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Mastering Chemistry - Assignment 1: Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving 1.

Part A The following are changes that affect the composition of our atmosphere. A. Oxygen gas changes to ozone during thunderstorms. B. Freezing rain develops when a warm air mass overrides a cold air mass. C. Carbon dioxide is produced by the combustion of gasoline in an automobile engine. D. Fog forms from water vapor when the temperature drops below the dew point. E. Solid waste decomposes in landfills and produces methane gas. Which of these phenomena involve physical changes and which involve chemical reactions? Physical Change Chemical Change B, D A, C, E Part B In a laboratory experiment, a fermenting aqueous solution of glucose and yeast produces carbon dioxide gas and ethanol. The solution was heated by burning natural gas in a Bunsen burner to distill the ethanol that formed in the flask. During the distillation, the ethanol evaporated and then condensed in the receiving flask. The flame of the burner was kept too close to the bottom of the flask and some of the glucose decomposed into a black carbon deposit on the inside of the flask. During this experiment the following changes occurred. Which of these changes involved a physical change and not a chemical change?

_____ formation of ethanol from glucose by yeast _____ formation of a carbon deposit inside the flask __x__ evaporation of ethanol __x__ condensation of ethanol _____ burning natural gas _____ formation of carbon dioxide gas from glucose

2. Part A Which of the following properties of iron are chemical properties? _____ its shiny __x__ it rusts in water __x__ it reacts with chlorine to form iron chloride _____ it has a mass of 112.23 g.

Part B

Which of the following properties of an ice cube are physical properties? __x__ it is hard __x__ it is cold to the touch _____ it reacts with carbon dioxide to form carbonic acid __x__ it has a mass of 27.3 g.

3. Part A Classify the following as intensive or extensive properties of gold. A. Lustrous yellow in color B. Has a mass of 82.6 g C. Begins to melt at 1064 degrees Celsius D. Has a volume of 4.28 mL E. Has a density of 19.3 g/mL Intensive A, C, E

Extensive B, D

Part B You are given a sample resembling gold. Which of the following properties could be used to help determine whether the sample is really gold? _____ the volume of the sample __x__ the density of the sample __x__ the melting point of the sample 4. In the course of a conversation, you observe that three of your friends like horror movies. Horror movies happen to be your favorite type of movie as well. You also know that all of these friends were born in the same week that you were, even in the same year. An astrology-loving friend hypothesizes that people born in that week like horror movies more than other genres of movies. You decide to use the scientific method to test this hypothesis. Part A What should you do next? A. Come up with a theory to explain why movie preference is related to birth week B. Perform experiments to test your hypothesis C. Propose several alternate hypotheses D. Refine your hypothesis Part B Which of the following experiments would best test your hypothesis? A. Ask your friends if they also like the same music that you like B. Interview all of your friends and find out if the ones born in other weeks also like the same types of movies that you like. C. Find other people born in the same week and ask them what their favorite type of movie is. D. Find other people born in the same week and tell them what your favorite movie is. Ask them if they also liked that movie.

Part C What should you do next? A. Refine your hypothesis B. Come up with a theory to explain why movie preference is only sometimes related to birth week. C. Perform further interviews until you find more people who prefer horror movies. D. Assume that the 10 people you interviewed were lying about their birth week. Conduct further interviews in which you ask movie preference first and only ask about birth week when people say they like horror movies. 5. All matter can be classified as either a mixture or a pure substance. Mixtures can be further classified as heterogeneous or homogeneous. Pure substances can be further classified as elements or compounds. Part A Classify each of the following substances as an element, compound, or a mixture. A. all white spheres (white x white) B. red and white connected (white x red x white) C. red spheres and white spheres separate (red x red, white x white) D. all red spheres (red x red) E. red and white spheres connected (white x red x red x white) F. mixture (red x red) + (white x red x white) Element Compound Mixture A, D B, E C, F Part B Classify each of the following substances as an element, compound, or a mixture. A. carbon monoxide, CO B. iron, Fe C. salt, NaCl D. air E. argon, Ar Element Compound Mixture B, E A, C D Part C Classify each of the following mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous. A. Fruit Salad B. Vodka C. Granite D. Bronze E. Salt Water Homogenous Heterogeneous B,D,E A,C 6. Part A Convert the number 0.000127 to scientific notation, then enter the answer using the MasteringChemistry format - 1.27*10^-4 Part B Use your calculator to determine the answer to the following calculation: (10^-15)/4.2 x 10^-7 Express your answer in MasteringChemistry format using three significant figures 2.38*10^-9 Part C

4.3*10^-6 is between which two numbers? A. 1 x 10^-7 and 1 x 10^-8 B. 1 x 10^-6 and 1 x 10^-7 C. 1 x 10^-5 and 1 x 10^-6 D 1 x 10^-4 and 1 x 10^-5 Part D Which of the following are equal to 5 x 10^10? __x__ 500 x 10^8 __x__ 50 x 10^9 _____ 50 x 10^11 __x__ 0.5 x 10^11 7. Part A Compute 3.5 x 4.48697. Round the answer appropriately. 16 Part B Compute 1240.64/12.5. Round the answer appropriately. 99.3 Part C Compute 9.3456 + 2140.56. Round the answer appropriately. 2149.91 8. Part A Determine the number of significant figures in the measurement 6.07 m? 3 Part B Determine the number of significant figures in the measurement 0.0030s? 2 Part C Round the value 44.981 g to three significant figures. 45.0 9. Part A How many millimeters of liquid does the smaller graduated cylinder contain? 3.50 mL Part B How many millimeters of liquid does the smaller graduated cylinder contain? 1.5 mL Part C If you could only use one of these graduated cylinders, which graduated cylinder would more precisely measure a given volume of liquid? A. the smaller graduated cylinder B. the larger graduated cylinder 10. Perform each of the following conversions. Part A 165 cm to in 1 in = 2.54 cm Part B 3.12 kg to g 1 g = 1,000 kg Part C 3.9 L to qt

65.0 in 3120 g

1 L = 1.057 qt 4.1 qt Part D 111 mm to in 1 mm = .001 m 1 m = 39.37 in 11. Perform each of the following conversions. Part A 1.4 in to mm 39.37 in = 1 m 1 mm = .001 m

4.37 in