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SIXTH EDITION

NSCP C101-10

NSCP C101-10 NATIONAL STRUCTURAL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES 2010 VOLUME I   BUILDINGS, TOWERS AND }

NATIONAL

STRUCTURAL

CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES

2010

VOLUME I

 

BUILDINGS, TOWERS AND

}

I

OTHER VERTICAL STRUCTURES

I

! !

SIXTH EDITION

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Association of Stru ctura l Engineer s of th e Philippines

Suite 7 13, F u t urc P oi nt Plaza Cond o miniu m I 11 2 P a na y A ve nue , Qu ez o n C it y, Ph i lippi nes J 100

Tel. No ; (+632) 410-0483

Fax No. : (+632) 4 11-8606

E m a i I: ;1'i~2!lnli'.1£i(f' illJJ.illi-.~~!ll!

Webs ite: http ://www.ascpo nl ine.org

illJJ.illi-.~~!ll! Webs ite: http ://www.ascpo nl ine.org Na t1onal Struct ural Code o f th e

Na t1onal Struct ural Code o f th e Philippines 6 111 Edition Volume 1

NSCP C101-10

NSCP C101-10 I 1 t ! ! j I l I • [ f l i

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NATIONAL

SlfrRUCTURAL

CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES

2010

VOLUME I

BUILDINGS, TOWERS AND

OTHER VERTICAL STRUCTURES

SIXTH EDITION

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

NATIONAL STRUCTURAL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES (NSCP) CIO I -10 Volume I Buildings, Towers and Other Vertical Structures Sixth Edition, 20 I0, First Ptinting

Copyright @ 20 I0, The Associat io n of Structural En gi neers of

All rights reserved.

of the Associat ion Structural Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (ASEP).

the Philippines, Inc. (ASEP)

This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any fom1 without the written permission

ISSN No.: 2094-5477

PUBLISHER

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (ASEP)

Suite 7 13 Future Point Plaza Condominium 112 Panay A venue, Quezon City,

1100 Philippines

Telephone Nos.

(+{)32) 410-0483

Facsimile No.

(+{)32) 411-8606

E-mail address

aseponline@gmail.com

Website

http://www.aseponline.org

The Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (ASEP) is a professional Association founded in August

1961 to repr esent the s tru ctural engineering community nationwide. This document is published in keeping with the

association's objectivcs;

• Maintenance of high ethical and professional standards in the practice of structural engineering;

• Advancement of structural engineering knowledge; Promotion of good public and private clientele relationship; and Fellowship among structural e ngineers, and professional relations with other allied technical and scientific organizations.

Print History

First Edition, 1972 Second Edition, 1981 Third Edition, 1987 Fourth Edition, 1992 Fifth Edition, 2001 Sixth Edition, 20 10

National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 1 h Edition Volume 1

FOREWORD

For the protection of public life and property, the design of structures and the preparation of structural plans for their construction have to be controlled and regulated. For almost four decades now, this control has been exercised in this country by the National Structural Code of the Philippines with the initial publication by the Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines (ASEP) of the National Structural Code for Buildings. The current publication of the 6'h Edition of NSCP ClOl-10 for buildings, towers and other vertical structures is the affirmation of the mandate of the ASEP to continuously update the National Structural Code of the Philippines with the latest technological developments. While attaining a legal status in its use as a referral code of the National Building Code, NSCP C 101-lO is a publication of high technical value in mau:ers of structural concerns.

The NSCP C I 01-10 is not only completely new in its tec hni cal substance but also in its forma t. It has been a product of a sustained effot1 of ASEP spanning nine years and the fruition of this endeavor has finally come to reality during my incumbency. It is therefore with a deep feeling of gratitude and pride that I commend the members of the ASEIP Board, the Codes and Standards Committee and the Publicity and Publications Committee for their accomplishments.

May 2010.

AD~S,F.ASEP

Presidem Association ofStructural Engineers of the Philippines, 2009-2010

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 2 - Mi ni mum Des ign Lo a d s

2-5

t

CHAPTER 2 - Mi ni mum Des ign Lo a d s 2-5 t 203.1 General

203.1 General

Buildings, towers and other vertical stntctures and all

portions

and,

where required by Sect ion 208, or Chapter 4 and the special seismic load combinations of Section 203 .5.

load

combinations specified in Section 203.3 or 203 .4

thereof shall

be designed

to

resis t the

The most critical effect can occur when one or more of the contributing loads are not acting. All applicable loads shall be considered, includ ing both earthqu ake and wi nd , in accordance with the s pecified load combinations.

203.2 Symbols and Notations

D

=dead load

E

=earthquake load set forth in Section 208.5. 1.1

208.5. L.l

£,

= estimated maximum earthquake force that can be

developed in the structure as set forth in Section

F

= load due to fluids with well-defined pressures and maximum heights

H

= load due to lateral pressure of soil

and water in

soil

L

=live load, except roof live load, including any permitted live load reduction

Lr = roof live load, including any permitted live load reduction

P

= ponding load

 

R

=rain load on the undellected roof

T

=

self-straining force and effects arisi ng from

 

contraction or expansion resulting from temperature t:hange. shrinkage. moisture change.

creep in co mp one nt

mat erial~, m ove me nt due to

differential sett lement, o r

combinations thereof .

W

= load due to wi nd pressure

203.3 Load Combinations using Strength Design or Load and Resista nce Factor Design

203.3.1 Basic Load Combinations

Where load and res istance factor design is used , struc tures and all portions thereof shall resist the most crit ical

effects from the fol lowing t:ombinatio ns of

factored loads:

!.4(D+F)

(203- I)

1.2(D+ F + T)+ I .6(L+ H }+O.S(l.r or I?)

(203-2)

1.2 D + 1.6(L, orR )+ (/ 1 L or 0.8W)

(203-3)

l .2D + 1.6W + ~L+0.5(Lr orR)

(203-4)

1.2D + 1.0£+ //-

(203 -.'i )

0.9D+l.6W+1.6H

(203-6)

0.9D+l.OE+1.6H

(203-7)

where:

/ 1

= 1.0 for floors in places of public assembly, for live loads in excess,of 4.8 kPa, and for garage live load =0.5 for other live loads

cyc~~Y.R-~:~:\:i;:.:!.;.:. , i<; · ::+: j ; ':.~!:4~j;~~:'.!,'f~:;<w~:.(:': 1 Jtii~· ·· ;Jf~?

Fqcf¢~~~H9o/f;·c~kM 1 ~1~~(!f:.fqr_~{rllc;{lft(/.tPM~WP.;Rfr

S e'Ctibrf4 09

3:

'

"

l

""' ' ;

 

· ·. \·

~ ~!: ::\ \ •

 

··

·

 

·

·

·

,

. ·

203.3.2 Other Loads

Where P is to be considered in design, the applicable load shall be added to Section 203.3. 1 factored as 1.2? .

203.4 Load Combinations Using Allowable Stress Design

203.4.1 Basic Load Combinations

Where allowable stress design (working stress design) is

resist the

most critical effects resulting from the following

combinations of loads: .··

used, structures and all port ions thereof shall

D+F

D+H+F+L+T

(203-8)

(203-9)

D + H

+ F + (L/>r R)

(203-10)

D+ H + F +0.75[L + T + (Lror R)]

(203-ll)

D + H + F + (wor

E

1.4

)

(203-12)

No increase in allowa ble stresses s hall be used with these load co mbi nation s except as specifically pe rmitted by

Section 203.4.2.

Nil tional Stru ctu ral Code of tl)e Philippines 6 111 Edition Volume 1

2·6

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads

203.4.2 Alternate Basic Load Combinations In lieu of the basic load combinations specified in Section 203.4.1, ~tl1Jctures and portions thereof shall be permitted to be desig ned for the most critical effects resu lting from the following load combinatio ns. When using these altemate basic load combinations, a one-third increase shall be permilled in allowable stresses for all combinations, including WorE.

~f

~

D + H + F + 0. 7s[ L + Lr

0.60D+W+H

0.60D

E

+ -+H

1.4

D + L+ LrCor R)

D+L+W

D

+L+

~pjiP(I:'·:•,::.

·~.t., t ."

'i!

0

E

1.4

.

·.

.

+ ( W or I~~)]

·

.

·~

.:·'·

(203-13)

(203-14)

(203-15)

(203· 16)

(203-17)

(203-18)

·. ·:

l

(

:

.' ;

:: ·

.

·cj;~Jf1):'iiop~ .!,CJ.i(df:J!~~ - ¥! b~ . co~i.,j.~{l,,with:·rg~[Jive

ioJi{'f!Fi~t~~:morlihah 'One-lialfofih"e '<tiMa:"tOdil. ·::t·,: .

203.4.3 Other Loads Where P is l<l be considered in design, eac h app licable load shall be added to the co mbinati ons specified in Sections 203 .4.1 and 203.4.2.

203.5 Spec.ial Seismic Load Combinations

For both allowable stress design and strength design, the

for se is mi c design

sha ll be used as specifically requi red by Sect ion 208, or

fo llowing spec ial load combinations

by Chapters 3 through 7.

 

(203- 19)

0.9D±

1.0£ 111

(203·20)

where:

f 1

E,.,

= 1.0 for noors in places of pu blic assembly, for live loads in excess of 4.8 kPa. and for garage li ve load.

= 0.5 for ot her li ve loads

= the

vcrllcal

maximum

effect of horizont al

and

forces

as

set

fonh

in

Section

20!1.5. 1.1

Association of StnJclur<~l Eng1ne~rs of the Philippines

CHAPTER 2- Minimum Design Loads

2-7

Table 204-1 Minimum Densities for Design Loads from Materials (kN/ m 3 )

Material

Density

Material

Density

Aluminum

 

26.7

DiiUminous Products Asphallum

··

·······················-····································

···················-····························

,

12.7

Grnphile

21.2

Paraflin

8.8

Petroleum, cmde ···-·····································-··················

8.6

Pelroleum, relined

7.9

Pelrolcum, benzine

7.2

6.6

I0.8

Petroleum. gasoline

Pilch Tar

I 1.8

Brass

82.6

Bronze

86 .7

Cas1-s1one masonry (ccmenl, Slone, sand)

22.6

Cemcnl,

portland, loose

14. 1

Ceramic

li le

23.6

Charcoal

 

1.9

Cinder fill

9.0

Cinders. dry, in hu lk

7. 1

Coal

Anthracite, piled

 

8.2

Bituminous, piled

7.4

Lignite. piled

7.4

Peat, dry. piled Concrete , Plain

3.6

C

inder

17.0

Expanded-slag aggregalc

15.7

Haydite (bumcd-clay aggregate}

14.1

S

lag

20.7

Sto ne

22.6

Vermiculite and perlite aggregate, nonload-lx:aring

3.9-7.9

Olher light aggregalc, load bearing

I 1.0·I 6.5

Concre te, Reinforced Cinder

I7.4

Slag

21 .7

Stone. (including gravel)

23.6

Copper

87.3

Cork. compressed

 

2.2

Earth (not submerged) Clay, dry

 

9.9

Clay, damp

17.3

Clay and gravel. dry

15.7

Silt, moist. loose

12.3

Silt,

moist,

packed

15. 1

Silt,

flo wing

17.0

Sand at1d g ravel, dry,

loose

15.7

Sand and gravel, dry. packed

17.3

Sand and gravel. wet

18.9

Earth (submerged) Clay

 

12.6

Soil

11.0

River mud

14 I

Sand or :<.:tvcl

1).4

Sand or gravel and clay

10.2

Glass

25.1

Gravel, dr y

16J

Gypsum. loo~c

11.0

Gypsurn, wallboard

1.1)

Icc

9.0

Iron

Cast

70.7

Wrought

 

75.'1

Lead

111 .5

Lime Hydrated, loose

5.0

Hydrated. compacted

7 .I

Masonry, Ashlar Stone Grani te

25.9

Limestone, crystalline

25.9

Limestone, oolitic

21.2

Marble

27.2

Sandstone

22.6

Masonry, Brick Hard (low absorption)

20.4

Medium ( medium absorption)

18.1

Soft (high absorption}

15.7

MASONRY. Concrete (solid portion) Lightweight units

16.5

Medium weight units

19.6

Normal weight uni1s

21.2

Masonry grout

22.0

Masonry, Rubble Stone Granite

24.0

Limestone,

crystalline

23.1

Limestone,

oolitic

21.7

Marble

24.5

Sandstone

2 1.5

Mortar, cement or lime

20.4

Particle board

7.I

Plywood

5.7

Riprap (notnubmcrged)

Limestone

13.0

Sandstone

14.1

Sand

Clean and d!)'

14 .1

River, dry

16.7

Slag

Bank

11.0

Bank screenings

17.0

Machine

15.1

Sand

8.2

Slate

27.0

Steel, cold-drawn

77.3

Stone, Quarried, Piled Basalt, granite, gneiss

15. 1

Limestone, marble,

14.9

Sru1dstonc

12.9

Shale

14.5

Greenstone. hornblende

I6.8

Terra Cotta, Architectural Voids filled

18.9

Voids unfilled

11.3

Tin

72.1

Water

Fresh

9.8

Sea

10.1

Wood (sec Table 6.2 for relative dcnsil ics for Philippine wood)

Zinc. rolled ~heel

70.5

National Structural Code o f the Pl1ilippines 6 11 ' Edition Volume 1

2-B

CHAPTER 2- Minimum Design Loads

Table 204-2 Minimum Design Dead Loads (kPa) (Use act ual loads when avai lable)

Component

 

Load

Component

Load

Component

 

Load

CEILINGS Acoustical Fiber Board Gypsum Board (per mrn thickness)

0.05

FLOOR FILL Cinder concrete, per mm Lightweight concrete, per nun Sand, per mm Stone concrete, per mm

0.017

FRAME WALLS Exterior stud walls:

0.015

50x 1(XJ mm @ 400 mm, I 5-mm

0.008

O.OJ5

gypsum, insulated, 10-mm sidin g

 
 

Mechanical duct allowance

0.20

0.023

0 .53

Plaster

on

tile or concrete

0.24

FLOOR AND FLOOR FrNISHES

 

50x 150 111111 @ 400 mm, 15-mm

Plaster on

wood

lath

0.38

 

Suspended steel channel system

0.10

I .44

gypsum, insulated, I 0-mm sid ing Exterior ~tud wall with brick veneer

.0 .57

Suspended metal lath and cement

 

2.30

plaster Suspended metal lath and gypsum plaster Wood futTing suspension system COVERINGS, Roof and Wall

0.72

I .53

0.48

0.

77

Windows, glass, frame and sash Clay brick wythes:

0 .38

1.10

100

nun

1. 87

0.12

200

111111

3.80

 

0

.023

llllll

300

400mm

5.50

7.42

Asphalt

shingles

 

0.10

O.l9

Cement

tile

0.77

0.05

CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS

Clay tile (for mortar add 0.48 kPa)

Book tile, 50 nun

0.57

Book

tile, 75 mm

0.96

Ludowici

0.48

Roman

0.57

Spanish

0.91

Composition:

Three-ply ready roofing

0.05

Four-ply felt and gravcl

0.26

Five-ply felt and gravel

0.29

Copper or tin

0.05

Comtgatcd asbestos-cement roofing

0.19

Deck, mctal20 gage

0.12

Deck, metal, 18 gage

0.14

Fiberboard, 13 mm

0.04

Gypsum sheathing, 13

n1m

O.IO

(per mm

Insulat ion, roof boards thickness) Cellular glass

0.0013

Fibrous glass

0.0021

Fiberboard

0.0028

Perlite

0.0015

polystyrene foam

0.0004

Urethane foam with skin

0.0009

Plywood (per mm thickness)

0.0060

Rigid Insulation, 13 mm Skylight, metal frame,

().{)4

10

nun wire glass

0.38

Slme, 5

mm

0 .34

Slate, 6

mm

0.48

Waterproofing membranes:

Bituminous, gravel-covered . 0.26

Bituminous, smooth surface

0.07

Liquid, applied

0 .05

Sing le-ply, sheet

O.OJ

Wood Sheathing (per mm thick ness)

0.0057

Wood Shingles

0.

14

Asphalt block (50 mm), 13 mm mortar Cement finish (25 mm) on stone- concrete fi II Ceramic or quarry tile (20 mm) on l3 111111 mortar bed Ceramic or quarry tile (20 mm) on 25 mm mo11ar bed Concrete fill finish (per mm thickness) Hardwood flooring, 22 mm Linoleum or asphalt tile. 6mm Marble and mo11ar on stone-

concrete fill

1.58

Slate (per mm thickness )

0.028

Solid flat tile on 25 mm mortar base

1.10

Subflooring,

19 mm

0.!4

Terrazzo (38 mm) directly on

slab

0.91

Terrazzos (25 mm) on stone- concrete

1. 53

TetTazzo (25 mm), 50 mm stone concrete

1.5 3

Wood block

(76 nnn ) on masti c,

no fill Wood bl ock (76 m m) o n 13 nHn

mortar base

.0.48

0 .77

FLOOHS, WOOD-JOIST (no plaster)

 

J ois t Sizes (mm)

 

. Jgis~.~~P.~~i~l.S.

 

'

300

 

'

400

'

600

mm

 

mm

mm

 

'

!

 

sox1so . L

 

-~6~~~ - J : ::~;~-j·: ::C ~0.-~~~~j

·

 

~:j6 · ·

 

50x300

!

0 40

:

0.35

·

0 .30

FRAME l'AIUITJONS

Hollow Concrete Mason ry un its (Un plastcrcd , add 0. 24 kPa fo r each facc_lllastercd)

Grout

Spacing

'

;

Wy the thickness (m m)

200

100

150

;

:

.

16.5 kN/ n? Density of Un it

:Ho: &r O.u i : : :~T9~5~~T

i

is

L:

:~A

~

:

:

6oo

.

,

L:J.9,

1.5o

L

:

1.6 3 ·· :-- · 2:2o··

!. 53

i

2.o 1

:~·99::·::·: :r=L22~]··T9z--r ··2:s4 ··

Full

:

2.50

12~.~~_si!J

.

_1.?:~

!. 59

,

~

2 . 69

r, -·-

i . 2.63

?fUn it

3:59

,

X

1.72

.~?

. 1?.6~1'-Jinr ~.o. grou t :

80~J

~~~

Full

.?/-.2

.

;

+

No grout

1.3 4

1. n

·-

:.; ~:~~ i . 22. :~4

;

;

2.82

:

·••-,-::

:.:.=-.c

.82

3:88

-_::

:.:::.::

lJ11i_t

1.44

IJ2

1.96

2.2

r::r~;:::

2.97

!

2.59

···!·········--··········

i

r

2.92

··3:9t=

kJ~-I/n_r Q~D~i_tyof

i

1.39

i

joQ . : . : : : l: ~L?.L .i · 4oo · · · · ····· · !

600

:

1.83

2

Ful l

2 84

i

i

Movable steel Wood o r steel

partit ions studs, 13 mm

0.19

gypsum board each side

0.38

Wood studs, 50 x I 00, unplastercd

0.1 9

Wood

studs 50 x 100, pl astered

o ne

side

0.57

Wood studs 50 x I00, plastered

two side

0.96

Association of Structural Engineers of tile Philippines

CHAPTER 2 -· Minimum Design Loads

2·9

204.1 General

Dead loads consist of the weight of all materials of construction incorporated into the building or other structure, including but not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions. finishes. cladding and other similarly incorporated architectural and strucLUral items, and fixed service eq uipment, includin g the weight of cranes.

204.2 Weights of Materials and Constructions

The actual weights of materials and constructions shall be

In

used in determining dead loads for purposes of design.

the absence of definite infonnation, it shall be permitted

to use the minimum values in Tables 204·1 and 204·2.

204.3 Partition Loads

Floors in office buildings and other buildings where partition locations are subject to change shall be designed to s up port, in add ition to all other loads, a uniformly distributed dead load equal to 1.0 kPa of floor area.

205.1

General

Live loads shall be the maximum loads expected by the intended use or occupancy but in no case shall be less than the loads required by this section.

205.2 Critical Dis tribution of Live Loads

Where structural members are arranged to create continuity, members shall be designed using the loading conditions, which would cause maximum shear and bending moments. This requirement may be satisfied in accordance with the provisions of Section 205.3.2 or 205.4.2, where applicable.

205.3 Floor Live Loads

205.3.1 General

Floors shall be designed for the unit li ve loads as set forth in Table 205-l. These loads shall be taken as the minimum live loads of horizontal projection to be used in the design of buildings for the occupancies listed, and loads at least equal shall be assumed for uses not listed in this section but that creates or accommodates similar loadings.

Where it can be determined in designing floors that the actual live load will be greater than the value shown in Table 205-1, the actual live load shall be used in the design of such buildings or portions thereof. Special provisions shall be made for machine and apparatus loads.

205.3.2 Distribution of Uniform Floor Loads

Where unifonn floor loads are involved, consideration may be lim ited to fu ll dead load on all spa ns in combination with full live load on adjacent spans and alternate spans.

205.3.3 Concentrated Loads

Floors shall be designed to support safely the uniformly distributed li ve loads prescri bed in this sec tion or the concentrated load given in Table 205 - 1 whichever produces the greatest load effects. Unless otherwise specified the indicated concentration shall be assumed to be uniformly distributed over an area 750 mm square and shall be located so as to produce the maximum load effects in the structural member.

Provision shall be made in areas where vehicles are used

o r stored for concentrated loads, L, co nsis tin g of tw o or

more loads spaced

li ve load s. Eac h load s hall be 40 pe rcent of the

uniform

1.5 m nominally on center without

National Structural Co(Je of til e Philippines 6 11 ' Edition Volume 1

2-10

CHAPTER 2 ·-Minimum Desi9n Loads

gross weight of the maximum size vehicle to be accommodated. Parking garages for the storage of private or pleasure-type motor vehicles with no repair or refueling shall have a floor system designed for a concentrated load of not less than 9 kN acting on an area of 0.015 rn 2 without uniform live loads. The condition of concentrated or uniform live load, combined in

accordance with Section 203.3 or 203.4 as appropriate, producing the greatest stresses shall govern.

205.3.4 Special Loads

Provision shall be made for the special vertical and latera l loads as set forth in Table 205-2.

Table 205-l -Minimum Un iform and Concentrated Live Loads

-· - ·-- - ·- ·-· ·-· · ··- - - ----------- - - -
-· -
·-- - ·- ·-· ·-· ·
··-
- -
----------- -
- - - --.,-- ·- ·c:'Onccntratc·d---·· -
usc or Occut>ancy
Uniform Load 1
Load
---- ···-~ -- --···- ----·-· ··---- v. - -·--- ·----·--·-- -·· ·--- --- · - ···----- ----
Category
Description
kPa
kN
Office use
2.4
1.
Access floor systems
-------
-
-
---1--
-------1------------1
r--- -
Computer use
. 4.8
2.
Armories
7.2
0
f-----------------1------------t----------
----·
·-------
-
Fixed seats
2.9
0
3. Theaters, assembly areas .land
auditoriums.
Movable seats
4.8
0
Lobbies and platforms
4.8
0
Stages areas
7.2
0
4. poolrooms
Bowling alleys,
and
similar
3.6
0
recreational areas
5. Catwalk for maintenance access
1.9
1.3
·------------·--
- ·--- --- ~---- - ·-- --
6. Cornices and marquees
0
--------
-
-
----- --- ··- ----- ··-- -- - -·-
-
··-
- ----·-----
!--- -
---·~-----
7. Dining rooms and restaurants
4.8
0
8.
Exit facilities 5
4
.8
·--------
--
-- --t-
- ·-- -- -~- - ···--- - --- - ---- -1--- ----- ------- -
General storage and/or repair
4
.8
-
--
--··----
----·-
-----·--
-
,
----
---- --j
9.
Garages
Private or pleasure-type motor
1 . 9
--------·-------------
----- i--- -
Ji
c
l
e
"-st
o_ra
,g,_e_
i-- - ·-
----- -!
·----·---
---
·----
Wards and rooms
!.9
1-- ------
,.----
,.---t--------------
-
-
- --
----~
l 0.
Hospitals
Laboratories & operating
rooms
z
2.9
4.5
1--- ----'-- ----------
------------
Corridors above ground floor
_
4.5
-
- ---- --
·--·--·-··----
-
- -
-
- -- --- --- ~
·-- ·----- --·--- ·----·------- ·
Reading rooms
2.9
4.5
2 ·
1--
-- - -- ·------- -
---------------
---------·---
-
I
I
.
Libraries
Stack rooms
7.2
4.5 l
Corridors above ground floor
4.5
·--------------------·-·-- -
---- ----· -------- --- -- 1-
-
-------
·------
-- -----·-- ---
Light
6.0
12.
M anufactu rin g
·- --- -----------------·
-
-- --- -
·----
·-
·--t-----·-- -
Heavy
12.0
--------
---- --
_
_
_
,
.L
,,.,_
---·- ---- -
-- - --·

Associa tion of S truc tural Engineers of the Pt1ilippines

CHAPT ER 2 -· Minimum Design Loads

2·11

Concentrated Usc or Occupancy Uniform Load 1 Load ,. ., , ··-·- -----···- ·············· -·-
Concentrated
Usc or Occupancy
Uniform Load 1
Load
,.
., ,
··-·- -----···- ·············· -·- -·~ ------ ---~ -- ··-··"
---- --
. ·-· --------- - ---- ··-·
·····
·
------·-·····-
.
----------------------- ·····---
. - -- - ·-----~- ---- -·-·
Category
Description
kPa
kN
----
·-
Call Centers & BPO
2.9
9.0
···-
···-- - ---
- ~-----
Lobbies & ground floor
corridors
4.8
9.0
13. Office
Offices
2.4
9.0 2
Building corridors above
3.8
9.0
J:~round fl oo r
2
Press rooms
7.2
11.0
!4.
Printing plants
Composing and linotype
rooms
2
4.8
9.0
-
-
06
Basic floor area
1.9
Exterior balconies
2.9 4
0
15.
Reside ntial 8
Decks
1.94
0
Storage
1.9
0
16.
Re s trooms 9
--
--
--
·-----
17.
Reviewing
stands,
grandstands,
Bleache rs. and folding and telescoping
seating
·-
4.8
0
--- ----·-----------
18.
Roof decks
Same as area served or
Occueancy
--
--
Classrooms
1.9
4 .5 2
19. Schools
Corridors above ground floor
3.8
4.5
Ground floor corridors
4.8
4.5
7
20.
Sidewalks a nd dri veways
Public access
12.0
--
l,ight
6.0
--
,
,
,
2 1. Storag e
---
·-•- v~ -- ····- ·--- -·
Heavy
12.0
--
.,
·---·-
-
2
Retail
4.8
4.5
22. Stores
2
Wholesale
6.0
13.4
23. Pedestrian bridges and walkways
--
4.8
--
-
NOTES 1:0R
TAIIL£ 205-1

1

J

'

)

(,

1

See Section 205.5 for live load reductions.

St•C! St•t·tirm 205

1.3.

first paragraph. for an•a of load

llflfllicatirm.

A

tSt'mbly

arcaJ include such ocCUf)(liiCif'.\' as dtuwt halls, drill rooms. gymntHiwn~. playgroruuls.

arr• ~:r•rwrallyacct!.uible to the public.

For specio/-purpo.w

mrifs.

.we Section 205.4.4.

pla<.n.'i. u~rraccs and .-.imilar occtlp(mci~sthat

Exit facilities slral/ indude .nu:h uS< 1 .t a.f corridorJ ,\·cn•inR an on'UJHmt load of/() o r more pct.wms. exterior f'.rit IJolronit•s. JtairwayJ, fin• t>S<'(If><'s

om/ simi/a~UJC,\'.

lnt/i,•idlw l stair trt'otl.\ sholl lu· dcStJ;IWrl to .\'Uflf10 rl a I .3 kN CtJIICt'll/rat rd load plw·c•d in a position tlrat would cau.'ie mttrimum .\"lrrss striiii:N.r moy he d esignt!d {m the utJifomrlood set font. 11rtlrr toblr.

Stair

1,

Sl!t~St'<'limr 20.5.3 .rt't'f/llr/ pamgmplr.for rmrcrutrated lamlr. Ser Toblr 205-2forl't!lride /mrrirrs.

.t f?~si(/t'lllin{O('C'tlflOIIt"it'S incfutfp privnt~t/w(•/ling.'i. ti{JtJY(IJU

v

RrxtrtHJIII

lood.r

. rlut/1 not

lu~ lt•.u

them

the

hHtcl far

'Ill.~fllllf

hott•f gue.'it I"(}(Jill.\ .

11tr

o t-rupmu)·

u ·i th

which

tht'y an•

n . - ot mtrcl.

f

but

nt~tl not

t!Xt·c-nl

2.4

I:.Pn .

National Structural

CorJe of th<-: Philippines G 11 ' Edition Volume! 1

2-12

CHAPTEI~ 2 ···Minimum Design Loads

Table

205-2 Special Loads'

 

U

()

 

sc

or

ccupancy

Load

Load

 

I

.

Construction, public access at site (live load}

Walkway

7.2

 

1---·----··- -----------------·- ------·----

Cmtopy

7.2

- ··-·-----------·-- -

1-------- J------t---- j

2. (Jrandstant~~.

 
 

reviewing,

stands bleachers, and folding and telescoping seating (live

load}

     

Scats and

1.75

footboards

No/1'3

3.

Stage accessories (h vc

Catwalks

1.9

   

Fo!low--;;-j;;i':··-

-·--·-·----·-

---·-

load}

projection and

2.4

 

·------··-------

-------------

--

Over stages

1.0

4.

Ceiling framing

(live load)

 

A!! uses

except over

0.5 4 ···-·-· --·-·· ······----·- ··-

 

. stages·-·-····-----

 

_

5.

   

0.25

Partitions and intcrior wa! Is,

Elevators and

1--:---::::----

6.

,

---+----·--

--·----·--·-!-----1

2 x total

 
 

dumbwaiters (dead and live loads}

loads

--1--------4

 

0.10 X

 

7.

Cranes (dead <llld live loads)

 

including

impact

increase

I .2) X Iota! load'

total

load 6

 

Exit facilities

 

serving an

occupant load

greater than

0.75

kN/m 7

 

B.

Balcony railings

1-=-5(::

}-----4-------

-- ·-··--

-

and guardrails

 

Other than

0.30

 
 

exit facilities

kN/m 7

Components

     

------·-------

- ····- ---·---- ·····------·····

9

Vehicle bm-ricrs

 

I 0.

Handrai Is

See

 

Nore 10

Note 10

Over 2.4 111

Total

See

I I.

Storage racks

 

high

loads"

Table

 
 

:

1:2:

12.

Fire sprinkler

 

1.1 kN plus

See

struct ural

weight of

Table

 

support

water-filled

J'

208-12

-------------- ------

 

·--·--··-·-···----------· -·--······-·--···--.J---=-==---l---····---

Notesji1r Table 205-2

1 71Je tabulated foods are minimum loods. When' other ••ertical by this code or required hy the tksign would ctw.\'l' grNJier sln•sse.••. they slwll be usl'd. /.l)(u/s are in kl'cJ unku otht,nvise ilulicated inthewbll'.

' Unil.t is kN/111. !.tlt<'l'al Sll'll_l' !>racing loads of 350 N/111 paml/1'1 and 145 N/m pcrpl'ndicular.\· 10 ·"' Ill and jiwtboards.

·'

4 Docs not llj){ ) /y ro cl'ilings that ltuw.> suj)Ici<~nt tow / acu·ss ji·on1

no/ n~quired wilhin tit(.' stwn~ aho\'t?

the 1:l!il i ng. Don·n m apply 111 n · il i u gs if 1h1• ollie lltl'IIS Ill/I N<' the

ceilinx are not prm,ided with access. This Iii•(.' load twed not he

considered os cu:liliJ: simrdtwwously

li\·~· load.'i

below.

.mch that occcs.,· is

H'itlr

o!lwr

·'

"

imposed upon tlu.• ceiling framing or its supporting srrurflln~.

111e impact facwrs included are for crmu~s with ,,·t{·d ll'ht.>e/s

riding 011 su,<'f mils. Tl~<·y may be modified if substrmtiating technical data accepwble to the buildir~g official i.r submit!cd.

l.iw: lo(lds ml crone support Rinlers and /heir coruu!ctio!ls s}wl/ he raken as tire max i mum cr ane 1vlu)el loads . For p t•ndanl ~

opt•rated trcweling crane supporl girders and their com1eclion s.

lhl' impact factors .r/w/1 be 1.10.

7/Jis applies in the ditcction porollel to !lu ru11way rails (long imdinal). Th e factorfo r forces P<'tpem/ic uiM 10 the m il is

0 .20 x tlw tra/ISI 'crse trm•e/ing lood.r (trolley, m /1, hooks a11d

/({/I'd loads). Forces shall '"' appli<•d at /Of/ of mil awl may /11'

di.rturbcd among

distributed wirh due rcgord for lat<'!'al stifftwss of tire structures

supporting lircse rails.

mils of multiple rail crane.r (IIU/ shall i>e

1 A load per lilrcalmeter (kN/m) 10 b1' applied horizontally at right rmgt.>.r to tire top rail. lnrermediate rails, panel fillers and tireir COI!IIectimu shall be capable ofwitlwmoding a load of /.2 kl'a app/i<>d horizon/ally at

s

righl (m/:lex over tlu.! emire tributtll)' area. including opcninns

and Sf>aces between mils. Heactions due to this loading lll'Cd nor b<• combined with tirose of 1.-oolnote 7.

A horizontal load in kN atJ(IIied m righr angi<'S to the vehicle barrier at a hrir;h1 of 450 mm ai/IJI'C tire parkin}/ .!ll rfllct'. 7/oe

fore<~may b.e distril>ured ow:r a JOO·mm·squarC' t1NYl.

10 'llu• IIW/m tin/ of ham/mils shall be .weir

that tl~<• compleu•d

handrail and suppo r ti''8 s t ru C:IIlrt'

on• c apable.• (~(w i!lrslamling tl

load of at leas/ 8 90 N applied in WI)' din~ction or any poinl on

lhl' rail. 'l11t.'.W 1

with Item 9.

11 \lt~rlical members

loads sltalf not l>e a.\·sunwd to acl c·umulmil'el\·

.

of Slota{:~~ racks shall /J(' protecJed frnm

impact fo r<: es <~{operatin.~ equipmen t, or rocks

Jo that failur.t! c~fone w!rfic:a/ member wi/{ 1101 Cllll.'il' cot/apse of

more than lite bay o r bays d irc•crly ,,·uptwrted hy i/wt member.

shall I>< ' d esigned

0

The

1. 1 kN load is 10 be applied ro any single fir~: sprinkler

!·wppon poi 111 hut not :;imuil<wt~oitsly to oil .\·upporl joim .-r.

Association of Structural Engineers of ttw Philippines

CHAPTE:A 2 - Minimum Design Loads

2·13

Table 205-3

Minimum Roof Li ve Loads 1

·--- ---- METHOD I METHOD2 - Tributary Area (m l) Maximum Uniform Rate of ROOF
·--- ----
METHOD I
METHOD2
-
Tributary Area (m l)
Maximum
Uniform
Rate of
ROOF SLOPE
oto 20 Tio to 60
Over 60
Reduc tion
-
Load 2
Red uction,
R
Uni rorm Load (kPa )
(kPa)
r
(percentage)
l.
Flat J or rise less than 4 units venic'hl in
12
un its horizo ntal (33.3% slope). Arch
!.00
0.75
0.60
1.00
0.08
40
and dome with rise less than one-eighth
of span.
2.
Ri se 4 units vertical to less than 12 units
vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3% to
less than I 00% slope). Arch
and dome
0.75
0.70
0.60
0.75
0.06
25
wi th ris e one-eighth of span to less th an
three-eighths of span.
3.
Rise 12 units verti cal Ill 12 units
horizontal (100% slope) and greater.
Arch or dome with rise three-eighths of
span or greater.
0.60
0.60
0.60
0.60
No
reduction permiued
4.
Awnings except cloth covered."
0. 25
0.25
0 .25
0.25
-
-
--------·------- --·--
------
--- --····-·
--·-
~·-
5.
Greenhouses,
lath
houses
and
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
agri cultural bui ldings. 5
1
For specinl-purpos~ ronf r. s~e Section 205.4.1 .
1
Se~ S ections 205. 5 tmd 205 .6 for
r educti o n, R , s hall not ~xce cd th ~
li1•e·lond uduc tim:s.
The rote of rt•duc tion
r in £qumio n 205- I .rhn/1 !Je as indicat<'d in th e table .
'111~ maximum
mlut' indicnt t' d in the to hit'.
J
A flat ro o f is
"".I' rt )(J f ~<·ith a s lop e lc.u thrm /14 unit>•erti c nl i n /
2
un i t.< l w
ri:o nt a / (2 % slope ).
Th e li l't' f o od f o r flat r onf l is i11 addition to th l'
flmulinl: load requirt!d by Sc•cti1111 206. 7.
'
Srt• d r{i1111irm in St'l'tion 202.
'

Sc·e S rction 205.4. 4{or coi/C<'Jitrmed food l 'l'lfllire mellt.t f o r ll '"'' 11hm 1.1e mof ml'lnbers.

205.4 Roof Live Loads

205.4.1 General

Roofs shall be designed for the unit live loads, L, set fo11h in Table 205-3. The live loads shall be assumed to

act vert ically upon the area projected plane.

on a hori zontal

205.4. 2 Distribution of Loads

Where uniform roof loads are in volved tn the design of ~lruclllral members arranged to create continuity, cons ideratio n may be limited to full dc.1d loads on all

spans

in combination with full roo f live load s on adjacent

spans

and on al ternate spans.

Exception:

Alteniate spar; loading need not be considered where the uniform roof live load is 1.0 kPa or more.

For those conditions where light-gage metal preformed structura l sheets se rve as the supp o r1 a nd tinish of ro ofs, roof structural members a1Tanged to create continuity shall be considered ad equate if designed for full dead loads on all s pan s in combination wi th the most c riti cal one of the fo llowing superi mposed loads:

The unifonn roo f live load, L, set forth in Table 205 -

I .

3 o n al l spans.

2. A concentrated gra vi ty load , I~, of 9 kN placed on

any s pa n s upporting a tribut ary area greater than 18

ress es in th e me mber,

whenever thi s loading creates greater stresses than those caused by the uniform live load. The

concentrat ed load shall be

m 2

to

create

maximum

st

placed nn the member over

a length of750 mm along the span. The concentrated

load need not be applied to more than one span

s imu!tancousl y.

:t Water accumulatio n as prescribed in Section 206.7.

N ational S tru c tura l Co<je of t11e Philipp1n es 6 111 Eclition Volun1e 1

2- 14

CHAPTER 2- Minimum Design Loads

205.4.3 Unbalanced Loading

Unbalanced loads shall be used where such loadi ng

will

resul t in larger members or connections.

Trusses

and

arches

unit Ji ve loads on one half o f the spa n if suc h loadi ng

results in reverse stresses, or stresses greater in any

portion than the stresses produced by the required unit Jive load on the entire span. For roofs whose structures

are composed of a stressed she ll , fram ed

or solid, wherei n

s hall be designed to resist the stresses caused by

stresses caused by any point loading are distributed

throughout the area of the shell, the requirements for

unbalanced unit

live load design may be reduced 50

percent.

205.4.4 Special Roof Loads Roofs to be used for special purposes s hall be designed

for appropriate loads as approved by the building o fficial. Greenhouse roof bars, purlins and raft ers shall be

d esigned to carry a 0.45 kN concen trated load, L,. in nddition to the uniform Jive load

205.5 Reduction of Live Loads The design live load dete rmined using the unit li ve loads as set fort h in Table 205- 1 for floors and Table 205-3, Method 2, for roofs may be reduced on any member s upporting more than 15 m 2 , including fl at sla bs, exce pt fo r floors in places of public assembly and for li ve loads

g reater tha n 4.8 kPa, in accordance wi th the following equ ation:

(205- I)

R

= r(A -15)

The reduction shall not exceed 40 percent for members

receiving load from one level only, 60 percent for ot her

membe rs o r R, as detem1ined

by the follow ing equation:

R

=23. 1(1 + Dl L)

(205-2)

where:

A

= area of fl oo r or roof

supported by the member,

square meter, m 2

D

= dead load pe r square meter of area supported by the member. kPa

L

= unit live load per square meter of area supported by the member, kPa

R

= reduction in percentage,%.

r

= rate of reduction equal to 0.08 for floor.~. Sec Table 205-J for roofs

f-o r storage lo ads exceedi ng 4.8 kPa , no reduction shall be made, except th at design live loads on columns may he reduced 20 percent.

The live l oad reduc tion shall not exceed -W t'"'

garages for the s torage of private pleasure cars ha,·iu_s a capacity of not more than nine passengers per vehicle.

;n

·,: J:!

205.6 Alternate Floor Live Load Reduction

As an alternate to &1uation (205- I ), the unit livc loads se t forth in Table 205- 1 may be reduced in accordance with Equation 205-3 Oil_ any member, including flat slabs,

ha ving an influcncc.,.,area of 40 m 2 or more.

where:

A 1

= influence area, m 2

(205-3)

L = reduced design Jive load per square meter of area supported by the member L., = unreduced design live load per square meter of area supported by the membe r (Table 205- 1)

The influence area A 1 is four times the tri butary area for a column, two times the tri butary area for a beam, equal to the panel area for a two-way slab , and equ al to the product of the span and the full fl a nge width for a precast T-beam

The reduced live lo ad shall

the unit live load L, for members receiving load from one level only, nor less than 40 percent of the unit live load L,. for other members.

not be less than 50 percent of

/l.ssoci<.ltion of S tructurAl Engineers of the Pl1ilippines

206.1 General Jn addition to the other design loads specified in this chapter, structures shall

206.1 General

Jn addition to the other design loads specified in this chapter, structures shall be designed to resist the loads specified in this section and the special loads set forth in Table 205-2. Sec Section 207 for design wind loads, and Section 208 for design earthquake loads.

206.2 Other Loads

Buildings and other structures and portions thereof shall be designed to resist all loads due to applicable fluid pressures, F, lateral so il pressures, H. ponding loads, P. and self-straining force .s, T. See Section 206.7 for ponding loads for roofs.

206.3 Impact Loads

The Jive loads specified in Sections 205.3 shall be assumed to include allowance for o rdinary impact condi tion s. Pro vi s ions shall be made in the s truc tu ral design for uses and loads that involve unusual vibration and impact forces. Sec Section 206.9.3 for impact loads for cranes, and Section 206.10 for heliport and helistop landing areas.

206.3.1 Elevators

Al l elevator loads shall be increased by J00% fo r impact.

206.3.2 Machinery

For the purpose o f desig n. the weight of machinery and moving loads shall be increased as follows to allow for impact:

I. Elevator machinery

2 . Light mac hinery, shaft- or motor-dri ven

100%

20%

3.

4.

Recipro c ating mac hinery or power-driven units

50%

Hangers for floors and balconies

33%

All percentages shall be increased where specified by the manufacturer.

206.4 Anchorage of Concrete and Masonry Walls

C onc re te a nd mason ry wa ll s s hall be anchored

by Section

o f Sec t io n 203.3 or 203 .4 earthquake loads required

by this chapter or a mi nimum hori zontal force o f 4 kN/m

of wa ll , subs tituted for£.

res isti ng the load co mbin a tions using the greater o f the wind or

as required capable o f

I04 .3.3. S uc h anchorage shall he

required capable o f I 04 .3.3. S uc h anchorage shall he 206.5 Interior Wall

206.5 Interior Wall Loads

Interior walls, permanent par!JtJons and temporary partitions that exceed 1.8 m in height shall be designed to resist all loads to which they are subjected but not less than a load, L, of 0.25 kPa applied perpendicular to the walls. The 0.25 kPa load need not be applied s imultaneously with wind or seismic loads. The ddlcction of such walls under a load of 0.25 kl'a shall not exceed 1/240 of the span for walls with brittle finishes and 11120 of the span for walls with tlcxible finishes. Sc.e Table 208- I 2 for earthquake design requirements where such requirements arc more restrictive.

Exception: ·.·'

Ffexible;}oiding or portdbl~-piir@otfs;a.re.fiO.f. re(j!{ire.d to

,~~~~(~~~3~a~.aiftl -~~fl

be

t~t.i.M/cn(~rift::';b!f;(·ifl.l.~'-r'··

· ,r{(:f~t.u,te.;.;to ; tne . e1 the

.

·

.

·

a~¢.hori?, · to }~ · ~~pp.ortf.~¥

provis!o~

206.6 Retaining Walls

Retaining walls s ha ll be designed to resist loads due to the lateral pressure of retained ma terial in accordance with accepted engineering practice. Walls retaining drained soil, where the surface of the retained soil is level, shall be designed for a load, N, equivalent to th at exerted by a fluid weighing not less than 4.7 kPa per meter of depth and having a depth equal to that of the retained soil. Any s urc harge shall be in add ition 10 the eq ui valent fluid pressure.

Retaining walls shall be designed to resist s liding by at leas t 1.5 times the lateral fo rce and overturning by at least 1.5 times the overturning momcnl, using allowable s tress design loads.

206.7 Water Accumulation

All roo fs shall be designed w ith s uffi cient s lo pe or camber to ensure udcquate drainage after the long-term deflection from dead load or shall be designed to resist ponding load, P, co mbined in accordance with Section 203.3 or 203.4. Ponding load shall include water accumulation from any source due to deflection.

206.8 Uplift on Floors and Foundations

In

approximately

the

design

of

basement

floo rs

ho rizontal

elements

below

and

si mi lar

the

grade,

upward

press ure

u J

water,

where

applicabl e , s ha

ll

be

taken as

the

full

hydrostatic pressure applied over !he

e nt ire area. The h ydrost a tic load s hall be measu red from

Any other upward

the

loads shall be included in the design.

underside

o f

the co nstruction.

Where expansive soils arc present under foundatio ns or

s labs-on-ground. the foundations, slabs, and other

<.:omponents shall be d esigned lO to lerate the moveme nt or

Na l1oncll S tru c tura l Code of tile Pl1ilippine s 6 1 " Edition Volu1110 1

2·16

CHAPTEFI 2- Minimum Design loads

resist the upward loads caused by the expansive soils, or the expansive soil shall be removed or stabilized around and beneath the structure.

206.9 Crane Loads

206.9. 1 General The cw ne load shall be the rated capacity of the crane. Design loads for the runway beams, including connections and support brackets, of moving bridge cranes and monorai l cranes sha ll include the maximum wheel loads of the crane and the vertical impact, lateral. nnd longi tudinal forces induced by the moving crane.

206 .9.2 Maximum Wheel Load The maximum wheel loads shall be the wheel loads produced by the weight of the bridge, as appl icable, plus the sum of the rated cap:~city and the weight of the trolley wit h the tro lley posit ioned on its runway where the resulting load effect is maximum .

206.9.3 Vertical Impact Force

The maximum wheel loads of the crane shall be inc reased by the percentages shown below to determine the induced vertical impact or vibration forc e:

I.

Monorai l cranes

(powered)

25%

2.

Cab-operated or remotely operated bridge cranes (powered)

25%

3.

Pendant-operated bridge cranes (powered)

10%

4 .

Bridge cranes or monorail cranes with hand-geared ridge. trolley and hoist

0%

206.9.4 Latenll Force

The lateral force on crane runway beams with electrically powered trolleys shall be calculated as 20% of the sum of the rated capacity of the crane and the weight of the hoist and trolley. The lateral force shall be assumed to act horizontally at the traction surface of a runway beam, in ei ther direction perpendicular to the beam, and shall be distributed with due regard to the lateral stiffness of the runway bea m and supporting structure.

206.9.5 Longitudinal Forces

The longitudinal force on crane n111way beams, except for bridge cranes with hand-geared bridges, shall be

whee l loads of th e

crane. The longitudinal force shall he assumed to act horiwntnlly nt the traction surface of a runway beam, in either direction parallel to the beam .

calculated a~ I 0% of the maximum

206.10 Heliport a nd Helistop Landing Areas

In addition to olher design requirements of this chapter, heliport and helistop landing or touchdown areas shall be designed for the following loads. combined in accordance

wi th Section 203.3 or 203.4:

I . Dead load plus acwal weight of the helicopter.

2. Dead load plus a single concentrated impact load, L,

covering 0.1 m 2 of 0.75 times the fuil y loaded weight

of the helicopter if it is equ ipped with hydraul ic-type

shock absorbers. or 1.5 times the fully loaded weight

helicopter if it is equipped with a 1igid or s kid-

of the

type landing gear.

The dead load plus a uniform live load. L, of 4.8 kPa. The required live load may be reduced in accordance wi th

Section 205.5 or 205.6.

/\SSOCiiltion of S tru ctural En9ineers o f the Pl1ilipp1nes

CHAPTER 2 -- Minimum DHsign Loads

2·17

CHAPTER 2 -- Minimum DHsign Loads 2·17 . ' APPROVED. jurisdiction. Acceptable to the author ity

.'

APPROVED.

jurisdiction.

Acceptable

to

the

author ity

hav ing

207.1 General

207.1.1 Scope

Buildings, towers and other vertical structures, including the Main Wind-Force Resisting System (MWFRS) and all components and cladding thereof, shall be designed and constmcted to resist wind loads as specified herein.

207.1.2 Allowed P1·ocedurcs

BASIC WIND SPEED, V Three-second gus t speed at I 0 rn above the ground in Exposure C (sec Sect ion 207 .5.6.3) as determined in accordance with Section

207.5.4 and associated with an annua l probabilit y for 0.02

of being equaled or exceeded. (50-yea rs mean recurrence

interval).

BUILDING, ENCLOSED is a building that does not comply with the requirements for open or partially enclosed buildings.

The design wind loads for buildings, towers and other vertical stn1c1Ures, including the MWFRS and component and cladding clements thereof, shall be determined using one of the following procedures: (I) Method I ·~ Simplified Procedure as specified in Section 207.4 for building meeting the requirements specified therein; (2) Method 2 - Analytical Procedure as specified in Section 207.5 for buildings meeting the requirements specified therein; (3) Method 3 - Wind Tunnel Procedure as specified in Section 207 .6.

207.1.3 Wind Pressures Acting on Opposite Faces of

Each Building Surface

In the calculation of design wind loads for the MWFRS and for componellls and cladding for buildings, the algebraic sum of the pressures acting on opposite faces of each building surface shall be taken into account.

207.1.4 Minimum Design Wind Loading The design wind load, determined by any one of the procedures specified in Secrion 207.1.2, shall be not less than specified in this section.

207.1.4.1 Main Wind-Force Resisting System

The wind load to be used in the design of the MWFRS for an enclosed or partially enclosed building or other structure shall not be less than 0.5 kPa multiplied by the

area of the building or structure projected onto a vertical

plane normal to the assum ed

wind force for open buildings and other struct ures shall be not less than 0.5 kPa mu ltiplied by the area A 1 as defined in Section 207.3.

wind direction. The des ign

BUILDING ENVELOPE. Cladding, roofing, exterior wall, glazing, door assemblies, window assemblies, skylight assem bl ies, and other components enclosing the building.

BUILDINGS, FLEXIBLE. Slender buildings that have a fundamental natural frequency less than I Hz.

BUILDING, LOW-RISE. Enclosed or partial ly enclosed building that comply with the foll owi ng conditions:

I. Mean roof he ight h less than or equal to 18 m.

2. Mean roof height h docs not exceed least horizontal dimension.

BUILDING, OPEN. A building hav ing each wall at least

Th is condition is expressed for each

80 percent open.

wall by the equation A,<:: 0.8 AK w he re

BUILDING, PARTIALLY ENCLOSED is a building that com plies with both of the following conditions:

the total area of openings in a wal l that receives

l .

pressure exceeds the sum of the

balance of the building

envelope (walls and roof) by more than I 0%; and

2. the total area of ope nings in a waJI that receives positive external pressure exceeds 0.5 m' or I percent of the area of that wall, whichever is smaller, and the percentage of openings in the balance of the building enve lope docs not exceed 20 percent.

positive external areas of openings

in

the

207.1.4.2 Components and Cladding

The design wind pressure for components and cladding of buildin gs shall no t be less than a net pressu re of 0.5 kPa acting in either direction normal to the surface.

207.2 Definitions

The

Section 207.

following definitions

apply

to

the

provisions

of

Na tional St1·uctural CorJe of the Philippines 6 111 E'cJit ion Volume 1

ilippines

ilippines

eers of the Phllippincs
eers of the Phllippincs
eers of the Phllippincs

eers of the Phllippincs

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