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Laboratorul 3 Probleme de rutare

1 Topologie
Loopback 0 R1 R2

R4

R3

Topologia se va realiza n Packet Tracer.

2 Obiective laborator
n aceast activitate, studenii vor aprofunda crearea de rute statice, vor observa i depana problemele ce pot aprea la rutarea static sau dinamic. Punctele principale de interes vor fi:
Configurarea routerelor i a interfeelor acestora Crearea i utilizarea de interfee loopback Studierea i depanarea buclelor de rutare

Studierea i depanarea problemelor de sumarizare

3 Exerciii
1. n acest task se vor face configurrile de baz ale routerelor: Configurai parola secret de enable cisco Configurai hostname-ul corespunztor topologiei (ex. R2) Configurai parola pentru conexiunile telnet cisco Scriei o comand greit n modul enable (Ex. pimg n loc de ping). Observai ce se ntmpl. Pentru a opri cutarea aprut folosii Ctrl-Shift-6 Dezactivai cutarea de domenii (ip domain lookup). Observai rezultatul repetnd comanda anterioar

Activai logarea sincron pe linia de consol

Command erase startup-config reload

Description Erases the contents of the configuration memory. To reload the operating system, use the reload command in privileged EXEC mode. To specify an additional layer of security over the enable password command, use the enable secret command in global configuration mode. Use the no form of this command to turn off the enable secret function. To specify or modify the host name for the network server, use the hostname global configuration command. To identify a specific line for configuration and enter line configuration collection mode, use the line command in global configuration mode. Specifies a password on a line. o enable the IP Domain Name Systembased host name-to-address translation, use the ip domain-lookup global configuration command. To disable the Domain Name System, use the no form of this command.

enable secret [passwd]

hostname [name]

line vty 0 4

password [passwd] no ip domain lookup

2. Subnetai ct mai eficient spaiul de adrese 192.168.1.0/24, pentru a adresa interfeele seriale dintre routere Identificai masca potrivit pentru o conexiune serial (punct-la-punct) Configurai interfeele routerelor, folosind subreele consecutive. Nu uitai s configurai clock rate-ul

Verificai conectivitatea ntre routerele direct conectate folosind ping

Command interface [interface_name interface_no]

Description Interface configuration mode allows you to configure an interface. To access interface configuration mode, use the interface command from global configuration mode. The prompt changes to (config-if [interface_name]). You can also use this command in interface mode to access another interface. To set a primary or secondary IP address for an interface, use the ip address interface configuration command. To remove an IP address or disable IP processing, use the no form of this command. To configure the clock rate for the hardware connections on serial interfaces such as network interface modules (NIMs) and interface processors to an acceptable bit rate, use the clock rate interface configuration command. To remove the clock rate if you change the interface from a DCE to a DTE device, use the no form of this command. Using the no form of this command on a DCE interface sets the clock rate to the hardware-dependent default value.

ip address [add] [mask]

clock rate [clock_rate]

3. n acest task se vor creea interfee de loopback De pe routerul 1, din terminalul de configurare, intrai n meniul de configurare al interfeei loopback 0. Aceasta va fi creat automat Configurai adresa IP 10.0.1.1/24 pentru aceast interfa De pe routerul 4, creai interfaa loopback 0 cu adresa 10.0.2.1/24

4. n acest task se vor creea rute statice i se vor studia efectele unei bucle de rutare Se creeaz urmtoarele rute statice: o o o o o o o o De pe R1 ctre reeaua (R2-R3) prin R2 De pe R1 ctre reeaua (R3-R4) prin R4 De pe R4 ctre reeaua (R1-R2) prin R1 De pe R4 ctre reeaua (R2-R3) prin R3 De pe R2 ctre reeaua (R1-R4) prin R3 De pe R2 ctre reeaua (R3-R4) prin R3 De pe R3 ctre reeaua (R1-R4) prin R2 De pe R3 ctre reeaua (R1-R2) prin R2

Se testeaz conectivitatea folosind ping.(ex: de pe R1 pe reeaua R3-R4). Ce observai? Identificai i rezolvai problema de routare Concluzie: astfel de probleme pot aprea dac protocoalele de rutare genereaz bucle de rutare

Command ip route [net_address] [net_mask] [next_hop_address / next_hop_interface]

Description To establish static routes, use the ip route command in global configuration mode. To remove static routes, use the no form of this command.

5. Creai pe R2 i R3 ruta sumarizat 10.0.0.0/8 via R1. O astfel de rut poate fi creat de un protocol de rutare classful. Testai conectivitatea de pe R3 ctre 10.0.2.1. Ce observai? Care este problema? Concluzie: astfel de probleme se numesc black hole routing i sunt cauzate de autosumarizarea unor rute n reele cu spaii de adresare disconinue (n cazul nostru cele dou reele 10.0.0.0/8 sunt separate de reeaua de pe conexiunea serial)

6. Bonus: restartai ruterele i realizai conectivitate n reea folosind RIPv1. Hint: cisco.com / ask your instructor