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Bisericile Fortificate ale Sa[ilor din Transilvania The Fortified Churches of the Transylvanian Saxons

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Na]ionale a Romniei IOAN, AUGUSTIN Biserici Fortificate ale Sa[ilor din Transilvania / Augustin Ioan [i Hanna Derer; versiunea englez`: Constantin Lucian [i Ioana Luca; ed.: Arpad Harangozo. - Bucure[ti: Noi Media Print, 2004 ISBN: 973-7959-14-0 I. Derer, Hanna II. Lucian Constantin (trad.) III. Luca, Ioana (trad.) IV. Harangozo, Arpad (ed.)

Bisericile Fortificate ale Sa[ilor din Transilvania

The Fortified Churches of the Transylvanian Saxons

DINCOLO, ACAS Augustin IOAN

Bisericile sa[ilor din Transilvania ndeplinesc toate criteriile prin care putem recunoa[te buna arhitectur` pentru comunitatea de pretutindeni. Fenomenul pentru c` sutele de biserici fortificate permit extragerea unor tr`s`turi comune [i simptomatice poate fi folosit cu prisosin]` didactic` spre a nv`]a [i a celebra buna ntocmire a unei cet`]i [i, mai cu seam`, a spa]iului s`u central, destinat cultului. n economia inevitabil strmt` a unui asemenea text introductiv nu pot fi celebrate toate; iat`-le ns` pe cele cu gradul de generalitate cel mai semnificativ, n opinia unuia care le descoper` la fel de fascinat, ca parte a propriei tradi]ii profesionale. 1. Sanctuarul este, prin chiar defini]ia lui de loc sfnt, un loc al ascunderii. Acel dincolo pe care l verific` ([i l edific`) spa]iul sacru, spa]iul lui Cel`lalt total diferit (R. Otto) nseamn`, printre altele, [i loc de ascundere ocrotitor. Str`in`tate radical`, loc straniu, locul sacru este n acela[i timp [i teritoriul ocrotirii. Dreptul la sanctuar a fost [i este respectat nc` n ceea ce prive[te l`ca[ul de cult, dup` cum nc`lcarea lui poate produce efecte devastatoare. Prin urmare, n chiar defini]ia l`ca[ului religios ntlnim ideea de ocrotire. Dublate de fortifica]iile proprii, bisericile sa[ilor transilv`neni func]ioneaz` drept centru viu al comunit`]ii care se ascunde pe teritoriul ei n caz de primejdie. Fortifica]ia pare c` nu face altceva, n plan simbolic, dect s` traseze
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BEYOND. THAT IS, HOME Augustin IOAN

The Saxon churches in Transylvania meet all the criteria by means of which we can recognize good community architecture everywhere. Accordingly, and given that hundreds of fortified churches are still in existence, we can easily identify significant features that can be put to good didactic use: while celebrating the art of citadel construction, they also teach it to us, together, and more importantly, with that of erecting the central worship space. In the limited space allotted to an introductory text I cannot possibly do justice to all the fascinating aspects of these churches; while still being excited to discover them all as part of my own professional tradition, below I will dwell only on those that I deem most general. 1. The sanctuary is, by its very definition as of a holy site, a place of concealment. That beyond which the sacred space confirms (and defines), the space of the wholly other (R. Otto), also signifies a protecting place. As radical strangeness, as a place of the strange, the sacred place is at the same time the territory of protection. As far as worship places are concerned, their right to provide sanctuary was and still is respected, and violating it may have tragic results. Consequently, the very definition of a religious abode implies the idea of protection. Strengthened by fortifications, the churches of the Transylvanian Saxons acted as the living center of their
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cu precizie, s` fac` vizibil` [i defensiv` limita spa]iului sacru. Din acest punct de vedere, ele sunt amplasate n vederea ocrotirii limitei (Carpa]ii o fac vizibil` [i mai u[or de ap`rat) dinaintea naint`rii musulmane. 2. Avanpostul este dublu orientat: a) n sus: plasate pe punctele cele mai nalte ale a[ez`rii,

vizibile deopotriv` pentru ochiul privind de sus, ct [i de cel privind dinspre localitate spre centrul ei nalt, biserica fortificat` este un avanpost pe vertical`. b) spre est: localizate pe locuri mndre (Alberti), care s` ng`duie epifania (Aristotel), bisericile sunt de asemenea plasate ca avanposturi ale cre[tin`t`]ii n raport cu invaziile t`tare [i turce[ti. A fost ideea teutonilor, aceea de a avansa [i p`stra prin arme limita estic` a cre[tin`t`]ii r`s`ritene, pentru ca, ulterior, cet`]ile [i bisericile fortificate ale germanilor, secuilor [i ale satelor romne[ti bistri]ene s` preia aceast` func]ie de prim` linie defensiv`. 3. Caracterul fractal al ansamblului. Fortifica]ia este de altfel un criteriu de departajare a tipologiei bisericilor s`se[ti: zidul perimetral este fortificat (cu unul sau mai multe rnduri succesive), sau, deopotriv`, zid [i biseric` sunt fortificate, articulate ntr-un sistem de ap`rare plurimorf. Pe rnd, zid exterior (unul sau mai multe), turnuri, drum de straj` n podul bisericii, turnul situat de regul` pe pronaos, devin dispozitive care ng`duie
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communities, which could take shelter on their territory in case of danger. Symbolically, these fortifications seem to have had no other role but mark out precisely and visibly the limits of the sacred space. From this point of view, they may be said to have been erected with a view to protecting the borderlands (which the Carpathians make visible and easier to defend) in front of the Muslim advance. 2. As outposts, they had a two-fold orientation, both upwards and eastwards. Situated on the highest spot in the settlement, equally visible for the eye looking up and for that gazing from anywhere on the territory towards the center, the Transylvanian fortified churches can be said to be an outpost on a vertical axis. On the other hand, located on the fair ground (Alberti) that enables epiphany (Aristotle), these churches also act as outposts of Christianity in front of the Tartar and Turkish invasions. It was first the Teutons who wanted to advance to and defend the eastern border of Christianity; subsequently, it was the fortified churches and citadels of the Germans and Szecklers and the Romanian villages in Bistrita that took over this role of first defensive line. 3. The fractal character of the ensemble. Fortification serves as a differentiating criterion in the typology of Saxon churches: it is either the surrounding wall that is fortified (with one or more successive layers) or, on the contrary, it is the wall and the church that are fortified, thus making up a multi-shaped defense system. In turn, the outer wall(s), the wall turrets, the guard zone in the church attic, or the bell tower usually situated on the narthex become defensive locations that permit developing complex retreat strategies, as well as easy communication between the various defensive positions. Even the gates, with their highly sophisticated locking systems, are part and parcel of the defensive system, illustrating on a small scale the complexity of the ensemble. On the other hand, this fractal-like feature also defines life within the precincts when the whole community is

strategii complexe de repliere [i comunicarea ntre diferitele pozi]ii defensive. U[ile chiar cu extrem de elaborate sisteme de ncuietori fac parte integrant` din sistemul de ap`rare, repetnd n mic complexitatea ansamblului. Pe de alt` parte, fractalitatea devine o tr`s`tur` care define[te via]a n incint` n cazul replierii a[ez`rii n`untrul ei. G. Oprescu o nume[te miniatura vie]ii normale: n intervalele dintre atacuri, sau n a[teptarea lui, fiecare membru al comunit`]ii [i prelungea n incint` ([i la scar` redus`) via]a din afara ei: Fiecare, n afara orelor de lupt`, [i continua, cum putea, meseria. 4. Coprezen]a define[te, n buna tradi]ie a arhitecturii, modul n care aceste biserici [i zidurile lor ap`r`toare au evoluat de-a lungul istoriei. n primul rnd, este vorba despre o func]ionalitate a pluralit`]ii. Dar, mai mult, este vorba despre o coprezen]` a modurilor arhitecturale nsele. Din secolul al XIII-lea [i pn` n cazuri extreme n secolul al XIX-lea, cnd fortificarea putea fi considerat` de regalitate un primejdios mod de a dobndi ([i de a afi[a) autonomia a[ez`rii, deopotriv` fortifica]iile (atta timp ct ele au fost eficace din perspectiva artei r`zboiului) [i bisericile, [i-au schimbat chipul, fie prin ad`ugare succesiv` de straturi pe vertical` sau pe orizontal`, fie, n secolele din urm`, prin restaurare. Construirea nou` era adeseori urmarea devast`rii [i distrugerii, dar nu mai pu]in semnul unui statul comunitar nou sau al unei prosperit`]i rec[tigate. 5. Arhaicitatea este o tr`s`tur` eviden]iat` de aproape to]i cercet`torii fenomenului transilvan. ntrzierea de decenii (sau chiar secular`) pe alocuri cu care arhitectura acestor n majoritatea cazurilor hallenkirchen nu este exclusiv produsul unei retard`ri n raport cu stilurile occidentale eponime. De altfel, ntr-un concert polifonic al straturilor succesive, a fi la zi cu ultimul stil arhitectural din marile ora[e mittel-europene reprezint` ultima dintre preocup`rile locuitorilor sa[i. Un anumit autism arhitectural este cu siguran]` expresia

forced to take shelter between its walls. G. Oprescu calls this normal life in miniature: between attacks or while preparing for an invasion, each member of the community transferred inside, on a reduced scale, his or her life outside. Oprescu writes: After battle, each inhabitant continued his trade as best as he could. 4. Co-presence defines, in the good tradition of architecture, the way in which these churches and their defensive walls have evolved in history. First, we notice plural functionality. Moreover, we also notice the copresence of architectural modes. From the 13th century, when fortifications could be seen by the rulers as a dangerous attempt of a settlement or another to acquire (and assert) its autonomy, up to (in extreme cases) the 19th century, both fortifications (as long as they were effective in war) and churches changed constantly their appearance, either by the successive addition of vertical or horizontal layers, or, in recent centuries, by restoration.

Rebuilding often followed devastation and destruction; however, it also signified a new community status or regained prosperity. 5. Archaism is a feature highlighted by almost all the researchers of this Transylvanian phenomenon. The decade-long (and sometimes even century-long) delay in the architecture of these (mostly) hallenkirchen is not exclusively due to lagging behind with reference to the
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eficacit`]ii necesare ntr-un astfel de program: ap`rarea nu face cas` bun` cu extrovertirea decorativ`, cu flamboaian]a mpodobirii. Aceasta este adeseori redus` la detalii (arcatura de intrare, ancadramentul ferestrelor, nervurile tavanului) sau, cel mai adesea, la somptuozitatea altarelor din lemn pictat. Severitatea acestor biserici este probabil tr`s`tura modern` cea mai izbitoare, morfologic [i decorativ vorbind. Etnicul are aici o contribu]ie nendoielnic`, dar nu e singura cheie de n]elegere a fenomenului.

Austeritatea unor biserici catolice devenite n timp luterane se explic` astfel [i n cheie religioas`. Pictura a fost fie neglijat` (succesivele refaceri au influen]at aici hot`rrea de a mai continua sau nu tradi]ia anterioar`), fie deliberat evacuat`. Bisericile sunt ns` [i imaginea unei comunit`]i de clas` mijlocie, omogen` social, f`r` vrfuri interesate de gesturi arhitecturale grandilocvente [i, f`r` ndoial`, f`r` o experien]` a plusvalorii estetice. Investi]ia, vital`, era aceea n durabilitate, n acea stabilitas vitruvian`, iar nu n prea pu]in ocrotitoarea frumuse]e (venustas). n plus, este vorba despre arhaicitate esen]ial`, de o priz` la sit a templului care i-ar fi pl`cut lui Heidegger, pentru c` i-ar fi ilustrat de minune conceptul de pro-punere a p`mntului n oper` ntr-o realizare, iat`, germanic`. A[ezarea pe curbele de nivel ale n`l]imii sugereaz` eficien]` [i lipsa unor preconcepute teze estetice. Adecvarea la mijloacele avute la ndemn`
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eponymous Western styles. In fact, as witnessed by the polyphonic concert of the successive layers of their churches, being in tune with the latest architectural styles in the great Central-European cities comes last among the concerns of the Transylvanian Saxons. A certain architectural autism is, assuredly, the expression of the efficiency that is required by their building program: defense does not go well with extrovert decoration or flamboyance. These are often visible in details (entrance arches, window framing, ceiling structures) or, more often than not, in the sumptuousness of painted wood altars. The austerity of these churches is probably the modern feature of these churches that is most striking from the point of view of morphology and decoration. The ethnic element has a definite contribution here, but it does not represent the only key to understanding this architectural phenomenon. The austerity of some Lutheran (formerly Catholic) churches may be explained also on a religious plane. Painting was either neglected (and frequent reconstructions no doubt influenced the discontinuation of the tradition), or deliberately banned. These churches also reflect the self-image of a middleclass, socially compact community, that lacked not only personalities interested in making grandiloquent architectural gestures but also the tradition of the aesthetic plus value. The vital investment was in durability, in that stabilitas of Vitruvius, and not in venustas, or unprotective beauty. Moreover, we have here an essential kind of archaism, a relationship of the worship place to its site that Heidegger would have liked: it would have perfectly illustrated his concept of pro-posing the ground in a work, illustrating it by this very German example. The location of the churches on high spots suggests efficiency and the absence of preconceived aesthetic ideas. Making do with the means ready at hand was not only required by the existing material conditions, but also deliberate: stone is imposing, resistant, and discourages

este nu numai dictat` de condi]iile materiale, ci este [i deliberat`: piatra este impun`toare, rezistent`, descurajant` pentru cel ce o nfrunt`. n fine, este vorba despre o arhaicitate ]innd de sacralitatea obiectului central [i a incintei nse[i. Biserica trage dup` sine o tradi]ie (pe care, de pild`, preeminen]a tipului bazilical cu una sau trei nave o reclam`) care i ntrzie cu bun` [tiin]`! orice tentativ` de aggiornamento. S` observ`m numai c` mi[c`rile eretice [i apoi cele protestante (c`rora bisericile-cetate luterane le apar]in) se ntemeiaz` n numele ntoarcerii la origini, la principii fondatoare, la arch. Cu alte cuvinte, preocup`rile arhitecturale ale sa[ilor transilv`neni care au proiectat [i/sau construit bisericile lor fortificate nu au fost nici o clip` luminate de efemeritatea modei, ci de durata lung`, singura p`str`toare. Este un comportament el nsu[i funciarmente defensiv. Comunit`]ile asediate, aflate n exil , fie acesta geografic, religios, etnic l adopt` instinctiv prin replierea pe codurile tari (Cezar Radu). Limba veche, obiceiurile vechi, revizitarea obsesiv` a arhitecturii ancestrale iat` c`ile prin care comunit`]ile de felul celor ale sa[ilor din Transilvania, dar [i ale oric`rei diaspore de oricnd, au n]eles s` supravie]uiasc`, fie [i cu riscul ie[irii din timpul istoric. Bisericile fortificate din Transilvania sunt un excelent studiu de caz pentru toate principiile bunei arhitecturi din totdeauna pe care le-am enumerat mai sus, dar [i a multor altora. O literatur` de specialitate consistent`, pe care textul urm`tor, al conf. dr. arh. Hanna Derer o invoc` [i o completeaz` ea ns`[i, poate fi folosit` pentru aprofundarea pe mai departe a temei acesteia, fascinante. Din nefericire, exist` parc` tendin]a nefericit` de a monopoliza [tiin]a despre bisericile fortificate, n loc ca ea s` fie pus` la dispozi]ia [i cuno[tin]a publicului celui mai larg. Ceea ce pare s` lipseasc` iar acest volum al Editurii NOI Media Print [i propune s` suplineasc` este existen]a unei c`r]i care s` trezeasc`, s` educe [i s` ilustreze profesional, dar n acela[i timp cu savoare,

those who confront it. Archaism is also connected to the sacredness of the central object and the precinct. Churches are bearers of a tradition (which is, for instance, signaled by the preeminence of the basilica-type with one or three narthexes) that deliberately delays any attempt at aggiornamento. Let us notice here that heretical movements and later Protestant reforms (which include that of Luther) take as a basis the return to origins, founding principles, or arch. In other words, the architectural concerns of the Transylvanian Saxons who designed and/or built their fortified churches were not for a single moment influenced by the transience of fashion but rather focused on lasting duration. This testifies to an essentially defensive behavior. All besieged communities which are in exile be it of a geographic, religious, or ethnic nature adopt it instinctively by going back to strong codes (Cezar Radu). The use of the old idiom, the charm of the old customs, the obsessive appeal to old architecture: these are the ways by means of which communities such as that of the Transylvanian Saxons or those of any diaspora have used in order to survive, even at the risk of going out of historical time. The fortified churches of Transylvania are an excellent case-study for the principles of good architecture of any time that I we have listed above, as well as for many others. An extensive bibliography which the text of Associate Professor Hanna Derer Ph.D. reviews below may be profitably used to probe deeper into this fascinating topic. Unfortunately, an unhappy trend to keep the topic of Saxon fortified churches in the field of academia and away from the broad public seems to be prevailing. What is sorely missingand what this volume prepared by the NOI Media Print Publishing House attempts to supplyis a book capable of stirring, educating and illustrating in a professional and pleasant way a wider (and perhaps more efficient) interest in the heritage treasure represented by the fortified churches of Transylvanian Saxons.
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interesul mai amplu ([i mai eficace, poate) pentru comorile de patrimoniu pe care le reprezint` bisericile fortificate s`se[ti. Deja, abandonarea satelor de sa[i transilvane este un nou exil, de data aceasta de vector opus o trzie ntoarcere acas` mai degrab` n imaginarul simbolic, ct` vreme ea se petrece abandonnd casa [i biserica reale. Or, acest exil a adus cu sine [i o inexorabil` parc` decrepitudine a satelor [i bisericilor respective. Perenitatea lor presupunea continuitatea de genera]ii defensoare [i p`str`toare. Conservarea institu]ionalizat` a

The forsaking of their villages by the Transylvanian Saxons may be said to be a new exile, this time in a different direction: this is a belated homecoming. However, as it takes place by abandoning real homes and real churches, it is a homecoming more at the level of a symbolical imaginary. This new Saxon exile has also triggered off what appears to be the inexorable decay of the respective villages and churches. Their perenniality required a continuity of generations seeking to defend and preserve them. The institutionalized conservation of this tradition, entrusted only to one or two states or one foundation or another, does not represent, unfortunately, a long-term solution. The interest of tourists, desirable (to a certain extent) and profitable, should be accompanied by the continuous concern for the further preservation of these constructions and maybe even by a much to be wished for true homecoming of their creators, the Saxons of Transylvania.

acestei tradi]ii, abandonat` doar n seama unui stat (sau dou`), a unei funda]ii sau a alteia, nu este, din nefericire, o solu]ie pe termen lung. Interesul turistic, de dorit pn` la un punct [i de valorificat, va fi dublat de grija pentru p`strarea lor pe mai departe [i, de ce nu, de o dezirabil` ntoarcere acas` a sa[ilor transilv`neni.

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Hanna DERER

BISERICILE FORTIFICATE ALE SAILOR DIN TRANSILVANIA

THE FORTIFIED CHURCHES OF THE TRANSYLVANIAN SAXONS

Terra Ultrasilvana, Transilvania ]ara de dincolo de p`duri poate fi considerat` una din cele mai sugestive ilustr`ri ale conceptului de peisaj cultural. Una dintre componentele esen]iale din acest punct de vedere este constituit` din a[ez`rile rurale fondate de sa[i cu aproximativ 800 de ani n urm`. Numi]i ini]ial flandrenses, teutones [i ulterior saxones, primii 2000-3000 de coloni[ti sosi]i la solicitarea regelui maghiar Geza al II-lea s-au stabilit n secolul al XII-lea pe valea rului Hrtibaciu. Sa[ii nu au constituit singurul grup stabilit n Transilvania la cererea [i cu sprijinul coroanei ungare. La nceputul secolului al XIIIlea Ordinul Cistercian fondase deja o aba]ie, n timp ce cavalerii teutoni edificau cet`]i pentru ap`rarea grani]ei de sud-est a regatului de atunci. Dar prezen]a acestor dou` comunit`]i a fost de scurt` durat`. Purt`torii sabiei, cavalerii teutoni, au fost expulza]i de nsu[i regele maghiar dup` numai 14 ani de la sosire. Reprezentan]ii crucii, c`lug`rii cistercieni, r`mn pn` la reform`, dar influen]a lor se diminueaz` considerabil nc` din secolul al XV-lea. n consecin]`, singuri me[te[ugarii [i agricultorii sa[i r`mn n Transilvania [i capacitatea acestora de asumare a noii lor patrii este att de dezvoltat` nct ei asigur` [i continuitatea a[ez`rilor fondate de c`tre Ordinul Cistercian [i de c`tre cavalerii teutoni.

Transylvania, the Terra Ultrasilvana, or the land beyond forests, may be said to be one of the best illustrations of the concept of cultural landscape. As such, one of its essential components is represented by the rural settlements founded by the Saxons some eight hundred years ago. Calling themselves Flandrenses, Teutones, and finally Saxones, the first 2000-3000 colonists accepted the invitation made by the Hungarian King Geza II and settled in the valley of the Hrtibaciu river in the 12th century. The Saxons were not the only group that settled in Transylvania at the request and with the support of the Hungarian Crown. As early as the 13th century, the Cistercian Order had already founded an abbey there, and the Teutonic Knights had also erected fortresses for the defense of the south-eastern border of the Hungarian kingdom. However, the presence of these two communities was short-lived. The sword-bearing Teutonic Knights were expelled from Transylvania by the Hungarian King only fourteen years after their arrival; the defenders of the Cross, the Cistercian monks, did not leave until the Reform, but their influence diminished considerably as early as the 15th century. Thus it was only the Saxon craftsmen and farmers that came and stayed in Transylvania; they identified so much with their new homeland that they were able to secure the continuity of the
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Dezvoltarea comunit`]ii s`se[ti din Transilvania a fost probabil accelerat` de c`tre scrisoarea de aur a libert`]ilor sau Andreaneum emis` de regele maghiar Andrei al II-lea n anul 1224, documentul cel mai complex, care confer` cele mai extinse drepturi unor coloni[ti stabili]i n estul Europei. La ob]inerea acestor drepturi [i libert`]i excep]ionale [i-au adus contribu]ia [i reprezentan]ii micii nobilimi s`se[ti, a[a numi]ii Grven. Ace[tia au fost elimina]i din structura social` abia n secolul al XVI-lea [i re[edin]ele fortificate construite de ace[tia au fost preluate la rndul lor de c`tre comunit`]ile locale libere, supuse exclusiv [i direct coroanei ungare. Condi]iile prielnice generate de Andreaneum [i efectele sale nemijlocite au ncurajat probabil valul de colonizare intern` de la jum`tatea secolului al XIII-lea. O alt` ipotez` referitoare la acest fenomen se bazeaz` pe informa]iile de natur` istoric` despre incursiunile t`tarilor, dintre care cele mai devastatoare au avut loc n anii 1241-1242, respectiv 1285. n orice caz, prin colonizarea intern` comunitatea s`seasc` [i extinde aria de existen]a nspre nord-vest, pe v`ile celor dou` Trnave, majoritatea a[ez`rilor de aici fiind atestate documentar de la nceputul secolului al XIV-lea. Colonizarea intern` ofer` o explica]ie posibil` [i pentru identitatea ]esutului din a[ez`rile aflate n cele dou` zone de reziden]` a sa[ilor. Format din imobile de tipul Frnkischer Gehft, ]esutul a[ez`rilor rurale s`se[ti se caracterizeaz` prin parcele adnci a c`ror parte situat` spre spa]iul public de circula]ie este destinat` locuin]ei principale [i anexelor acesteia pentru ca n partea posterioar` s` fie situate cl`dirile cu func]iuni legate de practicarea agriculturii, gr`dina de legume [i livada. Terenurile agricole propriu-zise sunt situate n afara a[ez`rii. Cl`dirile situate n partea dinspre strad` a parcelei sunt dispuse cu latura scurt` spre aceasta, n timp ce edificiile din spate sunt deseori dispuse cu latura lung` paralel` cu axul str`zii. esutul a[ez`rii astfel structurat este dominat, ntr-un fel sau altul de biseric`. Ini]ial, aceasta a fost o cl`dire de cult uzual` care poart` caracteristicile etapei stilistice n care a fost
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settlements founded by the Cistercians order and the Teutonic Knights. The development of the Saxon community of Transylvania was most likely encouraged by the Golden Bill of Liberties or the Andreaneum issued by the Hungarian King Andrew II in 1224; this most complex document gave extensive privileges to the colonists settled in eastern Europe. The Saxons enjoying these exceptional rights and liberties was also made possible by the activity of the representatives of the petty Saxon nobility, the so-called Grven. However the Grven disappeared from the social fabric in the 16th century, when the fortified dwellings built by them were also taken over by the local free communities, exclusively and directly subjected to the authority of the Hungarian Crown. The favorable conditions generated by the Andreaneum, as well as its immediate effects, probably contributed to an increase in internal colonization first visible in the second half of the 13th century. Another theory seeking to explain this phenomenon focuses on existing historical information about the Tartar invasions, the most devastating of which took place in 1241-1242 and later in 1285. At any rate, by means of internal colonization the Saxon community of Transylvania extended its area towards north-west, to the valleys of the two Trnave rivers, most of the settlements there being attested by documents at the beginning of the 14th century. Internal colonization also provides a possible explanation for the structure of the settlements present in the two residence areas of the Saxons. Made up of dwellings of the Frnkischer Gehft type, rural Saxon settlements are characterized by large building lots, whose side adjacent to the public circulation area was occupied by the master house; the backside was occupied by farming-related constructions, the vegetable garden and the orchard. The farming land proper was situated outside the settlement. The buildings situated on the side adjacent to the street have

edificat`. Probabil c` biserica era situat` n interiorul unui areal sacru definit ca atare printr-un element de delimitare simplu. n anul 1395 are loc prima incursiune organizat` de c`tre turci. Ace[tia vor continua s` devasteze zona sudic` a Transilvaniei timp de aproape un secol. n fa]a acestui pericol, ora[ele, constituite ca atare de la nceputul veacului al XIV-lea, ncep s` cl`deasc` sisteme defensive urbane. Satele, avnd posibilit`]i limitate, adopt` o alt` solu]ie, bazat` pe construirea unui punct fortificat capabil s` protejeze via]a [i bunurile cele mai de pre] ale comunit`]ii. Biserica reprezenta singurul edificiu de dimensiuni suficient de mari pentru a ad`posti ntreaga popula]ie a a[ez`rii rurale. n consecin]`, edificiul de cult este modificat pentru a putea func]iona ca ultima ([i unica) redut` n cazul unui atac. n plus, biserica prezenta un avantaj suplimentar n raport cu modul n care se desf`[urau incursiunile turcilor. Organiza]i n grupuri mici [i extrem de mobile, ace[tia atacau cu o rapiditate care f`cea imposibil` retragerea s`tenilor ntr-un loc fortificat situat la distan]` de a[ezare. A[ezat` n centrul de greutate al satului, biserica constituia deci un punct accesibil oricui ntr-un interval de timp redus. Modalit`]ile folosite pentru fortificarea bisericilor au fost diverse [i variate. Studiile dedicate acestui subiect nu au putut identifica principii valabile pentru anumite zone sau anumite perioade de interven]ie. n consecin]`, fiecare dintre cele peste 200 de biserici de sat care au existat [i din cele peste 150 care s-au men]inut pn` n prezent constituie un unicat. O privire de ansamblu demonstreaz` ns` c`, practic, au fost elaborate modalit`]i de fortificare pentru fiecare

their shorter side facing the street, while the constructions at the back often have their long side parallel with the street axis. The settlement thus textured is, one way or another, dominated by the church. Initially, this was an ordinary worship place bearing the stylistic mark of the period in which it was erected. The church was most likely situated within a sacred space defined as such by simple marking elements. In 1395, the first Turkish expedition took place. For almost a century the Turks devastated periodically the southern area of Transylvania. Confronted with constant danger, the cities, organized as such in the early 14th century, began to create their own urban defense systems. With their limited resources, the villages had however to adopt a different defense solution based on a fortified spot capable of protecting the life and the most precious assets of the community. The church was big enough to give shelter to the entire population of the respective settlement. As a result, the worship place was altered so as to be used as a final and unique defense in case of attack. Moreover, the church offered an additional advantage in relation to the pattern of Turkish invasions. Organized in small, extremely mobile groups, the Turks attacked so quickly that it was impossible for the villagers to withdraw to a fortified place situated at a distance from the settlement. Standing at the very center of the village, the church represented therefore a refuge that anybody could reach in a short period of time. The techniques used for the fortification of the churches were quite diverse. The studies dedicated to this topic were
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component` a bisericii. Astfel, turnul clopotni]`, situat n mod tradi]ional n partea de vest a cl`dirii de cult, a fost transformat n turn de ap`rare prev`zut cu guri de tragere [i un drum de straj`. La rndul s`u, corul a fost uneori supran`l]at n forma unui turn cu caracter defensiv. Alteori fortificarea corului a fost dublat` de construirea unui nivel de ap`rare peste altar care deservea guri de tragere [i guri de aruncare. Nu rareori bisericile au fost prev`zute cu dou` turnuri defensive fosta clopotni]` n vest [i un turn nou cl`dit deasupra corului. n fine, exist` numeroase exemple n care toate cele trei componente volumetrice majore, turnul clopotni]`, partea de nave [i absida altarului, au fost transformate, deseori existnd peste extradosul bol]ilor din partea median` a bisericii un nivel unic [i amplu de ap`rare. ncepnd din secolul al XV-lea, bisericile astfel fortificate ncep s` fie dotate [i cu incinte defensive propriuzise. n func]ie de posibilit`]i [i necesit`]i [i n func]ie de nivelul atins de armele folosite pe scar` larg`, au fost construite incinte simple, duble sau triple, turnuri de diferite tipuri, bastioane, [an]uri [i zwinger-e. mpreun` cu biserica fortificat` sau nefortificat` aceste dot`ri formeaz` un sistem complex n care [i g`sesc locul [i cl`diri cu alte func]iuni dect cele religioase [i strict de ap`rare, n special depozitare de alimente necesare n cazul unui asediu. Evolu]ia ansamblurilor constituite de bisericile fortificate a continuat pn` n secolul al XVI-lea. Existen]a lor a permis supravie]uirea (n bune condi]ii) a comunit`]ii sa[ilor din Transilvania, teritoriu rvnit [i deci transformat adesea n cmp de r`zboi. Nici ncorporarea sa n Imperiul Austriac n anul 1699 nu a mbun`t`]it situa]ia. Documentele
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not able to identify general principles valid for all areas or periods. As a result, each of the 200 village churches ever built (and each of the more than 150 that have lasted to this day) may be said to be unique. However, it may be safely stated that different techniques were devised for the fortification of every element of the church. Thus the belfry, traditionally situated in the western part of the worship place, was turned into a defense tower with openings and a guard walk. As for the choir, this was itself reshaped sometimes into a defensive tower. In other cases, the fortification of the choir was doubled by erecting another defense level over the altar, with ports and loopholes. It was not uncommon for churches to be provided with two defense towers the belfry in the west and a newly erected tower above the choir. Finally, there are also numerous examples when all the major volumes, i.e., the belfry, the narthex and the altar apse, underwent various transformations: thus there often existed a single and quite vast defense level over the extrados of the vaults in the middle part of the church. As of the 15th century, the churches thus fortified began to be equipped with defensive enclosures proper. As circumstances permitted or required, and in relationship to the sophistication of weaponry in use, simple, double, or triple enclosures were erected, together with towers of different types, bastions, moats, and zwingers. Together with the church (fortified or not), these formed a complex system that also included buildings that had no religious or defensive functions, e.g. those meant for storing food in case of siege. The ensembles of fortified churches continued to evolve until the 16th century. Their existence enabled the survival of

demonstreaz` c` sa[ii au folosit cu succes bisericile fortificate [i n r`zboaiele curu]e ncheiate abia n deceniul al treilea al secolului al XVIII-lea. De[i de atunci bisericile fortificate nu au mai trebuit s` ndeplineasc` func]iuni defensive, ele au fost intre]inute n continuare cu grij`. Recunosc`toare, comunit`]ile n cauz`, a c`ror identitate fizic` se conservase [i datorit` bisericilor fortificate, le-au atribuit acestora, chiar [i dac` neexplicit, valoarea de identitate cultural`.

Situa]ia acestor ansambluri cu valoare de unicat n patrimoniul european s-a nr`ut`]it abia dup` evenimentele produse n Romnia n anul 1989. Majoritatea sa[ilor au emigrat nc` de la nceputul anilor 90 n Germania, cauznd moartea civiliza]iei [i a culturii lor vechi de peste 800 de ani [i un patrimoniu arhitectural de excep]ie care sufer` n absen]a unor utilizatori sau a unor utilizatori care se identific` cu el. Avnd n vedere calit`]ile bisericilor fortificate care mbog`]esc diversitatea patrimoniului cultural situat pe teritoriul Romniei nc` de la nceputul exodului men]ionat, au fost ini]iate, [i se desf`[oar` n continuare, eforturi pentru salvgardarea acestora. Un prim pas l-au constituit desigur m`surile de natur` juridic`. Clasarea ca monumente istorice a reprezent n acest sens numai primul pas n prezent [ase biserici fortificate ale sa[ilor din Transilvania se afl` pe Lista UNESCO. Pentru dou`

the Saxon communities in Transylvania, a territory much coveted and therefore often turned into a battlefield. Its inclusion in the Austrian empire in 1699 did not change much the situation. Documents attest to the fact that the Transylvanian Saxons successfully used their fortified churches during the anti-Habsburg wars concluded only in the third decade of the 18th century. After those events the fortified churches were no longer required to fulfill defensive purposes, but they were still preserved with much care. The Saxon communities, whose identity had also been preserved with the help of their fortified churches, gratefully (albeit not manifestly so) treated them as a cultural identity markers. The situation of these unique ensembles in the European heritage worsened only the after the events of 1989 in Romania. Most of the Saxons emigrated to Germany in the early 1990s, causing the demise of their more than 800-year-long civilization and culture, as well as that of their exceptional architectural legacy, which resents the absence of its users or at least of those users that identified themselves with it. Given the unique qualities of the fortified churches that enrich so much the diversity of Romanias cultural heritage, efforts for safeguarding them have been made since the beginning of the above-mentioned Saxon exodus. A first step was taken on a legal plane. Listing these churches as historical monuments was only the first step: at present six fortified churches of the Transylvanian Saxons are on the UNESCO list. Programs meant to revive the respective rural communities are being carried out for the villages of Biertan/Birthm and Viscri/Deutsch-Weiskirch; the programs are financed by the World Bank. The Clnic/Kelling ensemble was taken over by the Romanian Academy and made into a research center. Solutions are also being sought for the conservation of the ensembles at Prejmer/Tartlau, Sschiz/Keisd, and Valea Viilor /Wurmloch. In other cases funds were collected by the local communities, while experts also contributed by
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dintre acestea, Biertan (Birthlm) [i Viscri (DeutschWeisskirch) se deruleaz` programe de revigorare a comunit`]ilor rurale, programe finan]ate de c`tre Banca Mondial`. Ansamblul din Clnic (Kelling) a fost preluat de c`tre Academia Romn` [i transformat ntr-un centru de cercetare. i desigur se caut` solu]ii pentru conservarea ansamblurilor din Prejmer (Tartlau), Saschiz (Keisd) [i Valea Viilor (Wurmloch). n alte cazuri au fost adunate fonduri de c`tre comunit`]ile locale [i speciali[tii contribuie sub form` de voluntariat. antierul ncheiat de la Hozman (Holzmengen) s-a desf`[urat [i cu ajutorul studen]ilor-arhitec]i din Bucure[ti. Trebuie men]ionat c` toate aceste eforturi concrete se sprijin` pe o documentare complet`, efectuat` timp de [apte ani printr-un program germano-romn la care din nou Institutul de Arhitectur` [i Urbanism din Bucure[ti a avut onoarea [i pl`cerea de a participa. Interesul strnit de campaniile de cartare, inventariere [i relevare este unul de lung` durat` [i se concretizeaz` prin lucr`ri de diplom` pentru nv`]`mntul superior sau postuniversitar, care ncearc` s` identifice poten]ialul func]ional al ansamblurilor private de utilizare contemporan` sau ncearc` s` conceap` modalit`]i optime de conservare, restaurare [i punere n valoare.

volunteering their services. The work at the Hozman/Holzmengen site was carried out with the assistance of the students in architecture in Bucharest. It should be pointed out that all these efforts rely on the information gathered and organized for seven years as part of a joint German-Romanian program, in which the Institute of Architecture and City Planning in Bucharest had the honor and pleasure to participate. The interest aroused by the mapping, inventory and land surveying campaigns appears to be of long standing and has as a result many graduate or post-graduate papers that attempt to identify the functional potential of the ensembles for contemporary use or try to devise the best ways to preserve and restore them and highlight their value.

Agnita / Agnetheln Biseric` n stil gotic, construit` n jurul anului 1409, pe temelia unei foste bazilici romanice. Zidurile cet`]ii au fost demolate pn` n anul 1870. n turnul cizmarilor, aflat la sud-vest, se p`streaz` [i ast`zi sl`nina ag`]at` de tavanele din brne. This Gothic church was built around 1409, on the foundation of the former Roman basilica. The fortress walls were pulled down by 1870. In the Boot-makers tower, situated in the south-western side, homemade bacon is still hung on the crossbeams, like in the medieval days.

Alma Vii / Almen

Biseric`-hal`, construit` n secolele XV-XVIII. n secolul al XIX-lea s-au f`cut modific`ri n interiorul ei. The hall-shaped church was built between the 15th and 18th centuries. In the 19th century, many changes were made inside. Un [ir de guri pentru aruncarea smoalei topite au fost f`cute n peretele corului supran`l]at. A number of narrow apertures through which molten tar could be dropped on invaders were made in the wall of the overhead choir.

Agarbaciu / Arbegen Biserica a fost construit` n secolul al XIV-lea [i fortificat` n secolul al XVI-lea. Ultimele modific`ri au fost f`cute n secolul al XIX-lea. The church was erected in the 14th century and it was fortified in the 16th century. The last alterations were made in the 19th century.

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Apold / Trappold Biseric` nconjurat` de dou` ziduri de incint`, puternic fortificate. A fost construit` pn` la finele secolului al XV-lea. Turnul de deasupra intr`rii, denumit al colii Vechi, se nvecineaz` cu Turnul Ov`zului. The church is surrounded by two well fortified enclosure walls and was built before the end of the 15th century. The tower above the entrance is known as the Tower of the Old School and stands close to the Oat Tower.

Mobilierul din lemn, pictat cu motive decorative [i alegorii biblice ntr-un stil tipic picturii s`se[ti. With its decorative motifs and Biblical allegories, the furniture is painted in the typical style of Saxon paintings. Altarul, executat n stilul Ludovic al XVI-lea. The Louis XVI altar. Tabernacolul, o bijuterie lucrat` n piatr`. The tabernacle, a true jewel cut in stone.

A]el / Hetzeldorf Vedere general` a bisericii fortificate [i a localit`]ii. Biseric` gotic`, ridicat` n secolul al XIV-lea [i fortificat` n secolul al XV-lea. General view of the fortified church and the village. The Gothic church was erected in the 14th century and fortified in the 15th century.

Portalul de vest n stil gotic. Arcadele sunt decorate cu motive vegetale. Arhitectura [i sculptura sunt realizate n mare m`sur` de artistul Andreas Lapicida din Sibiu. The western Gothic portal. The archways are decorated with vegetal motifs. The architecture and sculpture are mostly the work of master Andreas Lapicida of Sibiu. Altarul bisericii din Atel are o structur` poligonal`. The altar of the Atel church is polygonal in shape.

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Axente Sever / Frauendorf Biseric` atestat` documentar din anul 1305. Imagine de interior: altarul neobaroc. The church was first attested in document from 1305. Inside view: the Neo-Baroque altar.

Vedere aerian` asupra bisericii fortificate [i a mprejurimilor. Este de remarcat o particularitate ce i confer` caracterul atipic: turnul masiv construit pe nav`, o raritate arhitectonic`. Aerial view of the fortified church and its surroundings. Attention should be drawn to an unique feature of the church wich gives its unusual aspect the massive tower rising above the nave, a very rare architectural feature.

Bazna / Baassen Biseric` gotic` cu p`r]i romanice de secol XIII. Zidurile de mprejmuire construite n secolele XV [i XVI. Gothic church with Roman elements dating from the 13th century. The enclosure walls were built in the 15th and 16th centuries.

Sta]iunea de tratament Bazna, vilegiaturi[ti nceputul secolului al XXlea. The Bazna Resort. Holidaymakers, early 20th century.

Biertan / Birthlm n localitatea Biertan (jud. Sibiu), atestat` documentar nc` din anul 1283, se afl` una dintre cele mai puternice cet`]i ]`r`ne[ti din Transilvania. ntregul ansamblu fortificat, cuprinznd trei incinte nt`rite cu [ase turnuri [i trei bastioane de ap`rare, domin` a[ezarea, fiind amplasat pe o colin` situat` la vreo 25 m deasupra acesteia. Construit` ntre anii 1490-1522, cetatea a suferit unele transform`ri n secolul al XVII-lea. Prima incint` era prev`zut` cu un zid de aproape 12 m, 7 turnuri (dintre care patru au fost distruse n 1704 n urma asediului curu]ilor) [i bastioane, unele, ca cel de vest, f`cnd leg`tura cu a doua incint` (acestea nefiind concentrice). U[a de intrare a bisericii, construit` n 1515, are un sistem ingenios de nchidere pentru 13 ncuietori, ac]ionat simultan cu ajutorul unei singure chei. n interiorul bisericii se g`se[te un superb altar poliptic (compus din 28 de panouri), cu sculpturi policrome executate n lemn (1515-1524), incontestabil cea mai pre]ioas` lucrare de acest gen din ]ara noastr`. Se p`streaz` stranele originale, decorate din 1514 cu intarsii realizate de Johannes Reychmuth. Amvonul bisericii, din piatr`, atribuit me[terului Ulrich din Bra[ov, este decorat cu reliefuri inspirate din ciclul patimilor Mntuitorului. Este renumit lapidariul bisericii unde sunt strnse lespezi de mormnt, unele lucrate de cunoscutul sculptor ardelean Elias Nicolai (secolul al XVII-lea).

Biertan / Birthlm One of the strongest peasant fortresses in Transylvania is situated in the village of Biertan, in the Sibiu county. This fortified complex was first attested in a document in 1283. The ensemble, which is made up of three enclosures strengthened by six towers and three defense bastions, dominates the village standing on a 25-meter-high hillock. Built between 1490 and 1592, the fortress underwent some alterations in the 17th century. The first enclosure had a 12-meter-high wall, 7 towers (4 of which were destroyed in 1704 during the siege of the antiHabsburg fighters), and bastions. Some of these, for instance the western one, connected the outer enclosure with the second one. The church door, built in 1515, has a ingenious locking system with 13 locks operated simultaneously with a single key. Inside the church there stands a splendid polyptych altar (made up of 28 panels), with polychrome sculptures in wood (1515-1524). This is undoubtedly the most valuable piece of its kind in Romania. The original pews, decorated with inlaid patterns in 1514 by master Johannes Reychmuth, have been preserved. The stone pulpit attributed to master Ulrich of Brasov is decorated with reliefs inspired by the Passions of Christ. The lapidary of the church is also famous for its tombstones, some of which were carved by the well-known 17th century Transylvanian sculptor Elias Nicolai.

Boian / Bonnesdorf Biseric` de tip hal` din secolul al XV-lea. Construit` n stil gotic, a fost fortificat` [i supranal]at` ulterior. The hall-shaped church dates from the 15th century. Initially a Gothic church, it was subsequently fortified and heightened.

Br`deni / Henndorf Biseric` evanghelic` de tip hal` din secolul al XV-lea. The hall-shaped Evangelical church dates from the 15th century.

Bradu / Gierelsau Biseric` evanghelic` fortificat`, atestat` documentar n anul 1315. This fortified Evangelical church was first documented in 1315.

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Bune[ti / Bodendorf Biseric` evanghelic` fortificat`. Fortified Evangelical church.

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Bruiu / Braller Biseric` atestat` documentar din anul 1307. Este o bazilic` romanic` din secolul al XIII-lea, transformat` n secolul al XV-lea, cnd i s-au ad`ugat elemente gotice. This church was first documented in 1307. It is a 13th century Roman basilica, which was altered in the 15th century, when new Gothic elements were added.

Altarul bisericii, n stil renascentist trziu, probabil realizat la sfr[itul secolului al XV-lea, nceputul secolului al XVI-lea. The church altar, in the late Renaissance style, was probably created in late 15th and early 16th centuries.

Chirpar / Kirschberg Biseric` evanghelic` construit` n secolul al XII-lea, a fost ini]ial o bazilic` romanic`. Pe latura de vest are un turn-clopotni]` cu ceas. Construc]ia ini]ial` este din piatr`; toate modific`rile ulterioare sunt u[or de observat, fiind executate din c`r`mid`. The Evangelical church erected in the 12th century was initially a Roman basilica. On its western side there stands a clock-tower. The initial construction was made of stone; as such, all subsequent modifications, made in brick, may be easily noticed.

Cinc[or / Klein-Schenk Biseric` de tip hal`, construit` [i fortificat` n secolul al XV-lea. Corul [i altarul bisericii. The hall-shaped church was built and fortified in the 15th century. The choir and the altar of the church.

Cincu / Gross-Schenk Piatr` funerar`. Tombstone.

Altarul cu o pictur` renascentist` realizat` la 1721 de pictorul Vincentius din Sibiu, o capodoper` ce reprezint` scena revela]iei Sfntului Apostol Toma (Toma necredinciosul). The altar has a Renaissance masterpiece, the 1721 work of painter Vincentius of Sibiu: it represent the Revelation of St. Thomas (Doubting Thomas).

Biseric` romanic` transformat` n secolul al XV-lea n stil gotic. Una dintre cele mai mari biserici fortificate din Transilvania. The Roman church was remade in the Gothic style in the 15th century. It is one of the largest fortified churches in Transylvania.

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Cisn`die / Heltau Biseric` din secolul al XII-lea, ini]ial bazilic` romanic`, fortificat` [i transformat` n stil gotic dup` devastatoarea incursiune turceasc` din 1493 n scaunul Sibiului. Planul bisericii are trei nave, cor [i absid`, navele laterale terminndu-se n absidiole. Pe latura de vest a fost n`l]at un masiv turn-clopotni]` (cu patru niveluri), ncorporat navei, deasupra corului p`trat cnd absida semicircular` a fost modificat` poligonal, apoi cte un turn de flancare deasupra celor dou` portaluri laterale. Acestea au fost supraetajate la 1500, odat` cu n`l]area (7 m) acoperi[ului turnului central. Clopotni]ei i s-au ad`ugat cele patru turnuri de col] n anul 1591. n secolele XV-XVI au fost construite cele trei ziduri de incint` nt`rite cu 7 turnuri de ap`rare. Din pricina acestor adaosuri biserica a devenit o mas` compact`, maiestuoas`, cu putere m`rit` de rezisten]`, turcii nereu[ind s-o cucereasc` n 1658. n biseric` se p`streaz` fragmente de picturi murale de sfr[it de secol XV. Predela altarului poliptic reprezentnd Apari]ia lui Iisus (Vincentius 1525) mpreun` cu alte obiecte de cult ce au apar]inut acestui l`ca[ se g`sesc la muzeul Brukenthal din Sibiu. Deasupra intr`rii sudice a bisericii se afl` un frumos portal de gresie.

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Cisn`die / Heltau The 12th century church was initially a Roman basilica that was fortified and altered in the Gothic style after the devastating Turkish invasion of 1493 in the Sibiu area. The church has three naves, a choir and an apse, and the lateral naves end in absidioles. A massive four-level belfry was erected on the Western side and incorporated into the nave above the square choir, when the semicircular apse was reshaped into a polygon. Then flanking turrets were added over each of the two lateral portals. These were elevated in 1500, when the roof of the central tower was also heightened by 7 meters. In 1521, the four little corner turrets completed the belfry. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the 3 enclosure walls strengthened by 7 defense towers were erected. All these additions made the church into a compact, majestic mass, increasing its ability to withstand attacks. The Turks were unable to conquer it in 1658. The church shelters fragments of late 15th century murals. The predella of the polyptych altar showing The Appearance of Jesus (Vicentius, 1525) as well as other cult objects that belonged to this worship place are now on display in the Bruckental Museum in Sibiu. A beautiful sandstone portal stands above the southern entrance of the church.

Curtea interioar` The inner courtyard

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Cisn`dioara / Michelsberg La biserica evanghelic` cu hramul Sfntul Mihail se face referire ntr-un document din 20 noiembrie1223, prin care aceasta era donat` m`n`stirii cisterciene de la Carta, fiind incontestabil cea mai veche biseric` romanic` din Romnia. Aceasta se ridic` pe o colin` nalt`, de aproximativ 100 m, cu flancurile abrupte, nconjurat` de fortifica]ii ce alc`tuiesc o incint` circular`, cu un turn nt`rit deasupra intr`rii (o parte dintre ziduri se mai p`streaz` [i ast`zi), fiind una dintre cele mai vechi cet`]i ]`r`ne[ti din Transilvania. Dispozi]ia planimetric` a bisericii (bazilica scurt`, cu trei nave acoperite doar de [arpant`) [i decora]ia portalului sculptat (1260) indic` influen]a arhitecturii renane. Spre r`s`rit, biserica are un corp p`trat, boltit n cruce [i o absid` semicircular`, navele laterale cu ogive terminndu-se n cte o absidiol`. Partea cea mai interesant` a bisericii o constituie portalul romanic (pe latura de vest) datat cu dou`-trei decenii mai trziu dect ntreg edificiul. Pe aceasta latur` au fost prev`zute [i dou` turnuri, r`mase ns` neterminate. ntreaga cl`dire a fost realizat` din piatr` brut`.

The Evangelic church dedicated to St. Michael is first referred to in a document from the 20th of November, 1223, which mentions its donation to the Cistercian monastery at Carta. This makes it undoubtedly the oldest Roman church in Romania. It stands on a 100-meter-tall hill with abrupt sides and is surrounded by fortifications that make up a circular enclosure which has a fortified turret above the entrance. Some of the walls have been preserved to this day. This is one of the oldest peasant fortresses in Transylvania. The plan of the church (a small basilica with three naves covered only by a framework) and the decoration of the carved portal (dating from 1260) bespeak the influence of Rhineland architecture. To the East the church has a square cross vaulted body with a semicircular apse, the lateral naves with diagonal vaulting ribs ending in absidioles. The most interesting part of the church is the Roman portal (on the western side), which is two or three decades later than the rest of the edifice. Two turrets were also to be erected on this side, but they were never completed. The whole building was erected in stone.

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S`soaice n zi de s`rb`toare. Saxon women at a holiday.

Portalul romanic de vest. The western Roman portal.

Cloasterf / Klosdorf Fotografie de epoc`, de la nceputul secolului al XX-lea. Early 20th century photograph.

Biseric` de tip hal`, terminat` n anul 1523. Fortifica]iile dateaz` din aceea[i perioad`. Biserica se g`se[te pe strada principal` a satului. The hall-shaped church was finished in 1523. The fortifications date from the same period. The church lies in the main street of the village.

Cop[a Mare / Gross-Kopisch Imagine de arhiv` Archive image

Biseric` fortificat` din secolul al XIVlea. Este interesant jocul [arpantelor, unele prelungite peste navele excentrice. Intrarea se face printr-un turn fortificat, cu ceas. The fortified church dates from the 14th century. One notices the frameworks, some of which extend over the eccentric naves. The access to the church is made through a fortified clock tower.

Cristian / Neustadt Biserica evanghelic` actual` se ridic` peste o veche bazilic` romanic` de secol XIII, din care s-au mai p`strat fragmente incluse n noua biseric` n stil gotic din secolul al XV-lea. Fortifica]ia s-a f`cut n secolul al XVI-lea, cu dou` rnduri de ziduri nt`rite cu turnuri. The present day Evangelical church rises over an old 13th century Roman basilica, fragments of which were included in the new 15th century Gothic church. The church was fortified in the 16th century, when two outer enclosures strengthened with towers were added.

Darlos / Durles Biserica evanghelic` din Darlos, n stilul gotic trziu. n ziduri p`streaz` fragmente de reliefuri din stele funerare romane. A fost ridicat` n secolul al XV-lea. The Evangelical church of Darlos is built in the late Gothic style. Reliefs from Roman funerary steles have been preserved in the walls. The church was erected in the 15th century.

Portalul de vest n stil gotic. The western portal in the Gothic style.

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Dealu Frumos / Schnberg Biseric`-cetate, a c`rei construc]ie a nceput din sec al XIII-lea (bazilic` romanic`), transformat` n biseric` de tip hal`, n stil gotic, n secolul al XV-lea, prev`zut` apoi cu turnuri de ap`rare la col]uri (cca. 1522). The construction of the citadel church was initiated in the 13th century, when the Roman basilica was erected. This was made into a hall-shaped Gothic church in the 15th century. Defence towers were subsequently erected on the corners. (c. 1522).

Portalul bisericii cu o u[` a c`rei feronerie este inspirat` din vechile motive germanice. The portal of the church and a door whose metalwork is of old German inspiration.

Biseric`, detaliu de interior: inscrip]ie ctitorial` baroc` n predel`, imagine biblic`: Iisus pe cruce. n lunete, imaginea lui Michaelis Kleinii [i alte notabilit`]i ale vremii. Datat`: 23 iunie 1721. A detail from the inside of the church, with the Baroque inscription in the predella and a Biblical image showing Jesus on the Cross. In the groins, one notices the portraits of Michaelis Kleinii and other notables of the time. The date is the 23rd of June, 1721.

Orga bisericii, decorat` n stil baroc. The church organ decorated in the Baroque style.

Ghimbav / Weidenbach Biseric` gotic` de tip hal` (secolele XIV-XV), ref`cut` n anul 1775. The hall-shaped Gothic church (14th -15th century) was rebuilt in 1775.

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Altarul neoclasic (sfr[it de secol XVIII) din marmur`. n centru, un altorelief pictat reprezentndu-l pe Iisus nving`tor. The marble Neoclassical altar (late 18th century). In the centre, a high relief represents Jesus, the Victor.

H~rman / Honigberg Vedere aerian` asupra ansamblului fortificat. Ast`zi au mai r`mas [ase turnuri din cele [apte semnalate de Emil Sigerus (1854-1947). Era nconjurat` cu [an]uri de ap` peste care erau coborte pun]i mobile. Aerial view of the fortified complex. Six of the seven towers mentioned by Emil Sigerus (1854-1947) have been preserved. Moats with drawbridges once surrounded the fortress.

Planul cet`]ii The plan of the fortress

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Biserica n stil romanic (1280-1290), construit` de c`lug`rii cistercieni, a fost ref`cut` ulterior n stil gotic. n jurul bisericii s-a construit (1500-1520) o puternic` cetate ]`r`neasc`, alc`tuit` dintr-o incint` cu ziduri de form` oval` (5 m grosime [i 12 m n`l]ime), nconjurate cu [an]uri adnci, str`juite de [ase bastioane. De-a lungul zidurilor, au fost construite nc`peri etajate, menite s` g`zduiasc` popula]ia n caz de primejdie. n interiorul bisericii s-au p`strat cteva capiteluri romanice, iar n sacristie cteva console, sculptate cu capete grote[ti. Tot aici exist` o capel` funerar` cu picturi murale de factur` gotic` (1460-1470), avnd ca tem` Judecata de Apoi. Dup` incendiul din 1593, biserica a fost supus` unor ample refaceri, dobndind aspectul actual.

The Roman style church (12801290) was erected by the Cistercian monks and subsequently remade in the Gothic style. Between 1500 and 1520, it was surrounded by a strong peasant fortress, made up of an enclosure with oval-shaped, 5-meter-thick and 12-meter-high walls. The enclosure was surrounded by deep moats and defended by six bastions. Along the walls, the locals built shelters meant to protect them in times of peril. Several Roman capitals have been preserved inside the church and some consoles sculpted with grotesque heads have been preserved in the sacristy. The church also houses a funerary chapel with Gothic-like murals (14601470) showing scenes from the Last Judgment. After the 1593 fire, the church was restored and received its present aspect.

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Turnul bisericii, de[i impresionant, nu juca un rol de ap`rare. Although impressive, the bell tower did not play a defensive role.

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De jur mprejurul bisericii, localnicii [i-au construit nc`peri n care combatan]ii [i protejau familiile [i avutul n caz de atac. Around the church, the locals erected shelters meant to protect their families and belongings when the fortress came under attack.

Portalul gotic al bisericii The Gothic portal of the church

Altarul neoclasic The Neoclassical altar

Homorod / Hamruden Biseric` fortificat` The fortified church

Altarul [i orga bisericii The altar and the organ of the church

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Imagine de la nceputul secolului al XX-lea, cu turnul de est [i localnici. Early 20th century image showing the eastern tower and local people.

Fragment de fresc` n stil romanic, aflat` n corul bisericii. Fragments of the Roman frescoes preserved in the church choir.

Ho[man / Holzmengen Biserica romanic` (secolul al XIII-lea), modificat` n secolul al XV-lea [i fortificat` pe la 1500. Roman church (13th century), altered in the 15th century and fortified around 1500.

Detaliu original din portalul romanic. Detailed view of the original Roman portal.

Iacobeni / Jacobsdorf Biseric` evanghelic`, o bazilic`hal` realizat` n stilul goticului trziu (secolul al XV-lea). Fortificat` n jurul anului 1500. The Evangelical church is a hall-shaped basilica in the late Gothic style (15th century). It was fortified around 1500.

Fotografie de epoc` (nceput de secol XX). Early 20th century photograph.

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Ighi[u Nou / Eibesdorf Biseric`-hal`, de secol XIV, realizat` n stil gotic. Turnul de vest ce are aceea[i n`l]ime cu biserica, reprezint` specificul acestei construc]ii. 14th century Gothic hall-shaped church. The western tower stands at the same height as the church, giving this construction its unique character.

Fotografie de epoc` (nceput de secol XX). Early 20th century photograph.

Malancrav / Malmkrog Cel mai valoros ansamblu de pictur` mural` gotic` se p`streaz` n biserica din Malancrav. Este realizat n anul 1405. The most valuable Gothic mural paintings are preserved in the Malancrav church. They date from 1405.

Fereastr` de piatr` n stil gotic. Stone window in the Gothic style.

Biserica este construit` n a doua parte a secolului al XIV-lea. The church was built in the second half of the 14th century.

Marpod Biseric` evanghelic` ridicat` n secolele XVII-XIX, vedere general`. Zidurile nt`rite sunt construite n secolele XVXVI. General view of the Evangelical church erected between the 17th and the 19th centuries. The fortified walls were built in the 15th and 16th centuries.

Merghindeal / Mergeln Biseric` romanic` realizat` la sfr[itul secolului al XIII-lea (cca. 1280). Cele dou` turnuri a[ezate la est [i vest, confer` edificiului o simetrie lateral` foarte pregnant`, mai pu]in obi[nuit` la construc]iile religioase. Fortifica]iile au fost ad`ugate ulterior (n secolele XV-XVI). The Roman church was erected at the end of the 13th century (c.1280). The two towers situated on the eastern and western side give the edifice a very strong lateral symmetry, which is less common in the case of religious buildings. The fortifications were added at a later date (15th-16th centuries).

Altarul bisericii The altar of the church

Mesendorf / Meschendorf Biseric` gotic` de tip hal`. La vest se remarc` turnul cu ceas. Zidurile fortificate au fost construite n secolele XV-XVI. Gothic, hall-shaped church. One notices the clock tower on the western side. The fortified walls were built during the 15th and 16th centuries.

Vedere de ansamblu asupra localit`]ii. General view of the area.

Mo[na / Menschen Biseric` zidit` ntre anii 14801486 n stil gotic. Este nconjurat` de o puternic` centur` de ziduri, nt`rit` cu turnuri de ap`rare (secolul al XVI-lea). The church was erected between 1480-1486 in the Gothic style. It is surrounded by massive walls strengthened with defence towers (16th century).

Movile / Hundertbcheln Bazilic` romanic` de secol XIV, transformat` ulterior [i fortificat` n secolul al XV-lea. A Roman basilica dating from the 14th century and was subsequently transformed and fortified in the 15th century.

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Netus / Heithausen Biseric` fortificat` din secolul al XV-lea (cca. 1448). The fortified church dates from the 15th century (c. 1448).

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Nocrich / Leschkirch Zidurile de ap`rare dateaz` din seclolele XVI-XVII. Biserica este mai recent` (1802) [i a fost construit` pe locul celei de secol XIV. The defence walls date from the 16th and 17th centuries. The church is of a more recent date (1802) and was built on the site of an older church dating from 14th century.

Fotografie de epoc`, reprezentnd primirea clopotelor cu tot fastul, la data de 24 aprilie 1926. Early photograph showing the welcoming of the bells on the 24th of April, 1926.

Amvonul bisericii cu basoreliefuri [i ornamenta]ii vegetale aurite, avnd influen]e jugendstill. The pulpit of the church is decorated with bas-reliefs and golden vegetal ornamentations influenced by the Jungenstill style.

Prejmer / Tartlau Vedere aerian` asupra bisericii [i cet`]ii. Cetatea era nconjurat` de [an]uri cu ap`, por]i de fier [i poduri batante. Construc]ia din secolul al XIV-lea, este una dintre cele mai impresionante din Transilvania. Aerial view of the church and the fortress. The fortress was surrounded by moats, iron gates and drawbridges. The 14th century construction is one of the most impressive in Transylvania.

Planul cet`]ii The plan of the fortress

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Prejmer / Tartlau n interiorul cet`]ii existau locuin]e-fagure, servind drept ad`post familiilor n timpul asediilor. Inside the fortress there were beehive dwellings used by families when the fortress came under siege.

Detaliu din zidul exterior, prev`zut cu firide [i arcade ce au c`p`tat func]ie decorativ`. Detailed view of the outside wall; in time, the niches and archways retained only a decorative role.

Corul [i altarul bisericii, cu o pictur` datnd din jurul anului 1450, probabil realizat` de un maestru vienez (Erhardus?). Altar n stil gotic, reprezentnd scena R`stignirii. The church choir and altar. The altar features a painting from around 1450, probably the work of a Viennese master (Erhardus?). The Gothic altar depicts the scene of the Crucifixion.

Detaliu de mobilier de interior: strane ornamentate cu motive florale. Detailed view of interior furniture: pews decorated with floral motifs.

Sa[i [i s`soaice n costume de s`rb`toare. Fotografie de la nceputul sec al XX-lea. Saxon men and women wearing traditional garb. Early 20th century photograph.

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Richis / Reichesdorf Portalul de vest al bisericii. Construit` n a doua jum`tate a secolului al XIV-lea, este o bazilic` gotic` cu trei nave. Lucr`rile executate n piatr` sunt remarcabile. The western portal of the church. Built in the second half of the 14th century, the church is a Gothic basilica with three naves. The stonework is remarkable. Orga cu ornamenta]ii baroce a fost adus` n anul 1788. The organ, decorated with Baroque elements, was set up in 1788.

Altarul n stil baroc, realizat n 1775. The Baroque altar dates from 1775.

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Roades / Radeln Cetate ]`r`neasc` din secolele XIII-XVI, fotografie de epoc` (n jurul anului 1900). The peasant fortress dates from the 13th-16th centuries; early 20th century photograph (c. 1900).

Imaginea actual` a bisericii evanghelice. Se remarc` aspectul arhaic, u[or greoi, datorat propor]iilor edificiului. The church as it stands nowadays. One notices its archaic, slightly bulky aspect, due to the proportions of the edifice.

Ro[ia / Rothberg Bazilic` romanic`, construit` n prima jum`tate a secolului al XIII-lea; interiorul incintei. The Roman Basilica was built in the first half of the 13th century view of the inside enclosure.

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Saschiz / Keisd Planul cet`]ii The plan of the fortress

Vedere aerian` asupra cet`]ii ]`r`ne[ti [i a mprejurimilor. Aerial view of the peasant fortress and its surroundings.

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Biseric` fortificat` (1493-1496, construit` pe vremea invaziilor turce[ti), azi evanghelic`, este str`juit` de un turn izolat la circa 10 m de fa]ada nordic`, ridicat n 1832, avnd [i el func]ie de ap`rare, asem`n`tor n partea sa superioar` Turnului cu Ceas din Sighi[oara. Construc]ia actual` a bisericii este amplasat` pe ruinele unei biserici romanice din care s-au p`strat cteva piese sculptate, capiteluri [i console, ce servesc ast`zi drept suporturi pentru vasele de flori de pe altar. Sanctuarul nsu[i a fost transformat n fort`rea]`, cl`direa c`p`tnd aspectul unui bloc masiv, trufa[, cu un acoperi[ dintr-o singur` bucat`, f`r` nici o deosebire ntre nav` [i cor, cu adev`rata p`dure de brne la interior pentru a-l putea sus]ine [i f`r` turn la apus. Att turnul ct [i biserica au fost afectate n urma cutremurelor (1977, 1986, 1990).

The fortified church was built between 1493 and 1496 at the time of the Turkish invasions. The present day Evangelical church is guarded by an isolated tower, standing at about 10 meters away from the northern faade. It was erected in 1832 for defense purposes. In its upper part it resembles the clock tower of Sighisoara. The present building stands on the ruins of a Roman church, from which only a few sculpted pieces were preserved (capitals and consoles): these serve today as flower holders on the altar. The sanctuary itself was turned into a fortress, the building having the aspect of a massive, proud block: it has a one-piece roof, which covers uninterruptedly the nave and the choir and is supported by a great number of beams, making a western tower unnecessary. Both the tower and the church were damaged in the earthquakes of 1977, 1986, and 1990.

eica Mare / Gross-Schelken Ini]ial bazilic` romanic` de secol XIII, biserica a fost transformat` ntr-una de stil gotic n secolul al XV-lea, o dat` cu ridicarea fortifica]iilor. Initially a Roman basilica built in the 13th century, the church was reshaped in the Gothic style in the 15th century, when the fortifications were also added.

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Slimnic / Stolzenburg Vedere aerian` asupra cet`]ii. Localitatea este atestat` documentar n anul 1282, odat` cu cetatea. Biserica este construit` n secolul al XIV-lea [i ref`cut` n 1792. Aerial view over the fortress. The village is attested at the same time as the church, in 1282. The church was built in the 14th century and rebuilt in 1792.

Exteriorul corului bisericii. The church choir viewed from the outside.

Soala / Schaal Biseric` fortificat`, construit` n secolul al XV-lea. The fortified church was built in the 15th century.

Detaliu de incint` [i mprejurimi. A detailed view of the enclosure and its surroundings.

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Somartin / Martinsberg Biserica fortificat`. Vedere general`. Fortified church. General View.

Stej`ri[u / Propsdorf Cetate ]`r`neasc` cu biseric` n stil gotic de secol XIV. Peasant fortress with a 14th century Gothic church.

ura Mic` / Klein Scheuern Bazilic` romanic` de secol XIII, refacut` [i fortificat` n anul 1506. A 13th century Roman basilica, rebuilt and fortified in 1506. Altarul bisericii n stil baroc ]`ranesc s`sesc. The church altar is made in the Saxon peasant Baroque style.

Valchid / Waldhtten Biserica fortificat`, construit` n anul 1390 n stil gotic. Are turnuri la fiecare col], cel cu ceas fiind cel mai deosebit. Cetatea a fost devastat` n timpul r`zboiului civil din anul 1605, odat` cu localitatea. Altarul [i orga au fost ref`cute ntre 1809 [i 1811. The fortified church was built in 1390 in the Gothic style. There are towers in each corner; the clock tower is the most remarkable. The fortress and the town were destroyed during the Civil War in 1605. Both were rebuilt. The altar and the organ date from 1809-1811.

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Viscri / Deutsch-Weisskirch Biseric` evanghelic`, ini]ial o bazilic` romanic`, transformat` ulterior ntr-o biseric`-sal` (cu altar semicircular) de dimensiuni mici. Impune prin zidurile sale, att ale sanctuarului, ct [i cele ale primei incinte, cu un turn gigantic de la apus ([ase etaje) construit n 1494. Zidul primei incinte, bine p`strat, are patru turnuri, dintre care unul deasupra intr`rii [i dou` bastioane apropiate unul de celalalt. ntre acestea se putea comunica printr-un drum acoperit f`r` a te expune pericolelor pe timpul luptei. n interiorul bisericii se p`streaz` un capitel cu ciubuc care, mpreun` cu arcul triumfal, provin din biserica romanic`, justificnd datarea acesteia la nceputul secolului al XIII-lea.

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Viscri / Deutsch-Weisskirch The present Evangelical church was initially a Roman basilica that was subsequently remade into a small-size hall-shaped church with a semicircular altar. Most remarkable are its walls, both those of the worship place and those of the first enclosure: they include a huge 6 level western tower built in 1494. The walls of the first enclosure are well preserved and include 4 towers, one of which stands over the entrance. Two bastions stand close to each other, and communication between them was possible by means of a covered walk that provided shelter during battles. Inside the church, a capital has been preserved. Just as the triumphal arch, it was part of the Roman basilica. This can be dated to the early 13th century.

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Intrarea la Sfnta Liturghie. Entering the church for the Holy Mass.

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Vulcan / Wolkendorf Biserica evanghelic` din Vulcan a fost ini]ial o bazilic` romanic` din secolul al XIII-lea. The Evangelical church of Vulcan was initially a 13th century Roman basilica.

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Imagine din interiorul incintei. View from the inside.

Din vechea bazilic` au mai r`mas doar ferestrele [i bolta de la intrare, restul fiind modificat ulterior n mai multe etape. The windows and the entrance archway are the only original elements that preserved; all the other were subsequently changed at different times.

Text / Text Augustin Ioan Hanna Derer

Grafic` / Graphic Design Iulian Capsali Augustin Ioan DTP Gabriel Nicula

Fotografii / Photos Dan Ioan Dinescu tefan Petrescu Mircea Savu

Legende / Captions Mihaela Dmbean Dana Voiculescu

Versiune englez` / English version Ioana Luca Constantin Lucian

Director de proiect / Project manager Arpad Harangozo Ovidiu Morar

Tip`rit la R.A. Monitorul Oficial