor can1l1. t ! 1. r r r r ( l( nlillcr lalc' ci, constanttlc tru siut absolut ind( Pelr(l(tr1( ii' \'''1" Trcbuie obscrvat C desct '; 1" " 1't '' ri l c l ui Il ii 1. De exem plu ln cazul ut t ui gaz, ca- pacit at ea ( lr ' ; r ! r 'r r rr r ( 'r ' ( ' ( La I lr hl( lt ' si unca, pe clnd coef icient ul de iner lie cr et t e' (ur'(t)lrrl l'l lt varia/l cu tempcratura ii cu. viscozitatea ' i" ii.tifi'i"tir1ii; citatc; sau hisierezisul varjaz5, de asemenea,cll acestc llliilr l' Ii'l ll O oroorietate de mare importante, totusi, cstt. cit irc(stc Yirlr" tcmP.rirlrrrr"r ' i ,,rnsiderite'ca functii ale valorilor medii a luiH ;i l seu a vibratoare' cu c't)rlr\r'r ' l ptiti i" io"ttunte in tot ciclul miqclrii i. ;,ii;;

tnltci a fierdere tle enugit

cirtctit:ti.

coericientul ,t,.astrer picr.dcs sau ca ,il" ,i:'l,Lil'ilJ'.31":!:l1;t't1:l'"",prin


H'r ': SH]z : lt.r CHJt2, iul;reit .itiq:ylay2 au.crgie o aJc t'.tettliald. 'frclluic notat cir l, si /,;, sint sirnpli,coeficien nurner.it.r, rqpr(,zultind !i Ptrlrrrlii rb rncrait: cinc(icir iau poteniiali, ,,,,i -r,: i,lu.ti.l,'rrriL i,. r:itrrrrrrir. sitrt-',.rlri ['rrn;-r cucrgic, dc rlispiLrilrt lit,.,1,,r <'rrr.-r ,,,11sr;11;r1, imlr'eu.r-icll lnasiL.i ,,, ^.jii.f,f1,,',r,,:,],,r,,i,i,'r]r,,r,.,,,r. c'r.c ,.,,,,ri,.i,.,,i,,i ,.rrrsrir.ir;rr,,, tt,. ( t , t t u,..( oti{,. (ll
fcl ulit t L: r i( . .

( ,','il,',)(l iltd), (() U.l ttt rlirr , rr, olrtirt, (( ) (/.) (,i: tt)\t 1/7,r)(l

(iolti)(t * jtt'lt), . l.]',l'l.:- i(/i I /')/r')'

11,,/'r) \'1lvli)(t

V l tl , r r t r t lt lt t ri , , r l'r ', , lt r "r r l ( ( ) ( / . ) t \ ll l i rri ,,i rl l it ; r l', t r ||r , t r '. A ttt 1i. r '. t l. t r t it lt , r l: r t t ' t . r l. 1

ir r t I r '1r lr t rtlr I t ; '' ; 11i'1 ! r r r r r ii "''

r \ :,i,,, 1i,:li,1l lll;,iil'lil,ll' o',.,, iil:, il,ilii 'l;"i' 'r"."r'i,rrr r', z.r' "'i
rN {

rt u( t / ) / r t r1 , , , ( ( ) . ( r . ) , ( r / ) r
,t " r' r,,( r ' . r r r . r l, , 1i, r r lr r r ( / ; lxr

( l ( / ) ) ( , 1( / ) i, lr )

( , 1( / / ) / r lt )

r)

, l'1 r 1 i , 1 ,|' , r u () ( / , ) ( / ) (

( l { } ( , 1( () i / ( 'll/ li \ ) 'l 'l'

rl

dc |iulnd seanrtr valor.ilc (L) ql (C), obfincm: lui

di!!!t,1rl a,(c\(L)(I).f ; luola*y . (d(.r{/d.r) { (r/q,) : o,


d\(I)ldx2 a'(c)(L\(l . (t/.). (d,7irr1. { liliyia : o. (p,):al/@:@

Funcfiile Corc qi Sir a au proprictltl lntcretrnte, unclc fllnd urrn11. : to&rele


Sir 2a{Cor 2cr : 1*0r 2, sin orCora - cos c Sirc : cos a Corc f c, l,

Acesteecuatiisint eener;Ll_e;i itlenticecu ecuafiile (ZS) slrrt Si (Zl) (capitolul V), cu difcienta nimai t::t valoarca este simbolici. gi egali deoarece p:at{Cf, cu

sin cr Sira :

avem atunci

a De asemenea,lntre variabi]e gi B, avem : doul sin c Cor P * cosc Sir p : sin (cr* p) - p cos(c{ p), cosrCotB - sin c Sir p : Cos(c + 9) * psin (af p), CoraCorp - Sir ctSir p : 5s1(n* 9) - otp cos(c f p). p SirocCor * CorcSirp - Sh (a * 9)-aPsin (a* P). functii : O alti seriede propriet{i a acestor ' Sir(-oc): - Sira, Cor(-a)-{Cora, (d/dcr)(Cora): a se. t, (d/dct)(Sir d) : crsin c, cos (dzlda2) cr): Sir a f 2cr c, (Sir (Cora) : Core - 2asinc, (dldct'z)
!

t tnalte termenul hhrfa2 devine foarte mic gi putem lua . .Pentru .frecuenfe timDlu .,..o_,Expt'esia se mai poate sirnplifica lnci. ln ipoteza cd.fi.ecventa esteinalte, lulnd pr -p(l _ j(hth,)lza). Si considerim acum o conducti de formi- conicL; in acest caz secfiunea o poate fi exprimatb. Drin relatia secliunii de ?: qr",.""a" , ".i"-&.t""!a ---' le vlrful conului, q fiind o constanri. nurirericd. Relafia di

vr- *V[-yn affi.

(r|a). (doldx):2lr ecuatiile generaledeYin: ti

Cantitifile tr $i p pot {i valori numericereale sau cantitlti comphra Substitriinda : prr in ecuafiile (l), oblinen:

d2(H)l + r,i(r4 + el x) . (d(H)l : o, ile d,x) dz(I)ldx2 r.,i(4- elx) .(d(I)ld,r) o. : +


notat ce in aceste ecualii constanta nu apare.Rczulti de q . . Tr-ebuie rici cl, daci un numarde conduite.ooi"" .ini Ji-"tit"t" J5i" aceiasi sursil iar Rezultatele fi iceleagi. vor $:.s-e_Pol.l"T!"pune perctiilor sepot-suprima. r^utel, consrdera apoi un minuncli. elementarsau o ,,razi,, vibratoar,e, Igrmataoe onceconducti conicl fictivl, avlud unghiulde con clt voim de Itlc, rar peutrua studiafenomenele oriceconducil conici., avemdecit din nu !!,.adunem rezultatele oblinute din consideraiei t"t*", ,"rif., tuie conul. "".".orriiiS[ considerim atunci,ce selntimplf,lntr-o astfelde raz6 gi si. punem 'Substituind in ecualiile(t), oblinem: d2(H)ldx2 (2/d).(d(rl)/da) (rl) : ol + { mar sus,

d(rl)/da: y(zto i(4

d(.r)/dcr: i@v644 |

l.

(t)
I

Avem astfcl de considcrat cantitatea complexi '(@11t'1 pc clt. o vo*t lnsernna cu (r!); vom avea apoi, inlocuind (C) 9i (f) Prin valorllc Io ddllr,

: ('ti) oYtE:' 1/[=frl aji6=ini$,

dar am glsit mai sus c6, { : alt{ilE, astfelci

(,1)-t'Y[=lM)nt]F).
' Dezvoltlnd radicalul puteri alelul [r/c ai {a,.ob}inemIn caml lrcr' ln vpfelor lnaltg,ln carc acestifunctii slnt foartemici,

d1(r)l de2-(z ,1z 1.1ag 1 a 4 a ( 4 : 0 l'


(H):(tla) (.t{cos c f B sin c) (/) - lrCor a f 81 Sir cr Corc-colc*csinc,
Sl tc -s i n i -d r' o s d ,

Q)

(0)-S tt -l (h'-h\l ztl ,


Valoucr l(,1)- y[ti@], vr'tt drill dG

Solulia generalt a acesteiecua{ii este

ln care

* t/(0) t(t + l(fr- h)lzal.


(3)

: (t), Dllrrntltnd ocurllllo gttrlm


d(H)/ttr r - (t/d) (l Ccr * t ilt) , rl(/)/rlr r(l1eon 1 11rlar), -

{ir r r r ir L' t iut l r r r ' ,' rl . r' r' rr:r(i rrrl rr,l r,r

,rt , ' r' rrt{ i i l c (4),;rvent j (/)/(l ]J)I (1f) | (5)

( l, a :) (.4 ti rrr ,r. I /i ' ,' /) a( , . 1 , o s z i /1 , \rr 7 ) i (Q t

i! Si-rreprczcntirrn prin p virl()irr( lrulilliului c in punctul unde este alezat ltr:r:ptorul, sursa saLr generatorul fiind Ia rrn punct definit de cantitatea a; vorn avcil pentru punctul p

t,(ntnl il s[nl)trtt'.r(lernonstratia studiem cazul particularln care r(.(.r.rF si 'de lorxl si gcncrato.'l si't la o distanti. considerabili virful conului,.rst/,.1 incit si. putt'm reline numai lermeniicontinind pe a gi g multiplicind iurrr !ii. Formulele (10) se simplificl 5i devin:

lrrr pirrarul camitetii(k I kr)l.za.Iatd. rrnirar,;. de :lll.:!',1]'I"l:l':.,,; rr|glijirr,l

si i rr' | ,r.zr - r r l. r r rPr ir r c, - p [ i'i r 'i

pala't c. ziL valor ile num er ice ale acest or r r r r r

ACorpI B Sirp : - jP'(/)/(,|,p) I l co sg +B si n p :p (IJ) |

H" I":

(6)

(9t')llHd cos(,.) (p)+ j((rp)/(.lp)r.i"G)(p)l . ("/il 1(1u) 1")1e; -! j (He) (+t sin(*J-)lcos
ar * jtr.
(ll)

doui ecuatii estededusi din ecualiile(5) ;i a douadin Prima din aceste ecuatiile(3). (6) Din ecualiile oblinemdirect:

a: -l(H\ sirp{ jp((r)i({e)) sinpl }, cos B ' (H)corp + jp ((1)/('lo)) p I

I)ar c.unoa;tem cri tlaci avem unghiul complex (a): ,._ zultii rclatiile: sin (a) : sin c(rcosho.. - j cos cc,sinh ar, cos (() : cos a, cosh cq f j sin a, sinh c, ,

(7)

({s) reprezentind va.loarealui (Q) la punctul p, ({) fiind o cantitate variabill cu r gi, de asemenea,variabilS. cu p. Pentru punctul p putem scrie de asemeneaecuafiile:

sinh Si.coshfiind functii hiper.bolicc. Daci. punctele a qi p sint astfcl r..r,h,, tanla dlnlrc elc si lle un numi.r intr(.s de lungimi de undi dacir j(A+ h,)lla).- ,si dac:i mai a\.em;ia_,1 l,rrrrr.rrr (") - (9) :("-9)(l)ntu, oDtlncm:

,,t, cos f I, sinp : j(+o)(H)/pl. ct AlCorI + B , S irP : (1) | Din acestc ecualii,obfinem:

(8,

sin(c)- (p): - j sinh(c. il.(k + ht)lza, c o s ( a ) ( 9 ) : c o s h ( "- i l . & + h r ) l l a . Servindu-ne accstcrelatii, formulele dc (ll) devin: (H,l (lla\ [(]1e) cosh(e p) (A + ht)lza+l sinh(a- p)(k 4 h,)lza) + ((Is)/(*s)) t. (t) :- @/il [(1e)cosh(c p) (t + h,)lzal[ ({e) sinh(a p) (h i h,)lzal ) -F (I1p) (tr)

(I/)/p'z) a,: ((I)|il sinp - j((,|p) Sirp I. (e) cor B' : - (\I)/il cosP + i(({lg) @\lP'z) P I Substituindin ecuafia (3) valorile lwi A, B,.r{,, B, date dc ccuafiilt (7) 9i (e), avem

(&")-((Hey(4))isin(0r1191(9;cos1"11p;1;11p)/(6()).((Ip)i(+p))sin(-+-(p)l' . itr (IJ =((ro)/(p))L4cos1[--1p1-sin1"t -tpll+itt+ottHa)/((p,))lsir(d,) I lor

sin(ccJ=lP)fl + (') (P)


( l0) Indicii a qi p aplicali la valori diferite ale lui (1), (fl) 9i (,|l) indicn valorilc acestor cantitirji la punctele definite de unghiurile a gi p, rcspectiv. l'ormulele (10) sau solufia problemei. Dacir luim fricfiunea gi lristerezisul egal zero, putem inlocui (11), (1) (Q) in ircsstcformulc pin H,I gi r|l, respectiv. Daci. aceastanu e cazul, 9i toltc cautithlilc ct, p gi ,! sint complcxc;i este nccesara scparatcrmcnii continlnrl pc j sprc a ajunge la formule cxplicitc. Arn {:hsit mai sus cf, c estc dc forma (a) .- y.,;u lrr (l - i@ | lt,)lzul . -

-l'rchuic Dolat cii putcm inlocui.(tlrp) prin r.i., tclrnenul conlirrirrrl 1r, 1 crplr.si:r plnllrr (r!e) liiutl rrr.glijabil. llepl'z-cnlinrl rurrnirml dc lungini de undi. dintre receplor.;i . l:, rr,r.rti,l rz ;i frcclt'n{l prin rr, avtnr in caz,rrlin care A0 si 1g siDt iri lirzi. lxirr

i rr r ;rrc .,, u(li I ltr)lht . Olrsr.rt'inrl m't " l, <lislan(:r ci tlintrt rcccptor5i gt,ncr.alor. rrr,ri qi, rfr,lrar'fr', r). . zr vilcz,a srurclulrri,avlm 7 = -\1t1,) + kt) . r'ir, \k ( lor (13) rrr ftrrrrrrLlr' (?), (li) capitol;l Vl pr.rrtrrr . irnrqrarirrrl. rrrrrl,k. rortrlrrr'1r,lc cilirrrlrirr., vlrk:rn rh r.lr.tlift.riruumai priir frrrcloriip/a;i'c/p. ()ottlurlt lr o lrlliitttt iu.ltuili, ltari in formtrk.lr. Irn,r:crlcntcIrrrrrr,rl ..
t xr , r 'r r r ir liill t [ 'vt t t 1r , r lt 'lr . r t t t ir t alc. ll ttt<t '; i I Vonr 1- allu ili. r 'sl r . ilz Irrl t rl r rr r xl r lillr il t si r 1r t r '. . r r 1, r r r r |t;rrr r lr , , l. ||'l, r / r lt r r lr r . 1r r |lr r r lor . i I r . r r . l, lot ( . s1, : t lil ( lr . ttt,rtr' l trr ll . . jr I 'r r l, . t t r I 'r r r r , |, '. lr , . . lt , . ( li / ) r ', ll. ( 11/ , '. ) , 'lllt I I r l, ht , 1. , \ , . i) lt l r 'l/ . |, f p/ / pl,

ll". (tla\ [,flp coslrl-t.(/e/{e) sinh.y] L I (dllt)| /1,cosh -t. {e //p sin1 I J "

(l.r)

. ,ttFttrllll[t

.t t *,,,*
n r, : ( l , I r "l

,1,,, ,, r

(l l )

' r,' r

,' ,',,,|, ',',,'l,l, r, I r , ' r 1, , , I

I r'r( l rrl ."

Ir'II''|' r I|' |,

'u 1,

, t . . , , , r , ! , ,L 1
|||' , |

, iIt,l' r

,i ., "r , lr i. t ' ' t . r , r , . , , ..


r ' r lr ) ll t)

," '1/,)

I r ,.r ,,i r It,nr !,n II ./' {0) 1. l dl 'r i r ,l .

Itc ,

l )i r r r r rc s lr t k r r t . i tr rr;rl tt o l rl rrr,.rrr

, u, *",,

/iJ\ ( / ' "

:4,6C P . A ce st r ezult at est e indcpcndent dc f r evccn[ i daci aceast ir I slr : srrl i ci nnr d' i nxlt ir 1i e't c I ir nit at ( 1. ' cavit aI ia 3Pcl'

E,rent.flulI I
i anr plit t se in crcmplul prccc<lent cerca a sc gi:ansm it ct nr dinca/ a dcllir : . r r r r 't r "t r m axim ul t '*il'r l 'i' vibratoarc, atunci cind tului supr;rfctei cncrgic vibratoare, frccven!a {iind il : 100 pe sccundir.

vitczci la punctui a ;i prin <o, Sir t t:ptczcrrlr-rtnplin lr', :rrtt1rIiIrrriirIcrr gi <,.rp aliikr tlc sccfiune il couthrr:1t'illl tcr.lca;i doui punctc. Vont avea: +s: o4/g|E .,;i I": l/ "<,t,. Substituind (14) oblinem

Dar, pe de alti. parte, avem

#:; eftl+
( o, _ c 2.

(,)g

9'

Avem tr/ - rLt : Zftr . Dar V : HVIEIC, astfcl cd x r00:0,011 cm' r : (Hlznt)'WEIS:112r Cu o ir(cvcnti dc 1000 pe s,.'cundi irmplitudinta.r'a.ii r1'r'"'r1"'l'' '' trr o sutime de rnilimctru. \'cdc[r, prin rllmar', lir tstc lnutll dc a Prlxrrri rltt rrllt sub api' sprc :r ,ob{in. irf.t.*""t" mari dc suprafclc i-ibratoar-c r 'l l r r l r r ' tl ,
i n t t c m i , ^ , , ( l r . ( .n cr g i c.

Oblinem atunci relatia importanti.

itt iu, "u b t,'"iiitiii i,ili,,,ita, ",' o n'u" anftittrrl.itti' a' t l' tr"rr' li;;;: ; r 'l'lr r r t ' ^iii analog, 'cv'ciif , r cnla ci', am plit udinea adm isibili p' t r lt r t 't

Pe n t^ r

a p r o r l 'cr

a p i u n d ( '5 o n o !.(

l n :r l '

v": H"VlEls.

(r5)

Aceasti relatie arati. ci amplitudinea vitezei este pur ;i simplu proporlionali cu presiunea sonomotrice, atunci cind curentul sonic circuli la Infinit firi piedici sau reflexie spre sursi. Aceastl ecuatie, de asemenea, nc permite s5.calculim energia maximi" carc poate sii fie admisi de o suprafof[ vibratoare. Lisind de o parte indicii q. lie H, I presiunea sonomotrice ti curentul intr-un punct din calea unei raze vibratoare conice. Fie <o aria suprafetei vibratoare presupusl agezati.la o distanfi. considerabili de virful conului si de-a curmezisulaxei razei. Energia pe secundi, emisi de aceasti suprafafi spre infinit, va fi W:HIlz:a.HV|Z Dar am glsit ce
v -g

"nu* ii t" n, , n . r I i, 'i r a. liat , ' r l, lir o ir t pr lf alit libr at oar ". r Llt ir ir r 'r r t " l' 't t i " i -" .u t rD ar , i d, . , . it in ap, i. I , , . nr I u ir '. 1: - t . ir at iunI o : ir |t r i lr o: t t , r l, t t t , " i nuti () l oar t ( Pt lt cr nic, dar pr cam ic in apit ; i Nic( i) ( / s. t ' sul) l r l'r 1r . r r lr l' -" i un sunet lt t t ' t ' tal ' D cntnl a . , , , liir , , n sulr ( 't put cr nic in apit Poat c t l; t ull st lt lt t . lr t l' ' D aci t o on. idcr l- t m nli; cir r c: r in im t diir t a apr oplt i( ' il slll- s( L lllr i'l r 'r / r ' rrl'l couicc, r,t'tlcur din formult-'lr: stallilitc mai sus cir apai. oill-(''ir"t1'lr'llll( in{ir r ilc, i: r t it t c p t Lr t t r ' t t r i :i i l i i i .' ,f* d iscr r t at nai sr t s cazul conduct clor t l't r 't l) r r r r lr r l ; i t i i ,i i i ' A i t.ttl i ., r t r t t t |I t it a |t t r 'r li' i( 10) iLr r t ; r t a t t st int ir r r l'li r lu: : ir cla't r "t dis'u( ic llr or 'ul) : l I ) liit lllr r ll I r t r r r f" " tf" ,,1t a, , r pi'd". r t r ir , " ai "i l sc rl l tt r: r t lr ul pr ' z' nt r i Jt t ct i- t r i' si i'r t t l ' t C on,l u , lt cot t ir lc lc Lungim cit t Jit t if i ct t gt t t r t t t lot uL it t 't l't 'ol't it ' l t r r 't t r t t ir t ( 3) , avt 'm : l l l vcni ntl (l/a) (.4 cos ct (Il) l ( ') ( 1) . 't '( , or a i R' 5lr c.

yE I

'i:.o 4I . "" l

Oblinem prin urmare

w:(alz\ H"WE7
ctrc cstc o cantitate finittr. ' Exemplul I Se ccre a se glsi maximul cncrgir:i vibratoare carc sc poatc cmite dc o suprafatl vibrrtoart: tlt-'un ccntimctru piltrat aric in api1, prcsiuncl mcdic a apr:i fiirxl dc I kiloglrrrn/crn'?. Avcnr pr:nllu aplt
(h rr I r t s ir r r r c ir ir r i r1 r," r l rr.l rrri r.ri l trL .v i rr) 1 l ul i vl :rvrttt P rl l trt vrr rrrr rrcl lou l ca rr r ir x ir r r ill lr r i ,l / t k ;1 /r' rrr n rl fr.l l l l l , 1,1 k11r' rn/:r, o. I{r. ar t llf rr ' 11 ur P rrrf.r{ i v tl ' t,rl ,r.rt, rl r, rrtt rrr r' l trr I' l l r,rl l r Inr,rl r' l t.rl ' , nri l r i r , r l, ; rr r r at r r r r r ll h l rrrtl i tr. rl , r i l ,rr,, ,r rl l l ;1 , l , l l r 1.1 l l )' hg r rrr/' ,

Vlnn . ",t

{ ( 'r r ''lilll ( |! lt l n cl tz';ttl, t t t t li cont lt l< : r l' lr r r r gim c illI illit r 't , Pt lt ' 11] I I I t I I I I I '| t o'; i \ r l( 'z'l t lr r t I t a: co, r r r r nr ( / I ) . 1, \ cor t si<k'r int lt : L t,.1,. ,' i ,' i l ; o, ( ir r t ' ( 'sl( ' , chivalcnt cr t r clalia l' Il o ( l /) . 11d.,2 . 0. it S i ttl ctt t it t r lt "plir f l( r 't I ) |' t I I I t |I t I t ir (( 'st ( ' r 't r nr lilii r lt 'r r ; r r ""lr l"r ' lt lt t ; lt ll I ''t I 'I r t ct ''i t t r t r ': t li t li( l ( ) \ ilr lilllr ' : t I 't ' lllt lll i rl i ,ru r" i , i , r r , 'r 'l: i, r f , ' r l rr) {'it i . r lir llr , lr r lt r t l. t pt t lt r lt t l cr co' 1,i r,,' ,, ( t ) r i r '; l ' S rrl ,r' lil'r r ir r , lit t |ir t . t t r ll. zr r ( l) v'r lt }r il'' r 'xlxnll. llliir lt ' P( 'r lt r lr ' ,l tt a, ,lrl i r I i, , l ') .i 2 , ( ,.,' , " l l l i , iu r t{, ( ' r ' I , 'r ) / / , r rr, ,r r,ru,rl ttL rl "\ 'lll

(,1) . (l/.,) (,,' rr I r'' r'), r' t .-(l,l)l l,,r' I ,' r' t,,('
II rltr' /t ll ,t r l l l l r l l tl ,l l l l r i

,. l')l

r') I i(' r' I ttllt) l,rl,)' | '

I , u ' ) tl
(lr()

tl l l tl l l {l ',

lrr ct:rrirliiL. (llt) prrrrirr,l ,r cx.r lr.rrrrrintin<l relalia (1?;, ob!incnr 1i ,. I) - ll. I!xprcsiirlrr i (1), cinrl a r.slr.iufiril, rk:vitrc

_&( (r)" _ _ , (t/z)cF [A ,(t su) "+ -

j) ].

\,',l, trr prirr rrlrrriLLe o r-claticfoarte simpld.lcagi pc f 9i I/. cir .\,'r:;rstilltrr{ir'ostr importanti Si ne permite a calcula tnaxirnnl ctt, t ,qici, r.rli: porrtc li radiati tli la o sursii intr-o conducti. conicir' Iirhtia diuirc vectolii (H) ;i (1), galsiti la (21), se poatc scric I,Il = Ql") 11 (Sir a -l- j Cor a) (cos a I- j sin ct) ": (rf/a) '1{S,r a cos z : Cor *sin c i. j (Cor ccos.r + Sir asin ct)1 Ql")'H(l "). I)aciL Q estc unglliul dc faziL dintre .Io ;i llo, \-cden c.i f jz. cos <D: t lll t 1 *1--:-=:. tg q)

Itntru ca condilia (17) sir fie satisficuti. cind .{ : oo, trebuie)si aveur (et"lzd)lA1(tl,t - j) - B,(r + j/,)l :0 L\l",h-*: srrr <lcoarccc cic/e devine infinit cind cr cste oo, trebuie si ar-em -jA , Br : 0, sau At : jBr. Vr.rlcmapoi ci, in cazul unei conductcconicc infinite, expresiilepentru (I/) ;i (,I), devin: (H) - (tld.)E e-," : lla)E (c.os - j sin e) | e ( l e) (Il:Br(Sira{jCorcr) i' . ConstanteleD, B_r,y,or determilate rlc r rlorile (I1) !i (I) <ie lalgencli rirlor; insemnind .e (Ao).:(/. ee, valorilc corcsprrnzirioare r gcneraror, de ")t ir\'r'm 1)entruun punct definit de cantitalclt a -

Putcrca mecanici-r,dczvoltati. la sursi, r'a fi attlnci

w : (HIlz) cos : (+12\Hz. a

r) (1.

Tablorrl urmirtor aratl factotii de putere pentru diferitcle valrt i rtl,' lui a.

E:
p-

(H)"
cosejsinc

(H")",
c o s ao j si n ao

I "t'
0, ()3

5nl4 0, 9i

(r)
Siraf jCora

(20)
(10)

Sir aof j'Cor cro

O relalie interesanti se poatc obfine prin cliferenlicrea ccuafiilor (19) . irnumc 4 ll tl(H)/dcr: - (El"\ (Cor cr- j Sir c) : j(l;/a,) (Sir a f jCor a) :

\-etl sm ciL accsl f ir ct or est t f oar t c apl( ) lPe ( lc lir nit i, chilr r l) 'lr lr r l s, .= 3n14, :r r iLt int l ciL, in cct . r , . ' pr i\ . c; t e f or m t t lcle t l- c. int r clr t t inI r l' r t t t gt:tt".^iot ay'zat lir o llistrltltir rlc scrniuntlir de lirful conrtltti' poale ft '.lt t h iir:rat ca un gcnr'littor', a.,sczrtt o <listan!iLconsidcrabilir (l(' \'irf' Ilela!ia (22)

: j(81",). (I)lB,\.
I)ar am g[sit mai sus formula rrstfrl c[ ob]inem

I '- t?tt|llA + t)
I , l) 5r l''/ / ,r 'r r r 1. rrati r ci , r') t ir n lr nt t 't t valor r r t 't lui ao ': t t , . vonl . avcil .s'1/u valortre:r f '' rl,11gnsitl prilr corrsi(llirlr"r llitrr'r'r ,l,l "dift:ri'tnuuui ,,tt lorulrri, sitttat ll o lorrrtc n:rrc (listanll dc virf. ('roitr'(' irplr'ItczulliL ciL tl)roxitllirliit tllttir tnai sus va fi aplicLth IiLrii t list r r t r lit r lt : r 'ill' ri rrl ri l h, rl acii g, , t t t 'irtr, r tt t l ilt t r cccllt or ul ost c sit uat l: r o 'rl,' nrr ttr:ri prtlirr rft: o Itrtrgitnt: rk: st-'mitlnd[. ( I ):rcir r list r r r r l: L 'r il( f lllili llli( lit cir acoast ll, put cnr f act 't t z' r |l: r 'ot 'r 'r '1ir " (sl c rclr r t iv : 'it nlr lr 'r . r,rr' ; Itt rtt t it liz, tI r r 't t lt i lt lt t i r ; t t r slt ir lt l: t l r [ r 'sPr t 't ot t I I t t t I I 'L' t lot t it r " r lt 't t lt r t r c ll t :l .rrr' ..1r' ;r ll ( ". r lt l. r t t t t : r t , i t tt I r Dr :rtt t . i ; lt lt t t ir 'i Ar r ; r lizr , lr 'lr r li . lx] ; lit lll I "r t ,rrl .rpl i rl i rl . r t , 'lr r lllil". r ( . r l', t n'r llllt lc v. r ll. r / ii 'hr pl't r r l'11 . 'lil'r ll: i l r.i ' ,..,1,. rlif ir . il r t , . 11'lr lr r r r . , r vr r r i. r {i, .r , . r r lir r r t ir; r r,r'r' t i t t t t i i. , rl: t . t . zt t llit lllr ' rrrtr r,l ,l i rrrrl , :. ir r t 1, t . r lt , r r t lr '. t , . t I 't r ot t r lt t rlr 'll r r r r r sliluilr ' r lllr l) r ) t llr lr r r , ir r . lt ''plr " I r l . r ( |t r t lt ll l lt l ,rti ttr' ,;rl , r it r r i r lt ir t t r , , , t , ". i ', t t t 1h"nt ''i lr l"llr r '\ iv (l|
,,r llll(lll l r r r r l 't t t r ,',r l ,r 'l l l l tl l l l o t ',1 l l l ' l l l ti ,r l tt t r I t t t | ' i r t i r t tt Il l l l l l l ,l l l l l r "l I'l r 'r 't \''r r 'l r "'l c i ||Il .tI n tI||. | . r ', tttt1 ,l .r l l r "l r " l r ' 't l ,,r tttr tl ' t ( l l ) , r ' 'r (lr' .,l l l "'i , r "'l l . l l 'lr r i l r l "r r , . r t , . r . r , n ,t|o r ;r . r .r r r ' r ' I,,,tl |. r .r r l t,r ,h 'l ,r 'r "l l l r I r 'r r l t r 'r l r l r l 'r {r ,r tl ttr r , .r r r r tl . r i t ttr 'r tl , n 1 i , r l , t 1 't Jr t' ta l tr ,\',r 'f,,r ,,1 , 'l l i tr l t u I'tt'r l r r " \'r 'i 'l f'u tt'l r 'r l J Ir r l l 'r 'r l ' r '\l l 'l l r r "r ,r 'r r i r .r l ' 1,rr: ;,,,1 t r r r r r r lr r t , l

d(r/)/d(:lQ)va;t@,
E l L: ez Y 6^q ,

irrrit tlirr ccuatiile (20) rezultit a -.j sin cr)/(Sir I j Cor a). r "14r,)l(q.(cos l'{.trtnr fI.r.\'r'nt(:inalte prrtcm inlocui (/_) ;i (C) prin /5i C ;i obii(lt)i[) jsin z)/(Sir.r I iCor a), (21 ) (tt)lg) -

r.ln

r "(-t,1C.1c<'s r,r l)ortnl r irloliL :rlitrrretict:

Ir /iJSiL "1tl-6ii"y,) r"V'ila trVl t-Ai.


,
' ri. r

frt lr r r ir ' . r r olir t . , ,i Prrrrh rs rrl tv L l (; t'


lr||tl:||l I t | ' l , t i lt.l. .,,t l' l| .t| t

*lr

,r r r r ..r lr r | lr i

i rrrL.1Ir.rrr!,rrt P rrzi (i .r rl r. ;rrrrr l rrl rrr

. l , u V l | , , \ t , ,' t

.a'

\lllr r l

r.rNI fNt:,[rlt:Aill

o pcrdi tanl i 5 1 il ser ic, scr 'r r lcr ea t . sir r lir ', ( ) lot lolr i( t . dalor it ir r lisconlir r r r r pr tirlii (vezi capitolul IV) cste

.i (E) : (R, $ l.rS,)1 j(/,,r punind (Lt) : oblinem, simplu (H): j(L,)aI. Lt -

t,Cflll,

1lCta2- i(i?t/,r -l- l/Sta) (r)

riri*iri .il*fil.: *:iir:xtir,i \*i i ffi l';'ffi


l.l.lxl.li,"illjii'lJ"lH?:i rT:l:"1,; lll'l.ii:,"r,*!;:1,

rill i . u",li,,:#ir;i;n

illliil'.ili,i+i+i*1.+1r,,,,ffi f.r*:ffi ;+".,;n: rr ;l*ifEH iiill


r?:##l;lr

in acela;i mod, dacir la discontinuitateaven o cilpacitatc, ,r irr,r(i,., -va o frictiune ii o perditan,t:l in .t'aralel,sciderea cr.rrentului Ii

{I) : j(C,lta,

(.')

inseurnindprin (CJ o cnpar:ittrtc simbolici, care irrcorporeazi-r toatr' rli.r orrtr nuitilile in paralel, e\istentc la punctul considcrai. lixprrnt'r,rr firrrt.r l.r capitolul IVrelativla interl)retareaforrnclor simbolicc ale incltir.i. ,.!t,. .rr.r
logi cu cea de mai sus. D ac[ adopt ir m conlen{ia, ci lit er ele H, L, I , C r lin ior r r r r r l, . l, ( t 1 . , r (2) reprezi nti L t oat e t alor i sim bolice, r eam int indu- nt c( ! ( , ir( ( . : - ir \ t ) u. , r r l sus, ne putem clispensa dc paral'rtczi. si scric simplu LI ..= jLaI, I : jCaH,

ll*rl"i *ir ii*-iii*ii::n *n,l"l.il,.T,:,1,;.1t,*$i -;i i*ii'ryiHJ"''''"..t*l'i**l{U*i-i:t:"','#i$

,,,,,,,,,fli:1:'A01.1,"":'.#lii:i:."#l?,j1.:li-ril.;,rH:{#ffi",#:,i
II ,-T

:;r rrlir;iI;jir;iririifl*ti,iii,:,r;,i:1,j,,jrjl;:,r,r;r,,lliri: ::,lr"iii


|,t,l

i; qllg::*"li;U:g[i::irp;;n](ii,:]rlir 1;.r ii i; iri,iirr i,

ri' iiiii, #*:i*,*ii,,i :: rnl,, rii :*tlililt ri";rili,l

,,;,r ii*t ;,Il:'l; *ni# f,:;; ;;,ir;iii,l)':f ,.,l.l* til;, ;;

HfiffitTgibibffi fl.;';ffi {ii:r"..# ;;:rii*ir"*#.ii l,,l-l.'il,;;di,{#I-tfr}*ls":il#r


$fr
SciLzind,alem I'rrnind oblincrrr simplu
II.
Ho h

ajut.tgind ast{el la conclrrzil ci-r, daci dentonstri-inr plopozili:r r(,.r\t r., r,l exacti pentru iner liile or dinalc in ser ie, sau callr cit it ile ir r lt r r r - ; r l, . , ' I 'r r li. r r r l, admi tc-ca exa ct i li pL'llt t u o r lt i f or r r r i dc, li', . , , r r r ir r r r ijit t c. ' S [ presupunem cii ; r vcr n o linie a] cl'r t uit i- r lcl lt r t 'r 'r r r r t- ( , r r , r l. r ll ast fi gura 50, avind iner lii Z in scr ie ; i cap; r cit iLt i f ir r t , r r r '. 'lcl. P utem scr ie ur m ir t oa|clc ccuat ii, c. i- . lcil: : . i lr r 'i , l. r r r , . Dt , ( o|lf r dt lr I r ,

- H-:

j Lr t,,,

II,,, - II^,r:

jlrtI,,,,rl

I.

( l)

II,,,-t * 211,, H,,+t: -1.

jLu[,,,.. I^.,,1.

{.r)

Dar avem, de ascntcnca, I ,, - I o, : 1Cr11,,,. r, Substituintl irr (4), olrtincnr II,)-t - 2H^ i H^+t --=- LC'r.:ll.

uVT a- .2 s i u( o/2) ,
, Ht

2ll ,,, ttt: (l


12

l tr ,,,

(.1)

lNcullh tt) ttlrr rnllrflll.rrtllrlnr,tt lrrrrr,rn


1 1 ,,, .1 ,,,,(/, rrr)l ) | /i r.i l (1,ttr)tt,

.ltrr

(rt

Il^-r.
't l l , l r r r r .r t r

ll^.- il t|,,,

I 1 i / l f iir r t l r lr r r ; ' r rrrr' ,1rrl l i rr l ri l r rrl r.,r' irl . l x r| [ i tl r:tcrrni nl Ll cl)rtjcunl unur'irzii: t ,r I)aci yrunttrrrli o fi 17p p, succesiv, in ccuafia (6), oblincrl --

H o :A co s!0 { B sin 101 H o -A . I


Pe de alti parte, putem scrie -uccesiv H^-' :..4 cos(? - tr + l)0 + B sin (l - nL + H*: A cos(l - tn)O+ Bsin(!t-m)0.

o, cos - 21,,, 0 .1 /,,,, , ^-t r,rrl lslr: ;rnalogiL ecuaJia(.5),singunr rlift,rtrrlirliilrl cii ,/ a illrr rril ru //, llslfcl incit oblinem 1r, I

l7) 1) 1 0

'o - '"

r _ r

cos(/ r

I/Z)0

I'

Din care obtinem H*-a - H:,: { Alcos (N - m + 1)b - cos(1 - m) Sl + Bfsin(1 -m+ t) 0 - sin(1 - rn) g). oblinem l) f Bsin 0. (8) HF:.4 (cos0 -

ln]aceste ecua{ii,ldaciipun em 7n :1, IIe-r-

S[ presup'unem acum ci considerlm o linie fictivl, l)c (];rrr, \,r,rr (, rrLrmi linia uniformi. echivaLenli, avind o lungime l gi iner{ia /.' tr.rrlrrr rrnitatca de lungime, uniform de asemenca,r.iqrlr,'ilrrlc,r, -distribuitit ;i, irictiunea gi p_erditanla R' ;i S' respectivpe unitatea de lungirne,rtrrifolrri C', tlistribuite. Dacl presupunem ci. aceast5. linie arc accer;ihngirrr,. ,.rr rl linia discontinuS. mai sus,gi dacl presupunem disr.oiitirtrrl considerattr ctr ltllr, dc pe linia discontinuS. sint uniforrn distribuite, linia echivak,rr t nr. li,r.t ca inerfie si capacitate,{rictiune ;i peditanli pe unitatca dc hrrrliirrrr.

-t

1q21

, .rr rlf-l'r t" e Yz

tsitrl0

t* 1074

L' :i.LJ:;

c' : pclt, :'.,: :!.'1. s' :.rsl I

(rrD

Dar din ecualia (3), punind rz,-=y', oblinem Ho-r-Ho:jLoI, Substituind in (8), oblinem .din care ,4 (cos0 - 1) * Bsin 0: jLalo,

Dar am gisit (vezi capitolul V) c[ pe o ]init, unifor:rrli rrlr,rrr

Ho: HecosN+iI,lt'f te' sinpgi p :!ll |r:'.


Substituind valorile lui Z';i C' din (10), obliu,'rrr (il) j Ho : Ho cosp.t. jI oJlLlC sin pl

B : jle' La /sin 0 $ Ho tg (0/2). Introducind acestevalori ale lui I ;i B in ecualiie (7), obtinem Ho - Hn(cosp0-|- sirry'O,s*)+ - Z " "\ ) Iteamintim ci. 2 sin (0/2) : nVII, ccualia devinc Ho: H,cos(1 tlz)llcos (0121 +iI , 1l-r |/:sin10/cos(0/z). (9) jI,-!Ls'nfs. -sin0

;1

: v: @ilt)VTe z(Ilt)sin(t)/2).
cospl : cos(y'- 1lz) 0| cos (0lz) : cos(2y'sirr1{)/i)), sinul : sin10/cos(0/z): sin (21 sin (0/2)),

(l), (tO) ;i (11) s[ poali'r,'xl)rintrjrrr,l,.,r1t l,lrlll, . Pentru ca ecua{iile trebuie s[ avem:

care pot fi scrise: cos(1 - Il2\01cos(B1z): (2y'sin (0i2))l cos (0/2): sin(zp sin(0/2)) sinpO/cos I'

tl/)

Aceastl ecualie leag5.pe Ho, He, Io: adici presiunea sonomotrice de lir capeteleliniei gi curentul de la unul din capete, anumc acela cu rcccptonrl. O ccuatic similari poate fi obtinuti cu pritire la legitura ,Jintre Io, l, .,siI!o, printr-o ana1iz5. similarir, porninrl de ia ecualiic ,ichivalente: 1,,-, - I^: din care oblincm I^-t - ZI ," -l- ,1,rr - j{)a(ll^-, - H*1, 146 jCaH^-1, 1,, - I^*r: jCaH,,,

0-fiind-un unghi mai rtic ca,2r, relalia (12) nu poatc fi satisfllcrrtd rl;rrrrrr, decit daci 0 :0. Dar trebuie notat ci daci 0 atit de mic, incit slt prrlr,rrrpr1tr, -este sin (0/2) : 0/2 'l.i 6ot (gl?) :1, condiliie (12) se rc<luc lt cos(? - 1l?)0: cosl0, sin10..,. siny'6. A doua din acestecondilii este o identilatc; prinra sc rr.rlrrl.c lu cosy'0cos(0/2) } sin p0 sin (0/2) . cosy'0

ut

crtF, dtcl C rlir un rrrrphl l.r foarlnmlr, rr r,.,1rr,,.


l, ,t| t /' l, {1.

Prrlnrnlmrernlnt llrrrlrrrlll q'.nr.trlorrrlrl ll rr

(lr)

ll",

llrt,tl)

\tl.'llllt

r rrrlr2[1]/ (//1s l tati)l2vn.\...rrrh/p/l |

llr sarr srtrtplrr sirr 0 (). / I)acir fricfiunca yi perditan{adin tlisconlinuitirlisint ncglijabilc,accirstir sc rcdtrcc la 0 - a hfl.|. Am gi.sit rnai sus p.t : zf stn (0lZ\. Dacir 0 estc un unghi foarte mic, accasta se reclucc Ia *t: !0. (14)

1,,Iicicn{a rrur,rrrisici li tt lrl

( 17) tttltt,/,,= I/fc os hz 'tt+( t12\W l r ) V.i lI U III) l /R l ( ls i r r l ,2f]/1. ti


llirxirnul de eficienli se obtine atunci cintl t1!sl2 : IlRlz, (t8)

La capitolul V am glsit * :2r.11l ), fiind lungimcrL de und;. a liniei uniforme echivalente;substituind in (13) obtincm zdl), : lb -= + litr, sau

: 2U1l t k qi 0lz : ill!), si t : hxlz.

Rezultl prin urmare ci, conditia necesari! pcntru ca o linie discontinui, in care Iricliunea ;i perditanla sir.rt ncglijabilc, si-rpo&ti-I fi cchivalent5. cu o linic uniforrrir., in care inertia si. capacitatca sint rlitribuite uniform cstc, ca unghiul 0/2 sr'Lfie atit dt'mic, iut:it sii putcnr lua simrsul cgal cu rrnghiul insu;i, ;i ca hrngimea conductci sr-L Lrn nlrltiplrr cxact lic <lc lungime dr: scmiundiL a linici uniformr: echivalcntfL. DaciL s cstt. rlum5.rul discontinuitirt ikrr dc pe o lungimc cic untlir, lilcm:

.rrlit:ir de putcrc siut egal impirlite intrc fricliunc 1i 1r:rrlilrrrrlll, ^picrderilc ln acestcaz rnaximul dc clicicn{i at fi '4 .: c-20r,valoart:l lui p liirrrl ,1.rl'r crt p:/nS Vcdcrn dc aici ci, <laciL putcm rncrrline pclclitan!a ;i flic{irrncir rrrit'i, cfir:icn!a poatr: fi mentinrrtiLciL voirn dc ridicatir. Pcntru a calcula o linie incri'Lcati,constituiti rliutr-o linic rrrriforrnll <rbignuitiL, calc s-au int(.rcalatdiscontinui in ti.ti potrivite, {ic:. L, C, /i 1i .f, r:lracteristicile rezultantc rrnifor-rnealc linici incircrte; 2,, C,, R, qi ,t, (liscontinuitl]ile in sazieconccntlatc pc linie; 1.,, C", Il" ;i S, tliscorrlirrrrl litlile'in faralel, concentrate pe linic ;i L', R', C' fi .t' carilr'l r.r'i$t icilrt rrniformc ale liniei continui initialc, neincircatc cu discontinuil t i ; rrlr.lrr lt rlin ccle <le mai sus rrrmirtoarclcrclatii:

hs:z!,

i : (r'/s)i, 0 .= (l/2) .(2;1s).

L : L' 1 - ( fl t) ( L t- r l cp !) , R : n ' + ( y' ft) , l l /,\,) ( /r , c : c' :,-@lr) - 11r,,a21 s : s, +-(11)(.s:, t//r.). (c" , I
Putem calcula linia inciircati exact ca si cum ar [i o sirnpl.rlirrrr,rrrrl forml, al'lnd caracteristicileL, R, C, .S, cu conditia dc ;r rrnnu h.gr,,rrlr, distribufie dati. mai sus. Rezulti cir, daci sc cere a se obtine o linic incftr:alh, lr lrr,, \tlr,rrl de undl si fie infi-nitn, trebuie si avem fit' Z fie C cgal z(.rr). ln r,rr.llplll dat mai sus, ao luat un caz in care Z :0 li C :0; accrrsta s-lr olrlln', rl r,l L' :(PlD $lCra2 - Lr) ii C' : (pll.)(rlLra2 - C"l, a(licl'r tlr,lrrrtl rl introducem ca discontinuitS.ti condensatori in serie, avind r'rr1rrrliIn|,, | , qi inerlie Zr gi inerfii in paralel avind inerfie 12 gi capacitntc ()r. Acesteecualii determini.val.oarea capacit:.{ii;i inc(iilor c(,f lt. lx, trtl discontinuitl!i.

Conditiile pcntru cchivalcn!l-1,a;adrr, sc rcduc la urmi-rtoirr('a t ci{rrlir practicl: daci'Limaginirru un ccrc impirrlit intr-rrn numr'u- dc pirf ti ('Sirl cu numeml discontinu iti.jilor clintr-o lungime clc rrnrliL ir linici cchilalcntc obfinute, atunci, pentru echivalcnti, trebuit. ca rapt-r|tul arculni c;-rtrc' coarda unci strbdiviziuli sia fic at'roritttuliz egal cu unitatea, ial lungimca liniei trebuie si fic un numirr c\act <lc scmiunclc a linici rrniforme cchivalentc. Ca cxemplu, si pt'csupuncm ci! ilvcm de calculat o linic inciLrcati., ln care inertiile in paralcl. ;i condcnsatoarele in serie sint introthrse ca discontinuitl.ti intr-un mod, astfel, ca pc linia incircatiL sir fic C : {) ;i r- : Q. Referindu-nc la formulelc (3), (a) capitolul V, obtincm.

Ho: H cosvl 1 jIlR/s slnpll /o = / cosp/r iH l/s/R sinsl I


ii avem pcntru accst caz

(t 5 )

Exemple Prcblema1. Se propune a se tra"nsmite 000 CP prin o liuir, lrilrrr.utll 2 de transmisie de unde prin api, la o distanti de l0 km, cu o cficitrrln rh' 90o/0. se gisi presiuneasonomotricede intrebuiniat gi sccliunea conrhrrlr,lol A necesitate in cazul liniilor neincf,rcate obignuite. Linia este constituitl din douil.conducte paralele, trrnsnrilirrrl lirr',rrr, clrte 1 000 CP. la La capitolul VIam glsit ci maximul de eficicnfiL o linicrk:transrrrr..ir, <:ste dati. de relafia

P :a -j 9 '" :o '9 :fR s: Astfcl obtinem:


cos : cos(- jp) : coshp, u.l ti p/ Ho ==iI cosh f i |/?r.S sinhpl 1. pl 1o=. l cosh p rI /s/n sinhgl I
148

: sinpr.l sin (- jg) - - j sinhp

(r6)
-

- . n -?3r

(te) l,le

. r r e. r u g r,| t.tu F tl t, F l U ' Oq $ l l e 0.U , lt hllnr nl (l ' ,) .' 1 1 / h i l .l l ti .l0i . A rr ti ;r,.rt l x.ntrrr .,1,,, l , . l t ; l) Ul |X lll, , r',l,tl r,lr.r,rrr.rrr /, t),{ )l .1 . l: i' . i. i nr ll l l i ,r rrrr,r.r l rIrr< | rrr.Ir.| r.r:r. rrrsrrri l (:i l (: IO(X )(,1,: l rl , ,r' ir , .rl rl lll l lir r ir l, lt l' l 1 ,r' rrr.r.rI' rrrIrri Ii l l t l rr , /,{ .1/Z (l corr(xxr p.nl r.rr' r:rri ri rrrl ti rlc clir:ir:uliL avr:rrr / ll lCll. t!,11,oblinem

plll Arrr rrrllnat vll'rrrnl lr fl I l<,t I , ( , r ur / x, t'


r,rtl v rl , zrL cf ir ; it cr r

s. a, : 3s01[I:216 cntf
t or:ficientul de {rictiune R ar fi

rr' - HIlz : QH,lz :3,5 aH2.


l)aci d cstc diarnetrul interior al conductei,avem rnai depart,. rlt : t,s (rclt) (Hd.),. (20)

a"ld R : (v/g,) 'Lo,ot + (0,osld)lt;ldJ z0l : Rl,!:0,2s6 .


Eficienta in acest caz ar fi z1: e-0'256 0,775. Vcdem'ci. e{icien(a este prea sc[zutl; trebuie prin urmare sl lntrt:luitt' o {iLrn un calibru mai mare de conductl sau si a-legem presiune sonomolrit'r' rrrai ridicati.. Si oresupunem c[ lulm o conductl de diametru interior do 12 cttl, ()btinem a : (nl4)122: 113cmz, t, :210 t[2 : r9L cmls, V:Ila:270cmls, z\l: Rl{l:0,104,

Fie z, viteza efectir,i. din conducti. qi Z arnplitudinca vitezei, avem I : aV : l2H :7ofi din care

v :7 H,
I,y:1000

a":vlyt : 4,9sH .

Substituir.rdin ecuatia (20), oblinem x 76 x 100:O,rz(I)d)e ?.d:825O.

iar e{icienta ar fi

Io0 _ Ap glsit anterior. k: rilc gi.site mai sus, obfinem

(a"ld) + 9l\i4, (t
a.ld:1,36.

dind lui h g zt"d-:ato-

Q2\ Din_(21) qi (22) oblincm z,: 105,5cmfs, d:78 cm, pi mai departe __ v 1,. V-z. 150cm/s. H : Vl1 .- 21,5kg/cm,. v edem, pnn u rmare, cir. penuu a transmite 2 000 Cp la o disranti rlc l0km cu o pierderede l0o/o,cele doue conducte trebuie si {ie de ?gcin diametru, qi trebuie intrebuinlatri o presiune sonomotriceioasd.,de numai 21,5 kglcmz. O asemenea linie ar fi ancombrant5 gi costisitoare. Problema -I1. Aceea;i putere urmeazi. a se trarsmite la aceear.i dis.tarrti ca in problema I gi cu aceea;i eficien{i, dar in loc de o lini6 obisrruiti, urmeazi a se intrebuinla o linie inclicatf,, avind inerlii in paraiei, distribuite la intervale eealc. Aceasti. problemd. poate fi rezolvate prin incerci.ri succesive, precum ulmeazi.. Avem pentru puterea intr-una din conducte l,f : HIlz : qH,p: Luind o valoare arbitrarl obtinem 4,: 61. Apoi avem I :
r l r.lllcl

r : e-q,lor:0,g. Vedem, prin urmare, c5. diametrul de 12 cm este bun. Cunoscittrl rllu . metrul conductei qi valoarea lui {, putem calcula capacitatca rt('r!'riitl[ ltl conductf, pentru a obline eficienta ceruti. Aceasta d5. C :6tzJ. 372tr., .lrt Am glsit ,l :VCIL :61C 3,'lllltt{l L:ylg(':0,00t/981 x 113: 1/1,1x 10E, astfel cd x 113 : l/3 x lot. Capaiitatea uniforml pe unitatca de lungime a linici r:ste C' : alE : 113/20 000 : 11t71 , E fiind coeficientul de eiasticitate aI apei. Inerfiiie Ir, cerutc a fi intercalate paralel ar fi date tL: rr.lir{iir C:C'-pllL2a2. (r.t)

I 000 x ?6 x 100 kg . cm/s. pentru 11, de exemplu lj:500 kg/cmz,

Pentru a determina pe p trebuie se gisim lungimca du rrndll a llrrlr'l incircate. Viteza undelor ar fi t : \,( rC : I 820000 cm/s.

,1/H :61

x 500 : 3 050 cm3/s. 10 cm,

S5.presupunemcL alegemo frecvenll de z : l0 cicluri pr. rrr,r rrrr,lir : lrrngimeade undi. ar fi ). : t 8ZO OOO/10 182000 cm 5i nuuriL|rrl rL, lrrrr gimi de undL din lungimea totali a liniei incr5.catc ar fi 1 000000i182000 .: -5.5 Curentul ce stribate inertia ar fi (12\ : - jH lLsat (/ 1) tl q:

Si presupunemcl alegemo conductS. un diametru interior d cu a : - (nl4)rlz 78,5cm, .

150

rrInrlla (v;rl frrrrtrrrlir (?1)) ll ,rfr,lrt tr lll('

('Al'lTall,r't.

\l

t)t ll, .

't' A\St(

tlt,t'l'0ltl

rl . . , . S r l. l' r , . - . ll, l l ' l r r,r, tl l rl l ,i l l .i i l l u rrg i r rr,. ,. l t) l i l rr rr l i rri r.i , l xnr,l l l 0{} i rr, r f ii , lis t r il, r ilr ' l ,r i rrtr.rr,rl < (l r' )() l u , ;rv r ,l r i rl rtrrr' i . l ,)n:;i l ,rrr,,,,.l rr,I l o till r nr r t t oic r . i rr Io rn rrrl l r (2 4 ), o l r{ i n t' rn I" llf
( rtl-(' rf : Lnll :

5 n o (l l l 7 1
OZ .li .

l /3 0 0 0 0 ) l } t tl l }tl . . 14 000 (:rnrys. rr\2, l :r cr r pilol, lL, 1r r - cccclcntam st u( liir t cot r r lr . nsir lolii1i it r , r t iilr ' . r r pr r , , . e ,r, l rrrti i unci acclca; i pr csiuni solor not r icc i) ( ' ir nt l) ( lr ' li, l, . \ 'or r r lr , t t ir lr . lll ' rl .rtrt, r.p ut ir t c dcst inat e dc a t r ansf or m a dir - cct ln; 'Lr il) r 'irl) lt . : , iulii : , r , uor r , l ri fr:. ,\5frr r (llcit aPat at C lc t ou m r m i iD cgn, iill ir t it sf r t r at l\ Lt r , . ( r '. r t t r , r l si npl i . i or- m irdt t r ausf or m at or con: t l- L <lint r ul pi, <lor rr li[ r lcnlir r l ir l) r t r r I 1r, en.i i l c lui ii't c cr r lichidul t lin linia clc u. : r nsnr isic; i ) il, r 'r ir or nil; r , 1, . , , pi rtl l i i (le alt a a pozi{ici lui m ijlocii. Pist r r nr r l iolr Lyi lxr r r r l li r , olir . r r r l, ir r(\rrrti i i i fr ccuur cst o ilust lat in ligur a - - 1.

Pt ntru rt gtisi grcutalca si dcplasluncntrrl A, al incrlit.i, avcrn /^

.{stiel ob}inem Az : 14 000162,8 :223 cr-nx . Si-L cii lrlc'supuncm alegem,pentru cursa2/ a pistonului dc iner-tie2r: , l0 (:rn, ob(inem pentru sectiunea acestui pistbn ll: Lrlr: {i,6 cm2. ljn piston dc 7,5 cm diametru ar fi aproxlmativ potrivit. {iLcutalr.ir /' a incr{ici ar fi dati. de rclalia cr.rnoscutiL Ie: Ir,S{lr ii .. ,lirr lormula (2,1) cunoa;tem ci Lr: Hiazlz , 5OO X 162,8, t4 ir00 : l'loS1 a 44,6r astft.l ci P . li,- kg. Curn ar.enr doui linii, diferind in {azi cu 180", iar incrtia se aJl!. inrercalatiLin celc douiLlinii, greutatea pistonului neccsarpentru a inciirca amI'c1,. Iirrii rl fi 2 x 17,7 --35,4kg. In modul accstaam determinat toate elcrncntelcr.reccsare pentru constructiaunci linii incirrcate.Calculul de mai suscste un caz simplu dat :rirmri crL cxemplu al mctodei generale pentru determinarea liniilor lungi de ilalti Irrcsiulc. Pcntru cazuri practice, analiza tlebuie sit fie mai completi, rininclu-sescarna dc pierderile p n ine4ii. Acestea pot fi determinate, daci consitleriun sarcina incrtiei intercalati pe cele doui linii in serie cu o frictiune, incluzind in accastiL lricliune pierderile datorite frecS"riipistonului gi sci<1erea cncrgici cinctice datoriti, schimbirii bru;te a sectiunii ramificatiilor, la legr-Ltura lor cu conductele principale, carc ar ii obligatoriu in unghi drept. l)icrrlt:rca<latoriti'rperditan!ei prin pistoane trebuie, de asemenea,luatii in considcratic. Analiza completi este pu{in mai lungi. dar nu prezinta 1're-o rlificultate spcciall. Ilezultir din exemplele date mai sus, cir la liniile lungi trebuie si inlrelruintim presiuni sonomotriceinalte, cu scopul de a putea intrebuinla nririmi <L:corrducterationale. Pe de a1t[ pafte este dificil a se intrebuinJa direct irscrncncaplesirini sonomotrice inalie la distribuirea energiei pentru scopuri placticc si sintcrn prin urmare silili de a intrebuinta aparate speciale, deslinato a reducc presiunea sonomotrice la valori practice, spre a evitapresiuni cxccsive in clistribuirea puterii la punctele de utilizarc. Asemenea instrunrorlte so n:lrncsc tr artsJortnatori;ele constau in general din pistoane diieren(ialc; Iinia dc transmitere principalir de presiune inalti este legati. cu ur.r cilintlr-u,in carc lichidul lucreazi asupra unui mic piston, ce la rindul lui irr:tione:rzir. piston mai mare, care lucreazi. intr-un cilindru de presiune un jousir.Cu.accst dispozitiv oblinem simultan o transformarea presiunii ;i
l curcntllltll.

i is

5l . -

' l rars f.,.m:!t.,r s .' ri ,

[,a a cost t ip dc lt ansf or r r r at or ',lichidul clin lir r ir , 1, r r , r r r . r r r r , / l lr r .rci rzi , pc un pist on d, . sccliunc ( J, , lt gat r igicl cr r r r r r 1r rt or r r l, . r r ! t r r , r r U, cat,' i ..rr:rc azl: r sr r pla Jir : lt idulr r idiu condnct a D. ( ior 'pr l lr i, , t , r r r lr r r , . t r t , r , S tl P i i s a avca o gr cLlt it t o - l'si, plecum se at at : i in l1gr r r r i, . , 1, . r r pr r r lr l , 1, r , r r , < l i spczi ti r-cr rlesor - lir r isar run condcnsat or ,at . ind ( ) cillil( 1(r i {r , , r \ r , , r l, lll L)aciLlu6. m un ilt st nlm cnt exact sim ilal cr i cr . l r r liilr r l, , l | \ ', l, lr ir i, l diameirele cilindrilor R ;i 1) siL fie cgale, putlnr sr:rir. II, H: r : 1( Lr a l1Cr t t ) l, , (tt i n cai c 1-, : 1't gQ l, Ct - = AO i si I 1. 1cst r : o plesiLr r r r s()r) ,)| | r (|I I |{ r ' , r lr lr , r l enti , ai ea sl ast f el ca in f it 'ce r r or r elt : i ar , cm 1/ i! ) , / / . ! ) , . ( r r . r ll, r r r vi nte. i o4a exer cit at : r dc lichid in cilinclr ul / J asupr : rpist or r r r lr r / ', , . t , . , 1. , r 1r la a.r.Lele instrumcntc. i n ascnenea condit ii ur iscir r ile pi- st oanr - 'Jorr' ir nr lr r . ll ir r st r Lll, r r t , t r l lr i denti ,:e;i r ezult i ci, daciLsubst it r r im pc r ?i in ccuiLlia ( l) , olr {ir r r . r rr , ,r r , r lt , r misciLlii transformatorului iiustlat. il\-em prin urnare

ln capitolul urmitor se discutir tcoria acestorinstrumente.

Ht -- IIz ' (r)r/Or) : j(P'tlglti .l-ct'asta poatc scrie se


I I Jlt I l2! ! " . . j( / l/ . i{( ) , ! ) j -

| ltr;llti) t,.
l7r r , 1! ) 1! ) ") 1 ! J"/

r5t

UUI

(I'(,lrr.rftlt pl{11rlrrt /g lrrrrlxrrtIlrll('cu,11, rlirtct'i rloi cilinrhi ,fl gi /), irvcnr

ft|nt-' rr,q,nJVtl,

,{f,

Il1. HJ | - ItJz,- ilLo - tlCal.

Itt , td,l - I,ln*:nH,1ll l*11$fuif '


I);tr:i,I cstc foartc mic, precum cstc cazul cind sc luttcbuinlctall un lriston loaltc utor sau daci seifiunilc Q, ;i Q1 sint mari, accstc foimrrlc rc
l l '( l l t(; l i r

Q',

Aceastd. ccuntlc cstr,grrreralirdacl sc ncglijcaz[ frictiuncl gi pcr<litantr din tlansformator. I qi {,' sir)t respectiv coeJicientul' incrlie muhal Si cade bacitatca transformatorului. Trebuie notat cl, daci Lr, C,;i L2, Cz reprezinttr inerfia pistonului 9i capacitatea resorturilor in relatie cu cilindri respectivi B gi D, avem pentru coeficientul mutual de inertie gi capacitatea mutuall a transformatorului

nfQHrLl - (tlz)(!maL)'1, qi cu o primi. aproximafie It

[t

H"

6pt11 - (tlz) ({nal.lt)

L :fL;L;, c :Ve-,c,.
Lt:
Si obtinem

Accasta se poate verifica utor, deoarece prin definilie

Plsa|,

L,:

Plg0l

mzQHy H2, mHr Problema I-L Transformatorul din exemplul precedent est6 logat cu rn rczonator care nu absoarbelucru, sau cu o capacitate inlinitl. A cc 6td curentul primar. ln icest caz avem Hs :0 iar ecuafia (4) din exemplul prcccdont rll

L, VL,h: PlgaLe.:
iar mai departe

(Hr) : jLaI,:
sl avem numenc

jLaI,lnt

ct : Ao?, c": Aaz, Ven:,40ro,1:lc.


Curenlii 1r, 1, sint totdeaunain aceeagiIazi, c6,cipistonul trans{ormalorului se miqci in bloc dintr-o parte in alta astfel cl vitezele trebuie sL fie egale la ambele capete, Ecua{ia (2) poate Ii scrisi

It : mHtlLa.
Se fede imediat de aici, ci dacl pistonul trans{ormatorului erto forrtr ugor sau l' foarte mic, curentul 1, absorbit poate deveni foarte mrrr. Df aici rezulti ce este recoman&bil a prevedea o inertie suficient[ ln tranliflr mator, pentru a menline curentul absorbit la o valoare redus6, atuncl d0di de exemplu, sarcina se suprimi. brusc din Iinia secundart, presupu{ lqrtl cu un circuit fi.ri. reactante sau frictiune. Poriectind aparatul cu o inerjie sufieicnti Z, putem tltrrlrrhlf l ransformatoare la instalalii de distribufie de iortl, cu scopul dt f lld|| curentul furnizat unei magini date la orice valoare voitl. ,,, ri,f .\old. Un transformator cu raportul Qr/Q, : t sc reducc tr o Inr{h sau capacitate obignxiti, dupi cum inertia sau elasticitetd prdonlil h valoarca reactanlel totale.

(8,)1,: HrIrl j(La- llCa )' I rI ,


ll numerrc
nl1: t2 l tti + \L a '- '^ tl LE )' ti f2 .

(3)

Exemple Probl,ema Un transformator cu un piston de gieutatea P ;i cu sec/. O, gi f,l2 este plasat pe o ramificalie a unei linii de transmisie primari, liuni in cate iresi-unea ionomotrice este flr. Nici un resort nu este intrabuintai in transformator. Linia secundarl este legati. cu o linie de transmisie inde{initi, de seciiunea or. A,se gili curenfii primar gi secundar 1r, .12,,si presiunea sonom6trice secundari I/r. La o conductl de o lungrme indefiniti, avem (cap. Vl) Iz : qHz. Din ecualia (3) (Hr)Ir: H"I,t jLaI,I, ({) gi mai departe avem IllI2:A1lQ2:tn' 2r fiind raportul de translormare gi Z : din care obtincm P/gOpr, din (4) obfinem numeric

'lll

H| : (I,lI \)V7.r""4{TEny,
'lll

Ir:rtf,l'H1l[t a$m@,
l6{

tlr

At'l,r:t'lilt,I s0|\l(t't'Il'tl

\II.

1. \I0'r'OAITE Sr GIi\ tilt-\] 0?l||Ii SON|CtrSt]\(:ttONl.:

Gt'ncratorul si receptorul sint de construclii sirnilare,iar functionarea cstt'rcvclsibili. ln figura -52esle prezentatl o ma;in:i sonici sinclolir. dcscrisi in dou5, scc!iuDi.Penlru le.\'ileclelegiiturii intre gencrator si rt'ceptor sint prcvirzute rrliliciilc rr, l,r,c. Aceste orificii comunici cu camertlc ul,ltt, cr, liccare iiind in conrunicalic cu trei pistoane trt, lt", t'" aranjatc radiirl. Pistoanclcsint in conthct cu uu r.xcentrjc,/ prin itrtermccliul unui rulmcnt raCial. Excentricrrl cste montat pe axul l. Spa{iilc cc comunici cu orificiile a, D, o sint r.rmplutccu lichid, iar pistoanelcstau pe ercentric irlpinse de rcsort. Un fluid convenabil pcntru sistcmni de transmisir dcscris ar {i ulriul mineral, de;i in princini,.rorice liclricl sau gaz ar putca {i rrtilizat. Se observiLci-! aranjxncntul din figura 52 asigurir un dr:pleL:ament riat tl: trci pistoanepentru o singuri fazi.. Acest lucru asigrrriL col.lstructie o nt:ri compacliL,presiuni mai mici la suprafala dc contact inlrc rulmentul crcentricului fi pistoanc,dcplasament mai n:are pentru o fazi faJi de situali.r in carc s-ar ti ft-rlosil -inSrrrf islon pe faz5. 'rn Sistcmul plezinli. analogiccu sistemul clcctric trifazat. f.n in:r.ortant rL!autaj fali de transmisiile;lectrice cste acela ci poate [i rrtilizat, , 'onoDrir', pcntru viteze de rotalie {oartc scirzute. Pentru malina din schita prczcDtatilse constati cL llL o^rotati,' ir axuin lLri se producc citc un impuls dc 1-.resiunc fiecare {aziL. Intre fr.:c'-'enta rnilci.rii lichiclului I ;i vitcza de rotalic a axului r (rot/min) existir relalia / ' n130. I)aciL motorul ',sigcr.rcr-atorul construclii identicc, r'itczclc 1oi tor au
ll ( g i l l {,'.

A-A

litr.za clc rotatic eslc micl'1,sau distanla intrc 51r:ncralor;i il:otor l)rLci-i , sr(' rlici Ia(i clc lungimca de un(l:! )', ), 6ll (r; {iinrl viteza :r::ier-ului i rr liuid, m / s ) , atu n c i fc n o m e n u l d c p ro p a g al e u undcl or de prtsi u:re de l a {cncrator l;r lccepLor poate Ii asinrilat cu o rni;care ,,in bloc" a intr-gului llrrirl, iar conceptul ric incompresibilitatc a lichidclor este poirilir pentru rllsclicle:r fcnourcrlrlui. J)aciL distanla intrc gencriitot- ;i receptor sc mirc;tc, in lung'.:l liniei sr. girslsc, Ia rrn moment da[, zor-tt cu presiune mare ;i zone cu depresiune, r'r'r'irct' arati. ci. sc producc o propagare de unde in medirr elastic. F'.:nctioruirrr.ir 1r'ansmisicir.ruestc posibili dccit in anumite condilii, descrise analitic i rr liipit ohr l pr iv i n d s ta l i l i l a tc :L l i n i i )o r l u n gi . 156

Fi g

-i 2. -

-\Ii i s i rri s oni c i s rnc rona

I l'r r l'lll S e pune pr oblem a dL'a const r uiun sist cm de t r ansm isic s( 'r r r r i dif cr ir c. De cxt t t t . l'lr t ,/ ', r r ' r , t lr r lr il cu rnasi n 'isinc'r oneavincl \ ; t czc dc |ot : r ! ie j ;" ;i ;;;i " Jl ; t nr t . sc dor c; r '" c; r m olor ul si r ibi o. \ 'il( / i il' I "r 'r ll' "ii"r a putea {aloriza pornirea motolului' tlirr'iL itr.'tlt'r 'rrttlttl ar A.;"tt. ;"i fi;;. nu estc prea mare. <ilit lr lt t lllr r t t B U n' asem enea m ot or cupr inde t r t i gr upe- dc pisloar t e it r li' lr r r l p. l" air ur nit c legit uii la ir ' i coloat r "l' (-p [i i ;;- . ; ; . i"i '"r.tf"iiiiJa"i"-J" rrrtxl, ,r'rl6l l.rt "r r . .

g"""rniorui trifazat. l{o1.rttl csit' ?r"i."rit r.'r'lr'll . i*if frirto"""f6 in contaci cu cl d.scr.irr milcir'c sirur:rrirl,rli'r

Itt

t
-1
I

r_)

, | | t . l | l ||l l , l r , r r r , r ,l ' ,,,r r r 1 ,1 1 ,." l || l ,t,,l r 'l | l ,tl Il r r ,r l l . r r r r r r j r r r .,l r . .i tl ,t,tl ,r l .l , r , '1 , 'r U l | | t \.r r r , r ||t tr r r r l 'r r l r r r r ,.r l ,,l .r i .r l tl '.,t o .,r r l ,r {tr r l l I l r \'.t ||l I ||.1 1 ,,,,r ,,.,,r r i ,l ' .r l / ;r ( ,r ,1 l l r r ,l , i .r r l r r r r ,r , tr '.r l l r r l r r l , r , , l r l r t l r ,,r ,,tr r l r r . r l . , r l , lr r u l i I l r , r i r l ( ) t l r i l :tz:r l r l Jt,( \'( ,r 1 .t A', r ,i l , ztr r r r o l o n r l l r r ,r l i \,rl/ I i ; r l r r r r l r r l ,l ( r '(( l 1 r (r 'r 1 l l l r r l i r l i ;r l i l /,'l /. ,.1 ,, i a l ) l l l l r 'l ' s tr l l .i r o l t, i r 'i r , l l l l t tl r l t\r 'n l r 'l ( l l r t l t t ttsa l l l r {r l {'r , i , r , . , ol r l i r tr i r l r i l l l ) i :( i tl ( ,1 ;'r l ,r ,tr i r r l r l r .1 r ( r r r r tr r r o l r i r r t l sl r l r 'i .r l ) . I r r l l scn cl t i l l i - i tr l r l i ( si i r t l r r c,r r .i r i r r l : Ii g r r l l t 5 .i ./ cr l ( o sc{.{i l r n ( . l r r r r , r,rrll r l l r i l l i n r o to r si n ( r 'o l fi r l l l ti r :i .l l o scr !i u r r c1 x'a xi l A A ( l i l i l i l i u r r Jl ,r ; I t , , r r r : r : r . 1 i l r i !1 i s( l r ( 'm a si :r r ( 'Iti l h ti r l t'tt- l r n sn r i si c - !cl ( 'l i l t( ) t l r i fr r zl r l r r r o l r ,r r " , r . i l , i l ( t \r : /.. " l r :'. I r . Ilotorul cu Ir i r r cl e ci n ( i d i s( l l ti a scl D i L l 't o i r r c ( /, tn o n ti r l r . 1 r r , r r r r r l /r , D i l i r r r . t r l i u a ( ,:i ( , ( l i scr u i fi i n d p l o l i l l i t i L Sa cu l l l scj l r a l i - r i l l i l l r r r r r 'r l /,, , 1 . l , 'l r r L i ) r 'i r r - !- l o r - r 'r 'o l r r L i c.a r o i ( ) i u l 1 1 ; l ) u n ctu l d ( ' co tr ta cl i r l ,l i r ,r ,r r l r r r , r r r r r L . i r l i r t l r i l t'L :, i l i n ci l i n d i i i r l o sci l l l zi i td i a l ( l o ci n ci o l i . I) i sr r r l i r r r .t,r l r . (lt lcr'1ni1lir deplasarca bilelor c inir',o trliscarc tur-ito1-ii{t:! {r'rr:rr,rrlir rlr. r trr, r crr ()ri 1lrai mar(] clccit vitcza de rotaiic ir a\rLhli ,. I l i l e l c c i n a cca sti l r r a l i n :r a , r i ,'r l r zi ci 1 l i sto a n c i i r .i n l l ) ( 'r l ( 1 L r ';,./,r t'. in i:irpt'lc alunecirtoare in cilir.rdrii 1. ,\rcrrrilc sint l)t cvi"r/,rr I)r.rtrt torl lr) lJLllsal'ca lnertici pistoanelor. l r ) a ce a sti i co n str u cti e b i l a sc p o a te r o ti , i l stl e l ci r i l tr c l r i l r r r . r ,,i r l r ,,,r r l ,r . t r r ( o l l r .r , '\ i . r o :r ,,g o l i r ". ' 'l ( l 'i r r dcr i l L : ca r c sc ]) r o d u c p c l i n g l b i l c si n i ( ( ) l r l x.r i ,i r t, r r l r tr r ,' r l ,
i I i r ::r l l l l Sl C .

t'rl"rrlrl, nrtfil i,n'-ir,lr..tll,.r,l | .ritr.\t\lr. rr rrrpr,rlrrlh l,ir,ltl ,|rrrrru,|r|,r ,:rr

ti ci r r l pict t lut _dt : 1a pist oar r c sc adunir in nn; ir r ; i r l, r r r r r l, 1, , , , r t , lr , (l r ,i i ri l ) Dlf o coli( lr Lct a!. / I-;r i n ct om l t ) r 'czcnt : r tcilindr ii not at i 7 ( cinci cilir r , lr i . r i r r r r r . Lr . , ,) r , , r r r r r r , rri r i .: 1 ln canll colcct oL 1, cilinillii not ali 2 ii l( , sl) ( (li\ . i 11; 11111111, . 1 ,. ,:L,r.1,' l ci l si I ll. . \ ccst c 1r 'ci canalc com nlicir cu lr r , i i, , r t '. , r , r , l, r , r r r I , i i .,, . . | . . r . . I . : , r . , r ar u: . . :. i i t ligur r . i. . int r r r iit at e sr 'lr c: : t at ic concr iut lil( . lr r r , , , r t , , 1, , r r , , \' 11: ,' sl ,'1l1r ', . irilt ! t objt t r t r le iit t , cLsaLca scnsului ( I ( I |) l I I I i. . r r r r "t ', r r r lr r r t schi i ni ,i n( l ( {) nr . : iilr lilc a ( lo11ir azr '. f

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1i i r]. 51. li, lr | | r, I' rni ur (1. l r,rr' rr' r, rt, r, )rr1r)r'l ri f:Lr,rl rr, l r,, r' ,.,, s rr,;l rr v j l , /., r,LL, i l / |

Trci condensat oar esint colt cct at o la lilit in I t : r r scopul r ll ir lr r , lr r , r locurile dc presiuDc care s-ar producc la inYctsarca s,'nsrrlui strrr tit ol|||r,rl motoruLli prin inchiderca linici cu robinctul /i. CcL trci fazc llr. lili,,r ,1, transmisicr pot li conectatc t'n punctul I prin tr-ci coll(ill(.lc crr scr.{irrrrr'.r rlr trecere {oarte mici'r intr-un prrnct comuD lp. var l n p ur lct ul . / / l 1t u cxist i- L iat ii dc plcsir ui( . ( l) r Llcllr l r r lr r lr r r r r l : , i, , 1r . urul ui l ri l a zat ) si pe aici s( , iloat ( l) . ) t r t l) t uL. i ) r L pr lsir r r r r ': rnr lr lil r lc lr r , r r

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.r\ I l t I lilt s , i l t!. rrIIl )r. ...tt,. ,|, ,| r |,.| | | (, r l i rr i rrsl .tl i rl i r,. I . Ij rr rrri rnornetrui n l ,l ,, r ' r ul . r lr r . ir rrl i rrr l )rr' \i .ri ,r rr,,l r, rr .r ,.rl rrcl r.. (]orxl uctcl c I rrtbui c i i l i r. s r r . lir . ir . r rtlh, l rrrrg i :i r.rr ,l r,rrr,.trrr ,' , ,,1-p,.oau" " pi .. a" r' i l )(.ntl 1r Itt.r t i in , l, ( r t . z,i s tc rrl ;r ,,rri .r ' ..r l t,. r1 .rr,.) j ,ri 1 i 1ci-,' ,i " l zi r,.. s

l r l r r tttl r l , ,r i l r r t,r i stts l xr l l i r tl i l i z:r t, ,,r l l ( l l l l r tl o i l r ( '. l ) tti Iltltoittll, c s t e i ! u t r c u i t t r l r r tr r r r r tl o t Pti ttr r tt, tr ttcn tr tl sr ttl i t :tl tr .'ltl tl i r '. Ptl r tl tts i tl l i tti ' dc trilqsmisi(' \'t irv|il o lf({ \'t'nta't rnti mare, raPorlul dintr(' ltt'cr'':lt(lt tttt' tt tl t P| tr r l 0 t t r r l u i ; i Y i t e z a to to tttl u i fi i tr tl <l ctcr l n i n a t d t: n u m i r r ttl o n d u l a l i i l o I

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l l ot.,r s r)ri r c u l :i ,.1. i r;. ( i l i l ,l fi s rl rr)r' i .i a\i r!l i pc r) l )i Lrl t a rol orD l nr.

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C rrr-ul i i ,l , i r, cvenli m a: i oL, lir r uli ast f , l pt - t t li r r t ilizat i Pet llr r r . '| r lt r t r .r r t r rnotoarc siurilirlt cu alt raport clc reducctc a tura!ici, ircir combinittrl trr"l" r t ' .dc rt'ducere sarr tlc ti'lt''rr' ca c:1. clescrisc sc poati obtine orice raport rotor Prcvizut cu tlttttrt trtlltt a turaJir'i. I)c cxcn.rplu,daci" gcnelatoml ardun Ialii pt pcrifclic caie iliL deci"douii oscilalii pe rotali;, iaL curcnlii tri[lzr{r' odlinuli'comandi'L rttiscarcaunci maqini cu rc.ttorulaviu,1 trei ondula!ii :rlrrrl r riruortul transnisici ia fi 3/2, iar :irotorul sc va roti de 1,5 oli rttai r''1r"1'' dt'cit eeneratonll. rL .iplicatia irrportantir posibilf, a motoarelor dcscrise este ilct-'t t ttrltr pelltru ilntrcrlitr(rt l.rrli cer-ii tuialici turbini'lor siur motoarclor cu cxplozic a t'licelor rlc vapor, rr lt irtru acfion:-Lrilc ca.rc au incttii trrnri, pomirca se recorniru(L-! rotor ;i lrborclr' ,t,. fact plin intlrnic(liul trnrri r:L:mt:nt cu'alurt,:clrr-c intrc ic;ir,,, t, s| irlocltoazir cluPii lxrrnirc.
\tLl. (; li\lilt.\'l ott Dri i\\l,l.i lfltlx:\'ltr'!'l ( l c n r 'l : t l otttl so n i cr cl l r tl ze tr r i ti d cp i sto tr u l a tttr tn ;r td u u l l .r - tccl l l Il ci L r ( .1 r ( \'l ) u si l l l l ) t\"t l l l :r l r Ir r r v . . r r t i : , r t t t i r ti r ti ,l ,'r 'i tL 'z.r '.tr r tl tti 9 i d ,tci ft' cvcn l tl ( l i tl i 'i l r r l IIccve n !l 't|r 'r r 'l r l l ( r r l s i r r r ', l i r i , r L l t i l i,1 , t, ,1 i ,,1 - ,,t'l i sPo zi ti tu h r i ,d :l l

rororu,ui: a _ sec1iu,,c ,, ,.:i",i.:';'i'i:,:i),11,:,,':,ilfl:liilioarc.

so r ic cu citin

I, II, III ir rr,,lir;i.ruotl cr lu cctlxll:r val.lantiiconslfuctivi-t. llgura 56 s, prczi'ti'r o formi. co'strrr<:tivir ciri'trri srirtorici crr ,l' axiali :rs(zalrr)unlillp. o t)ltrtc lr Lotorului..Efor.lrrl ntcclirrrlt.irrrlling|rr: llrtcraliL -- -'- - ' ""' ir rrroloruhri cste pr.t:luat rulmcrrtul tlc ,. Siut posibih:-nrulte "*i,,i vlrriantcconslructi\r, iirr.lrcrrtnr:rrrrrrrulr. lrpliclrlii j sc stlgcrcazichiar o coll,strucl,ic rnlti nrrrlt,,r<.rtoll ur,,llirlc 1rr.rrr.,,li;i :rx, -cLr <iiri'ririr llccar('.rotoravirrtl o tl,'rnrrltiplicarc dr: iL r:crorrrrltri. ({}rr.(rillca llr rol(xrr('l('r' li.irr rlc ir',rrrsurisir srrfir.i rrslfr.r rrrr lrr sir .rr rrr. 1,,,,rir rrr,r sl Ii. lr.li'l;r rr' ir'.nrir .rorr(.r, s'' '.i,'iiii lx)t or)lir( .,,ii,,r ,,1 tr', :,rrrl:rrrrr.r,r, cilr.r'irI ilr.zr.sincrrrlr.,
t |,r||IIIiIII.Ir s( ' lnr it lr . r . r ' . r liz lr r r r r olr ir r , . t r . r | , | | , . t r i l r , , , 1 r , ri . r l . r . . l l r . l r . r l l .. tr' .tlirr.zr. r'o trr.rirrlr ill r lr r lit l I0t l

in lrtrzintiL dctaliulc. c irxh'ii/, z,',; r" .oii"ct"ari'i"" i.r,r..r"r"

( ' , n' . r at or ul e ste ,rc p rc z e l l ta t c o n c c ti L .ti r l i ui ,.i n prrnctrrln. La o rol ati e l .r l i ,' nc r llor ului o, a x u l rn o l o ru l u i a , i l t n ri tc ,r rf si l tc,.oi ,i< l " scri ,j1,5 d;;;ti ;. In,figulile coustructiviL de motor crr .5?,.:16ii 57 se prezlntar o lom.ra-r rirln,rr,\.(c cL'rnultrpllca-r(' l/6 cu a;iczarc axialir a cilindrilor Statorici. rltscllt d este mod,jlat dc _pilrtilc latcralc alc cir.cumfcrinlci aga cun se

' tlc ii ii ,lin ,,o,,rt rrcccsitiL!ii i:Poli viteza arl'orelui motorului dc anLr(]trrrr'' unui rbtor ctt p,:r'imctrul Inotlulat cu mai lnultc situtsrrirl'' R",Llizar,,,t sau,axialc -- rrslltl :rsupraultrti r,rirllirrdc pistoenr-.r'rtliale t:a[c si lri {iotrczt: rrll' ,, i ti,r:rui pist'rr s.-rt:xccute miti rntrltc cicluri dc rni,sca't: r'i,,, i.r' 'i,,1i,' ii"tirl.i,,,,',.ilr,ti, ,, solili,t rlt gtrn.rittc a frecvcn(clorrelativ ridicat("
SL rlr'sr:ril tttr gt'trt:rltot sitii rorr rlt: inalli-t flccvcn(iL antrcllat de tttt tttttiot' ( lin, . ( ) t cl lr llt ll l) lli{i iit pl i nr rt l rr o vilcz, r 'r '. 1 5( Xl r ( , 1/ lllill lt olor r r l pr of ilat ,
l t'r t" a x" l l ct'1 x:n r k;ttl a t':- Ll l t'Itr r Ii l l r l l l l l t l l l ! l l r l t l ll l tt'( l t l ) l sl {'l l :l ) 1 'l l j ( ti l l ( "'t t r r I o t tt Ir ti . u'' , . l t 'r , r l r t'r l 'r tl l tti si .l i 1 1 , , 't ,'1 ,r l i sl ,!i i i tr ,r l , l r i I'r r r Ir i i '1 r t 1 r , 'r tt,r l r fi r l i r i' ttti ;r 'i ttilii,l .l r r r t' 'r r r ; r . r l t , . l , . . i , i i r .r i .r l r l r r r r ,,,r r l ,r , I r :r r i . sl t l x'r ''i i i i i l ti tr tst.i l .t.r t tl '' ttl t'i , tttt:( 'r r r tti ttttA' ti i l ) l cl j , r , , r , r r r i l , l r xr r l ,' :l fi tttt ,l i ttti tt, l ,"l i l r r l r r - t r l ," i ,r ,r l 'r r t.'t r , r l l r l i , r r , r i r tl l i ',r r l ' p 1 r 'l r i ttttl r r l .'{i tr ttl r 'r r tr l n 'r r tl )- "s1 r ' 1,., | | i 'r l r ' , 1 u ,i r r tr l tr .r r ,ttl .r r :1 . i r t tr r 'r l 'ttr l ' l u 'r ii1,, 1t,",, " , ,,,,,,,t, l ttl ,'.,',", l l tl t' ttttt ''Itr |'tI'i r r i tt'l rl ,' ,,l ,u ll,rr.i l r r tl l r r r l l l r l to l tttttl tl i ' " l l "' 1 r ' l r l l r 'r r i r ' 1 r ' Itl l l l l r 'r ||r ' r ,r tr r |l 1 ,1 ,'. .r l r r r r ,t l ,r '' II'l , r r ) l '. r r , , r l l 'l l r ' .'l l ,1 . l r r l I r r l r l l r l l r .l l l \' t ', 1 , , , \ | '\ , , r tl r

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I)l ci i r r jr r lr l . r lr '. , t r r ir ot ot sl r lisPur r lr r lr r l; lr ir r t i lgr r | 20 r lr ' Pislo: r r r , dc constmcl ir ' : , 1r rir r I r pct r t r t t t I i cit sc lx) ir t ( ( l( r r soir r ( , ir lllt ) ( i l; r li, , r t t , ' r Tottti c fi (' crr( 'r lit t r 'r '1t20 dc pist oant : \ '1 l) [ o( lu. ( 2t ) r [ ' it nPr r lsr r t i ( r r ur \ , r de doui ori mili nlur(. ca anplitudinea sinusoitlci rrrodulatt. lr rot()r'. P rc.sup u nind o cu r sir dc l m nr si o scct iune( lc0, . icm r , acliunc: r lllllr r r ll l) i\ toanelor va dctcrmina intr-o corrcxiunc comrrni un dcplasamcut <k l crrr', tr)ir|. carc dcii este mic, rlut(r'rninli un cnrcnt sonic mafc (latorit:r frc(]\'('Dt(,i lrifigura:l ,r, , sr' Plrz-int:r un aselncr)cilgL.Dcrator,antrt'ntt lir | )01) rot/ lnin. .\r'borclc csto solidar cu blocul . a!in(l cilindrii d si r' alcza(i r,rrli.rl in carc se rnigcii pistoanclc 1, g. I)oui scttrri de l6 pistoane ii cilinilri \inl eBal distribui.ti Pc pcliferie. Capctcle pistoanelor- sint adaptatc si"Lllr',:r(/r' p(, supriifata onrlulati /r, i fixati'r dc corpul nra;inii. l)rofilrrl pc|nrit( l)i\t(,r,1 ;t'lor o cursi'Ltlr' 0 25 mm. -\xelt' pistoanclol nu sint c\act pcrprn(liculalt pc suprtfatir orrrlrrl.rtr ci ulol inclinatc astfcl cl-Lpunctul dc- cont:rct intrc supralattr to{ii orrlrrl,rt, iri piston nrr catlc pc a\a pistonului. In timpul lucrului, sc pr()(hl(( {) r,lr,' urlilorrni. a pistoirncl()r in jurul axei ploplii. Accasta asigura! slrl)firl, t, ,l, Irrcru iirr uzurir trstc uni{ormi.. ^r-odatt, In dcscnul ali-rtulirt accst ({cct cstc olrtintLt prin curbar(iL ri(),r,r .r plofilului cu ciLtncfaliL tlc plamrl cc trcce prin axul arborclui rot()r'. 5ul)r,l lafa t-amei r)n cstc palalcli cu axul rnn;iuii. Iu spntiul /r circuli-Lulei carc r:rceitc ii uugc supralctclc tk' r'orrl,rrI intlc piston ;i pr-ofil. Spaliul / cornunicir cu pistoanclc /, r' ;i tlansmitc curcntrrl sorri, irr linia r1r tlansmisir. carc sc Sa'rscltesub o pLt'siuno medit' <L al)ro\inlrtr\ 250 atnosle rc. Il osa rD cst I pr oi( 'ct at 5.cu scopul dc t liur inu: r volum ul, r csl) , r li\ . i. , 1, , 1 cilirlr,.a iustalatici. l,iuia clc trirnsrnisic st' po:rtt- t:ont:cta Ia filttrrl rr. I'-olmtlc conslr'uctile pot {i {o:rrtc virr-iirtr.',lrirz,:rtc pc plirrr:ipirlr' ,.i rrrorlclrrl p: ez,crttnt. 1)r' r' cnt : r r ( : arc. t so pot olr t inc r lt . lir un gt uclnt or cur cn! i sor r ir i, r r t trrri nrrrltc lrt'cvcutc, plofilinrl suprafc!t:lc /t si r crr o cu.rbir ol)linuli Illil srrl)rrl)r1r'rcr'(.il <louir silrrsoi<k'. I'rofilul rcz,rrltirnt rL'slirsur:rt vrr li o r rrl',i rr ol r{i rrrrt.Lri i n sr r PlaPr r r r cr , n cLr r r iL rr sinr r soit lt cu lr r uPlit udiui cr r t : r r '1rir lr , , . 'r l ' r' ,,r\..nt(' Lr. olr {ir r ut rir r r lost t lt or dinul 2o . 30 lill/ , . ' (i crtct:tloir t t 'lt ' sot r icr 't lcinir lt l- r r cr 'r 'r 't r {; - L; urt t t r is r cir liz, ir r - rlltrt ( ) t sr 'll, f 'r lx , rl ),\ i l l (' l )cnl l ll pt clr r r lr l slicli, r 'ilt r r t - r 'ir clr r lr r lr r t oI r iI , r r pI icit {ii r r r tr I ir : r r 1, t , . nr i 1 l||t r ( ) \ lU: s{) \ l{: l: \ sl\ ( ] llll\ t . : \ \l ototrr r lr . s, r r r ir ', lr sir t cr - , r r rln, 1 ir \ '{il r or r slt r r r 'lii ( lif ( r i1{ ir r r ir lx'r I lr l , l l tl , t,' r )i rlcslilr r liir .
r l r ' l r r r sttr i l r ,tl \ t o l o t r r l r r l r sl i r r l i r r l t r r r r sl r r l o t , l r l ( l l l l ( r l i r p r r l ,'r i i l r t u ti i kr i tcr ' 1 ;r t, si 1 r 'ttr r i l ,r r r t . 'r l l i r . t r ) r 1 i tr r l o tr r l l ,t{r l ) r i l /,i r ' l r tcvi zr r l l l r r r r , , r , r l r ' l r r l .r ,l , i tr r Il r |,,r r l i Ir , r l r . r 'r r l r r l i l r r l l sl r r l o tr tl r ti . l ', r l o r t t r, r rr\ , . r r1rI i t rt , ;r Ir 'ttr o tr r tr tl r r i ,1 ,1 1 1 r r o tt,r 'o l r {i 1 tl r l ttttti ci tr r Ir r Ir tttl r ;r tr ',t vi r r .r ,1 r r 'r 'l i v l |zi r r I r' r'r, | . r I rr' ; i r r r ;r l r tl l r r t Ii sr l r i ttr l r i tl r ' r l ttPi r Ir r i r l ( ;i . tol.rttlri, l , r r r r r ,r r o r r ',l r r r r l r r .r ,r ,r l ,r l ;r r r l i l l r tr :r 1 l i . ..1 :r l o tr r l cr r Pti r r r l ,. l t,i Jrr (tlr|llu , r , / ,, ,. ,o r r , r L r {r L r l ||l ,r /.,r l ,r I t ,r rr' .t rri 1,, | , r rr I r 'sl r ' l l |r r r r ,r l " lrrr, ' r r t l ,r l , ,r l ,.r tr r t l r r 'l l r tl tto t r l l r t t r r n r l r r '.l l r / r "'l r ' .r l tr 'r ,r l ,l r 'Itt ,|o .r tt, Ir ' .r 'I'||r r '|||r '| r ,l r ' .l |r ,r /, ( ' r ' r r 'r ||r l r l , r l r r r u l | | r | | r ||r l r U ||,,l r r l ,r |r r r r |r ,r tr ',r l r .r r ,r r tl " l ''l l l l lr l,r,lor) l lr 'l r r l tr r l ,r r ',r , l 't,l r ',r r i l ',1 r o l r ttr r ' |tl r 'l ' t t t l r r l r l , r l r ',l r r .r ,/

ll!

i\ligcarea relttivi. a pistoanelor fr, gr, lr, in cilindrii f, g, h vor pompa lichidril din cilindri prin orificiile irirr't, o. -,

i? ,f- g,.i) r'utorrrlui liTp. cc pisroa,riclc./r, ,i urmlr"sc ;it;;;;"'i;;j;; gt, r'ilt transnlttirtorulul.

I iolot lll r rrrp n l (l (. tt,r ,rl l rrl l l , . 1,, h, i n (.i l l t, l )trt(,i 1r(j l e l t, tt. hl s llllr . s t t s ( , t Dltl(l r. rr' :,r,t . S| ' ,rl rrrl .i rt| ' l rr,, t' trr 11,. i sl o;rrrr,l Irotofi c(. cst(l urnpl l l t P c u lr ( lr r ( l s iul l l r.rl ,.ti .rl ri :,,t)r,. l i r.rrrt i rrr(i rrotor.trhti este dctermi nal i -; (l c t ( s ( nl' r il( ' t r r r' :rrt, l trc r.r.:rz ir)i s l (,r.l r,l (.. :i l i ndr.i i t /, g, /, si nt conectati pri ri or if ic iilc ir r gr r s te l , n , n c t { .i l u ro r;ri ). I)i(ir cili.drii r,r,l, r: sirrt co'cr:tirli Ia o linic trifazati. de curen{r . so'ici It iI , t t r r r t ir i. cl ' ( nl 1 rl i n (l ( l o r { 1:.i _ { .s (.\' i r c l e pl asa, cpl asam" ri l l i i i nJ;.;;;i ,, r : r r r r l' lir r r , li rrc i ro ti n rl rr-s c Ia l i d l c e ri trul stai orul ui . s (lilintlrii rotorului au tendin!a dc rotafie fa{i. de ccntr.ul (cilindrii

t,'gitttrrl,1,' (iottlttl r:slr'lttr'l'r'r'rtl vilr.z;rsirrr lorrr :r cirrtPrrltri rolitor. ltr [tttrt tlt' r rnici.I't tlc altr'tprrllr', rlaci st'ctirttrilt ttlt.tr /, frrnc!iottirtcrr rrlrttrliLri nL, sinl foirllc Ittici, cuplul de pomire al molorului va fi tttic si pcttltrt :r ob{inc un cuplrr dc pornire important, trccerile l, zt, rr ttclrrril sr"t[i, , rr s(r:tlunc mal marc. ' Accst reglaj al secliunilor de trecerq se poate realiziLclirt ( \it'rir,r (tl rrn disoozitiv de obturare. In o anumitl formi. constructivit d( la (r(i 1r'i cilindri ai rotorului pot fi colectateiegirileprintr-un colectorin itfrtlrt ttr,,l,, rulrri unde un ventil convenabil construit inchide, dupi dorinlir, ,r,rrrrrrrr ca{ia intre faze gi punctul comun. Aceastl constrxclie prezintd-ar.rrrl.,;rl ci putcrea disipati la pornire in lrunctul de strangxlalie este transnri'lr rrr,rl usor mediului exterior. ' Construclia motorului asincton cu colector permite realizaltit rrrrt,t montaie mai complexe.Astfel, ieSirilerotorului pot fi concctatela cilirrrlrri statorici ai unui motor similar, rotorii celor douit magini fiind cuplali rtlt.r rttplrr aranjament a doul matini, pcnnite obtinerca11pq1i nic. Un asemenea laomalini srrrr;,li drrbluiar viteza de rotalie iumitate fali. de pcrformanlcle ln figura 59, stat'onil maginii ire cite trei pistoane pcnltrr lir',.rr. fazl. Aceste pistoanc produc un cimp rotitor de mi;ciri care ;1r'{i.rr,,rr'r asupra transmitetomlui. r',.'r, Fazele liniei de transmisie sint legate la racordurilc 3,4,5, cu trei pistoane statorice pdn canalele6,7, I (Iig. 5t)). comunicind Transmilltorul consti dintr-un rulmcnt g atezat pe suprafetcl(':l' tt( ' statorului ii rotorului. Rotonrl 72 este previzut cu nou:r pisl,,.trr' 10 qi 77 a,\e aranjatc in trei grupuri si sustinut longitudinal de rulmentul 73 r'rtttltrt picsei 74 a statorului. Ilotorul /2 este blocat pe axul /5 iar cilinrllii r'.ri /6 comunici cu o gauri in ax prin orificiile 77. Un ventil gu nc /.\ r:tr' corstnrit astfelincit poate fi aclionat din cxterior pentru a obtura tnli rtull sau nrai pulin comunicalia intrc cilindrii rotorului. l'istoanelr: rolorului sint apilsate Pc transmiti,tor dr: rcsorltrlil, /r,/. \'t;l vrcilzirtlin cxtcrioml motorului prin toata tlc l)tirt), Vrrrtilul cu ac sc rn:ule formi'rincit modificiu deschiderilt'intrc cilitr,lri ';i 2(/. \'irful are o irscrncnca ii r-{ fric!irutilc soltitc catc se opun nti;cr'tt lilr,r, ir purrt:tnl .r'omun, spcciiv

I,ig . jt

lt( n t,r

so i( l si l (.ro|.

S - a at it at n ra tc n a ti c c i r.c z i s tc n l a r l c fri c{i urtr. Irr crrrgl rr,:r l i cl ri rl rrhri p rir r or if ic iilc l' . rr. a . p rc s i u n c a rc s o rtrrri i o r si r' r' si r ,,rr ri r.rri < rrrrrri ci ri rti r.i i i rr 1-- r' roro!ltIur \i)r (t3 tl Cuphl Constant Ca ml-rrinrt, ;ri rlir.rr.{ir..( ir |ll.ul:lr(, rot()_ nrI,\'a pon il \('\'a rott cu o vitezi-Lunghiularil miri rrrir.ii rlcr.il !it,,za urrghirr (' l l rr r ii ir ( l( . pla- s irtn tnn rri ro ti l o r a l tr.a n s rn i {i Ltor.rri rriotorrrl . l i r I.i r)l l ul (i rt \.;r ll . c x c r c it a r rn c rrl l l u a s rrl tr.as l rr.c i n i i l i r :rrl r,,r,.. l n ll( ' a I lot or r r l sc n ri l ,:i rl r' ,.i i 1 ;rr.r.r,l ry i i r.r.r1i ,. r1I| .| | L| ..,Irrr| .IrIrrI rl r rr,trti )t.. ,l (r r l( ) r lt l: t t r . lolu i i o i rIrrrr,,:rl r.rr.l trl i v i f:r{,i rl r. rh,D l :r,.rrri rrrl rotrt,,r rl ;rl rr rl ' I,r ttl .- r r ' llc lr r lr r i r l. I' o rr1 1 ' ;rr,. Pi rl o rrrrr.L rlr.i rIul rrIrrr i rr ,,rrl r, l ,l ,. l . ,,t. tt trr :r r;f nr . r ' r , . f t . r lr r Ii rr,l s r.r,l i rrrri l r,ri fi r i i l ,r rh . l r.r.r.,.r.r. ttt, tt. ,111111,., r. /, rr,.r 1,,,.rt,. It r ' r lt t ' , : ' i. " ilil , l , rrrrrl l ,t' i rr.r, rr,,l ri l ,,z .r ro l ,,l rl l t .,. .rl ,r,,l ,r, l ,,,rt, ,,,rl t .1,,

l)lsl oilDcl()r. 1a O r:oncr ir r ut r ': , t t pt t 'r 'ir zut ir . capir t ul cxl( 'r ior al t ijci / l 1x'nt lr r . r t i o crrpl i rti -< :rr sur sir ( l{)lr lcsiunt : const t nliL. Accir st irllom pcazit lit : hir l ir r t ilir r r lr ii xrlorrrlrri lir o prtsiurr c(DStirnlit, irst{fl ca presiunca ntt'tlic sit lsiggttt, rr rt :r rrrrrpL utt r t t : r r r ct t t i"r ciiint lr ilor . l .i cl i ir lul n( ( ( sir r lxnt r u ucest scop poat e f i luat din liniir slir lor ullli plirrll o lr':rvir lrrrgi crr tliarnctrrrl <lt' trccr:re mic (rezisten{a sotticr-ttrt:tr,), l )(' nl l u t n r sr ' Pt or lr t <: cpit 'r lcr i t r t at i <|r cncr gie. l)r'nllrr ur;r.,sirri ttritri cstt' t:otlt tlta.bil r Prcvedca o lxttrtPit lx' ltlol(tr ,11 .,,,rprrl r L' l r t t cr t lir r , o Pt csiut t t ' cot r sllt t r t it t lc ulci in t oiot , ( ( 'r t iL( t ir l' .rr,.r r' [,r l r . [ . , r , , r : r l'r l, . r r t Pt r r r t lg, t ii. l ' orrr ir r r l , l, lr r r r r r t t t ulot r ll r r r r 'sl 1iP, lnt llr t l lr olr lit r c t t t t cr t lt lt t , lr : 1l orrri rl trlr , . , r r t t r ur it , lir ?/ ) sl r I 'sr lr ir l olif iciil, ' / 7 Pir t ir lit o it t t t t lt t t llt ,Ii trrl rr:,i rrrr c or r vlr r lr I r ilil yi r 'r ' r r t Pllr r zr 'r l. t lor t t l lr r t l'lt it r r ll lr if it zir li s( ) t t l( : - r . : r ( i rrrl r r r olor r l ir ir jr t r l, lir r r villz. i r t ot t r ir lr i r , r ' ir r r 'lr ir l l) ilt t iit l t r r 'r 'lir liii ,' rrl i ri r, rrrII rrr. t ,r i rrr I r r r . r r r ivr 'l,,rf t t r r r '. rolr r r l , lr . . r r r . lr r r , , . r lr 11t , r 'ir L,lrlr r r r ir r it t t .r 1ro.,tl ,rl . l )r' r , rrr,rt r i rl , , r r r t I t r r lr r I it , r r I 'r l, , lr '. 'r r : r lx'l lt t r r l, ur t t lt r t t , t ll, t ll't il ' rrr I r r ,rI r' | | rI| .I t . l pr t r lt r r 'r ' t t lr lt ' r t , r l", l ll r r lr lr , / .l, r ll, , ll 1r 'r r lr vt . l rl r '

t0l

(l14

I ) t ' I rl cl cr :r I .r l ,r ' l ) r r 'v( ( l ca o l r r r r r :i ',r 'r r tr Ir r ( i r ' I) ( r tl l i r r l i si l r r r l r r l tl l t:r p i c l l u t i L i r r r r l o l r r l r r r u :i <i n tl a ccsti r l r r r :r l r r zi r l r r l r h l n cci r i Il r i r r i . I l {i u l ( l '' i r r r g c l t ' p o :r l t' l i cvcn tr r i L l ci r cu l a t cu o IX) n r l ) i p r i n tr '- u n l i l ( l i i r l o r , ( \'i r ( r i tl

Vedere d in B

A- A

rlrr-sc rstfcl cirl(lrrra rotorului in exterior. I-a motoarc mari, circuitul rotorului poate {i cuplai ir ,\lirii,r l,r cu colector special construit pentru a li corrcrl,rl ,t Ir'-rrn arbore geurit;i tcacta-nte exterioare (condensatoare sonice sau inerlii sonicc). ln figura 60 sc prezintl o 1orm5. constrxctivii simpli in c:Ltl L,lr,rrrl nrr urai are pistoane gi cilindd. Cele trei {aze ale liniei de presiuni sirl ( ul,l.rlr' cr statorul 22 care prin trei pistoane determinir o miscare oscilanli r' 1,r, ,r 23 care are un contact sferic cu frecare cu rotorsl 24. Resortul 25 litde si. menlini piesa mobili pe care se spri jiniL irr 1r,r rI r. rrnrmalir fati de axa molorului, Rotorul este cuplat mecanic (cu pann) pe axul 26. In acest model constructiv, reactanla este furxizati de r(s()rlrl .'.1 Il acest caz un rulment 27 are rolul de a Jinc pe acelali ax lrir rr'1, 'l l r 2E. r Funclionalca motorului este urmetoarea: cimpul r ot it or pr<, , lr' , 1, ' uulsatiile curentului alter-nativ trilazat in slalorrl 22 det cr nr ir r ii rlr 'll, , lr , r jiaruiui frontal a piesei 28 care se incliniL fa![ de axut m ot onr lr r i, lr r r r . , , 1, ' rnaximi. inclinare a acestui rlan rotindu-se uniform in jur ul a- r ci. A, , . ' t . ,

irrclinare se face impotriva- tcndin{ei arc;.;J:r 25.


28
23
21,

l rrl . 0{). - r\l ol l )r rsi [, r(,r t:-!f i ri i i r(l fr

s i ,i )i rl f{ ,1(,

/t

l ' ri , f ir r r r r ', rir r lr , pi, : , , 1, . 11 : , , r. ll r t r r r r , lr r ii t r r l cir lt ic{ir r r r , ; r lr r lr r , lr r lr r i ,l rrr rrrxl ,.lr r l r or r , lr r r r liv r l, , r ,r l, , r r r lr , r r or , t lzr r llr r lr r l f iir r , l r r r r , r r lr lr , r r( r . r trrr,l .r' .rrl't , rpicr , r 'i. 1, /. , , i r , r l r lr 'l. r r t it r . r r ( '1r ( ir t : t r r t lt t i if r 'r . lit ir ( ir r r r r '; r r lt r ' ir , . . r lr , , r r lt , r , r r l r l, r r lr t l Irr' ,r' l r' ' .1 , , r - 1. / lr ll, r r r r lr r lnt . r l, r , r ''r r i . r lr r r r r , lir r
| | r 'rl r r l r '. 'r I t r l r o l o ttr r ,r i r 'l ,l tl r l r \.r r r r r "l r l r '.r l .r , .r r .r i .r l .r r r r l r J'r r t,r l '1 , r r r l o r r r l ., r r l tl t,,r '.r r .r l tt, l i r r r r r ';r t r - 'r , r l r t l r r r r ,r tr ' l i ttr tl ,.r r .r tr r , l tr r ,r r r ',r l r r ,!'I o ,( tl ,r r r l , Ir ||'||I|t!i i r .r r r ,|o |L r l o r r r I {r l l l , l l , f f r ',n r ( :r l r r r l ,l l ,r r ,,1 ,'r r r l .i ' l r r r r l ,r l ,.r , 1 . i , l , r , r l r ',,1 r ,1 , l l ,r r r .r .l / , r r , , I'r r l r r r ,, I', r ,'1 ,,r i r l r r r r r 1 'r r r r ,I l 'r ,,.r ll|.rl l

| 0ri

li,l

l l r'( ( \.l t,l

l r'l l tl l I

r lltl

rl)llrlttlt|i .l-]- Ilrr r r r lr t r , r r l i r\r,rl Ix ' ,rl , l i r,r' r,l l rr,rl rrurrrl l rl i ntr.i ' P i stol rncl t,3J ; t ll;r rryrr ,i,/. (,orrlo r rrr l, or ili, lir trro | ' .rrr.Ir' r1 ,,,r rr:rr, rrrrri srrs t:rrl tl ul tnaxi nr posi l ti l s( l)r (xlu.(. ltr trlr t l|r t iit c lL z r,to , i rrr l rr l ro l rri t' r.rl rr l l ol rl r, [i obti ntrt un' cupl u t Il. ti n llrtl.. I)r' :1 5( ' |lt ( . nc a,tl l l )()i l l ( l i o l rl i n rrl l r o l i l t' zi -t nai rnare tl cci t vi tcza s in c tr)n it. 33
3t, .t2

.rl )r.,.| | .r l r,t,,.| | r,.] (' r t t. t\| l l l si , l )ri n l )i (.\i r os< :i l rrrrt.i

l l l ( ) l ( ) i r r ( 'l l l l ,r r |l r r ti tttr tr i tr l c l :t p o l tr i l t si :l tl ( i l l i l ( l l ti sl i r i l tr tttt t ttl tl r i ) i t 1 r ' r r I t r r l t a c t i r r r r r'. l r r l i tr r ta tr 2 se p r czi n ti L l l l l l l o ( l ( l co l l sl r l l ( l 1 i v, cxccrllriAlimt'nl.Lrca rrii'torului sc face priu orificiilc 7, 2 ial mitiurca

Fi rr. r, l . \'arri Lrri i c(,nstrucl i /:! a rD ol o.ui ui sorri c rLsi rr.r(,I f;ra ci l i ftl ri ror o

cului cste stabilitir hidraulic Prin actiunca pistonului P cu cremalicrir.Acliola narea pistonului P estc dctcrminat6"dc diferen!a prcsir'rnilol oriliciilr' p. Pistoanele rotorului cornutrici cu o ficiul 7 sau 2 in timpul rota{ici. ln regim dc molor, constlxclia functioueazi atit cr'l flux continurr (il si cu curenti dc {lrrid alternativi. Teoria stabilitir pelltnl modelul constructi!' crt pistoanc ratlialr' r:t' r.alabili ,ciin accst caz.
POrll'It SO\ICE \ I I.-5. \tI.5.t. l,ollPi CI' IIEIIBRA\.\

22

3l

S e s ulr linir rz ;-r j c rrp l u l ma r.i rn l a p o nti rca rnot\rJt,l or u:i rl cronc cstt. c . (1,'lr.r'rnlnatdL. r,.zistenta si capacitatea sonici a r-otor.nhri. Daci. rtzistenta ('sl(' lnlcgorat:r srrlr 6 2numi1:t lirnitiL, crrplrr'l dc ltornirc se mic;or-eazi. in lo( .-\i crcasci-r. Constlucliik: tlc motoar.c rnouofazalc, rnai sinlplc, au dczavantajul .. c.'L nn cuplrrl dc lrornirc nul. sILl. rI{)fo.\nE (:(' (;{)t,t.l(:r.olt Accslc tipuri dc rnotoarc sint din ptnct dc vcclcle constructiv foartc cu p,nnpL.le de debit continuu si cursiL variabilii. Aceste pompc 1.-.. lr . t ot os t t"r ' gl "].'l,]ilo1', p o t. ca mo to a re h i d r.a u l i c e ,i a r si stemc cL: accst gcn si nt' foari c u tl l rz at c . \outatca arlusiLde sonicita.!clir aceslc sistcmc dc lctionate cst(j ur-ma_ toi.(,ir: s-.. i.l.crrit pourpa cle dcbit co'ti.uu c. rr' g,.'c'rator tlc impulsur.i
I

A ceas t i. ponr pir a f osi t lcsct isi in 1913 int l- o cer cr c de br t : vt : 1.At t lor r r l o clcscria ca o pompiL tlcstinatiL pompirrii sau comprimirrii oriclnti flrrirl ',rrr lichid elastic ca dc excrnpltt benzina, benzol, api etc. Autorul consirlr.r accastir pompl clcoscbit dc utili. pentru benzini, deoarecc nu se nai pttxlrr, pierd.erile de fluid in cxtcrior, a;a cum sc ir.rtimpli la porrpele cu pi:lt'rr obilnuite foartc mult utilizatc la data invcntiei. Invenlia const:r in utilizalca unei Pompe cu diafragml avind o tL;'l.r sarc limitati ast{eL ca elortulilc in metalul discuhri membranl sit nrr (lcl';l lcascir in nici un punct limita dc elasticitate oricarc ar fi prcsinuca apli, irl r dc la cilindrul nolorului. c, Pompa estc compusir din diafragna nt'talicit clasiicr"r lixatiL la 1,,r i spr e disct r l clast ic c; i d. lt r , at r frr-i c i ntrc douiL pliLci t le r r t ct nl scobit c latca fornrati i <le o 1-.artca tliscului elastic crii-slir o lcgirlu:i i crt un cilil in tiup ce cavitatc[! curl.rll.t tlru al motorirfrri cu ctunlruslic intunit comunicrL!ic cu t:onducta dc alimentare a ;i de rcfillarc I l"ttt r.sic itr supapclc lcspccti\'f s ti / (fig. 63). StrL aclirinoa prcsitrnii rlin cilindru st' ploducc o tlt'lomlal: a tliaflirll nrci, r'r'tcrtintltt-sl conlirttrlrrl tk fluitl din corlcavitnl(' prin supapir rlt' cvit sr curr(.. [.] r lisplr li{ir t pr - csiLr nii, t b act iunt 'a claslicit iLlii, m cnr lr r at t lr r , r 'it t , ' I luit l pr in sr t papa t le at lr nisic. i rr 1x' zi ti l i n ilialir . ; r lr sot lr it t t l it A ( (:rsii'\ I X) r ill) i l f osl f olosilir t lc llt t lol . : t I ) ( ) nll) itt lc lr cr t zit t l"t r inlit 'trrol ri l ,l ,. 1r r .r 'lt t , l, ': t lx r lt . ' 1i( ) r r ir t l ' orrrp ,ll r I lr t r zit t ii lr r I r t t I I , t t t o|, iI I ; r t t it r lr r lzlt t lI o r ot t slt t t clit loilr lr ' l\ ir rri i t,,r,r1i r rl 6t r r r . r lI i. it illllll. r l. r ir r lr ) 1. 1. lr . r r r l'r ; r r rll lslc lt r lior r r l) i t l' lt t cst r r lr \ lll t t l( ) l( ' ' ,t t t l t r t t r t llr r ll o rr,,,rrl i u,i l i rr , llr l r t r olr r r , i, ll r r 1,i r 1 l rrr ; 'lt r t lli l) t .,| , {' , r . , l, . l r lr r or r , , lr r r lir . , 1, . lr r r t r r lr i r t I r| | | | I rt .| | |Ir |. r , l( r l rrrl rrr. l )r. ,I ,,(,| | Ii ,I I| | | l tl t/.i l ;r r ,r lr ') t r r |. r , 1, r lt t r r ,t r l, r lr I r l r 0t r r I , I r |'iI Lr t I r r 'I r 'r t r 'I r ' l) ir "; r 'l r l|
lr l r. ||r.rt r rrtrt l l r' ,,l ,rr ,l l rri rrrl ' l l l r' r ' r ,r,l l l " { l r,l rr' .r/.r ' l l rr r' l l l rl l l r l r' l l "l i tl l

rlr. rl,'l, it ; i 1r lr ' , , ir r r r , , llot ollll all, rl.rli\r' r 'r l r i l l r r l r r , , r r l l r r r l r , r t l)r:o,rr,.r,. (.\(,rttltlr'tl,rll.ir ;i , l, l, it r r l l) li|| t { ) i{ , r lll lr r , lr , , r r r l i r i , r . , , . l r r l | r l r . r r , , . r r , r r l l , r l r | r i r r I .,r'\.r t , r , i t , r , t r l | | r . r {r r r , \ . , . | | | | . t ) r , , r l)r' llr t.l,l,r .t|| tll,rrr r l|lor r r l . . i I ||r , l, .

l ,r q,r,' ,l rr l', I r , 'lr , | ' '

t0h

1 ..r l r ) vl ,I

\1 ( ) l ,l r i \l t.l ' r l ( \ { r r l ( l l ( ) N r \l r 1 : s( ) N l ( l

pr-in supapa inleriorrtii ln pompa ilustratii in {igura 64, apa esteadruisir. 'l'12 ittlt trrr ,/10 in camera pompei gi este trccutl priu supapa dc cvacuarc vas cu pernl de iet 743, de ur<le este cvacuati. prin contlucla rlt rrlili
zlfe t 44.

---l----=U - =

H-

,-A-_

l i g . t, l

l l 'r r r l ,;r ,r 'l r r r r xl r r 'n ',',r

I'i 'r r r 'r , r ,'|r ( l i .

l!"ltr l'

h' r r

r 'r l 'r nr x l

( ) r l t ttl ttt l ;r t'r 'l ) ,r t.r l i r /,/'r tt||tttl ttIr '.tr ,t r l i ',|o zi l i vr r l r r t tttr r l t r l t' l l tt'si ttn r ' r |, Ir 'r tr r i tti l r I r' | ,I rt ' ri t t r ,r ,r l l r ttt,tl tr "r ,r Ir i I.Io tr ttIr r i /'y'7 , Ar r ',r l '.i , r l l '. n r i r l i v n r l r l t l r l r l l l .r l ti l ttl ,,tr t'a r [' !".r r r l tr ttl , l l \',,1 l ]t) /\r ,,r ',1 ,r l r l l ,r l ' !ff!tffflrf "r v r r l r r r r r r r l r r i l r r ',l r ,r l tr r l r l l ttl t, ]'ttl 'r t|l l

I ' - llr t r r l r lr ' l)1 )rrl )i rr(1 s l r. rr.r\rr .rl rrrrr r i rrrl tl l rsl i ci tl LtcrL r rcsorturi l or j l rri r: . ir r dc l Lrcl u i i i j utni rl) i: l( ) nnlr i, l )l l l s n l .r5 .r,r1 ,, (,,r{ rrrt,r i rr sqrrri i rrl ( l ttl r'r lir r r t t t r s t tI r': . )I I I I I i I()I (()l t,1 l l u l ,.rrrr ,,:,, l ;rl or nl ccal ti c i n r' czonanti r C l l i ft{\'v( ll{ it inr pr r ls rrl i l o l s o n i c r' l rri rrri t, l rri rr l i rri i r /.' /5. A r ls l nr or Ll rl r: | o n rtrr s o rri ri l r l o s t l rtvcti rt i n anul 1917. In accl asi lrr-r'vct r.r':rricscris si ciocairul soni< c:itrc cstc un dispoziti\r mccduic compus rlinlr-o nlrsi si rr.sorturi clastice carc oscileazi la rezonauti sub actirrnea rrnol os<:illtii sinusoidale transrnise de la distan!i. printr-o conducti! cu liclrid sub presiunc. I)upiL c:um a indicat autorul inventiilor, ca rezultat ai multor cxpcrien!c, rcsortu lc nctalicc obosesc gi se rup destul dc rcpcdc la frecveDtelc relatir' ridicatc alc dispozitivelor sopicc. Inlocuirea rcsorturilor rnctalict: crr rt.sor'ltrri hidraulicc (capacitate sonicir echivalcntiL) a condus la rcalizarca unor pompe li ciocane foarte robuste.

rIL.5.3. POMP-4. IrAR SUr',\r'll tr Modelul descris intr-un brcvet din l9t8 sc re{crl la o polnl):r cu piston r::rpabilir sir lucreze la vitcze foarte rnari. Pompa constit dintr-un piston r:lrc lucreazir intr-un cilindru, pentru o anunit:r porliune l cursei, cursa rrrrnpletir arc loc ;i intr-o portiune in afara cilin<lrulrri. Cind pistonul estc irr irfara cilindrului se facc admisia fluidului iar cinrl pistonul sc miidr in irrtr:riorul cilindruh.ri impinge fluidul in conducta conectati cu cilindlul. Couducta lcgati la cilindru are o lungimc alcasir astfcl ca ine4ia lichi<lului impins din cilindru si produci o deprcsiune in pornpir, atunci cind I)istonul s-a rctras in afara cilindrului, accasti-r dcpresiunc producind admisiu lichidului in cilindru in fala pistonului. Conducta pompei poate alimenta un rczcrvor cu perni de aer sau rlt tip de rczervor. ln figura 65 se observi pistonul 1, carc cstc ghidat in spaJiul z unde se gilseito lichidul ce trebuie pompat. Lichidul de pompat este adus prin orificiul o la presiunea atmos{erici. sau la altir. presiune. Corpul cilirr.drului s-r notat cu c. Conexiunea d asigtrS. legarea cilindrului cu o conducttr lungi. ;i ligidiL. Cu f s-au notat nervudle de ghidaj ale pistonului. Dactr linia lupgl este rcalizati. cu o conduct!. cu diametrul interior 1,27 r'nr ;i lungime 6 m, iar cursa pistonului estc dc 2,5 cm, diamclrul pistonulrri fiintl dc 2 cm, qi aclionarea sc facc cu 1 500 cursc/minut, atunci se oblirl' rrn t'fcct de pompare a fluidului intr-un vas cu perni dc acr montat la tirpi"tul {cvii opus pompei (dactr inifial conducta cstc plirrir. cu lichid). I-it lvansarca pistonului in cilindru, lichidul din {r:lrvir. r:str: ar:cclcrll slttr: vasul rcceptor cu pcrnl"r, acr (dcci sub prcsiunc). I.:r curs:r rlr. illoirrde ct'r't:it pistourrlrri, lichidul nu va urrniiri pistonrrl ci va <:onlirruir" sr. nri;1r. sri i trl ri nt r : pr or lut : inr l v a c u u rl i n c i l i n rl ru p i n i t i n rtromr:ntrrlt:i rrrl pi sl onrrl prrrrc Itt t:ot t t t r lic ir r c c ilirx l n rl c u (:i u n (.ri r, ? n l rt:r:slrrrorucrrll i ,' l ri ,l i rl rl i rr r v:r Ii r. rtl rso r lr il in f r r f it pi s to rrrrl rri1 i v l rrrn l > l cs p l l i rrl l i rrrr:rsrl rrpi i rrr1r,.r,.,r o;r rol rrci r L: lic lr ir l r L Pts l ttrr. l )i rr rrr' r' s l n l o rl (.r1 , pi nr-rti rrrl P r:rl rrrrrrl ,r rrrrl rrrl r. r' ci l i tttlr r r l lr L t ut r s ir i rrri trl r., l i r l ri rl rrl c o rrl i rrrr ri sI ( rr' ,:i i i rrrrrrrl r. ,rnl r,.rri rrrl tttrrl lt ir r l rI i rr :;1 IrI i I rI r. | )rrp ,i r r' l rrr,l o rru li rrr' l rir| r. i rr rrorr r i l rrr,l rrrl Ltr l rr l rr ' ,r. r rl <;ttl i : t it t . r t r r lr ' , lir l ri ,l rrl rl rrr r o l o .rrr,i r' ,1 r. :rl r ,.l l t,rl ,.r , r, l rrl ,, t.r ' r 1,, l ' tr' .i t i rrrl . r ' , r lr t r r l' r l, r , , .rtrrtttttl ,r t,' .l rn ,. rrr r' .r' ,rrl, rr l u rrr,r ,l r. ,r,.r r.rr' rorrl r' r ' I'

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Fig, 66. - t)onrpc volu_ rr)ctrrcc cu d( l)it variabil cu masit oscilar)li.

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rrl l c rl r. l i r:lt ir l lr it r il , i r t r l', lt , lr t , lr t l vr t li r lr ' lr r I l cr r o lr ir glr il I lcr ilr ili ir r lr r ' ui sl otrtr' . ' l )aci L ll( \ 'v( l11, rt r t t , , r r ii , r , lt r ', ir t cr {iir t t t lr s, i t l sc vlr olt t t t t c nt i; t it ii r ri i rr ci l i nd lii 1xr t t r 1, r.'i 1, . r rl'r , \ llllli ilt t lx) r t ir n|r '. At uuci t ilt t l llot nllit t t t t r lcl'i l ,.az-.-r, r.siur i. . , r '. r r lr pt r r , l, , l, r 'it cza pist oit t r clor r ; i I ial punt 't ul I r ''r I' , avc:r aceeali cursir crt;i pistorLrlrrlL ;i ./. l)acit ponplr rltrbiteaz,iL.litiirl, pr'' si unea scaciciar dclt lir slit r L yr r r nct r t luit lispozit ivt t lui incr ! iaI va [ i r r t r r i t t t i', r dcci t curs a pist oanclor r 'li / . La fiecare cursir clt: a<lmisic ll pistonrtlui lloltlpci, tt scitlcrtl a pttsiltrrtt li\ se va produce in cilinr lr r r l r t 'sP, 1 '. Uisp, lzit ir ''r l "r ir r 'r li' t r r r \ ii I 'r r r ' l urmi ri i mcdiat coloana dc I ichid; i se va d, 'sclr idc supapir de aclt t t isi" r r '' va pcrmitc iutrarca unci .rtrtttnitc cantiti-rti tlc lichitl in ciLindri. ^ I-a cur sa invcr si, pr t siunea gt ncr at : ! r r ll va Put ca clelllir sat t t r "lr 'r t di sooz-i ti vul cu incr t it f i o lar t c r lin lichicl r a li clim inat pr in st t p; r 1', r 'l' contia prcsiutri a nu cstt' tnai ntaLc dccit prt'sirrtlcl tlitl ' rllr au"at,"r.', tlac.-L drul pompei. D aci cont r apr csiunt : a ; r t ingc o : r nur nit l- rlim it ir , supapa t lr ' 'r 'r ' r r 'r r ' nu se dcschide iai dispozit ivul incr t t . t l v: r oscil; t t u am plit udit r Lr r r r r 'r r t r r r r la m olor ul Pr ir r r : 'r ' \ "1' Mi gcarca sc pr ot luc, f ii: - r al'sor bt ic dr 'Pr l. r i'r l" putcr r - i ncccsar i PCnt r t r invingL'r '. r lr "- : ir ilor . ti nd obt inut il la supapa dc t 'vacuaLt ' PL'nt nr r r r r r l' l'r l P resiunea m aim i constant estc lunclic dc frccvcn!a pompci, deci accelerind mototttl 1'ttrrr'l sc poatc obtinc o crcltere a presiunii pcntru arccla;i clebit.

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Instala!iile sonice, pentru buna func!ionart', trebuic si"rcrtlrrirLri rl,.r rate de misuri, dispozitive dc compcnsar-ca picrdcrilor, dispozitir, ,l, ,, ,, rant5. care si. izolezc porliunea de circuit dcfecti, pcrmiJind frtttr 1tr,r'.'r,, altor aparate din instalalie firi" pcrturbatii. In cazul circuit(lor rrrlr.',rl cu motoare r er , er sibilc sint nccesar c r obinct c car c si pcr m it i'L l! r t t Lir l. , r , . l a doui. fazc. Dac;'r intr-o instalalic soniciL sc rrtilizeazir mni tttttll, llrrr,l, tlc exemplu ulei mincral in malinilc sonicc yi apiL in liniilc (l, rr.'r l,,r r, cste necesari, o scparalie a fluidelor si rlispozitivc de conpt'tt:rLt, ,, 1r, r,l, rilor dc lichid pentrrr ambcle fluidt'. l n {i 6ur a alilt ur at iL 69 se pr czint i- t r r n condensat or pt it t , . r r , , t , I 'r t r r l este suprimat prin dcplasarea pistonului din pozitia mt'<lic. I'i:t,'rrrl ,r , l, .finut in cilindrul , intr-o pozilie nrcdic dc lcsorturilt c. l ntre pist on gi t ija f ixi d cxist iL o dcschider c.Cor t clucit lt ( l( ir . ur 'r r r 't , a puteri i sint conect at e in e; i. 1. I n m od obignuit dispozit ilul p, t r t r it , lr ' cerea curentului sor.ric.Daci insi. intr-o parte prcsirrnca nt'tlir' .,.,,1 1,,r1rrr. ea se poate restabili in timpul oscilalici pistonulrri ri. I)ircir ittsrr .r ;'rr,,lrrr, o spargere a conductei intr-o parte, pistoDrrl ,t sc cleplascaziisl)r, u,l]l ilrl capetcl e ti jei d obt ur ind com plet com uniclt ! iar int r t ' cclc t lour r , , , r r , lr r ,l, ' D i spozit ivul t ip condensat or sau ir t ct lic pr czir t t ir pat t icr r lir r l. r l, , r , . 1 . r l, di l ercnta dc pr csiunc alt cr nat ir , i aplicat i- r t : clor cloul- L r pr r r f t lt r r lr \ ! st pi stonul ui cst c m axini l; r capct clc t le cut sir in t iur p cc pcnt r t t 1xr zi1t , r r r , , lt , r di ferenl a d e pr csiunc cst e n, . r li, ast L'l cir dcl) it ul in act 'ast i lxr zit ir , 1,1, r r r , l, numai de pr csir ur ilt ' r r r cdii. lleci pr i'sir r nilc ncdii sc pot t 'galt it t lt r ', , 1, , 1, , r r 'r conductc atunci cind pistonul a trcct'plin pozilia mrrlic. O funr : t ionar c asenr ir niLt oar c alc 5i un dispozit iv cr r ir , r {i, . i n fi g ur a ?0 est c pr czcnt al un clispozit iv cr . ro const r ucli, ir s( r r . , r . , t , ', , r , ccl ei prcce dt 'nt c cu ur m ir t oar elc r nodiJicir r i: pist onul a ar r par llir ( , r lr ir l. l de o {orrnir s1r 'r illi ; i sc spr ijini pc supr af c{clc g, / r alt 't i. jt i t llt r ir lr , / , . r r , ulr arc;i el o f or m i- rm ( , ( lif icr t l. I n accst caz pist onul condcusat or ri r , ' lu, r r l, dcplasa o anumitir (listanti. fa,ti de pozilia mcdit'fiiri a punc in ( ()| rrrI rrr( .I I r, celc doui-L ctruclur:tc.I)acl sc produc scirp:-Lri una din piLr!i, ptlsirut, ,r rrrr.lil in i n act' rrsl i rpar t c scar k'; i pisr or r r r lisi t lt 'plastazi'rpozilia nr ijlor i, s; 'r , ; '. '11, . , " ctr prcsi rrr r cr tnr t 't lic r licI r r ir 1iL. Liclr it lr r l \ , : r clr r g( yr r ir Pislor r llr r . r 1, r 'lr '1, crrrsci , pi nir cinr l plr . sir r r r il, ur lr lii sr lclr ililr r lr r zi. l )i sl x r zilivr r l I xxr lr . li , r , r r ', lt r r il r r . , t l, , l ir r cil sii . r ' r r r or r llzl r r , . , r r . r l 1"' ar:r l cvi krt r k lt r ur sr r i , i, . ln li1; r r r , r i'l . r ' pr lzir r l, r ( ) r , ir r r nlir r ot r : . lr r r r t r '. ! S ( | l ll'zillli in liTir t t , r / . ' r r r r t r r I r r l. r i , u ir r , , t li, , . r t '' l|f uDit r ' ( llt , 'r '. 1 l i r l ri rl rrl rri r lir r lr , , ; '. r rl, r r r , 'lt , r l, r r . r 1, , r lr r lr r r r . r . i
I t t l t 1|tt,r l t r l | I r , | | | .| | | | | | | . I I i r , .r l r ! r ,l q r ' ||.r "r /.r "i l r l r ,'l r 'l .r ' r r r r r l t r 'l , r r , r ;,.r l r r l ,1 , !l r | | l 'r l l r r l l r r t r l r l 'r ,r r l t.r l l 'r 't r l r rr r ;,r l r t' I r r tr , l l x.r l l r tr t , ,r l r '1 . l r t|r , 'l t l n '/ttt\, l i l .r l tr |'Ir ''.|l l r |'i t 'r tr r l '1 t..

a16

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I r r ligr r r L 74 l i n i i r p ri n t:i p a l i r r.rr p l c s i rrn c s()ni (i i (.sl r. r.()r(r.l ,rl i l r l i rr-o rl llll . f s i I ir r i: r ctrl i :rl i rn c n l r' i rz i u t) l (\' { ' l )l o r srLrro rr.{r.l rsrr rrrrrl trrj ,i l . i rr (i ttg tt . t r llr r ir lr r lr r its l . c ,l l ' .1 ;rl i rl r' l ti s l rl rrl (,s(.i l i .l l (. srrsl i rrrrlrl . rr.r,' rl rrl rtlyi rlr t c t r t c o r lc s c l ri rl l l r' ( (' l l ri rl i { i l t( i rr l l tl l ctr i rrl r.rotrrl i l l i j ,i i r Ii(. i I I(.I ri (Ir. i crrrrr lr lr . l( joc r r l r lirrl rr. l ri s l rrn :,i ttn t;t f l l i i rii I)r.l ni l r. l r,,r,,r,,,r l r, l rr,l l l rrr). ,rrr,l r., l) . r r , q 1111 r r r,rr rrr,,j i ,. i rr ir r l rrr.l orrrrl \.r i r,rrl ,rrr,r ri , ' l , ri r' ,r{ i , ',o rl rrl r / , . t r , r t r r ,lr r,l ,. l rrrt,r ,rl rrrr,Ii l l ,l l ,t .l ,,rrrrl r.r.rl rrrr,.,.r 1,, t,. 1,,,rl rl r,.,r

Irt,
,1,

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,1, l""lrI ,,lrrr r,r, lr,l,',l r', {r

l i i r l i l ,r l( ( ult ill( . l) r ' r ' i , s Ii rtl l c l c rrtrrttrl rtr l i rl c rl l r i rr{i r' si nr (l fl l ' cti uci r col l sunl i rl o r-rrl rr iv ot ( lc i( r nlil i l i rrc l ri rl ,r' ,rrl i n i ,i ,1 ,, ;rl i tr rl rtl l rrt:l i Lt -Ll l crtrrtbar:cal i ni ci i p ri n t:i p al. ln rrltir [orruiL coustructivi-!, [igrrla 75, linir principaliL estc concctat:-r lrr rr irLl tlcrivaliiL in l, pistonul (iste inlocuit prin diafragma g cc arc o desrfrirlcr-c ccrrtralh (:c sc inchide cv tija h in por!iunca cu tliametru maxim.

I) isp o zili /

permit lucrul cu scult r:c atlurit mici $i lrccst dispozitiv ca si precedentul ri pir.r'rl, dc fluid in timpul Iucrului. In figura 76 sc prczintl un transforruator carc pcnnite picrdcri de lichid atunci cind linia estcin {unctiunc si in acelagitimp estc un dispozitiv rlc siguranli.. 'I'ransformatorulse compunc dintr-un piston dilerenlial /t, l cale alurrtrl crr joc pe o tiji cenhalS" Conducta principaliL, spre sursa dc puterc, m,. cstc conectati.in punctul n iar linia dc derivatie in L. Spaliul dintre piston :;i tija centrali. este menlinut curat prin faptul ci pistonul oscileazi. In irccst caz consumatorul poate avcir"mici pierderi iar cind acestea dcvin rnari sau sint uule, undelc sonicesint intrerupte datoriti faptului ci prcsiunea rncdic va cre$te pe partea cu pierderi sau pe partca opusir pierdcrilor', deplasind pistonul la unul din capetc oprind astfcl oscilafiile. Se recomandi t:ir l:r acest transformator raoortul. de trans{ormare si {ie mai mare ca 2: I lxrntlu ca presiunea maximb. in linia principali si nu contrabalansezelorfa pe presiunc,ceeace ar producc anumite lovituri 1>istonului partea de joasd.
{tit dc ctocan.

o Fi g. 76. - D i s P oz i ti / traIrs l ormator. ti P

Irig. 77. - DisPozitiv . .tit' transformiLtor Pentru lncr(rcrr r)ilri dc lichi(i.

41'9

tn altl 1orm5.constructivi., {igura ?7, este utiliz&t tot un translormator tu pistun difcrcnlial .o, p, cu o dcschidere centrali prirr c,rr" trcc, o tij:i ctr di:rrnetrc difcritc. ln iona contlali intro piston gi riji r.;t,. un j,rc importtut. Sprc capetelc cursei pistonului jocul foartc uric asigurir olrturarea gf,urii ccntnllc a Distonului. 'principalh Linia e conectati in a iar dcriv:rliir in l..Accst tlispozitiv t:slr: r:onvcnabil pentru scule carl: au pier(lori irnl)orlxntr', cir rll cxcrrtplu t:iocnnc dc glurit roci pentru carc apa cstc rrtilizrtiL i|lil p('rtru rrtltnrDirrlrr scult'i t:it $i pentru sphlarca girurii proclusc gi ov:L(:ui!n rlr';r'ulikrr. I'icrrlr'r'iI,' ir rkr l i clr ir l t r c c pr in g a u ra c c n tra l i r i r p i s to n u h l i ci nrl rrrl sl l sr' 11i rrrl l c i r 1rozi l i i r r: r ' r r t lalir . S lr lr { ir r l r lir r lr c l )i s to i u r' c o rttl tri ( ri rrrt l rl rrr os[r' rrr u1rrri r .r' i l rr .rrrrrrrrr I)r' l i rr-i rl r' lillr ir l c iu( irr l )l o r' i r rl i .,rro z i l i v rrl . In lillr t r ; t 7ll, r rr' p rc z i l i .i o r,{ ,,r ' o rri ,.i I' t, \' .i /l l ,i rrr ,l i ,1,r,rrl rr,l , ,1,
:,r'tl,i .l t|l r'tl o I

_s,_

q'
ll

( , r ' r r r . r I r I onr | / :rl i rrrl rrl r,,rz io l rrrtl Irrrr r rP rrl i J. (' i rP aci l l l tea ,j l r.f,i l l i rh l i rr ir r P r ir r c iP r r| -r i g rrri Irrrrr i ,,rr,rr,.,,,,r,.,i i :r i rstafati ei r.hi .r al i rnri rrs 1 ci ttrl c or r s r r t t t ir t oli in rr s i rrl r rrp l rr{ i _ ir r t r r lir r ia P rrrr,.i | .rl l i1 r c o rrs rrrrr;rto ru7 deri rl rt cl i n acci rsti L (,r.sl e ) hni trl r'tt . t l. r l r r r r , lis l,,rz i i i v ,l , s i t{ l r a rr(i -L 1 p i s ton c1 i nchi tl erc 6. R ol ri rrcrul c t:o n st t t t t at ot ulr r i , s t c u rr ro b i n c t tl t g o l i rt ,9. (lcliLlalt consrrrnator .9 cste dt_'tipul cu pierdcri mari de lichid ;i esie , u l )l :r l. . ( u lini; r pli n ,-i p a l i r .p ri rrtr-u n ri i s p o z i ti v /0 ti p trans[ormator. C i nrl \'. n rr t r ld( . r oDln( . t l tl l tr(l t' r(l u rl 7 / tl ((.s l u i J, di spozi ti vul ti p l rJnsfornl ;rl or rrsiguriLprcsiunea ntedie in conducta dc dcriYatie7 dar nu pcrmite trcc,.rca rrrr<klor dc presiunc.

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l r l t l l r l l |,l l l l i

Genaral or \onrr

l x) n l l ) i so r r i r ,r |'tl vr ,Ir r Ir "Li n Atn t'l 9 4 l i i r r r ' o ( ( ) r sl r r ( l i c o r i fl i n a l a r cl csti n r L l i L l xr r r r l r r ir i i l xr tl o l r tl u i ,

figura 80. f,n gencrator (l( ur(lc fste plasat la capitul de la suprafa{iL :r conductci dc l n' trol pe u n supor l ( 'lasli( . I 'ndclc sc pr oi ragi pi i n t ub iar in 'iecr Lr ', punct a[ 1ubului sc produce o nlilcirrr' oscilatoric.Pe trascu sint plasat( mai tnultc muft. cu supape carc pcrmit tr((crca lichidului

{elc cu btld lsupopal

fubing

\tI.tt. (ilOcrt\ s0\l(; Aqa cum estc descr.isin teoria sonicitllii, un ciocan sonic consti dinlr.() masir sustinutir dc nigtc resorturi capabile, si. oscilcze la rezonantir cu l ti ( \ nt a ului gc n ,' ra to r So 1 i c . ' In^figura 79 su plr.zinlit un ciocan dc nituit. listc compus dintr_o car_ r.r\.r / lU. c ar c ar c u n m i n l r /l / i n r.a rr.s e a fl i o pi rghi r di acti onare /22, , irlc l)rin intermediul unui ac /Jj ,lus, lride r.cntilul i/, admiti;d lichidui ,l, Lr linia de transmisic la scull'1. I-ichidul suf,,^presiunc, ircliolca/,i-r asupra pistollulu t I25 care poa ',t l l r'si r ( l| r ov lr l' lJ 0 . y r? s r rl l ' l o v rr,.(s l i .p r_ e \.r' rruti cu fl an;a /?7 pri n i ntt.r_ rrr.rl ir r lc ir c ia es t c ti n trti L i n rr.-o p o z i g i ,,m,.d i ., dc cl rrc resonuri l c i 2t; ,t t:l t. l 'rrsi r 126 t r ans m itc l o v i tu ra p ri n p i t.s a i n te rmedi ari /J0. l n acest (i oci rn 1i irr toate sculele unde rmplitudinci cstc rclativ micr'r ;i unde curentul tolal , \tt nlrc ul raport cu curLntul total al linici, pentru a ob{inc cel mai }run

in sus. Coloand Oscilatiile P('rmarlcrltc Senerat(' d(' la suprafali detcrminal astfcl pomParca lichith.rlui prin trcccri succcsi\'(' Prin supape eialonate in lungul conductci. Lrndele sr: propagi prin ofcl - matL'rialul soni, ,t' tn,i',t,',. tris. to. - sistcnr iirr- studiul rcgimului (lc Protubului scama dc aParitia pagare trebuic s:r tini undelor statiorlare gi dc sarcina dc pomparc carc cstc distribuit:r itt lrttrllttl conductci.

Dt: \Il.10. (lol{.1\l).1 SIIP.IPELOn ,\D}IISIF:lit EVr\(:(lrUtll tr .1 r\,Id:I'lnl Dr: (:olrltusTlnll LA uoTO^nItLH (:U Anl)unl: Ilt'l llll 'l diverstr dc iurbunlititliri irle ntotoarclor 'tt 'tt'l't' rtt I)in aria lar6i;i pc car., (icorac (,ottstantincscu lc-n brevctat in primclt' rlottii rl|r |tttt terni alc acrstui sccol, in-r'cn!irt rcferitoarc la aclionnrca supapclor 5i rr rrrl"lr't de combLrstibil aplicabiir-Lindeoscbi la motoarclc dicscl policilinrlrirc r" l. tr' prezentlrttt'ir-. At:castir invcttlie cstc inregistrati in :rnul 1918 ;i constituil o rrpltt rlt'' dircctir rr soniciti'L1ii. l )rrPiLcr r ur : r t ir t ir ; ut t or ul, invct r ! ia const iLin lt : lt onar t 'a sul) illn lol ', r / r '. r ll rr i rri rr.l i i, i t lc r . or r r bust ilr iIlir m ot ot r r clc clr . ar ( lcr ( ! ir r t cr r t i lr t ir r it t I r 't t r t l. r I t t t I 1i v'lr t m it t lr - . r 'r t t t lilr t ir ' 'l' i r' t,ri l s,i ril, , r r . r r ' l) r ( ) r lt t v; r . illii dt r lt t rt e l i ci ri ,l ,,rrisl, r r r r zit i'r ', liit r ilr r r it ; r it t r ut t t 'siune1i r : r p. r 'it i( i' 'r ; r r lt lt isic r illt t r l'' t l tt 1lI ir t ci1lr t |,t t iiLr ir t : t : k: lxnlr t l llt : ! iot t ilr t 't st t P Pci t l'' (.vi r(l r:ur' , , 1111lll cililt cllt t ct t lr r it r , l t t t t Rr 'll( 't illor t k: it lr llt t lst t t i' t t r t pislot r r l. I :r(l r()rr:rrrr' lr t ir t r ' st t l) ilt , ltr 'st c t lr 'srlr i: , i r li t t t t lt ll lr islolt r lt t - l r 't I I I t t t t t itt t 'I I 't t t r lir r Ir o rrrrrrlr t l. i lt t o cr t 1r 'r ciI r t I r ', r r lr ' i {ir r i st t plt pr t it t r lt isi' l \,l i jl0r r , , , lr1r |r r lr r r t , . ; r lizr r r |r rir r i, . r . lir , ir l, . r or r r |, r r , , I i|, iIr.r r r r r ; l: t t t r lit t lt t t t t . I r t llr lllt r ; r ; 'r ir r t r r l' t lr r "lt r r l r r r r 'i . r 't t 'lr t ' i' 1i ,rr,r.,t,,r , l, , ', , , l, , r r lt , lr i, l . 'r r ' ( r r r lr rlor r r l) ' '''t r t |'t I I t I 't I r r I llr r r 'l 'r lllr r 'r r l't l it r it r lr '11 r' rr o r,rl r r lr , r , 1, r r r j, , 1r , |t r t t r r l .r.i .| | rrl , lr ir lr r r r r r r 'l, 1\ or , , , 1, , , ', , ', , ' r r I t t Lr t r I r ' r '' | ' ' ' rrr| 'rr' I t | 't I r,r trt,,l trr lr , lr t , l ; , t r r r r , r r , lr r l" l0r r ll r" l r' ' r' l l ' rrr' r l

I.ix. r t) .

( i,{ lr

so r ic.

r'l .ct t r r : lr r r ic c a k lv i tttr. s i -rs (' p r(x l l l (.i i ' y rrrnr.l rrli r < .ar.r, l l ri sl .rrrrl i rr 1i i rr e r'l ri liblr r s ulr r c { i11 v 1 1 u s { ' rl .r' i i o r' ;i 11 P re s i u n i i rrrcrl i i i rr l i rri ' :rrl r. l rrrrr,rrri si r,Iu .r( ( . . r s t ar ) " . / , 11r,. ,,1 ' { i rr' , [r,rl trl rrl rx i n r :rl l ovi l rrri i , rl :rr. \r. J 1x.rl ,.;rl t.r P ;rrtr. sr. Prr x lr r r - t;,i r lllor n r:r{ i i r rrrrrrrrrr.' r:r t,rrtrrI rrisori ,. i rr l i rri rr rl r. l r,u r,,ri rl .rr.. rrIl ,\rl rts li r |r ' I ot t t t , r t r';l l )1 l r' ,r ,.r p to l o i r(r. rr.r t rrr l r:r i i l l r .rl l i 1r,rr,,rr t,,rr r.rrr. rrrIr 1 { '.r' .rl r r r r r r l, , ' , , , , lr rr ,r,, r' .r' ,.rrtrrr ,r,rrrr,r , l

(, 1) lilir l( , , 1 r lt . ro rrrl ,rrs l i l ,,l i rrj rrl rrl l s l r: v i rri i tl i r pri n val i r' t(.i r pr,.i l t,ri l rrrl rl i i r lir r s is lc r r r . .\srul:rr, yrcntru (:()nlirl(lil sulxrpclor de tlistribu!ic ii e{cctuara-a jn1 ,r{i l i r lt . r or ulr t r s t ib i l s i n t rrl tts i rri trc i g e n e ra t ori de i mpul suri , unul adapl:rl si lt:tiorrr.zc sqpapele de atlnrisie, altul adaptat si actionezc supap,rlr, de lvir( uilr.(i i;i rrl ircilea adaptat sl. cfectueze injec{ia de combustibil. liirtur: gcncrator are una sau mai multe came care se rotesc acliorrirrl rru rurnriLr.de pistoane conectate prin coloane de lichid cu supaptlc de ,rrlrrrisi,, tlc c\racuarc fi respcctiv cu injectoarele; pistoanele unui generalor rrr(iorriltl sul);rpcle dc admisic la toti cilindrii urotorului, cele ale generatorului '.,, rrrrtl supapclc de evacuare ;i cele ale celui de-a-I treilca generator injrctrr.rrclr'. (l:lc trci generatoare pot fi convenabil montate pe un ax contrrrl trr jrrlrl cr'rnriirsint dispuse rliferitc pistoanc in faze corcspunzartoareprulru .r lr rrr'lionirtc de camele rotative la pcrioada necesare. Nltcanisrnul pentru actionarea supapei de admisie gi a celei dc el'a.ltare , .l, sirnilar;i cuprinde un piston actionat printr-un impuls care se propirgi ,lc rr lrnrgul coloanei dc lichid;i aclioneazi in directia ridicErii supapti tle spre inchis pe scaun de un aJ doilea pisioD Itr' ',rrrrrr. Supapa este presatr-L ,r tir,rirl l)rintr-o coloani de lichid carc comunici cu o capacitate constl'nd ,lrrrlr rrrr rtr:ipicnt plin cu lichicl (tot acrul fiind eliminat). Aceastl. capacitatc , ,1. r orrrrnir. pentru sistemelc srlpapelor de admisie gi evacuarc. Ftnctia .r,r.'rlr.i capaciti.li estc si. acumnleze lichid suplimentar in stare s[ previnir rrrltrrrrr':rr.xr:t.siv5. presiunii in coloancle de lichid conectate cu ea- ln timpul a ,rr'., lor tll lctragere alc diferitelor plonjoare in elcmentele dc actionare ,rlr' ,r1;v;q1r,,1,,t, lichidul din capacitate este comprimat. Revenirea plonjonrlui , ,ll r'llr lrrrrli'L prin expansiunea acestui lichid inapoi la volumul s5.u initii () lx,nrpir este previzuti. pentru a suplimenta lichidul carc se pierde capacitate, menlinc o prcsiune medic constaniiL ,.r,.rr, r',rrnrricind cu aceastS. rtrlrr'.rlri (rlc excmplu autor-ul preciza valoalea dc 70 daN/cm'). Capacitatta , ,lr'. rl,, :rscrnenca,in comunicalic crr conducta care pleaci de la gencratc-,r prrrrir rr r:orrrlut:tircu orificiul interior mic (dc pildi, arati. autorul ci o con,lrrt lir rrvintl canalizalia interioariL de ordinul a doi milimctri si lungimea de ,rptrrxirrrtiv tloi metri poatc fi corespunzi.toarc). Daci in gcnerator eslc lrttvizrrlr-r o singure caml, accasta vir Ii rotiti'r crL jumi"tatea vitezei arb()rr'lrri co1il. I)irci sc dore;te o liteze dc rotalie mai redust, pot fi prelirznle ,lrrrrirt:rrrncpc accla;i ax. Pistonul care line supapa pe scaunul siu este ceva rrt:ri rn:u.c in diametru decit pistonul de aclionare la dr:schidere, astfel cir ''rrprp;r cstc linuti. sigur pe scaun sub forta crcrcitati. de presiune pe difetlrrtrr <lt: :rrir:, cu cxccp{ia nromcntului in care impulsul care se propagir dr-a lrrrrtrlrrlcolourlri dc lichid de la genelalor aclioncaze pistonul de comandi. (lorrrlrrt:trrcarc conduce dc la gcncrator la pistonul dc dcschidere trcl,rril sii uilrir lln orificiu astfcl incit viteza instantanec ir irlpulsului siL Iic , orlrirlclirbil:"r,sir so cvitc capacitater il condu<:ti li si! sc asigurc irproal'r o i rrrl tlr c ndc n{ iLint lc c u rs a p i s i o n u l u i s i v i tc z a tl r: roi ;r!i L' :r gt rrcti rtoruhri . l)r'i rscu t c nr : a, r : ondu c tc l c c a r(' l )l c a c i L d c l a g c ttctl ttor l l t rl i ftl i l c sl l l )ap( s:r lr, rl t l rr r r gir r i s ( ns ibi l (' i j i J c c i r s i ' L (' i n l :rtu rc (l i ti crrl tarl i l ( (i u( i u i rl )i rr(' (l i !(.i s rrt vrrri rLiinr I r r l r ) c ( : o s i rl (i l )1 1 )| i rB i rrcr i rrp u l s rrl rti rl t: l ;t 11r' ttt' trrIot sttl ti tl ti . lr d l v rrl trrtt l x )l ri v i l :r i t l ) r' ( l l rri i t rttl sl tttctrl i ttl i tt si ;\r r lot r t l r r t ir iir c i o ,.rl 'i r(i l i rlr ' I r ir r i rrI l r rrr,. Ii rI I y ro rrrP l i , s l l rl t T o tl rrN /r' rrr1r,rrt :,i ttl I' r' rrtti :r' ,l l r,i l)t,',i l |l r i | | I I I I I I rrIri rrrIrr i r IIr, .r | (} rrrl rrr,l r,rl , l t:rrr.i ttti si r' rrl rl r. r I i :rt t Ir,I t r, t t tIrt ttti t t. l )i i1' 1r rLr t r ir ' ,l ttl rti rrrtrrl tti Ir,l l l , t t rr)I ().I t r' Ir' rrr l t.ur l )r.i r rrr;' i rl r' . A rr l l t,'r| rl .rt . r l. r , . r r r r r , r ' . 1 ,l rl , trr,,.rttt rrr rl r' ,rr 1 r,' r r,rr,,l .rrl ' ,tl ,r or r" .1, rotrrr' tl

( l r '.r l ) r r r \l r r r ,r l l \ l r {) ( l r r ,l /r r l fi r l , . l t . t t , l l l ,r \t1 ,,,, l ', r r ,,.,r ' .r l , ,ttl ,',r ,l r r t ,,,l i l l).rt l , : r 1 r t,.r r r ,l i r ,r r ,i I r | || , rrrr' I r( I ( , ( ,l tr l l ( r r z,r r o l tt ti i ) .i l ) ( r r l r r r r r to {o . r ,l , r l . r r r , 1 r i , l r '. r r r ,.r r {r o r r r r r ,I,., l r r r to l r ,.r tr 'l r ' r ;r |i r l r ', i o l r r 1 i , ( ,1 , r ) i 1 r 'r 'i r l i r ', r l r 1 r r ,,r l r r , .r r r r i l i ,'tt r l , ;r tr o tl i z;r r , i tt r 'tr r r l ttr l ,l , r 'r tr , ,,,r ,l L L , i r t i . ', r i r r t , z, ,i r l l r l l i . r : , r t t r r l .r l ,r I,r ,.I,,.r r r , r l r r l l scl ti d ctt r r sttp ;r p l l r t ( r i .r \( r '\r l , |, c r r l t r l i l , ;r p r r r i l i , i r l l r r r r r l r r i :,1 ) r ( i l ( 'u o r i l tr ) r ' r l i r r cl u r :r - r rIr l ) r 'si ci i t t t 1rrr I r rr r r|, ' l ) r . n tr r L i r tl r ,r l r r :r i r r j ,r 'l i r r tl i co n r l r r tsti l r i l i r t ti l i r th i i rrr( I ( )I I r I r1i , l r ,r .r r , ' c i i i l i l ; , 1 , 'stc l ) r l r i - 1 ,/.u l cr r . r '.r tttcl i - rd c i r j ,r 'ti l . ci l i r r r l l i cr - r i r tr u , r ' - r l '.,l i .L ,' r : t , : : r : 5 a i a ! p c st;r r r r r r r l sr i L Lctt a j u to t- u l l l ]l l l i i r r ( :1 i r a r I i r Ir Ir i ,I, |,r r r L r , r r ' c o t r . i r : 1 ] sp r c o l i i i ci i l ' tl t Pu i vcr i za L e . - \r 'r 'r r sti ci r tr tl r - r csi c i tt r l i tl r L r r ,, r ' r l i ! a f i , r c u o co l xl u cti "r ca r c p l ca ci i L ,.:l i r g t'r ttr ;r {o t. l i u n tl r tl r ttl sl , r r .,r r r ,r , , c i l i n 4 r i , L e stc i r ) ch i s r l c l i r fu l a cu h i i si ( i r l ) i - r i u l o l ) L r s cl c r l cr L :r r 1 ,r .r ,.'r ,,, ,l r r e 's t r i l c i r i s cl c u n p i sto r r so l i d a r cr r a r cu l . .\r ,:L r l l xr a l c [i tcg l ;r i ;r l ,r c ( l a s i : i . c a nr cr i r si i r r :r n j ;r t si l p r - e sczc i IL j o s l ) ,' p i sto r tu o l o r ti ( o n r 'r , I r l ,r l {r ) n ( l l tcta i n i r ttu IL r r , 1 .,1 ,r ,' S - : r p i . , : a t o m i cl 'L ca p a ci ta te i l r co n l u l l i ci r l i ( 'cu p i r - i , i , q e n e r a to r ', p cn tr n a a si su r ':r u r t r ',,l tti tt l tl i ti o r t:r l cl c l i r l r i ,l ,., , l ,n l c o i l l - ; ) i i l 1 r 1 !r e asn i I d cp l a .n r e a g cn c'r ':r to r r r l i r i ;i I|r l u cct- cn c( ) r ) s(( \'t r l .r ,L |,l r l r n 'r h r i v a :r cu m u L a su {i ci cn i i r cn cr g i c fcn l r r r Pr o r l r r cc o r n r ( l i ( i r r ( l i r l ,, l ,'r c 5 l . - -r f , . c L i s, a si g u r i n d a stfcl ca l l ti ta t( 'a n ( ( r '5 i r r i - r i i ( co m b u sti l ) i l l r ti r r r r r l ,'t,', ,.r 1 ,, t o n rb u sti b i l u l cstc [L r r n i za t d c o p r ,n r p r - r d c co r l b u sti i r i l r r r r ,i ,r l t, i o n sti n d d i n tr - u u ti 'ci p i cn t !i n u 1 l o l tl ca u u a co m p l ( t |l i tr ,r r ,,,r r r l ,, citiii c o mu n i ci n r l cu o co n ch r cl i . cr r r - c 1 i l ';r ci ( l c l a g c[cr a i o r l ,r i r l r ,' ,.,r 1 tibil;i l i z a t i , m i ci r , d e p i l cl i L cu r r p r cci zr i r L l to n l l , d c cl o i n i i l i m e tr i ( l i a u r ( l r L r r r l ,,,,', ( l ( ' r .r r ., , s i {1 {i i n r t tr i l u n g i r n c. In i r ccst c;r z g r :u cl r r to l u l ( ste p r e vi zu l a c ! i o n : r r c sp cci a .l i 'r , r a p i ( l :r , a stf( l ci - ! p o a tL ' 1 i p to r i L r si L i n co n ( l l l cl , ( ) r ,l r ,l f o a r i r l a P i d l a l ) r csi u n i i . I) r e si u u ca r l c i u t l ti d cl l tl a to r i ti r 1 r 'r tsi r r r r i i .r r ,r l l r 1 , a i ; . l n a r m a r c ( l e ci t i ) l c.si u D cu r r r td i c cl i D l i n i i r ( i c tl a n sr |i si c r i r r r l 'r r l 'r l ,r ' ,l , l , l ed e a ca !, ( i u o a scr r cn ci r a L l a l l j a r ., u l ) i m l ) l l l s cl r ( 's( s i : . 'r a l ) l r ) l ) .r i g e r r r r : r t o r d e - a l u u g L r l co n cl u r :t,- :ir l c co n L l l r sti b i l i r cr r tr cl a r l t i r r j l r L r , r r ,1 , p l a s , - ' l ) i s to n u l i n sn s;i r ':r r k'scl r i tl r su p i l t) i r a c, l n L r n a i ( l a {r i i r tl r r r l r l r ., ,', , a n 1 , 'i t r r c l i n c su fi ci cn ti "L p ( 'r r tr u a r l cp i r si co n t|l r i r Ir 'si u r cu i i r cr r l r r i - \ u l o r u l i u l r tl "r ca r l - ( d u ccr e i L i ) r csi l u r i i ( sL ( tr ( p ta l i r si p o :r l , I'r ,,,l r ,, l e d r l r , r c a cu o fi c( co r :l i fi ( !i t r l o r i t l tr i u r i i sPu n cl r ,,r r :o r csp r r u zr - r l o ;r t, .r ,.r r r r , r d r - ' n , : t r o r ur t- r 'i n l i r n p cc i r r j cc{i a i 'a i r \- ca l ( x r ti tl ti r r q r ci t|tcsi r r n ,"r ( l r i ,,r r r , r .L t l c i n i 'L r il csl i tn :r i l n i l r ( ' d cci t l ) r ( ,i i l u r l i r r l r L to r i l i i r r r - r :u l u i , r L r r r :r l r r r r r q ,r {r ,r s a u r , . r 'i o r i cl a <:i i i r cu l i ttj cr :to t- u h ti cstc !i r tu l 1 1 ,':<l r i s tl c i tttp ttl s l r t,1 , l ,r r r ,l , r l r : i , a l o l r r r:tr l n 'csi l u r i i r r r u l i i . Al a r l l r t, (ri I II I i I ; r i (.i L r l ,,r :o u tl r r r sl i l r i l i r r j l r t,r l ,1 ','.r i , ( ( ) tl l ,r l l l ,r l r l l i t t s o t l cg l :r l r "r l l r i n r cg l ;r r ci r Pl L si r r r r i i i r <:i r l l r ci l r r i r ', i n ( l l ( ( : t , j l i r r rr 'tl t:tI Pr i D Po r n P;- r . I t t r'o tr l i tttti r tr ', s( \'i r ( xl ) l r r r ( o tr ';r l i zr r t'r ' l r l r r l i r ';r :r r r r l l l r r i !( r r r r r ( ,r .r Iclti rl,. rorrlrrrrli. i r r si si l r r r r r l Ir ( z( l l i r l sr 'l r l ttl r l i c i r r l i g r r .r l r l 1 r '1 1 1 1 q:r ( l r o r :r r '.r 'r l ,,l 1 p , l , , r . i i r r i l r ti r .i r l l l r r r r r l r r r sl i l r i l r r r r n r r i tr to l o t r l i r ,.,,l r r r ;:r s, r i l i r r ,l l i , r i r r l 1 'r , r '. i z i r t t l t l i l i r ,r tctr r l o t i ,1 ,, i t rt 1 rr I , rrr t i . r r , /r , r ', r ';r tl r r r '{i o ttl r z;r r 'r l ) .r l ) { l l r l , ' t \ . f f l r r , ,/. r ,r r |) ,r l ) , , r l , r r ,l r r r i r i , , ,t ttr i r r l o ,tr r l , /. l ,\l ) t\l i \i , r tl I tr to l o t ttl ttt l , r , l , r r r r .l . r l r ' I r rr rr ,rrrr, .rr' . r l , .r r 1 r .r 1 Ir 'r r l , :r ,l r r ti .i , :,.t ,r ',r ,r r :r tr ':i r r t ', ,r l t r l 'r i . , l r . r 'u l i r l r i r l r l , l ,q ,r 1 r r tr r 1 ,,rr r l ) t, r r r i ,r ,r r ,l .r tr l .r ,.r r , l x,tr tl r , ;r z,r l t, l r t,l /r , I r '.l , r l 'r r r l tt l ,r 1 i |tr , r ,r l ,r r ,fl , 1 ,||r r r o tr r l r t,l ,l , i r l r ', '. r l ,,r r r t.r l I r 'r l , l 'r tr r l r ,, .r 1 |.s1 '.r,1 , ,1 ,,,.,r ,,r r , /. l r r l r r r l r r l 1 "'.r 1 , llrrr,l, , r r l tr r t,r r .,.r r '\'.r 1r r r , j r r r r r l . r l r r r r , t , r l '.r r tl /r / ,1 , It r, trrrrr rl 1 ,r , |,r r r 1 r 1 | r 'r tr l ,r r ttl ,tl r r l I t' '1 1 l . ' , , l , , , r r l ,r ,l , 1 ,r , r r r r r , ,,'r l ..r r l ., ,l , l , ,.r ', ,,, l .r l r ,,, l ,r r ,, , r ,l r l r r r l .r r r r r r l ,l r r r r l l r r r tr r r ,l r r , ,l r r r r l r l r ,l , r r r l ,,1 r ' .r ,,,r r r l 'r L l r l 'r l r r l r r l r i r 'r r l " r r r l trl

(llL l ) l l n \ l r l ) i rl ) .r r 1 , ,1 ,.,.r r ,,r ( r ,. l i l s( r or r r lr r lr . / , . 1, .;. I, .'i , /i r 'r r t- r ' r 'o r r ,l r r r r l ' l , r l i l l rr t, l .r ;r r '\i o r l r l .i r l l ( ( i rIr' r ' ,IP i rl )r' s i l l l i ttj ct l o l r l r ' p r ' ,, r l 'r .l r .t.r l o t ; r r s , Li l i r r r l l i si r l r o Il r a L r l t. i ||r l ) r ( u t]a r P rl l l ( () (l l t( l { , ( tI r Ii i r tttt It r r I i r r l ,,t i ,,r r r 't ! . , i , l , l.

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(' onr lr r r '1t ll r r r t r ' pllr r r i r lc lt gcncr at olii r r , , , . ( lig. li2) sinl plr . r ; izr r t , ctl scrl )cl) t jlt I l( / ', r r sll, 'l r r r .I ur r gim ilc condlr ct ( 'lorilt t t c g|nt 'LlL1<r it r lil, r r l, l, ; sril)a.Pc(lc adlnisic si lic rLr t.lca;i pentru coi ias(' cilitr(lri. S i n t pr cvlzt r t c scr l) r 'nt inc egalizat oar c sint ilir r o Pcnt m r - or r r lr r r l, l, supaPtlor dc cvacuarc fi capacitdli s in conductclc car(l conduc lrL inj,,, l,'.,r, Genct at or ii r t , D de com andir ai supapelor ( f ig. 83) cupr inr l li, . , . r r , sase canc dc aclionarc 77 care actioneaziLtache{ii l2 ;i prin bila /..r' tr,rrr rrrr ni;carea la plonjoarclc. / /, care lucrcazir in buc;clc cilindricc /:i, crrr, !,r 1'.rr tca supcrioarll comunicl-Lcu mai multc supapc. P crioar la; i gladul dc dcschider e a1 supapclor dcpindc dc lir r . r r r .r r r r , l, r r dr prcsiurc calc sc plopagir de-a lungul coloanci dc lichid, cind ac(.irst:r.rlrrt,, supapa. In ntorncntul accla, lichidul liiud corrplimat, forma irccsl,.r rrrr,l, nu coit'spuudc cu {orma camci gi perioada dr' <lcschidcrea su|JI),i rlr "'rr cicie ctL pcrioacla lcal:-r in timpul ciireia pistona;ul gcneratorului ( sl(, ir ,,,r1 tact cLr profiltrl camci. I)rin urmare, csto neccsar:ca la proicctallrr r !rrr, | , r se aib:r in vedt'rc vitczn dc rotatie a arborclui cu came, astfcl crr r|, ,I I rr' .r r, ,r, ' datoliti undei clc prcsiuuc la capitul conductei clc transmisi, l,, rl'r .l lionarca supapci sii dc;r clcsclfdcrca doritiL a supapci. Gcncr at or ul injcct ot ului ( {ig. 8a gi 85) cst c const r uit sim il: ir ir ) l) r r \ r r l. l dispozitilclor dc irc!ion;rrc cu pistonas sau ploltjor, dar pcntru .r \'.rri,r rr" mentul injcctici, axrll ?/ irl tachc!ilor 22 cstt ajustalril in loca;urilt i,t. \,, .l :rx ?/ est c ant r cnir t pr in lr r - ait 'lc2/ ?/ sir ; i schir r r l. 'c pozit ia in lr xr r . , , r r r r l, 2i, ie axnl 2(/ prin mtcanismt.lc 25, 26, 27, 2,\. I)i sp ozit ilul ( l( 'act iollar c a supapci clr ' : r r lr r r isic cst c I ) r ( r ( r r t . r t r r l Iigura- 86. C oada supapci. i/ cst c concct at ir cu ciliur h't r l , j2 act ionat pr r r r r l, 'r r , r pi onj oar- c opusc: , ?. i, , ii. t r lonjor ul . i, 1, ciut in<l sil t ill, 'r supapa p, r . r , r r r r r r r l siu, r',{tc aclionat (lc Prlsiunca rncdic din sistcrrtul dc 1l:rnsmisic rr rrrr,l,r, lptoxi;ratir- 70 tlaN/curr, prin conductir .i5 ial plonjotul ,i.r' atl:rlriri srr rl, chidir supapiL t'stc i(:tionat pcriodic printr-o unllir lrrnsmis:r <l' lir il, rr, r.r tol ul I i r lin conr lut : t a , ) ( . r . Supapa cst c am or t izaii- rla c: apir t ult kqr lir sir ii : , pr , ' il sus tli liclritlul rrIat rlcasupr-ir pistonulrri ,ii. l nj rt t olt t l dc t : onr lr r r st ibil/ ( f ig. 87) cst c pr 'l'\ 'ir zutcu o supalr r r r r r / / . (:rtrrl pui r': r r izlr lolului) ( inut iL l) r csir t l) c scaunul sr 'r plir t t t - - uu ir r . lt f i ir ( lr l u zi rtrl ttrtl t t 'lr cir t c cout hr ct 'cilr - r 'or - if iciul t liuzci ylr r llcr - iz, : t lot ului / 2. ( : r t r , t , r ;// i rt cl t c lr r lr r '; r zii r ur r l Pr r lvt lizaIot r r lui cst c l( Br r t ir t lit r t l cr t r : r 't t lt r r I r r t r r I pti tt i rrl t:r t r ': r / , 5. Acr r l llr r lvcliz: r lr t t r r lr r i: r t l llr r ': r lliLlr t lsr - r u t lx't 'iotr t r pl, , t r 1, t t sr ,//, l ! rr ( if ui l) illl( ' ill[ ( 'r i( ) ir r i r r r '{iont : r zi l) r ( sir r t ( ir f lr it lr r lr r i. I 't csir t t , r r , r , t r i l rrl ,, rl , iu( lx) ill( li r or r sir L. lr lr il t t r r i t t r r t c r l cil Pt t sit t t t cr t t t t lt lic it t lir t t , r rl r' I r ,rrl r rrrisir' , r r silr 'l li lr ir r i cir r r l r r r ir r r pr r lslslr ' 1r 'ir r is r ll l lr r r t gr r llir r ili r l, l rr i I, Iri l ,rI ( ) |, : r cr r l lr r r lvlt iz: r lor r r lr r ilslr ' {ir r r r l ir r t lr is |lr ' st r r r ur r r lsir r r lr ' ( ) l) r ( ' :rtrrrr,,rPt iri; r lr r l; r . Itt rli: r lir r t t r r r lit r lt lir t r r r li / , r ' . r t ; r lr r lr t t t rliot t r r t lr t r li lpozilivr t lr t i r ll ir r I l ,! l r, .r ' r r t r r l, r r ', lil, ilr r lr r i.'r r , , , r r r r , . ,r r r , . , li, ,, l, , . r r l, |i , lr , t r , r ', ,, r r r |lor lr r t r ", 1, ' t / ( t r r lr , t t t lr lr t l , l, r l r r r , , r ti l ,r' ,,, rl .r l. r 1, r ir r lt r r i. r |lr r l. r l, r r , l/ oll. r l, r r / l ' l l l ,l ' \ r lr '1. lr r r t , r ||lt r r , r r ' L' r r 'lr r / r r l, r l'r ', t t t t r , , r 'lt r 'l, r t r l, r r '\ ir r r , 1, r , , t r lr , , r '. r r l, I,rl ,,l .rr r lr r r r r r |r r l. . r ; r r r r l; r r r , lt , , r r r 't , r lllr ". . r , r t , lt , l

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:,l tr r ( lt \ \ i r lr . llr t r { i o rr,rr, r' 1 1 l rrrr.rl i trr.rl r' (, r' r,r1gr.()orrsl i url i nescui l l l )atci l i ul rr' rl r Irl r' / . , lir l. l' ls lI lri [t. (u | o s e u I l rrPl rrl r,r r,l , r l ,. rl i tr I):l tcnt au { ost apl i catc rl c lir r r r r r r lr n) r ll: L I' i o s r' l r, l rrc rrr ..u l ,l rl ,rl r ,.r i rr t:l r,l rrrl ccl ni dc-al 16-l crr (.r,tr lqr 1 5ll11qlr r , , 1 i o rrrrl l t: l s i rrri ,r ).l i i rr{ r' i , li rrrrt l rL Ii ucure;ti i u \' .rt.t arruc l u r l' ) li l. I ) ( s iljul un s i s tc l n (l e i rrj c c !i ,.c l a s i c ( s l r' (:onrpus (l i n l rur:rtoarcl c Ll en r(lll( . : I x ) r pa de i n j c c l i c , s u p a p a d e re fu l i u ( r[ sau fi rri i s[papa (l e an]or' liz.Ltr', corrrlucla dc inaltir presiune gi injcr:lol inchis, Nu vom tliscuta cccir r c rlilt'r'r'nlirLziL l)ompelc sau sistemcle de injccfic (cu pornlreirr linic cu pislorr, lt)tnli\'t. cu rlistribuitor, crr acr.lmularc)cale sillt cLlrroscute, niei J:cnrinJrc.r. 5i i o l re c lc r nent c lc c o n s tru c ti v e , i n rl c r-,s c b i un,i pompe tl c i nj ecl i c i rr l i ni r a li t(ncratorul dc impLrlsuri (clrn;'L dc injcr!io, lrclrct, rol.-r, pistor, sLLlrrrp.r rl r't c lular r : , s upa p i d c a mo rti z .!rri )c i rre s i n t evi dcrrte tl i n rl c,cl i ttc.t 1' tuz,rr lrrlr-r.Vorn aminti ci din punct dc r,otlere {cnoncnologic sistcrrrrl dc injcc{ir' lx)rtc fi tratat ca rrn cil'cuit sonic. Porlpl rle irrjectic este un (:az tipic (l( sonic tle impulsuri dc crrrcnt (dcbit) slrrr tcnsirrue (pr..sirrnt) a citror' 11r'rrcnLtoL .rrrrpliturlinc li duratir sint dcpt'ndente rlc rclirrrul dc funcfiorrarc aI ruotorrrlrri (turalic-salcini) . Suyrapa dc rcfulrrri, carc sc litlici. <irxl irnpulsr.rldc plc sirrrrr actioneazii asupla sa, colxhlcta cle inaltii prcsiuuc l)riu cale il)rplrlsul rir' lllopagil ciltl'c injcclor |i injccioltrl carc lcprczintiL silrcina utilir a. circ].lilrtlrri sonic, collstituio elemenlc alc rrnci retclc sonicc ('chivalerllc circjl t ,'.r r ult ic at im p u l s rrri l c p ro (l u \e d t g e n r' ri ttor' ulsoni e (l x' rnpi r). l)csigur ptezella lLccstor elcilente yi indcoscbi a conduclci irr rtlcarr:r :.,,rricirt sistemului cle injcclie sc ni;rnifcstir printr-o intirzicre a inrpulsului r.rr, rrjurrgc la injector si prin nrodiiicar(.a {ornrci accstui inpuls {a!i de ccl rl.rl rlt: pompir. datoril.'r neadaptirlii care ( \isla'! itrtre conduct:! ;i injcctor'. Arlr,l luctrt previzut tcoretic d,r (i. (,trrrstlrtrtinescu, ast:rzi rsL(. \'tlificitt Pri r r r L lc r nt inir i c u re trtr' (o s c i l o g l i rtu e )i n t:arl trrl cerc(1i -rri l ore\l )r' ri nl ()l tal u (l, l)r'{xrcs ale echil>anrcntclor dc irr.i(,cli(.. Sistcurul pcntlu corrandu srrpapel()r lrlopus rl,' (i. Corrstarrtilcscrr rru s-a impus, motoarclc cu ar'(i(.reirrterrri. crr <listriliLrlie fixi, sint l)r'clirz,ut(' (:lr iLcliorlare nti:canici a supapclor d(' achnisic lsi evacuare, sistcmril liinri trtiri sintpln, sigur;i lobnst. l otugi, sisteruul sonic pc ling[ avantajcle aruilrapid,r. tite ar tccltrcc nivelul dc zgomot, irl spccjiLl la rrrotr..ralel:

,r,;rP eri l .rl r'. lr r lr , , ; , , , r . r l, 'r , r l, t , lr lor ', r lr ' Pr ', f |r ir r {i ir r . iI I ) t I 'I 'it I I iI l"'l'1" . r I , r I lI : |r ', I r r t r , l,l, 'r ' r ',f lr . ,Lr l, . , . f l, r t,rl ,ri , s.,,r() Dl( , , r / . . 1 r r r , lr . 1r , r . r t r v l, , . I ll l'r Hr r r ut r l. r ' lr r li|: ' r ": 'lr r i r li: ; 1"'r it ir l' r "'lr l'r t ' rt :rr| rt ri tct t l't li'' 'l' rrrrrl t' l r:utLr liiplr r r r 'lllr l. r ll , , r l( ill cir ( lula it t lt l t cilpt ot ll 8t l1(l, r l{'l . t t i rrtctfct:L cu i: out lr r zil, llr 'r r . lir lt ) lr t llt i f i ar il\ 1la ut t t r f t 'cl t t r '1'lir t : t trt: 'r ll) r 'r r . t r' pl ol rrl ui . lr ,\t:est t lisp, r ziliv r r r l) t r t ( 'i! f i o supapii car t ' s. '. dL'. 'r i'l' sl) r i r . r ' l'l"r r co] 'p[ l ci. ] lkclul 151i ; 1r 'r 'l'r I r r r r 'lr 'lr cl i rt i Lvi ud o t nit r 'Lr Lr : t lr ir lcr o l) l'in t(' cti . trccc libcr pt 'it r supal) ir.ln t im p- cc ut lt la t c[ l|r 'i; r i; - Lisl( ' ir l( t r r r 'r li 'lr r r - n] ir r c pr ill t lcschiclcr clldc: r , r 6Jir nr cr r r ir ii r lir r , , , r 1, r r l r. rrzu trcccr ii cLrir . ecar . c srtl )apci . ( l( iI r I I n'I I I lI I Li r t i ir r r ' 'l -\cti urt ca ac( 'st ui dispozit iv cst c dcosel'it l' r ull r ( c. l) 1( ) l cir t I r ', i r Lir : : r 'r t r r r r lr |l'r rl cr.ccl -iptact ic cst e im l) osibila Pr oicct a ( [(]rgic ir undci dirccte. r I)acr- L t t ot cazit ( lll , vit czir sllat t Llui r lc lit lr ir l 11i11'r t t r lt t rI r r l r 1r " sL: la l llt csiLt t r ca r t n I nolnt t t t ( llr l, ilI liii/ '(l) r r , ljir i'I r ' l ,i r' rcl S el l cr alont lr t i, t r t / 7 plr r llr r r r l'; i , r it i rrl i ,r i ri trc acest c calr t it it li cst e ir f r 'oxir nr t t iv l' " p(.rrtf1 l l ci ; i lr lodu5n pclf oli^r c. Lle I)c mr iat cir pr csi[ r r ca clepin, l, , r r r r r r r . r i r ii, z, a r r . ( ] , r t lr . r '0r lr lrr r r ,r , I 5;i .prcsupuncm cit sc ccr c la r cccpl, 'r t r llLcsit t t lcqL ll) t t liq/ r r r r x ( r r lr ' t 'r l ti ,,ri ,' zci c u r t pisloll t lr ' I ut t t t r ,cu u ( r r lsi d, . lclt t , lir r r l' 'l' l/ ll) {l{r " 'r r ' l' S .i 1' rcsup t r nt r nc: t sc I ol( 'ses( culci iI r linia t lc t r lt r st r r isiLii r lct i vil' z ' lr ' lr r ,lrrlui la genclator: trcbLric siL fic t. th =9 x 100 . : 90( ) cnr / s.

xt I. l l. l n,tNslult r,]trA t-lllur,sLltll(rtt llL llonlii I'lttr Lt(:t Utl Sprc drrrscbire dc ttansmitcrca puterii prin liclride, descrisiLin para grirfclc precr<lt-'ntc,in care mitcarea oscilatorie arntonicir a lichithrlrri er':L cirrirctcrisli(ir, transrrtisia forfclor cu durat:! scLrrti. qi forntiL tlcturnirIlrl.-r plin liclrirle cstc rczolvuliL in rnotl spccial. Ur r t lc lc t nnsn ri s ri p o t i l v c a o l i c e Io l n l i r l rl r:sl rrl ri l i l i "lL l t(.l ,l i (: Lcrrotatr' i la rrrt capiLt al colounei lichidc de rrn generalor'proit'ctrrt irr irr:t'sl strrlt, rrvirrrl in vcdclc;i rcccptolul undei, plasirt la cclir.ltlt (;al):rt :rl (r'lo.ulli. A plic at iilc r l e rL c r:slti p s i n t i n t( rc s a n to al rrnr:i r:i rrrlcsl ( n( ( rl i i u i r l rnrr\ rri tr : [ r lr ' lc t r r lr Llivrrtn l i , rL r d rrra ti Ls c l l rl i t, (:i tro url recol )l ()r' si l rr:rll rr r I i :rli rrr{ ri fi rl ir r lr ' lqc r r c r ir lo r.' l ' ti rrs l l i l c r(i r rl l (:i l r: i l sl :rrl i rrl ' o ri rl l ' P i rrrl , rl r' \' i l (r.r ,l , lr t , r I r ir I I r t t tr r s rttl l ttl tti i rr l i <Iri ,l rrl r r| | |' ii rIi ' I i rI . | I r r , li' lur z it ir' , l , rl r. .r,, r,l l , l ,.ri ,l i ,' , r,rrrl rr, , r| r 1,; i l rrr.i trrl r, 1,' rr' i r|t,rl. ' t ! t t r ' ( r ' lr t 0 t t,rt l r .r1 ,tr' ;' t, .r I{ | |r' t ,| | r | | | | rr| ,r' r tt1' L.tur l .t r (' rr,l tt,l .l '

Il cpl asat t t ct r t ul , lc li, . lr iJ la lt l'cpt ot la f i lct r t x ir t lir r r l) 'l' l/ loor r '' ( autrtatel r nc( lic, lc lir lr i, l I n ult t lir la lcccpt or va f i l0t t t t ct t r : r , ", i 'lr ', r 1'r ' r ri l l D l l l l cl nci t t t t I r ist i'pit ') 1lcr i do cr r cr giciu lit t ic, s|t '{it t t t ( 'r t or r 'lr l. i' r lr ' l'r r t ' l: sI fi c 1000/ 9011 . - 1, 1 cin: 1i l, r 'csir t r r , . r lagr : nct ir t ot Si r r lr r '1r l. r 'l' lr r {rI "'r r ' ' I i tti tr,l sc; ir t r a r Jr : vit lt ict dlr il, r dalol. il; - L czci lt lr r r i ir lit lr i'lr r lr r i 1'r r r 'r 1"1" ( rl 0 l tnorti za r c, r 'lr li lt t lt <li. '( ir la iall( r &t or sa! s( r t it ) l) l( : llllLr 'r t \ 'l r lr 'll lr r r r r l ' )rrt:r61ipi cr t lt t t iL sc t r ilr lslollI l: Lir t cir ldur ir .t [ c- a lr t ngt r l lir r i' i r l' lr 'r r r r r r r . 'r ' ;r r r . -l ' cti tr lL oL{in( ) lir f icncr at or , si"l spllr t elr r ,o l) f ( iiir r r r l r lr ' llt lf r i/ 't t r ' folr r r i o car r r iLl, {ionind p, r lt t t pist ot t ; i . t l'1r l, r ir r 'l . r 'r r r lr l r l' r l' sr: pttatc l i cl i i (l i ntr- o cir l) acit alr '. l) r : cxr : t r t plt t ,sc pollt c I r r lr r : ; ir r r r lr ir 'llt r r l' ''" r r r rl i ;rtrt, trrt, act ionlLt <L t t r ': t t lt ; i ct l o clt r si"!( l( 0, ( i clt l, Pt or "' i'r 'l : t ll' | " 'l' pl i rsi rt' r'tl ,: r t Pt <lxit t t lliv . 1r 't t r : l; i o c; r [ ) ilcit xt ( :r L: 3lJor r r r r r ,lr r lr ir lr r l r r lr lr ' 'l l i i rrrl rrl ci ul. Ootttptit r t r t r r '; tli, lr i, lr r lr r i it r l. r lxr t lt t l 3/ . 1S0\ 'il r l. r r ' 1'r ' ir r r " 'l' r 1'r " rl r| | ri rl i v (l i' ll0 kg/ cr t r : :ir r lr , ] r i, l, , , , nsit l, r it t r l r I r |I i|iI r t I r r I r l. ' r 'l r 'lr 'r l r i trr rrl .i rrl rri ,l r' I l000 |i117'r r ' r $rx rtl r lr 'Pr csir t t r " it t r 'r 1r : t r t l'r lt l: t lt cr ct r "t I it t r r li lr ' l' f i"l"r r r r l 11' r '' o r r r r r li ir r lir r i; r r l, . I r rr rr i IrIi |,i r' ( ,rr , ir r , r 'r r r I iI ii|,r I , , , r r ', , ' r,rl rrrrri ' i r , : r l ' v.t l r,rtt:,l x) I 'r l rvo, , r t lt . r r l, ' r 'r r r 'r 1iirlli( - "1i. lt t ( '{ r lr llr t t t lr t t . ( r l r r r 'l ; r l r t r l. i, , r t t lil. r lr r lr i r Lr r ir r {. r t r r I,rrrr,.rrtl i r i, r , lr ' lt . r t t t t t i ir '1', '. r l, li ir t r I r i', 'i : , r r t r lr "r ,lr i h t olr ir t r 'l r l, lr r r ir ' i ttt t,i l ttl tl t t r ' lr r lt t ! r ", 'l' |'t r llr l r r rll t lr lr "l lr lr r ll lr 'r r 'l'lr 'l | | r' .r r i''t r ', r r lr ' lt l, r l ', ll r.t| , r l- r t t t t l't t l , t t t t . , r r r lr 'lr it t llt r ', r lr ''l, r l, ' ll, r t i lr l lr r r ll r llllr l ll' t r ' l. r lot " u,, r{ l ttl ti l tolt lr , , f l"r | t olr '. , r 1| r r r r , ll', |lr , r t lir ' f '. lt r r 'r l, 'l , 1, 'lt r r t r r , r r r t r r r ' , , 1 l ,rvr.,rr.r,r , r 'l, , t r r t l lr t r t , ' , 'ir ln'r t l' l! , r llt lr r ll, r r r r lr r l: r ll lllll'r llr . 1

lr r lilqr r lt l\i S l r.l r' tl p tr' .u ,r' rrl ,rt l c l ( ti l {t,l ,l c i rrrprrl snl i r:l rrr. pto< l l Lc l rr u r) ( l( ,I ) r ir r ir l) is irrc r l rrrr,ri r ,r,rrl ,l r 1 ri l ,,rrrrl rri/ (tl L cxcLnpl u l a trccctcl rrrnLi I t cr t ) . I ) is lor r r r )/ l L rc rc i rz ,iiirL r,p ,rl i rrl /i . l ' ri si rLuci r i rr carucru /r, carc api rrc :rl r nt c i c inc l |is lorn rl / r' s tc l c l i o rri L l rl u s c u rr o { ol ti ' r nrrue, acti oncaz:rasupra slll)ilpci conicc /,: alirrcl la ctlr"rlalt capiit lllt piston I lucrincl ir.r c:rntera lll cu ll (liirmctru considcrirbil rn:ri rrralc dcr:il o|ificiul /r sll] cilrlcra itt t i:r'mccliarir o.

i )rslxr zit ir r r l , 1, ' . r r r lr r lr z, r r l it ll( l( lol t t lllr lllr ' po; r ll li r r r or r lt r l , r l. r ( t1' ( l )l or- sir {r I x) . r l( lr I 'r ( . \ , r / , lll ir r r 'ir cr r il it t t t ni t t t t t llr ' lr t ur r : 1. . I)acir / r r 'slr . pr r , ir r , or r r ur r icr t f ic r t - t : z, r : r vt lnt I r t r ': r st gr r r 'irI ) |r '. , r ||r ||. I cr cr l nctl i c i n sist t 'r t t , 1r r r , : ir r r r lrs( ( l( . s( : ir r c: L accst Lr : zcr vor1i nr r lyr lt i ir r lr r r r , r in r dr: transrnisir: nici o rrrrrlli ltrrnr:i cind sc apasir pc./.

Fi g. 89. - S c hema de pri ncipiu a. instalaliei de sincronrzare a. tfagcrii cu nritraliera printre pa.lcle elicci.

Mecanismul de sincronizarea tragcrii cu mitralic,r.r t, l)r.ilir,. l).r1, L clicei. migcare,la avioaneleutilizate i"n pdmul r:rzl)oi mor)(lirl. roir,trtrrr, in o aplicalie a transmiterii impulsurilor de foiti ric la o canir soli(lirr.r u .rrul r t:licei la tri.gaciul armci. ln {igura 89 se reprezinti. schematicinstalalia. (.lrrA s;r r(,lrt 1,.r1 ratorul de impulsuri (l(. rlr,, _montat pe axul elicei,cu i dispozitivrrl r'\r.r eirre este constrturt dintr-uD piston sustinut de un rcsol-l. []islxrzitrvrrl,1,
c x C C U l l C cste d C SC n S.a u n m i C ci o ca l l So n i c.

h no tm Fig. E8, Generator de impulsuri (le forti.

Catucta rr. cste couectatir.la lilia de transmisie y' prin dispozitivul de atertuarc a undelor g caLe cstc destinat a absorbi undclc rcflcctatc, iar lichiclul cstc translnis linici 1a o presiunc nrodic rclativ scirzuti-1. LIu oriftiu r trecL-prin pistonul li sripapa /r, I ;i in cirmcla i so rrorlcrziL o supapiL cu biii ii lcsort 1. Apirsind nsrrpr-apisionului f, prcsiLrrrcacrciic ilr caurcrir /, lir valori lolttc Inari ti accasti ]rr(,siune lctiolilld asLrpraLrilei 1, dry-r;, 1te plcsirrnL'ir lirtici astlcl cir intlcgLrl pisLou-sup:rpiL,ft, l, si: uri;ciL inaintr:; i:rtc<liat t:c sttPalln cotricir sc dcschiclcl)rr'fiiru[ it dill cainrcra/r Poaic acliorrl l)u o sllplir.laJiLnnrlt rlri lltLc a pislourlrri (rlirrnrctrul caruclci rl). l! f c c t r r l c s l e c i i s c ]l -o (1 [c c o r]ri l ra r' { r bl usr' tr rr l )i sl ()rrrl ui rIi Ir:tctr(i rrI a st[ ( r l c ir o ur ) ( li r d c i n rp u l s { o a l l c p u i o l n i (:r" rcsi c tl i ]ri s:i i n Irrrrgrrll i ni ci y' , i u | l( ) r liz o|lLl ( ( l( u l )(l c :j (: d c s d ri (L c Pc fn ri l irr(l l rcr' r' rc;r rrrIfi | | r(l (' (11' l | l i rr(] i trl|t r s it : r l, ir t lir ri ;r ' ], tr' ,rrr\rI| r" . ( it t r lr t c s lc l ti rrs trti :i p ri rr l i rri l l rr < l i s poz,i l i v,, l c r rcr rr{ i , , (.rtl i l l ( 1,(' l ti l < :i i rt l lr is lr r ; t r t l s r t rl i rrrrl c rl , rr' :u rrl rrri . Srrl ' irrrprrl srrlrrrrci pt,:i rttri l ,ttt\' l , i l l i rr r r ' , 1, i: r lor r r rll to rl rrr, rr l rn i i rrr,r rr rp ri r rr( ( rl ri ,,nrl rl l l i ,l r' , i ,rrrl i ,. l rr,l .r l rl l l, r l. r l, i iir r l r l )i r( l ,r r.rr' 1 rl ,r ' ., l rr)l )ri .r l rr r' ,rr,t,rl ,rt tttrrl , i rt rl t" 1' r,,' t
Itvrtl 7' , , 1 t r t i , t l tl., ir ,' ,1

C " 4 s- a not at dispozit ivui de com andf , a t r agcr ii, r lislxr zit ivr r l r , , r r ', t , r .. dintr-un piston linut de un resort. Pistonul putea {i ac{ion:ri ( u rrir.r. Pistonul generatorului acliona lichidul dintr-ul cilirrrlrrr ,1,. I.r ,.rr, Plcaci o tca\'al dc cupru cu pefrol, 1a mitralicri., un(lc s(, lllir r irx.,rrrrrlr,rr,. lovea trS.gaciul mitra-lierci. R otind cam a gener at or ului r epede, se pr oduc im pllsr r r i i, r r , . , ' lr , ur , , Ini t pri n coloana lichidl la t r [ gaci. De r cm ar cat ci ir i: r lsi, . r or r , lr ll r r r r , l. r nu aclioneazi- pistonul B deoarece devialia din linia lrlirrr iprrlri :rprr, /l r".tr ar;rnjarti. si iritrt'L incr!ic mare, si la- frecven!c ridicatc t:rrrr.rlrrl rrl,r,orl,tl , o nclnscmnat. Apr"Lsind pistonul B, accsta ridici. presiunea mslic iu irrslrrlrr{ir.r,r plr tttiltr ciocanrrlrri sonic clc la triLgaci si. atingi trirgaciul. '['riLgirrl lri:rlorrrrl /i, l)rr'siuucir mc<lit: sc miclorcazi. gi chiar daci ciociLut:hrl osr:ilt.lzii, r'l rrrr lr,rr alirrgc triLgtt:iul lxrziti:r sa mcdic fiind deplasatiL. .frrl r r it t r l insl: t lir {iiL<lin lr r r r r ct r lr : vt : <lcr c hit lr oslr r lir , I )I (.:i i rI r|, .iI r l, . l, l l l i r' rrct:ri o t ir t ir r 'lior r r ll plir r r r r l r ir r <l pislor lr l lxr r npr . i / 3, i: r r cior ': r r r r r r r r ilr , r l i crci rrrr s r r t t t i; r 'r r . Ar ', 's{ lr r clr t : r r . ir r lir r r Pli"Lr ir r n<: icir r <l ! i( . n( . r ir l( ) r ulr ', , 1i : tol i l [o;rt t r . lr . r r l, r 'r r r r r ir r : r . l ,rr r ol. r {ir r t r r lr i, l, r . r li, rr,,r .rl rrr rr l rri , ir r r {ir r r ir r 'r r ilr r lr r i lr or r r pr . i / l , r , 1, ttt,ttr' ' ,ri lr ir , lor t r t l / l t r r t lu'. r l, nlt lt : r t t lt lr vr 'n{r t it t t I r r t I r ; r r t iI ot ir r : ; rlr it r r lr , .rrr,,l r' ,r .rr{t or , . . r / . . rr r , r r, r r r r l I r , r 1, , r I ot r t I r t r , l rr' ,l, r l, r {t , r r lo, l r l, 'r r , r lt t r t lt t r l I t t o lr t , . , r r lr ' r lt , r lt r . r lr . 't ,r 1t t t, ,.,1 . t ,. , , , Irt1rl l l ,rtt t r lr 1r t , 'r r t r l r l, 1l lr l{lll , r lt r t , r , , l, r , , r r , lr r r r l, r , l, .r l r , rr i rrr .r l i l o ' Il l l r,' l ,rl r , 1, t t t t t r r t ' , 1, , ' llr r , l, l

xlt

I.r . ( .| | 1 \t t:tu t) INtL

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I' I( I.Z I.N IAI( I'

(;E N Ii R A LA

pe Mccanismul dc transmitcre a putcrii Constantinescu, care aulorul l-a numit sugcstiv ,,convertor", a stirnit un considerabilinlcres in lumea spcciali;tilor in domeniu gi indeosebi a automobiliqtilor, spre sfir;itul anului 1923. Existi. convertor mecanic si convertor hidraulic. Varianta. hidraulici a convertorului este o aplicatie dirccti a sonicilr-rlii. ln parte, accastaa fost descrisi anterior. Mult discutatul convertor de cuplu este cel mecanic care in cele ce urmcazir va Ji numit simplu ,,convertor" ata cum a ficut-o autorul. Dqi convertorul mccanic nu constituie o aplicalic directi. a sonicitirtii, se cuvine si. fie prezentat aici, deoarecc reprezinti. o rcalizare notabill a marelui inventator, actuall ;i astizi ca ;i teoria sonicitirlii ;i rezoh'ir problcma utilizlnd proprictllile corpurilor care oscileazir. Aceasti invenJie care funcfioneazi pe principii noi diferi faji de toate aparatele anterior cunoscute ;i formeazf, sigur o clas6 dc mecanisme, cu pirformanqe superioare, care aga cum a demonstrat matematic autorul, iru pot fi itinse'de niciun alt mecanism, fie el mecanic, hidraulic sau elcctrici ,,My convertor is in a classby itself, thc results v'hich can be obtaincd with it are not obtainable or even approached by any other mecbanism, whether mechanical, hidraulic, or even electrica-1". La invitalia editorului, G. Constantinescu a expus in coloanele revistei ,,TIIE AUTOMOBILE ENCINEER", un material privind mccanismelc de transmisie variabili pentru automobile, articol care a provocat o ampli 5i viguroasi disputi, publicatl in paginile acelea;i rcviste din noiembric 1923 oinl in iulie 1924. Autorul a precizat de la inceput ci, convertorul nu este o imbunitia cunoscutului mecanism schimbf,tor de vitezi., ci, este rezultatul aplitire ci-rrii principiilor matematicii la solutionarea unor probleme practice, folosind integral metoda cercctirii teoretice cS.reiai-a acordat o mare atentie rnai mulli ani. Convertorul, prezentat intr-o diversitate de variante constructive, r.slc un mccanism care are mai mult decit un grad de libertate. In stare tlc rcpaus sistemul poatc fi deformat intr-un numlr infinit de moduri, :rstfcl incit configuralia sa iniliali si poatl avea orice formi. Nici un elerncnt nu arc o pozitic nrcdie fixiL in raport cu altul. Eslc foartc dificil s1 sr. prlvatlir. pozi{iilc difr:ritclor elcmcntc cintl accstcasc mi;cl-r.f)e aceca, rrrr s-;t rrrr;it siLsc cxplict: irrtr'-o manierl populariL funclionarca convertonrlrri. lrrr, r'< rr clc;r cxplica comportarca slui;rprin simplificiri in schemelt: a., rrlt sau prcslrpls(:cchivaltntt: rlr' 1rlirrci1lirr, prin corlrpirareasl cu tttecanisnrc (r'rrrc lxrt [i cclrivalcntc), s-aputut rcnlizafi.rir a crca conlrtzii slnr crorillu rru Argunrentintl nccesitutca<1ea cxplir:lr rnatt:m:rticpritttiJriik lrr, catc girsilii rrttci rrlrli"rt:ir, <lificultirlr':r st' lrazcazir. convcrtonrl, G. Constantiucscu cslr: r't ttrt Ir:rt l rI ri Iir rrr sltirr.xplicafiipopularc a contlxrrl:"rrii convcrlorttltri rr tLrrriirrL: ir cxplica, tcoria r',lutivi(ilfii, firrir rrjutorrrlInirlct!r;||r( .,llrr' (,f lxplrut;tlittroI llr lx'lt;rviottr llr t,]r\r'tl, t rlillrr:rrlly findinga lxtprtlirt of rrr.rtt,, i'. 1r:rt;rl['Lrl tltrrltrrLirr',rttt cxpl;rin,tl illrorrl llr, ;tirl .l rrr.rllr lty trr llrr' llr.oty oI rcl;rlivil1,"

(.rl l l r lr ur \ . r / . 11. , . t lr r l. r ', or r t r r |, r {ii( : ur . \ r . ( x lllr . r r lr . I t . r ust t r r l,r r 'ir r . t r rr i , , r i tttP rtlsr r t iir r r l r lr r r . l. r , , lrrr. , lr , kr sr . lt l r r r r r logilrcu r r r ; t uilr . st ir r illr.rr r r.rrI rrI rrr P ti rr i tl l crrtl rl i v it r r r r r r r r t l r 'lr . r ir r . lr Ii sl c ir r lr . r lr , ; r t r lr lr . r , lr , , r . r vir l( i, ilr llit t ir r ( a t eolclir . i- L r r . olr vlr lor r r l. , r r :rtttontl apt lt . azi llr : r rr . lr , il, , ir . lt r r t lr r t e, analogia dint r r . f cnonr t . lclr , r r r . r , r , r , , . 1i ccl c cl ct : t r ict :si r r lilizr . ir zir; r cr la; i inst r um cnt nt at cm at ic it r t r 'lnil ir r , . |r . r r , , t tehni ci .. l Jxplit : : r {i; r llclr r r ir . ciut aliL in idcnt it at ca pr . oblcm cr r . r r nvr . r lor r r lr r r tl aceea a com por 'lir lii cir cuit clol t 'lcct r icc at r r nci cit r d sc r r t r lir . i r r , r , t , , r circuitc, curcnti elcr:trici pcriodici. I)in tratart'a pt: r:arr-.G. (l<irrslirrrlrrrr..r rr o face pentru a glsi lormulelc fundamcnlalLr ulc convr.rtor.rr i r,r. trr.rt, lu observa u;or de citre un electrician c[ ploblcm;r convertontlrri s,. ,,,,,.,, , , ,., , ,., cu cea a telef oniei I dr i {il apr oap, . pin; i ir r ccl, . r r ni m ir 'i ir r nir r ur t , . . , Ar r y shrewd mathematician rvho happens to bc also an clcctricilrrr rvill rrrrt l,r. long in pcrcciving that thc problcms of thc convcrtor irnd of wir.lr,:,. t,l, phony^ arc the same almosr in etcry (l,.tiril". Inainte de a prezenta firnclionarea convcrlorului, uncle rt:fr:rir.ilrr r orr, lrr ziile analizei critice pe care G. Constantincscu u intreprinsFo ir:\ul)r.r rr,.r.rrl melor elab_orate pentru a rezolva problema transmisiei Iariabil. si ,.rp,rrrr.rt,.r acestora d e a sat isf ace t r ansm isia aulom at a- !r 'ar iabili, st : inr pt r r r . Ar r . r , t . , . pentru a evidenlia com par at iv posibilit i{ilt convcr t onr hr i ( |r . . r r , . , , , t r , 1 t ransmisia automatf, si variabili. Problcma transmisiei dcfiniti!, in scns larg, cstc ca dc lir rrrr .rx prrrn,,r care se rote;tc continuu aclionat dc nn motor primar, si st lr:rrrsrrril.'ilrrlr gia gnui alt ax nunit seclndar, in aga lel incii indifercnt dc f I rrrrI rrrr i i I r, rlr. I cuplu ,gi turalie a1e axului sccundar, motorul primar si-r<hzr.olll irr rrrorl natural puterca cu maximi-I. Dc obicCi tleosebinr rkrrri-r rL, 11rrr1x, -eficienli'r motoare primare univcrsal rrtilizate: - mo t oar e pr im ar - e cu cuplu const aut 5i t r r r af i'. r ; r r ir r l'ili. lr r , . |', categorie intri aproape toate felurilr- ([. ntotoar'. crr yrislorr, ]t i|| ||r,.l spccial cele cu alderc internl, folosite in gcncral pcntnr':rrrlorrrril,rlr. - motoarc primarc crr turalie constantiL 1i crrplrr valirrlril, ,l,r,.jr lrr c;l r, si nt cupr insc nt asinill r olat ir n cum ar [ r t r r ll, . t lr l'i1, . . . 1 t lt 'lr , . r r t' l cctrl cc. In gcner al, t oat c f onnclc de t r ansm isii ur r : car r icr pr ir [ t , , , ; r r , . ir lr r r lr . r r r ., -. l i cc, cunos cut e pini la apar ilia convcr t or ului Const aniinr . sr . rlxr l lt r r r lr r r r . r , r in urmirtoarele clasc: I. R a poar '1r : lixe di' t r ansnisir ] car o pot ii m ot lif icalr . ir r r r r r xl r or r lr r r r r r r .slrtr rliscrntinrttr rlrrlli cum (lorcttc opcratorul. lllr cxcml)lu r(,1)r'z(,ltitnr' ,.1 foarl r: r:{i cir : r r la lilr ului disconlinur r ist t : culi: r t k vit cze - ol, isr r r iilii 1i r or r r l, i t:rr n;r,fi;r. arrtlrrciaj, Itompelc 5i moloarelc hidrarrlir:c (:ll (lnsir viuiirlrilii, lriur,. nrisiil: pliu frrr';rrc, rcprczinti tipuri r:onlirrrrr.. l l . Mct r r lisr r r ,lr , r lir r r llr sir anlcr iolr lir lir t . ar c luxr r lr r l r |, . I r ;1 1,1, , ,. ,, . 1. .sl l o frn r r 'lit 'r lc cr r Plr r l r lr . lt , ir xul sr t r nr r l; r r . I ir r , xr ir r l, lr r r or lr lr r r r r r ir l'r r.str. l i l rrrl t lr . r r r lcir r r isr r r r r 'lir lr r 'l ; r 'liolll r L. l: r llt nir r - l; r lr r l, or r . lr r iI 'r r t r r . l cr pti ttl t rttr lr t pl: r j r 'lr r sli, ( r lr . olr icr . i pr il r r lculi) . r l l l . l\ lr . r 'ir r r isr r r rirlr r ir r , ', r r ; , lr r l r , r 'r r r r r r lr rr ': , 1r .I 'r , 'r lr r , r r r r r r ot r r . r r r r l. r t r r| r. l orl r.l r, r lr r lr ilr r 11, . r lr r lr r . r lr . lr r r . r lir . i 1 r i rrr.rr rrI rri . ( r , l r r r ir i r , ir r r plr rt ip il ' l ottrrr' ,rzl o t o; r l, r r '. r t t . r l, t l, rr , r r lt , r lr r lr r r ', r r r r r r , lI r l, r llt r lr r I I i[ r r 1iI r |. r . . , lr .lr . r r . r r , . lr r r l; 'r , r r |r . r , , r L. r r r r . r 1, r r . l V ll, r . r r r r , r r r ,l, l, r r , lr 'll'lll I rI trr.rt , t r r r lr lr r, . r ' t r r l, lr l r lr . r r t r r l'lr . r 1ll , r lr r r r , , ilr r r r L lr gr r r l olr t r r r r r r l lr Itt, l trttr, ,, r r t , 1, t r 1, lr r , lr . r r r lt , r , r t , r r lt lt r r , r , '. r lr lr r , r t r , r r r r r r r rlt , lr t r l l, r . lllr

;I l )i r'! ' ( l( r ' nt r gi( . l' ,x i s l r-r ttrrt to rrs , i rrv c rtti i tl i tt rrt rrsti -rcl asi r, attttl ri i l ol l rrr'Ii i r r r lc on; t it ' n! i r l l [a p tu l c i l s l l c l tl c tra n srni si i nu vor putci r transmi tc crtl ,l rr , lr r t ot it : r 1, r iz c rrl ,i frtr j ri i . Sc pot facr: conbinatii din aci:sle patru clasc intr-un numir inlinit rL. lclrrli, 1o:rtcpu tind {i inr-cstigateprin metodi denumite de G. Constantinescu ,,rrntlizl tridimcnsiolali", care ia in consideratio pe lingi ecualia vitezei ,o rl o : I{ (rl r,), (1)

(rrntlc co, ti7, r, 17 sint vitezele unghiulare gi rcspcctiv razelc nauivelelor carc depinde dc mccanism, :rrlxrrclui primar gi cclui secundar; I( - constantS" () .. 1{ < 1) 9i ecualia energier LI r,o, -- lef 6

(.2J

(irr carc M si M, reprezinti"cuplul la primar ;i rcspectivla secundar);i o lcliL[ic intre cuplul sccundarului ;i alti variabilii independentir a sistemuestco funclic de cuplul lui. Astfcl in clasaII, de exemplu,cuplul secuudarului l)r'irnarului gi existil o invariantir. dc forma irrr in clasa III .l(M,Mt) =o, invarianta este de forna
,f (<o!,M,) : 0.

(3) (4)

0 transmisie din clasa IV poatc fi cu greu numitl transmisic variabill, {h!oirr(:cc transmisia este in sine un absortrant dc Dutere si nu numai un nriiloc de transmitcro a putcrii. Ilimin, deci, clascleII gi III ;i combina{iilelor posibile. Aceasta reprcpini aici ca fiind capabile zinlh tot ce se poate face cu mijloaccleconsideratc <Lra obline transmisic vadabi15.automati. (avlnd la bazii arcuri sau refiuladin clasa I). Iorrrt: aplicate la mecanismele Pc bzza acestei analize, G. Constantinescu & demonstrat ci diferite <lispozitivc, care au fost discutatc, nu pot rezolva problema transmisiei vrrriabilc. Rezult:r din acostcconsideralii ci nu este corcct si" se afirme, dc exemplrr, cir orice transmisic variabili cu un num5.r infinit de rapoarte de transrrrisicposibilc, cu toate c:r sint sigur comandatc,poate fi fi.cutir automati pentru regulirtoarcsiru servomotoare dc Inin nrontarearrnor.sisteme a.rcrrri, 1l ( onlrola transmrsla. inlocuitir.prin miiloace ap de simPle lntcligen!a umani'L poatc fi r.rsor nu Nu estc tli r:virlr ntc. Nrr este u;or de 6;itsit o solutie la accasti problcrniL. tlr! ( unr sintcm inclinali si crcdem, cir numai datoritl" lipstri rk: intcres a ingirrr:r'ilor sau invcntatorilor sc mcllinc inci cutia tlc vitczc la automobiL' indrrstlialc. Se poatc spun(i cir nrotivul l)c)llrtl caro l:r rnrrltc altc nriLyiui iii dc alir ulrruitr cutic d(: viteze ,,bruti ir" nu a tost inlot:ui1r-L lrc lxrzilia sa fr:rttiL1x:carr'o (xllpil pcstc tot in rnt:caniciurt(lc cstc tlcv()i(:ijil sr' llrodificc dificultilii dc a girsi un inl(x:uilot srrlislr'rtitor vitcz,:r;icrrplrrl, datorcazir sc 1,1' cannol lr(.r'lsill r'r'1rl;rrrrl srlclr itutorul: ,,IIulnan inttlligcnctr ;rrlilr rn(nl;r
sirnlllr: rrrr ()b vio lls ll is o rrly is rrol, rll .i(,rll. irrr' , nl,,r llr.rl .rrr,l rrrrt,l, rrt,rllt t r ( ' lLns . {) l lliy srl) r ' t lir ir r lly llr ; r l llt r ' lr t olr lc r r r l ) l r i r l s lo llr ir r f ; , , lt t , : u, lc l\ ' 1 r , l l r r ' : r p r r l l r l r , l irlr l) i ir t j r ' . r t l", r ' , lill l r , , l , l i l , , r t r r r llr, . r l. , l. r ll rrr r r . r r l "llr , r r r r ' lr r . lr r . , l r r r . r ,l r r t r , , . r ' r r , l l

l rc s:ri rl l l r;rl llr , r , . r . , , r rt lr . r t t lr r , , o r . r llr . r l lr r r r llr l 1i,. r r l, , r lr . r . ,r r ol 1, , ,r r rl i sl l l l rr,rl l t( ) lr t l, . lr r r lx', t llor r ( , n ( \ 'r 't \ llr illil lt r , r lr t r t r ir : r l r r lr lr r . , lr r r r r lt , . ol syxcrl :r r r r l l, 'r , lr r r ' . r r l r lr lr r it lt l, is r lr r r '1o I I r t r I i||it r r I I l o| lir r r lr r ll . r si tl i sl i rci ofv sr rlr : , lilr r lr , ". S l ti r olr slr t . r r . i r . : r 1, . ir r r lr osilr il sl r 't , lr r r xlr r t ir r sl- L ilulil, r . nr sir slr s( ir l )ortarci r (Jl) isnr r il( , ir r r lii r lr . vilcz- iL si ir r r r u a nisnrt r lr r i t r r ar r r lr r , r l , 1 1, , i nttomobi l e cu m ijlo; r r r 'lr ' ( . nllm cr at c. (i . C onst ant incscuar ali cir , pr ol cm : Lnr l s( l) lult int r t ' t ulir r <l, r r r , , ', numi ti r ned r ept , , br ut . r li'; i unele im buniLt i. t ir i la nccauism ul cu r r r r r r r r r , . , r infinit de viteze, ci intrc un mecanism loa.ric cficirrrt cunr ar fi olri rrrrrr.r cutie cu 4 viteze comandatl de eforlul mcrrtal lLl unui gofu irrt,,lrr,, r ',i rrn mecanism automat de transmitcrc a puterii catc va face col l)rr1il ,,,.1 ce poaic face un;ofer inteligent cu o cutic dt' r'itczc obi;nuit:-i rlrirrr ,,.,,'r pedormante m ai m ar i: , , The inssur c at st ake is not bct ween t hr . r r r r jr r l11, called - brutal - gear box and somc improvtd mcchanism rviilr rrrr rr lr nite number of speeds,but beetwen a vcry cfficcnt mechanism likr. rr rrr,,,l, ' 'r four - speed gear box controlled bv thc mcntal cffort of iin irl,llrl., r'l driver, and iln automatic mechanisnr lor transmiting porvcl wlrrr lr ,, 'll do at l east what an int clligent dr ivcr can cio r vit h t he or t ho( lo\ r , , r r . , ', 1 posibly give an cvcn better performanct.". i n sfir git noua clas: r dc m ecanisnr t - ,convcr t olul Const aulr r ', , . , , , . , , , cstc un aparat pentru transmiterca putcrii automat de la urr rroti" ,rl arderc i nter ni sau alt m ot or pr ir nat ' car c dezvolt i un m om cnt ( lt 1r , r , r , r ', ' l i mi tat l a un ax sccundar ; m om cnt ul dc t or siunc ; i iur alia a\ ului : , r ! r , , , , l. r r fiind variabile intrt'limitc foarlc largi. Convcrtorul actioncazi'rsecllndarul printr-o scric dc impulsrrri ir rr., ,i,,' rapi dc care int ot dcauna au o f r ecvcnt ir dubln f at n de cea a m ot onr lr i lr n. , r . ampl i tudi nea im pulsur ilor f iind cor t r olaliL aut onat dc incr t i. r r r r r ,r r , , , carc cste libcri sir ost:ilt'z,c o part(' fi dt' alta a rrnci poz,itii nr, rlii lr',, , rr tlt' o mifcalc atmonicir -sintpliLde acfraii frecvent:L ca cea a prillriuulrr A sl ftl , sc poat r ' olr t inc un cul) hr r r : ir it la un ar l) or c sf ( ur ( lir ( , , i , l, r ' dc l a rrn m ot oi pr in] ir r cu clr plu linr it at car c ar ( o m alli\ ( 'ii ( |l lL r r , (onstrrl rl a' r. lccanisnllr l car c a- ( igur a ir ( ( 'ast a conslir clir t r - o cor nl, ir , r lr , . 1, ] l c\.i er(' l i iijc t lc iLgr 'r ir r r : -oscilar l, {r lar car c nu sn r . ot t . sc) .- \ ( , . 1, i r r l L l stfel contr: la1c incii sir pr im cascir ior ll lcgir iivc si p<lzit ivl dat ( ) r ilar r ' r iL, l valr ' r 'ir r pr 'ndult 'azi il jur ul nuor pozi{ii f ixr '. l. r r i, r , l, . r t unor mi rs(' l'- t lt r l i j cl r tl c l t' g iLlur iL sinl , r lc ast m enla, ( oncclat c in m ot l adccvat ll t lor r i r r r , , . r ni stnt' os< i lr r t ot ii t lr ' : r r lior lr Lc r r nit lillr 'lionall- 1, c t r alsf or r ni r ( ( , slr li r l. car i tt i l ttprtl sr r t i r olr r lilc int r - o dir t t lic in : r sa f t l incil f r r 'clr , r lr r 1ij, l. r r l, (()n(' xi rl r(,lcviclr t r r 1i nt ir sci sii f it , inlolt lt , auna ( gal: L cu num iir lr l r lr . r r , l, r t r r rrrtttl rk:l t:rl, nr ar r ir , 'l,i t r r oiot r r I r r iI r inr r r r '. Am plilut linca oscilaliI i lt t ir . (| i . l' vrrti rrl ri l i r5i clr r r r '1lc r r r l: r li t : u ( r - r 'slcrir r ill) or t llllli ( linlr {' t llt ir liil( , lr ot ( , r l f l rri pti ttt:rt ;i r r lc r r t I xr t ,I r r i sr '(nn( l: r t lor r r lr s si r llsr r cslc r xl: r li cr r <llscr r ". l,r , . r ;rr' r' sl t rr l r orL ti O i l rrslr : r r l sir r r l, lr , r ; 'r r r r ,i|r r lr r r , r , r r r ',r I or r r I r r i ( liyq. t ) 0r r , , slr , r lt r l. rr l, r r r r ) r
l , \ t r 't | || I rI rI I , ( : I t i r It r r r || r i r l i .r l Itr l r r tr .r l r ]r 'r r r r ( \r l .l |l l tr tr |l r ttl i t l |r l t|l r r \ ( ( r ,l ' r l r r r . r l o t r u r r r :.( i tr , r l r r r ,l ,t1 r , r ,r r l .r r ,r g r ,r l r r l o ;r r r ,. r r ,.l r r r c o r r l l .tr . I r r I'r r r r r I t r r I r 't t t t l r I t r r t ,r l l ,r 't,ttr l r r t r "l ' l r r r r ' ,l r r l o r r ,r l ,,r r r ,1 , ,,,r r , r tr r r r ,, ( ,r r r '.r r l r i r r 'i r / . r r r r . rtl r o tl r o r ,l r r . ;'r tr r r Ir r r .r r l t l u ,zr l tr , r l , .r r l tl r r .r t, r r r r r r l r tl r {to r r .r l r '. r '.1 , |,, \r tl tl .r r t|l r o r r r l ,r ,tr l I t r t r r . r t r l r r l ,,r ,r tr ',r r r .'r l ,r l o tt,,r l .\tr r ||l l |tl l r r l .r r r l ,l, rrl.rlr,, rrlr , l r .l ,r ,,r l r \ , l , r r r r r ,l r r ,, {r ,,r r .r l , ,';,, r r r r ,l 1 ,, l r '.,r r , l 'r r r .l ",l r ,'l r , ' I r l , '1 , r , , l r {r , r .r tl ',r ,l r r r ,,,r r ,l r r , 'r ,,. Il r r |,tl ,,1

(lr o lstli.t rL' rlislrrurr.r'r. !ir \'('(lriLr:i (|rcil rczistcnta la rotafic a st. lxttlrri urnrhrs cslc ntit:ir., nlirsirtl(' l)c l(:vi(:t nu se va dcptrrta prca mult in lalx)rl cu lrozifi:r nrrrlir: a fit:ciLrci oscila(ii, iar valoarea deplaslrii dispozitivr'lol rrnidiltr:tionitlc va fi rnrrrirnir cincl lczistcnta la rotatie a arborclui corrtlttscstc nitli-r.. [\: miLsur-iicc rczistcnta la rotatie a axului condus cre;te, deplasarca r:rcftc, ilr timp ce dcplasareaunidircctionalelordescregte. conserrr.rs,:i In t'irrli., lrL {imrrc rota}ie a arborelui conductor, datoriti deplasf,rii unghiulare tttli trrit;i a rrnidireclionalclor, atunci cind lezistenta este rnare, cuplul cerut rl, lu rnotorul primar nu va cre;tc prea mult, a;a cum se r.a ar5.ta mai lirzirr. Cu un astfcl de aranjament, se poate deduce ci dac5.de exemplu rrrol,.rlrrl pLimar cstc un motor cu ardele itrtem5.,se poate mcnline o turalie r'orr'i(u.ntiL sau rni.riti a uotorului, desi cuplul de la axul condus a crescut rtnsirl,labil. Desigur slnt posibile multe modificeri ale aranjamentului. Dar, l)('u[rlr a rcaliza scopul invenliei arbolcle conducS.torsi concxiunea de aclionrrr'.' unidirectionaid., trebuie si {ie prinse in doui" puncte diferite, de un cL'rrtcnt oscilaut sau care penduleazi., cr-rn ar {i uu ler.icr flotant, levicrul prrrlinrl sau fiind conectat la o mas!. capabilS,sir, oscileze sau si cfectucze o rrri ir.ucaltcrnativ:lin jurul unei pozi!ii rnedii. /1
xII. 12.2.CO-\STRUCTIE ;I TTUNCTTONATUI

ln figura 90 sint prezentate sub forrni. schernatici" citeva din aranjarrt.rtlclr:posibilepcntru realizarea accsteiinvenlii, cu apiicatie 1a locomotive ;i :rll,. itutovchiculc echipate cu motoare cu ardere interni.. Forlele care in l(:1r,)nca/-i. iutr-o form5. a acestui mecanism sint arS"tate figura 901. [,'igura 91 eslc o diagramS.carc prezinti- valorile relative ale turatiei rurololului primar:, cup1u1 ;i turalia axului secundar condus, atunci cind rnorn(,trtuldc torsiune a1rnotorului primal este menlinut constaD.t.In figura 92 siut ari.tate valorile acclorali luncfii, atunci cind turalia notorului pritn3: , sl, m,.ntinuti constarrti. ln figura 90 a, nanivela 2 a arborelui conducitor / este direct conectll.i lrr uu lcvicr flotant 77 care poarti o masi. l/2. Un punct intermediar lcvicr este conectatprin 6ar..-1.- lcgituliL 6, 9-ta douiL elemente de irl :r,;,'slrri tl'..rrl.ionarcunidireclionalecar-e aclioueazi rotor[l axului secundar70. Str va observa cA in acest caz va cxista o mi;carc de oscilatie pe vt:r'tic.LliL nasei cit ;i una pc olizontaliL,dar accasta cstc neinsemnate a <l.Luitruplitu.dinea oscilaliei masei /2 csre considerabilirin raport cu Iungimea rnrnivclei 2. l)aci. sc cere sir se cchilibrczc forfele de incrtic, doui sau mai si tnultc sistcrncpot fi montatc pL' arborii con(luctor- cel condus, unghiurile dr: [az,i intrr: rnanivcle fiind adecvat alese. l;ormn tli.t;rtir. irr ficrlra 90 D estc sirnilatii <lat in rtccst crrz,tnanivcla tlc t:ort,lrtcirlolur'cstc r:oncctatii rLtrpuuct itrtcttttrrlilrt iar'lritLclt: t:tlttt:la 2 srrpcliol irl lcvicurlrriIkrlrrrrl //. xirur,.,1, Lt lr crqriLtrrl
ltt t Irr s,,lr,,rrl <li r r ligt r lr t { ) 0 r : , r r t lr or t : Lr r : or t r t : i - ro t / r 's l r ' r 'o t t r t l : t l l l t i t t l t - o rn.rrrir', lii. -l si o l r r t ; ' L r k : r ' or r c x ir t t t c i lr r t , ' r t l t t t l l r : r 'i c t t t l t t i f l o l r t t t l . '/ t l t t c 0' su.rlin(.r, rrr;r,;;-r fi c s lc : , r r s p, ' r r r l: r li ; i lr iv olt 'r r z i i r r l r r t t t , l r t l l i r 7 . ( l c l i l l r r l t r' , r1r.rl ,rl l,,r'ilrrrlrri llolr r r r l , / , , 1(' , ( , t t r' ( l i r l lr t i t r l t , r l r 'l l r l r ' l r l l , r l r t r ; 1 , f , l , l l r r rlrrr.r rli ,Iro zrIivr.rIr, r r r lir lr , r t l rt rt i , l i r , , l t , rrr,r l , . . c u r 'o l , r 't r '. r / , r r l l l t t t , t l i v ; r t t l t r ' rrrrr I r,,1 ,'r,rl /() rrlr ' | , r t r ilr t r . r r lt t , , 1t ,

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ln ccle cc urmeazl sc prezinti. citeva din cele mai simple realizi.ri corr in slnlctivc ale convertorului,brcvetatc de GeorgeConstantincscu anul l()22. Ar:esteschite reprezintiLsolutiile unora din schemelecinenatice cxpus. irr fir:rrra 90.

l,r.tigrrr,, 9{)r:, arborek,r:ondrrr.iilor./ {acc-un unghi drept cu axul . rorrrlrrs/1j, rnauir.cla2 fiind concctatiL prin tarele J la in capiit al lcvi,. /j,,carr sprl centru estecone,ctat o manivele Z; la fl,liil f',,,,,i ,.1 !l:',,'l,l ,jj,li]':, cap+t al .levierului flotant fiind concctai prin ""f,r,t bar(.t(, 1t: (ttspozlltvn l;ifil.rl.l. .r. / r.r rr(,U.r de acttonare unidircc!ionele.
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rr i n const r uc{ia din {igur a 93, nt ot or ul pr it na. t it ct iot : r 'r t zi"t r r r l , r , . r t ' poarti vol antul b si est c concct at pr in lr ar de r 'lr t cct t t t t t l lcvir Tt t lr r i llol. r r r l , / i l api tul superior al accst ui lcvicf cst , ar lict t lit l in , lr t t t t t l, r i, t . r r l. r r r l / crtrc pi voteazir in r ; i sus( inc la capit r r l it t f t liot o I t t r r si ; 1. ( ; r pr lr r l r r r l. t l't rrl l cvi crul ui {lot ant est c concct at plin clor r iL t llr lr i r ll lr r r r ' / r ' I 1. , 'l"r r , ' lr l rri rte dubl e L , t n cat a oscilcaziLin jut t r l ir xci t r r lot t r lt t i , , r r r r lr t r ' l', I 'r 'r {'l' r oi < ' i l antc i n 1, ; i r espect iv in r ] t . 'sill1 t t 't irt t lr r l" 'r t lr . l" ir ' r r l r r ' 'i'r l'l' '; / ' ( ) t / r ) . r r r t r "' r' i rr\' po:Irti -rart iculat i sabolii dc f r iclir r n, r ', s ( lig l'r t pr r 'r I 'r lr r l (:u partca cir cunr f cr inlci oPusit l) i\ 'o1ilt }r r lit r , 'r , lr , 5, r lr , f r r ' tl ' l { ,r. , .rrl rrl rt:r!i i rl) cscpc cir cum f cr in{a I r t t - olot t t lr t i ; i . . r I '1, , lr , z' r "l"r r r l lr 'i r l"'lr r r,,1i r,' i l l ;a {cl incit sir - l act ionczc I oI r I r r t t t t , r ir r , lir , , ( r , , ir r , r ' l i rrtl si r sl i rpr-opit 'dcr ot or dalor ilr 'Lf uplr t lt r i r i lr ir r t lr r l li, , , r r r t . r lt r r l r r r ' r 'lt t t l r" rrt ;i 1l i ' oi rt l f ilci- Lr ui cadr u in lr llr t r r l r lr ' r r li. t r 'r r ' r lr l r ll r lr 1" " I r r t t ' i ,rr, l rl l l i !' (! 1t : in cct r t t ul l( ) t olului. \ lr r i r lr r r lt , r t r l; ilr t r r l, lr r r ll, r lt r t t r ' t t ' lr r ot r ' ' sc l " r l rrr' l rccfti l) i\ '{lt i. sit llcaz: ! ( 'st i lr liii t ) li( , l, , il r t r r lil, r t t lr |I t r t t I t t t t I ' cocf ici|t t t ului clt ' f r r 'cir t c ( r l) t illlll l) ( llllr l r r 't li ll'r lr ' lr lr ll, '. r lI l. r I oll l ,l l l l /.i 1()r i r.(1i i )l ti u(i r .ri lt lt f et t 'lol dt cor r t act ir l( , : t ilxr lr r lr r i: r t ololr lllt . ll. r r . r , lr ', r , u, \ r r r r r l: /i csl l srtP ttsl- t r int it t dt 'r c si lr ar r L/ t la, t t t t t Pt r 'sit t t t , Sr l, o( ii "r r r t 'l' lr r r r l't t t r ' ( rttl rstrtttti l tl i L xlr l) ilt ( l al) r or r P( lln sf ( 'r l ( lill r 'ir lt t t t t l, r r t r l: t t olor r t lr t t \ t lt t l r r ' rr,r' \' ,-.1(rul l 1 : r i sir t ncr t t inii salxr t ii , l, lt ict it t nc ill ( ( , lr l. r {l r r : ( , 1\ Lr r r 'lr r t r r l l rr , rrt,.l r i rr gol. ( rr .rP ; t nt t t l ilt ) l( 't i( ) r ( l( , scli\ , t ollr {i: t lt llxt t , lt t i ( ()t |(| II ( Ii t )I I 'lo\ I ', r r'r ' ,r' ,,rl rrl i .r l ,i i l rr r lr t i f lolat r l r / ; i ; r t , '; t sliLoscilr {it s, poir lt ir r r pr t lt ir r r lor t . r (r)rl l x)l , rl ( r 'r ' sr ' lr r t t st nil, ii( r lils( i( l) r ir l l( \ iit lll / , ! i, 1, r r lr l'. r r , l' ,l r' , r,ttcxi rttr , / t , / i, , lislxr zilir , lot r t t t ir lit r t t iot t r t ll r lr ' p, t olot . : \ sll, l lr t r , r {i. r ll't .trl l rr,l tti cottrlt t r ilot r 't r ", 'lr ', lr it t r it r r r t r 't t t : r lr 'l) , r r \ t ll lot lr lt t s, , r t t r |lilr t , lt lr , , r /' rrr' ri l rrl i l i ttt:tsli r ; r lt sr lr ': r lr ' , i I t t r r "t . lr t t t . t t lr 'lot lr r {i. t l: t lr r l' l'r r 'l' / r "r rrr" ;1,,,rstfcl , r c, r it t r l lr t r r r {i. r t o|ot t t I t t t , ot t r I t t , it r l. r lxr t I t r l lr llr lllir lr r olr }t llllll
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(on' l us csl( : lr vins , l, t ur t lr nisr uul r r r r ir lir , r lr r r r r l 1i lr r ll cor r r lr r sir r r ',1u , . , s,l roteasci. Pini't cir lotitr'ir si-ritrcctl):r llu s it r'()t)surllitlcrrt tgir' r rr r'xr',l)!t.r calttititii absorbitr'rlrin frccil'i intclnc;i pcr)llu r(trc( r.(ir rrrasciirr lt'itirrr ,1, r 'osciialic. Axul condus se rotcitc atunci cu dirniuuari:a (:orospullziLto:|t-(. (1. plas.:trii lcvir:rului oscilant, cuplul invingc rczistcn!a [a irxul t:onrlrr,, liirr,l di:ect prorlusi. de fortelc carc actioneazi prin balcle dc corrr:xirrur' / ;i lrirr,l /r, prorJortiona-le pi.tratul vitezei arborelui prinar'. \,-alorilc re1a1ir.r'rrlr' lrrr.r cu !irl,:,r;i cuplului produse do rnecanisrn sint ar:ltatc in {igura 91. llulte alte folme alc inven{iei, altelc (lccit cele (loscrisc aili, sirrt 1,,' r bi l r.' ci rnul tc alt e f or m e de m ccanism r :pot I i adopt at c iu locul nr , , r r r r i, , r r lr I 'r , de actionare unidirectional ilustrat; ilc cxernplu, tlei mccanisml r.r .l ,lr scris, diferind pdn {azcunul de altul crr 120 glaclc poate {i previ'izril :.r r, 1r,, nezc pe ac clasi ax si in acest caz apr oapc ci r ot alia cont inniL ir r l, , ,r r r , , l, rotatia discontinuir care s-al fi ob!inut. llec;utismul unidirr.r'!iorr;r ,1, .r, I lionare folosit poatc fi de oricare tip aclecvat. De asemcnea, irr l,r, rrl rrrrrrr l evi e_rosci lant poalc f i int r cbuint at un volant oscilant silu o r r nsr r r 1, . , , r r , ,
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La rtu astfcl dc necanism, dcplirsaLcapc vcnicali. a oriciir-L rlirr , r rrtr, . i;r cum ar fi cel al axei r ot or ului, a1- axei r nasei, silr l al axei ar - bolr . lr r i1, r r r r , r r va producc un {oartc unic cfect asupra mi;cirii, \[ai lrrrlt, dcPlasrrr,rr rrrr,., Pe orizontali a accstor ccnire este, clc asemenca, pernisi-r. Deplirsirr|rr rrlt' r natifi a ccntrului rotorului in directic orizontaliL va scrvi numai Irr r:rr',,,|, r,..r nr:insemnati a turatiei rotorului. Este posibil dcci, ca uD astlel (l(. Dl(\.:rrrr'rrl s:r pernit5. nici varialii ale distantei intre oricale douiL din c{rnili(.:,rl'rr lilol arborilor conduditori, masei si axului condus. Accastir csl(. ( \llr.rr (1, convenabil la autovr:hiculc. I']irti ale aparatului pot fi monttLtl' I),,u, rl ti alte pit'li direct pe rotilc motoarc daci. sr: dorc;te. ln fot'ma de dispoziti.v unidireclional dc acfionar-t' itr:rtirl ilt lilirrrrr 'rl, l.r:rreir de conexiunc de la notorul prin)ar sint concctatlr lrL b<-rll;ulil,, .f/, ." carc si nt pu r t at e dc clem ent clc m anioll 2i, 2/ , capabilc sl oscilr : z, , ir r ; r lr r l :Lt:riui ?J pc lagirclc cu rulmcnti 27. Sabo{ii rlt: fricfiunc 2E, Jll, r,irrt .rrlr cuia!.i prin bollurilc ,10, 31 , in r-'lemcutclccLrtitii alo cadrului l)lir(ii .i', .i l. carc ,sint clc insilc articulatc irr clcmentcle rotolrrlui .i'l, .i5 Drin.id 1i,iz', rrr,. t, r.l enr-:rr..,l c lolor f iind f ir . r t , . lr in p: r nir r l, ; 1xr 1lr ', , r , 'r15. i n accst {el clc act ionar t : unidir ccf ionr LliL siLbot Lr r lc f liclir r r r , r , 1, , 1, . , r l srrl)[a,pivotat pe rotor csto l:rlocat |i lrotionirl. (]ind clcrn(lntul rrsr:i[.Lnt.]., ,, nriid. in dircc!ia sr"rgr:!ii, sabotul dc jos pc ci'irlalti l)irrtc a r'olorulri liir,l bl ocat i i i n vir t il in : r ccc: 15i cct ic in t ir npr r l oscilalit , i r lc inr r ; . oi, r i. pr r r r <lir clctncnlrrl tl: oscila.fit: 2''l. l n [our ll u) nst r u( ilivir ir ir - t vur t t ici,lr lt : zr : nilt r 'r ir r liguliL ( ) . j, l) ( , li) r r l ( . l )ri nl .,i (rsl c ( : on( xr l: r lPr i! l l) iLr - il l( r 'or ) ( 'r iunr :( lr ir : liL) / / l; L r r n r : ; r Pil : r l llr r , l rrl rri l i rrLrrr r l/ ?, r : t lc lxr lllr r ir silnll) lir r ( 1lor r lr .li f r irr r l r lir r <lor r i-l) r it 1i, r r t r r r:rtl ;rl i rt /,j r h' volir t t lr t l os<: iliLr r j0 r 'r r t r .oscilcr r zr i. r jr r r r r l : r xr . i . / 0. l- r . vr ,r r r l /l ir r' ,1,. rrrrrcr:lr r llir r : , 'lillr ll cir l) ; il ir l siiu / / r 'r r r lor r r lr , r r , . r lr . r or r , . sir r r t t..1. t , lt t (.rt, i ,ni l r.l zar t lspcr lir ' {l{) u. ' r . l'. lr lr l, , ilir r r lr ir r ' ( l, r r r r lr r r r i) / ) ', . / , V, l, , lr . r r r , . r r lr 1,1, , i l i rrrl l i, r , : , it t l r , i. Plr r ', , ii,r,r r . , r r 1, t . r {r . lr . r lr ' lr ir ( r r r r r . / r , / , lilr , r r r . l: r lr lr r r r ! / , . , ', 2 . r lr . r olr r lr lr r r ,rnl r( rt(;rzri ( r r r! ir r r t lt r z, r ) r t r r , r , lt r r , , . 1, r I r r r . r I 'or {lll ..rl l ,rl , l n l n lr 't iolt l : , . r t t , , t lilr , l, r , , lr t t lr lr ', ll. r o 1, r , r lr , lr ' , . r lr l'{rr lr . lr r r ' rl ), ' r l . lt r r r l, r lI Lr , , r 1r , 1, . 1,lr ; , lor , r 1 , , r lr r 1 | , i , r , , 1, lr lr . lt r r r r l tl rrrt, frtr,{ rl rl , I'i r ol, , r |lr t l 1\ 1lr , '|r 'l l'||l|t r r r l'|lr , r , , r 'lr r l . ', l, , r . r i , lr r r

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I r r r r r ' r ' lr s li'lo u rri r' o rs l rrrr l i r' .r, rl i rl t:fi l r tL' rni 5carr. i n carc cl emcni ul r osr ilrrrrl /7 lrlot:hctrz,iL rolonrl csl, irrilat:r lnin sirgcatl in prima pozitie din ll|]lrra ():1. Vtriarrta hidrau.liciL l convertorului a lost prezentati. dispersat in r';rtlrrrl paragrafelor: pompc volumice cu debit variabil gi generator sonic pcntltr sistcm de tracfiune. De aceea aici vor fi descrise numai citeva lentlnlt. noi. Accsta este aLcd.tuit din montajul {ormat dintr-o pompl volumice ci1 , L l,it variabil firi. supape de refulare ;i un generator sonic aga cum 9a de.r r is in figura 68, ;i un motor rotatiy aclionat prin presiunea alternativa de liclrirl produsil- de acest montaj, figura 96. Axul pompei este antrenat de rrotorul primar, iar motorul unidirectional antreneazi, axul secundar intr-cr i rrg r r r irdir ec f ie. Inertia este asigurati de o conducti. cu lichid 2/, de lungime coresrrzir.toare,care inlocuie;te masa oscilantit. lrrr

C cl hlalt capi"r l al pislor r r r lui r 'st r ' lqlr ir lr r lir r lr r r r r r ilinr lr r r / r , iar r r r r -/ arc .s aclioncazh :tsuprl pirrliLrr clr rnifciu.o lirrirrr.i ;tllcrn:rtivlt. 'lcnsirrnca arcului s trL'buic r-r.{ie aslfcl crr in pozitia ilustratl pislorrrrl si fie in cchilibm sub actiunca arculrri 5i a prcsiunii medii din linia dc 1rrru,. misie a unclci. DacI masa ptrrlilor oscilantc cste considerabill, sau frccr,.rr{,r

Fig. 96. - Convertor varianta hidlaulic;.

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Forn):r s i mpl J dc rnoror rotari z .

[igrnrr t)7A x r r l r t r : : r t l ls l c t:rrP l l L l rr ro l tl c rr r:l i r:l rctl t:stc P rrs i n l ufi rtrrc pri n i l l i r l rr' lii I ir llr r I i 1r , . trrtIrIrrrl rrI:1 iy rrt.s rr{ i p l i rr t:rrri;rrkrcvrrl r. r' rrl (rrrr si rrt rrl r' rt:rl t,) 1 r'to .rlir r lir r lr r li. Ar r.s l l ;rrrrl rrrlr.1 i l (.r,rl )l s rrrrr.irrri i r' i rl i osci l ;rl ori i , l rri rr l r' :r(rrl r r r r pl, r t r r r ; r i , l ,rrrrl /. rrrrr, l rrrrr{ i o rrr.rrz,'rrl r rrrr ri l i rrrl rrr r,, ,orrcr' l :rl ir l .r o l t lt , r lr - lr , r r r ' . r rrr' .rr. rrrr,!, ,l ' . l r, l rr,l .r r tttl

. Sc vor- prezenta citeva din aceste motoare rotative unidireclionale rrt:fionlte prin curenti alternativi dc lichid, brevetate de G. Constantinescu irr anii 1916- 1917. Ccl mai simplu motor rotativ fi.ri. supapc conlinind un piston aclionat tkr iurpulsrrrialtcrnativc periodiccintr.o coloand. lichid gi producind rode tafia rrnui rotor prin[r-ulr <lispozitivunidircctional cu clichct cstc aritat in

curentului altcmativ tle lichid este ridicati, este necesar un al rloilcir rr.:,or I carc si aclioncz-ein- dircctic opusi. Dimensiunile accstor arcuri dq,in(l (l'. cursa pistonului.,/, frecvcnta, incrlia maselor cu milcare liniar.iLaltr.rnulivr'r si Dutcrca motorului. ' l,'unr:tionarca ircfstui rnolor cstc cvidcntii, pistonul / sub imprrlr,rrl (;urcntul ui allr . r 'nat iv r le liclr i<l r lr . llr m in. - Loscilalii t am bum lui r : ir r jr r r r r l ccnl rrrl rri sir r r . l) cnlnr o ir r nt ir lir lr .t l: lx. r ioadi <lc r ot af ic in r lir t c{i. r s. r g, . lr r , Irrnrl rIi ttttc r I ir : I r r 'I ii r l nr Kr , r ( ': r z: i r r r r r linlr . al r o{ii r olor r r lui l. lr r I iiir l, r r I l l truti l ()i l n.i jr r r lit lir f i r lr ' plr ioir r li l: r t r r lr r r r r r sr : r lr 'lr lir sur zi- r r lit r r '{iir r r pr lr f r , in i i rl r' l i r l rr' {ii / lr lr r r r r t ii pl r olor , ilr r r r r r r iit olr r Ir lir lr , l cr r r ll ir r spr r lcL' r r r r r ii l orrrl rri rl i n lr . ir l r olii / r . I I r r r r . r I . r r r , . r r, r r l, ir ir r r ir r ir ' . r 1r iI ; I or r r r I r r ihlcr r r r ir r ir r rol ;rl i :r tttoI ot r r I r r i 1r , . r r r r r or r r r r r lilr r ,; r . r ', , rr r r r r ir lr '1r . r r 1, l) . r r ii l. r . f ixr . ; r zii r r r r . vol :rrrl | l r' :r r r r l , t , i rrr1rrr | ' ,rr r i Ir' r r , , , , . . nl r l. r l, r r , lr i r r r . r r lir r '1"r lr , . ( lir lr r , li r{ rl ttr' .t !r| | ,|||||I |||| ||r r lt t r 'rlt . r . . r l, rl||. , l, r , , r r |rr 1, , , r l, t ||r ; 'ul'. r r r r lr lr r . r t , i. r . r i . rrrr| r I rr'

I)irr';-r rIirrIikrlrl.pl rollrr lotoluhli cstc,ff .ru, undc K gi zr, nrrrnirrrrl sint numcr(' inlrcgi, urrrrirrul clr.r'lir'lrtli cgal distribui!i pc circumferinliL l), iar cu rlu ilscrrlcnea tt'r:buicsir iic /i(rr. aranjament, vor exista lntotK rluirurra dinli angrcnrLli actla.,si in tirnp. In cxemplul ilustrat K: l, iar z:6, unghiul rniniin al oscilaliei lr\rosarc pcntru trcccrca de la un dinte la urmitorul este: ZrlK'n(m, 1) :h16.5.:1115. Se observi. ci daci roata rotorului are 11 dinli cu l0 clicheti, unghiu I vl fi numai r/55 gi se vede ci un clichet obignuit ar necesita I l0 dinli pentru rr obfine acela;i rezultat. In forma invenliei aretati in figura 98 s-au utilizat doi tamburi c qi rfrxrl biele l, m, o bield"gi un tambur aclionind axul a prin clichefii d qi roata I in cursa inainte a pistonului l, ln timp ce cealalti bieli m printr-un al doilea firrrrbur ;i clicheli acfioneaz| axul a in aceeagidireclie in cursa lnapoi a pislonului f.

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Ir i8 . 95. - i l oi or rotrti / cr ?i teza ur,jh iu tLra mrr( .r rotorul ur utrLzi nd doua in r iistcr n, ,l c hchc!r J, .r:ti oorre ' (ti recfi i oIus(!.

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()(l lr r l, , r ur . r ilr r . l l r, r | rc z r.rrl ,rl ,r i rr l r;1 rrr.r ,.rxrrlrotrrl ttsn a5l c tnol l ;l l r r , ll( it s i / . T .i l )r Il o l l j rl , I)r ,rr i rrl rIru i i l l ttrr< ,ntc di : ar { i onarc ctl t illr I ,ti rrrl r iir r lr Lr r : 1t 1, ,,1 ,rrr rl i rrl r rl ,,rl i , l rc t 1 rl fr,i rl c c.rl )r,tcl orl oL ;rrl aptatc si J ,frl r,] |( z L, c r r c l i rl rr' l rrl rrirl c Pc l ;rrc ;c l c .i , ,/, car,:]si rri It.t,:atc i ti i l )tc - c lini.i i ri,r tlc rrrcuril-e.5. []rrc;elc i, I sint capirlrilc si-L ahnecc rlc-a lrrngrrl axulrri rl l l tclir t r , , I jlenr ctr1 r' l cd c c u p l a ro 2 ,8 s i n t acl i onai c pr.i n Li t{cl e d, 6; ,., 7, r'r,s1rt'<:lir', accslc biclc fiind inrbirralc (ru doui glisicir' ..1, /0, car.e silj ir 1 'r,'s: r lc . inlc r ior p ri n i u ru ri l c l //, 7 2 . (i l i s i c r.cl eg, l O, si rri . at(i onal c pr.i rr ,l"uir l)ist(ranc. fsalc l.i, I'1, carc trcc pr-il illezajul bucstlor. /.5, /d. Pcntiu a rrrrl,icclicar:otir:clritccstor glisicrc s-au prL.\:!zut canalc ,si Jrcrtr::rtlcclate, in ,l i rl r'f ic longi t udiul l i ' 1 . Arc u :j l e 1 /, 1 1 , a u tc n si unca ncctl sai .i l .rt.l rrrr a fuLra ,., l ri l i lliL pr es iuut , a u rc L l i c c l i n l i n i ;r tL r tri i rrs nri -si r: rrnrl ci , po car.c frrtrcl i olr r,,1 ,/il r r ololul. Lit r ia r le t r an s u ti s i c :r rL n d e i s c a fl i ' r i n {j ol l rrl l l i (rati c cu i l l cr.i ortrl ci l i rr,l rrrl ui c r r plir r s int r c g l i s i c l c l c 9 , /0 s i g a l n i i rLri l t 17, 1.\. P i si orLl cl e se afl ri . i rr ,r'l r ili[ . , r u s ub a.ti u trc a c ()n tr.ri a P.c s i u tr i i tncdi i di . l i l i r. ;i a tctr.ri trrri i .i c l t r lor l/ , 72, ( r r lr . nt ul alr , :,rn i rl i v d c i i c l ri d d i n Ii n i a unLl ci dc,tcrnri ui L Ii stoartr.l c i rrrl rrLr r r r iL.l_glis icrc l c l o r- 0 ,7 0 s i r o :c i l t,z t. l l i ;carea pi si oi rucl or' pl i n l i i ccr lclc /i,/i ,;i 7,7 {acc sit oscilcze picsele crr cliclrc,, 2, 8, iai- fcfclc accsior picsc ' rr ., l ic lr , 1. x ngr enc rr:r.c u d i u l i i d e c l i c h c t d c pc ci mi ;i i c a, 4, (l i rl ti i i i nrd .' tf'l ir r r ' lir r at iilc it t tri ;c a rc a i n s p l c i n i c ri o l u D i s i oal ,.l ul i i I)r,,\,,.r' ,.oscrrr ,l r<i l tr { ic r ax ului p ri n tr-o p c re c l r,:d c t.l c rtrc r rl e cl i cl rcL, i i r ti urp cc di uti i cu -ccl ,,'l o rlir lit ' pc r c c hi cl c c l c m c n te c u c l i c h c t s i r al Ll ueceunul l rL,stc i l al t. l n trrrrlrrrl pclioadei misclLrii insprc. extcrior a pistoanelor., pcritru nrmitoarca scrrrios r ilaf ic a ax rrl u i , c c a l a l ta Lp c rc c h r' d e r.l curentt cLr tl i tl i ct cfcctucazr-i ;rr{ro r r , r r r . a ac ela l i s c n s ,u s tfc l ra ri rx l l l u rc o l li l care ul i tl i rccti ol rl i r, apt.oal x, in
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lr r f or r t a ir r vc rr{ i ri a ri i i i rti i rr fi g rn a 1 0 0, cl i chetLrl rrrcl rri r: este i nl rr rri l lr r ir r ir ' - un lnr lr rc i :ri c l t: fri c fi ru rt: a c fi o n i rt r l c l i ni a cl c transrrri si ca rrnd,,i . Arrrl lolor r r lr r i 2/ s rrs fi n c u u c l e n ts n t fi )l l i (t ( l ul l hl ?2 :rrl api ri si L poat;-L [i r'rrlrlrrl r;rr ficcare clirr clenl('ntelc dc arrrll,:iaj 2,1,2.1. El',tn,,ntajt; 2J, ?1 si rrl o s c ilaLcin plau u ri l c l o r, p ri n b i c l c l e 2 j , 3 6, Itgate dc pi sl onrLl 27, car.t, lslc rr:lionlt plitr ltlcsiune;r clin [ini.r ,lc transmisic a untlei. I'istonul 27 estc {i rrrf ir r . c c hilibr r L i n tr-o p o z i fi c m fd i (i , s u l ) i rcti unea arcuri l or 28, 2g, r< i n l ,rcsi r r r r iir r t er lii dir r l i n i t. A x r r l 2/ . . poatc a l u l l c f,r p e o d i s ta n { .i s cl rrti i i n di r,:r:fi r: l ongi tudi nal i , . rrri;r:arcl .sa fiirrd controlair"r priutr-url pistou cu drrbli ac{iirnarc ji, cap.ltul infr'r'ior al accstriia fiirld dirctt concctit Ia Iinir dc transmisic a unclei'oril co rr<lr r : la_, J ?, t im p c c fa fa s ;r s u p c l i o :rr' ;-L c srrl xrsi pr.csi urri ic;,r.r,ei i sl i , in c sl i r caparit at c lr , . I - ic lr it lr r l t lor ' ,: i rr a r' c a s t,i c a p a c i ta tc p r i rr i nterrl " ,l i rrl .r:,i 1r,i ri l or prIi n g i r ir is t onul , - il, . .p l t-s i rrrrc d i.rr c a p a c i ta t. fi i rr,l pr-.rcti c,,,rr,i ;rrri :i a i i cgi l i rr1 1 ' 1r ' . 1r 1111r t , li n d i rr l i n i .{ d (j l l a n s u l i .i , .r rrr.,l ,i . . 1 lt S t olr s t lv ii c i i i n ti n rp c c fa l i r i n ft_ -ri o l rri r pi storl i l rri r,sl t,\ul )rrr,, \' ,rri .r a (i rl o t lolr r ) c < lc plt s i rrn r: c l i tr l i n i i r rl c l r' :u rs ri s i r:, sc i nl pr.i u):t () rrri (l r.(: oscr rr l rrl o tir , r r x r r lui 2/ . As { ft' I, c i rrrl i n l i n i i L < l t' l ra rrsrrri si ccrcl l (. l )rl si l l rl i r, ;txul crl c it t r lr ir r : ir r s r r s ,i rrr I)i (' s i rc o l )i (i r < l l l l l i - 2 2 s c va cupl a r:rrl I,.i rrl rrIrrIj ,j , , ;rrc ; r.l r'.r , 1t , r r r , r , l, P i :i l o n rrl .1 7 q i r' .r l rrrrrr. tr l rr {i rrrrr.l xrrl . ( i rr,l i ,l l Irr,.:,i rrrr,,r i rr l i trt,r , l t r . ' r r , r r r i: ri l r' .,1 r'.,rrl r r' ,rl ,,,rr,.l rrr,.rl i ,., ,.:;i rrrr, :r,1,.,1,,i rr1,r,r 1,r.t,, Irr' trrrl rr r i/ lt r r r , l r r r , r irrr.rr, ,,r r' , 1 ,l rrr l rrri ,.,r' ,r .r, l r,rr.r ,r\ul .?/ i rr y,,,, ,1,., l ,l i rr,l ri
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lI r

i12)

j\ll,i r'orrdific i.r'actie.L l,r'ntru clio(le este ca convcrsia {or.ttlor armouicc . :r urileurilor intr'-rrn-cuplu unidirectional si iltr-o r.itezi-L ;t. unghiularl unirlitlr fionalir si. sc. produci. fidl ?r introducc rlcfonratii apreciabile ale misr:irilol armonice simplc necesare siL mcntini stabilitatca in sistcrn. I)c asetlr'rlit, o astfel de couvcrsie trcbuic sl'L in asa il araniati ca un echililrm fie rlirrirrrricrrl sisi:cmului sir fic p,rsibil :i si nu colducir li blocare clinamicir. l rr lirnbajul matctnatic convertor-ul este in csctlti un sistem cu clr,,-:,-r pllrrL' rle Iibr-rtatc considerat tlin punct de r.cdcr.c static. Cu irlte culil:t ,r rr.rliil, r nc c ar r it ii .s trrti c ,' ]l u l ro t l i a p l i c a l c d i r.cct, a;a cun) se i uti urP L cu tt| :rl ( ) r ' lt ilt3 nt Cr - a D i s r' o r rrri l i z u r, i n l c l u :i c .r mul oarc]Or.. ( l )' )r l,ir convcrtor-, avcrn de-a fat:t: cu diferite picse a cirtor. lx)zitii, in i;fcil(' nrolncnt, trelruic consideratc frrnclie de timp ;i de r.clatla gcometricr"r rlirrlr'c tlirnensiunilc ;i pozitiilc cclorlalte piesc iri sistcm. I)r'oicctarca nrasinii ttebuic li"LcutiL asa ft:l iucit miscurclt obtin,_r.-i in .. si fi' tlc tilul in iiir(, tllpa ur.r anunrit numirr cL' nti;cr-rri iri tirnpul a c,..e ((..l xfir t r . f i Dur nit ,.r' rg i t ta ri a b i l " , r' s tc a ti n si L o star-cdc rtgi nt, l tcnnrui :;.!, irrrlik'r-r,ntcare au fost conditiilc ini;ial.,, I)e as('incn(,a,aceastii starc trtbuic sr'i sc ntcntiniL iutlc{init, indifirlcnt <:c schimbiLri sr' l.rot pr.ocluccin prir.it,ta ,rrl ,l rr r il, ' r ; i t ur at i i l o r' p ri n u tu l u i s i u r s e c u ntl arrrl ti , l ri pl rrs, ,,ut,l i ti ,n ,:,, ri.Airrr. dt: Pclnraucnt nrr tlcl,uic n.rotlificatr'L unelc r,;triatii iapitlc posibilr alc vrrlolilor trrratiilol si crrplrrrilor- prinranrhii ;i sccundarului. 0cl mai simplrr caz clt. r.r'ginr p('nl.ulclrt t'stt' lrtins alu lci cind dif,:ri l (l c l) : t f t i t nr ir t in s to l rtc o n l i s c a r-t a r-rtro n i r:i r, rr-rrccl t' cl ctncnl o caLt,:rr il rkrrri rglir lt . r lt : lilx .rl rrtc rk ' -_ u ti ;c a l ca u l rr:rt u rrurrri tt' l xrzi i i i rtrrrl i i , ci ut, l l ()t l i rrrr t r r ilc t x ) 7, it ii {l ( ,,s l a b i l i ta (c c l i ra u ri c i r" .
. ) I ' o n r n r r l t l n t , l ir ic.' ( ;. ( ( '[\l j r Il .i r lii( .r ite l( : ii,n r r ,,tc ( lin r cc i l s ti tfat.r fi ., ,:\( u .r ( ir r .. I' cr n r ilc rrt iliz , rl r r r r l , , r r r I l i s | | | r t nt.' r r r ti( : .( nr t ,.| l i r l :i i r s u}i r \ti \ i r r l rli ( iil' , ' , 1 , . ( : r k " l r j\l.l(nlr!,trrslr i rt r .{ r ' ' .:r l"r ' r ir i v;' r j l,il.l( ,r ' rti n l ,rrrrrrl ,,. r,,i rt,.,(,||\t.,l 't.1,.r,,,,(l , rir! , r. r1 . , , i I sir u l !'l S i l l rl rrhrt t,,trf,rt rrti l " r . r . ! ' l o n .r ' r l( ,' .' I' !lr "r ln l ' arn,t,l ,l 't,l|;( fll| :i lr ' ,tL I . r' r , / r l l"r'ri'l.r \lr r r l,il..i l) , ,\,!r i' r l,r \:i \,,:,!r, l'lf r I \, I, 0. (, .r .r,t | .t rl, l,',1'r /,r, l In .,[' 1 ,' r /,r ,IUlt ,,r 1 ,,r 1 ,.]..,,r r,r,,tLr,,,/,r ,,,,1 , r r,' l r ' l r , " \ \ , ,"'l,r i1 , l,, l,' r ' l| ll,r , t' ,, tr , 1 ,,,r ,.r,l , Lrl ,rt i ,rl trr,.nt,, ' rr, r, l! r I l l "

S i L prcsupuncnt cil l\ '( I t l ( lr '; t lil( r '( t t llt l ( r ) ll\ '( llor t r l r r r r r "st r P'r 'ilr il r un rcgi m. pcn lanent . Ac( 'asl: t cor r r li( it lslc it r r I r ot |: r r r I I : ; i r lr r r r lr ': r s, ir r sislii a$rpra cr, Li n t-r- - Sirper m ancl) t , sau condiliit r lc slllr ili{lLlt : <lir t r t nr ici, it lr |lir 'ii n rtorullri si irrl)i ca reactiunile intirrrc alc diferitelor Pitrti llinirtt(riorul c()I1\'( dir cclic, incit dir cclia; i r t nr plit r t ' i n ori cc mom cnt o ascncnea m ir im c; i dinea lor medie s.1 formeze lizuri de echilibru stabil cind sint in rni:,r:rlr'. Se poate ca echilibruI sn fie d-e tip indirect, in carc o {orlir cxtcrioali r rtttt ar fi gravitatia, un arc, sau alt mijloc, sL aduci intrcg sistemul irr lirrrl,rrl mi;cirii la o anumiti. pozilie medie. In figura 90, condilia de stabilitate a con\-ertorilor prezentrr(i 'rl' indepliniti. Se va observa ci in toate araniamentele schematizate dcscrisc rrttl' rior, neglijind inerfia masei oscilante, mi;carea pirlilor dc actioDirrt tstc ncdcterri ri na t i, De aceea,est e necesar se consider ; m 'st abilir alea : isl, t t r r r lt t t cind acesta este in mi$care, deoarece in cazul poziliilor incorectc alr: itr, lot sllr trrirr,r'l fixe gi alc pivotilor mobili, amplitudinea oscilatiilor volantului pivotante poate tindc si. creasil indefinit. intri:gul sistem, va dcvcrri rl'ri. i.nstabil, iar aceasta va avea drept rezultat blocarca ;i ruperea sisttlrrrrlrrl de lesituri. Pentru a ilustra aceasta, forlele care actionead in diferitele piLr'{i .rll aparatului lntr-un exemplu al invenfiei, sint prezentate ln schema din figrr tir, 90 /. Considerind echiliErul volantului oscilant /5, se poate. ari.ta tit t,zttl' tanta mcdie a forlelor de compresie care sint transmise prin biela A rrr li intotdeauna lntre iiniile punctite indicate de sigelile ar ;i a1, in lirrrlr ,r' rezultanta medie a {ortclor de intindere carc sint transmise prin biclrr 1/ r.r fi intre liniilc punctate indicate cu slgelile ds;i ar. -frebuie si pt,rizrrtrr I r efortulilc inveise din biclelt' 8, 9 se datoresc inerfiei piulilor ctL rtri5,.rr. alternativir. iliu dispozitivrrl de aclionarc unidireclional ;i sr^ut [orttlr' ttttr'i in compat-rLliccu forlcle dc aclionarc la care ne-im refcrit. in colrstritt(.'t. in dispuncr-caprezentati in aceasti {iguri, for}cle rezultantc carc at {iott'.rzir asupra lolantului oscilant 75 r'or fi indrcptate alternatir- sprc rltiltpl r 1t irt spre stinga, fiind in acelali timp in direc{ie contrari axei in jurul cr-ttt rr:' i leazi volantrrl, astfel incit stabilitatca sistcmului in miicarc cstc I)rI II{IIIIII.I in S i t con sidcl"r nr ,dir cxem plu, coll\ t lt olul pr ', 2- cnt t r t {ignr r ( ) 0 r " I it / forla axialiL din birlt priniaiului. I'ril lnijlo&I lcvicrului flo1irn1, rLttrr.llt rlirlxr iorlir.cstt: inpir{itii iu rlouit compont'nic ;i aplicatir./s' ' rurLsci;i./, zitivclot rrnirlir cc!ionalt'. c[ I)t' nl rtt r r sir t t t lli[ iclr cr t lcr r lclc,st ' t : onsi<lcr ir llr ilsa lcvielr llr r i llot lr r ll este fi ri rrtc l lt lr r si, : r slf cl ir r cit f or lclr ' l, . lr lz, ?'Plicat caclst t lir t r 'or li t t t . r t i i n cotnpi rta(it : r : r r f ot lllc t lc acct lcr r t ! ii , lat or it i m igcir ii slt lc osr : ilalr r lii lr r r(:(' si crz, rlir r , or r r li( iill t lc cclt ililr t t t ir t t t t : I or t clc lr pliclr t ( rr t cost t t iil,t lzt t lt iL rorrrl i { i i l l ch / , ; i / " sir r t plopot ( iot r r ll r 'r t / . | )( r' i :, i l) ( , r l ( s( t ir 'l

|
l r t a l l i r r r , r 'l r Itttr i l i l o ;r l l r ,l r 'l r l i i tr l r u r r '( i r r l r ' l i r r r p rrtrrtl lrlrli,rl I I 'r r l w ,"l . l,

'1.l''
l o r {r '"i ttl l, r tt,"l i tl l r r z.r ' \,l i r ;i l, /, ttr i "/

(|l)
r l ;r r .r :r r l i l r p r i '

tl ' ,r 1 'l tr ,r ( r ' r l l r {'l "r / , ,',, ,'.,, r r l ,'2 , 1 ,' p tttr r l ,l ,,t r r ",l "i l r \r r r ttt tr l r r ,r l ' i l ttr 1 ttr r l |' ttl !l l r r r,r r r l l l r r l ,r r r t l ,,r l , l , ,t r r l r ;r l r /,, /u l,r

r, l, ' r r ' , . . i1n .( , l ),.rl nr,l t(.1 ,' r(. l x .rl i r.( r:ti rr l n)zi ti ci nodi i u l cyi er-rrl rri l i .r' 't,. ll. Ik,t. 1, . ( r.s l r' .trtl Il { { )t| { :(,1 )trln ci t, i n gcneral , (:omponcntcl e i ' r r r . , . r t r r rrrl cr l )i u .; r l( , 1r . l r lilc t : ( i i L p o z i fi c i rrrc rl i i l r l L :v i t' r ul ui { l otant si nt mi ci .- D csi gur, a<:tstr.lrlrt:lrrLir.lrurtt: irr t:onsick.r'ir lir o irnalizir completi.. 'I'otugi ncglijirca { ic i|l|it()l k)rf(: tIll va (l(.rratura leztrltiltclc obtinute. !-ortele sccundare, dcpind irr plirx:ipti, rI stalrilitutca sistcmului si dc introduicrea arrnonicilor 'mai
I llit i I ( r .

N u | x isli t r ir io r or r . . l. r r r t . rr l'. t l, lt , r lr . , 1, o. r t , , , . \ '; r lr ) . r r , , rlt 1, , 1', .. r l ui rr, csl c zlt o ir r lt ul r it n\ ', t lr 't t l r '. f r r r l! , llit lr . r l. Ii < :rrrr! i; ( l. l) r lr . r 'ir r , .ir r lir lr r t r , r r r r , l. r ( r r lor( 15) ; i ( lt t ) r I sir r ( or l | , |) , 11sir r r , , / ( . / , , / or )coso/ . |, ) )

irr anirlizir clcmctltar:r carc nrrneaz:! nu s-au luat in consideratie arrnorrilik: rnrri inaltc din sistern. Iir-ident, formulele oblinutc sint aplicabile numai lr 1rloicr;It:Itr convertorilor in care efcctelc secundarc sint miii. 'lirtrr;i, iu practicit, almonicilc secundare trebnie consirlcrate Dcntru r'.i r:onrlitiile dt stabilitatc sint dcpcndentc de act:stc;r. irr notaliilc adoptatc. Iitcr-clc flri indice, ca /, v, a, lI ctc. sc referi I rrI r| ,.rt rrrrrr I.t primar, litcrcle cu incliccle unu, cum- ar fi Jt, 7:t, ,o1, M, elc., sc lr,li.r'i'r sccundar, iirr literelc cu indicc doi, cum at {if2, a2, a", Li" e|c. lir sc h.1r.r'iL inerfic'. la l)cscourpuncrca r.itezei primnrului ir, aplicatiL levierului flotant, in . rLrrr.i r'orr.rponente, z.',, transmisit mccanismeloi unidircc!ionale alc secundatrrlrri ;i r'", tlansmisir incrfiei sistcrnului, poate fi cxprimat:r tlc ecualia 'i : .r,1+ .r?. (14)

7 { i i nd amplit ut lir r r ': r lilr . zci aLr nor r icr . {ir r r r li'tr lin lr iela I )r i |)r;rr rrI rr I olr t i. proportionali cu vitcza unghiularir to qi lrza rrnrrivclti / a prir))iurtllr ir.rl manivela este invariabilir astfcl ca! sc l)oalr' scric

I)e asemenea s-a gesit din relaliile (lt)


Vt 't'tr

pi (tZ)

Fr :'lllt' Daci. inlocuim aceste valori in (19), se oblinc (.-11,/o) <o1. 6r sin (tol * {) cos - .o, sin to1( ,'|l)

. ,Accirstiuccua,tie trcbuie tratatir cu atcntie, dcoarcce, daciL sc rc1>rczintiL vrrlrrilr. r', rrr, zr, functic de tirnp, trcbuic avut in vedcrc cir aceste trei \-il rzr.r r r r s int in f a z i L , , \ , r ' . r s ll ins e a mu .-rc i S - \ t s c ri c : rt , / s in( < ol* {) , u r: I/, s i n c o l , zr, = = I,' ,si n(ot + p) , (15)

Sc observi. cir ecualia conline cinci vaiabile t, 6, ot, ,V,, i. l', ntr rr ., ., reducc numi.rul de variabile se va folosi conditia de stal)ilital(. C onve r lor ul t r cbuie si lucr eze gi si' m ent in! . o m iscar r ' : r lr r r or lir . , .. , , . , cum este exprimati. de ecuatia (20), indiferent ce valori sr) .rl('g I)i rllr rlrlr. ritele variabile, l, co, <or, ,01r, rf, compatibilc cu gradeL'rlc lil,r'r lrrt, .rll sistemului. Singura rclalie carc eistf, intre unele din actstc lrrrirrlril. r".tr. principiui conservirrii energiei, care sc poate scrie dac5. nolilr r'rr ,l/ , rrl,lrrl motorului primar gi se considcri. pentru simpli{icarc, cir. r.irnrlrrrrrr.rtrrl rrr,,,r nlsmulul cstc unLl E llc". - l/ , , ", ,

.f.,:;i p fiirrd tlour'L unghiuri carc trcLuie detclminatc, iar I,-, I'r, I/e sint amplitrrrlinile rcspcctivc alc acestor tlci vitcze. Yitcza I-, este transmis:r.unei inertii in acclir;i timp in carc forta l, cstt irplicatiL accstei inertii. Sc ;tic cir
, di,,

dt

(16)

i n car-c.D cs t c cner giir c; r r s t r cbr r ic t r ansm isi sist cm ului r ll r r r ot . r r r l l, r r r r r . r r . l n vi rtut ea {apt ului ci cor lv( 'r t or ul ar c un nur nilr sr r lir r , r r l , 1, l r , r , lr ' de l i bcrtatc, {om ulr r ( 20) t r cbuit ' sat isf ir cut l r lc or icc sr , l r l, r . r l. r r , r rl r lr . r r alesc pcrltru a tJrL tinrpul varial;il, I)acir sc rlcz-t ollir rt'lalia (20), sc obtinc (cocos L,l r'r's .ar,) sin o1 -l- (ro sin ,,l,, (..r1-11t0/co,))a,/ -1 tl. r,rr ' \ . r lot

lrtttucit constanta dc pr opolfionalitatc dcpind<' clc accclcratia gravitaliti ;i rlc incrfia sistcrnului carrt.oscilt azir sub atctirrnca forlci 1", iar aCestca sint nrlin(loul-r constirntc, sc poat(' st:lir: ccca cc dcja s-:r gitsit (13)

1' '- '.1".

(t7)

l )rrxrrcr l acr '; r sli lcr r r lic t r cllr ic sr - t lit sat isf i'Lcr r t iLr lr r Ir :rl c l rri /, tr clr r r il s; 'Lir vlr r r ir r r I r 'I r cnr L'lI : r , , r os, f !(,)r 0, r , rsin , | - l- ( . , 41, / o) {) .

l' r ir r r L' f ir r iI ir.rrn i rl i l r.r' fi o rri rl c ls i n l l n rtl r l i ' l i nt:i t for' {rL/, si vi l czt i ,, c si rtl it t l. r z i, i; r r ' lr , ' l ,;rz :rr' ,.l rr(i i L rr' (t), (0 ) r,.z rrl ta i ,, I , s i rrr,r/, ./, /i , si rr orl ,

l )i rr :rrlslr ': r r lr r r r ll, r lzr r lt i

ir r r r r li; r l:

.,||r,l ';i, irr lirrirl

(,.1/,/(,)rr)., ,rs'i rr,'l .ll ,frtu,.


,r ,, ,l l ,l t,.,

.(r,r,/r,r)

I ;i , o r r ' irI r ' r ' ir r r r r . l. rl i i L . (l rr) | i (l 7 ), s r. o l r1 i rr ,. tl t" l rl l


rltrr , .rrr.

. /;, s i rrr,r/,

tt t) () tl
r 'i t,r l t.r ,l 'tl .t, l

.l,ll tl,|.tl) | .(r,r,/r,r)' I

,.

./,I,rrr,,,r,tr

l,t'ti tntl

I ,|-,.a|

(t\l

l,r

, r , , ,,1 ,

'kr t,r

i 'l ,r l l

l r ,.l r r r r ,

l'

r l,'

ll,',,,

l ' . tr r r ! ir r ( 2- ) ) l rrrrrl r'!i s l l i s ;-r ru i ri s i rn c l l i c ast{cl ..1 /i l . .(to o rr)' ? .: tra, (irlt
(l( )rl \ ('l l ( ) r l l l l l i .

(zr)
ccUaliile fundamc.utalC lrlc

t II I I)t-(rI I rl i-t crr ctuirfiir cncr-eici reprezinti

I I , i r ,,l d c a s c m c n I a , cu . r r r r i l ;r 1 r , ( l t' l l l i sl tr i i , l r r r l r !i :r |.r r l i r r r l ,r t,r .r ' ,r' r rI rrr I I r t t t t i l ( |I s{ l t,It( ./.i ||l i I'tttl r t ',r i r l r rrrillilll li t r i : c r: n r i n l ctst Drimarul - IIIIIIII < ofi 'o r , i n a stl tl tl c l r n i tr 't1 i , l i ) r r r r r r l ' l r ' ( Z l ) 'r i ( 2 5 ) \'( ) r l L r r r l ( tr r r 'r iare mlsoar:, sirnPli,: nutncricil

I,tL: M ,U r + tl ',ti , eU /,- 'l ,r \ 1 r 1,r i -

(ir)

Si' olrscrr':'r., cxistir. nurnai douii constaute iu ecualia (23). Accstc.r cir lxrl li rrsril olriirrulc iu or-iccconvcrtor prin identificare. Ele'dcpinti dc siste Irtrrl rlt' incr!ic si tlc sistr:mul de tije dc legi.turiL. 'fotu;i pcntru a discuta ( orrl\)r'till.i! rrtnvcrtonLltri nu cste nevoie siL sc clctclminc constantclc. I'c birza truatiilor lunclirmcntale deduse aici, sc va ariita s[cclnt comIr,r'1iLr.ii convcl-trxului in di{critc conditii. Sc va arri iza rnai intii cazul in carc'cuplul motorulni p:imar cstc nr:nl i I| l l I - ( oDS lar ) t , lrr at:cst caz, ccuatia cncrgici ia forma E :.< ,r:.rl l ._ 1 ro r . lrrturilucind accnstir laloalc in ecualia luldancntalir (2.i1, sc ol{ine :

:.1/l + (.1/,\"), ^1/,

'frebuic sir sc aibi't in vcdert- faptul ci itl relalii rltr (xisl r 'r((stt ultim (2?) ;i diagtrrrnr din liguta 9l' r';rtI constante nedcterminate. Formuleli in concorclanli cu act-ste rclatii. pr:r'ritc s:L se tragit cortclttzir o f-oJ il."li cu ap1icar,ll co'r',.riorului itr stt.r'tr'i rl, interesante, in spccial in ligituri tracllune. ln continuare nc lorn re{eri Pe scurt Ia fu-nc-tionarcaconvet'torll lll i trl cazul unui motor Prirnar dil grupa a doua, deci cu turalic constar)l:'r it cuplu variabil. ln acest caz, considerind turalia motorului primal collstant'r, rtrrirlr'l cnergici devine : - ll1. or , 1] : . i1 iar ecualia fundamentali (23) ia forma

:.1/;a+ F,/,it. [ : .c,t

(25)

M i +.( oi :1.
I)in accstea sc obliue ,11r: .1/1..i -t/ : .tur /l .,'Ji (2s. r'r1

Accstc rclatii arat:L cunr laliaziL cuplul sccundarului si luratia rnotorrrlrri plimar cintl variazi turatia secundarului -{ceasti-L lelalic este prezcnl.rl,r srrlr formi'r graficir- in figur;r 91. Se obscn'ir cir cuplul secundanrlui ,1, lr)lrtc mare pcntru lalor-i mici ale tura{ici se.cundarului,ii, dc irscmouca, ' lrrr,r!i;r ;i cncrgia rnotorului primar sint mali. Pcntru r-aloli foirrtc mali .rl, lrrrrrlit.i secund:rrului, cuplul secundarului cstc practic constant ;i tindr, .)r = co, cr-ltrc o lirniriL, numiti cuplul noln-ral irl sccLrnclaruhri1i I*rlrr tr,'t.rl, i r ' r r i{ o. l'r'rrttrr valori mari alc co,, tulirlia pr-imarului;i cnelgia crt'sc continuu st irr ltrcrnenca ctzuri sc poate scric {oarte apro\ilrrativ -l 1 r :,1 1 ,,, t :.(r .o1.

,\r'r'arla irtscatnuir ci-r,pcntlu. ttLratii ale sccunclarrrrlui pcstc' o anrrniii lrrl,';rrr', r:rrPlirl sccrrnclLrrrLri l-rminri constant cintl cuplul plirlalului cstt con!lrr1l. I)cnttn ascrncnca colrditii, (:on\.crtorul estc plnr:tit cclrivirlt'nt r:rr o lrrrrstttisic ligidiL obiyr.ruitiL, c:rrr: transntitc cuphrl primarului, inir-uu raport l i x l i l t- r ' s t ' r : ur r r lar ,( l rr a l tc o u v i rtc , p c n i ru v a l o ri ri cl i catc a' l c l trt-rr!i cisccrtrt<l rrtrrlr r i, c olr t ine c c c l r.c c a u i o n rl ;l n rrrl i t-o con< l i ti c tl c vi tczi u srrpcri oul i s i rl ,'rrl iliL r : ir c lc r : t c c u 1 r' :rc l .i u rrciu tu l rrl i c i n a l ti i i r urrui rrrr1orrroIri I< :hi 1.l l rl a t' crr r u lic t ll v iLt ' z u o l ri l u u i ti i . I lr r lx r lt r r l r li' ttl rn s rr-ti s i co l rti n trl i n N S(' nr(' n(' u t:on< l i l i i csl c ct' l tnrri tl l ,rl , l" ' r l, r l, . i . , \' ,r D r)l i r r ;r

A cestcrelar jiialat ic. r at it m om er r t uldt . t or . siuncde] aar lnr r . 'lt 'llt . it r r . r l rlrit\rrrr'l cit ;i cel de la arborelc secundar dispar cind co1atinge o \''rloarc : l. exprimatit Prin .<,li Sc obsc ,ir,,dc asemcuca, ci cuphrl sc'cu:rclarului-art t'aloaLell ttraxittr,r Daci cxprim'-tm ctrplul .la start prirr -11'' I 1a start, aaLici,'cind cl1 :0. cie misuiiL pcntru turutic turalia a: borelui seculldar',iI( r':rst;l Iuirm ca unitatc (lt sitlclniL 7'cfo, tl r('l)l('/'t-ll turalie maximS" carc corespunde unor condltll c)r nra-tsoar:t cu o astlcl dc unitatc, fornlrrl:r (21{) ar numitrul carci:r'-'p.i" ia urmitoareir formir ( io) jur : ilf . l/ l - , 4, . l ' onnul a ( 29) ar at it ci cuplul r t t ot 'r r ului llint at J'[ cst t 't t t t l la si'r t l I l. r r , \ 'ir l, 'iI 11'Uaxlllla ( illl' $i cre$ti r ci n ( l t ur llt ia sccunr llr ului ct t . lt c pr nir cintl , xPresia estc aiir.rsiL , t i) 1' = r r i( t cint l: tl crr' pri nl t t t t t t t l; t r ilt t . At clt st r st r int inr llll- L

,r'; , |

(',,

,,,

lf[12 - o,'tt'

,v

it,t[,,.

(2{ ,)

r\r,.,1 r.rli()ll \r. ln)i r lr ' , r r l, r lr r r t s or r lir r c llt r t r ' r r I l I r ' r ( ) n \ '( r l {) i r t l r r i . l '. : i l r ' s r r l i ci, ul r,rr ,,r' rrrlr(irr i s l; r ( i, r r r r r r s is lc t t t r t l ir r l r r z i ( i r r r r r l r l i , ; i ', i ', r ' l u r r ! { ! ( ' p, riorrrl,r rll tirrrp. rtrrrr.rtrrl ,l, rrrlrr{ii :r lr , r , , r r r r r , ir r t r r lr t i . i pt it n: r t t lr t ii r t ; r r l r ': r y i i, li , ilr r l ,t t r , li,r1r' r rrrl ,r((,lrr r ur r , r , l) lr r ' lir ( rrrl' l, ,ltrr lt1 ' r r r , r r ) l . r r . r t . r , . r lr r r . r li. r t t t t t , t t t t I t t t l t r 'r , l '1 r r r l r r r r r t r r l t r l t r r , |' , , r r r r , l. r r r r l r t r l ) . ', . r I t . r r . r r r r r t l , r l | r l , lrrl| | r ', rrrr||rrl.L \, r lr , r r , r lr r r . r lt , i trr| 1r r,1 I',rllll ll|r,r lr . r I || I | | | ,| | | | I r | | , r r , , r . l, r \ , r l r r , l l , | , r l l r r r r l , r r r t r t t r r t l t t , t , . t ,

l ) r r p r i r , r 'r ,l r ' l r l i l t:; i l ( ( :i l l ) 1 l l l ( l , l r to tl tr tti ttl tl ' l <'l si tttt' l r l Itto Ir ItIr Ir ti l' tl i r r r r o tt r ,i r ' l l ttl tl l i tzi l r cttl l tt r l ' 1 , r 'i r r l r r ' , i , ', , r , l , .,,,r r r r ,l i r tr r l r r i r ,,t |r 'tr . r rt i t t I i r t t t I r r r l l r r l x r r lr r l ,1 ,, Ir Ir r r L r r r i L i r .i r r l r , l r r r ,r {i i r .I , r 'l , t t l r r i t , t itr ,tr r ':'l l r tttl r l l ) l r r "'i r 'r 'tto l r "r z'r 'r l r "l l r r l r i ) l I i l . It:r r r : ttr i r i ' tr tr si ttr Itl r ' r 'l r / , , r , r ' l ) " l l r ' (ll) l 'l t/l /,) .,, /r .l ,r r l ,r ) ' 'r l r r l r r I I I l l 'r l l 'r ( 'l r ') r l r '\'l l l r ' I 'r , l / ,, I r l ,,,r r ' 'r tr r 'r \l l tl r 'r ' r r l 'l "l 'tt Ir l l l r 'r r ll 'l /,,,,, Y| ,,; {l /l

ti {i rri ||, l , , , . l|r , , ( 1, .i ]t)

:,i (.t2 ). ,l i rr (.]l ) s ,. o t,{ rrr,.

.v,, . (t lz)ittr,.

(.it)

S i u t l o l r " tt ttr r l r ,r l r r r tr tri In l r l l r l r l r l ' tt l l t"r t"t ( r 'r | r 'l I t r 'i t | t l 0r r "r r l r r r ,1 , ,r r 'l r r ' "r r ' 'r 'l 'r r "l l 'r t

Ae.rrsl;'L rr'l*ri. lrrirLir" l.gritrrrrttlintrc morncatulcrc torsrrrn.r:r sr.rr. r'rprr'lrrl l'i.rsr.isic rrrilri.r si cuplul.maxirnae ra-moto.Lt rk' ,,i,,,,,, 1,,:i,.,,,,,: r irrrl lrrr;rtr:r rrrrrtrrr Irr.irn;rr rn|nline (.onStanti. rrlrri s,.

' ,r 'rt'l' "'rrrl'tt"ltl'rlr'1"'rttl'rt. ittl.ri'rrti;i tL :r rirl"' i.'i;;i;,,,i',,'r.,,i. rrt,l,t, r' rt'lrrr rrr"t I'rrlrr' | ''|iI|''I I||'i|t' iif" t ttt l -N l l s t' l l tr I ', -liti" rttr'i r -ral t otrI|' rr' It|' tI
l l l l l ( l ' l r' r l rl l l l rl "l r' l ' ,1 P ttl v l ti z ' l tt 'll

r l ( l { r r l I t I I I | | }I t I' I i I )i I I I I I I t ' l ' i tl r tl r l |ti l r r tt( i 'r r

i t t)r r l 0llt s i s inr ult an ,

j:#Li ,:iti;,t*.,m:{.#'**:&":::lr iiil$,ii:il',:ffi


.:i.jl.*th:
dc torsiunc pri'rirr. dcci,cuplul -misurirea oncc var.:rr,. Ir lr : t ll( . 1s r ' ( ' und a rU Il r], rc z c n l a t:i i n a b Sc i S i , p ".ro."r"i.".o"a".',ii;';;i." c num,i rcl

".''''i{'Jj'.ll',ii,',i11;;1;;;;-:, lii','l'ili"',,'ll;'i";l;l:,I'il::lil-J';
r "i zr r l ' i tt l r t' r '- r ttl " 5 l l i a l l ti r l r ';l l ' ' i r r , 'i r r l r u l Ir 1I I i , :r i i i | , , r '1 r 'r t'r l ' 1 'r ' i l l i l l l i "L fr fcvt'n l i r ' l 0 L l l z' ' r r ' S - a u p r o tl cl :tl . i l ( l ) tl l - i tL o i l t( so tti r '' r l ' co n r l r r l sl i l r i l l i 'l 'r 'l scn ) l l i l l c l ) u t( 'l - tl i ( r ' i tt i r tr r tsl r tl tl tl t' a ct l i sir trirnsmiti

form'i graficiL rcrafiilc- |i (30). ':r:JP::l;:i',:.:, ,.,,,',,,,iii,iii.':1j'i . Pe -(32) 't rr


l;::f rl l l l .t

rr'rrrr ,r".ir <rc .u"-,"p."iifi Jiiiif: #'l',t':J ixii*.f'.',101f,.1".t"'J.,ljli,ii 't ll, r'r''r'r'zint.i unitaica ocntru 1i momcntului
gr' ior cuva.loarca .,or,ri,1'llolli#iil,. f .:lll,llii:l . ; :;!1, se' multiptic-a :

mrlvcrizat. t"' .' ' (lin clemcntt't'tritirloerr'[olrrrirlr',lrrr c"..i".rtorl.llsonir:cste alc:rtuit itttttis" la un capiLt' rnontat(' p(' url col{\'lot ;rlttrr.rrl'rl ,.fr".ia"'t"r..lin1i 'n,t f" Prtsiun'a dc 3 rl:r\/cm'?' ii'
l .i g. l 0:. - (;cnc rl l r(rr s G drttrF ni c: .i - col cctor l ,rrrl or (l c acr; I - .r.j trtaj ; .i -- ca)ncri l i l e rc Tol ratrt' ; iiii { - corP cl ( l D cnt : i 6 - rc tl ( d" ; l .l | pi stol ; S-P i rrl ttl Z-$tsti l i '!; r'cgl aj ; d .' crl mc rrrc 'l (. /( { l c fe;r, rrnrponerl t. nr{rl i u'r{ pri tr . t rrri l al ' )ru1 -/c(tcr' { aarz a \,tri (:: . l ,)frl ui cchi P ttt (r'I qe' r.frl l ,,rnl sor ri ,

rnt'

r"';.,Ltrt"'i.ti::,i,':.":::,,I:i.r 'li:.I"',";'"Ifit ,,,,,",,,1,1',1:,,i ;',:,,ff"|i,,;"li;,,i,.i motorului constarl.


fro rrrr.rrlirirrrr r,,.n1i..,ioto.,iti?!tl""J:il;tJ,']tutt
(l;l tlrti v;triazii fie prin n

';i5*i*rt111*.f;J'ir'if i:xln'ffi i":','1r",3ili:lI ;jnlll;ii;iif


Primar

Intt'r r.('(li'r;!, 1,,,t"r,,u ,tr, '*.ti,I#llt #,l.llli ".i" -rii-n. a.tt"tdecondiJii clrrrl *r. ra.irr.r.onsidera(ic problema motoarclor p;;t;-;;i;;ehicole.
clnrl rnol.iLrc rlc crrrent elcctric altcrnati" a'" tlp'.i.ii.* ^i;';; *:rrrt.iR:rit aclioncrLzi. utilaj printr_111 un .";;";i;..

Irr plirnrrlcaz putcreacstc c(,a mai marc pcntru turafii rcdusl si, rlr. l rrntr.nr..r, Jrcnlrrrlrrratii mari al,, secundaru[ui; timp ci in

,t...il. lilllil,' 3ll""li :itTlfiiTf,i i ii, T": xtif,: j*Tfl frlrliild;':1 :


sau cu rotor. irl avca in 'ctlt,r.r,,

.;'i;; p,'riri' ':":,',";:r":ni:,.;j'n'i;;; potrivit :|.i]':i,i;1,:''1i,,,:i,in:T'i'Jj'J

.u.,,.,,i,]::lf::i'.1;"1,]:;Hf ,*1:.:l,,,nii 1".3;:l::,,T:.: ::li":.?:[1',:il,iili Ittcit .rrrsunrul r.oml,rrsrilril tle ;i,,r,,rf r -,,i"riri"i'ri"ji"',,r,ni,rr". .,l',1"1,,:'lli:':iollr l.ll,;ll'1;l:;:ll liXiill',,:::li;;il;l.llli;i.itlT;i,1,;;,l,,illti:, ()l'
lrr orit t. irnpn.jur.iri, iorrarc cconomic:,l,cintl cstc folosil I)cntru _o- fu n<:l rtlllr.zIrrI irrrl l rrrlrlilr str:rrrrrlirr.r

sll r:ir rrr',r prrrrabirivir.z.i*rt,rlir. ,,,,,,1'rll]i,,,iil,,lilttr:t t:'r.srruttrlll t:r'rr ,,


x I t. t,;z t,t.ti l t,ti t.t,t Al ,t,(:IIu t s(rN (:tTA ,l .l t A t.,l /ll ||i||uA (;(r xl,r t, l ,lr,0tt

,"i,,,,1.11;,i,till';,,rii;l;';i'jl',,:,,':l';i;iil!lli'::,11,,:il-i,li:1,:li,rll,;l',,,1',,ili,,l,i;i;;lii,',
(l .r:,ltr.l I r,ri, t.u,. ,r't,,,.t rlr' .,i ,l,,rvrlllrrt,i fi, t,,,,1',,,,.,,i,a""'

ttt

iffi##*ff**;+sfrq*,r*,rrffi
;Tr 1:{:t s;idr*rT},ih'T :T,';l.;ff: fiTr? ff :,r,/fi {:
t6./.

gL-:iin.qd#s',1ffi fr H-.:,j #-:l$,*ffi ,}f t**pA*:tri:.i{'t*Trpft


jrrr n:lllllr. rrsrn . rrecvcnfres ci, ""."..oJ.:,T?:)l,,,iTil.l?,,,

i:*'ru*::*t,:y*':.:l""ri

*rt"n"i*i**l

normar i"'., a rzd. ;i:rtt,, -cere "uti^, accraeitor

Fltrcirilc produsein cinrp sonic sprc r|r,osrrlrirr, celclallc sint scurte rlc gi compactc. prczenlintl <lianietrctlc 3+.1,5 ot.i rnai rcrluscai lrrngiuri crr 6irca 35o/ornai scultc. Intensificarea procesclor tlc ardcr.c ;i (x)llcollttirrca Ill,crlrii int r'-rr lr volum mic in apropierr' dc gura arzirlor.ului cstc caracteristictr flirt:irtilot' vlbrate. Analizind comparativ compozitia pr('dutilor dc arderc pc Iungirn,;a flnclritor, se constati ci in prezcnla cimp,ilui soiric gr-rsimcompo;ilii s"irsil)il egale ln aceeagisecliune a-fl6.c5.rii, ceei ce denoii buna omogcnizarr. yi oxigenare a fllcirii. Valorile care c racterizeazi cimoul tcrmic indicir faptul cir llrrcirrir obignuitnestelungi gi prezinti parliculc'solidc ulmare a calburlirii lr,rLrti ca ridicate ale facto"rilor'energetiii de cmisie' pc inrreaga sa lungimc). Arderea a fost apreciabil imbunirtiLJiti in cimp sonic, astftl: r,alotiltr temPeraturilor reale indcosebi la inccputul fliLcf,rii inregistrcazir t't'r'Jlt.tl

0,9 0,8 0,6 a o.j


,4 ",

o)

o)
1 2 0 Fia. l0J. - Cimpurilc chim/ce rr| flactrrtr: _ qroxro de carbon; CO. Cd_ monoxid de carbon; O" _ oxrgea; -.- rariatio ;._

o-.-?--..-------f

.0, 3 o, l 0

ryi,
Il III lv v vt v

N. sacliuhii normol. p, oro t*g. o ftd.llarn

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- .4- - ..- 1

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to 0
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n4Fa concentratiei ln Drrncte dtarnetral oDuse .i._ .pArtate Ja 2'J0mri, pe a.xa rongrhdrnattr a flicerii: _r_._fl4cari obiSlnitl: vibtattr._ 18' -x-xJacdr{, -aflz; -a-a- tHz. flacdr{ vi_ Dratd- l0 a_concen_ rraF4 prodGclor de ardcre ln tlacira obisnuitl /devi_ Dret!); 6 conccniratia proclusclor dc or(lere ln racara tratslil c$ (|lcrRic sonrctr(vil,mltt), -

triiffifdHf.,:.r,ii:

vltr lx x

N t s c c l tun"

normdte pe oro l oag o tl oc ar,

t1@

tw ,mo
tno

l ' i g. l 0-{ . - ( i url ' uri h trr, D i c { : c k fl { c i fi i r ai l .tl tor d. omi s i r! fl |l rtatfro. mal i { : (ro)fi )i . - frol ,rf l r.||l ' dc en)i i i c t,n l t /r pc r.rturi t rl c l u' l i rl l . i I tc tl l poratrti r R !ul [;,.. -. fl ,rc arl (,|)i s ||ni l l lj ,-r -r{ l ac drA v i brutl , -... l 8 k l l r; f l :rc i 1ri ,v i l ' r^l l -A J 0 k Fl z . ,.r . v ori rfi [ fr(.trF ri l or dr: c l ri s i c i n l rrrrgul l l A . c i ri l ,)r;6 - ,/ori 01i l r l t' nr. P eraturi i l r hrngt|l l l l tc c ri l or.

D)

8',

! eoo
100 500

Nr

t . -. t r .w --ti-iffif;tr

1n
tt l l t tV V yl Vtt v t ta , I Nt Vtt'u"" ,rt..\et aa r.a ta.a a t'atal

,,,,,, '"qrth, ,,r,, ,,. ,,ri'iorii"o'io, ir,,

sensibilc,trrrrpcraturilcdc ratlilrlrr.sr.rrrlrrc, cocficit n{ii t.nt,rgt,tici cmisir: <lc l)rczinth vakn-i coboritt, pc ltiirlir lrrrrginx:a cu inaxirnc'spre intcputul sa
it( cstcia-

M,odificindfrccvcn{a cncrgiei sonicc, s_a obtinut o nrai buni inlensi_ ,. tlcar(' la lrccv(nt(. mai inaltc. n trnsificarr:a proceselor arderc se datoreazitin prrncrpalcleclelor de ,l gaz.odrnamlcc provocatc de energiei sonice in amcstci, cu impli_ _propagarea citlll :rsupraschlmbulut turbulcnt de masi.gi cilduri, car,, facilitcazi procc_ _ slkr dc Iormare a amcstecului combustibil. Omogenizarca amestec;lui si origcnarea miezului flicirii acti\.eazi.ardereain t.ji .of,,-"i '"."-.G.--S" plT ci turbulcnfa produsi. de cimpul sonic gi cea crcatiL de mijloacc , ., oDltnultcse Irirsr((j dtlcrcn(laze mai ales prin scard. tim-p .:c P91le realiza.qi o imb-unirtSlirea calit[]ii putverizirii _,,.._._l: dezlntcgririi (urtonla ":,:lqti, piciturilor de lichid, alit ca rrrnrare a implificirii proprii. iniliale, sub influenla.cimpului dc oscilatii sonici, cir .-i ",yli!]rl"l regtmutur neSlal.ronar (ritronta! al migcir.ii relati\c picirIut.i_Saz. probabil 5i alte cfecte ale energiei sonicc, carc conduc la crestc.. l-itla rcir vrtczel dc ardcre, ca cele asu pra . structurii clrimici, a particulelor'dc conrbustibil gi a produgilor intermediari in di{elite fazc alc irderii. Mctodelc sonice de intensificare a procesclorde arde.c a combustib or s iur dovcdit mai cficacc decit metodelc actuale.obiqnuitt. Accstea se prel.irzh ;rlit pcntru ardereacombustrbililorconvenlionaii,cit ;i pcntr. ard'erczr rr.zirlrrrilor sau a combustibililor de calitate inferioari. . Mr.todelcsonice asiguri o ardere de calitate superioari.rndiferent dc .s;urllir rnstalatlcr de ardere, in vreme ce dispozititele obignuiteutilizate lt l)rr.zr.nt. produc numar o macro turbulenld, carc s(, dinrinrrt.azir scnsibilla srrltirri rcdrrsccind vitczcle aerului scad. p:itrt diferite valori ale frccventci sonices-au obtinut ,,, _., cu caractenstlcl :i, -,lt,l!1,.r-l |lir.c,rn dtterttc, pcnnitc conc]uziaciL sc pot obline fliciri lrr proprietir{i prcstabilitc. ln aplicaJii uncle metodclc 5i mijloacclL. obilnrrirt. tle rntlnsitii.rre a l'r(x('s(Ior dc ardcre nu sint su{icicnlc,cind sc cerc ca"ar.derea s(. d-s{;_ s:, yrirrc in camcrc de arderc mici, iar {li.cirrile si. aibi. incircirri tcrmice Joartc rriu.l, sc rccomandi. folosireametoclclorsonice. .. ..lntrcaga ccrcctarc estc in concordanl5 cu a{irmatia ficutil de (;. ('onstanlincscu lucrirrilr: in salt,_

soui c carr: i -l Plr r r r is lr r i ( ir r r lgr ' ( it r r slt r r t lir t lr , r r '"r lr . lr lt t lr r it r lit r r lr li sor r t , toate rezul tat Jle olr {in. . t c t k: 't . lt t . t |ici. 'ui ir r l, lr r r r , , r ( t ''' . 'lilI ) t r t llct t t r t l''i, ( it '. t 1ir ' I vom obl i nc. c. 1. . 1i t i'zt t llat c i tr I I< Il l , tI i tI I . l. r 'l r ir r , r "1" 'lr \ ir t r r lr 't lt : C onstanti nq sct t it t r lot nt t t it t l sot t ir ' i n par t icular , vom put ca ( l( llcr t llinr t lt ; llr t t r t slt t t it t ilot <lisct r 'lt r 'r t '' . vllr'/..1 :r(('s1r'l1r introduse pc o linie electricir uniformir lrrDgri, srr i sPrltcrrsciL ( l( lr r " d" ptop" gi ." a cur enlilor ; i t ensiunilor clcpi; it r t l. 1r 'ilt l( ( r r st iL lil( 'zit Das;re tluminii $i anumc -j00 000 lcnl's, tlirt [iind ci vitf/'rt rlr' pltlt't1i'tt' pc o asem en( 'illini, ' s, ' : r pr opi' dt accasl- t '. r - r t l"r t ' i i urenti l or ( 'r ''r t 1; '' S i ' traduccm acum f i] lim bai ilect r ie m ct o( l't {"1') sil: Lt l' r'iiezei dc propaglrc 1r'' lirrii irtr';ilr"rl,. constantincscu pcntru calculul metodi exprimatir in limbaj sontc. A stfci f ic L, C, R, 5- p. Lr anr . t r ii linici uni{'I r t r ' r 'I r iI I r I ' I I I I ' lit t t i t i nci rcate; 11, Cr , R\ , '9r par - im ct r ii sar cinilor ( : oll( ier ) lr 't lt ir r t ' '' r I r I ' lr t seri e de-al u ngul liniei; lr , Cr , nr ' f , par am et r ii sr r r r 'it r il''r t . ( ) |) I iI I ||||| lr l "linie 11 paiam ct r ii linigi 11 i f t ' r' rrrr' t Ir'I ttr'' r t r ' r I r' ' deri va{ i c pe ; i L', - C', - R', . S'

denonstreazi cd intre accftr l);rr'rrtrr'lrl GeorgeConstantinescu urmi.toarclc re'lalii : {rl L :' L' - (Plt) (tlc'az - I',\,

R : n'+ (1l) (Rr1- l/sl)' (I C : C' (:PlI) ll'2a'z C,), s' : s' + (!lt\ (s, -t 1lR2)'

(/) ( r)
(4)

i fiind numirul total al sarcinilor concentrate'1 - lunginrcr lirri''i ;t pulsaiia'r'ibraliei transmisi.. Si presupunem acum, sPre exemplu, c|r am xles pr'(, :r"tfll Ir( || (0) : 0, L' - (!lt) '11

lC'a')

iar pe l,

astfel lncit

C '- ( l l tl '( tl L" a'l :0


Atunci relaliile (t) 9i (r) se reduc la:

| /)

L : (.plt\Ll.

(n)

c : (!lqc,'

f,,)

y1t ln,

l || l rl 'r :. t l|l( . r t , . r t t ' U l l o rn l t' rr s l rl (i rri rl i s rl i .tr. r{' nti | l i rrrl ,,rl i rr(| l l ti rrrri ti l i ,,. l ,il s l; r lr ilr , y lr .ir s tl c l r.i L rrr.r.i rs l i,,,i l .z i r.rl r, r l rrri 1 rr.rD r1gr11r. rrsr.rrr.rr,,,r i 1l ,, r l,',,r1 , l l s l' r , r it i s ; r r r l r.rl rrs i 'L r1 ,,,l ,.ri t,,z .r,l ,. 1 , i ,,1," g.,r,, 1r,, Ii rri ,r rrrrrt,,rrrr.i . ll l l .rl l xlll. il' r lt \ lir t |lir.l i l trrtrr.i rrrl ,..rrrtri | l | | i IrIi .r.II| |si rl ,. rr.rtrrr.rl rrr. I' r,l rri r!i | || || || || r.| : r , Ir t r . r ' it t ( llt r l r,Z V r' l l .tl .r l rr.r.Sl rl )i l o l .,.i l t-l r sP tr| l i tr,l ttt r.i r, t ,l .r| | l ,,,tt l ,l ,trrr, l' 1, ' . , r r r l , 1, ,r..1 .r rl r { rl rr.rrrrl ..,,,i i , ,,t,.,,i ,, i ,,,,, r,l ,l ,,rrr, ' l ,rl .r Irl

(;()illr( olrlrrrr lint,st:rr rrllirrrrrl irr c;rl)it()lal tr:rlitlullli sr.rrr ,,,trrrir . sr. ,l, prr'l,l, rrrr r it, z, i rlr.,plr'1'.r;.rri. rrr',.rrlili,r rr , sr,;1i1i ,1,,;,;qj1s*,r1 ii,,iii,,,.,,,',ii ,.

il.:

Dt,tst,tr t' ot'r\Gi\t'i,\ (:( tit,:\l ,()il s'\t(:t I,' r,l\ r.t\(ir ttt _\ttr:_,ttL.: s r [ ] ! . 1' t . r ( . t ltrl L ;\ r.t\t ,tt t,t.t.t( rr(t,j .l \.1t.0(i r,t (:t,Lol t sorr| r.l

lirrirru if(tlnlcl iar vitezelede propagarea undci pg linia-neinclLrcatl;i.Pr. eihivalenti liniii lircfircatir, ncgliji;(l picrtlerile datorittc lrti It ;i 9, vot fi datc de

a', Ilvi:c'

(l(D ( )

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r)
rcspcr:l i v, it slf r 'l lrrclt

tll/r.(:
rt tt
t 'lt "

( t' l t) .g vt.tt4 ]) ,
ll 11 I't' t l f ' 1 . ,)r ' (
I lV I l" t l l tt'

( |,r )

l ,,l l rrir r lr uI pr , . y'/ /lr r lr l r r 'llliilr ' ( f i) , ( '/ ) r r l ( l, l) , r 'l, llt r ''t r l r

(t t)

. l) ar , l- r ( r ax e t c s tl rl l x ,rtl l (l i rrtt(, rr.irclrrnt.'lc dc masi elastice, s( r( ' t ir r / . r ( . 2d !- c r ri rp o i l rrl < l r1 l r,. rclctanl('le elasticit fi gi de masa, d cn v at l( . . lr r k r c uind in rc l a { i a (t3 ), ()l ,l i n c rn

Ac l i c di nl r

D l l \l l \ l { ()l \1.\ N .\ di n l { t,,ti .trrl ' t,' l ' ,1' )

ala' : . Dacrl vrc.r deci ca r/2,,

I lv

l*l.si.i i'ii'itr,';;ir;'iJ'::,:""

::nitJ;,tt,",.1$:i:ii*"\:*#:'Jh:,+"i?",i,,:.#'"i::,trT*::
a linieincincircat", li r,n o;"1,'?;i:."*:
I|tut tnglnrr (;oGU (:a)\St,lYtli\lls(:U

'r%'

(11) corI t:tu\'l'A

b,,'z, i,r". llti:l b'i ill3, ,:'&i:,'l' ::.x;l,ti:i*$"1#,"i',L:li;i"t I ;fl


Fig. l0-5. - I-inic et{:crrici echi /al cnl a Ii ,ri ei i i rctrrcate.

I)oannior

9i Dotnnilot,

pierrrerilorschimbi nu esen "lilili'l':';'\,;::1t":1,,0;:1"'1" ,,,,,,ll'ii,igi,f


,,i"' rezultat parad"xal: actuala teorie, una"ll:;,x:l,ii1^:Tl'.T.tr';,1"""'"'ui

i'li,;]'],l,"llli;li':'li ir,,,rirr,.,rr ,l,i;Jllu,,,l':ll:'l".lll ,,,r,il,,,,,"iint-'i, ,i;1,:i,,;:l,l"lli;,li,,il:;il:li'';tll,,;,;l,.;,iii,:1,fl l:;llil,"',1,i,)ll:il:"';]iliill,:ll'"lllli,ll'tazrrL,.r.riri, ',,'',:,,,",i',,'i,',, liil,t:ll:"1;i,,1;11' r.,,r:,

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nu.race si'r decit conrirme ".",,.i;"ili:1'::*:'::f.ttTT"lt--11-:1':"T "jo"' de mai ccr n,,,. int"i". i'"#.l"ii'],'J,i il[i,1ti"J"Tj#tl ii.."

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.) ll.vi'* ,1 ,.,r(r.r.. r c I |, . r I / , , . I i||i, |, |, r I ||i , , \ r r r , . t r ! t r , . . , r L , , L , r , , ll ,, r , , ,I t . , 1 , r , ! r r t ! , ' |' tx.,.rf',stij lf, , lr , ,,;l.,.t,, r,,, , i, , r . r , n r,. r ,,r,,r,. 1 1..trr (:,r,,(,. (i,, ,'.,,rrL1r , r , , , , , , , ,,rr.. , ! , , , , r , ,, l, r I t |, , r r , , , . n , ,,,, . , . i , , , , , ". , , , , , , , , , . , , . , , , , , , , , , , 1 ,, ,, ,, , ; , , , , , r ; . r , , ; , i ; . ; , , . '; r ; , , ; i , ; ; , ,, ,.,.r,n,,.,,1,,,.. 1r' ,, i' ' lt ' lr,,r. l,rrt rrtrtrr r t r , . , n, r , , , , , , t , , . r r , . r r , , , , , , , . , r . , . ,, , , , , , . . 1 , , , t ; ; i ; ': ,.. , , , , r , , , , , , , i , r . ' r, , r' f l,.1'rtl,l',.lr rxt.,r ,r,,,,,, t , , . t , , . , r l{ , 1, , , , . . , ,1, , . , . , ; r , , , , . . , , , , , , ; '; ; : l '; r , r' r,rr','lr" (t'r"t. 1t . , r , , \ t , , r r r r , . , h,

\-oi inccpt' conlcrinta 6u 6319 voi alca onoarea a t'i itltrclinc l'lrr' rrrtl rrl uruliumirile meie domnilor mcmbri ai Academiei Romlne, caf(: rni irrr lir( aurlitotitt tlitItrr:' d.oJebit^ onoare de a mir inrita si expun, ir.r fala unui unrczumal tal lucr ir ilor r . t - r clcasupr aaplicaf iilor vibr a{iilor in, t r allsr t |ll. |1. | ( rr rrll cDergici mecanice. Aceastir sali este ull sanctuar al ltuntcl rolllitllt -ll I oi {i la inr-rl{inr.rr''1 dc vencralie gi cu oarecarc teami ci nu ;;;ii-;"i teotirilor dr'., r'oi iritra in subiectul ce-mi propun rr dezlolta itrlr-o 'rtir' fi maxim.l de tirnp, in car" r'.i alrttzrr rlr' il.i^ltf"l. r'i oromit ce aceasta 'a pacrenla o1'. ln aceastir conferinlir voi trata despre o itiintri noui li autrm( : itrrrrl'r care sc ocupi ctt transmitcrea enerBlerlnecanrc( Prrll \IbrJ{ll' qtlltr'1rll Cuvintul sonic are oarecare analogie crt -sunctrtl l)clrattct' sint rezultatul vibra{iilor, denumirea dc sortic sc Potrrvcltr'' pot zicc cir cst r ' o liici : r r t t r r r r r r r r r 'l A ceasti t st iint ir est e f oar t c t inlr i; i est c cam ncast ePt xt 't t leoaLt t t ' llr I ) ; r l"t r : i t t llt zlt 'r t r r t ntuzi cal e. i nrudir . 'a arc ce ci ruta ln chest iuni t lc: r t it lini, io. ot nt 't ir ', . r r ulI r r r ) ulr ilr '1i ir ll. r r 1'lt "'lt t t l' ll al c sti i ntei sonice. Sin1, d, alt t t l, ur t Lllt car L ol'ilt t r t i'sc: r sr 'P't r 'r'r t l'r qi m li m ul! i act i cnt t ' pr ct inr l ci- 1,si- r lii or r r ( l( lliir r li t r ' i nti ' si i i nt ( l. , i. r U i i i e l " " fr:rrui si st ai iniSis i't r - r r . I ulr . r at or cu st icl sit r r r r r ir iir r i, i, r t ntt c irl)5(thrl lr{(r"'rr vrui sir ;Ludie/,i o rrroblcm.i dc fiziciL-matcmatici-t, "l tc ocupi clc Haydn, llccthovcu silu -\Iotzart. l )eoarccc est c obicciul de a su {ucc cit c ur r ist r lr it ill {) r r ( ( r ( ) t I |IM I |, |. i l voi facc 5i eu; t lar ar : cast i int en{ic ir nr cil =i'rDu- r '. 1 ir t ; r ijt 't t zr ' lr r |it r r r lr ll, . r r r oi t nct lu. isi't ict t l r t t tt t , 1 1; t dcoarccc, fi i nd i, or ba r 1c o; t iin! ir 'no. : ! , de-aLia rcunt 20 rlt' irni' <ll citt<l 'ttrt Greci sau dc la l{orraui cli ntinrai i nccD ul :.:t IIrit ocul) r r t st ut liul lil'r aliilor . Cit si lisi1": " <lt it lt l: r t ii'it t : '"r 'r 't t r r ' rl umb' l ' i -, ,' bi .rr t r iali, lin p: t t t , it r lv. cit ir cL's(st r l( lilr l- it ; li it r r r 'pr t l l) r ': r t ' lt t r r l i l i i i i " tnn." k d c zt n"u sau ur . r . iplt , lcdc la I loli, lin si lr - t in[ ot r t t cr i11. 1, , lr r ', t it t . t r r lr t t t t t ' ti i ti i .i rr., at un<: i. r 'ear r t l7 nlr i inr ; t li'ili ; i it r ''r t t t t '1 't t t t r {iit vlclll( : r oilr l] r sir ir r \ 'i"r {lr . ( ) liit lt r lt l<, r li,:irttllt t zi. it lr ', , llr t , r t t t t r l a pi an.' I,c accil ( ( 'llli ( ir zt lr . t ir it t t r t it t i' tttt arl t pri ct' pt t l t t t lr r t ' lr t t : t t t t lill cir r {ilI r L: lt t lt t 0t t it f lt t : t ' sit 4. lt t t lr lr or ir ' : t ; t cot r lt t t ilt 't ' t t lt t zir it lc l) t l] ilzr 'llr 'r l' an i nl l i ' l l l i l s a tt t i I t t rrrrl i r' ,. (l rtttt lt li ir t t i t lt t lir il( t 'ilr 'l, r . r t t l l' t t : , il si r lcsct t t t it t t t t ot l t t t t I | | t t ' '; liir r lilir r ". Ar r "l lr t it t t : r r "" P l rrl rtt rtti rr' l, or ir r lt lot ilt t liL, t it t t t t ot t t lt 1r r 'l"r z' r lir r lt r ' pt ir 'llt t it ttr-rt i tr, rtt,ri ' r l i. t r lt t r ( ot llit r ll, r l ''r "lr r 'li' a r r l'r 'r liil' ' r i{ir ; r
rrt,'i l l t,rtl l tt '.ttl rl |r l . l l tl rl l l l t \ l r t' ti l l " ,tr tl l tt ' rttt .l l l l I rtl ,r,"' l rl rttttl ' r l ' r rttrtrr' t t|' ||| ' l ' l l l rl r ' l rl ' l l l l

(lulr,ririr,r'r l;r rlilllilr: irrsllrLrncntc Strrlirrl I ;trrIt:ottlirrtt;rl rrrrtzic;rlt,: tronrlx:lclr., rr.,li,, rlilclitr,[cmlrnctrc arn slrrrlilrt tulrrrt'ilr.rr, yi ar:rtslicc incetrrL , (r crr irtcclrrlrtt-irtnf:rutiliarizl!t l,rlri:r vil'r' rtiilor. ln rcirlilatc,sunctclcnlr sirrl ,lr',il rr lirlnr;-r cncrgic5i tlansmitcrcil dc srrrrr'{rrlrri cst('rul caz particularrrl 1r:ursurisici ener3ic. dc Accasti transmisic sl f:tcc prin undc sonorc ;i atunci mi-atn pus problcma: oarc, dacii energii ir (:iuiit:rli foarte mici cum c de exemplu energiaunei trompetc, se pot Ia Ilrrrrsrnitc distan!5,prin vibralii, nu cumva s-ar putea transforna aceste villtfii in energie mecanici? tintlcle sint de doud.feluri: sau le transmitem in aer, sau le transmitem irr lrrlruri.Primelesint undc sfericc,care se pierd sau se distribuie imprejurul rrosllu fi.ri. sL le putem concentra; pe cind cele din catcgoria a doua sint in rrrrL: concentrate tuburi, pe care le putem conducc Ia distantir. Exemplul ccl nrai simplu de unde condusela distan!f, este transmisiunca vorbei printr-un tub: tlacir vorbim la un capf,t al tubuLui, vocea se transmitc' pini la capi.tul r:cliirhlt gi toti ;tim c5. foarte pulin din voce se pierdc. Sc poate lntimpla c;r vorlrcle si- nu se inleleagi totdeauna bine, dar cnergia se transmite cu foallr. putinc pierderi, asa incit un tub acustic reprczinti" o linic prin care prrlr:rn transrnitc cnergie, fi.re caraerul sl circule dc lir un capirt la altul, Vilrratiile sonorc,pc calc le transmiternprintr-un tub, au o {recven!5. rL.slrrlrlc inalt:-L de acecase aud. Am putea conccpcfoartc bine ins.'rsi vi;i lrrr{ii crrtt'nu sc aud. Dupir.curn in luminiLsint razc carc n1l sc vircl,tot astfel lx,l li slrn(l(' care nu se aud. Sub o anumiti linit:r, 32 r'ilrralii pc sccund:-r, rrrrrr.lrrlnrr sc mai aude; iar pcste o anumitarlimiti, pest(' 20 000 \'ibrafii 1tr.srtrrrxll, iarirgi nu sc mai audc. Aga incit, ceeacc se nume;te, in vorbire curi.ntir,suuct, este gama de transmisiunivibratoare,care sint pcrccputcde sirr(uril' nolstre. Astfel fiind, intensitateaunui sunet nu cste in gent'ral o rrllsur'lia cantithlii de energie care se transmitc prin tub. Problcma dc a dirija undelc prin tuburi nu prezinti. nici o di{icultatt'; o singura dificultatc este dc a concentrir. cantitatc importanti de encrgic. Ilroblema transmisici cnergici prin vibratii rni-am pus-o in modul urlrfitor: la capf,tul unei conducte sir produccm vilrratii, rcprezcntind o energit: considcrabilli - conducta ne scrveftc de mcdiu dc transmisiune - iar la t:aplLtulcellllalt si transformim vibratia iari;i in energie mccanicS,. Problcma este destul de grca din mai multc puncte de vederc; undel' <:irrr: transmit prin aer sillt necesarmcntcloartc slabe din cauza marii elastisc citl.ti a aerului. De aceeaam invcstigat;i posibilitatca transmisieiprin alte medii;i anr studiat in specialtransmisiaprin tuburi pline crr ap.L.Am constatat, ln mod tcorctic, cir s-ar put('a transmitc cantitili considerabilcdc cncrgic vibratoare prin lichide. Intrr:lrrrinlintlo frccvcntir ricstul dc joastrc:r sL nu sc au(lh acost('un(lc,nc girsim in prczcn!:rrrnui fcl tk: curr.nt, pc cirrt:-l putcm tmnsrnitc plin tul) li r:atcrrc foirrlr:m:rrt:analogit.<'u crrrcntrrlck'clrir', duplt cum vc{i vcdca rniri tk:1xrrtt. Nu v<liintlL in <Lrtitlii tsrrprirlt'oricirrrrrlll<1, iusir lr' lltcir :rnrir.ttrrnlitc crrrr'lar: o trrnsrrrisir, cit trrlrui sit vit rlarrcitcvirr.x|lica{ii:rsultrrr'lcrrrcrrlclor
rlirslt, frlciur.rr lrritr lrrrk.sl"t fir. p os illilf r . Ac c s lt ' r , lr . t t t c t t it s in t : " h s l i c i l l l t . i t , ;i 1ricltIr'r'iIr'. Irrr'r.plrrrl lr r r ii r x r t llt t r t lt ir us t t t is ir r r r r r l r f t r t p r i r r i r p i 'r , p r i r r r r r l l r t l r r r (irrr.rri ., l iut;rrrs ir lo: l t t r . tr . r ilir llr r r I ir ir r I t t t i I r . r 'o t t r 1 r t c r , i I r i I i I I r t , I r i r ; r c i , ( ) r l i r l , i lr' r-rl r.l.trtr'ttl ,rtltt t lr , r , r ' l t r t lr ' ( lr . t t r ot r \ ll. r r , r : , r ' l x r l l t ; r t r r r r r i l r . 1 1 1 1 r l r t t r i r 1 r , r I' l, , t t r r t l, rrr ,t l l t t t .r l i r r', i r l r r r r , r r I l t r ,r.r,l,rlrl 1t , rrr ,.,lr.rrrrrlr.,,r'|r r l r . r I t t l, r , t t

t cor rr.l zi i i rr l rcr r siici"L ia l ilr r t liilor : Lt r ilt t , . I 'lt t r t t t t t t r t t r ',r lit t l) r lr l(I ( |r \ 'r r l( lt tt,ol l l i r' , r,s lc posibil dc a lr ansm ilt ct t ct llit r l, t t t t r t t r t ll r lir ijat c ir t t r r t t t lr t l' plin crL apl. a Elcmentul care a fost foartc mult (rollt(slrrl itt pt ttclici-1, lost cottrltr. t bilitatca apci. Existenla undelor in apir cst('t;r irrsirli rI probiL cir af,l ('slI t|)t|| -Dealtfel, presibili. s-au ficut expcrientc foirll(' rifNrroasc, carc tlt'ntott"lt rrr comprcsibilitatea apci; cu toate accstea, prinlr-o tra<lilie lumca I losl .r{lrrr"l si. cieadi. ci apa este inconpresibili. Ccl mult st: admitea c[ apa, (ll(i i lr' comprcsibili, eite cornpresibili. intr-un grad aia de mic, incit si porrti li rr'1ilr -Totuli aceastai compresibiiitate a apei nu este neglijabilit. iat. Sir vi. dau un exemplu: si luem o conducta de 10 km htttgitrr' ,t ,' presupunem ci la cape.tul acestei conducte ptnem un piston pc citt , l t t rt ,,, rt tr rl. rr alteruativ cu o manivele, conducta fiind p1in5-cu apl, iar 111;111i11111 I lungimc, sprc exemplu, de numai 3 cm, invirtindu-se dc 1 00o r'r i lr' rrrrtrtr tl, Prin invirtirea manivelei se produc pulsalii in aceasti. conduct.-L 'rl'.r | ,l capiiul conductei punem un rezcrvor, care s[ menlini condrtt lrt l)lrlr'r I rr ,rlr'r Dici am calcula ic trebuic s5- sc intimple in conducti in tinrlrrtl .rr lr.rr,rlrl pistonului, neglijind comprcsibilitatea apei, calculul nc-at rltrc, lrr tttr t';rtl r tat absurd, anum e c5. pr esiunea t r ebuie sl at ingi 30000 r r lr r r r r slrr ' \ "'r 't r este o absurditatc pentru cit, daci facem experienlll, Pllcti( rr tr"l.r trttrtt,tt 40 atmosfer c. I at ir pr in ur m ar e cl nu put em s. l llcslii: t nr cot t t 1r t ,. t |'t I t |'r I r , r aPer. l n fond, ce se pr oduce in aceast i conduct ii ? [ 'islot t t t l t t t t , t t t t 'lt t r , ( Droducc o serie de unde: acesteunde circuli. in conthtt:t;"r rr vil{ /.r 'rttt,'lrtlttt i nergi a pi stonut ui se t r ansf or m S.in encr gie vilr r at oalc, ( ir li lt t ir l: , , r 1 \ llr , t , l sunetul ui i n api ( cam 1, - 5km pe secundi) ii s( 't r lnslr il( r 'ir lr I r , r l, ilr r l r r 'lil laLt al conductei. l n hi dr aulicit , m ai t oat e t r at at c'le incclr t 'xpt t t t , 't ,r r st r t , lit t lt t t . r lt t t t t it t r l ci apa este incom pr csibilir sau ala dc pulin cor lpr lsil'il; 'r , , . r pr r l, t r r r t r '1'lt 1r r comprcsi bi l it at ea ei. Unn din aplicaliilt r hiclr ir t r lict , r 'it r l s r r iI t I t , |, t t t t t |, t | 'l' I aproape o sut ir dc ; r ni, a lost Pom par ea ir pei ir l r r r ir r r '. 't ir r r . r ir lr ', , 'r l, , t \ r 'r r ll i n mi ntca l l nor oat r cni, car e nu St iau ( ar r t c m lllli! , : t lo: , 1'. r t t t lr , l't t t t t lr / t r r pomD i i n l rrndll r ninci, ir ct ionat it dc clouitcololt t r cliclt ir l, , r r r t r 'r ', r ll, r r r l', , r , r l; l " iLtt:mativ priu doul tuburi. Plccind de la ipotcz,rr,( ir irl) r , ,1, t t tr , ,t t t | ' t r' ,t | ,t |;i i qi ti ni nd scanr ain c; t lcul nr r r nai <lc iuer ! ilL lpci, s- ir r r ; t t t t ',lr ( r , r t r , lr r r{l, r r r lr r r l in mai i D i (l c l o r npar c in cir t - r ', t lot l r lr t ut it l, t r ur t r ilt t t l r lr ' l) lll"illlt lr r ' lt lllr lll estc (,xl rcrl t lc t , 't lr r s, lO +20. Accsie l) t ir iit li c\ ist it 1i it t zt t t it r lr ' , t '. l, r zt .r r t mrtxi trrul rru t t t ir r ulr t i t lLr I t 'r 'olLr {ii,( ar ( 's- it l) t lt llt ol) 1! lt r '( ll ir r , ll,lr l|' t r r . r '; t t r t , r:stc rl c 30 l ) cr lr inlt l, O r , r 'r t r t ut lulit siL Jlclllir iit r i cit t , : ir i pt or lt t r , t l. r r . t lr , r lt t l unt.i conrhr clr ' f olr lll lt t llli l) ( sl( ' . ] ( X) 0 lt ulsir f ii 1x' t r t it t t t l, t t t t t t t , r i l{lr llll '; l t n-i rrrr rrcgl i jll ct t t nlt t csilr ililr t l, 'r r t p, 'i ir t i t I r' t t | , ' I t' t t t , I , : ii r t t t t pot r t il ; r sll, l , ll crti l rr ;-rt sl t t lr i u{iot t r t I r '. t)rrci r 'r r lr : ulir t r lillr ir lll, , lr r 'lr r r ir ' , i r , lt t t illt t t cii , l, 1r or , r r lr r r t r li 'yi r' Il rrrIi l i IrrIr':r 'liliiir ilr t llr t r , ii t lt ir ; ir ', it t l r I r r t ; r I t r r lr r ilt lili ir lr ' lt l. r lr 'lii i, I illi si rrl rr| ,' r' I rr I r' 'ri nu ir 'lx) i r r , lilii; r rri , i i rr , rrl , rt l r r iri ir r ; 'r r r ,lir ; i. \ loll it r lot t r l l 'lliir l rrrrl i { i ,r rtrrli , r or i it r I ri , I r ,rI t I i , ,| , . irr , . r ir r r ; r t . r I I r ; r t11. r ', ir r ', r ll, r : , r r t t ir t t t it i rl l vr, rrr, N r t t t t i l; r l r lr r t r r I I |, r I r ' t t t lt t I r lr ' , r lt . r t f r l, r l lr lt t lt ll llt lt ll. r ( 'ir lir I i r.l r,rl tr,rrrr' r, r r t r jl , r ' l! r ', r lr ' lt . t t t t t t il, 1, t t r r t t t t , l, ' r 't lr t t lr r 'r t , ' lt r '. r lllr '1,r ". lr ' '; i rr r' l r,,l r,, rl r ; r , ilr r 'lr 41lrlr I 'r r lx'lr r r r ', r r r lr lI r 'lr r ll , r lr r r r l r lr ", lr r l '. r ' , r lllllt r ' . "i ,l r l ,r,,rl l rl r,t , ; t ll, lr r , l,l, lr l t 't t lr n r r r r r l, t . t l, t lr , i, r lr r , r l, r lt t r t t , 'r '; r lt r ', 1, ' l l rl trl ri r l rlt r r 'l' liit "lr 'lll lr t t lllr r r , r t r |r t t l't lr I t t lr ', r lr 'r , i'lr 'r / \ llr 'r lir ll

.r l i rrl rt r ' \ l) t r i( , r ) 1r , i l l ro rr.r ' ,r .r i l ,rl r{ )r.Ii (i (. I)1i -\i rcl ii rsul )ta coml )l esarl )i r r' l rl i i (i i ; r 1r li,r r Lir r lr r i, p r,tro l u l rri ,,i rrl l o r rrl l t(. l i cl ri dc, l )ar cc c cul i os cstc ci l t)i ttt('l i lt - it r lit t ir t lx r tti rtt{ :r Ir.rr L i rrr rrrv c rri l .i l r r' qstol 'oxpcri cl rte, gi l umen i r ri l x'rsi sl lt ilir ilr lc ir r a c o rrs i tL t r l i , l ri rl ,l c l i r i n c o nrpt' csi bi l cdi n punct dc vcdcre 'lolLtiL luttreu cstc rlt rLtorrl t:iL otrlul cste clastic; or, a admite ci-L PtiLt:lir'. olchtl cstc cl;rstir', r:sie ir :Idlrit( r'iLcsr, critaptcsibil; toli ingincrii admit elasr' licitlrtct ofelrrlui li construircir.r('sorturilor cslc bazirll tocmai pc comprcsibilitatca;i cltstici-.irtea lrri. Totugi foartc mulli ingincri considcri apa ca incomptcsibiliL; lir construirca pompelor hidraulicc, foarte des sc line seama dc otelului dar se ncglijeazi c.lasticitatca apei. Or, proportia intr!' ''lirsticitatca :r'r'stc douir clasticiti'lli cste urmetoareir: olclul alc un coeficient dc clasticitatc rk: 2 rnilioanc kg pe cm? pe cind apa numai de 20 000, a;a incit apa este dc 100 ori mai compresibilir decit ofelul. I)acir am lua un tub dc un mctru lungimc, l-irrn uurple cu api gi am suplurc apa la o prcsiunc de I 000 kg pc cme, am vdloa cir aceastl coloani dc api. s-ar scurla dc 100 ori mzri mult decit o tijd rk: ficr la aceca;i lungime ;i care ar fi comprinralir tot cu 1 000 kg pe cmz. 0 alti. cauzi Dcntru carc cred cir nu s-a irirrns rnai clevLcme la transmisia (.t)r,riiioiprin vibraiii, estc rrn fci tlc conveDti,: irr lumea ;tiinfificn, prin care sl rrlitmiL cir cncrgia dcgcncr:cazi-L cincl sc triur:;brrriL in libra{ii. Este ugor dt' drLl cste Ioartc greu s6. rr lt;rnsllrrlna combrrstibilul in ciLldur':-r, t.xcnrpl'.1, olrlii rlin cirldur ir" comirusr.ibil. Tot astlel s-ir putut clccle eir, d:rciLcnergia se Itirl:r[otntir rr:1c-,r tibratii, r'cciproc:r n-ar ii posil)il:1. \u (s',t totu$i nici o ir.r ptolrir sliirrfificir a accstci piLrcli, ir.r catr, tlcirltfcl, flr n-arn crcztll, 5i atunci ttti rrl I,rrs prol-rlemainlcrsl-r: sri transforur lilrraliilc in cuutgi.. Sirrt rnulte fcluri dc e erqii carc s(' trirns{ormar (lintr-una intr-alta: rnrrll sirrt lt'r'r:rsibile i;rr altclc iievtrsil'it.. \u tla aia dr: u;or a prcsupune lir vilrrrr\iilc ar ii o formir dc .rr.'rgic revc.rsibilirili cncrgic mccanicir cu cficilrrtr'r irrllti. I)caltfcl, nu sc cunoaitc <lccit urr silrsur e\cmplu dq ,-nergie' vilrrirtoirrl rcvtrsibiliL in cncrgic mcc:ruici., )i accasta lstr L'ncrtiia curcntulrri rlcctlic altcrnattir'. l'r, cinrl liLccam tco:-ia vibratiilor-, am girsiL in {orrnulclc rclative la culr.rr(ii sorrit:i citeva rclatii carr: scmirnau {oart(- mult cu cclc cunoscute in clrr'lricilatc. in loc dc a face tcoria vibra{iilrr pe bazelc urmatc, dc pildli rlr, l.rrgliLngc:,;iIord llal'leigh, am luat-o pco calc rnai practictr gi, in loc dr ir plct:a tlr: la ccualiile gcnerale sprc rr rLjungc la particular, am plccat de la lrirrlicrrlirr spre a ajungc Ia gcneral. lu cle<rtricitirte sc incepc prin a se da ( itcv (lcfinitii foalte sintplc, pe urmi sc cxplicir citeva e-xperientcgi se trarhrcr: r'i'zrrltatul acestor cxpcricnlc in [ormult' l]rirtetnaticc. Astfel sc obtinc o ltiin{iL cirre sc Poato rt'tifica prin rtoi cxPt'ticn{c, duph cum;i bazelc pc r:irtc s-rr iutctnciat ;tiiu!a arr fost vcliIicittc l)rin cxpcri(frIti"r.()r, cxpcricn$clt. rrsrrpriL(lasticiiirlii sirrl loartt: sinrplr': t xllL'ricufelc usrrprr ntasci sint illrili sinrplr'. Astfcl lr:gilc, cirrL:lcirgi'rinttc elc qtrr4rlict:1lilccl:rsticc:,;itle grctts trrtt: a l c t t r at t , r - ic i, int L g i fo i rrtc s i rn l rl r' 1 i s t' rrl tropi c rnul t tl c l cgi l ,' < l i n cl ct tl i (i l i rt(:, < : ir n:s t ' t t [ r ' L r' r. l l r c l rP a c i ti rtl i r c l l c tri c l ' L 1i l :r i t trI rrt l ;rt rt ;r r' l rttl i tr-r. l )i tr i rc c ; r s t i-s ir r r llli a rri rk rg i , i rn l (i L u l i rt s i i l ri l g avi rul .rj (' yi ;rl rrnci , i u l or L i IrrIl rr sorti ci r,rrctl i a sotti ch, i l, tl c i r l l olr i r lr , lir lc ori i 6 ,' r1 r' ri rl r'rtrt rL l i rri l r l r1rrrr ft'i r:Ii rrr r c ir, i 1r illr I r ' ti It, rl rrp i r c rrttt s , l rrc l ri i i t t rl l l l ti r i l rrl r' . ( u rttl r' l c pi t r trrr rl r'[ ir r i{ ii r r t r r r lr r , , i l s ,-rl l r l l o ti ;r v i Irr,r(i rrtri IoI,rrrtl trrt rl i l l t,i i rt [r,l rl ,L' lt Ir.o ti rr r , lr . r ir ililii rl ,,ri l p ri rrl r trrr l , l ,l , l | , | | | | | | l i Itl rl ,' r' ttvi ttl r' . r\ lo, , l o ir r t it r r IrIi rt, ,,r l ,' 1 i ,i r ,l , l ri r l rrrrrr ' ,rrrri r,ir, rr ;' ol ti l i l rrt l r' 11r' ,r rr.zi .,l '' r r (r, t r r r,l , r l r rr rl ,r l r' . | ' r' rrrrrrIr' | , ,l ,rrr,rrr. rr, l rtrrrl ,r' ,l l , l r,l r' rl ri l . i | l ,ttrrl rr'l r ', lt t t r lr ' , 1111 l r' rl l .,rtl 1 ' 1 1 ' r,' , ,,' r r,l ttr' / ,l rtr ,' l r r l tt, ti ,rl ' t,r rl tttl t rttl ,1

rl i cfi onar; attt lr r : r l o 1r t r r I r t ir . I ; r I c cllr lr ir '. r , ; i r r r lr , r r lr r : , ir r r r or r ir ; {t ir r {, r . o A ta al n fi -Lcut : it r uot out - r 'L, 'r r r lzor r ; r t olt r 'lr . ii ( r I 'r . r lr . 1r t 'o; itt. I : 'r I iI r 'r lcr r r ol r r stratc i n cl ct: t I icit at t ', pc cili'ir t t I Pr r lr r l s; i ll llr , lr r r ' ir r r 'lcr r r cr r t c it r , '. r \ t t t sor reu;it si. traduc ;rst{cl toatc lrrotoarclc t I , .r' I r'i r' r. i rr rrrololrrc sortit:c'. lnrri r',I zonator el cct r ic car e dcscat cir scilt ci, ii cot t st r t r r r t lcir r sonicit iLit 'r ur ci, , , ; r r r soitic care dcscarci, lovituri asupra nicovtlci. A nal ogiiic sint a; a de nr ar i, din punct r lt : vc( lcr ( ' t cor et i( , ir r cil r r r r r r r inginer, care ar citi o cartc dc sonicitate, i s-ar pitrca ci-t citt';tc o crrl, ,l, electricitatc. -\Ii glsearn prin urrnirri' in posesia unei forrnulc dc tradrrc!ir' ;i rrrr rrl rimiirea <lccit si r'.-L11 car,-' iint (liferitele aplicatii practicc alr. rroii .,lrrr{,. i n pri rn r Ll r in. i, aplica( iilc com pr csibilit i. ! ii lichidclor sir r t r l, , t r r l r l, i mportai l l ( i rt . 'lc insiisi: t lupr L cr r t r r ,ir r clccilicit at c, pot inciir cu ult colr ( lr 't l sato[ fi -l pot r lt 'scilr cala r cloic, r ot ast f cl puicur inci. r ca o bulr . lic r ll o{r 'l l i n carc rr' ..rr r r D I ichid, cor ir r r I iDr iDrlichidul la o pr esir r ncf oar lc nLr r r '. l) , r r ; r se cornpri mi L r r lr i, t le cr cm plu, int r - o but t 'lic la 2. 500 at m os{cr r , , r , . r lr r r , r r , , r vr-rlumului o aproapc dr l0'1", atlicr-L din t0 litri faccn 9 litri. Or', ;r(r,.r',tl rerluccrc dc volum cstc consi,lclal riliL. Cind ll-rsiLm lichidul siL rr.r'iui Lr r,r, Irrmrrl primitir', cncrgia cstc lcrlatl pc de-a intrcgul. S -zrrputca zicc: biuc, clar ; i cu aer ul sc poat e lacc aceast i"t cxpr . r ir . r r t , i, dacii conprimiLm acr intr-o bulclic, inmagazinirnt cnergic mecanicii qi rlirri facem crpansiunca aerului cigtigi'Lmcnergia inapoi. Nu cstc toculiri lrllr ir.,,i, pcntru cir actril dat--ir-l cornprimi.m cu prcsiune marcscli inci-Llzr.;lr., irrr ll rr1;r encrgia depusri in comprimurc s,r transform:r in cncr.gie lx)teutiali (1" ('lrl presiune, dar ;i in cncreie calolicir care se risipe;te; nu sc l)oatc tl.r i rr,,rr;,, r.1 toatit cneigia ce arn chcltuit in comprimarc. I)aci comprirnirrn (lir r orlti un lichid, ritlicalea tcmpcrirtulii cstc foarte nrici-r - <lactro fi o f r .rr I i rr rrr. rI r. grad ccntrigratl pcntru I 000 atmosfere - a;a incit mari toal.i ( |rlll,r \r. translormir in cnergic potcnliali, l)e care o putern conserv:r;i utilizir , irrl I r,,rrr. C a si . i lust r cz avant ajclt ' cc lt : l. r ut cm t r agc t lin cor npr r . silr ililr r t r , ,lr r chi del or, i rm luat r r n obuz, t lc t un in car c aln lt us ulci, f iindcir r r lr . ir r lr r r r 11, rrai binc. ln obuz cra un cilinrlru 5i un piston iit contract crr lir lrirlrrl, ,rriiri jat astfcl ca sit nu Iie nici o scr'rparcdCliclrid. lmpingind 1>istorrrrlpirir l,r funtl ;i puninrl o grcr.rtatc asuyrrl lui, drrpi-L am lcS;at pistonrrl r:rr o rirrrri'r, ce am comprirnirl lichitlul din olruz ll | 000 dc atmosfcrc. Lir accirslh l)rr.\ilnr., sirma cato reIinr: pistonrrl sc nr1>t:;i t'ncrgi:r ltotcn{ialiL rlirr olruz, irrrrrirllrrzi nutiL strlr lonuir tlc cncrgit' clasticfL,arLrnclLpistonul aflrn"rirrrprcrrrrltcrr gr',.rr tatcrr. A sl fcl , clr un obllz r r r ic, car c c<lr r f inca iunu"r t at clit lr r r lc r t k. i, ir r u r r . r t <l lir in l i t sr' ri rrrnrc o gr ', 'r r r r r ll- r 150 nlclli. l, ) t r , 'r - gili r siL r r r 'r . stolr r r z lr r ovr . llll Pr num;ri rl i rr vl r '( , . j nt iicir t i r k'lxr r r r piL,t l: r lr . t k: r r n bir icf t l. l) acir lr r : r . llr ir ir '{r 'lr r r fi voi t si r ttur r r 'r . gt r 'r r r r lir cu lt inll, l- lr r f i l) lt t ut nt ir r gt : <'onccut llr t r . ir lr . r r.n,.tA i ,.(,i l ),-r t , r t . 'r r f , . lr r l r L. sr 't is. ir S r. r,r' rl, ,r 'lr r r ( li r . \ l) ir r r sil, ilit t r lr . ; r 'lr ir lr . lr r r . st c lt n f : r cl( ) r ir nlxr r t r r r r t , lir rl i tt l rrtr' P ttl ct t t lt 'it 1Jlf olor t sr 'I t ir r lir ', . . At t t r r r lr s t llr i r lr . P: t r t r ', it r lor : r ; r sl qi ttti r l i trti l r.z i r ir r uull o llt lr r r r r l, 'r ir t r t lr lr l r nt lr r lr r lr . o( r . 1,it t <lr lr . lr r r r illlr xlr r s , ir l rr.i l i l ri rl r. rr lr . i; r 'or r r 1'r r r I I IIr ullir r l lr r , L{) l) ( lir I r r r olI r . r 'r . , r r t r r . r r ; il r il ir llr . lr lr l l l ol ' l z rl r, l t l<1i t 1l) t )r r r 'lr r , r r . r , t r rll r r r ll r r Pr opiir r r r lr . r . [ r . r 'lr . lr ; r lislir . r ilr lr . | . l l url l l l r' . | t r ' ,t rt t rr' .I ( lr , I illlll I |I |||||, ||t 'I I . r . 'r lr , r ll r r r r 'l. t 1iollilr r r r |r r r ', , ir r r t clr l rrtr. ' r. l rtl ,l rrr r , lr r lr r lr r t ilr , olr llr r r r llr , , lr r ir r r . lp[ r r llr . . lr r ln r lr . r ir , 1 lir lr ir lr '1r . , | | | | | | r| | | | | iI I . Ir| ||l |ht ||| lr r r t I ' ||t r l, nl||l [ t |r , rll, tl lr r r lr llt lr . r , r , , il ||r or lr r r , l r , r r |r lt '
l ,l ' l II|||||i Il Ir|||,i rl rl r l l r,!rl rl r ||r|trl rl |tnl rl l |

I ' r ' r ' I |r ' ( i{ |I r i IrrI s l l l l )i rr,r| , , tr r{ .u l i t s i -rfi l c un tuntrr ci rrr.i rut arl tr)(.i tl i t(r' o lxrrttlr:-L I{)ll I,ig lit Ii(,0 rlr.tri ti"rrirfor: i;i fiLri zgomot. rlt. \ - iun ( lit 1 ir c r' s l r.(,\(' n rl )l cl )r.rrtl u i r i l rrstra ci t mai bi nc faptul ci comp l cs ibilit lr lr . lr lpt ' i t' s tt' l rn fa c t(,r' (i u ' (! n u s c poatc negl i j a. N egl i j arca i n lr(\'ut a courplcsilrilitirlii lichi<tokrr l fircut ca rnultc aplicalii practicc, care irslirzi sinl c(nsa(:rat(' cil atarc, si nu sc poat5. descoperi mai inainte. l.)stc un pclicol ftiinla fi-rrr-r cxperiente: autorititea StiintificS. rcu;e5te lilrrxlatiL a impunc idci eronatc in mintea studentilor;i gcneraliilor urmirtoirr(., in a;a-fcl ci-L nimcni nu se gindcite mai tirziu s[ vtrifice lucruri, c:rre l)riu o consimlirc gurt'rali au {ost trecutc in rindul cunoitintclor pozilive. l)r';rltfel,- tipmul rlu c dcparte cind o formuli. gresitl a lui -\ervton, ile pildi rr impiedictrt invcntarca acroplanelor pc cale teoreticiL. Linii au ajuns 1,rin rrllcmtrticir, cr.r ;rjutorul acelci formulc, siL rlemonstreze cir pi.siLrile nu pot sr"L zboarc; s-ir {iLcut totrgi expericnla ;i s-a dovedit c;r... pisirile poi si-L zlxrrrc. I)caltfcl, Irrcrurile s-au aranjat prin schimbareir formulci ;i s-iu i:r\'('Dlut dc atunci :reroplancle. Y am dat citeva cxemplc dc aplicarc a comprcsibilitllii lichidtlc,r; rlol|sc sr-r!i-L dau citeva exemple si asupra aplicirrii transmisiei cncrgici de lrr rrrr qrunct la altul prill unde sau, cunr zicem acurn, prin transmisie sonicilL. l)r'oirrer:csonicitatca - ca sl-i diLm o rlcnumire analogi cu electricitatea r.slr. o ltiinlir aga cle apr-opiatir du clectricitatc in Iormulc, rLr trebui sii rezrrltl r:iL;i in aplicatiilc ci practicc siL mcargiL paralel. $i intr-adevi.r, putem lrrlr. irr souicitatc mai toate aplicatiile carc' au fost fi.cutc dc electricicni. (llrL tlin aplicatiilc ce'lc mai curioasc cstc transmisia c durii la disrar{ir.
t , r lI \.ll)rillll.

(,lr sir produc ci"rlduri prin vibratii arn luat un gencrirtor sonic, care rorrsli-r rlintr-o pompi.; un simplu piston care se miscl alternativ intr-un rilinthrr. l)in cilindru plcaci conducta, carc cste in cumunica{ie cu o butclit' rlt'o{t.I plitriL cu irpit. Accast:L butelic corespunde crr ceca cc in elL-ctricitatc nllnlinr ul) t'on<lcnsatorelectrir'. \[ai tlcparti, continuiim tonducta pe o lurgirrrr. oarcr:ure 5i o tcrnini.m printr-uu tub cu dianctru loartc mic, spr-e cxt'ruplu rrrr tulr tlc rrtr urctru lunginc, invirtit in spiraliu ;i aviud diamttrul itrt t'r'ior dc 2 mut. [.a capiLtul ac:t stui tub puncm inci. o butclic p1in5.cu apiL. Ir:r'st ar:rnjantcnt, din punct dc vcclcrc hidraulic, estc o alrsurditatc; vorbi'sc ,lr' lrirlrarrlica cute ncglijeazi" comprcsiI rilitiLtca apci. I)acir {inem scama insir rlc rrct'st factor, lucnirilc stau altftl; inctpind se mifcim pistonul altenrari\' lrrirrlr o bicli si o rnanivcl.'r.,sc produc prrlsalii in butclia de la inceput^ul iolrlrrctci. AccastiL butclic deviuei nn fc1'clc gener:rtor dc undc sonici'. in Irrlrrrl nostrtr circulir atunci undc, erL, sint foitatc sl tr-r.ar prin rubrrl rcl r-r srrlrtilc ;i tlin lrrllrl srrlrtirc siL trcaci-L inaintc in butclilr rli: llr capittul tronrlrrr:tci. Mift:irrcir r:slc posibiliL rLiu t:urrzir.corrrpresibiliiiL!ii Iic:lrirLulrrisi tlirr ,rrrrzlL posibilitir"fii tr-ansmisici cncrgici prin rrnde. l.)nt-.rgilr onrhrlutorie insi'r. l rcr'ilr l pr - ir t lr r llr l s u l rti rc , p ro tl rrc c c i L l th rri L ntocurai cu 1i i n t' l t.ctri ci tl rl r' . i Cu aplnt ul p c c l rrr: l -a ru fi c u l a m tkrl ti ncl i t o l (nl l )(ti tturi t (l c nl i ri tl l l l l l il. r lO 0 gr ; r t l t' . l ' u l ,u l fi i n rl i rrv i rti t i n s p i r-al i ' 1, l i nl rr)(hrs i r(:(' usl i 'sr' l r i ul lr ;rrn t ir r iL int r - un p i rl r:u ' rrr a p i r ' ,rrr' , i rr,:tl z i n r hrs, tl uP .r 2.-.1 rrri rl rrl r.:, i rr l r'1 l t t l s ir f iit r lr ir . ( l o rl l ttc l l L , i rrs i , r' i rtc c o u rl t rc,.tnr.r' gi a sorri l r' rl rr i rcl sl l rrl r. l i rtti r r l t it : r ' li, r r rrrt i rr I r r' I rrri rr1rrrrr l rP l ti L rrrr.rl i rr l r i rrrsrri si urr., :rnr \ l (,\' r,( I tl lr I cri r' ; r os ilr il s ; i llr rr:,rrri l , rrl rl l i r. r:i rL rl i c i P ri rrl r' -uu l ul r crr l tP i i .r' r' rr,. l' , r |lir r r { ir r l o l rtl i , l o rrrl r. rl rl rrl rl i , l i i rrI i rIr' rr ,i I IrI r.;I r' rrtl rrIrr| rri '"rtti , it r lt r l, r r l r , lt rri r r' .,1 r' ,!,u l , rr;1 ,, 1 i .,r ' P rrxl rrr,,,, | l i ,rrl l r, l ,rr l r,r.rr, l 'r,l l tr, r . lr l, , ( r r r l ,l l r , Iro ,l rrr,. I' rrrr r, z r' ,l ,,rrt.rr,l rrrrrr,r rrr r.l r.r rtrrl .rl r l

Ittl t(r lt t r l( r 6( t t t : r i r I P; r t lr . clt {'\ l, r 'rr r , r l. r. r r r lor ' r 'ir si'Ll; isr 't t r r r l, r r l lr cql tui c siL it t cilzcr r sc. rir l) ir lir lO o Alr [ . , Pr r lr . r r r , rrI r , .I rrrrrrt i rrrI lr n ( : r l{) r ir r r . r tru, si Ll ac ct t r ca cllet giir sil nll nr ir i Poir t i-lir r li. r r l, . l. r lr r lr ( i sit s( ' it t llnlr l( , / , ( r A st[t:1 l i i n d, in m od t cor et ic, l) r r t cnr li! ( i{ r 'r r ; r cr , sl lr r lr siL sc poir li. ir r r r r lzr pi ni r l a ori cc t cm per at ul- aL. nit lla car c I cnr l) i. r ir llllr r lir r ir cest r ur ) \ 'ir r lur l: i. Lir depi ncl c dc punct ul dc iicr bcle al lichidulr r i r lir r ir r t r . r 'ior ',iindcr r ir p, r , lr r r f tubul spir al ia dcsigur acccaii t cm por at ur ir ca li t ubul. Eu iun, r r . r r l. r r . in cxpcrictt(it ce am ficrrt, ca prcsiunea rncdit sir fic aproapc 100 alrrrrr,lor La accas t i- il) l'csiunc apa nu {icr bc nicila300 gr adc, a; a incit punir r r l t r r l, r r l in Virti, r'irta s-tr carbonizat. \-am mers mai departc ca sit- ariit r'.r .r,...1 tub s-ar pr t t ca lacc r osu, liilt lc. i . udur ilc t ubr r lui s- au t opit , ic; ir r r l r lir r t r r l' aburi srtpraiuciLlzi i, ct't'a c. cla (lc aticptat. A;adar, din acecaii ,r'tr(lr' tl t putctl luu iLI)i! r'cc(, apiL cakliL ori aburi suprainciitzi{i. I'ranstttisiunsa ci'rltiurii prin unde sonicc poatc siL aill-r yi ,r1,lrr .rlrr practicc, iDsiL cxPc|ie'nta tle Driri sus aln ficut-o nai rnult tlin Prrrr,trrl ,lI vedcrt: al iut ct 'csuhr i it iir lt if ic, ca si. ar ait clif cr ent a qnor m l illr , . '1, . , t '1, sonicc ii efcL:telehitlraulice. I)aciL am fi plecat de la ipotcza int:orrr;rrr'..rl,rlr ti!ii Iichidt:lor, expcrien{a cr' \'-arn dcscris, cvideut, n-ar Ii fost 1xr'.rl,rl,r Cind arn ccrut brcvctul acumulirrii cncriiici, bazati. pc corrlrurr.rt,,l lichidtlor, cl mi-a lost rcfuzat in Statslc Unitc, pc motivul ci m;rpirril,. rrr,l,. nu pot fuDcliona; or, ac(ste malini funclionau, erau ir.r fiinjiL lir l.r,rr,lr,r gi a trcbuit ndrturia sub jurilrnint a unui mcmbru dc la ,,I{oyrrl Srx ir.tr, din I-ondra, ca s:r se convingi ,,Patent Office" din \\rashingtou ci. ;r(r'ir',t,l inventie nu estc o imposil)ilitatc. Nu spun ci. lumea nu ltia ci lrrlrrrLll si nt compr csibilc, dar nu o; t ia dcst ul de binc; i a t r cbuit illii t |r . r r r or r ', |r r r | prin expcricntc, nu numai cf, sint compresibils, dar ci. clasticitatr..r lor , .tl un factor important in industri:r mccanic:L. In loc de a intrcbuinfa acumul:rtoare hidraulicc, carc siul ( (|| |,.| | | | | | | | , din o greutatc enormi. api"sind pe rnpiston, putcm intrcbuin{a cit, r'.r I'rrtr'lrr, obuze vechi, astupate biuc, in carc comprimi.m lichidul la o yrrr,sirrrrr. lo,rrtr, marc. Ac(stc aparate pot sh cost(: dc zccc ori mai pu{in r';r ul i| (,II r| | I | ||| | rIt hidraulic. O alt l aplicalie s- ar put ca f ace la r csor t ur i: un obuz, ir r t ; r r r . ; r r r r r lt r r r duce un piston qi carc c plin t:rr un lichid, poatc servi drt'pt lcsor'|. r.rrr. si rczistc la prcsiuni enormc. Pistonul intrind in lichid il (orrl)rilrir, r.rl cind inci.rcitura cc apasi pc piston dcscrcitc, clasticitatea liclrirlulrrr irrrprrrtr;r. pistonul inapoi in pozilia inifialir. O rLplicatie a transmisiunii prin vibratii, carc nu ('st(. in forrtl rhrit ,' consccinfir a aplicirrii clasticitittii lichidclor l)e o scirri rI:ri irrlirrsi, r.r,tr. distribulia rh' pulerc ftr {llrrici, lntot:mui cull oa so [ur:t: irstiLzi (]u rrol()rtl cl ectri cc. lullc pr obk. r lr . in<lr r st r iaL.ll- lu f osl r czolv; r lr : pt . t r r : lirr lr . r . lr . lr r ci tl l (.. l i sl( . lt i{) r ' ir lr it nsr lilc cnct gi( ' r 'lccllicii lir r list lLn{r . r uir r i, r r r o r 'lr rl ci crr{i L ' st t r l r lr 'llr r r ir , r 'ir r r Ir . sll vor l'; r , t r r : , ir r l, . r list lilr r r li: r pt oplir r zis; 'r r , r r lr , ir gi r.i i u nrr xl r . l, r 'lr ir ', r . f icicllir ( . i ( . st , ': r lr r r l, . r r r ir 'ir ,lr r r 'it , r lir r pr r r r r l r L. v, , l, r , col t(.t(i :rl, lu l- r . nl( 'ir zi"r .r ' : r r , , . , r r t ir i t oillr . hlr r icil'. , r 'lr i: r r '- 5i r '|r . r r r or I , . r r r r . l) <. ci rtrl i rrsl t r lr . r r zirt t : r lir r i ir r lt r r r r r r lr . licr ',pr r . f r . t irt lr . r r r r r llr .or i si ir r lr r 'lr r r ir r l, 'r , r . r si sl ctttrtl r'r r I t l rrr.,tt t i rri rr rri r L. r r t t r . l, . ,. r t slr . t t tvr . r 'lr ir L. r 'i11. 1,str l, . r lr . r r r r i,r , r r , . ,, r.sl r. i tt.;, 'rr r . || r . r o||r , t ut i r lit r Pr r r r r r ||. r 'r . r lr . t r . 'r , t t |r . tiit l, lt it t |: . t r t ist . tr . r r , l r ( t r(.r(,l v,t,tr'r . , t , r lr i |o||L. |||, 1, r r r . r l, r t l r , i r , {.lx, illr , r r rlior r r rlir . r ; r r r lt llil; t , lir '', lt r . ir . |, .,l u rl l r,lr , , i l| r t |olt |t . i|| ir I t It ||.I ri ,| || | r,|| | . | | | | | ||| | |.| |. lr r r r r l lr . llt lr . r r r ir |il; r '' l .rl t,' r' l l r , t l. l. | | | |rIr' r' | |r.r , : t rr r . Pt r r lr lr , i r ll l r r r 't 1t r r i1 r , rl, r rr | , , r r r r lr . lr r r r r ollr ,r ' ( , llr it ,l , r;,l r,r t , , , r r t r t t r r . l, l r l, 1'lllr , lt r lr r l'r r r t lr , r lr , lt ilt \ ll, . l r . olt r r .

si l l r ult ll r nt r i lnl l i n l n .!i c u l (,l t\r.(| r.r.i t r' r,rxl l t(.1(. r.l rr.l ri r:r,,i l l )oi i l l )ar3l (l l l{ rlc lontrol, r'<llrint'tclc<L' porrrir.r.s.rrt r[. oltrirt. lrlc motoarcloi s,,nicr,, sint rllllt lr)ai it'ltinc. I\'lotoart,l(.(.()slii irpr()irJX' pc .illmirtatc sau o trcime din rrrstul nrolo:rrt:lor clcctricc tlt: acr.ca;i putcra. (;rcutatca motoarclor (, cam itr ircu.a;i ploporlic. Aga incit, r,rtlcfi, in ceea cc pri\:cite distritrujia cncrgici, soDicilirtea poate concura cu succcs electricitaaca. In ccca cc privcftc transportarea t,uergici la distanlc {oartc marr, eslc llolr;rbil ca rlcctricitatea si. aibi monopolul, fiindci inl'rrrile sonicc s'r,' irr gr.ntral mai scurnpc dccit conductelc elcctricc'aeriene. .{.stfcl fiind, intrcvid Prrsilrilitatea unei conlucrirri armonioasc intre electricitato si sonicitale. Sprl. r.xcnrplu, pe tercnurile noastre pelrolifcr(' s-a gisit ci c mai corrr.cnalil ,r sr. lrtnsmite cnergia electricir de la distanfi,si_a sr".ataca difcrittle aparatt prirr rnotourc elcctricc. Riscurile dc incendiu si delicate{ea motorului electric, Irrsi, sc opun la ace'asti. aplicalie, 9i de accea transmisia sonici va inten.rni r:ir o lcglturir intre sondi. si curcntul elcctric. S-ar putea aduce cnergia elccIli.r-r lir o stafie centralil, in t.nergie sonici qi transporta apoi ^transforma la sontlt'prin luburi de [ier. In acestr.luburi ar putca s:i circule chiar plcura r'l rrrcrlitr, sau petrol or:rpi, iar sondele ar fi ac{ionatc dc motoarc sonici,, citrr.nu prezint;. nici un pericol, sint e-rtlc'm dc simplr., pot lucra firil aten{ir. slrccialir chiar srrb api, in noroi, in oricc condilli cii de grele. InIrrlxtin{area motoarelor sonicc in fabricile modernc ar elimina toare Irrrrrsrrrisiilr.prin cu_rele. _Chiar ;i costul va fi mai ieftin cu timpul, c;'rci r'lri;rl tllci"r lransmisia prin curclc cste mai ieftini. decit cea sonici, toturi o r.r'orIr)rlli(' s-ar realiza la constructia atelicnrlui, care n-ar mai trebui si, Iir,rL.o z.irliLricatlt de solidiL, nemaifiintl nevoic sii sustinir toate rotile si fir.r'irliir cr.;LSr('a necesarir. transmisia cu curele. in l-ir rnololrele sonicc nu intrir dccit ionti. ii ote]; Ia motoarele elcctricr, irrllli ofcluli <lcstul dc scumpc, intri cupru, mica ;i fcl dc fel dc produst crrrriucrrtr. ;i de iLceca, fiinilciL un motbr sonic e'foarte robust, il poat,. sir rlrrrczt' infinit, pc citir vrcrle motorul clcctric arc nenrrmirratc picsr-, car,. , rr lirtPul :.t' rh'tcrirrrt'azi. I n ult tcrcn dc aplicart' al transmisici sonicc, este in rczolvarca unr,r prrrlrlcur', in.--carc transmisiiL clcctrici-r"nu se poatc aplica deloc, dc pildii lir :rr.roplanc.'l'endinta astizi la acroplanc cstc dc a ajungl la o puterc mr-ci.rrir'r'rrlin cc in cc mai marc. Astfcl s-au ficut acroplanc' dt: I 0OO li Z 000 r';ri prrtt.r't',iitr acum, ir.r timpul din urmi, sc studiazii un acroplan de 5 000 liri ptrtt,rt'. Or, ca si sc ob{iniL aceastir.puterc enormi, estc nevoic dc nrai rrrullt: nrotolrrt'. Am studiat acum un tcroplan in carc 8 r'notoare vor fi inslirl:rtt: in naccla ac|oplanului, atacinrl opt gencratoarc sonicr., iar |atnr r,licr., prrsc liL aripile iLcroplanului, vor fi aclionate do patnl motoarc sonic,. Itts(ulirliir.cor_cspunde. intocrnai fchtlui cum sc prot:trk'uzir inlr-o instala!it r crl r ' : r lir r L. r lis lr i l ru l i t r:l c c tri c i r. Anr [iLcrrtun llloto[ (h) ir(.rol)lnn uunlai ca t xpt.r'it:nli, rctrlitrrl a rcaliz,.r tttl Il lot ot - t k : 180 c a i Itttn ra i c tt 5 O l i g . l )a c i L a nl I)Ll l l ( P robk:rnrrrrrrur i rrgi rr,t r'l rr:lt ic iir r r ,r . l r r - lrr-l rtttr.i r s i l l i tr' i r. rrn n ro l o r t'l rrtl i c tl r. 180 ci ri P trl cl c, rl tr:i t i rr g llr r lr r lt ' r lr . r ' r' l p rr{ i n | (Xl 0 l (9 . ( ) ir lli' r ir 1r I il i r{ i r. r rrrrrl ,,l o ts o l i c r: r' :;tr.l i r , i rx l rrrr.. i I ' r r lior ; r l ..rrrri l r.s l r. o rl i rl i rri L l o i rr.l r.si rl P l i r; rrrr P i sl orr crr rrri st,i rrr .| | | r.I rrII I | \ ' (,. t \ r ' r " | | ri s l o rri ttr| i rr1 i ,.i tN rtPl I r rrr.irni rsr., i rrr.o:i ci l .i rzi ri rrl rr. rLrrrar , l r' rrt rr",|' t lr r t r l\ l. r , . r r ' . 1 tr,..t,tl rrll o ttrtfi rz l l | | | tr. Zot| i tl t,t ' ,rrtttr' ,l l trrl ,.l r. r,rtr. i rl t rr|| [l r' . r 1, r r t r r r r r r rl,,l trl | | ' | | \| | | | | | | | | ' | | . tl :tr. rh, o' ,rrl .-rtt.tl r, r tt| r,rtrrrIrrt, ratI

r t|r l r tr r l ) t i tr l ,1 1 t.r l ,l r r r t t , i t 's q r t r i l ;r fi tcr tr 'l r tr i l 1 1 1 ;i 1 1 ,'l i ( r t\.r l .i . l '.tr , tl l t r l t,r l r n <l i i r r l o vi tr r l i a sr r Pti r r r i <:o vl r l ci . llll r "'l l l ,r tl l l l l i r l r '. /\l tl ( r ) l l sl tl l l l l ') f i ci cn {a tr ttr ti a st{cl r l c ci o cr r c i , r c a t r t l c r r tr c;r l p u tt'r c cu ci l r {' s( ' l i r i l r '{r 'l r r l .,r ( :r t- t' sl t\'( $ l t' 5 i l ;r r r i l r r r l a r ', 's t c i o c a n fr 'r cct a ce l a l i l u t:r u ca tttt ci r r cl tn Ir ttr tttttr t1 i r ', i ttItl l r tti ttti ttr | .r ' t rrrr t : r t r n p r i m a t, r l c l l ca i p u tcr c. l ) L n l t[tl , r 'st, ( u l to sr ttl t l - t i tr r l l tsl ti r t :l ( l l l l l l l ( l i l l l l ) l ) ( .r r r i si l ) i l o i l l t: p cn ttu ci o ca n ,: i n m i n t'sa u l i r r i l r ( ( sl r 'l ( ) i l l l ( 1;limat i tr ', tr r ;i i tr r '1r l .r l t, P : : L r t c t r utr ) i r i - i sc i n l r cb u i D i ca zi L cl r tti r ' l l L s|ttl t', 1 r 'ti l ttl c i i r l a n ) n r i si c so tti <i - r , d i n 1 0 0 ca i a r i tttl cl r tti ttl r t i i O cr r i i r r tttr xl r l r r l tr Il t 1 xr tttp ,, ;i .r r r "r '.l r - \ l t 1 ,r r cn <l c ;L p l i ca r c a l r l o to a r , l tl t- so u i ct' tsl c |stI u n .tl ) l tl i tI ttt ttti l r 'i ti :r l l r r r r 'r l tr ', s 1 r c o l - l c ( 'Pc r l so r , Pcr l tr u cl "t Po m p a i . : ! t n ( l r l c fi i n r l a l tl r n a ti vc sc sr tl 'tti tn i i to i ttc o r g i tu t'l t r l t tr r l r r ( i r ' I r 1 1 .r t, l . o i i : a s t l t'l l xr m p cl c so n i cc d cvi n ( '\tr cm d c si r n l l l '. .\c|sl r ' 1 x'tr t1 r , l r r l l r r r r r c t : t o t u l s ttl .,a p l - t, i n cl u si v m o to l u l , ccta c( n tl sc l x) i l t( l i r c, tts,,t ( r r r l r r l r r i r l 'r t t ll]ctIlc. I I O :r l tl i i :a ti c fo l tr tc i m l xr r tl r n l l - L t'sl l l a l i tl xr l tl - ,, tttt,l , r ".l ( tr , \i 'l r r ,,l r t ' <j , l a o l u l l r i n r - L cu tr tta ti e l o a r l c i n a l t;'r si sc o l r i i n i t tr ti l r 'i ti r o l ,r l tr ,

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l o st o tr r a r c p cr fccti o n a r c l a :l a l i n i l t' ttt r r l tttti i r p i r ti l l ,r l tttl 'l r r 'j I r r l '\ i n s i i n a cr :l a ;i ti n .r yr ;i o l n a r c g r ( tl l i r t( : i tcc, r r tl r ' ;1 1 ', , r r 1 ,l r r r r ,l tr '.,r rlnii, ( , ', u r b i n i tl q a l r u l i tr cb u i L - si sc i n vi r tca sc:t ( 'xl l ,'r 1 r ( l ( r ,P,r l , , r .,r 'r r l ', c l . , u n i L c l i ci cn ti , |t ci n d cl i cca d i tr co t) tr a l r ( l ,tti , sr - r :., i ttvi tIr 'Ir 'r 'r l .,r r l r i : : , t , a i l r ci i o cl i l i l u l ta tr ' l i "r r ca c:r sc l o vtsl c r l l r r ';tl :tl l ;'r . l tr ttl l ttl r r tl l tttr l ' i l - . 1 , s - i t r e u i i i t a . s( {a cc a r g r - cn a j c l ) cn l r l l l n r l .r i Ii r i r r tl ttt;r l i ,i I'r 1 ,r ,'r t,l ' t|r l ttr , ttttttt.r tttl l tl r l tl l ! : t r , d c n ) ( i n tr cb u i n !ca zl 'L a c( 'st( ' a D Sr ( l ) i ti ( l ) ( r tl l r r ,r tr l l l l l r r r 'r l l 'l r r ' l l r l l i ct'i . I) r 'o l r I,r r r r r .r ' t.z.l t,r t.:ilot t ttl l r i i l i 'i l l r :i .l i o u a t.l l i : . , ) i l s o l t ic: s| sr r l ti i n L - r a Il ) ( ) r ( l ( ( l ( l t;r l l sr ti :r i , l r t Ir t|,r t ,r ,, i tr l ,r r tt, .1 , , r r .r tr l , l 'r , i - - - l r ( ) t rd u ctc so n i c,- : e l i c,'i r c a Pl i , r r l i r l i r ,r 't Ir t l l l ,,l ( 'l l r l l 'r 'l r , ! t i D t t r rr a l i i ci t tl c r r r i t:i tl o r i r t. ( l tt i r ( r 'sl rI t-: I rr i : I I r I r' t I l \l tl ,l tr 'r ,r r r r l 'r 'r l I i l l r |'l l ,r \'r t 1 "r 1 ,r r 'r r r tr r l r r r \lrlirnt(lc r tPti tr r 'r l tl i i tu r b i n ci cttl tl l r l t' l l L tl i ,,, ,r l l ,r r I tr l , , i r l l r r i ir l tr a D sl tl i :i i .t :t fr tcc i n l t, r r i j ;r P, r 'i r r r ttl r tl ;.: tzi | , L r n u l ( 'l cct[i c. ,r i l l \ l l l n l i r l r ti ci l l Iu t ta l r tr i l i cl cstL ' i r r r ;'r 5 i tt, r o i , r l l l r l r ,l r ) .r 1 ,, r .r l r '.l ttl ,l l tr r | r : ; . . c i i i r i r ttc i ttt,l tttl o u r i r l , l I t t I I i t I , t I r I , , r l , , r , tr r l 'l r r . \l l l ,,.r r ,l , i r t . . t r : at l i r r a c( .sl ( ca ztti i . r '"1 ' ( n r r l tl i n tctu l ttti l t'ctl . l r tn i i r r <l i ci r l . I) tl r l tr l l t'l tr "tl l l "l l l l l l l r "n Il l l r t ( r ; r t r s r r t i si i t ( 'l l ( 'r i j i o i ( l ( l r t tr r o l o a ttL cr t cr l r l ,,zi i l i t ttt;l ;tr tt l ;r r .l l r ' l l r 'l 'l l l l r u r c u P l t t tI tl ,i n a t- r tj l o i r ttc l l tttcr tti r ', sl ) t- ( r '\' tr tl ) l r t l r r l tr r r l r r l ttr '. l \l r r l r ',r r ,l , , l l , r 'r i z i tr i , i r t g , r t, t,', p o t sl t r i r ca r g r - r( l l vi l ( zi t Io r r tl c tl l ;r tr ', r l .l l i l l l l l l l ( r l l 'l r l f r / D \ t i u l 1 ; ( :( r :t ( c sc t:ti r ',r ,i n sl - 1 ,l a tl a ( :l ( ) i l I( ( sl ( l l l ) | r r l tl tt r '.r r i i tl r i l ; l i t 1 'r r ttttt' t i t i t l t D r r i l ) tl l ( l l l i c, i tt tr ttts tttttl l tl t:ti ttti r '. l ) i tr l tr |l tsl r i l r ttr i tu i i t l o sl tl r 'vtttt' r r . i . , i t t ttt'l r tti tr l r 'z,, l n g r l tt:tj r ' 1 i scl ti tttl r :- r l o i ttl r l l vi l l z,r ' l ) ti r r l r r tttIIi tt.r tr ',r l o .l l r i u ! l i A ( r r'r i r l ( ) r ' s( ) tti ( : l n l l ( l l l tr 'r tl i zi r r ttt l r i l ( l o l l i l r - i l l { sr ' l n l l sl l Il l l tl l t r , r t . r r r r . l , , i r r t cl tttcr l i r r l r '. ( l r c i r r ,'r tttt zi s ci t i t[l i ci tr r ' l r r l ti tcl r ti ttr 'sl l r Pl i ci L l i Il r i rt t I r I t t I r rI ri I r' , l r x o t r r , , f i l , , r ';r r r r i o :r r tr '1 i r r l tl i ,. r r r l l r l l i i tt l o l ccl i i r r ' p r i vr '1 l r ' p t,r l '1 ,'ttt, l c r l '' r l ,'" l r i ,l , ,'l i zo r r tttti r tt l o l ttl ttr ti t r r , l i r r r r r ', tr o r t;r l ti i r ti l r r r ttt r ,r i ttr ,'tr .r l 'r i ;r ti r t r 'l l r tr i r i l ;r l r ' \ r , l .r .i ,i ,,r t,'r l ';i t i r r tl tr tl l '' r '. r / r r | | , t r',,r tr r r r l l tr tl r ' ,'l l r l ttr r ' ',i tl tr tr l l l ttt'r t ,r tl l l l l r r ' 'i i ttt,tt 1 1 tr '1 ,' A||o t tttt I'r l xr tttl t, l r tt ',r ' i ttr ,l l l r r r r l .tttl r r ', l o r r l rr l r tr l ,r Ir ,tr ttr r ' r '||||,i |/, I|| ",'tl tr |,||'||'';|| l l r l : ', , 1 ' | | r l 'l ,r ,r r \,,1 , l ,r l l ,l l r tr ,,t I'r , tl r r l l l l r l In r l l l l l .l n 'r ,

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L - u a d i n u r r tscci u {e l e te o r i e i tr a n sr n i si ci so tti l c r '.1 , , r , 'l .r '.r 'r r ' tl t o . ,r l r r r l l r l l r g cl tcr r r l r r tr tl r l ,r i t n u p u tctn i n vi r ti c o n , l u c t i L fo :r r tt' l u n g i , 'r l s e l , r r : t i c t l c {r t:cvctr fc ca l t d i {cr i L u u cl c d c i tl l tl t p ti tr i r tl , tr '.r l r ' r r r r p l r ' ,\r r "' tr tl r ttl tti i ttl t l l l l l l l l l l l .r l tr r l r ' 1 1 'l ' t r : i r r i i u t f r c cycn l cl t ca r t: i u tp a r t l u n g i m ct r l u n g i m i t l c scm i u n <|.', a ;a i n ci t tu r - a {i :r p o si l r i l i i t ;1 ' t t . t ;r | . t t t I t t t tr r r In r .rl i l l r e t ) r , z f r l l : t t i ( l co ftttr c{i t'co n ti n u i t. Ace a sta tl stco i ttr l i r :r {i cr .r tl tl l tl ' t( 'l r ' l tl l l l .l :l a r i i n , r r , i n u cn {i - r a su p r a fr ccr - cn ft'l o r p o si l r i l t i r t l r r r tt'ttti .i ;r ',r r tr i r r i . l ) r 'i r l l l ' 1 , \r ,tl l ( .r \t i ttl l '.r l l l i r t r r r n t o n i t : t ttttttt'tl l ci n tr cg i si l ttl l l zcl ci tr n r o tr i ti .( ) to ttr l ttr l ;i l o i . r ; l t i n tr u tn t'l r i ttl r t:g i r k'l r r r tg i m i tl tr u n tl i t. l ) ttti p tttl l ttt ttt:r i tl l ttl l ' 1 1 r 'ttr ' l i r l r l i r t r ', P ( 'r tct'r 'i t;i tr r tt<l ttt'ti r , l tl fi [o a l tc l xr si l r i l si - ri n l i tl i r r r l r , r r r r r r l l r r | {l tl tl l i r 2 ( X) 0 , i r l tu l l a 3 ( ) ( X) , sPr t' r 'xttttPl tt, i tr \a r Ir r l l ;r l l l l "r lvolrrlirrni, lllul so tti t, p c r '. l i r r i , r 'sl r ' l r 1 l r l .r d , 1 r i l , i l - r .I ) r i tt ttr r tti r tr ', ctr Pl i tr tl t g r tr r n to :ttcl o t r .r t' tttl ttt:ti l r r l tr r v.ttl ' r l , i , , , r i : r ;r co l tl ttti l r r ttr ttz.i c;tl r '; r 'l l sr ' p o l i tr l i r l i s l : r l r i l l l l . r'l r : i r tl t'tttt r i tl xr r l <|'ttttttr .t. i ttl tl g i ' o l ' Pi tt. r i - r l tl l i .l r l r 'l ''r tl '' g , r r , r , r l r i i r r l i l l u r i i , ( i l l ttcr ttti l ' si r sr ' 1 x'l tcl tti tttttl ti ti r l ttp i i h l i i l r ' :r r tr l o tl i l i ' rll rrrill tt;tl ttt.r . nrrrr, rlll i r r l tr l l i :r t l Jl r i r l r r r l ttttl i tl i str i l r r r {i r r vi IIl Ir ti i l o r l tl r l cr r tt , A r r r r r r r ; t , , r r '.,1 c i r r r g r r ''i l r i l r l , ,t l tr ttt.ttti l c l ttl tl i i ;t Pti ttl t t' ', i "l r ' r . r , r l l . . r '. r tt i ttl t, r 'l |' i tt t.r l r l l tl ttti r l r ' tttttr tr 'tt tttl tr Jl t. l ) . r , , r r r , l i i tt,l tttt L r l .r r tt.r 'r i r 'r r r tr ', t t t , l rt t t t l , . l , , l , t t t , t 1 , 1 ;t.ttt,tl r 1 " r '' l r r r .r l :l l l r '/l r t 'r / r r l , t .t ,r r r ,l r ' \r l l tr , l r l r tr r l r r l 't l tt ,l ttl l tt, 'r tt l t,ttl

lcorirt rtlontikrr. Aur prrtca loir11,, 1,in,.,insir, sir imnginim o tcoria a vibraca a llllor (.1('rtrentclor lrazl'r clrirrrir,i ;rtunci act,stc numere intregi in chimie ;i n-.r fi (l('(it c\prirna'eu faprrlui .ir 'c.r'binaJiire'chimice nu sint decit acor(lurl :rrr)tonicc ale unor r.ibra(ii tlt. rnatt.riei. J)rintrc acordurile muzicalt: avem acorduri consonante gi acorduri dis_ Ionantc; foartc prolrabil ci gi in naturi {cnomenelc impari in doui clasr: sc l('r)onlcnc consonante fcnomcnedistonante. gi Cele dislonant(, sint dc sinr. nu stitf,toare, ^tind citre forme mai simple care sint Iormele consonante sau armonicc. ln chimic acelaqi lucru: c6mbinaliile se .ra.rle.r:r si fie in ral)orturr intregi cit se poate mai simple. Cu cit combina.tiile sint mai comIlllcatc, cu atit sint mai nestabile. Aga incit, incet incet, cred ci <Iaci ag continua conferinta, ne-am intoarce indirlt la muzici. l)csigur pacien{a d-voastri. a intrccut timita adrnisibili. \'oi termina . dccl aceasti cuvintare cu congtiinla implcatiL cd. mi_am ficut cjatoria de a vir lace o comunlcarcce, in orice caz, a fost ascultat:r bunirvoirrfiL. cu Mlrtu_ riscsc ciL nu-mi fac iluzia a fi fost prea clar in e*puneiea mca, in orice caz m[ consolez ci ar fi Iost foarte greu si'r se poati face mai bine cu un subiect atit de tehnic, 9i special,intr-o ixpunere caic sir fie pe inlelesul tuiurorVtr multumesc dar, doamnelor gi domnilor, pcntru amabilitatea de a ,. ll vcnrt la accastl conferinti qi spcrc[ nu v-a obositprca mult cuvintareamea.

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