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FTD 809&198&1 GMD 81&2F S 294

Fratarakouj\an h ;ra,.aworw;l fa\ banasirouj\an `akoult;ti gitakan .orfrdi 2007j& fokt;mb;ri 17-i nistoum! Recommended for publication by the Senate of the Armenian Philology Faculty at Yerevan State University on October 17, 2007.

Sakayan, Dora 1931 -

2007 Dora Sakayan 1. Armenian language (Eastern version). 2. Contrastive linguistics (Armenian-English contrasts) ISBN 978-5-8084-08 90-6 Artwork inside the textbook by ARTO All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form. Printed in Armenia Yerevan State University Press, 2007

I would like to express my deepest gratitude to all those, friends and colleagues, who offered encouragement and advice during the preparation of this textbook. I especially appreciated the feedback I received in the final stage of this project from my colleagues at Yerevan State University. I wish to thank in particular the distinguished Orientalist Arman Akopian, who, on a diplomatic mission in Canada, kindly volunteered to read the manuscript and responded with valuable suggestions; Professor Hrachik Mirzoyan who carried out the initial copy-editing of the Armenian text; Professor Sergey Galstyan who examined, edited and evaluated the linguistic corpus of the book with utmost care; Professor Samvel Muradyan for reading and approving the appended literary material;

Associate Professor Svetlana Vardanian for the final copy-editing of the entire textbook. I am also indebted to the Armenologist Davit Gyulzadyan for the proofreading of the Armenian sections, Hasmik Gulakyan and Zareh Tjeknavorian for their assistance during the production of the attached CD, as well as Maro Manavian for professional help with the layout of this textbook. Dora Sakayan Yerevan, 2007

Unit Contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv The Armenian Alphabet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxii Introductory Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv Unit 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Unit 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Unit 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Unit 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Unit 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Unit 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Unit 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Unit 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Unit 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Unit 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Unit 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Unit 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 Gambits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 Grammar Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Readings About Armenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Articles from Newspapers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 Armenian Fables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Armenian Fairy Tales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Armenian Humor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 Excerpts from Armenian Prose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 Armenian Poems in Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 Armenian-English Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 English-Armenian Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529 Short Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536

Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary: Grammar: Requesting and receiving personal information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Countries, their people and languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Cardinal numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6 8

VERBS: 1.The Armenian infinitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2. The indicative mood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 a) the present tense of regular verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 b) the present tense of some irregular verbs. . . . . . . . . . . 12 3. Uses of the present tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 NOUNS: 1. The definite article . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2. The indefinite article . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Armenian equivalents of the English you . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Derivations from country names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Armenian word accentuation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Punctuation marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 A a% S s% O o% Ou ou% % M m% N n% F f% V v% % ( #) . . . 19

Armenian-English Contrasts: Word Formation: Pronunciation: Orthography: Writing:

Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary: Grammar: 1. Identifying things and persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2. Affirming and denying states and actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1. Rooms and furniture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2. Classroom items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 VERBS: Formation of the negative forms of verbs 1. Irregular verbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2. Regular verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 NOUNS: Formation of the plural. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Armenian-English Contrasts: Word Formation: Pronunciation: Orthography: Word order in Armenian sentences (inversion). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Formation of compound nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 The letters B b% P p% and " ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Exclamation marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 B b% G g% D d% : ;% X x% H h% E e% J j% I i% L l% (@) . . . . . . . . 39



Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary: Grammar: Making requests and responding to them . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food VERBS: 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

1. Armenian equivalents of the English to be . . . . . . . . . . 52 2. The indicative imperfect tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 POSSESSION: Possessive adjectives, possessive articles, and possessive pronouns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Gender in Armenian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 1. Derivation of abstract nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 2. Derivation of nouns denoting locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 The letters G g% K k% and Q q. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : ; or H h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 61

Armenian-English Contrasts: Word Formation: Pronunciation: Orthography: Writing:

> .% % K k% } ]% { [% Z z% | \% < ,% C c% P p . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary: Grammar Introducing family and friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Family and relatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 VERBS: The aorist (simple past). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 NOUNS: 1. The declension paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 2. The nominative and accusative cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Some Armenian expressions of politeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Diminutives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 The letters D d% T t% and J j . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 O o or ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 + =% W w% T t% R r% " '% Q q% ~ `% Y y% :w% . . . . . . . . . 85

Armenian-English Contrasts: Word Formation: Pronunciation: Orthography: Writing:

Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary: Grammar: Asking for opinion and expressing one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clothing, colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 94

VERBS: The perfect and pluperfect tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 100 NOUNS: 1. Declension types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. The genitive and dative cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 1. Impersonal sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 2. Expressions of like and dislike. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Vowel alterations and mutations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 The letters { [ and > . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 :w% ;w or ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

Armenian-English Contrasts: Word Formation: Pronunciation: Orthograpy:

Speech Acts in Dialogues:
Vocabulary: Grammar: Asking about and telling time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VERBS: NOUNS: NUMERALS: 116 120

1. The future and the future imperfect . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 2. The imperative mood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 The ablative case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 1. Ordinal numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 2. Distributive numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 3. Fractional numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 134 135

Armenian-English Contrasts: Interrogative sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Word Formation: Pronunciation: Orthography: Formation of nouns denoting persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The letters } ]% % and Z z. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Armenian syllabification and the transitory vowel [] . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

Speech Acts in Dialogues:
Vocabulary: Grammar: Discussing health and well-being . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Body parts VERBS: NOUNS: Word Formation: Pronunciation: Orthography: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 1. The subjunctive mood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 2. The passive voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 The instrumental case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

Armenian-English Contrasts: Prepositions and postpositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Derivation of verbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 The letters + =% Y y% and C c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 or R r ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary: Grammar: VERBS: Describing and comparing people and things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 1. Profession. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 2. Adjectives, antonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 1. The mandative mood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 2. The nominalized infinitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 ADJECTIVES: 1. Functions of adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 2. Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 PRONOUNS: Declension of personal pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Formation of adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The spelling of Armenian diphtongs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 191

Armenian-English Contrasts: The Armenian deictic system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Word Formation: Pronunciation: Orthography: Armenian diphthongs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190


Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary: Grammar: Discussing weather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Nature, flowers, trees, animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 VERBS: 1. Resultative constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 2. Phrasal or two-part verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 The locative case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 NOUNS: PRONOUNS: Interrogative and relative pronouns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 The relative pronoun or(e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Formation of adverbials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Connecting words that belong together (liaison) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Hyphenation in Armenian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

Armenian-English Contrasts: Word formation: Pronunciation: Orthography:

Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary: Grammar: Extending and accepting invitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Holidays and recreation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

VERBS: The hypothetical mood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 PRONOUNS: Reciprocal, possessive, definite pronouns . . . . . . 230 SYNTAX: Simple sentences in Armenian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Armenian-English Contrasts: Negation in Armenian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Word Formation: Formation of participles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Pronunciation: The vowel -e [] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Orthography: Punctuation marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

Speech Acts in Dialogues: Planning leisure time and vacations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Vocabulary: City and country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Grammar: SYNTAX: The structure of sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Armenian-English Contrasts: Government of verbs and adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Word Formation: Two-word compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Pronunciation: Interjections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Orthography: Capitalizing words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

Speech Acts in Dialogues: Discussing news. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Vocabulary: Media and news . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 Grammar: Syntax: Direct and indirect speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Armenian-English Contrasts: Nominalizations in Armenian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Reduplication in Armenian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Word formation: Double consonants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Pronunciation: Rendering English words into Armenian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Orthography: xii

For Armenologists in and outside Armenia, Dora Sakayan does not need introduction. She is the author of several Armenological studies, and the present textbook, Eastern Armenian for the English-speaking World, is the sister edition of an earlier textbook of hers, Modern Western Armenian for the English-speaking World. Published in Montreal, Canada, in 2000, this manual was very well received all over the world. The present textbook aims at teaching Eastern Armenian, the official language of the Republic of Armenia, to adult beginners. Though the manual is not written specifically with students of Armenian descent in mind, its importance for the younger generations of Diaspora Armenians cannot be stressed enough. It allows them to improve their own linguistic skills and discover the language of their faraway homeland, especially if their parents and family friends spoke West Armenian. Since Armenian outside Armenia could rightly be considered an endangered language, Sakayans twin textbooks not only fill a vast gap, but also contribute to the preservation outside its tiny political borders of a language so important for Indo-European research and patristic studies. Each line of this textbook reveals both the skilled educator and the learned scholar, but it is not just a matter of having an in-depth knowledge of the language, extensive classroom experience and thorough training in modern teaching methods. Sakayan also displays a rare and much-coveted talent for knowing how to properly organize her teaching material, how to select the best-suited approach for a given topic and, last but not least, where to find the texts that provide each chapter with a culturally-enriching supplement. Sakayan has found the most productive way of promoting communication skills for both oral and written performances. She has succeeded in incorporating a vast amount of linguistic material into a single textbook by distributing that material methodically among the 12 proportionally structured units. Each of these units deals with a special topic and usually consists of 12 sections of its own in which linguistic phenomena of various levels are discussed in a consistent order. All units start with a dialogue that is followed by an easy-to-comprehend narrative text. After the dialogue come sections of a thematically organized vocabulary, pertinent grammatical explanations, pronunciation, calligraphy, orthography, and word formation. Though each unit includes a specific section on ArmenianEnglish contrasts, the similarities and differences between the two languages are continuously pointed out and, whenever possible, principles of contrastive linguistics are invoked

FOREWORD to provide explanations. The units end with the listing of a few topic-related proverbs, which present ethnographic snapshots of the Armenian nation. As the dialogues expand and the linguistic material becomes richer and more versatile, learners, before they realize it, have acquired an appreciable degree of communicative competence. Reading skills are also progressively developed through a special Romanization method that makes the Armenian script easy to master. At first, texts are read and understood with the help of the section New Words and Expressions provided after each text, but this becomes less and less necessary as learners expand their lexicons. The teaching of reading skills gets in addition a cultural overtone through the selection of texts that give a glimpse at Armenian history, folklore, and civilization. Another positive feature of this textbook a ground-breaking one to my knowledge for foreign language textbooks published in Armenia is the accompanying CD, produced by the author for self-study. Since the texts are read by native speakers of East Armenian, this CD will prove indispensable for mastering East Armenian pronunciation. The appendix is rich in reference material. The first chapter contains a host of pragmatically organized conversational expressions, and the second chapter features useful grammar tables. The final items of the appendix are the two glossaries, Armenian-English and English-Armenian. The most remarkable part of the appendix, however, is the central part, which consists of an anthology of carefully collected samples of East Armenian prose narratives and poetry. Students have the opportunity not only to familiarize themselves with masterpieces of Armenian literature, but also to read them in the original language. A selected number of poems are provided with an English translation, either reproduced from existing publications or penned by Sakayan. In addition to the literary texts, newspaper articles, medieval fables, and fairy tales have been introduced to give an idea of the gamut of styles in which the Armenian language can appear. Time now to bring these Few Words to a close and express to Professor Sakayan my envious admiration for her vigor and unflagging energy, wish her textbook a successful journey, and hope to have the opportunity of welcoming from her more such high quality publications in the near future. Professor Sergey Galstyan Doctor of Philology Department of Armenian Language Yerevan State University


Eastern Armenian for the English-speaking World is an introductory, yet complete first-year course for adults in the English-speaking world. It is a handbook for both the prospective teacher and the student of Armenian. However, the full guidance given in this textbook will allow motivated learners to use it for self-instruction as well. Of the two existing versions of standard Armenian, Eastern (EA) and Western (WA), this textbook deals with Eastern Armenian, the official language of the Republic of Armenia (see pp. xix-xx). This book incorporates the recent achievements of applied linguistics into the instruction of EA. While many modern foreign-language textbooks have drawn on these insights, textbooks on Armenian have not kept pace with the new trends. This textbook differs from other Armenian manuals in many ways. 1. Although grammar is treated as an important aspect in mastering the language, other linguistic areas also receive attention. The main body of the book includes 12 units, each of which contains the following sections: I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII DIALOGUES TEXT NEW WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS THEMATIC GROUPS OF WORDS GRAMMAR (MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX) ARMENIAN-ENGLISH CONTRASTS WORD FORMATION PRONUNCIATION ORTHOGRAPHY WRITING EXERCISES PROVERBS

This structure is maintained in all units, guaranteeing a smooth progression in the mastering of EA. GRAMMAR (morphology and syntax) in this book is not a goal in itself, but a means of achieving communicative competence. Grammatical categories are selected and carefully introduced in each unit in accordance with their functionality. Furthermore, an organxv

PREFACE ized section of grammatical tables is appended to the book for reference. Cross-references in each unit reinforce the students cognitive knowledge of Armenian grammar. 2. The textbook is conceptualized pragmatically, aiming at active rather than passive knowledge. Its main goal is to enable students to interact in Armenian by carrying out fundamental speech acts, such as making a request and responding to it, expressing agreement or disagreement, conveying information and reacting to it, seeking an opinion and expressing one, asking for advice and giving it, etc. Students will learn how to engage in small talk about health, weather, and so on. Each unit opens with DIALOGUES, a short exchange of utterances used in a given situation. DIALOGUES focus on a particular speech act that evokes normally anticipated responses. The idea is to promote oral skills for recurring everyday situations. Learning to apply linguistic material to innumerable universal lifesettings is the main goal of DIALOGUES. This section is supported by a special division in the APPENDIX under the heading GAMBITS (see p. 301). These are conventionally accepted expressions to be used as tools for communication. GAMBITS are arranged according to the speech acts they carry out, and are provided as useful material for memorization. Students are presented with GAMBITS as lexical units, regardless of their grammatical complexity. Familiarity with complex GAMBITS will help students to internalize grammatical forms. 3. TEXTS are short reading passages of various origins. Some are selected and adapted from existing Armenian textbooks. Others are written by the author of this textbook. TEXTS enrich the vocabulary of students and develop their narrative and descriptive skills. They can be reinforced through a systematic analysis and thorough discussion in class. To acquaint students with Armenian folklore, each unit includes a few Armenian proverbs with their English translation. Proverbs are thematically and structurally related to the main topic of each unit. Vocabulary drawn from each TEXT appears in translation in NEW WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS. The section THEMATIC GROUPS OF WORDS will expand students active and passive vocabulary.

4. This book places special emphasis on Armenian-English contrasts. All discussions in

the books various sections are based on such a contrastive approach. A special section, ARMENIAN-ENGLISH CONTRASTS, explains Armenian idiosyncrasies at various linguistic levels that might otherwise escape the students and in some cases even the teachers attention. Translations from and into English also play a role in revealing linguistic contrasts. Explanations are given throughout the book in English. 5. WORD FORMATION, an essential but often overlooked area in language instruction, is given proper treatment. Each unit discusses derivation, composition or inversion patterns that are productive in certain word classes in Armenian. The advantage of this approach is

PREFACE enormous: Students learn to recognize and analyze the basic elements of words. As they progress, students also learn to create new words by analogy with models they have already learned. A special table in the GRAMMAR APPENDIX gives an overview of affixes (prefixes and suffixes) that are productive in the formation of various word classes. 6. Armenian is by no means a common language. For the majority of students who undertake the study of Armenian, it can be a great challenge, especially in view of its unique alphabet. In order to overcome difficulties with spelling and pronunciation, a special system of transcription-romanization has been created. To ease both the spelling and the pronunciation of Eastern Armenian words, this transcription system takes into account not only graphic correspondences, but also phonetic subtleties of Armenian. A special trait of this romanization system is that it inserts the vowel [] (schwa) not only in all positions where it is spelled by the letter e% but also where it is not written but pronounced as a transitory sound, which is indicated by []. This approach facilitates the reading of certain Armenian words with consonant clusters. For example, the Armenian male name Mkrtic [Mkrtich] consists of five consonants and only one vowel, but constitutes three syllables. This is due to the transitory vowel [] that is not written but pronounced between consonants. In the first half of the 12 units, almost all newly introduced words and texts are transcribed. In the second half, however, transcription is used more sparingly, disappearing gradually towards the end of the book. At this point, students are expected to have mastered the skill of reading Armenian. One could argue that the transcription should have been eliminated at a much earlier stage. However, it was maintained for two reasons: First, to facilitate cross-referencing throughout the book; second, to provide additional direction to students working without the guidance of a teacher. 7. Along with square brackets [...] used for transcription, parentheses (...) are often used as structural (morpho-syntactic) glosses in English. The glosses (see 3. below) explain those Armenian phrase and sentence structures that are fundamentally different from the free English translation (see 4. below), presented in italics. The structural glosses illustrate differences in word order, case, number, etc. As a result, a phrase or a sentence may appear in four lines: 1. Armenian text: 2. Transcription: 3. Structural gloss: 4. Free English translation: Aman are kixic h! [Aman arev kizich e] (Summergen sun-thenom scorching is) Summer sun is scorching.

8. The section WRITING introduces the 38 letters of the Armenian alphabet throughout the first four units. Letters are presented as calligraphic samples with their printed and translitxvii

PREFACE erated counterparts. However, this should not prevent students from practicing writing at a much earlier stage, using the samples provided with the Armenian alphabet (see pp. xxii-xiii). Writing skills need to be developed throughout the entire learning progress. 9. Each unit has a section of EXERCISES which draws on newly acquired knowledge or reviews linguistic material from previous units. All EXERCISES, both traditional and innovative, aim at the development of communicative competence. To ensure the crucial shift from traditional third-person narrative sentences which are often isolated and unrelated to interactions containing I and you, communicative exercises have been introduced. These are exercises based on micro-dialogues, patterns of two or more interlocking utterances that consist of a stimulus by speaker A and a response by speaker B, and vice versa. The micro-dialogues contain recurring routine expressions, i.e. GAMBITS (see p. 301), and a variable lexical-grammatical content, i.e. vocabulary and grammatical forms, that have already been learned. The student is asked to modify the variable content using the pattern given for each communicative exercise. In a more creative type of communicative exercise, students are instructed to produce certain speech acts and to react to them in simulated real-life settings. For instance, they are asked to initiate polite requests and to react with adequate responses in Armenian. This type of communicative exercise ensures the meaningful practice of forms and structures necessary for successful interaction. Most of these communicative exercises are designed for oral work in class and should be supervised by the teacher. Only selected exercises could be assigned as homework after careful preparation by the instructor in class. This applies especially to the initial stages of instruction. 10. The purpose of the introductory unit (p. xxv) is to acquaint students with a new world of sounds and to lay the foundation for instruction in East Armenian. 11. The APPENDIX, which follows the 12 units, constitutes the next half of this textbook. It contains a collection of passages from masterpieces of East Armenian literature, prose, poetry, and folklore, as well as newspaper articles that offer an insight into Armenian culture and civilization. Most of the poems appear in English translation. The GAMBITS section represents an important part of East Armenian routine expressions, some useful tools for every-day communication. TABLES give an overview of East Armenian grammar, and an ARMENIAN-ENGLISH and ENGLISH-ARMENIAN GLOSSARY with each entry romanized aids in independent study. A vast BIBLIOGRAPHY of academic books on East Armenian grammar used in this textbook is also annexed. The textbook ends with a subject INDEX. 12. The textbook is accompanied by a CD in which the sections DIALOGUES (I), TEXTS (II), and PRONUNCIATION (VIII) are systematically recorded. Some additional texts from the APPENDIX, both prose and poetry, are also read by native speakers of Armenia.


1. Armenian is an ancient yet vibrant language that represents its own independent branch in the Indo-European family of languages. The six million people who speak Armenian around the world have been divided geographically and linguistically into two communities, the Eastern and the Western. Accordingly, as a literary language, Armenian exists in two versions: East Armenian (EA) and West Armenian (WA). EA is based on the dialect of the Ararat valley and the city of Yerevan; WA originates from the Armenian dialect of Istanbul. EA is the official language of the Republic of Armenia, as well as the language of Armenians living in the former Soviet Union, Iran, and India. WA is the language of the greater Armenian diaspora throughout the Middle East, Asia Minor, Europe, Australia, and the Americas. Since 1991, however, the year when the independent Republic of Armenia was established, many Armenians have left their country and settled in the West. It is thus difficult to draw a strict distinction between East and West Armenian communities, since the diaspora increasingly uses both varieties of Armenian. Differences between the two versions manifest themselves in both grammar and vocabulary, but most significantly in pronunciation. Orthography also differs: While in the early years of Soviet Armenia a simplifying spelling reform was adopted for EA, rules of traditional orthography as found in Grabar, the Classical Armenian, were preserved in WA. All these differences do not, however, greatly hinder communication between Armenians of different backgrounds. 2. The Armenian alphabet is a set of 38 characters unique to Armenian, used in all three of its manifestations: Classical Armenian or Grabar, EA and WA. This alphabet was developed in A.D. 405 by the cleric of the Armenian royal court, prominent scholar Saint Mesrop Mashtots. The order of the letters in the Armenian alphabet suggests that it was modeled after the Greek alphabet. Originally, the Armenian alphabet had 36 characters. However, two letters, and ~ `% were added in the middle ages to meet the need of writing foreign names and borrowed words. In 1922, along with revisions to the traditional orthography, the Soviet reform implemented certain changes to the Armenian alphabet. The most significant change was the outmoding of the 34th letter of the original alphabet, I u% and the addition of the combined graphic sign ou for [u] in its place. The reform also supplemented the alphabet with the ligature to replace the combination ;+u. Today, the extensively used ligature is officially recognized as a complementation rather than an integral part of the Armenian alphabet for EA use.

PREFACE This alphabet thirty consonants and eight vowels. Most of the letters also have numerical values (see p. xxii-xxiii). 3. Differences between the pronunciation of the Armenian alphabet in the two versions of Armenian, Eastern and Western, involve mainly the consonant system, and particularly the stops. As a result of a consonant shift, WA has deviated considerably from its phonetic origins and has shifted from a three-part to a two-part consonant system that consists of one voiced and one voiceless stop: (1) (2) p [b] '% b [p] k [g] q% g [k] t [d] j% d [t] [dz] ]% z [ts] y [j] =% c [ch]

A similar two-part system can be found in other Indo-European languages. Compare the one in English: b/p g/k d/t The EA pronunciation of the Armenian alphabet corresponds phonetically to that of Classical Armenian. Each character has a distinct phonetic value, which explains the number of letters in the Armenian alphabet created by Mesrop Mashtots in A.D. 405. The EA three-part consonant system consists of one voiced stop (line 1) and two types of voiceless stops, one unaspirated (line 2) and one aspirated (line 3): (1) voiced stops (2) unaspirated stops (3) aspirated stops b [b] p [p] ' [p] g [g] k [k] q [k] d [d] t [t] j [t] ] [dz] [ts] z [ts] = [j] y [ch] c [ch]

Many linguists attribute this three-part consonant system, unusual for Indo-European languages, to the influence of other Caucasian languages in the region. SAMPLE OF A TEXT (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 1): PRINTED
Bolor mardik nwoum ;n axat ir;nz arvanapatwouj\amb ou irawounqn;row^ fawasar! Nranq vtwa ;n banakanouj\amb ou .[yow irar f;t p;tq h warw;n ;[ba\rabar!

WRITTEN Bolor mardik nwoum ;n axat ir;nz arvanapatwouj\amb ou irawounqn;row^ fawasar! Nranq vtwa ;n banakanouj\amb ou .[yow irar f;t p;tq h warw;n ;[ba\rabar! TRANSLATED

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.



(East Armenian Reading)



A a B b G g D d : ; X x H h E e J j V v I i L l > . K k F f } ] { [ Y y M m | \ N n < ,

A a B b G g D d : ; X x H h E e J j V v I i L l > . K k F f } ] { [ Y y M m | \ N n < ,

ayb ben gim da yech za e t to ini lyun khe tsa ho dza ghat che he nu sha men ken zhe

[a] [b] [g] [d] [ye] or [e]1 [z] [e] [] [t] [i] [l] [kh] [ts] [k] [h] [dz] [gh] [ch] [m] [y] [n] [sh] [zh]

as in car as in bar as in good as in door as in yes or there as in zest as in there as in about as in team as in pleasure as in bee as in light as in Bach or Jose a plosive ts as in stock as in hot as in odds as the French r a plosive ch as in me as in yard as in nine as in shine

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400 500



O o C c P p + = S s W w T t R r Z z Ou ou " ' Q q ~ `

O o C c P p + = S s W w T t R r Z z Ou ou " ' Q q ~ `

vo cha pe

[vo] or [o]2 [ch] [p] [j] [] [s] [v] [t] [r] [ts] [u] [p] [k] [o]3 [f]

as in vocal or for as in chair as in copper as in journal trilled r as in say as in vase as in rotten liquid r as in lots as in tool as in paper as in kind as in all as in file4

600 700 800 900 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000

a se vev tyun re tso u pyur ke o fe

1. On the pronunciation of : ; see p. 61. 2. On the pronunciation of O o see p. 84. 3. The last two letters, and ~ `% do not have a numeric value, since they are later additions to the alphabet. 4. There is an additional letter, the ligament which, although widely used in East Armenian, does not constitute an integral part of the alphabet (see pp. xix and 110). The ligament has no capital counterpart. It is pronounced: a) [yev] in initial position and after vowels (cf. [yev] and, na [nayev] also). b) [ev] in medial and final position of words after consonants (cf. ar [arev] sun) In initial position of words, it is replaced by :w or ;w: :wropa [Yevropa] Europe, ;wropakan [yevropakan] European. In word formation, this ;w may also appear in medial position of words: fama;wropakan [hamaevropakan] All-European, fnd;wropakan [hndevropakan] Indo-European, etc.


1. N;r;z;*q% paron &&& [Neretsek, paron] N;r;z;*q% tikin &&& [Neretsek, tikin] Kar;li# h };x mi ban farzn;l! [Kareli e dzez mi ban hartsnel?] An,ou*,t! [Anshusht] >ndr;*m! [Khntrem] 2. Bar% Mari! [Barev, Mari] Bari lou\s% tikin Axar\an! [Bari luys, tikin Azaryan] Bari ;r;ko% riord! [Bari yereko, oriort ] 3. Anound i#nc h! [Anunt inch e?] };r anoune i#nc h! [Dzer anun inch e?] Anouns Ani h! [Anuns Ani e] Axganouns Sar\an h! [Azganuns Saryan e] (<at) oura. ;m! [(Shat) urakh em] Excuse me, Sir ... Excuse me, Madam ... May I ask you something? Of course. Please, go ahead. Hello, Mary. Good morning, Mrs. Azarian. Good evening, Miss. Whats your name? (informal) Whats your name? (formal) My name is Ani. My last name is Saryan. I am (very) pleased (to meet you).


INTRODUCTORY UNIT 4. Dou fa#\ ;s!/Douq fa#\ ;q! [Du hay es?/Duk hay ek?] A\o*% fa\ ;m! [Ayo, hay em] O*c% ;s fa\ c;m! [Voch, yes hay chem] Douq am;rikazi# ;q! [Duk amerikatsi ek?] Douq am;rikoufi# ;q! [Duk amerikuhi ek ?] A\o*% am;rikazi/am;rikoufi ;m! [Ayo, amerikatsi /amerikuhi em] Isk Annan axgouj\amb i#nc h! [Isk Annan azgutyamb inch e?] Angloufi/`ransoufi h! [Angluhi /fransuhi e] Samw;ln h#l `ransiazi h! [Samveln el fransiatsi e?] O*c% am;rikazi h! [Voch, amerikatsi e] Isk do#u! [Isk du?] :s kanadazi/kanadoufi ;m! [Yes kanadatsi/kanaduhi em] 5. Incp;#s ;s% Lilij! [Inchpes es, Lilit?] Incp;#s ;q% paron Sar\an! [Inchpes ek, paron Saryan?] Law ;m% ,norfakalouj\oun! [Lav em, shnorhakalutyun] Isk do#uq incp;s ;q! [Isk duk inchpes ek?]

Are you Armenian? (informal/formal) Yes, I am. No, I am not. Are you (formal) American? (male) Are you (formal) American? (female) Yes, I am American (male/female). And what (nationality) is Anna? She is English / French (female). Is Samuel also French (male)? No, he is American (male). And you? I am Canadian (male/female).

How are you, Lilith? How are you, Mr. Saryan? I am fine, thanks. And how are you? (formal)

INTRODUCTORY UNIT :s hl law ;m% ,norfakal ;m! [Yes el lav em, shnorhakal em] 6. N;*rs ari% .ndr;m! [Ners ari, khntrem] N;*rs ;k;q% .ndr;m! [Ners yekek, khntrem] Baro@w ;kar/;kaq! [Barov yekar/yekak] 7. Sa i#nc h! [Sa inch e?] Sa girq h! [Sa girk e] Isk sa#! [Isk sa?] Sa t;tr h! [Sa tetr e] Matit oun;#s/oun;#q! [Matit unes/unek?] A\o*% oun;m% afa*! [Ayo, unem, aha] Kta#s / kta#q! [Ktas / ktak?] >ndr;m! [Khntrem] <norfakal ;m! [Shnorhakal em] Carv;! [Charzhe] 8. O#w h a\s parone/tikine! [Ov e ays paron/tikin?] Paron/tikin Sar\ann h! [Paron/tikin Saryann e] I am also well, thank you. Come in, please. (informal) Come in, please. (formal) You are welcome! (informal/formal) What is this? This is a book. And this? This is a notebook. Do you have a pencil? (informal/formal) Yes, I do. Here it is. Would you (informal/formal) give X to me? Here you are! Thank you! Dont mention it! Who is this gentleman/lady? This is Mr./Mrs. Sarian.


INTRODUCTORY UNIT Isk a\s t[a#n / a[=i#ke! [Isk ays tghan / akhchik?] Sa Arm;nn h/Arm;noufin h! [Sa Armenn e/Armenuhin e] Arm;nn ousano#[ h! A\o*! [Armenn usanogh e? Ayo!] Isk tikin Sar\a#ne! [Isk tikin Saryan?] Na ousouzcoufi h! [Na usutschuhi e] 9. N;r;z;*q! / N;ri*r! [Neretsek / Nerir!] N;ro[ouj\oun! [Neroghutyun] Oci*nc! [Vochnch] >ndr;m% karor ch! [Khntrem, karevor che] 10. Zt;souj\oun! [Tstesutyun] Mnaq/mnas barow! [Mnak/mnas barov] Gnaq/gnas barow! [Gnak/gnas barov] Bari gi,;r! [Bari gisher] Lou\s bari! [Luys bari]

And this boy/girl? This is Armen / Armenuhi. Is Armen a student? Yes, he is. And Mrs. Saryan? She is a (female) teacher. Excuse me. (formal / informal) Excuse me. / Sorry. No problem. Its O.K., dont mention it.

See you later! Goodbye! (formal/informal) Take care!* (formal/informal) Good night!** Good night!**

A conventional exchange of salutations when guests depart: Mnas/Mnaq barow Goodbye! [literally: Stay well!] and Gnas/Gnaq barow Goodbye! (literally: Leave well!)

** A conventional exchange of expressions for Good night: Bari gi,;r Good night! and Lou\s bari lit.: Good light!, i.e. expression extending the good wishes to the next day.


Unit 1
V|x? cxx? tw _tztzx
mardik l;xoun;r

On the agenda
Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary: Grammar: Requesting and receiving personal information . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Countries, their people and languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. Cardinal numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 VERBS: 1. The Armenian infinitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2. The indicative mood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 a) the present tense of regular verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 b) the present tense of some irregular verbs . . . . . . .12 3. Uses of the present tense indicative . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 NOUNS: 1. The definite article . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2. The indefinite article . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14

Armenian-English Contrasts: Armenian equivalents of the English you . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Word Formation: Pronunciation: Orthography: Writing: Derivations from country names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Armenian word accentuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Punctuation marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 A a% S s% O o% Ou ou% % M m% N n% F f% V v% % ( #) 19


1. B, an Armenian-speaking officer in the Canadian Embassy in Yerevan, is filling out a questionnaire for A, an Armenian citizen who does not speak English. They address each other formally. A. B. A. B. A. B. A. B. A. B. A. B. Bar ];x! [Barev dzez] Hello! Hello! Whats your name? My name is Armen. And your family name? My family name is Saryan. How old are you? Twenty years old. Your citizenship? I am a citizen of Armenia. What languages do you know? Armenian and Russian. Do you also read and write in those languages?

Anouns Arm;n h! [Anuns Armen e] Isk ];r axgano#une! [Isk dzer azganun?] Axganouns Sar\an h! [Azganuns Saryan e] Qani# tar;kan ;q! [Kani tarekan ek?] Qsan tar;kan! [Ksan tarekan] };r qa[aqaziouj\o#une! [Dzer kaghakatsiutyun?] Fa\astani qa[aqazi ;m! [Hayastani kaghakatsi em] I#nc l;xoun;r git;q! [Inch lezuner gitek?] Fa\;r;n ous;r;n! [Hayeren yev useren] A\d l;xoun;row na groum [ayt lezunerov nayev grum] ou kardo#um ;q! [u kartum ek]

( ( ( (
* In the flow of speech some Armenian words are drawn together and pronounced as one word. This feature, also called liaison (see Unit 9, pp. 213-214), is designated by the sign in the transcription of the first four units.

Bar% i#nc h ];r anoune! [Barev, inch e dzer anun?]


UNIT 1 A. B. A. B. A. B. A. B. A. B. A. A\o*! [Ayo] O#rn h };r fasz;n! [Vorn e dzer hastsen?] Yes! What is your address? Ten Paronyan Street, Yerevan. What is your telephone number? Four-zero-zero, five-eight, one-two. What is your occupation? I am a student. What are you studying? Literature. Thank you. You are free to go. Thanks. Good bye.

:ran% Paron\an 'o[oz tase%! [Yerevan, Paronyan poghots tas] O#rn h };r f;a.osi famare! [Vorn e dzer heakhosi hamar? Cors far\our% fisounouj% tasn;rkou! [Chors haryur, hisunut, tasnerku] Inco#w ;q xba[woum! [Inchov ek zbaghvum?] Ousano[ ;m! [Usanogh em] I#nc ;q ousoumnasiroum! [Inch ek usumnasirum?] Grakanouj\oun! [Grakanutyun] <norfakal ;m! Axat ;q! [Shnorhakal em. Azat ek.] <norfakalouj\oun! Zt;souj\oun! [Shnorhakalutyun. Tstesutyun.]

2. A is an adult, B is a five-year old child who is lost. The adult addresses the child informally. A. B. A. B. Anound i#nc h! [Anunt inch e?] What is your name? My name is Ani. And your family name? Malyan.

Anouns Ani h! [Anuns Ani e] Isk axgano#und! [Isk azganunt?] Mal\an! [Malyan]

UNIT 1 A. B. A. B. A. B. A. Qani# tar;kan ;s! [K ani tarekan es?]


How old are you? Five years old. Do you know your (plur.) address? Thirty Komitas Street. And your (plur.) telephone number? Two-eight, five-one, one-two. Good for you! Now well go and phone your home.

Fing tar;kan! [Hing tarekan] };r fasz;n git;#s! [Dzer hasts en gites?]

Komitas 'o[oz% ;r;soun! [Komitas p oghots yeresun]

h h

Isk ];r f;a.osi fama#re! [Isk dzer heakhosi hamar?] Qsanouj% fisounm;k% tasn;rkou! [Ksanut , hisunmek, tasnerku]

Apr;*s! Fima kgnanq [Apres. Hima kgnank yev]


kxangafar;nq ];r toun! [kzangaharenk dzer tun]




man;r;ne a\l l;xoun;r% fa\;r;ne fnd;wropakan l;xou h! Fa\kakan a\boub;ne maneren yev ayl lezuner, hayeren hndevropakan lezu ye. Haykakan aybuben

.osoum ;n fa\;r;n! Fa\;r;ne fin l;xou h! Incp;s `rans;r;ne% angl;r;ne% g;rkhosum en hayeren. Hayeren hin lezu ye. Inchpes franseren, angleren, ger-

( (

Fa\astane 'oqr ;rkir h! A\n ouni ;r;q ou k;s milion bnakic! Fa\;re [Hayastan pokr yerkir e. Ayn uni yerek u kes milyon bnakich. Hayer

kakan a\boub;nn ouni 38 (;r;sounouj) ta! Fa\astane am;nafin qriston\a kakan aybubenn uni 38 (yeresunut) ta. Hayastan amenahin kristonya ;rkirn h! A\n endoun;l h qriston;ouj\oune 301 (;r;q far\our m;k) jwakanin! yerkirn e. Ayn ntunel e kristoneyutyun 301 (yerek haryur mek) tvakanin]

fin h! A\n st;[;l h M;srop Ma,toze 405 (cors far\our fing) jwakanin! Fa\hin e. Ayn steghtsel e Mesrop Mashtots 405 (chors haryur hing) tvakanin. Hay-



Fa\astane 'oqr ;rkir h oun;nal% ouni ;r;q ou k;s milion bnakic fa\;re .os;l fa\;r;n fin l;xou incp;s angl;r;n `rans;r;n g;rman;r;n a\l fnd;wropakan fa\kakan a\boub;n a\n st;[;l st;[;l h jwakan ta am;nafin qriston\a ;rkir endoun;l endoun;l h qriston;ouj\oun [Hayastan] [pokr] [yerkir] [e] [unenal, uni] [yerek u kes] [milyon] [bnakich] [hayer] [khosel] [hayeren] [hin] [lezu] [inchpes] [angleren] [f`ranseren] [germaneren] [yev] [ayl] [hndevropakan] [haykakan] [aybuben] [ayn] [steghtsel] [steghtsel e] [tvakan] [ta] [amenahin] [kristonya] [yerkir] [ntunel] [ntunel e] [kristoneyutyun] Armenia small country is to have, has three and* a half million inhabitant the Armenians to speak Armenian (language) old language as, how English (language) French (language) German (language) and* other Indo-European Armenian (adjective) alphabet it to create has created date, year letter (graphic sign) (the) oldest Christian country to adopt has adopted Christianity

* The coordinating conjunctions [yev] and ou [u] correspond to the English and. Most of the time, they are interchangeable: faz ou panir [hats u panir] or faz panir [hats yev panir] bread and cheese. There are, however, some contexts where the language norm requires the use of or ou (see also the note in Unit 11, p. 255).



Fa\astan [Hayastan] Armenia Am;rika [Amerika] America Kanada [Kanada] Canada Anglia [Anglia] England ousastan [usastan] Russia ~ransia [Fransia] France G;rmania [Germania] Germany Italia [Italia] Italy Ispania [Ispania] Spain Cinastan [Chinastan] China Yaponia [Chaponia] Japan 6

fa\ [hay] Armenian am;rikazi [amerikatsi] American kanadazi [kanadatsi] Canadian angliazi [angliatsi] English ous [us] Russian `ransiazi [fransiatsi] French g;rmanazi [germanatsi] German italazi [italatsi] Italian ispanazi [ispanatsi] Spaniard cinazi [chinatsi] Chinese yaponazi [chaponatsi] Japanese

fa\oufi [hayuhi] Armenian am;rikoufi [amerikuhi] American kanadoufi [kanaduhi] Canadian angloufi [angluhi] English ous [us] Russian `ransoufi [fransuhi] French g;rmanoufi [germanuhi] German italoufi [italuhi] Italian ispanoufi [ispanuhi] Spaniard cinoufi [chinuhi] Chinese yaponoufi [chaponuhi] Japanese

fa\;r;n [hayeren] Armenian angl;r;n [angleren] English angl;r;n/`rans;r;n [angleren/franseren] English/French angl;r;n [angleren] English ous;r;n [useren] Russian `rans;r;n [franseren] French g;rman;r;n [germaneren] German ital;r;n [italeren] Italian ispan;r;n [ispaneren] Spanish cinar;n [chinaren] Chinese yapon;r;n [chaponeren] Japanese

fa\kakan/fa\ [haykakan/hay] Armenian am;rik\an [amerikyan] American kanadakan [kanadakan] Canadian angliakan [angliakan] English ousakan [usakan] Russian `ransiakan [fransiakan] French g;rmanakan [germanakan] German italakan [italakan] Italian ispanakan [ispanakan] Spanish cinakan [chinakan] Chinese yaponakan [chaponakan] Japanese

Founastan [Hunastan] Greece :giptos [Yegiptos] Egypt Wrastan [Vrastan] Georgia Jourqia [Turkya] Turkey Parskastan [Parskastan] Iran L;fastan [Lehastan] Poland Libanan [Libanan] Lebanon ouminia [uminia] Roumania Foungaria [Hungaria] Hungary Fndkastan [Hndkastan] India Folandia [Holandia] Holland Isra\;l [Israyel] Israel Boul[aria [Bulgharia] Bulgaria fou\n [huyn] Greek ;giptazi [yegiptatsi] Egyptian wrazi [vratsi] Georgian jourq [turk] Turk parsik [parsik] Iranian l;f [leh] Pole libananzi [libanantsi] Lebanese ouminazi [uminatsi] Roumanian foungarazi [hungaratsi] Hungarian fndik [hndik] Indian folandazi [holandatsi] Dutch isra\;lzi/fr;a [israyeltsi/hrya] Israeli/Jewish boul[arazi [bulgharatsi] Bulgarian fou\n [huyn] Greek ;giptoufi [yegiptuhi] Egyptian wrazoufi [vratsuhi] Georgian jrqoufi trkuhi] Turk parskoufi [parskuhi] Iranian l;foufi [lehuhi] Pole libananzi [libanantsi] Lebanese ouminoufi [uminuhi] Roumanian founar;n [hunaren] Greek arab;r;n [araberen] Arabic wraz;r;n [vratseren] Georgian jourq;r;n turkeren] Turkish parsk;r;n [parskeren] Persian l;f;r;n [leheren] Polish arab;r;n [araberen] Arabic oumin;r;n [umineren] Roumanian founakan/fou\n [hunakan/huyn] Greek ;giptakan [yegiptakan] Egyptian wrazakan/wraz [vratsakan/vrats] Georgian jourqakan/jourq [turkakan/turk] Turkish parskakan [parskakan] Iranian/Persian l;fakan [lehakan] Polish libanan\an [libananyan] Lebanese ouminakan [uminakan] Roumanian foungarakan [hungarakan] Hungarian fndkakan [hndkakan] Indian folandakan [holandakan] Dutch isra\;lakan/fr;akan [israyelakan/hreakan] Israeli/Jewish boul[arakan [bulgharakan] Bulgarian 7

foungaroufi foungar;r;n [hungaruhi] [hungareren] Hungarian Hungarian fndkoufi [hndkuhi] Indian folandoufi [holanduhi] Dutch fr;oufi [hreuhi] Jewish boul[aroufi [bulgharuhi] Bulgarian fndk;r;n [hndkeren] Hindi foland;r;n [holanderen] Dutch ;bra\;r;n [yebrayeren] Hebrew boul[ar;r;n [bulghareren] Bulgarian


Like other languages, Armenian uses Arabic numbers, 1, 2, 3, etc., for cardinal numerals. Cardinal numerals denote quantity, size, measurement, etc., and in Armenian answer the question qani# [kani?] how many? The Armenian wording for these symbols is presented below. Note that the word for zero (0) is spelled xro [zro] or x;ro [zero]. 2. CARDINAL NUMERALS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

m;k ;rkou ;r;q cors fing w;z \oj ouj inn (or ine) tasn (or tase) tasnm;k tasn;rkou tasn;r;q

[mek] [yerku] [yerek] [chors] [hing] [vets] [yot] [ut] [inn] (or [in]) [tasn] (or [tas]) [tasnmek ] [tasnerku] [tasnerek]

tasncors [tasnchors] tasnfing [tasnhing] tasnw;z [tasnvets] yot] tasn\oj [tasn tasnouj [tasnut] tasninn [tasninn] qsan [ksan] qsanm;k [ksanmek] qsan;rkou [ksanerku] qsan;r;q [ksanerek] qsancors [ksanchors] qsanfing [ksanhing] qsanw;z [ksanvets] qsan\oj [ksanyot] qsanouj [ksanut] qsaninn or -ine [ksaninn] or [-in] ;r;soun [yeresun]

31 ;r;sounm;k [yeresunmek] 32 ;r;soun;rkou [yeresunerku] 33 ;r;soun;r;q [yeresunerek] 34 ;r;souncors [yeresunchors] 35 ;r;sounfing [yeresunhing] 36 ;r;sounw;z [yeresunvets] 37 ;r;soun\oj [yeresunyot] 38 ;r;sounouj [yeresunut] 39 ;r;souninn (-ine)[yeresuninn (-in) 40 qaasoun [kaasun] 50 fisoun [hisun] 60 wajsoun [vatsun] 70 \ojanasoun [yotanasun] 80 oujsoun [utsun] 90 innsoun [innsun] 100 far\our [haryur] 200 ;rkou far\our [yerku haryur] 300 ;r;q far\our [yerek haryur] 400 cors far\our [chors haryur] 500 fing far\our [hing haryur] 600 w;z far\our [vets haryur] 700 \oj far\our [yot haryur] 800 ouj far\our [ut haryur] 900 inn far\our [inn haryur] 1 000 faxar [hazar] 1 001 faxar m;k [hazar mek] 1 002 faxar ;rkou [hazar yerku] 2 000 ;rkou faxar [yerku hazar] 3 000 ;r;q faxar [yerek hazar] 10 000 tase faxar [tas hazar]

41 42 43 54 55 56 67 68 69 71 qaasounm;k qaasoun;rkou qaasoun;r;q fisouncors fisounfing fisounw;z wajsoun\oj wajsounouj wajsouninn \ojanasounm;k [kaasunmek] [kaasunerku] [kaasunerek] [hisunchors] [hisunhing] [hisunvets] [vatsunyot] [vatsunut] [vatsunin] [yotanasunmek] 72 73 84 85 86 97 98 99 101 111 \ojanasoun;rkou [yotanasunerku] \ojanasoun;r;q [yotanasunerek] oujsouncors [utsunchors] oujsounfing [utsunhing] oujsounw;z [utsunvets] sunyot] innsoun\oj [in innsounouj [insunut] innsouninn [insunin] far\our m;k [haryur mek ] far\our tasnm;k [haryur tasnmek ]

1896 faxar ouj far\our innsounw;z [hazar ut haryur insunvets] 1915 faxar inn far\our tasnfin [hazar in haryur tasnhing] 1922 faxar inn far\our qsan;rkou [hazar in haryur ksanerku] 1983 faxar inn far\our oujsoun;r;q [hazar in haryur utsunerek] 2007 ;rkou faxar \oj [yerku hazar yot] 23 027 qsan;r;q faxar qsan\oj [ksanerek hazar ksanyot] 154 002 far\our fisouncors faxar ;rkou [haryur hisunchors hazar yerku] 1 000 000 m;k milion [mek milyon] 1 500 000 m;kouk;s milion or m;k milion [mekukes milyon] or fing far\our faxar [mek milyon hing haryur hazar] 34 687 200 ;r;souncors milion w;z far\our oujsoun\oj faxar ;rkou far\our [yeresunchors milyon vets haryur utsunyot hazar yerku haryur]




goumaroum [gumarum] addition: 5 + 6 = 11 Fingin goumara w;z fawasar h tasnm;ki! [Hingin gumarats vets havasar e tasnmeki] fanoum [hanum] substraction: 10 - 9 = 1 Tasiz fana ine fawasar h m;ki! [Tasits hanats in havasar e meki] baxmapatkoum [bazmapatkum] multiplication: 4 x 5 = 20 Cors angam fing fawasar h qsani! [Chors ankam hing havasar e ksani] bavanoum [bazhanum] division: 30 6 = 5 :r;soune bavana w;zi fawasar h fingi! [Yeresun bazhanats vetsi havasar e hingi]


A. VERBS I. THE ARMENIAN INFINITIVE To conjugate an Armenian verb, it is important to know its uninflected form, i.e. the infinitive, which is the basic form of verbs as found in dictionaries. The Armenian infinitive consists of two elements: the verb stem and the infinitive ending. The infinitive of the verbs gr;l [grel] to write and kardal [kartal] to read, for instance, can be broken down into two components: the verb stems gr- [gr-] and kard- [kart-] and their infinitive endings -;l [-el] and -al [-al]. There are two infinitive endings and, correspondingly, two conjugation types in Armenian: 1. The first conjugation: verb stem + -;l [-el]

2. The second conjugation: verb stem

+ -al [-al]

EXAMPLES OF THE FIRST-CONJUGATION VERBS: out-;l [ut-el] to eat, ;rg-;l [yerk-el] to sing, .os-;l [khos-el] to speak, par-;l [parel] to dance, an-;l [anel] to do, .m-;l [khmel] to drink, st;[-;l [stegh-tsel] to create, xangafar-;l [zangahar-el] to phone, etc. EXAMPLES OF THE SECOND-CONJUGATION VERBS: .a[-al [khaghal] to play, gn-al [gnal] to go, kard-al [kart-al] to read, go-al [go-al] to scream, fax-al [haz-al] to cough, ou,-an-al [ush-anal] to be late, fous-al [hus-al] to hope, orot-al [vorotal] to thunder, etc. II. THE INDICATIVE MOOD 1. The present tense of regular verbs In languages, the indicative is known as the most common mood, since most statements and questions are expressed in this mood. As opposed to English, which has two types of present tense, namely the present indefinite [I go] and the present continuous [I am going], Eastern Armenian has only one present tense equivalent to both English present tenses. The Armenian present tense is a complex formation which combines the auxiliary verb ;m [em] I am (see p. 12) and the present participle, which is built from the infinitive stem of the verb and the ending -oum [-um] (see p. 236):

UNIT 1 Infinitive gr-;l [grel] kard-al [kartal] Present participle gr-oum [gr-um] kard-oum [kart-um] Indicative present tense

(;s)* groum ;m [grum em] I write or I am writing (;s) kardoum ;m [kartum em] I read or I am reading

All regular verbs follow the pattern below: SINGULAR


INDICATIVE MOOD Present tense (affirmative) gr;l [grel] to write (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) Example: +one soworoum h fa\;r;n! Na ard;n kardoum h! [Jon sovorum e hayeren. Na arten kartum e.] John is learning Armenian. He is already reading. groum groum groum groum groum groum ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n kardal [kartal] to read kardoum kardoum kardoum kardoum kardoum kardoum ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n

* Normally, Armenian finite forms do not necessarily require personal pronouns (;s% dou% etc.) as the expressive personal forms of the conjugated verb (;m% ;s% h% etc.) make them redundant. 11

( ( (

1st pers. (m;nq) 2nd pers. (douq) 3rd pers. (nranq)

infinitive stem + oum ;nq infinitive stem + oum ;q infinitive stem + oum ;n

[-um enk] [-um ek] [-um en]

( ( (

1st pers. (;s) 2nd pers. (dou) 3rd pers. (na)

infinitive stem + oum ;m infinitive stem + oum ;s infinitive stem + oum h

[-um em] [-um es] [-um e]

UNIT 1 2. The present tense of some irregular verbs a) Three monosyllabic verbs, tal [tal] to give, gal [gal] to come, and lal [lal] to cry deviate from the regular pattern: they form their indicative present tense with a participle ending in -is [-is], rather than the regular present participle ending in -oum [-um]. Here is the indicative present tense of tal [tal] to give, gal [gal] to come, and lal [lal] to cry: tal [tal] to give (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) talis talis talis talis talis talis ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n gal [gal] to come galis galis galis galis galis galis ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n lal [lal] to cry lalis lalis lalis lalis lalis lalis ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n

b) There are irregular and defective verbs (see pp. 334-336) that do not follow the conventional pattern of forming just one present tense. Some frequently used Armenian verbs have two parallel sets of present tense, one irregular pattern and one regular. For instance, the verbs lin;l [linel] to be and oun;nal [unenal] to have: lin;l* [linel] to be (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n linoum linoum linoum linoum linoum linoum ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n oun;nal [unenal] to have oun;m oun;s ouni oun;nq oun;q oun;n oun;noum oun;noum oun;noum oun;noum oun;noum oun;noum ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n

Note that each entry in the first set conjugates as a single word (;m% ;s% etc.) while each entry in the second one is regular (linoum ;m% linoum ;s% etc.). The difference between the sets is aspectual: While the single forms ;m [em] I am (now) and oun;m [unem] I have (now) express a current state, the regular forms linoum ;m [linum em]) I (usually) am and oun;noum ;m [unenum em] I (usually) have indicate continuity: A\st;[ ;m! [Aystegh em] I am (now) here. vs. A\st;[ linoum ;m! [Aystegh linum em] I am (usually) here. Vamanak oun;noum ;m! [Zhamanak unenum em] I (usually) have time.

Vamanak oun;m! [Zhamanak unem] I (now) have time.


* See all forms of the irregular verb lin;l on pp. 334-335 and the defective auxiliary ;m on p. 336. 12

UNIT 1 3. Uses of the present tense In Armenian, the primary function of the indicative present tense is to express events, actions, and states that are in effect in the present. It can also indicate an action in progress at the time of speaking: I#nc ;s anoum! Namak ;m groum!* [Inch es anum? Namak em grum] What are you doing? I am writing a letter.

This tense also expresses habitual actions: Douq fa\;r;n kardo#um ;q! [Duk hayeren kartum ek?] Do you read Armenian? It is used to indicate recurrent events and universal truths: :rkire pttwoum h ari ,our=e! [Yerkir pttvum e arevi shurj] The earth rotates around the sun. It can indicate an action in the future, implying that events have been arranged: A\s ama gnoum ;nq Fa\astan! [Ays ama gnum enk Hayastan] This summer we are going to Armenia. In certain narratives, the indicative present expresses past events more dynamically: Mtnoum ;n qa[aq am;n inc aw;roum! [Mtnum en kaghak yev amen inch averum] They enter the city and destroy everything.

B. NOUNS 1. The definite article -e [-] / -n [-n] When referring to particular persons or things, English uses the definite article the, which precedes the common noun. Armenian expresses such determination by affixing the definite article -e [-] or -n [-n] to the noun. The selection of -e or -n depends on the phonetic environment of the noun in question. As a rule, the subject is affixed by the definite article.
* In reference to complex verbal tenses appearing in inverted word order, i.e. ;m groum rather than groum ;m% see Unit 2, pp. 34-35. 13

UNIT 1 -e [-] appears after nouns ending in a consonant, and -n [-n] after nouns ending in a vowel: ,oun [shun] (dog) dog ,oun-e [shun] (dogthe) the dog katou [katu] (cat) cat katou-n [katun] (catthe) the cat

-n [-n] may also be attached to a noun that ends in a consonant if it is followed by a word that begins with a vowel: ,oun-n ou katou-n [shunn u katun] (dogthe and catthe) the dog and the cat Sa m;r 'o[oz-n h! [Sa mer poghotsn e] (This our streetthe is) This is our street.

Unlike in English and other major European languages, proper nouns in East Armenian require definite articles. This applies to geographic names: Cinastane m; ;rkir h! [Chinastan mets yerkir e] (Chinathe great country is) China is a great country. :rane ma\raqa[aq h! [Yerevan mayrakaghak e] (Yerevanthe capital is) Yerevan is a capital. Aramn ou Lone fa\ ;n! [Aramn u Levon hay en] (Aramthe and Levonthe Armenians are) Aram and Levon are Armenians.

Names of persons also appear with the definite article: Arame nkaroum h! Anin kardoum h! [Aram nkarum e] [Anin kartum e] (Aramthe painting is) (Anithe reading is) Ani is reading. Aram is painting.

( (

2. The indefinite article mi [mi] Unlike the definite article -e [-]/-n [-n], the Armenian indefinite article mi [mi] is placed before the noun, and is not attached to it in writing: mi toun [mi tun] (a house) a house mi t[a [mi tgha] (a boy) a boy mi ward [mi vart] (a rose) a rose

However, the indefinite article mi [mi] can be optional. In many cases it can be omitted altogether. This applies particularly to non-countable nouns: Sa (mi) ward h! [Sa (mi) vart e] (This [a] rose is) This is a rose. Namak gr;zi! [Namak gretsi] (Letter I-wrote) I wrote a letter. Law gini h! [Lav gini e] (Good wine is) It is a good wine.



Armenian equivalents of the English personal pronoun you When addressing people, Armenian features two pronouns that correspond in usage to the personal pronoun you in English: the informal dou [du] and the formal douq [duk] for you, which are comparable to tu and vous in French. Dou [du] is a singular form used to address close friends and relatives, as well as members of the same social group such as classmates, students, co-workers, etc. It is also the way in which an adult addresses a child. EXAMPLES: Ani% (dou) qani# tar;kan ;s! [Ani, (du) kani tarekan es?] Ani, how old are you? (informal) Ma\rik% (dou) gali#s ;s! [Mayrik, (du) galis es?] Mother, are you coming? (informal)

Like the French vous, the personal pronoun douq [duk] has two applications: 1) it is the formal or polite way to address a stranger or a person of higher status; 2) it is the plural form of the personal pronoun used to address two or more people. EXAMPLES: Tikin% douq fa#\ ;q! [Tikin, duk hay ek?] Madam, are you Armenian? (formal) :r;.an;r% (douq) gno#um ;q! [Yerekhaner, (duk) gnum ek?] Children, are you leaving? (plural)

When the two versions of the personal pronoun you, dou [du] and douq [duk], are declined, conventional distinctions are maintained (see Unit 8, p. 186): informal dou [du] you qo [ko] your q;x [kez] (to) you q;x(a)niz [kez(a)nits] from you q;x(a)now [kez(a)nov] with you EXAMPLES: Q;x law faskanoum ;m! [Kez lav haskanum em] I understand you well. (informal) };x law c;m lsoum! [Dzez lav chem lsum] I dont hear you well. (formal/plural) formal / plural douq [duk] you ];r [dzer] your ];x [dzez] (to) you ];x(a)niz [dzez(a)nits] from you ];x(a)now [dzez(a)nov] with you

Note that the English you does not make case distinctions either, invariably applying you for the informal q;x [kez] (to) you and the formal or plural ];x [dzez] (to) you.



Derivations from country names To form new words from names of countries, Armenian uses the following nominal and adjectival suffixes:
1. -(a)zi [-(a)tsi] is used to form nouns indicating provenance or nationality:

G;rmania [Germania] Germany Yaponia [Chaponia] Japan Kanada [Kanada] Canada

g;rmanazi [germanatsi] German (male) yaponazi [chaponatsi] Japanese (male) kanadazi [kanadatsi] Canadian (male)

2. Provenance and nationality are also expressed by reduced forms corresponding to the root of the country name: Fa\astan [Hayastan] Armenia fa\ [hay] Armenian ousastan [usastan] Russia ous [us] Russian L;fastan [Lehastan] Poland l;f [leh] Pole 3 Less common is the suffix -ik [-ik] added to the root of the proper noun designating the country: Parskastan [Parskastan] Persia parsik [parsik] Persian (male) Fndkastan [Hndkastan] India fndik [hndik] Indian (male) 4. -oufi [-uhi] creates feminine counterparts from masculine nouns: italazi [italatsi] Italian (male) italoufi [italuhi] Italian (female) fa\ [hay] Armenian (male) fa\oufi [hayuhi] Armenian (female) fndik [hndik] Indian (male) fndkoufi [hndkuhi] Indian (female) 5. -;r;n [-eren] and -ar;n [-aren] serve to build words denoting languages. They are added to the root of the country name: ous [us] Russian (person) ous;r;n [useren] Russian (language) fa\ [hay] Armenian (person) fa\;r;n [hayeren] Armenian (language) fou\n [huyn] Greek founar;n [hunaren] Greek (language) cinazi [chinatsi] Chinese (male) cinar;n [chinaren] Italian (language) 6. -akan [-akan] is the most productive adjectival suffix. Adjectives are formed by adding this suffix to the root of the noun: Italia [Italia] Italy Jourqia [Turkya] Turkey ousastan [usastan] Russia

italakan [italakan] Italian (adjective) jourqakan [turkakan] Turkish (adjective) ousakan [usakan] Russian (adjective)


Armenian word accentuation As a rule, Armenian stresses the final syllable of words. This implies that the stress is mobile and shifts to the final syllable when more complex forms of words are created from less complex ones: fa\ [hy] Armenian (person) fa\;r [hayr] Armenians fa\;r;n [hayern] Armenian (language) fa\;r;niz [hayerents] from the Armenian (language) fa\agitouj\oun [hayagitutyn] Armenology, etc. There are exceptions to this rule: 1. Since the vowel -e [] is always unstressed, it is the syllable before the definite article -e [-] where the stress is placed: fa\e [hy] the Armenian fa\;re [hayr] the Armenians fa\;r;ne [hayern] the Armenian (language) fa\agitouj\oune [hayagitutyn] the Armenology, etc. 2. Some two-syllable words do not necessarily consist of two vowels in writing. The last syllable contains an unwritten [] which is not pronounced: bar]r [bartsr] high wagr [vagr] tiger m;[r [meghr] honey, etc. 3. When words of any length ending in a consonant assume the possessive articles -s [-s] and -d [-t] (see p. 55), the final syllable containing the unwritten [] is not stressed: anouns [anns] my name, axganound [azgannt] your surname, ma\rs [myrs] my mother, grq;rd [grkert] your books, etc. 4. Ordinal numbers and other words ending in -;rord [-erort] do not stress the final syllable. They retain the stress of the main component: fing;rord [hngerort] fifth, qsan;rord [ksnerort] twentieth, innsoun;rord [innsnerort] ninetieth, qani#;rord [kanerort] which one in the series? etc. (see p. 131). 5. Some common words do not stress the final syllable and must be memorized: orh [vreve] any, gon; [gne] at least, mimia\n [mmiayn] only, gouz; [gtse] perhaps, gr;j; [grte] almost, nou\np;s [nynpes] also, anpa\man [npayman] definitely, ifark; [ihrke] of course, manawand [mnavand] especially, above all, mi#j; [mite?] Is it possible? etc.



Punctuation marks in Armenian Punctuation marks in Armenian (see Unit 10, p. 241) differs somewhat from those in English. Here is some information on the most commonly used marks. In its graphic representation, the Armenian comma [%] coincides with its English counterpart. Its usage, however, varies (see p. 241). In contrast, the Armenian period [!] graphically differs from the English full-stop [.] while its usage is very similar to English. In Armenian, the most distinct punctuation mark, in both representation and usage, is the question mark [#]. Rather than concluding the interrogative sentence with an [?], the Armenian [#] is always placed on the stressed syllable of the word emphasized in the interrogative sentence. EXAMPLES: Qani# l;xou git;q! [Kani lezu gitek?] How many languages do you know? Angl;r;n .oso#um ;q! [Angleren khosum ek?] Do you speak English? Do#uq ;q .osoum angl;r;n! [Duk ek khosum angleren?] Do you speak English? Angl;r;n c;#q .osoum! [Angleren chek khosum?] Do you not speak English? Angl;r;#n ;q .osoum! [Angleren ek khosum?] Do you speak English? Cinar;n ;s soworoum% ch#! [Chinaren es sovorum, che?] You study Chinese, dont you? Mi#j; cinar;n ;s soworoum! [Mite chinaren es sovorum] How is it possible that you study Chinese?



a% A%
a% A% [a]

s% S%
s% S% [s]

sa% Sa% [sa]

n% an% asa% m% mas% f% afa Na% Asa% M% Mas% F% Afa

na% Na% [na] asa% Asa% [asa] m% M% [m] mas% Mas% [mas] f% F% [h] afa Afa [aha] n% N% [n]

Sa% N%

o% omn% mom% ou% # o#um% % ous v% vam% ouv%

O% Omn% Mom% Ou% # O#um% % ous V% Vam% Ouv%

o% omn% mom% ou% O% Omn% Mom% Ou% n] [mom] [u] [vo] [vom # ous% # Ous% [us] % % [] ous% v% vam% ouv% % ous% V% Vam% Ouv% % [us] [zh] [zham] [uzh] [o]



1. Combine words from the left column with appropriate words from the right column. a. :s b. Anin ou Arm;ne c. Mariame d. Dou e. M;nq f. Na g. Douq groum ;nq! kardoum ;m! a\st;[ h soworoum! law a[=ik h! i#nc ;n anoum! o#us ;q! f;a]a\n oun;#s!

2. Form mini-dialogues according to the patterns in a, b, c, and d. Replace angl;r;n with `rans;r;n% ous;r;n and fa\;r;n. a. A. Dou angl;r;n .oso#um ;s! B. A\o*% angliazi ;m! A. Na angl;r;n .oso#um h! B. An,ou,t .osoum h% angliazi h! A. Angl;r;n .os;l git;#q! B. Ifark; git;nq% bolors angliazi ;nq! A. Ousano[n;re .oso#um ;n angl;r;n! B. Angliazi c;n% ba\z .osoum ;n!




3. Complete the sentences. a. A\st;[ qani# ousano[ h fa\! A\st;[ (2, 3, 4) ;rkou ousano[ h fa\! b. A\st;[ qani# ousano[ ka! A\st;[ (10, 12, 15) &&& c. A\st;[ qani# ousano[ h kanadazi! A\st;[ (3, 5, 14) &&& d. Am;rikan qani# bnakic ouni! &&& e. Fa\astane qani# bnakic ouni! &&& f. ~ransian qani# bnakic ouni! &&& 4. Complete the sentences. a. :s fa\ ;m! Fa\;r;n law git;m! b. Dou ous ;s! ous;r;n &&& ! c. Na fou\n h! Na .osoum h &&& !

UNIT 1 d. M;nq kanadazi ;nq! M;nq .osoum ;nq &&& &&& ! e. Douq am;rikazi ;q! >osoum &&& &&& ! f. Nranq `ransiazi ;n! >osoum &&& &&& ! g. Alin jourq h! Na .osoum &&& &&& ! 5. Fill in the corresponding words. a. Parone am;rikazi h% isk riorde^ g;rmanoufi! b. Fanse g;rmanazi h% isk Alise^ &&& (~ransia)! c. Iwane ous h% isk Nansin^ &&& (Am;rika) h! d. Miton yaponoufi h% isk Qristo`;re^ &&& (Anglia)! e. M;rin &&& (Kanada) h% isk +one^ &&& (Am;rika)! f. Ousano[e &&& (:giptos) h% isk ousano[oufin^ &&& (Ispania)! g. riorde &&& (Cinastan) h% isk parone &&& (Anglia)! 6. Fill in the corresponding words. a. A\s a\boub;ne fa\kakan h! (Fa\astan) b. Ixab;llan &&& qa[aqaziouj\oun ouni! (Ispania) c. Fanse &&& qa[aqazi h! (G;rmania) d. Miqin &&& qa[aqaziouj\oun ouni! (Founastan) e. Iwane &&& anoun h! (ousastan) f. A\s axganoune &&& h! (Italia) g. Anafit anoune &&& h! (Fa\astan) h. +onson axganoune &&& h! (Anglia) 7. Use the appropriate forms of the verbs. a. Dou fa\;r;n gro#um ;s! (gr;l [grel] to write) b. Douq ousouzcoufi &&&% isk ;s a,ak;rt &&& ! (;m [em] to be) c. Annan &&& ! (gr;l [grel] to write) d. M;nq &&& (kardal [kartal] to read) angl;r;n! e. A\s ousano[n;re &&& &&& fa\;r;n! (.os;l [khosel] to speak) f. Mariame `ransiakan qa[aqaziouj\oun &&& ! (oun;nal [unenal] to have) g. Arame &&& &&& (apr;l [aprel] to live) a\st;[! 8. Translate the following questions, using the appropriate forms to address people. a. What is your name, Sir? b. How old are you, Ani?

UNIT 1 c. How many languages do you speak, Miss? d. What is your address, Armen? e. What is your telephone number, Mr. Smith? f. What do you study, Anna? g. What are you doing here, children? 9. Answer the following questions. a. };r anoune axganounn i#nc h! b. Qani# tar;kan ;q! c. };r qa[aqaziouj\oune o#rn h! d. Angl;r;n .oso#um ;q! e. Fa\;r;n git;#q! f. };r fasz;n o#rn h! 10. Answer the following questions with reference to the TEXT in this unit. a. Fa\astane m;# ;rkir h! b. Fa\astane qani# bnakic ouni! c. Fa\;r;ne i#nc l;xou h! d. O#w h st;[;l fa\kakan a\boub;ne! e. Qani# ta ouni fa\kakan a\boub;ne! f. Qani# ta ouni latinakan a\boub;ne!

Qani l;xou git;s% a\nqan mard ;s! [Kani lezu gites, aynkan mart es] You are as many (people) as the languages you know. A,.arfi ,ino[n ou qando[e l;xoun h! [Ashkharhi shinoghn u kandogh lezun e] The worlds builder or destroyer is the tongue. :rkar l;xoun karyaznoum h k\anqe! [Yerkar lezun karchatsnum e kyank] A long tongue shortens life.

( (


Unit 2
Toun ou dproz [x tw fv{

Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary: Grammar:

VERBS: Formation of the negative forms of verbs

1. Rooms and furniture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2. Classroom items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 1. Irregular verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 2. Regular verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

1. Identifying things and persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 2. Affirming and denying states and actions . . . . . . . . . 25

On the agenda ...

Armenian-English Contrasts: Word order in Armenian sentences (inversion) . . . . . . . 34 Word Formation: Pronunciation: Orthography: Writing: The letters B b% P p% and " ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Formation of compound nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

NOUNS: Formation of the plural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

B b% G g% D d% : ;% X x% H h% E e% J j% I i% L l (@). . 39

Exclamation marks in Armenian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

A. Bar*% M;ri! [Barev, Meri] B.


Two friends, A and B, meet in the university hallway.

Hello, Mary! Hello, Lilith! What are you doing here? Do you work (here)? No, Im studying Armenian. Oh, I know, you have many Armenian friends. Yes, and I like Armenian very much. . . But you know Armenian, dont you? .

A@f% git;m% dou ,at [Ah, gitem, du shat] fa\ enk;rn;r oun;s! [hay nkerner unes]

A. Faskanoum ;m% mi qic hl .osoum ;m% I understand [Armenian], I also speak [Haskanum em, mi kich el khosum em,] a little, B. ba\z gr;l kardal cgit;m! [bayts grel yev kartal chgitem] Fa\kakan a\boub;ne dvwa#r h! [Haykakan aybuben dzhvar e?] but I dont write or read it.

Ba\z dou fa\;r;n git;s% ch#! [Bayts du hayeren gites, che?]

A. A\o*% fa\;r;ne ,at ;m siroum! [Ayo, yev hayeren shat em sirum] B.

A. O*c% fa\;r;n ;m soworoum! [Voch, hayeren em sovorum] B.

a,.ato#um ;s! [ashkhatum es?]

Bar*% Lilij! A\st;[ i#nc ;s anoum& [Barev, Lilit. Aystegh inch es anum?]

Is the Armenian alphabet difficult? Its long, but not difficult at all. And Armenian grammar? We have a very good textbook. With it, everything is childs play. Can you write all the letters?


A. <at law dasagirq oun;nq! [Shat lav dasagirk unenk]


Isk fa\;r;n q;rakanouj\o#une! [Isk hayeren kerakanutyun?]

Bolor ta;re karo#[ ;s gr;l! [Bolor taer karogh es grel?]

( (

Dranow am;n inc .a[ ou par h! [Dranov amen inch khagh u par e]

A. :rkar h% ba\z bnaw dvwar ch! [Yerkar e, bayts bnav dzhvar che]

A. O*c% bolore d; cgit;m! [Voch, bolor de chgitem] B. Am;n r fa\;r;ni das oun;#q! [Amen or hayereni das unek?]


No, I dont know them all yet. Do you have Armenian classes every day? No, twice a week. Do you want me to examine you? Why not? Lets start! Whats this? This is a classroom. Is the classroom small? No, its not small. Its big. What do you see here? A table, desks, and chairs. Whats on the table?

A. O*c% ,abaje ;rkou angam! [Voch, shapat yerku ankam] B. A. Inco#u ch% sks;*nq! [Inchu che? Sksenk!!!] B. A. Sa dasaran h! [Sa dasaran e] B. Dasarane 'o#qr h! [Dasaran pokr e?]

A. Grq;r ou t;tr;r! [Grker u tetrer] B.

I#nc ka s;[ani wra! [Inch ka seghani vra ?]

A. Mi s;[an% gras;[ann;r ajon;r! [Mi seghan, graseghanner yev atoner] B.

A\st;[ i#nc ;s t;snoum! [Aystegh inch es tesnum?]

A. O*c% 'oqr ch! M; h! [Voch, pokr che. Mets e] B.

Sa i#nc h! [Sa inch e?]

Ouxo#um ;s q;x qnn;m! [Uzum es kez knnem?]

Books and notebooks. What else is there?

A. Ousouzice! [Usutsich]

A\st;[ o#w h nstoum! [Aystegh ov e nstum?]

A. Matitn;r% gricn;r mi ;tin! [Matitner, grichner yev mi etin] B.

Ouri, i#nc ka! [Urish inch ka?]

Pencils, two pens, and an eraser. Who sits here? The teacher does.

UNIT 2 Isk a\nt;#[! [Isk ayntegh?]

And over there? The students sit there. Whats on the wall? A blackboard and pictures. What else? A clock. Good for you! You are a good pupil (female).

A. Mi vamazou\z! [Mi zhamatsuyts] B. Apr;@s% law a,ak;rtoufi ;s! [Apres, lav ashakertuhi es]

Ouri#,! [Urish?]


A. Grata.tak ou nkarn;r! [Gratakhtak u nkarner] B.

Patin i#nc ka! [Patin inch ka?]

A. A\nt;[ ousano[n;rn ;n nstoum! [Ayntegh usanoghnern en nstum] B.

[Lav pataskhan]

:j; a\s kawiye kis;m% qani# ktor kawiy koun;nam! Yete ays kavich kisem, kani ktor kavich kunenam? Mi a,ak;rt patas.anoum h& :rkou ktor! Ousouzcoufin noriz h farznoum& Mi ashakert pataskhanum e: Yerku ktor. Usutschuhin norits e hartsnum: :j; nori#z kis;m am;n mi ktore! Cors ktor% asoum h a,ak;rte! Yete norits kisem amen mi ktor? Chors ktor, asum e ashakert.

Isk ;j; noriz kis;m% i#nc koun;nanq! Isk yete norits kisem, inch kunenank? Kawiy ci mna& 'o,i kdana% patas.anoum h a,ak;rte! Kavich chi mna; poshi kdana, pataskhanum e ashakert.]

ou kardoum fa\;r;n! A\sr hl fa,w;l ;n soworoum! Ousouzcoufin farznoum h& u kartum hayeren. Aysor el hashvel en sovorum. Usutschuhin hartsnum e:

A\s .oumbe fa\;r;n h soworoum! A,ak;rtn;re ard;n mi qic .osoum ;n% groum [Ays khumb hayeren e sovorum. Ashakertner arten mi kich khosum en, grum


law a\s .oumb sowor;l a,ak;rt a,ak;rtoufi ard;n mi qic a\sr hl fa,w;l ousouzcoufi farzn;l ;j; kawiy kis;l ;j; kis;m qani# ktor oun;nal;l noriz am;n as;l isk 'o,i mnal ci mna danal kdana [lav] [pataskhan] [ays] [khumb] [sovorel] [ashakert] [arten] [aysor] [el] [hashvel] [usutschuhi] [hartsnel] [yete] [kisel] [yete kisem] [kani] [ktor] [unenal] [pataskhanel] [norits] [amen] [asel] [isk] [poshi] [mnal] [chi mna] [danal] [kdana] [kavich] [ashakertuhi] [mi kich]


answer this group to learn already a little today


pupil (male)

pupil (female)

too, also to count to ask if chalk teacher (female)

to cut in half how many? piece to have again to answer every, each to say dust and, but

if I cut it in half

to remain, stay wont remain to become, to turn will become, will turn into


S:N|AKN:R :W KAFOU|Q [Senyakner yev kahuyk]


baxkajo pat,gamb lo[aran mafyakal anko[in nn=as;n\ak gorg aasta[ ajo vamazou\z mi=anzq baxmoz waragou\r ya,as;n\ak dou moutq fatak toun .ofanoz lousam'o' f\ouras;n\ak fa\;li da,namour adio a,.atas;n\ak s;[an f;a.os f;oustazou\z xougaran a[kaman patoufan

[bazkato] [patshgamb] [logharan] [mahchakal] [ankoghin] [nnjasenyak] [gorg] [aastagh] [ato] [zhamatsuyts] [mijantsk] [bazmots] [varakuyr] [chashasenyak] [du] [mutk] [hatak] [tun] [khohanots] [lusampop] [hyurasenyak] [hayeli] [dashnamur] [radio] [ashkhatasenyak] [seghan] [heakhos] [heustatsuyts] [zukaran] [tsaghkaman] [patuhan]

armchair balcony bathroom bed (piece of furniture) bed (mattress+bedding) bedroom carpet ceiling chair clock corridor, hallway couch curtain dining room door entrance floor house, home kitchen lampshade living room mirror piano radio study room table telephone television set toilet vase window




[Dasaran] [lsaran] [payusak] [nstaran] [girk] [gradaran] [grapaharan] [gratakhtak] [hashvich] [kavich] [hamakarkich] [graseghan] [baaran] [etin] [knnutyun] [tghtapanak] [dasakhosutyun] [das] [kartez] [nkar] [tsutsapayt] [tetr] [grasenyak] [ej] [tught] [grich] [matit] [grchatup] [bemahartak] [ambion] [kanon] [dasagirk]

lsaran pa\ousak nstaran girq gradaran grapafaran grata.tak fa,wic kawiy famakargic gras;[an baaran ;tin qnnouj\oun j[japanak dasa.osouj\oun das qart;x nkar zouza'a\t t;tr gras;n\ak h= jou[j gric matit grcatou' b;mafarjak ambion qanon dasagirq

auditorium bag bench book bookcase, library bookcase blackboard calculator chalk computer desk dictionary eraser exam file lecture lesson map picture pointer notebook office page paper pen pencil pen tray podium pulpit ruler textbook





To create negative counterparts of affirmative forms, Armenian uses the negative particle c- [ch-] by prefixing it to the verb. This is, for instance, how the negative forms of the infinitive are formed: gr;l [grel] to write kardal [kartal] to have lin;l [linel] to be oun;nal [unenal] to have cgr;l [chgrel] not to write ckardal [chkartal] not to read clin;l [chlinel] not to be coun;nal [chunenal] not to have, etc.

1. Formation of the negative forms of verbs

EXAMPLE: Lin;l j;# clin;l [linel te chlinel?] To be or not to be? ;m [em] I am oun;m [unem] I have git;m [gitem] I know ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n c;m c;s ci/ch* c;nq c;q c;n

The negative counterparts of some common irregular verbs are similarly constructed: c;m [chem] I am not coun;m [chunem] I dont have cgit;m [chgitem] I dont know, etc. coun;m coun;s couni coun;nq coun;q coun;n git;m git;s giti git;nq git;q git;n

Compare the full paradigm: (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)

oun;m oun;s ouni oun;nq oun;q oun;n

cgit;m cgit;s cgiti cgit;nq cgit;q cgit;n

2. The negative paradigm of present tense indicative (regular verbs) Affirmative: Negative:

Regular verbs form the negative paradigm of the present tense indicative by combining the negated auxiliary c;m [chem] (see above) with the present participle ending in -oum: Note here the difference in word order: rather than following the present participle groum [grum], the negated auxiliary c;m [chem] precedes it. *Note that in the conjugation paradigm of regular verbs (see p. 31) for the third person singular ci
[ chi] is used rather than the regular negative form ch [che]. EXAMPLES: (Na) ci groum! [(Na) chi grum] He/she is not writing. But: (Na) fa\ ch! [(Na) hay che.] He/she is not an Armenian.

(;s) groum ;m [(yes) grum em] I write/I am writing (;s) c;m groum [chem grum] I do not write/I am not writing


All regular verbs follow the pattern below: 1. pers. (;s) 2. pers. (dou) 3. pers. (na) 1. pers. (m;nq) 2. pers. (douq) 3. pers. (nranq)


c;m + verb stem + oum c;s + verb stem + oum ci* + verb stem + oum c;nq + verb stem + oum c;q + verb stem + oum c;n + verb stem + oum



[chem + verb stem + um] [ches + verb stem + um] [chi + verb stem + um] [chenk + verb stem + um] [chek + verb stem + um] [chen + verb stem +um]

Present tense indicative (negative) gr;l [grel] to write c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n groum groum groum groum groum groum .os;l [khosel] to speak .osoum .osoum .osoum .osoum .osoum .osoum kardal [kartal] to read c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n kardoum kardoum kardoum kardoum kardoum kardoum

c;m c;s ci* c;nq c;q c;n

The three monosyllabic verbs, gal [gal] to come, tal [tal] to give, and lal [lal] to cry (see Unit 1, p. 11) follow the same pattern, but take the participle ending in -is [-is]: galis [galis], talis [talis], and lalis [lalis]. Affirmative: Negative: (;s) galis ;m [(yes) galis em] I come/I am coming (;s) c;m galis [(yes) chem galis] I do not come/I am not coming tal [tal] to give c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n talis talis talis talis talis talis lal [lal] to cry c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n lalis lalis lalis lalis lalis lalis

gal [gal] to come c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n galis galis galis galis galis galis

* See the note on p. 30.

A common East Armenian complex construction that correponds to the English I can is karo[ ;m [karogh em] (literally: I am able). Here is its conjugation paradigm: (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) karo[ karo[ karo[ karo[ karo[ karo[ ;m I can ;s you can h he/she/it can ;nq we can ;q you can ;n they can c;m karo[ I cannot c;s karo[ you cannot ci karo[ he/she/it cannot c;nq karo[ we cannot c;q karo[ you cannot c;n karo[ they cannot


The parallel regular verb karo[anal [karoghanal] has a slightly different aspectual meaning: to be usually/normally/in general able. Affirmative: (;s) karo[anoum ;m [karoghanum em] I am (usually) able, etc. Negative: (;s) c;m karo[anoum [chem karoghanum] I am (usually) not able, etc. B. NOUNS

Formation of the plural forms

Most Armenian countable nouns form the plural by adding one of the two plural suffixes to ; n the stem: -;r [-er] for monosyllabic nouns and -n;r [-ner] for nouns consisting of more than one syllable: lou\s [luys] light gorg [gorg] carpet matit [matit] pencil patoufan [patuhan] window l; [le] mountain jo [to] grandchild ga [ga] lamb dou [du] door ; lou\s;r [luyser] lights ; gorg;r [gorger] carpets n matitn;r [matitner] pencils n patoufann;r [patuhanner] windows n l;n;r [lener] mountains n jon;r [toner] grandchildren n gan;r [ganer] lambs n dn;r [dner] doors

n Only a certain group of monosyllabic nouns form the plural with -n;r:*

n The suffix -n;r is also added to nouns that have only one written vowel, but are pronounced as having more than one syllable because of the transitory [] before or between consonants (see Unit 6, p. 137): But: wagr [vagr] tiger ast[ [astgh] star nkar [nkar] picture xg;st [zgest] dress n nkarn;r, etc. [nkarner] pictures n xg;stn;r [zgestner] dresses ; wagr;r [vagrer] tigers** ; ast[;r [astgher] stars**

* Originally, this -n belonged to the stem of these monosyllabic nouns. Compare doun% l;n% etc., in Classical Armenian. Modern Armenian has dropped the final -n in the singular, retaining it in the plural form. ** Note that in the plural [] is reduced; these nouns form their plural like regular monosyllabic nouns&


UNIT 2 Compound nouns take the ending -;r if their second component is a monosyllabic noun: ; dasagirq [dasagirk] textbook dasagrq;r [dasagrker] textbooks ;r [shokenaver] steamboats ,og;naw [shokenav] steamboat ,og;naw; ; tonaa [tonatsa] Christmas tree tonaa;r [tonatsaer] Christmas trees sta.os [stakhos] liar ]knors [dzknors] fisherman axgas;r [azgaser] patriot n sta.osn;r [stakhosner] liars n ]knorsn;r [dzknorsner] fishermen n axgas;rn;r [azgaserner] patriots

However, if the second component is a verbal derivation that is not used as an independent noun, the compound noun takes the plural ending -n;r:

Some nouns may have additional plural forms. Nouns ending in -zi% -azi% and -;zi take q also the archaic plural suffix -q: q n ;ranzi [yerevantsi] native of Yerevan ;ranziq or ;ranzin;r native of Yerevan q n g\ou[azi [gyughatsi] peasant g\ou[aziq or g\ou[azin;r peasants q n lo;zi [loetsi] a local from Lori lo;ziq or lo;zin;r locals from Lori Other irregular plural formations include: kin [kin] woman tikin [tikin] madam, Mrs. paron [paron] Sir, gentleman mard [mart] human being, man t[amard [tghamart] man

Note that after numerals, nouns are generally used in the singular:

a kana\q [kanayk] women a ; tikna\q [tiknayk] or tikinn;r ladies a parona\q [paronayk] Sirs, gentlemen i mardik [martik] human beings, men i t[amardik [tghamartik] men

fing mard [hing mart] five men, ouj r [ut or] eight days, 20 h= [ksan ej] 20 pages. Qani# ktor [kani ktor?] how many pieces? (literally: how many piece?) Cors ktor [chors ktor] four pieces (literally: four piece) bolor farz;re [bolor hartser] all (the) questions oro, ousano[n;r [vorosh usanoghner] certain students baxmajiw gou\n;r [bazmativ guyner] numerous colors

Correspondingly, with such quantifiers as qani# [kani?] how many?, mi qani [mi kani] a few, nouns are often used in the singular: However, after bolor [bolor] all, oro, [vorosh] certain, baxmajiw [bazmativ] numerous, the plural form of the noun is used:

After ,at [shat] many and qic [kich] few, both singular and plural can follow: ,at ban [shat ban] or ,at ban;r [shat baner] many things qic mard [kich mart] or qic mardik [kich martik] few people


Word order in Armenian sentences (inversion) wrote a letter. In Armenian, although word order is relatively free, a SOV (Subject - Object (:s) vamanak oun;m! [(Yes) zhamanak unem] (I time have) I have time. The normal word order of an English simple clause is SVO (Subject - Verb - Object): Maria


- Verb) order predominates. Thus, in a simple Armenian clause, be it a statement, question, or command, the conjugated verb tends to occupy the final position: (Dou) dram coun;#s! [(Du) dram chunes?] (You money not-have?) Dont you have money?

When the auxiliary ;m [em] I am fulfills the function of a copula, i.e. a verb that joins a subject to its complement, it generally assumes the typical final position: Arame fa\ h! [Aram hay e] (Aram Armenian is) Aram is an Armenian. +one fa\ ch! [Jon hay che] (John Armenian not-is) John is not an Armenian.

1. In an affirmative sentence, where the action itself is emphasized, the regular SOV word order (participle + auxiliary verb ;m [em] I am) with the auxiliary in final position prevails (see pp. 11-12). However, as was seen on p. 30, in the negative counterpart of the same sentence the word order is inverted: the auxiliary precedes the participle.* (M;nq) .osoum ;nq! [(Menk) khosum enk] (We talking are) We are talking. (Douq) c;q lsoum! [(Duk) chek lsum] (You not-are listening) You are not listening.**

However, when the auxiliary ;m [em] I am is part of a compound tense (auxiliary verb ;m + participle), the auxiliary enforces its own rules. It then positions itself in a sentence depending on the sentence type.

2. In special questions initiated by an interrogative pronoun, typically an inversion occurs whereby the normal word order is changed. For East Armenian this means:

* Note that rules of reversed word order apply not only to the present tense but to all compound tenses that are formed by the auxiliary verb ;m& This also includes the following tenses: the indicative imperfect (see Unit 3, pp. 52-53), indicative perfect and pluperfect (Unit 5, pp. 96-100), and indicative future (Unit 6, pp. 124126).


**Compare here the word order in English and Armenian: While it differs in affirmation, it coincides in negation.

a) placing the emphasized word, i.e. the interrogative pronoun, in initial position; b) placing the respective response to the question in initial position; O#ur ;s gnoum! [Ur es gnum?] Where are you going? O#w ci farznoum! [Ov chi hartsnum?] Who is not asking? Toun ;m gnoum! [Tun em gnum] I am going home. c) placing the auxiliary verb, with or without negation, immediately after the emphasized word.


As illustrated, the inverted word order applies to special questions, both affirmative and negative, and their respective responses. Here, the word order between Armenian and English is obvious. 3. Thus, inversion serves to mark priorities that can be tested by a simple question: :s ;m groum! [Yes em grum] I am writing. (:s) namak ;m groum! [(Yes) namak em grum] I am writing a letter. (:s) q;x ;m groum! [(Yes) kez em grum] I am writing to you. Na h namak groum! [Na e namak grum] He is writing a letter. Na q;x h namak groum! [Na kez e namak grum] He is writing a letter to you. Na a\sr h namak groum! [Na aysor e namak grum] He is writing a letter today. (Question) O#w h groum! [Ov e grum?] Who is writing? (Question) I#nc ;s groum! [Inch es grum?] What are you writing? (Question) O#um ;s groum! [Um es grum?] To whom are you writing? (Question) O#w h namak groum! [Ov e namak grum?] Who is writing a letter? (Question) O#um h na namak groum! [Um e na namak grum?] To whom is he writing a letter? (Question) :#rb h na namak groum! [Yerp e na namak grum?] When is he writing a letter?

Annan ci farznoum! [Annan chi hartsnum] Anna is not asking.

4. Unstressed complements of the verb appear between the auxiliary and the participle:


Formation of compound nouns


The following compound nouns are joined directly, without a connecting vowel: k;sr [kesor] midday, noon owa' [tsovap] seashore

Armenian compound nouns typically consist of two basic elements that are joined to each other either directly or by the connecting vowel -a-. (k;s + r half + day) (ow + a' sea + shore)

More commonly, however, the two components are joined by the connecting vowel -a-: f\ouras;n\ak [hyurasenyak] living room (f\our + a + s;n\ak) (guest + conn. + room) farzaxrou\z [hartsazruyts] interview (farz + a + xrou\z) (question + conn. + talk)

a) noun + noun: g;ta' [getap] riverbank (g;t+ a'] river + shore) b) noun + verb: mardaspan [martaspan] murderer (mard+ span[;l] human + kill) c) verb + noun: gras;[an [graseghan] desk (gr[;l] + s;[an write + table) d) adjective + noun: lialousin [lialusin] full moon (li + lousin full + moon) e) pronoun + verb: inqnaji [inknati] airplane (inqn + j[c;l] self + fly) When the first element ends in -i% this vowel contracts with the connecting a to an ;: gin;toun [ginetun] wine cellar (gini + a + toun wine + conn. + house) ,og;naw [shokenav] steamboat (,ogi + a + naw steam + conn. + boat) a\boub;n [aybuben] alphabet k;rou.oum [kerukhum] feast atour [aevtur] commerce (a\b + ou + b;n a + and + b) (k;r + ou + .oum eat + and + drink) (a + + tour take + and + give)

The components can originate from various parts of speech:

Elements of compound nouns may also be joined by the particles -ou- [u] and -- [yev] and:

In Armenian word formation it is common for some vowels to alternate. For instance, i [i] and ou [u] shift to a transitory [], ou\ [uy] to ou [u], \a [ya] to ; [u], etc.* gin [gin] price sout [sut] lie lou\s [luys] light mat\an [matyan] book

*These alterations are discussed in Unit 5, pp. 107-108.

gnazouzak [gnatsutsak] price list sta.os [stakhos] liar lousam'o' [lusampop] lampshade mat;nagir [matenagir] bibliographer*



The consonant system of Eastern Armenian differs from that of other Indo-European languages (see p. xx). Rather than a dual system of stop consonants, such as the voiced b and the voiceles p, East Armenian has a triple system with one voiced b [b] and two voiceless stops, the non-aspirated p [p] and the aspirated ' [p]. The non-aspirated p [p] may seem unusual to the English-speaking student in that it is pronounced with stronger plosion, occupying an intermediate position between the b [b] and the ' [p]. The triple system of the related stop consonants b% p% and ' can be presented in the following table:

The letters B b% P p% and " '

voiced B b voiceless non-aspirated P p voiceless aspirated " '

[b] [p] [p]

Each of these stops represents an independent phoneme, i.e. the smallest phonetic unit in a language that distinguishes one word from another. The following three words differ in meaning in the contrast of the phonemic consonants b% p% and ': bouj [but] blunt pout [put] dot 'ouj [put] Russian weight unit (16,3 kg)

There are, however, some exceptions. After vowels, after m [m] and r [r], the voiced b [b] is pronounced as the voiceless aspirated ' [p]: .ab;l [khapel] to deceive, ,abaj [shapat] Saturday, Fakob [Hakop] Jacob, ;rb [yerp] when, nourb [nurp] tender, ourbaj [urpat] Friday, sourb [surp] sacred, fambou\r [hampuyr] kiss, famb;r;l [hamperel] to be patient, etc. Also, after the consonant [ the voiced b [b] is pronounced like the voiceless, non-aspirated p [p]: ;[ba\r [yekhpayr] brother, o[b [vokhp] lamenta tion, a[b [akhp] trash, etc. These phonetic deviations apply also to derivations of the above-mentioned words: nourb [nurp] tender nrbouj\oun [nrputyun] tenderness, famb;r;l [hamperel] to be patient famb;rouj\oun [hamperutyun] patience, ;rb [yerp] when ;rb;mn [yerpemn] sometimes, etc.

East Armenian is, on the whole, a phonetic language in that words are pronounced as written: B;niamin [Benyamin] Benjamin, Ab;l [Abel] Abel, P;tros [Petros] Peter, panir [panir] cheese, 'iliso'a [pilisopa] philosopher, a' [ap] palm, etc.



Exclamation marks in Armenian

1. Over words stressed in an imperative sentence: Girqs to*ur! [Girks tur!] Give me my book!

There are two exclamation marks in Armenian, the stress or acute mark (*) and the extension mark (@). On the whole, they correspond to the English exclamation mark (!). Like the question mark (#) (see p. 18), they are superscripts. Both signs are placed on the stressed syllable of the emphasized word. The stress or acute mark (*) is placed: Mi* gna! [Mi gna!] Dont go!

2. Over names of persons or words addressed to people: Ara*m% ;s a\st;[ ;m! [Aram, yes aystegh em] Aram, I am here! Paro*n% a\s t;[e axa#t h! [Paron, ays tegh azat e?] Sir, is this seat free?

3. Over one-word replies used as strong assertions:

4. Over more prominent words singled out in a sentence: C;m t;snoum i*m matite ! or: [Im matit chem tesnum] or: I dont see my pencil. or:

J;rjs b;r;#l ;s! A\o*! or: O*c! or: Ifark;! [Terts berel es? Ayo! or: Voch! or: Iharke!] Did you bring my newspaper? Yes! or: No! or: Of course! Im mati*te c;m t;snoum! [Im matit chem tesnum] I dont see my pencil!

The extension mark (@) appears in passionate speech where stressed vowels are prolonged to express emotion. It is placed: 1. Over greetings, welcoming expressions, congratulations, wishes, etc.: O[=o@u\n! or: <norfawo@r! or: Baro@w ;kar! [Voghjuyn! or Shnorhavor! Barov yekar!] Greetings! or: Congratulations! or: Welcome! 2. Over interrogative pronouns that initiate sentences expressing feelings such as admiration, regret, astonishment, etc.: I@nc mard h! or: O@w hr spasoum! or: Ort;@[ ;n a\n r;re! [Inch mart e! or: Ov er spasum! or: Vortegh! en ayn orer!] What a person! or: Who would expect it! or: Where are those days! 3. Over the majority of interjections: Wa@.! or: A'so@s! or: Wa@ ! \ [Vakh!! or: Apsos! or: Vay!] Woe! or: Alas! or: Ouch!










;s% x% xof

B % B an% G % G a% D % D ou% :% :s% X% X of

b% B% [b] ban% Ban% [ban] g% G% [g] ga% Ga% [ga] d% D% [d] dou% Dou% [du] ;% ;s% :% :s% [ye] [yes] x% X% [z] xof Xof [zoh]






j;#% l%




h% h@f% I
h% H% [e] h@f% H@f% [eh!] i% I% [i]

I*m% J% J ;#% L % L al% E % E njr;l

i*m% I*m% [im!] j% J% [t] j;#% l% J;#% L% [te?] [l] lal% Lal% [lal] e% E% [] enjr;l Enjr;l [ntrel]




1. Combine words from the left column with appropriate words from the right column. a. A\s .oumbe fa\;r;n b. Qani# ktor kawiy c. M;nq cors l;xou d. Mari*% fa\;r;n law e. :s fa\;r;ne ,at f. Dou qani# l;xou g. Sa law a. Karin;n b. Douq c. M;rin +one d. Arm;ne e. Dou f. :s g. Nranq git;nq! h soworoum! kardo#um ;s! git;s! h! ka a\st;[! ;m siroum!

2. Combine words from each of the three columns to create a complete sentence. angl;r;n yapon;r;n fa\;r;n cinar;n ispan;r;n g;rman;r;n founar;n c;n .osoum! ci groum! c;n kardoum! ci ouxoum .os;l! c;m karo[ sowor;l! cgit;s! law c;q .osoum!


3. Form mini-dialogues according to the patterns in a, b, c, d, and e. Replace the verb kardal by .os;l and gr;l. b. c. d. e. A. Dou angl;r;n kardo#um ;s! B. A\o*% ,at law ;m kardoum! A. Douq fa\;r;n kardal git;#q! B. A\o*% mi qic kardoum ;nq!

A. Marin fa\;r;n law h kardoum! B. Ba\z angl;r;n kardal cgiti! A. A,ak;rtn;re la#w ;n kardoum! B. O*c% law c;n kardoum!

A. Fa\;r;n kardal siro#um ;s! B. S iroum ;m% ba\z law kardal cgit;m!

4. Answer the questions using the appropriate plural forms. a. A\s bae git;#s! :s bolor ba;re git;m! b. Dasagirq oun;#q! M;nq mi qani dasagirq oun;nq!

c. T;tr oun;#s! :s ,at &&& d. Na ano#um h! Na oro, &&& e. Mi tar l;xou git;#s! :s ;r;q &&& f. A\st;[ angliazi ka#! A\st;[ fing &&& g. Mi fa\ ousano[ git;#q! M;nq mi qani &&&


5. Answer the questions with a negative response following the pattern. a. Dou fa\;r;n kardo#um ;s! O*c% c;m kardoum! b. Cinar;n git;#s! O*c% &&& c. +one `rans;r;n giti#! O*c% na &&& d. Marin a\st;#[ h ousanoum! O*c% na &&& e. Am;n r fa\;r;ni das oun;#q! O*c% m;nq &&& f. Dou soury .mo#um ;s! O*c% ;s &&& g. Am;n r gali#s ;q! O*c% m;nq &&& h. Ar'in out;l ouxo#um h! O*c% na &&& 6. Complete the sentences.

a. Na qani# matit ouni! Na ;rkou matit ouni (2)! b. Qani# nkar oun;s! :s (10) &&& oun;m! c. Marin qani# ba giti! Marin ,at &&& giti! d. Gradarane ,at grq;r ouni#! Gradarane tase faxar &&& ! e. Fa\kakan a\boub;ne qani# ta ouni! (39) &&& ! f. A\st;[ qani# ousano[ h fa\;r;n soworoum! Bolor && &! g. <abaje qani# angam fa\;r;n oun;q! M;nq &&& (3) &&&! a. Na g;rman;r;n ,at law giti! b. :s mi qic `rans;r;n &&& ! c. Dou angl;r;n law &&& ! d. Douq fa\;r;n &&& ! e. M;nq mi qic ous;r;n &&& ! f. Nranq ital;r;n &&& ! a. Na karo[ h ital;r;n .os;l! b. Dou &&& &&& fa\;r;n kardal! c. :s &&& &&& g;rman;r;n .os;l!

7. Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of the verb git;nal.

8. Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of the phrasal verb karo[ lin;l.


d. Nranq kor;azi ;n! Angl;r;n `rans;r;n c;n karo[ .os;l! e. M;rin ispan;r;n c&&& &&& kardal! f. M;nq ital;r;n c&&& &&& gr;l! 9. Form sentences using the verb oux;l. a. Na/a\st;[/nst;l! Example: Na ouxoum h a\st;[ nst;l! b. Dou/fa\;r;n/sowor;l! c. S ilwa/a\s girqe/kardal! d. M;nq/a\s toune/t;sn;l! e. M;ri/toun/gnal! Example: M;rin ci ouxoum toun gnal! f. Nranq/cinar;n/.os;l! g. :s/,at/a,.at;l! h. Maria/a\st;[/mnal! 10. Use appropriate forms of ;m and oun;nal. a. :s am;rikazi ;m% isk na fa\ h! b. Matitn;re o#ur &&& ! c. Marin qani# girq &&& ! d. Anound i#nc &&& ! e. Fa\kakan a\boub;ne 38 ta &&& ! f. M;nq fa\;r;ni ,at law girq &&& ! g. O#rt;[ &&& a,ak;rtn;re!


11. Answer the questions in a correct word order: a. O#w h farznoum! Ousouzicn h farznoum! b. O#w h patas.anoum! A,ak;rtn &&& ! c. I#nc ;s groum! Namak ;m &&& ! d. A\st;[ i#nc ;s soworoum! Fa\;r;n &&& ! e. O#w h law kardoum! Marian &&& ! f. I#nc ;q soworoum! Cinar;n &&& ! g. O#w h a\st;[ a,.atoum! M;nq &&& ! 12. Translate the following sentences. a. The room has three windows. b. Can you write all the letters? c. How many pictures do you have? d. I know a few words.

e. You have many books. f. All students learn Armenian. g. I have all the notebooks.


13. Answer the following questions with reference to the TEXT in this unit. a. A\s .oumbe o#r l;xoun h soworoum! b. A,ak;rtn;re fa\;r;n mi qic .oso#um ;n! c. Ousano[n;re fa\;r;n gr;l git;#n! d. Karda#l hl git;n! e. A\sr i#nc ;n soworoum! f. Ousano[e la#w h patas.anoum!

Ow karda% na mard a! [Ov karta, na mart a] He who studies is a person. Gitouj\oune farstouj\oun h! [Gitutyun harstutyun e] Knowledge is wealth. Ousoum stazae sowa ci mna! [Usum statsats sovats chi mna] The educated wont remain hungry. Kardale oski aparan=an h! [Kartal voski aparanjan e] Education is a golden bracelet.



Unit 3
Out;liq Yw

On the Agenda ...

Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary: Grammar: Making requests and responding to them . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 VERBS: 1. Armenian equivalents of the English to be . . . . 52 2. The indicative imperfect tense . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 POSSESSION: 1. Possessive adjectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 2. Possessive articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3. Possessive pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 1. Derivation of abstract nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 2. Derivations of nouns denoting locations . . . . . . . . . . .59 The letters G g% K k% and Q q. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 : ; or H h ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 > .% % K k% } ]% { [% Z z% | \% < ,% C c% P p . . .62

Armenian-English Contrasts: Gender in Armenian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Word Formation: Pronunciation: Orthography: Writing:


1. In class: A and B are classmates. They address each other informally. A. Mi ban ;m .ndr;lou& [Mi ban em khntrelu: I have something to ask you: Do you have a red pencil? I do, here you are! But please return it to me! Of course, I just need it for a minute.

karmir matit oun;#s! [Karmir matit unes?] B. Oun;m% afa*! [Unem, aha] Ba\z w;radar]rou% .ndr;m! [Bayts veradartsru khntrem] A. Ifark;% mi rop;ow h in] p;tq! [Iharke, mi ropeyov e indz petk]

( (

2. In the office: A and B are colleagues. A addresses B formally A. Paron Pal\an% sa ];#r fa,wicn h! Mr. Palyan, is this your calculator? [Paron Palyan, sa dzer hashvichn e?] B. A\o*% inco#u ;q farznoum! [Ayo, inchu ek hartsnum?] A. Mi rop;ow in] kta#q! [Mi ropeyov indz ktak?] B. An,ou,t% fam;z;*q! [Anshusht, hametsek!]

Yes, why do you ask? May I have it for a moment? Of course, here you are!

3. In the students residence: A and B live together. A has just returned from shopping. A. @f% ,at araw ;m! [Oh, shat tsarav em] Oh, Im very thirsty! Minas, would you bring me a glass of water? Gladly. Do you want cold water? Yes, if its possible. With ice?

=our kb;r;#s! [jur kberes?] B. S irow! Sa#e =our ;s ouxoum! [Sirov. Sa jur es uzum?] A. A\o*% ;j; kar;li h! [Ayo, yete kareli e] B. Saou\zo#w! [Sauytsov?]

( (

Minas% in] mi bavak [Minas, indz mi bazhak]

UNIT 3 A. A\o*% ;rkou ktor% .ndr;m! [Ayo, yerku ktor, khntrem] <norfaka*l ;m! [Shnorhakal em] B. Carv;! [Charzhe] A. Isk ;s mi ban ;m b;r;l! Isk yes mi ban em berel] Yes, two pieces, please. Thank you! Dont mention it. I brought something. Can you guess what it is?

san h ba\z saou\z ch% qa[zr h Its cold but it isnt ice, its sweet [san e bayts sauyts che, kaghtsr e] ba\z karkandak ch! I#nc h! [bayts karkandak che. Inch e?] B. Pa[pa[ak h! [Paghpaghak e!] but it isnt cake. What is it? Its ice-cream!

4. At the dinner table: Siblings A and B are having lunch together.

B. Q;*x hl! [Kez el] Arm;n% a[e k';#s! [Armen, agh kpokhantses?] A. >ndr;m% faz h#l ;s ouxoum! [Khntrem, hats el es uzum?] B. A\o*% ;j; kar;li h% lawa,! [Ayo, yete kareli e, lavash]

A. Bari a.orva*k! [Bari akhorzhak!]

Karo#[ ;s kaf;l% j; inc h& [Karogh es kahel te inch e:

Bon appetit! The same to you! Armen, would you pass me the salt? Here you are! Would you like some bread, too? Yes, lavash if possible.

A. Ya,;re mi,t famow ;n% [Chasher misht hamov en] ;rb ma\rikn h patrastoum! [yerp mayrikn e patrastum]

<norfakal ;m! I@nc famow ya, h! Thank you. What a delicious meal! [Shnorhakal em. Inch hamov chash e!] Meals are always tasty when Mother prepares them. Would you also pour me some tan?

B. Mi qic hl jan klzn;#s! [Mi kich el tan kltsnes?]

UNIT 3 A S irow% .ndr;m! [Sirov, khntrem] B. Isk i#nc ;nq .moum! [Isk inch enk khmum?] Gini kam ouri, .micq oun;#nq! [Gini kam urish khmichk unenk?] A. Gini coun;nq% ba\z afa* sae [Gini chunenk, bayts aha sa] Certainly, here you are! And what shall we drink? Do we have some wine or any other drink? We dont have wine, but here is some cold

Kota\q^ m;r fa\kakan gar;=oure! Kotayk, our Armenian beer. [Kotayk, mer haykakan garejur] B K;na@zd! [Kenatst!] Cheers!

PRUNUS ARMENIACA Am;n tari Am;rika\iz ,at xbosa,r=ikn;r ;n galis Fa\astan! A\s ama hl [Amen tari Amerikayits shat zbosashrjikner en galis Hayastan. Ays ama el tikin Smijn h a\st;[! Nran ou[;kzoum h Karin;n^ ;ranzi mi ousano[oufi! tikin Smitn e aystegh. Nran ughektsum e Karinen, yerevantsi mi usanoghuhi.

incpisi@ gou\n;r% i@nc aatouj\oun% incpisi@ g;[;zkouj\oun! inchpisi guyner, inch aatutyun, inchpisi geghetskutyun! Git;#q% or Fa\astane irani fa\r;niqn h& prunus armeniaca h nra latin;r;n Gitek vor Hayastan tsirani hayrenikn e? prunus armeniaca e nra latineren

( (

manawand d;[]n ou jouxe% s;.n ou ]m;rouke! Fapa ira#ne! Qani@ t;sakn;r% manavand deghtsn u tuz, sekhn u dzmeruk. Hapa tsiran? Kani tesakner,

( (


j; incou h irann a\st;[ a\sqan famow% asoum h tikin Smije! te inchu e tsirann aystegh ayskan hamov, asum e tikin Smit.]

anoune% asoum h Karin;n% a\sinqn^ fa\kakan salor! Fima faskanoum ;m% anun, asum e Karinen, aysinkn, haykakan salor. Hima haskanum em,

asoum h tikin Smije! I@nc g;[;zik ou jarm ;n ];r mirgn ou ban=ar;[;ne% asum e tikin Smit. Inch geghetsik u tarm en dzer mirkn u bandjareghen,

k;ntronakan ,ouka! I@nc fianali ,;nq h :rani k;ntronakan ,oukan% kentronakan shuka. Inch hianali shenk e Yerevani kentronakan shukan,

Am;n r nranq nor wa\r;r ;n a\z;loum! A\sr Karin;n nran tanoum h :rani Amen or nrank nor vayrer en aytselum. Aysor Karinen nran tanum e Yerevani



am;n [amen] every, each tari [tari] year Am;rika\iz[amerikayits] from America rjik] tourist xbosa,r=ik [zbosash gal [gal] to come a\s [ays] this ama [ama] summer hl [el] also, too tikin [tikin] Mrs., madam a\st;[ [aystegh] here ran] nran [n him/her ou[;kz;l [ughektsel] to accompany ;ranzi [yerevantsi] native of Yerevan ousano[oufi[usanoghuhi] female student r [or] day nor [nor] new wa\r [vayr] place a\z;l;l [aytselel] to visit a\sr [aysor] today ran] nran [n him/her tan;l [tanel] to take tanoum h [tanum e] he/she is taking k;ntronakan[kentronakan] central ,ouka [shuka] market as;l [asel] to say asoum h [asum e] says inc [inch] what fianali [hianali] wonderful ,;nq [shenk] building g;[;zik [geghetsik ] beautiful jarm [tarm] fresh mirg [mirk] fruit ban=ar;[;n [banjareghen] vegetables manawand [manavand] especially d;[] [deghts] peach joux [tuz] fig s;. [sekh] cantaloup meruk] ]m;rouk [dz watermelon fapa &&& [hapa ...] what about ... iran [tsiran] apricot qani [kani?] how many? t;sak [tesak] variety, sort incpisi [inchpisi] what a ...! gou\n [guyn] color aatouj\oun [aatutyun] abundance g;[;zkouj\oun [geghetskutyun] beauty git;#q [gitek?] do you know? or [vor] that fa\r;niq [hayrenik] fatherland prunus armeniaca (lat.) - Armenian plum nra [nra] his/her/its latin;r;n [latineren] Latin anoun [anun] name n] a\sinqn [aysink i.e., namely salor [salor] plum fima [hima] now faskanal [haskanal] understand faskanoum ;m[haskanum em] I understand incou [inchu] why j; incou [te inchu] as to why a\st;[ [aystegh] here a\sqan [ayskan] so (much) famow [hamov] tasty, delicious



OUT:LIQ lawa, gaja .mor;[;n .orowa faz karag karkandak panir faw j.waq kajna,o apou.t ]ou ]ouk pa[pa[ak sounk mis ]wa;[ ]ijaptou[ brin] ,aqar a[zan% salaj ;r,ik apour tolma maoun EMP:LIQ gar;=our soury mrgaf\ouj kaj jan j;\ (fanqa\in) =our gini [i

[Utelik] [lavash] [gata] [khmoreghen] [khorovats] [hats] [karak] [karkandak] [panir] [hav] [tkhvatsk] [katnasho] [apukht] [dzu] [dzuk] [paghpaghak] [sunk] [mis] [dzvatsegh] [dzitaptugh] [brindz] [shakar] [aghtsan, salat] [yershik] [apur] [tolma] [matsun] [mpelik] [garejur] [surch] [mrkahyut] [kat] [tan] [tey] [(hankayin) jur] [gini] [oghi]


Armenian flatbread Armenian sweet bread baked goods barbecue bread butter cake, pastry cheese chicken cookies, baked goods cottage cheese, cream cheese cured meat egg fish ice-cream mushroom meat omelette olive rice sugar salad sausage soup stuffed vine (cabbage) leaves yogurt

beer coffee fruit juice milk tan (Arm. yogurt beverage) tea (mineral) water wine vodka

UNIT 3 [Mirkeghen] [M rk] [khndzor] [tsiran] [banan] [bal] [keas] [armav] [khaghogh] [limon/kitron] [sekh] [narinj] [deghts] [tandz] [salor] [nu] [serkevil] [yelak] [dzmeruk] [Banjareghen] [ehan] [bazuk] [kaghamb] [gazar, stepghin] [tsaghkakaghamb] [hamem] [varung] [samit] [smbuk, badrijan] [skhtor] [sokh] [maghadanos, azatkegh] [pghpegh] [kartofil] [dtum] [boghk] [tarkhun] [lolik] [dtmik]

MRG:{:N Mirg .n]or iran banan bal k;as armaw .a[o[ limon/kitron s;. narin= d;[] tan] salor nou s;rkil ;lak ]m;rouk BAN+AR:{:N ;fan baxouk ka[amb gaxar% st;p[in a[kaka[amb fam;m waroung samij smbouk% badri=an s.tor so. ma[adanos% axatq;[ p[p;[ karto`il ddoum bo[k jar.oun lolik ddmik

apple apricot banana cherry (sour) cherry (sweet) date grape(s) lemon melon orange peach pear plum pomegranate quince strawberry watermelon

basil beet, beet root cabbage carrot cauliflower coreander, cilantro cucumber dill eggplant garlic onion parsley pepper potato pumpkin, squash radish tarragon tomato zucchini


A. VERBS 1. Armenian equivalents of the English auxiliary verb to be Armenian has three verbs that are equivalent to the English verb to be. They appear in three irregular conjugations and differ in form, meaning, and function. 1) The auxiliary verb ;m (;m% ;s% h% ;nq% ;q% ;n) has a largely copular function, i.e. it links the subject to its complement. It is used to indicate a current state, status, or presence: Anin fiwand h! Ani is sick. Nranq fa\ ;n: They are Armenians.

2) The verb lin;l (linoum ;m% linoum ;s% linoum h% linoum ;nq% linoum ;q% linoum ;n) is also used as a copula. It differs, however, from the verb ;m in aspect. Rather than indicating a current state or presence, lin;l refers to a habitual state or presence: Na vame corsin a\st;[ h linoum! At four oclock, he/she is (usually) here. Or: 3) The defective verb kam (kam% kas% ka% kanq% kaq% kan) means to exist: Mtaoum ;m^ our;mn kam! I think, therefore I am (I exist). Third-person forms of the verb kam (singular ka% plural kan) correspond to the English constructions there is ... and there are. S;[ani wra ,at grq;r kan! There are many books on the table. The negative counterparts of the affirmative forms are: 1) C;m% c;s% ch/ci (see note on p. 30)% c;nq% c;q% c;n! I am not, you are not, etc. 2) C;m linoum% c;s linoum% ci linoum% c;nq linoum% c;q linoum% c;n linoum! I am (usually) not or I wont be, You are (usually) not or you wont be, etc. 3) Ckam% ckas% cka% ckanq% ckaq% ckan! I am not here or I do not exist, You are not there or You do not exist, There is no ..., etc. 2. The imperfect tense (regular verbs) The Armenian imperfect tense indicative places an action or an event in the past indicating that it is in progress, habitual or repeated. It consists of the conjugated imperfect forms of the auxiliary verb ;m [em] I am and the present participle of the main verb (ending in -oum).

UNIT 3 All regular verbs follow the pattern below: SINGULAR 1st pers. 2nd pers. 3rd pers. (;s) (dou) (na) verb stem + oum hi verb stem + oum hir verb stem + oum hr PLURAL 1st pers. (m;nq) 2nd pers. (douq) 3rd pers. (nranq) verb stem + oum hinq verb stem + oum hiq verb stem + oum hin IMPERFECT gr;l [grel] to write affirmative (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) groum groum groum groum groum groum hi hir hr hinq hiq hin negative chi groum chir groum chr groum chinq groum chiq groum chin groum [-um eyink] [-um eyik] [-um eyin] [-um eyi] [-um er]

[-um eyir]

3. The imperfect tense (irregular verbs) In the imperfect tense, the most common irregular verbs git;nal [gitenal] to know and oun;nal [unenal] to have are conjugated as follows: IMPERFECT git;nal [gitenal] to know affirmative (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) git;i git;ir git;r git;inq git;iq git;in negative cgit;i cgit;ir cgit;r cgit;inq cgit;iq cgit;in oun;nal [unenal] to have affirmative oun;i oun;ir oun;r oun;inq oun;iq oun;in negative coun;i coun;ir coun;r coun;inq coun;iq coun;in


UNIT 3 kam [kam] I exist (;s) ka\i (dou) ka\ir (na) kar (m;nq) ka\inq (douq) ka\iq (nranq) ka\in gal [gal] to come galis hi chi galis galis hir chir galis galis hr chr galis galis hinq chinq galis galis hiq chiq galis galis hin chin galis

cka\i cka\ir ckar cka\inq cka\iq cka\in

3. Uses of the imperfect tense The Armenian imperfect tense has several equivalents in English translation. When it is used to indicate a continuous action carried out at a certain point in the past, it corresponds to the English past progressive: Anznoum hi 'o[ozow% ;rb q;x t;sa! [Antsnum eyi poghotsov, yerp kez tesa] I was walking down the street when I saw you. When the imperfect tense refers to a habitual action in the past without being tied to a particular time or situation, it is translated into English with the used to construction: Na.kinoum na qic hr outoum% qic qnoum% ,at a,.atoum! [Nakhkinum na kich er utum, kich knum, shat ashkhatum] In the past, he used to eat a little, sleep a little, work a lot. In colloquial speech the imperfect tense indicates a future in the past: Isk m;nq ard;n gnoum hinq! [Isk menk arten gnum eyink] And we were already about to leave. B. POSSESSION In Armenian, possession is mainly expressed by 1) possessive determiners or possessive adjectives, 2) possessive articles, or 3) possessive pronouns. 1. Possessive adjectives The possessive adjectives (also called possessive determiners) are:
1. im [im] my ] 2. qo [ko)] your (informal) 3. ir [ir] or nra [nra] his/her/its* m;r [mer] our ];r [dzer] your (plural and formal) ir;nz [irents] or nranz [nrants] their** *

* Armenian has no grammatical gender (see p. 57 in this unit). **Regarding the distinction Armenian makes for personal pronouns in the third person, see p. 57 in this unit.


UNIT 3 Like their English counterparts, Armenian possessive adjectives precede nouns: n m;r l;xoun [mer lezun] (our language-the) our language nranz ;rkire [nrants yerkir] (their country-the) their country

Note that in addition to the possessive adjective preceding the noun, the definite article -e is affixed to the noun. 2. Possessive articles In addition to possessive adjectives, Armenian also uses possessive articles to express possession. Like the definite article, they are affixed to nouns, expressing both possession and determination. The possessive articles are: 1. -s [-s] my 2. -d [-t] your (informal) 3. -e [-] / -n* [-n] his/her/its s EXAMPLES: touns [tuns] my house d tound [tunt] your house e toune [tun] his/her house -n;rs** -n;rd -n;re [-ners] our [-nert] your (plural / formal) [-ner] their

n tn;rs [tners] my houses, our house n tn;rd [tnert] your houses, your house n tn;re [tner] their houses, his/her house

In Eastern Armenian, redundant forms like im touns [im tuns] my house (literally: my house-mine), qo ,ound [ko shunt] your dog (lit.: your dog-yours), involving both possessive adjective and possessive articles, are not correct. Instead, only one possessive marker is used: im toune [im tun] or touns [tuns] my house, qo ,oune [ko shun] or ,ound t] your dog, etc. [shun The possessive article for the third person and the definite article are homonymous. Thus, ,oune can have two meanings, depending on the context: 1. ,oune [shun] the dog 2. ,oune [shun] his/her dog To further elucidate, the following redundant form (possessive adjective ir or nra + -e/-n) is acceptable in the third person singular: 3. nra or ir ,oune [nra/ir shun] his/her dog
* Compare the use of the definite articles -e and -n (Unit 1, pp. 13-14). n ** The plural forms have two meanings. Thus, tn;rs means both my houses and our house, the latter usage being restricted to colloquial speech. For our house, in standard Armenian the analytical form m;r toune n n is the norm. The same applies to tn;rd your houses and your (plur.) house. As for tn;re, it means their n houses and less commonly his/her house, for which nra tn;re is the standard form.


UNIT 3 3. Possessive pronouns In Armenian, possessive pronouns are nominalized possessive adjectives (see pp. 54-55). Like nouns, they take the definite article -e /-n: ime qone (1) ir;ne m;re ];re (1) ir;nze [im] [kon] [iren] or [mer] [dzer] [irents] or mine yours (informal) (2) nrane [nran] his/hers/its (see p. 57, section 2) ours yours (formal and plural) (2) nranze [nrants] theirs

Thus, possession is expressed by the following variety of forms: im girqe [im girk] or girqs [girks] my book qo girqe [ko girk] or girqd [girkt] your book ir girqe (1) [ir girk] or girqe [girk] his/her book nra girqe (2) [nra girk] or girqe [girk] his/her book ime [im] mine qone [kon] yours ir;ne [iren] his/hers nrane [nran] his/hers

m;r girqe [mer girk] or grqn;rs [grkners] our book m;re [mer] ours ];r girqe [dzer girk] or grqn;rd [grknert] your book ];re [dzer] ours ir;nz girqe(1) [irents girk] or grqn;re [grkner] their book ir;nze [irents] theirs rants girk] or grqn;re [grkner] their book nranz girqe (2) [n nranze[nrants] theirs EXAMPLE: };r tounn aw;li m; h% qan m;re! Ba\z nranze 'oqr h! [Dzer tunn aveli mets e kan mer. Bayts nrants pokr e] Your house is bigger than ours. But theirs is small. In colloquial speech there are two other common forms that express possession: m;ronq [meronk] (those that are) mine or ours (my/our folks) ];ronq [dzeronk] (those that are) yours (your folks - formal and plural) EXAMPLE: };ronq ort;#[ ;n! [Dzeronk vortegh en?] Where are your folks? M;ronq mi,t tann ;n! [Meronk misht tann en] My folks are always at home.



1. Gender in Armenian Gender in Armenian grammar is unmarked, i.e. there is no expressed grammatical distinction for masculine, feminine or even neuter gender as is the case in some European languages (cf. German: der, die, das). Therefore, in Armenian gender can be discerned from the linguistic context or situation. The only way to express gender in Armenian is with the nominal suffix -oufi [-uhi], which forms feminine counterparts from masculine nouns indicating persons: a,ak;rt ousano[ vs. a,ak;rtoufi vs. ousano[oufi male pupil male student vs. female pupil vs. female student etc.

Gender distinctions are normally conveyed by distinct words: a[=ik fa\r vs. t[a vs. ma\r girl father vs. boy vs. mother, etc.

The Armenian personal pronoun in the third person singular does not express gender as does English with he/she/it and derivations. 2. Distinct third-person pronouns Armenian makes a particular third-person distinction. It has two sets of generic third-person pronouns: inq(e) and na for the singular and ir;nq and nranq for the plural. These two sets of third-person pronouns prevent ambiguity when two persons are referred to in the same context. The pronoun inq(e) with its declined forms ir his/her and ir;n him/her refers to the subject of the sentence or to a word to which prominence is given in a context. However, the pronoun na and its declined form nran him/her, his/her hark back to a person who is secondary to the person designated by inq(e)/ir/ir;n. EXAMPLE: Arame siroum h ir enk;ro=e nra ,ane! [Aram sirum e ir nkeroch yev nra shan] Aram likes his1 friend and his2 dog. In this example, ir his1 refers to Aram, while nra his2 to Arams friend. The same distinction is also made in the plural. Here ir;nq they1 and nranq they2 alternate with their declined forms ir;nz their/them and nranz their/them. The pronoun ir;nq they1 refers to a number of initially mentioned persons, while nranq they2 refers to those that are secondary to ir;nq they1. Fa\;re fargoum ;n ir;nz f\our;rin patwoum nranz! [Hayer hargum en irents hyurerin yev patvum nrants] Armenians respect their1 guests and honor them2. In this sentence, ir;nz their1 refers to Armenians, nranz them2 to their guests.



1. Derivation of abstract nouns Nouns in grammar are either concrete (house, man) or abstract (joy, growth). Most abstract nouns are derived from other parts of speech. The most productive suffixes that build abstract nouns in Armenian are: -ouj\oun [-utyun], -oum [-um], and -anq [-ank]. 1. The suffix -ouj\oun is widely applied to form abstract nouns: a) from adjectives aat [aat] plenty, abundant oura. [urakh] happy, joyful anr [tsanr] heavy m; [mets big, great ] .a[a[ [khaghagh] peaceful b) from verbs qnn;l [knnel] to examine qnnouj\oun [knnutyun] examination gn;l [oknel] to help gnouj\oun [oknutyun] help pa,tpan;l [pashtpanel] to defend pa,tpanouj\oun [pashtpanutyun] defense ,arounak;l [sharunakel] to continue ,arounakouj\oun [sharunakutyun] continuation c) from nouns ma\r [mayr] mother j,nami [tshnami] enemy enk;r [nker] friend ma\rouj\oun [mayrutyun] motherhood j,namouj\oun [tshnamutyun] enmity enk;rouj\oun [nkerutyun] friendship aatouj\oun [aatutyun] abundance oura.ouj\oun [urakhutyun] joy anrouj\oun [tsanrutyun] weight m;ouj\oun [metsutyun] size, greatness .a[a[ouj\oun [khaghaghutyun] peace

2. The suffix -oum [-um] creates abstract nouns from verbs: pa,ar;l [pasharel] to besiege ,arv;l [sharzhel] to move n;r;l [nerel] to forgive stoug;l [stugel] to check pa,aroum [pasharum] siege ,arvoum [sharzhum] movement n;roum [nerum] forgiveness stougoum [stugum] check-up

3. The suffix -anq [-ank] forms abstract nouns from verbs: a,.at;l [ashkhatel] to work fala;l [halatsel] to persecute marx;l [marzel] to train, to drill tan=;l [tanjel] to torture

a,.atanq [ashkhatank] work falaanq [halatsank] persecution marxanq [marzank] exercise, gymnastics tan=anq [tanjank] torture, suffering

UNIT 3 2. Derivation of nouns denoting locations and places There are a few suffixes in Armenian that indicate nouns of location. These suffixes are: -anoz [anots], -astan [-astan], and -aran [-aran]. 1. The suffix -anoz [-anots] indicates institutional locations. Such nouns are derived from adjectives and nouns: ;r [tser] old fiwand [hivand] sick f\our [hyur] guest arw;st [arvest] art ;ranoz [tseranots] old age home fiwandanoz [hivandanots] hospital f\ouranoz [hyuranots] hotel, guesthouse arw;stanoz [arvestanots] art studio, etc.

Only a few nouns ending in -anoz [-anots] denote a piece of paper money with a specified amount: fing [hing] five finganoz [hinganots] a five-dram-bill (dram=Arm. currency) tase [tas] ten tasanoz [tasanots] a ten-dram-bill far\our [haryur] hundred far\ouranoz [haryuranots] a hundred-dram-bill 2. The suffix -(a)stan [-(a)stan] indicates names of countries: Fa\astan [Hayastan] Armenia, Founastan [Hunastan] Greece Cinastan [Chinastan] China, ousastan [usastan] Russia Wrastan [Vrastan] Georgia, Parskastan [Parskastan] Persia, etc. 3. Nouns ending in -aran [-aran] denote various places, rooms, and localities. dasaran [dasaran] classroom bnakaran [bnakaran] apartment ya,aran [chasharan] restaurant famalsaran [hamalsaran] university lo[aran [logharan] bathroom, etc. Some nouns ending in -aran can also denote furniture, appliances, vessels, etc.: pafaran [paharan] closet sanaran [sanaran] refrigirator waaran [vaaran] oven, etc. A number of nouns in -aran can denote various books: a\bb;naran [aypbenaran] primer aw;taran [avetaran] bible baaran [baaran] dictionary, etc.


The letters G g% K k% and Q q
Consistent with its consonant system, Eastern Armenian manifests itself here, too, with a set of three stops. Rather than a pair of stops, i.e. the voiced (g) and the voiceles (k) of the Indo-European languages, East Armenian has a triple system with one voiced g [g] and two voiceless stops, the non-aspirated k [k] and the aspirated q [k]. Thus, the triple system of the related consonants g% k and q can be presented as follows:

voiced voiceless non-aspirated voiceless aspirated

G g K k Q q

[g] [k] [k]

Each of these stops represents an independent phoneme, the smallest phonetic unit in a language to distinguish one word from another. The following three words differ in meaning in the contrast of the phonemic consonants g% k and q: go[ [gogh] thief ko[ [kogh] rib, flank qo[ [kogh] veil As a rule, words are pronounced as they are written. EXAMPLES: Gabri;l [Gabriel] Gabriel, Gagik [Gagik] Gagik (male name), gagaj [gagat] summit, Katarin; [Katarine] Catherine, kapik [kapik] monkey, Qristos [Kristos] Christ, qa[aq [kaghak] city, etc. There are some exceptions to this general rule: a) after vowels, g [g] is pronounced as a voiceless aspirated [k] in the following words: fogs [hoks] worry, ourag [urak] adze, fognaki [hoknaki] plural, ,og [shok] hot (weather), ]ig [dzik] tight, long, ]ag [dzak] the young, the offspring, karag [karak] butter, igakan [ikakan] female, jagawor [takavor] king, gn;l [oknel] to help, gout [okut] profit, fagn;l [haknel] to dress, ,ogi [shoki] steam, etc. The same rule applies to all the derivatives of these words: fogi [hoki] soul, fog;kan [hokekan] spiritual, fog;ban [hokeban] psychologist, fogorakan [hokevorakan] clergyman, etc. b) after the consonant r [r], g [g] is pronounced as a voiceless aspirated [k]: karg [kark] class, row, margarit [markarit] pearl, margar; [markare] prophet, ;rg [yerk] song, mirg [mirk] fruit, ;rg;l [yerkel] to sing, jargman;l [tarkmanel] to translate, parg [parkev] gift, etc.


: ; or H h ?
There are some orthographic and phonetic rules that are prevalent for the use of : ; and H h. : ; occurs 1. in initial position of words and is pronounced [ye] as in English yesterday: ;s [yes] I, ;rax [yeraz] dream, ;';l [yepel] to cook, ;lq [yelk] exit, etc. 2. in medial position of words ; and stands for [e] as in English red: m;q;na [mekena] machine, gr;l [grel] to write, j;j [tetev] light, etc. 3. in final position of words ; and stands for [e]: rop; [rope] minute, bax; [baze] falcon, fasz; [hastse] address, ;j; [yete] if, gouz; [gutse] perhaps, etc. 4. within derivations and compounds where ; is pronounced a) as [ye] when it appears after vowels: am;na;rkar [amenayerkar] (the) longest (from am;na+;rkar% liter. most+long), kisa;' [kisayepe] half-cooked (from k;s+;';l half+cook), etc. b) as [e] when it occurs after consonants: an;r;s [aneres] shameless (from an+;r;s% literally: un+face), qsan;rkou [ksanerku] twenty-two (from qsan+;rkou twenty+two), etc. 5. in the conjugated forms of the auxiliary verb ;m% ;s% ;nq% ;q% and ;n% where ; is pronounced: a) as [e] when the verb follows words ending in consonants: gnoum ;m [gnum em] I am going, asoum ;n [asum en] they say, etc. b) as [ye] following words ending in vowels: galou ;m [galu yem] I will come, t[a ;s [tgha yes] you are a boy, etc. H h appears 1. in initial position of words and stands for [e] as in English end. hvan [ezhan] cheap, h= [ej] page, hak [eyak] creature, etc. 2. in final and medial position of words as a result of compounding or derivation: ch is not (from c+h not+is)% anhanal to disappear (from an+hanal% literally: un+exist), wa\rh=q [vayrechk] descent (from wa\r+i=n;l down+to descent), etc.




.os;l% %

a% k% k%
k% K% [k]

k;s% ]% ]ouk% [% k;s% }% }ouk% { %

k;s% K;s% [kes] ]% ]ouk% }% }ouk% [dz] [dzuk]

a[ A[

> % > os;l% % a%

.% >% [kh] .os;l% >os;l% [khosel] % % [ts] a% a% [tsa]

[% a[ {% A[ [gh] [agh]

z% zouzak% \%

\our% ,% ,oun% c% camic% p% papik <oun% C% Camic%

Z % Z ouzak% |% | our% <%

z% zouzak% \% Z% Zouzak% |% [ts] [tsutsak] [y] \our% |our% [yur]

P % Papik
papik Papik [papik]

,% ,oun% <% <oun% [sh] [shun]

c% camic% p% C% Camic% P% [ch] [chamich] [p]



1. Combine words from the left column with appropriate words from the right column. a. Karin;n b. Paro*n Sar\an% c. rio*rd% d. Arm;*n% e. :r;.an;re f. Sour;*n% g. M;nq ;rkou l;xou ort;#[ h };r fa,wice! ,at h .osoum! mi ktor karkandak kta#s! };r anounn i#nc h! qo ajon a\nt;[ h! git;nq! .a[oum ;n!

2. Form mini-dialogues according to the patterns in 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Replace the requested item matit with gric% qanon% ;tin% fa,wic% etc. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. A. Matits o#rt;[ h! B. Cgit;m% sa im matitn h! A. A\s matite o#umn h& qo#nn h! B. A\o*% sa imn h! A. Mari% sa qo# matitn h! B. O*c% a\s matite ime ch! A. };r matite mi rop;ow kta#q! B. S w% ba\z sa ime ch% nrann h! iro@ A. Sa im matite ch! Ort;#[ h ime! B. Cgit;m% j; qonn our h& imn a\st;[ h! A. O#w in] mi matit kta! B. Im matite oc oqi c;m ta!

3. Answer the following questions. a. Fa\;r;n .oso#um ;s! A\o*% .osoum ;m! b. Angl;r;n kardo#um ;s! O*c% c;m kardoum! c. G;rman;r;n git;s! A\o*% &&& d. F;a.os oun;#s! A\o*% &&& e. Ousano#[ ;s! O*c% &&& f. <a#t l;xoun;r git;s! O*c% &&& g. Fa\;r;n kardal karo#[ ;s! A\o*% &&& h. Cinar;n git;#s! O*c% &&& i. Vamanak oun;#s! O*c% &&&

UNIT 3 4. Answer the questions following the pattern. a. Soury .mo#um ;s! Aa= .moum hi% ba\z fima c;m .moum! b. Qa[zr;[;n siro#um ;s! Aa= siroum hi% ba\z &&& c. +one .o#um h! Aa= &&& d. :r;.an a.orvak ouni#! Aa= &&& e. Nranq jatron gno#um ;n! Aa= &&& f. S;[ann;rin out;liq ka#! Aa= ,at &&& g. A\s gou\ne fawano#um ;s! Aa= &&& 5. Complete the sequences by translating the English text. a. A\s toune siroum ;m! (It is my house.) b. M;r qa[aqe g;[;zik h! (I like your city, Maria.) c. Nranq fa\;r;n ;n soworoum! (Their teacher is Armenian.) d. Im fasz;n oun;#s! (I dont. What is your address?) e. Anouns Mari h! (And what is your surname, Maria?) f. Qa[aqaziouj\ouns am;rik\an h! (And what is your citizenship, Ani?) g. Im ma\r;ni l;xoun fa\;r;nn h! (And my mother tongue is English.) h. A\nt;[ mi girq ka! (That is my book.) 6. Derive abstract nouns from the adjectives. a. <oukan g;[;zik h! Incpisi@ g;[;zkouj\oun! b. S;[ane aat h! Incpisi@ &&& c. :rkire m; h! Incpisi@&&& d. Sare bar]r h! Incpisi@ &&& e. Bolore oura. ;n! Incpisi@ &&& f. Mirge jarm h! Incpisi@ &&& g. irane qa[zr h! Incpisi@ &&& 7. Complete the sentences by inverting the word order. a. >osoum ;s! <at ;s .osoum! b. S iroum ;m! <at &&& c. Soworoum ;m! A\st;[ &&& d. A,.atoum h! Law &&& e. >osoum h! ous;r;n &&& f. Kardoum h! Wat &&& g. Talis ;s! Qic &&&


UNIT 3 8. Use an appropriate present-tense form of the verb given in parentheses. a. :s ,at &&& (sir;l [sirel] to love) kardal! :s ,at ;m siroum kardal! b. Dou am;n #r &&& (gal [gal] to come) famalsaran! c. Ar'in i#nc &&& (oux;l [uzel] to wish) sowor;l! d. Douq a\s ama o#ur &&& (gnal [gnal] to go) e. M;nq ,at &&& (sir;l [sirel] to love) m;r ;rkire! f. A\s ousano[n;re fa\;r;n &&& (sowor;l [sovorel] to study)! g. Douq a\st;[ i#nc &&& (an;l [anel] to do). 9. How would you say it in Armenian? Make a polite request. a) You are in class; you need certain things. a. You need a dictionary. b. You are looking for a pencil. c. You need a calculator. d. You have run out of paper. e. You are looking for a piece of chalk. f. You have left your ruler behind at home. g. You cannot find your eraser. b) You are sitting around a table with friends; you cannot reach many things. a. The salt is too far from you. b. You need a piece of bread. c. You are thirsty. d. Your wine glass is empty. e. The salad is out of reach. f. You need some pepper. g. You would like some juice. c) You are filling out a form for a foreigner. You ask: a. His/her name. b. His/her address. c. His/her telephone number. d. His/her citizenship. e. His/her mother tongue. f. The languages he/she speaks.

UNIT 3 10. Answer the questions with reference to the TEXT in this unit. a. O#rt;[ h tikin Smije a\s ama! b. O#w h nra aa=norde! c. O#w h Karin;n! d. O#ur h tanoum Karin;n tikin Smijin! e. Tikin Smije K;ntronakan ,oukan fawano#um h! f. I#nc h asoum tikin Smije! g. O#r mirgn h% or tikin Smije am;niz ,at h fawanoum! h. I#nc h prunus armeniaca-n! i. Douq iran siro#um ;q!

Sowa marde qariz 'a'ouke kouti! [Sovats mart karits papuk kuti] The hungry will eat anything softer than stone. >osqe qamin ktani% k;rae kmna! [Khosk kamin ktani, kerats kmna] What you say, wind will carry away; what you eat, will stay. (Mardous) a.orvakn atami takn h! [(Martus) akhorzhakn atami takn e] A persons appetite is under his teeth. (Message: Once you start eating, you work up your appetite.) Bane nounde ch% bane snoundn h! [Ban tsnund che, ban snundn e] Its not the nature, its the nurture (that counts).


Unit 4

Entaniq axgakann;r Yt| tw ext|x

On the Agenda ...

Speech Acts in Dialogues: Introducing family and friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Vocabulary: Grammar Family and relatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 VERBS: The aorist (simple past) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 NOUNS: 1. The declension paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 2. The nominative and accusative cases . . . . . . . 78 Armenian-English Contrasts: Some Armenian expressions of politeness . . . . . . . . . 80 Word Formation: Pronunciation: Orthography: Writing: Diminutives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 The letters D d% T t and J j . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

O o or ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 + =% W w% T t% R r% " '% Q q% ~ `% Y y% :w% . . . . 85



1. Two friends, A and B, are looking through a family photo album. A. I@nc sirounik ;r;.a h! [Inch sirunik yerekha e] B. Qro=s t[an h% w;z amsakan! [Krochs tghan e, vets amsakan] A. Isk o#w h a\s famakr;li kine! [Isk ov e ays hamakreli kin?] B. What a lovely baby! He is my nephew, six months old. And who is this lovely woman? She is my brothers fiance. And who are those next to her?


A. no[n;rid nkare oun;#s! [Tsnoghnerit nkar unes?] B. Afa nranq^ nor n,anwa! [Aha nrank, nor nshanvats] A. Dou mord nman ;s! [Du mort nman es] B. Git;m! Isk sa tatiks h% [Gitem. Isk sa tatiks e]

Sa qou\rs h% isk sa ;[bors t[an h! This is my sister and this is my nephew. [Sa kuyrs e, isk sa yeghpors tghan e] Do you have a picture of your parents? Here they are, newly engaged. You look like your mother. I know. And this is my grandmother, and this is my grandfather, my mothers parents. How young they are! No, this is an old picture. My grandmother is 90 years old now. I think I just saw her in the garden. Yes, its her; let me introduce you.

B. Tats fima innsoun tar;kan h! [Tats hima innsun tarekan e] A. Kar;m nor t;sa nran a\goum! [Kartsem nor tesa nran aygum] B. A\o*% inqn h% ari* anojazn;m! [Ayo, inkn e, ari tsanotatsnem!]

O*c% sa fin nkar h! [Voch, sa hin nkar e]

A. Incqa@n ;ritasard ;n! [Inchkan yeritasart en!]

sa hl papiks^ mors no[n;re! [sa el papiks, mors tsnoghner]


A. Isk ko[qinn;re owq;#r ;n! [Isk koghkinner ovker en?

:[bors n,anan h! [Yeghpors nshanatsn e]

UNIT 4 2. A and B are getting to know each other. A. anojananq! [Tsanotanank] Anouns Aram h! [Anuns Aram e] B. Oura. ;m anojanalou famar! [Urakh em tsanotanalu hamar] Lets get to know each other. My name is Aram. I am pleased to meet you. Minas Azarian. And this is my wife, Karine. A pleasure to meet you. How is the host related to you? Is he your brother? Yes. And are you my brothers friend? No, his colleague.

Minas Axar\an! [Minas Azaryan] Isk sa kins h^ Karin;n! [Isk sa kins e, Karinen] A. <at oura. ;m! [Shat urakh em] Tant;re ];r i#ncn h% [Tanter dzer inchn e,]

B. A\o*! Isk douq ;[bors enk;#rn ;q! [Ayo! Isk duk yeghpors nkern ek?] A. O*c% a,.atakize! [Voch, ashkhatakits]

( (
];r ;[ba#\rn h! [dzer yeghpayrn e?]

( (

3. A is introducing her friend, B, to her mother, C. C. C;m karoum% or irar anoj ;nq! [Chem kartsum vor irar tsanot enk] I dont think we have met. Mother, this is Aram, my classmate. Aram, meet my mother. Aram. Very pleased to meet you, Madam. I have heard a lot about you. I am happy to meet you

A. Ma\ri*k% sa Aramn h^ dasenk;rs! [Mayrik, sa Aramn e, dasnkers] Ara*m% anojazi*r% ma\rs h! [Aram, tsanotatsir, mayrs e] B. Aram! <at oura. ;m% tikin! [Aram. Shat urakh em, tikin] C. };r masin ,at ;m ls;l! [Dzer masin shat em lsel] Oura. ;m% or w;r=ap;s [Urakh em vor verchapes]


UNIT 4 an]amb ;m anojanoum! [andzamb em tsanotanum] B. Nmanap;s! [Nmanapes] A. Ara*m% ari* m\ousn;rin hl [Aram, ari myusnerin el] in person at last. Likewise. Aram, let me introduce you to the others as well. Gladly, lets go!

q;x anojazn;m! [kez tsanotatsnem] B. S w% gnanq! iro@ [Sirov, gnank!]

FOR >ORFOURDE [Hor khorhurt] Mi fa\r mi,t .orfourd hr talis ordin;rin% or fam;ra,. apr;n irar f;t! [Mi hayr misht khorhurt er talis vortinerin, vor hamerashkh apren irar het.

Ordin;re chin lsoum ir;nz fore! Mi r fa\re frama\;z^ mi;l b;r;n! Vortiner cheyin lsum irents hor. Mi or hayr hramayets mi tsakhavel beren.;le tw;z ordin;rin aa=ark;z% or a\n kotr;n! Ordin;re 'or];zin% Tsakhavel tvets vortinerin yev aacharkets, vor ayn kotren. Vortiner portsetsin, ba\z ckaro[azan kotr;l! A\n vamanak fa\re qand;z;le ,\ou[;re bayts chkaroghatsan kotrel. Ayn zhamanak hayr kandets tsakhavel yev shyugher m;k-m;k tw;z ordin;rin% or kotr;n! Ordin;re f;,touj\amb kotr;zin aan]in mek-mek tvets vortinerin, vor kotren. Vortiner heshtutyamb kotretsin aandzin ,\ou[;re! Apa fa\re asaz ordin;rin& A\sp;s hl douq% ;j; irar shyugher. Apa hayr asat s vortinerin. Ayspes el duk, yete irar amour bn;q% oc m;ke ci karo[ana fa[j;l ];x% isk ;j; kw;q% .ow;q% amur bnek, voch mek chi karoghana hakhtel dzez, isk yete kvek, khovek, ];x m;k-m;k kotr;le f;,t klini! dzez mek-mek kotrel hesht klini.]




for (genitive from fa\r father) .orfourd .orfourd tal ordi fam;ra,. apr;l irar f;t ls;l ir;nz mi r frama\;l;l b;r;l aa=ark;l kotr;l 'or];l ba\z karo[anal a\n vamanak qand;l ,\ou[ m;k-m;k tw;z (past from tal to give) f;,touj\amb aan]in a\sp;s hl ;j; irar amour bn;l oc m;ke fa[j;l isk kw;l .ow;l f;,t klini [hor] [khorhurt] [khorhurt tal] [vorti] [hamerashkh] [aprel] [irar het] [lsel] [irents] [mi or] [hramayel] [tsakhavel] [berel] [aacharkel] [kotrel] [portsel] [bayts] [karoghanal] [ayn zhamanak] [kandel] [shyugh] [mek-mek] [tvets] [heshtutyamb] [aandzin] [ayspes el] [yete] [irar] [amur] [bnel] [voch mek] [haghtel] [isk] [kvel] [khovel] [hesht klini] fathers advice to advise son in harmony to live with each other to listen to, to obey their one day to order birch-broom to bring, to fetch to propose to break to try but to be able at that time, then to untie twig one by one gave with ease separate, single this way, thus if each other strong to hold nobody to vanquish but to fight to get alienated it will be easy



ENTANIQ% AXGAKANN:R [ntanik, azgakanner]

no[n;r fa\r(ik)% papa (coll.) ma\r(ik)% mama (coll.) ordi% t[a t[a doustr% a[=ik a[=ik pap(ik) tat(ik) jo(nik) o ;[ba\r qou\r for;[ba\r foraqou\r q;i moraqou\r xarmik xarmoufi amousin kin .orj ma\r% ma\razou .orj fa\r% fa\razou qawor knqafa\r qaworakin knqama\r

[tsnoghner] [hayr(ik), papa] [mayr(ik), mama] [vorti, tgha] [tgha] [dustr, aghchik] [aghchik] [pap(ik)] [tat(ik)] [to(nik)] [tso] [yeghpayr] [kuyr] [horeghpayr] [horakuyr] [kei] [morakuyr] [zarmik] [zarmuhi] [amusin] [kin] [khort mayr, mayratsu] [khort hayr, hayratsu] [kavor] [knkahayr] [kavorakin] [knkamayr]

parents father mother son boy daughter girl grandfather grandmother (little) grandchild great-grandchild brother sister paternal uncle paternal aunt maternal uncle maternal aunt cousin (male) cousin (female) husband wife, woman stepmother stepfather best man godfather best mans spouse godmother


n,anw;l n,ana n,anwa amousnanal amousnaza amouri farsaniq amousnalououj\oun bavanw;l bavanwa a\ri orb .nami(n;r) xou\g (s)k;sour (s)k;sra\r xoqanc an;r fars farsnazou ';sa ';sazou tal t;gr q;ni q;nakal an;r]ag ;r;.a manouk patani

[nshanvel] [nshanats] [nshanvats] [amusnanal] [amusnatsats] [amuri] [harsanik] [amusnalutsutyun] [bazhanvel] [bazhanvats] [ayri] [vorp] [khnami(ner)] [zuyk] [(s)kesur] [(s)kesrayr] [zokanch] [aner] [hars] [harsnatsu] [pesa] [pesatsu] [tal] [tekr] [keni] [kenakal] [anerdzak] [yerekha] [manuk] [patani]

to get engaged fianc engaged to marry, to get married married bachelor wedding divorce to get divorced divorced widow(er) orphan in-law(s) couple mother-in-law (husbands mother) father-in-law (husbands father) mother-in-law (wifes mother) father-in-law (wifes father) daughter-in-law, sister-in-law, bride bride, bride-to-be son-in-law, brother-in-law, bridegroom bridegroom sister-in-law (husbands sister) brother-in-law (husbands brother) sister-in-law (wifes sister) husband of the wifes sister brother-in-law (wifes brother) child infant adolescent


A. VERBS 1. The aorist (simple past) tense The aorist or the simple past is the only simple tense in the conjugation paradigm of the Armenian indicative mood. It expresses a completed action in the past without any implication of duration or progression. EXAMPLES: gr;zi I have written or I wrote from gr;l and kardazi I have read or I read from kardal. Below is the aorist pattern for the majority of regular verbs that belong to the first (infinitive ending in -;l) and second conjugation (infinitive ending in -al). What follows is a conjugation paradigm of the verbs gr;l and kardal% in both affirmative and negative forms: SINGULAR 1st pers. (;s) 2nd pers. (dou) 3rd pers. (na) verb stem + ;zi/azi verb stem + ;zir/azir verb stem + ;z/az PLURAL 1st pers. (m;nq) 2nd pers. (douq) 3rd pers. (nranq) verb stem + ;zinq/azinq verb stem + ;ziq/aziq verb stem + ;zin/azin AORIST gr;l (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) affirmative gr;zi gr;zir gr;z gr;zinq gr;ziq gr;zin negative cgr;zi cgr;zir cgr;z cgr;zinq cgr;ziq cgr;zin kardal affirmative kardazi kardazir kardaz kardazinq kardaziq kardazin negative ckardazi ckardazir ckardaz ckardazinq ckardaziq ckardazin [verb stem + etsink/atsink] [verb. stem + etsik/atsik] [verb. stem + etsin/atsin] [verb stem + etsi/atsi] [verb stem + etsir/atsir] [verb stem + ets/ats]

Some verbs deviate from this pattern. Instead of ending in -(;z)i and -(az)i, these verbs end in a -a: -a% -ar% -aw% -anq% -aq% -an& Compare the verb t;sn;l to see: t;sa I saw% t;sar you saw% t;saw he/she saw% t;sanq we saw% t;saq you saw% t;san they saw.

UNIT 4 Knowledge of the aorist forms is important as other verbal forms are derived either from the infinitive or the aorist stem. Here are some basic rules for the aorist stem construction: 1. replacing the infinitive endings -;l with -;z, and -al with -az (plus ending -i): INFINITIVE gr-;l kard-al AORIST STEM gr;zkardazAORIST (1st pers. sing.) gr;z-i I wrote kardaz-i I read

2. dropping the infixes -n- and -c- from verbs (plus ending -a): enk-n-;l to fall t;s-n-;l to see kor-c-;l to disappear enkt;skorenk-a I fell t;s-a I saw kor-a I disappeared

3. changing n to z in verbal derivations with the infix -an- or -;n- (plus ending -a): m;-an-al to grow big ;r-an-al to grow old par-;n-al to boast m;az;razpar;zm;az-a I grew big ;raz-a I grew old par;z-a I boasted

4. changing n to r in verbal derivations with the infix -azn- or -;zn- (plus ending -i): f;azn-;l to remove f;azria[;zn-;l to make laugh ia[;zrThe following verbs have irregular aorist forms: lin;l an;l dn;l an;l gal tal out;l enkn;l to be to take to put to do to come to give to eat to fall ;[-a% ;[ar% ;[aw% ;[anq% ;[aq% ;[an a-a% aar% aaw% aanq% aaq% aran dr;z-i (or dri)% dr;zir% dr;z% dr;zinq% dr;ziq% dr;zin ar;z-i (or ari)% ar;zir% ar;z% ar;zinq% ar;ziq% ar;zin ;k-a% ;kar% ;kaw% ;kanq% ;kaq% ;kan tw;z-i (or twi)% tw;zir% tw;z% tw;zinq% tw;ziq% tw;zin k;r-a% k;rar% k;raw% k;ranq% k;raq% k;ran enk-a% enkar% enkaw% enkanq% enkaq% enkan* f;azr-i ia[;zr-i

The negative forms of the aorist are constructed by prefixing the negative marker c-: gr;zi I wrote or I have written kardazi I read or I have read ar;zi I did or I have done enka I fell or I have fallen aa I took or I have taken cgr;zi ckardazi car;zi cenka caa I didnt write or I havent written I didnt read or I havent written I didnt do or I havent done I didnt fall or I havent fallen I didnt take or I havent taken

* See the table of irregular verbs in the Appendix (pp. 334-335). 75

UNIT 4 2. Uses of the aorist tense The Armenian aorist or simple past tense has several equivalents in English translation. With reference to usual activities in the past, it corresponds to the English simple past: :r;k na ;rkar a,.at;z% gore w;r=azr;z ou gnaz! [Yerek na yerkar ashkhatets, gorts verchatsrets u gnats] Yesterday he worked for a long time, finished his business and left. As mentioned before, the aorist or simple past tense denotes an action completed at some point in the past without any implication of the duration or progression. In this sense, it differs from the Armenian imperfect tense, which indicates a past action in progress: Nkaroum hi% ;rb dou n;rs mtar! [Nkarum eyi, yerp du ners mtar] I was painting when you came in. The Armenian aorist can be viewed as the equivalent of the English present perfect, which refers to a past action that has current relevance: Patoufane kotr;zi! [Patuhan kotretsi] I have broken the window. A\spisow m;nq a\ls c.os;zinq! [Ayspisov menk aylyevs chkhosetsink] Thus we havent spoken any more.

It is important to note that the Armenian aorist differs from other past tenses in that it is the witness tense. It is used only if the speaker has either witnessed the activity or if he/she can speak about it with absolute certainty. The aorist has various secondary functions in colloquial Armenian: a) as an action very close to the present time or one that is to follow immediately in time. Note in the following example the translation of gnazi as I am going: :s im as;liqn asazi& fima dou git;s! [Yes im aselikn asatsi; hima du gites] I said what I had to say; now its up to you. b) it can be used as a directive, an appeal for immediate action: <o*ut ar;q% ,arvw;zi*nq! [Shut arek, zharzhvetsink!] Hurry up, lets go! c) in conditional sentences, the aorist can replace the subjunctive mood. :kar% kgnanq& c;kar^ kmnanq! [Yekar, kgnank; chekar, kmnank] If you come, well go; if you dont come, well stay. Note that in the above sentence ;kar is translated as if you come:

UNIT 4 B. NOUNS 1. The declension paradigm To fulfill various syntactic functions in a sentence, nouns and pronouns in some languages have an extensive declension system. In other languages, these functions are performed by prepositions and postpositions (see Unit 7, pp. 158-159). English and Armenian have both, although Armenian has a more elaborate system of noun and pronoun declensions.* Nouns in Armenian have an elaborate declension paradigm, which may overwhelm the English speaker. They change forms either by taking case markers, by undergoing vowel alternations or inner permutations, or by doing both (see Unit 5, pp. 107-108). Armenian has seven cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative, instrumental, and locative. The first four cases, nominative and accusative, genitive and dative, form two pairs that may correspond in form but differ in syntactic function. The following specific questions address the different functions of each case:

Nominative: Accusative: Genitive: Dative: Ablative: Instrumental: Locative:

o#w o#um o#um o#um oumi#z [ov?] who? [um?] whom? [um?] whose? [um?] to whom? [umits?] from whom?

i#nc(e) i#nc(e) inci# inci#(n) inci#z inco#w inco#um [inch()?] what? [inch?] what? [inchi?] whose? of what? [inchi(n)?] to/for what? [inchits?] from what? [inchov?] with what? [inchum?] in what?

Nominative: Accusative: Genitive: Dative: Ablative: Instrumental: Locative: a,ak;rt(e) a,ak;rtin a,ak;rti a,ak;rti(n) a,ak;rtiz a,ak;rtow

a,ak;rtn;r(e) a,ak;rtn;rin a,ak;rtn;ri a,ak;rtn;ri(n) a,ak;rtn;riz a,ak;rtn;row

dproz(e) dproz(e) dprozi dprozi(n) dproziz dprozow dprozoum

dprozn;r(e) dprozn;r(e) dprozn;ri dprozn;ri(n) dprozn;riz dprozn;row dprozn;roum

*English nouns change forms either to express possession or when they are used in the plural (cf.
fathers, fathers). 77

UNIT 4 2. The nominative and accusative cases The nominative case in singular is the citation form of nouns as they appear in dictionaries. It is the initial form in a declension paradigm and has no explicit case markers. It can, however, be used with or without determiners, i.e. a definite article (-e/-n) (see Unit 1, p. 13) or a possessive article ending in -s% -d or -e/-n (see p. 55) as the case may be. The noun in the nominative case serves primarily as the subject of a sentence, a topic about which a comment is made: Anafite wa gou\n;r hr siroum! [Anahit va guyner er sirum] Anahit liked bright colors. Gorgs nor h! [Gorgs nor e] My carpet is new.

In the above sentences, Anafite [Anahit] Anahit and gorgs [gorgs] my carpet are subjects and appear in the nominative case. They can be elicited in response to the questions o#w [ov?] who? (Anafite) and i#nce [inch?] what? (gorge) respectively. The secondary syntactic function of the nominative case is also to serve as subject complement, linked to the subject by the auxiliary verb ;m or other copular verbs: :[ba\rs bvi,k h! [Yeghpayrs bzhishk e] My brother is a physician. Arame mnoum h enk;rs! [Aram mnum e nkers] Aram remains my friend.

In the first sentence, both the subject ;[ba\rs [yeghpayrs] my brother and its complement bvi,k [bzhishk] physician appear in the nominative case. They are linked to each other by the copula h is. In the second sentence, it is the verb mnal [mnal] to remain that links the subject Arame [Aram] Aram to enk;rs [nkers] my friend, and both nouns are used in the nominative case. The accusative varies depending on the semantics of the noun. Eastern Armenian makes a person vs. non-person distinction: nouns that indicate persons use explicit case markers, namely the dative form (see p. 77) while nouns for non-persons do not change, thus coinciding with the nominative. In a sentence, the accusative performs the following functions: a) A direct object governed by a transitive verb: Fa\re gowoum h ordoun! [Hayr govum e vortun] The father praises his son. Nkarn;rs t;sa#r! [Nkarners tesar?] Have you seen my pictures?

In these sentences, ordoun [vortun] son and nkarn;rs [nkarners] my pictures are direct objects of the transitive verbs gow;l [govel] to praise and t;sn;l [tesnel] to see respectively. Note that in the first sentence, the question asked is (o#um) [um?] whom? with reference to ordoun [vortun] and that both the question and the form of the noun ordi [vorti] correspond to the dative case (see pp. 102-103). In the second sentence the ques78

UNIT 4 tion (i#nc) [inch?] what? refers to an non-person; hence the form nkarn;rs [nkarners] that coincides with the nominative case. b) A local adverb that answers the question o#ur [ur?] where? W;r=ap;s toun ;ka! [Verchapes tun yeka] At last I came home. :rb;mn gradaran hi gnoum! [Yerpemn gradaran eyi gnum] I used to go to the library sometimes.

Here, the unmarked nouns toun [tun] and gradaran [gradaran] are adverbials of place. c) A temporal adverbial that answers the question ;#rb [yerp?] when? Mi r hl na anf;tazaw! [Mi or el na anhetatsav] One day he disappeared. Fa=ord tari kt;snw;nq! [Hajort tari ktesnvenk] Next year we will see each other.

Here, r [or] and tari [tari] are unmarked nouns used as adverbials of time. d) An adverbial indicating measurements and sizes (miles, kilograms, pounds, litres, etc.): :r;q bavak gini .m;zi! [Yerek bazhak gini khmetsi] I drank three glasses of wine. Tase m[on qa\l;zinq! [Tas mghon kayletsink] We walked ten miles.

In the examples above, ;r;q bavak [yerek bazhak] three glasses and tase m[on [tas mghon] ten miles take the accusative case. The following questions apply: Orqa#n gini .m;zir! [Vorkan gini khmetsir?] How much wine did you drink? Orqa#n qa\l;ziq! [Vorkan kayletsik?] How long did you walk?

The nominative plural takes the ending -(n);r% which can appear with or without determiners, i.e. a definite article (-e/-n) or possessive article (-s% -d or -e/-n). This, however, does not apply to nouns that have the plural ending -q , -ik, and -a\q (see p. 33) as these plural endings do not take the articles -e or -n: n :r;.an;rn ou,azan! [Yerekhanern ushatsan] The children are late. but: Mardik (tikna\q) ou,azan! [Martik (tiknayk) ushatsan] The people (the ladies) are late.

For the direct object, the accusative plural makes the same person vs. non-person distinction as the accusative singular. Nouns indicating persons use their genitive-dative case while nouns for non-persons use the nominative-accusative form: i Pa,tpan;@nq ;r;.an;rin! [Pashtpanenk yerekhanerin] Lets protect the children! but: Pa,tpan;@nq m;r antan;re! [Pashtpanenk mer antaner!] Lets protect our forests!


Some Armenian expressions of politeness Like all languages, Armenian has conventionally established conversation units, or gambits (see Appendix, p. 301), which are bound by socio-cultural conventions and, most of the time, defy literal translation into other languages. Some examples include .ndr;m [khntrem], kar;li# h [kareli e?], fam;z;*q [hametsek!] (formal), etc. 1. >ndr;m [khntrem] is frequently used in polite requests and replies. As such, it corresponds to the English please: Asa* (informal) / Asaz;*q (formal) .ndr;m &&& [Asa khntrem .../ Asatsek khntrem ... ] Tell me, please, ... Patoufane 'ak;#m! A\o*% .ndr;m! [Patuhan pakem? Ayo, khntrem] Shall I close the window? Yes, please. a) >ndr;m [khntrem] is also used to make commands sound milder: Doue ba*z ar;q% .ndr;m! [Du bats arek, khntrem!] Open the door, please! However, there is not always a one-to-one correspondence between the Armenian .ndr;m and the English please. There are cases where, when Armenian uses .ndr;m% English has other conventional expressions: b) >ndr;m serves as a prompt response to Thank you! <norfaka@ ;m! >ndr;@m! l norakal em. Khntrem] [Sh Thank you! You are welcome! or Dont mention it!or My pleasure! c) >ndr;m is employed alone when offering an item to someone: >ndr;m! [Khntrem] Here you are! d) >ndr;m serves as a reply to a request for permission: Jou\l kta#q ];r j;rje kardal! >ndr;m! [Tuyl ktak dzer tert kartal? Khntrem] May I please read your newspaper? By all means! orSure! or Please do!

UNIT 4 2. The very common conversation tool kar;li# h [kareli e?] May I is used to ask for permission before Kar;li# h! a) entering a room: [Kareli e?] May I (come in)? b) doing something: Kar;li# h 'or];l! [Kareli e portsel?] May I try it? Kar;li# h mi ban as;l! [Kareli e mi ban asel)?] May I say something?

c) saying something:

3. Fam;z;*q [hametsek!] is used: a) As a polite response to a request for permission: Kar;li# h! May I? Fam;z;*q! Please do! b) As a polite incitement to accept an offer of food or drinks: Fam;z;*q! Help yourself! c) As a welcome to guests entering the house: Fam;z;*q! Come in, please! 4. In everyday talk, there are a few expressions of kindness and hospitality, containing the word anou, [anush] sweet. a) Ano@u, ara [Anush ara!] (informal) or Ano@u, ar;q [Anush arek!!] (formal or plural) correspond to the English Enjoy! or Enjoy it! These expressions accompany the act of offering food: Fam;z;*q [hametsek!], anou@, ar;q [anush arek!!]. Help yourself! Enjoy it! b) Ano@u, lini [Anush lini!] (literally: May it be sweet!) is also used in response to someones appreciation of the food just enjoyed: Ya,e ,at fam;[ h(r)! Ano@u, lini! [Chash shat hamegh e(r)] [Anush lini!] The meal is/was very tasty. I am glad you enjoyed it! c) Anou@, lini [Anush lini!] is used around the dinner table as a well-wishing expression to a guest who has just emptied a glass of wine or any other drink on a happy occasion. K;na@zd! (informal) or: };@r k;naze! (formal/plur.) Ano@u, lini! [Kenatst] [Dzer kenats] [Anush lini] Enjoy it! To your health!




Diminutives Armenian has three suffixes that create diminutives: -ik [ik], -ak [ak] and -ouk [uk]. They impart to the noun the meaning of smallness (in size or value), affection, endearment, but also degradation or debasement on the part of the speaker. 1. All three suffixes -ik , -ak% and -ouk are added to nouns; their selection, however, is predetermined. Each noun combines with a specific suffix: ]ouk [dzuk] fish liy [lich] lake ar= [arch] bear s;[an [seghan] table ,oun [shun] dog pata [pata] piece ]knik [dzknik] little fish lyak [lchak] little lake ar=ouk [archuk] little bear s;[anik [seghanik] little table ,nik [shnik] doggy pataik [pataik] little piece fa\rik [hayrik] daddy qou\rik [kuyrik] sis papik [papik] grandpa

2. The most productive diminutive suffix -ik creates the largest number of diminutives:

a) Nouns denoting close relatives appear with -ik% expressing intimacy or familiarity: fa\r [hayr] father qou\r [kuyr] sister pap [pap] grandfather

b) Added to proper names, -ik expresses a subjective or emotional attitude toward a person: Tigran [Tigran] Mariam [Mariam] Wardan [Vartan] Tigranik [Tigranik] Mariamik [Mariamik] Wardanik [Vartanik] Lousik [Lusik] >acik [Khachik] Fowik [Hovik]

Longer names form diminutives by adding the suffix -ik to the first syllable of the name: Lousin; [Lusine] >acatour [Khachatur] Fowfann;s [Hovhannes]

c) The suffix -ik and -ouk may also be attached to adjectives. When referring to or addressing a person or an object, they indicate affection or fondness: siroun [sirun] cute anou, [anush] sweet taq [tak] warm g;r [ger] thick, fat

sirounik [sirunik] cutie anou,ik [anushik] sweetie taqouk [takuk] warmish, cosy girouk [giruk] plumpish, flabby


The letters D d% T t% and J j Rather than a double system of stop consonants, i.e. the voiced d and the voiceless t, East Armenian has a triple system with one voiced d [d] and two voiceless stops, the non-aspirated t [t] and the aspirated j [t]: The triple system of the related consonants d% t and j can be presented as follows:

voiced voiceless non-aspirated voiceless aspirated

D d [d] T t [t] J j [t]

Like in the case of b% p and '% each of these consonants is an independent phoneme, i.e. the smallest phonetic unit that distinguishes one word from another. The following three words differ in meaning in the contrast of the phonemic consonants d% t and j: d;r [der] role t;r [ter] Lord, master j;r [ter] for (as opposed to d;m [dem] against) In general, the letters D d% T t and J j are pronounced as written. EXAMPLES: Dani;l [Daniel] Daniel, Dawij [Davit] David, das [das] lesson, Tigran [Tigran] Tigran, tatik [tatik] grandmother, tant;r [tanter] house lord, J;r;xa [Tereza] Theresa, jjou [ttu] sour, jaj [tat] paw, etc. There are words that constitute exceptions to this rule with the voiced d [d] pronounced as a voiceless aspirated [t] after vowels and after r [r]: d [ot] air, dadar [datar] pause, intermission, xard [zart] adornment, bard [bart] complex, bourd [burt] wool, mard [mart] human being, ward [vart] rose, n\ard [nyart] nerve, b;rd [bert] fortress, riord [oriort] Miss, =ard [jart] massacre, ord [vort] worm, ;rdoum [yertum] oath, ardar [artar] just, ordi [vorti] son, ard;n [arten] already, drd;l [drtel] to incite, aa=nord [aajnort] leader, etc. In some words, after n [n]: andam [antam] member, .ndir [khntir] problem, k;ndani [kentani] animal, endam;ne [ntamen] totally, endar]ak [ntartsak] spacious, etc. In certain words, as well as in final position of words, -d is pronounced like the voiceless, non-aspirated t [t]: a\d [ayt] that, .;[d;l [khekhtel] to strangle, fodwa [hotvats] article, etc. The same applies to the possessive ending -d: tound [tunt] your house, fa\rd [hayrt] your father, etc.


O o or ? The following orthographic and phonetic rules govern the usage of the letters O o and in East Armenian: O o occurs: 1. in initial position of words and is pronounced [vo] as in English volt: ordi [vorti] son, ors [vors] hunting, otq [votk] foot, etc. 2. in medial and final position of words, o is pronounced [o] as in the English word folk: cors [chors] four, bolor [bolor] all, Karo [Karo] Karo (male name), etc. 3. within compound and derived words where o is pronounced a) as [vo] when it appears after vowels: ar=aors [archavors bear hunting (from ar=+a+ors), am;naorak\al [amenavorakyal] most qualified (superlative of the adjective orak\al qualified, etc. b) as [o] when it appears after consonants: ]knors [dzknors] fisherman (from ]ouk+orsal), anoro, [anorosh] indefinite (from an+oro,), etc. EXCEPTION 1: The initial O o is pronounced [o] in the pronoun ow [ov] who and its plural form owq;r [ovker] who; EXCEPTION 2: Nouns of foreign origin starting with [vo] are spelled with Wo wo rather than the regular O o in initial position: Wolga [Volga] a river in Russia (Russian: Djkuf), wolt [volt] volt, etc.

occurs: 1. in initial position of words and stands for [o] as in English on or all: r [or] day, gn;l [oknel] to help, d [ot] air, weather, etc. 2. within words, where appears as a result of compounding or derivation: aprini [aporini] illegal (from ap+rini outside+law), k;sr [kesor] midday, noon (from k;s+r half+day), angout [anokut] useless (from an+gout without+use)% anrinak [anorinak] unequaled (from an+rinak without+ example) etc.



=% =our% w%

w;r% t% tase% r% tarr% w;radar] Tarr%

tarr% Tarr% [tarr]

+% +our%
=% +% [j] =our% +our% [jur]

W% W ;r% T% Tase% R %
w% W% [v] w;r% W;r% [ver] t% T% [t] tase% Tase% [tas] r% R% [r]

W ;radar]
w;radar] W;radar] [veradarts]




qic% y% yany%



"% " ou% Q % Q ic% Y% Yany% ~% ~,,al% :w

'% "% [p] 'ou% "ou% [pu] q% Q% [k] qic% y% yany% Qic% Y% Yany% [kich] [ch] [chanch] `% ~% [f] `,,al% ~,,al% [fshal] :w [yev]



1. Combine questions from the left column with appropriate responses from the right column. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. O#ur gnazir ;r;k! O#um t;saq a\sr! O#w k;raw karkandake! Qani# vam a,.at;zir! O#w h siroum ;r;.a\in! :#rb gnazir gradaran! I#nc tw;z fa\re ordin;rin! jatron f\our;re nor ousano[in ma\rike ;r;k .orfourd ;r;q vam

2. Form mini-dialogues according to the patterns in 1, 2, 3, and 4. Replace ma\r with fa\r% ;[ba\r% enk;r% qou\r% n,ana% etc., and tikin with paron. a. A. >ndroum ;m% anojaz;*q! Ma\rs h! B. <at oura. ;m% tikin! A. O#w h a\s famakr;li kine! };r ma#\rn h! B. O*c% Anna\i ma\rn h! A. Ouxo#um ;s anojanal mors f;t! B. S irow% a\d tikine ma#\rd h! A. Douq Anii i#ncn ;q! B. :s nra ma\rn ;m! Isk do#uq! A. :s hl Arm;ni ma\rn ;m!




3. Complete the sentences according to the pattern. a. O#ur ;s gnoum! :ran ;m gnoum! b. :#rb ;s gnoum :ran! A\sr ;m &&&! c. :rane siro#um ;s! <at &&& d. O#w h a\nt;[ aproum! Tatiks &&& e. Ouri, o#w h a\nt;[! Enk;rn;rs &&& f. Karot;#l ;s bolorin! <at &&& g. Qani# r ;s soworabar mnoum! Tase r &&& 4. Answer the questions with an affirmative or negative response, using ,at or bnaw. a. Aramin yanaco#um ;s! A\o*% law ;m yanacoum! b. ~rans;r;n git;#s! O*c% bolorowin cgit;m! c. M;r toun gnazi#r! A\o*% &&&

UNIT 4 d. Ma\rikis f;t .os;zi#r! O*c% &&& e. Wardane a\nt;#[ hr! A\o*% &&& f. Enk;rn;ris t;sa#r! A\o*% &&& g. Entaniqis f;t ano#j ;s! O*c% &&& 5. Complete the sentences using the words in the parentheses as diminutives. a. Yanaco#um ;s! Sa im &&& (qou\r) h! - Sa im qou\rikn h! b. Afa* m;r famalsarane! Im &&& (fa\r) a\nt;[ h a,.atoum! c. O#w h a\s tariqot kine! Sa im &&& (tat) h! d. A\s ;r;.a\in yanaco#um ;s! A\o*% tikin Sar\ani &&& (jo) h! e. O#um h na ,at siroum! Ir &&& (pap)! f. A\d t[a\i anoune i#nc h! &&& (Wardan)! g. A\d kine Anna\i i#ncn h! &&& (ma\r) h! 6. Complete the sentences, following the example in a. a. Na .osoum hr% isk douq chiq .osoum! b. Na chr ouxoum% isk ;s &&& c. Na git;r% isk dou &&& d. Na galis hr% isk ;s &&&! e. Na a\nt;[ chr linoum% isk nranq &&& f. Na siroum hr kardal% isk ;s &&& g. Na angl;r;n .osoum hr% isk m;nq &&& 7. Insert the appropriate Armenian greeting. a. &&& % ma\rik! (Hello!) b. &&& % Arm;n! (So long!) c. &&& % tatik! (Good night!) d. &&& % fa\rik! (Good morning!) e. &&& % paron Fakob\an! (Good evening!) f. &&& % ;r;.an;r! (Welcome to you!) g. &&& % tikin! (See you later!)

8. Form interrogative sentences, concluding with the following words. a. &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& .os;zi#r! b. &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& cgr;zi#q! c. &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& gna#z! d. &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& fawan;zi#r! e. &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& csir;zi#n! f. &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& twi#r! g. &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& a,.at;#z!


UNIT 4 9. How would you say it in Armenian? a. May I introduce to you my relatives? b. This is my uncle (my mothers brother: q;i). c. This is my uncles wife. d. This is my grandfather. e. This is my grandmother. f. This is my aunt (my fathers sister: foraqou\r). 10. Answer the following questions with reference to the TEXT in this unit. a. Fa\re i#nc .orfourd tw;z ordin;rin! b. Ordin;re ir;nz fore ls;zi#n! c. Fa\re i#nc frama\;z mi r! d. I#nc aa=ark;z fa\re ordin;rin! e. Ordin;re karo[aza#n;le kotr;l! f. Incp;#s kotr;zin ordin;re ,\ou[;re! g. I#nc asaz a\n vamanak fa\re!

Fawe jow h jcoum% marde^ axgakanow! [Hav tevov e tchum, martn azgakanov] Birds fly with their wings, humans with their kin. ;re tan s\ounn h! [Tser tan syunn e] The elder is the pillar of the house. Ordin forn h qa,oum% a[=ike^ more! [Vortin horn e kashum, akhchik mor] A son takes after his father, a daughter after her mother. M;azaw% m; zaw dar]aw! [Metsatsav, mets tsav dartsav] (Your child) grew, your pain grew.


Unit 5

Fagoust;[;n gou\n;r V{|z tw V

On the Agenda ...

Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary: Grammar:

Asking for an opinion and expressing one . . . . . . . . 90 Clothes, colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 VERBS: The perfect and pluperfect tenses . . . . . . . . .96 NOUNS: 1. Declension types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 2. The genitive and dative cases . . . . . . . . . 102

Armenian-English Contrasts: 1. Impersonal sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 2. Expressions of personal preference . . . . . . . . . . . . .106 Word Formation: Pronunciation: Orthography: Vowel alterations and mutations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 The letters { [ and > . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 :w% ;w or ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110


1. A has invited B, a friend, to his/her new apartment. Bs opinion is important to A. A. B. Fawano#um ;s nor bnakarans! [Havanum es nor bnakarans?] A\o*% ,at ;m fawanoum! [Ayo, shat em havanum] No#r ;s t;[a'o.w;l! [Nor es teghapokhvel] A. B. A. A\o*! Dourd gali#s h t;sarane! [Ayo. Durt galis e tesaran?] <a@t! Kafou\qd hl h g;[;zik! [Shat. Kahuykt el e geghetsik] Am;n inc w;r=;rs gn;zi! [Amen inch verchers gnetsi] Go*rgs t;s! G;[;zik h% ch#! [Gorgs tes! Geghetsik e, che?] B. A. Fianali@ h! Fa\kaka#n h! [Hianali e. Haykakan e?] A\o*! Isk i#nc kariqi ;s [Ayo. Isk inch kartsiki es] a\s \ou[ankari masin! [ays yughankari masin?] B. A. B. Wat ch! [Vat che] I#nc h% dourd c;ka#w! [Inch e, durt chekav?] Dvwaranoum ;m as;l! [Dzhvaranum em asel] Do you like my new apartment? Yes, I like it very much. Did you just move in? Yes! Do you like the view? Very much! Your furniture is also nice. I bought everything recently. Look at my carpet! Its beautiful, isnt it? Its wonderful! Is it Armenian? Yes. And what do you think about this oil painting? Its not bad. Whats wrong, you dont like it? I cant tell you.

Vamanakakiz arw;ste c;m faskanoum! I dont understand modern art. [Zhamanakakits arvest chem haskanum]

UNIT 5 2. A is on her way to the theatre when she meets her friend B: B. A. B. A. B. A. B. O#ur a\sp;s% xougwa-xardarwa! [Ur ayspes, zukvats-zartarvats?] Jatron! Fawano#um ;s fagousts! [Tatron. Havanum es hakusts?] A\o*% ,at siroun h! No#r h! [Ayo, shat sirun e. Nor e?] A\o*! Isk gl.arks dourd gali#s h! [Ayo. Isk glkharks durt galis e?] Da h#l h nor! Baro@w ma,;s! [Da el e nor? Barov mashes] Ko,ikn;rs cnkat;zir! [Koshikners chnkatetsir] An,ou,t nkat;zi& mia\n j; [Anshusht nkatetsi; miayn te ] krounkn;re ,at bar]r c;#n! [krunkner shat bartsr chen?] A. A\o*% bar]r ;n% fognoum ;m! [Ayo, bartsr en yev hoknum em] Ba\z kin ;nq% ch#! [Bayts kin enk, che?] Where are you going, all dressed up? To the theatre. Do you like my dress? Yes, its very nice. Is it new? Yes. And how do you like my hat? Is that also new? Wear it in good health! You didnt notice my shoes. Of course I noticed them; only arent the heels too high? Yes, they are high and I get tired. But were women, arent we?

3. A is a customer, B is a sales lady in a department store. A. Karo#[ ;q in] zou\z tal [Karogh ek indz tsuyts tal] zouza';[ki kapou\t fagouste! [tsutsapeghki kapuyt hakust?] B. A. >ndr;m! Ouxo#um ;q 'or];l! [Khntrem. Uzum ek portsel?] O*c% ouri,i famar h! [Voch, urishi hamar e] Could you show me the blue dress in the window? Sure! Would you like to try it on? No, its for someone else.


UNIT 5 Aw;li 'oqr ca'se coun;#q! [Aveli pokr chaps chunek?] B. A. B. A. Sa miakn h% dra famar h x;[ce! [Sa miakn e, dra hamar e zeghch] I#nc h w;r=nakan gine! [Inch e verchnakan gin?] <at hvan h& Tase faxar dram! [Shat ezhan e; tas hazar dram] Fianali h! Gn;lou ;m! [Hianali e. Gnelu yem] Dont you have a smaller size? This is the only one, thats why its on sale. What is the final price? Very cheap. Ten thousand drams. Thats great! Ill buy it.

ANAFITE :W FA|:LIN:RE [Anahit yev hayeliner] :rb qou\rs^ Anafite% d; 'oqr hr% ,at hr siroum wa gou\n;re& wa karmire [Yerp kuyrs, Anahit, de pokr er, shat er sirum va guyner; va karmir wa narn=agou\ne nra gou\n;rn hin! Na ,at hr siroum na fa\;lin;re! yev va narnjaguyn nra guynern eyin. Na shat er sirum nayev hayeliner. Our or gnar% mi fa\;li hr gtnoum ou aa=e kangna^ ir t;sqow fianoum! Ur vor gnar, mi hayeli er gtnum, u aach kangnats ir teskov hianum. Fagouste nra famar ,at karor hr! Mi r xg;stn hr% m\ous re^ ko,ike& Hakust nra hamar shat karevor er. Mi or zgestn er, myus or koshik dour chr galis nran% chr ouxoum dproz gnal! Ma\rs fousafat hr! dur cher galis nran, yev cher uzum dprots gnal. Mayrs husahat er. I@nc qmafay h m;r a[=ike% asoum hr na faya.% cgit;m^ inc an;m Inch kmahach e mer aghchik, asum er na hachakh, chgitem inch anem. K'o.wi% asoum hr fa\rs% ;rb m;ana% k'o.wi! Fa\rs irawazi hr! A\sr Kpokhvi, asum er hayrs, yerp metsana, kpokhvi. Hayrs iravatsi er. Aysor Anafite fa\tni nkarcoufi h fianali tantikin! Isk fa\;lin;#re! hayeliner? Anahit haytni nkarchuhi e yev hianali tantikin. Isk Fima ;r;.an;rs ;n fa\;lin;rs! Nranz m;= ;m t;snoum in]% asoum h na! Hima yerekhaners en hayeliners. Nrants mech em tesnum indz, asum e na.



fa\;li ;rb qou\r d; 'oqr a[=ik sir;l wa gou\n karmir [hayeli] [yerp] [kuyr] [de] [pokr] [achchik] [sirel] [va] [guyn] [karmir] [nra] [nayev] [ur vor] [gnal] mirror when sister still, yet small, young girl to love, to like bright color red his/her/its also wherever to go she would go gtn;l aa=e kangna t;sq fianal fagoust [gtnel] [aach] [kangnats] [tesk] [hianal] [hakust] [karevor] [mi or] [myus or] [zgest] [koshik] [dur gal] to find in front of it standing looks to admire clothing important one day another day dress shoe to please irawazi a\sr fa\tni nkarcoufi fianali tantikin isk fima ;r;.a nranz m;= t;sn;l in] oux;nal chr ouxoum fagn;l dproz ma\r fousafat qmafay faya. git;nal an;l cgit;m% inc an;m 'o.w;l k'o.wi fa\r m;anal [uzenal] [haknel] [dprots] [mayr] [husahat] [hachakh] [gitenal] [anel] to wish to wear school mother desperate often to know to do

[cher uzum] didnt wish

[kmahach] capricious

narn=agou\n [narnjaguyn] orange nra na our or gnal

[chgitem, inch anem] I dont know what to do. [pokhvel] to change [hayr] father to grow older [kpokhvi] shell change

our or gnar [ur vor gnar] wherever

;rb m;ana [yerp metsana] [iravatsi] [aysor] [haytni] [hianali] [tantikin] [isk] [hima] [yerekha] [tesnel] [indz]


when she grows older right today well-known wonderful homemaker what about ... now child to see me, myself

[nkarchuhi] painter (fem.)

nra famar [nra hamar] for her karor mi r m\ous re xg;st ko,ik dour gal

[nrants mech] in them




[Hakusteghen] [goknots] [goti] [aparanjan] [vartik] [kochak] [hakust] [verarku] [odzik] [bambak] [zgest] [mushtak] [dzenots] [payusak] [glkhark] [bachkon] [vznots] [vzkap] [gisheranots] [krknakoshik] [grpan] [tabat] [shal] [(verna)shapik] [koshik] [shrjazgest, pesh]


gognoz goti aparan=an wartiq koyak fagoust w;rarkou ]iq bambak xg;st mou,tak ];noz pa\ousak gl.ark baykon wxnoz wxkap gi,;ranoz krknako,ik grpan tabat ,al (w;rna),apik ko,ik ,r=axg;st% ';,

apron belt bracelet briefs button clothing, dress coat collar cotton dress fur glove handbag hat jacket necklace necktie nightgown overshoe pocket pants scarf shirt shoe skirt, hem



m;taqs fo[aja' goulpa lo[axg;st 'o[kap fowanoz n;rqna,apik andrawartiq famaxg;st bourd GOU|N:R sryagou\n s kapou\t goun;[ osk;gou\n kanac mo.ragou\n narn=agou\n wardagou\n karmir arajagou\n ;rknagou\n manou,akagou\n spitak/y;rmak d;[in baz kanac% etc. moug kanac% etc.

[metaks] [hoghatap] [gulpa] [loghazgest] [poghkap] [hovanots] [nerknashapik] [andravartik] [hamazgest] [burt] [Guyner] [srchaguyn] [sev] [kapuyt] [gunegh] [voskeguyn] [kanach] [mokhraguyn] [narnjaguyn] [vartaguyn] [karmir] [artsataguyn] [yerknaguyn] [manushakaguyn] [spitak/chermak] [deghin] [bats kanach] [muk kanach]

silk slipper sock, stocking swimsuit tie umbrella undershirt underwear uniform wool brown black blue colorful gold-colored green grey orange pink red silver-colored sky blue, azure violet white yellow light green dark green



A. VERBS 1. The perfect and pluperfect tenses (indicative) In addition to the aorist (gr;zi% gr;zir% gr;z, etc. )* and the imperfect (groum hi% groum hir% groum hr% etc.),** Armenian uses the perfect and pluperfect to express actions that took place in the past. They are compound tenses formed by combining the auxiliary verb ;m% in the present and imperfect tense respectively, with the past participle (ending either in -;l /-az;l) of the base verb (gr;l ;m% gr;l hi / kardaz;l ;m% kardaz;l hi% etc.)& The past participle of the base verb is built as follows: a) For first-conjugation verbs (ending in -;l), the infinitive and the past participle coincide: Infinitive sir;l [sirel] to love kaouz;l [kautsel] to build Past Participle sir;l kaouz;l% etc.

b) Second-conjugation verbs (ending in -al) and irregular verbs add -;l to the aorist stem: Infinitive Aorist kardal [kartal] to read kardaz-i gal [gal] to come ;k-a k;r-a out;l [utel] to eat Past Participle kardaz;l ;k;l k;r;l% etc.

2. Formation of the perfect tense (affirmative) The perfect paradigm consists of the past participle ending in -;l or -az;l and the present tense of the auxiliary verb ;m& All verbs build their perfect as follows: SINGULAR 1st pers. (;s) 2nd pers. (dou) 3rd pers. (na) inf. or aorist stem + -;l/-az;l ;m inf. or aorist stem + -;l/-az;l ;s inf. or aorist stem + -;l/-az;l h PLURAL 1st pers. (m;nq) 2nd pers. (douq) 3rd pers. (nranq) * See Unit 4, pp. 74-76
** See Unit 3, pp. 53-54. 96

[-el/-atsel em] [-el/-atsel es] [-el/-atsel e]

inf. or aorist stem + -;l/-az;l ;nq inf. or aorist stem + -;l/-az;l ;q inf. or aorist stem + -;l/-az;l ;n

[-el/-atsel enk] [-el/-atsel ek] [-el/-atsel en]

UNIT 5 Perfect (affirmative) gr;l (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) gr;l gr;l gr;l gr;l gr;l gr;l ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n dn;l (to place) dr;l dr;l dr;l dr;l dr;l dr;l ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n kardal kardaz;l kardaz;l kardaz;l kardaz;l kardaz;l kardaz;l ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n

3. Formation of the perfect tense (negative) The perfect tense forms its negative paradigm by combining the respective negative forms of the auxilary verb ;m = c;m with the -;l or -az;l participle: gr;l kardal dn;l gr;l ;m I have written kardaz;l ;m I have read dr;l ;m I have placed c;m gr;l I havent written c;m kardaz;l I havent read c;m dr;l I havent placed

4. Formation of the pluperfect tense Pluperfect consists of the past participle ending in -;l or -az;l and the imperfect tense of the auxiliary verb ;m hi& All verbs form pluperfect in the following way: SINGULAR 1st pers. (;s) 2nd pers. (dou) 3rd pers. (na) inf. or aorist stem + -;l/-az;l hi inf. or aorist stem + -;l/-az;l hir inf. or aorist stem + -;l/-az;l hr PLURAL 1st pers. (m;nq) 2nd pers. (douq) 3rd pers. (nranq) inf. or aorist stem + -;l/-az;l hinq inf. or aorist stem + -;l/-az;l hiq inf. or aorist stem + -;l/-az;l hin [-el/-atsel eyink] [-el/-atsel eyik] [-el/-atsel eyin] [-el/-atsel eyi] [-el/-atsel eyir] [-el/-atsel er]


UNIT 5 Pluperfect (affirmative) gr;l (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) gr;l gr;l gr;l gr;l gr;l gr;l hi hir hr hinq hiq hin dn;l dr;l dr;l dr;l dr;l dr;l dr;l hi hir hr hinq hiq hin kardal kardaz;l kardaz;l kardaz;l kardaz;l kardaz;l kardaz;l hi hir hr hinq hiq hin

5. Formation of the pluperfect (negative): The pluperfect tense forms its negative paradigm by combining the respective negative forms of the auxilary verb ;m (hi chi) with the -;l or -az;l participle: gr;l dn;l kardal gr;l hi I had written dr;l hi I had put kardaz;l hi I had read chi gr;l I hadnt written chi dr;l I hadnt put chi kardaz;l I hadnt read

6. Uses of the perfect tense The perfect tense (gr;l ;m% kardaz;l ;m, etc.) refers to a past action that still holds in the present time: }\oune ;k;l h ou ak;l am;n inc! [Dzyun yekel e u tsatskel amen inch] The snow has fallen and has covered everything. (I am witnessing it.) a) In that sense, it differs in meaning from the aorist (gr;zi% gr;zir% gr;z, etc.), which expresses a past action without any reference to duration or progression. Compare the usage of these two tenses in the following sentences: perfect: Bolor enk;rn;rd ;k;l ;n q;x t;sn;lou! [Bolor nkernert yekel en kez tesnelu] All of your friends have come to see you. (They are still here.) Bolor enk;rn;rd ;kan q;x t;sn;lou! [Bolor nkernert yekan kez tesnelu] All your friends came to see you. (No indication whether they are still here.)



UNIT 5 There are other differences in meaning between these two past tenses: b) While the aorist (gr;zi% kardazi% etc.) refers to an action in the immediate past, the perfect (gr;l ;m% kardaz;l ;m% etc.) indicates a more general and distant action. Thus the choice between these two past tenses is made according to the context: perfect aorist perfect A\s girqe kardaz;#l ;s! Have you (ever) read this book? :r;k kardazi! I read it yesterday. Tarin;r aa= ;m kardaz;l! I read it years ago.

Therefore, words such as just now, yesterday, etc., are more likely to appear with the aorist than with the perfect: aorist Q;x o#w asaz! [Kez ov asats? Who told you? :r;k ls;zi! (But not: :r;k ;m ls;l!) Yerek lsetsi] (But not: Yerek em lsel] I heard it yesterday.

c) As opposed to the aorist, past activity expressed by the perfect does not necessarily indicate activity experienced by the speaker, but rather knowledge of an activity: aorist Annan ort;#[ h! [Annan vortegh e? Where is Anna? A,otn o#ur h! [Ashotn ur e? Where is Ashot? Inc-or t;[ gnaz! Inch-vor tegh gnats] She went somewhere. (I saw her going.) Dproz h gnaz;l! Dprots e gnatsel] He went to school. (I believe.)


d) The Armenian perfect also has a reportative or mediative meaning that plays an important role in colloquial speech. Forms such as gnaz;l ;m% ;k;l ;m% etc., and most typically, forms in the third person gnaz;l h% ;k;l ;n% etc., indicate a past activity regarded by the speaker as alleged, hearsay, or information not witnessed but rather obtained from a third party: Ir;n (ibr j;) t;s;l ;m% ba\z c;m bar;l! [Iren (iprev te) tesel em, bayts chem barevel] I have (allegedly) seen him, but have not greeted him. Ls;zi#r! Karin;n amousnaz;l h! [Lsetsir? Karinen amusnatsel e] Have you heard? Karine got married. (So they say.)


UNIT 5 e) In certain contexts of colloquial speech, the perfect tense can indicate an action in the future: M;k hl or nman ban ;s ar;l% f;td c;m .osi! [Mek el or nman ban es arel, hett chem khosi] If you ever do (literally: did) something like that, I will not talk to you again. 7. Uses of the pluperfect tense Pluperfect is a past perfect tense that denotes an activity completed prior to another activity in the past. Here are two examples to illustrate the use of pluperfect in Armenian: :rb fasanq% fam;rgn ard;n sksw;l hr! [Yerp hasank, hamergn arten sksvel er] When we arrived, the concert had already started. Cgit;i% or nranq zankaz;l hin gal! [Chgiteyi, vor nrank tsankatsel eyin gal] I didnt know that they had wanted to come. Pluperfect can also indicate an action previous to another action that the speaker has not witnessed but reports on it based on hearsay or on the actions results: Marian wa[ouz ir enk;rn;ri f;t chr .os;l! [Marian vaghuts ir nkerneri het cher khosel] Maria had not spoken to her friends for a long time. B. NOUNS 1. Declension types When declined, nouns change their forms in the genitive case first: they either take a genitive case marker or mutate or do both. Therefore, basic declensions are named after i o changes that nouns undergo in the genitive case, such as the -i declension, -ou decleno sion, -or declension, etc. Here are the common declension types: -i declension This is the most productive declension type. Most Armenian common and proper nouns, as well as nominalized (i.e. non-nominals with the definite article -e) adjectives, participles, postpositions, numerals, and pronouns are declined by this paradigm: s;[an s;[ani% qa[aq qa[aqi% a ai% care cari% \oje \oji% grae grai% m;=e mi=i% m\ouse m\ousi% "arix "arixi% etc.

UNIT 5 -ou declension Here belong many nouns ending in -i: ]i ]iou% oski oskou% a,ak;rtoufi a,ak;rtoufou; all infinitives: gr;l gr;lou% gal galou% .m;l .m;lou% etc.; some proper names, Armenian and non-Armenian: M;[ri M;[rou% Loi Loou% Gorki Gorkou% etc.; and the following nouns: mard mardou% amousin amousnou% anko[in anko[nou% Astwa Astou% a\gi a\gou% gini ginou% etc. -an declension Abstract nouns ending in -oum: ousoum ousman% bouvoum bouvman% etc., some monosyllabic words like dou dan% ga gaan% ]ouk ]kan% mouk mkan% jo joan% etc., and the nouns: a,oun a,nan% garoun garnan% and manouk mankan% etc. Also abstract nouns ending in -ouj\oun: oura.ouj\oun oura.ouj\an% ;rouj\oun ;rouj\an% barouj\oun barouj\an% etc. -wa declension Nouns denoting time: vam vamwa% r rwa% ,abaj ,abajwa% tari tarwa% gi,;r gi,;rwa% z;r;k z;r;kwa% ama amawa% ]m; ]m;wa% aawot aawotwa% vamanak vamanakwa% etc., and many temporal adverbs: a\sr a\srwa% ;r;k ;r;kwa% wa[e wa[wa% aa= aa=wa% fima fimikwa% wa[ouz wa[ouzwa% etc. -or declension Some nouns denoting family members: fa\r for% ma\r mor% ;[ba\r ;[bor% and compounds such as mor;[ba\r mor;[bor% etc. -o= declension A few nouns denoting relatives and friends: qou\r qro=% kin kno=% enk;r enk;ro=% sk;sour sk;sro=% tal talo=% t;gr t;gro=% t;r tiro=% tikin tikno=% etc. -o declension This is the remnant of an archaic declension type. Very few words take this genitive form: fou\s fouso% soug sgo% s;r siro% patiw patwo% mamoul mamlo% etc. There are also certain irregular genitive-dative forms that apply to only one word or a few words: -a: a[=ik a[=ka -;r: doustr dst;r% ka\sr ka\s;r -wan: maf mafwan% anoun anwan

UNIT 5 -\an: s\oun s\an% galoust galst\an% nound nnd\an% ank\oun ank\an% ar\oun ar\an

Although certain semantic groups of nouns tend to gravitate towards particular declension types, there are no exhaustive rules. Therefore, the declension of each noun must be learned separately. Note that in contemporary usage many nouns tend to follow the more common -i declension. This occurs particularly in colloquial speech: ar\oun anoun manouk galoust ar\an anwan mankan galst\an or or or or ar\ouni anouni manouki (proper name only: Manouki) galousti

While the singular forms of the genitive and dative cases manifest a great diversity, this cannot be said about the plural cases which, in fact, are quite uniform. The plural genitive/dative of nouns is formed from the nominative singular with the addition of the plural -(n);r ending + -i(n): Nom. sing. a[=ik girl gen. sing.: a[=ka gen./dat. plur.: a[=ik-n;r-i(n) Nom. sing. anoun name gen. sing.: anwan gen./dat. plur.: anoun-n;r-i(n) Nom. sing. ]i horse gen. sing.: ]iou gen./dat. plur.: ]i-;r-i(n) Nom. sing. qou\r sister gen. sing.: qro= gen./dat. plur.: qou\r-;r-i(n) Some nouns preserve the genitive singular mutations or alternation of certain root vowels (see pp. 107-108 in this unit) in the plural: Nom. sing. girq book Nom. sing. sout lie Gen. sing.: grqi gen./dat. plur.: grq;ri(n) Gen. sing.: sti gen./dat. plur.: st;ri(n)

Some nouns deviate from this plural genitive/dative pattern: Nouns with the plural suffix -q, -ik% or -a\q (see pp. 32 and 102) take the ending -z: Nom. sing. kin woman Nom. sing. mard man Nom. sing. Grigor Grigor Nom. plur.: kana\q gen./dat. plur.: kananz Nom. plur.: mardik gen./dat. plur.: mardkanz nom. plur.: Grigor;nq gen./dat. plur.: Grigor;nz

2. The genitive and dative cases These two cases coincide basically in form, but differ in function. While the genitive is always used without the definite article, the dative appears with or without it. The genitive case primarily expresses possession. It may also indicate provenance and attribution; as such, it modifies a noun that is either the subject or the complement of a sen102

UNIT 5 tence. In Armenian, the genitive is commonly placed before the noun it modifies: :rani .a[o[e [Yerevani khaghogh] the grapes of Yerevan mardou ;raxn;re [martu yerazner] the mans dreams nan gou\ne [nan guyn] the color of pomegranate oura.ouj\an arzounqn;re [urakhutyan artsunkner] the tears of joy tarwa ;[anakn;re [tarva yeghanakner] the seasons of the year qro=s amousine [krochs amusin] my sisters husband -i declension

-ou declension

-an declension

-\an declension

-wa declension

-o= declension

Genitive forms of nouns are often synonymous with adjectives derived from nouns: mor s;re [mor ser] a mothers love jagawori palate [takavori palat] the Kings palace tan a,.atanq [tan ashkhatank] housework ma\rakan s;re [mayrakan ser] motherly love jagaworakan palate [takavorakan palat] the royal palace tna\in a,.atanq [tnayin ashkhatank] home work, domestic work

The genitive is also required by some prepositions and postpositions: aanz a,.atanqi [aants ashkhatanki] without work fors masin [hors masin] about my father


UNIT 5 The primary function of the dative case is to indicate the recipient or the beneficiary of an action. It is the case of the indirect object. Many verbs, nouns and adjectives govern the indirect object in the dative case (see Unit 11, p. 262). While in Armenian a limited number of verbs take only one object in the dative (see p. 262), there is a large group of verbs that govern two objects, one in the dative, the other in the accusative. Verbs of giving (lending, offering, etc.) and communicating (saying, reporting, explaining, writing, etc.) belong to this group. In each of the following sentences, for instance, verbs take both a direct and an indirect object (see p. 263): Girqs ousano[in tw;zi! [Girks usanoghin tvetsi] I gave my book to the student. >ndire q;x bazatr;l ;m! [Khntir kez batsatrel em] I have explained the problem to you.

The direct and indirect objects in the sentences above are governed by the verbs tal to give and bazatr;l to explain respectively: As a rule, the direct object in the accusative case refers to a thing (girqs% .ndire), the indirect object in the dative case represents a person (ousano[in% q;x) who is the recipient of the action. The dative case may also be used to express various adverbials, for instance: a) time Ma\isin ward;re bazwoum ;n! [Mayisin varter batsvum en] In May, roses open. b) place Na dane kangna h! [Na dan kangnats e] He is standing at the door. c) manner (price, measure, age, etc.) Faxar drami gn;zi! [Hazar drami gnetsi] I bought (it) for a hundred drams. d) purpose Ya,i gnazinq! [Chashi gnatsink] We went to dinner. :kanq gn;lou! [Yekank oknelu] We came to help. M;nq nou\n tariqi mardik ;nq! [Menk nuyn tariki enk] We are (people) of the same age. Ktourin mi jcoun hr ;rgoum! [Kturin mi tchun er yerkum] There was a bird singing on the roof. K;sgi,;rin mi ]a\n ls;zi! [Kesgisherin mi dzayn lsetsi] At midnight I heard a noise.



1. Impersonal sentences Unlike English, Armenian has an elaborate set of personal endings for conjugating verbs, rendering personal pronouns redundant. This applies not only to sentences where the person is implied in the context and identified by the personal ending but even more so to sentences that dont have an expressed subject. While impersonal sentences in English start with the empty subject word it, or the impersonal pronoun one, Armenian does not use a pronoun. 1. Impersonal sentences in the 3rd person singular refer to daylight and temperature changes: Mjnoum h / lousanoum h / zrtoum h% etc. [Mtnum e / lusanum e / tsrtum e, etc.] It is getting dark / light / cold, etc.* 2. Impersonal sentences with adjectives and nouns linked by a copula (h% ch% hr% ;[aw% etc.) evaluate various situations and events or pass judgment on them: (An)kar;li (c)h / dvwar (c)h / amoj (c)h / wtangawor (c)h% etc. [(An)kareli (ch)e/dzhvar (ch)e/amot (ch)e/vtangavor (ch)e% etc.] It is (im)possible/it is (not) difficult/it is (not) shameful/it is (not) dangerous 3. Sentences starting with p;tq (c)h [petk (ch)e] express necessity, a need or an order: P;tq h faskanal / p;tq ch wfatw;l / p;tq h ,tap;l% etc. [Petk e haskanal / petk che vhatvel / petk e shtapel, etc.] One/We must understand / One/We should not wince / One/We must hurry, etc. 4. Impersonal sentences with a verb in the 3rd person singular of the passive voice (see p. 155) have synonymous forms in the 3rd person plural of the active voice: Aswoum h or asoum ;n / fan]nararwoum h or fan]nararoum ;n% etc. [Asvum e or asum en / handznararvum e or handznararum en, etc.] It is said or they say / it is recommended or they recommend, etc. Note that the only contrasting feature in the formation of impersonal sentences between Armenian and English is that Armenian does not use pronouns as the English does (cf. it, they, one, etc.). As for the use of verbal categories, i.e. person, number, tense, mood, and voice, the formation of impersonal sentences in these two languages is mostly similar.
* Synonymous sentences describing weather conditions have a subject, but still lack reference to the doer of the action: An]r / karkout / ]\oun h galis% etc. [Andzrev / karkut / dzyun e galis, etc.] It is raining / hailing / snowing, etc.


UNIT 5 2. Expressions of personal preference There are two basic verbs expressing personal preference in Armenian: sir;l [sirel] to love, fawan;l [havanel] to like, and one phrasal verb dour gal [dur gal] to appeal, to please. In their affirmative or negative forms the basic verbs express peoples likes and dislikes: S iroum ;m vs. C;m siroum [sirum em vs. chem sirum] I love vs. I dont love Fawanoum ;m vs. C;m fawanoum [havanum em vs. chem havanum] I like vs. I dont like

The meaning of the Armenian verb sir;l [sirel] has a broader scope than that of the English verb to love. It often overlaps with the meaning of fawan;l [havanel] to like. However, the use of the verbs sir;l and fawan;l do not, on the whole, pose great difficulty to the English-speaking learner of Armenian. It is the very common phrasal verb dour gal [dur gal] to appeal, to please (literally: to come across as appealing or likeable to someone) that needs special attention. Here is how dour gal [dur gal] is used: 1. The preferred item is brought into focus by moving it from the object to the subject position. Thus, rather than the construction I like X the reverse construction, X pleases me, is employed: (:s) fawanoum ;m kinonkare! vs. [(Yes) havanum em kinonkar] I like the film. Kinonkare in] dour h galis! [Kinonkar indz dur e galis] The film pleases me.

Thus, the person who likes or dislikes something or someone marked by X is being expressed by a personal pronoun (in]% q;x% nran% m;x% ];x% nranz% etc.) or a noun (Anna\in% mors% enk;ro=s etc.) in the dative case. X-e mardkanz% Arm;nin% m;x% bolorin ,at dour ;kaw/c;kaw! [X- martkants, Armenin, mez, bolorin shat dur yekav/chekav] People, Armen, we, everybody liked/disliked X very much. 2. While the conjugated verb gal agrees in person and number with the subject X asserted as being liked or disliked, the possessive markers attached to the nominal component dour refer to the subject who likes or dislikes something. The latter is carried out by using the possessive adjective (im% qo% nra% m;r% ];r% nranz) before dour. Singular 1st person: 2nd person: 3rd person: X-e in] dour ;kaw [X- indz dur yekav] X-e q;x dour ;kaw [X- kez dur yekav] X-e nran dour ;kaw [X- nran dur yekav]


UNIT 5 Plural 1st person: 2nd person: 3rd person: X-e m;x dour ;kaw [X- mez dur yekav] X-e ];x dour ;kaw [X- dzez dur yekav] X-e nranz dour ;kaw [X- nrants dur yekav]

3. The possessive adjective (im% qo% nra% m;r% ];r% nranz) can be replaced by a noun (person) or other pronoun in the dative case (see p. 104 in this unit). X-e Arm;nin% Anna\in% mardkanz% bolorin dour ;kaw! [X- Armenin, Annayin, martkants, bolorin dur yekav] Armen, Anna, people, everybody liked/disliked X. 4. In a sentence containing the phrasal verb dour gal, questions are asked as follows: a. For the person to whom X does or does not appeal, the dative: o#um to whom? O#um dour c;kaw a\s `ilme! :[bors dour c;kaw! [Um dur chekav ays film?] [Yeghpors dur chekav] Who didnt like this film? My brother did not like it. (Lit.: To whom did this film not appeal?)(It did not appeal to my brother.) b. For the person or thing being liked/disliked the nominative: o#w who? or i#nc what? O#w q;x dour ci galis! [Ov kez dur chi galis?] Who does not please you (informal)? I#nce q;x dour ci galis! [Inch kez dur chi galis?] What does not please you?


Vowel alterations and mutations in the same root In word formation, declension, and in plural formation certain root vowels within words may change or be suppressed on a regular basis. This change is triggered by the shift of stress from the root to the next, usually the last syllable of words. As a result, words with common roots display recurring vowel alterations and mutations that can be isolated and described: 1. i [i] e []* EXAMPLES: sirt [sirt] heart srti [srti] heartgen, srtaban [srtaban] cardiologist, srtagin [srtagin] heartfelt, etc., gir [gir] letter gr;l [grel] to write, gro[ [grogh] writer, gradaran [gradaran] library, grakan [grakan] literary, etc., girq [girk] book grq;r [grker] books, etc.
* Note that here e [] is pronounced, but not written, except in hyphenation (see Unit 9, p. 215.) 107

UNIT 5 2. i [i] * EXAMPLES: patiw [pativ] honor patwi [patvi] honorgen, patw;l [patvel] to honor, patwawor [patvavor] honorable fa,iw [hashiv] account fa,wi [hashvi] accountgen, fa,w;l [hashvel] to count, to calculate, fa,wapaf [hashvapah] accountant 3. i [i] ou [u] EXAMPLES: a\gi [aygi] garden a\gou [aygu] gardengen ordi [vorti] son ordou [vortu] songen gini [gini] wine ginou [ginu] winegen 4. ou [u] e [] (pronounced but not written) EXAMPLES sout [sut] lie sti [sti] liegen, st;l [stel] to lie, sta.os [stakhos] liar bourd [burt] wool brd; [brte] woolgen, brd\a [brtya] woolen dours [durs] out(side) drsi [drsi] outsidegen, drs;zi [drsetsi] outsider toun [tun] house tn;r [tner] houses, gir [gir] letter gr;r [grer] letters 5. ou [u] * EXAMPLES: ousoum [usum] study ousman [usman] studygen anzoum [antsum] passage anzman [antsman] passagegen 6. ou\ [uy] ou [u] EXAMPLES: lou\s [luys] light lousawor [lusavor] bright, lousamout [lusamut] window fou\s [huys] hope fouso [huso] hopegen, fousafat [husahat] desperate jou\n [tuyn] poison jounawor [tunavor] poisonous, jounawor;l [tuna vorel] to poison 7. ; [e] i [i] EXAMPLES: s;r [ser] love siro [siro] lovegen, sir;l [sirel] to love, sir;kan [sirekan] lover, sirafarw;l [siraharvel] to fall in love t;r [ter] master tiro= [tiroch] mastergen, tir;l [tirel] to reign, etc., nw;r [nver] present nwir;l [nvirel] to give (a gift), etc.
* stands for the complete reduction of the vowel. 108


The letters { [ and > . { [ [gh] and > . [kh] stand for a pair of voiced and voiceless guttural consonants in Armenian that do not exist in the English alphabet. Guttural is the term for sounds that are created in the throat. The voiced { [ is pronounced like the uvular r in Parisian French pronunciation; cf r in rouge - red, or arrire - behind; cf. the Modern Greek in [ghata] cat. EXAMPLES: {axaros [Ghazaros] Lazarus, lo[al [loghal] to swim, [;kawar [ghekavar] leader, etc. The voiceless > . is pronounced like the German velar fricative x-Laut in acht - eight or Bach. EXAMPLES: .os;l [khosel] to speak, oura. [urakh] joyful, happy, .an [khan] mixed, .ra.ous;l [khrakhusel] to encourage, etc. Armenian words that contain both of these guttural sounds represent certain difficulties for the English-speaking learner. They can be overcome by steady practice. EXAMPLES: .a[o[ [khaghogh] grape, .a[a[ [khaghagh] peaceful, .a[a[ouj\oun [khaghaghutyun] piece, ka.a[an [kakhaghan] gallows, etc. In some words, { [ [gh] is pronounced > . [kh], confusing in some cases even the native speaker. Consider the common words a[=ik [aghchik] girl and a[qat [aghkat] poor, pronounced [akhchik] and [akhkat] respectively. Note the following spelling and pronunciation rules: 1. Before } ] [dz] and + = [j], the letter { [ [gh], not > . [kh], is written although the pronunciation is close to > . [kh]: d;[] [deghts] peach c[=ik [chghchik] bat pronounced [dekhts] pronounced [chkhchik]

2. Before J j the letter { [ [gh], not > . [kh], is written despite the fact that the pronunciation of { [ [gh] is close to > . [kh]: pronounced [tukht] jou[j [tught] paper pronounced [makhtel] ma[j;l [maghtel] to wish fa[janak [haghtanak] victory, etc. pronounced [hakhtanak]


:w% ;w or ? In modern Eastern Armenian there are two distinct spellings for the sound combinations [yev] and [ev]: a) the ligature that exists only in the lower case b) two letters, ; and w% appearing as :w or ;w Unlike the two Armenian letters ; and w, the graphic sign does not belong to the Armenian alphabet due to its ambiguous phonetic value. It is however perceived as a complementation to the alphabet and is widely used to replace the combination ;+w in East Armenian writing and printing. Here are some orthographic and phonetic rules for the usage of :w% ;w or . 1. Occurences of : a) The ligature is used to designate an independent word, namely the coordinate conjunction [yev] with the meaning and. EXAMPLES: a\ln [yev ayln] et cetera (literally: and other[s]) Mardik nranz mi=awa\re [Martik yev nrants mijavayr] Humans and their environment

b) In medial or final position of words, stands for [ev] after consonants: e e ;rou\j [yerevuyt] phenomenon, j [tev] arm, ar [arev] sun, jan [otevan] e e e inn, shelter, t;r [terev] leaf, ibr [iprev] as, in the role of, orh [voreve] any, etc. c) In medial or final position of words stands for [yev] after vowels: y y na [nayev] also, as well, j; [teyev] although, etc. y d) In initial position of words occurs only in two instances: s [yevs] also, as y well and ;j [yevet] right away, at once. 2. Occurences of :w% ;w: a) In initial position of names of foreign origin, compounds and derivations thereof: y :wropa [Yevropa] Europe, ;wropakan [yevropakan] European, fnd;wropakan ndevropakan] Indo-European, etc. [h b) In hyphenation: ;r;-wou\j% j;-wawor% ar;-wa\in% etc. c) When printed in capital letters: :R:WOU|J AR:W:LQ [arevelk] East, J:W [tev] arm, etc. [yerevuyt] phenomenon,

d) In compound words, when the letters ;+w meet by coincidence: ; ; tar;w;r= [tareverch] end of the year (from tari+a+w;r= year+end) fog;wiyak [hokevichak] emotional state, (from fogi+a+wiyak soul+state), etc.


1. Combine words from each of the columns to create appropriate utterances; translate them. a. Gorg;rs dours ci galis! b. C;m siroum nor ;n! c. A\s fagouste wa gou\n;re! d. Fagoustd c;m karo[! e. Ort;#[ h fawano#um ;s! f. Jatron gnal fa\;lin! g. T;sarans no#r h! 2. Form mini-dialogues according to the given patterns in 1, 2, 3 and 4. Replace fagoust with gl.ark% w;rarkou% ko,ikn;r% 'o[kap% pa\ousak% etc. 1. 2. 3. 4. A. Fagousts fawano#um ;s! B. <at ya,akow h! Baro@w wa\;l;s nor fagoustd! A. Fagousts dourd gali#s h! B. A\o*% ba\z ;s ard;n t;s;l ;m a\s fagouste! A. Fagousts g;[;zik h% ch#! B. A\s fagoustd im ya,akow ch! Kn;r;s% in] dour ci galis! A. Arame fawan;#z fagoustd! B. Arame im fagoustn;re ;rb;q ci fawanoum!

3. Form mini-dialogues according to the given patterns 1, 2, 3 and 4. Replace the discussed item ya, with .mor;[;n% apour% ]wa;[% a[zan% etc. 1. 2. 4. 5. A. Ya,s fawano#um ;s! B. A\o*% ,at fam;[ h! Apr;@s! A. I@nc fam;[ h ya,d! B. Im ya,;re mi,t hl siroum ;s! A. A\s ya,e do#u ;s patrast;l! B. Ouri, o#w h a\st;[ ya, patrastoum! A. B. A. B. Ya,s incp;#s h! Wat ch! I#nc h% q;x dour ci# galis! A\spisi ya,;r c;m siroum!


UNIT 5 4. Complete the sentences by using the negative forms of the verbs in parentheses. a. A\s bnakarane 'oqr h& cfawan;zi! (fawan;l) b. A\s bae cinar;n h& &&& (faskanal) c. A\s ya,;re anr hin& &&& (dour cgal) d. A\s fagouste fin h& &&& (fagn;l) e. A\s girqe jank h& &&& (gn;l) f. A\s ginin jjou hr& &&& (dour cgal) g. A\d gl.arke ,at m; hr& &&& (dour gal) 5. Respond to the questions according to the given pattern. a. Ya, k;r;#l ;s! O*c% d; c;m k;r;l! b. Gini .m;#l ;s! O*c% d; &&& c. A\s ;r,ike 'or];#l ;s! O*c% &&& d. A\s girqe kardaz;#l ;s! O*c% &&& e. Soury .m;#l ;s! O*c% &&& f. Pa[pa[ak gn;#l ;s! O*c% &&& g. }wa;[ sarq;#l ;s! O*c% &&& 6. Complete the second statement according to the given pattern. a. J;\ ouxo#um ;s! Nor ;m j;\ .m;l! b. Soury c;#s ouxoum .m;l! Mi qic aa= &&& c. Qou\rs ci ouxoum jatron a\z;l;l! :r;k &&& d. Girqe c;#s ouxoum kardal! Mi amis aa= &&& e. Ouxo#um ;s ya,;l! Nor &&& f. <ouka gnaz;#l ;s! Aawot\an &&& g. Nor nkars t;s;#l ;s! :r;k &&& 7. Answer the following questions using the words in parentheses. a. Fawano#um ;s a\s nkare! (,at) A\o*% ,at ;m fawanoum! b. Papikd law lso#um h! (dvwar) Mi qic dvwar h lsoum! c. Gradaran gno#um ;s! (faya.) A\o*% faya. &&& d. Fa\rd inco#u c;kaw! (mi,t ou,) Na mi,t &&& e. Jatron a\z;lo#um ;s! (faya.) A\o*% faya. &&& f. Nra l;xoun faskano#um ;s! (dvwar) Mi qic dvwar &&& g. S iro#um ;s lo[al! (,at) A\o*% ,at &&&

UNIT 5 8. Complete the sentences following the pattern. a. Na galis hr% isk ;s chi galis! b. Na ouxoum hr cinar;n sowor;l% isk ;s &&& c. Na groum hr% isk dou &&& d. Nranq .osoum hin% isk douq &&& e. Na a\nt;[ hr linoum% isk dou &&& f. Na siroum hr kardal% isk ;s &&& g. Na ,at hr kardoum% isk m;nq &&& 9. Complete the interrogative sentences and respond to them. a. O#um f;t hir .osoum! Enk;ro=s f;t hi .osoum! b. I#nc &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& (gr;l)! Namak &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& c. O#um &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& (namak gr;l)! Mors &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& d. O#w &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&(gal)! Annan &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& e. O#ur&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&(gnoum)! <ouka &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& f. Ort;#[ &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&(sowor;l)! Famalsaranoum &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& g. c. I#nc &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&(oux;l)! Mi ban &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& 10. How would you say it in Armenian? A. Your classmates opinion is important to you. You ask: a. Whats your opinion of our teacher? (kariq) b. How was my answer? ( c. I read Armenian well, dont I? d. He speaks Armenian well, doesnt he? e. Dont you like my letter? f. Dont you think that this book is good? g. Do you like our new teacher? B. You have guests in your new house. You ask them about their impressions: a. How do you like our new apartment? b. our garden? c. our kitchen? d. my bedroom? e. our dining room ? f. our new furniture?

UNIT 5 11. Answer the questions with reference to the TEXT in this unit. a. I#nc hr siroum Anafite% ;rb 'oqr hr! b. I#nc gou\n;r hr siroum Anafite! c. O#w hr fousafat! d. I#nc hr asoum ma\rike! e. I#nc hr patas.anoum fa\rike! f. Qani# ;r;.a ouni a\sr Anafite! g. I#nc h anoum a\sr Anafite!

Mardoun mard ,ino[e fagoustn h! [Martun mart shinogh hakustn e] Clothes make the man. Fagoust tour^ ,norfqi gam% faz tour^ ouvi gam! [Hakust tur, shnorki gam, hats tur, uzhi gam] Dress me to look smart; feed me to be strong. H,e^ jambow% marde^ fagoustow! [Esh tambov, mart hakustov] Donkeys (are judged) by their saddles, humans by their clothes. ala fagouste inqn ir;n kma,wi! [Tsalats hakust inkn iren kmashvi] Folded clothing wears out by itself. (Message: Clothes are to be used.)


Unit 6
Vamanaka\in artafa\touj\ounn;r g|x Xx|

On the Agenda ...

Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary: Grammar: Asking about and telling time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Time expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 VERBS: 1.The future and the future imperfect . . . . . . .124 2. The imperative mood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 NOUNS: The ablative case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 NUMERALS: 1. Ordinal numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 2. Distributive numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 3. Fractional numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Armenian-English Contrasts: Interrogative sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Word Formation: Pronunciation: Orthography: Formation of nouns denoting persons . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 The letters } ]% % and Z z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136 Armenian syllabification and the transitory [] . . . . . .137


1. A and B are students taking the same Armenian course. It is before Armenian class. A. B. A. Vame qani#sn h! [Zham kanisn e?] Oujn anz k;s h! [Utn ants kes e] Our;mn d; k;s vam oun;nq [Uremn de kes zham unenk] minc fa\;r;ni dase! [minchev hayereni das] B. A. Ou[i[ ;r;soun rop;! [Ughigh yeresun rope] I@nc law h& Ari* miasin [Inchlav e! Ari miasin] fa\;r;ni dasin patrastw;nq! [hayereni dasin patrastvenk] B. A. B. :s patrast ;m! [Yes patrast em] Ko[qis nsti*r ou in] gni*r! [Koghkis nstir, u indz oknir!] Girqe ba*z ara ou karda*! [Girk bats ara u karta!] What time is it? Its half past eight. That means we still have half an hour before Armenian class. Exactly thirty minutes. Thats great! Come, lets prepare for the Armenian class together. Im ready. Sit next to me and help me! Open the book and read!

2. At the Yerevan train station. A is getting information from B at the information desk. A. B. A. B. A. :#rb h vaman;lou gnazqe! [Yerp e zhamanelu gnatsk?] Ort;[i#z! [Vorteghits?] Spitakiz! [Spitakits] Spitaki gnazqn ou,anoum h! [Spitaki gnatskn ushanum e] Qani# rop;iz h a\st;[ lin;lou! [Kani ropeyits e aystegh linelu?] When is the train arriving? From where? From Spitak. The train from Spitak is delayed. In how many minutes will it be here?


UNIT 6 B. A. A\n vaman;lou h vame tasin! [Ayn zhamanelu e zham tasin] Ort;#[ karo[ ;m gn;l [Vortegh karogh em gnel] rwa j;rj;rn ou amsagr;re! [orva tertern u amsagrer?] B. A\st;[iz ou[i[ gnaz;*q% [Aysteghitsughigh gnatsek,] ]a. ko[moum j;rji krpak ka! [dzakh koghmum terti krpak ka] A. <norfakalouj\o@un! [Shnorakalutyun!] It will arrive at ten oclock. Where can I buy todays newspapers and magazines? Go straight from here and theres a newspaper kiosk on the left. Thank you!

3. In the Armenian class. A is a foreign student, B is the Armenian teacher. A. B. A. B. A. B. A. Mi ban karo#[ ;m farzn;l! [Mi ban karogh em hartsnel?] >ndr;m! [Khntrem] I#nc h n,anakoum razou\z! [Inch e nshanakum oratsuyts?] May I ask (you) something? Sure. What does oratsuyts mean?

razou\z n,anakoum h calendar! Oratsuyts means calendar. [Oratsuyts nshanakum e calendar] Isk i#nc ;n asoum computer-in! [Isk inch en asum computerin?] Famakargic! [Hamakarkich] Karo#[ ;q bae krkn;l [Karogh ek ba krknel] as;l% j; incp;s h grwoum! [yev asel te inchpes e grvum] And how do you say computer? Hamakarkich. Can you repeat the word and tell me how its spelled? Yes, sure. Its spelled like this:


A\o*% sirow! A\sp;s h grwoum^ [Ayo, sirov. Ayspes e grvum:]



UNIT 6 4. A and B are strangers, meeting in the university hallway. A. Asaz;*q% .ndr;m% ort;#[ h gradarane! Tell me please, where is the library? [Asatsek khntrem, vortegh e gradaran?] B. A\st;[iz j;qw;*q ]a.& [Aysteghits tekvek dzakh] dimazi doun h! [dimatsi dun e] A. <norfakal ;m! [Shnorakal em] B. Ba\z a\sr gradarane 'ak h! [Bayts aysor gradaran pak e] Turn left from here, and its the door facing you. Thank you. But the library is closed today.

FA|ASTANI ARAGILE [Hayastani aragil]

Fa\astanoum ,at aragiln;r kan! Aragile ir bou\ne ,inoum h bar]r a;ri% [Hayastanum shat aragilner kan. Aragil ir buyn shinum e bartsr tsaeri, tn;ri kam va\;ri wra! Aragiln;re ambo[= tarin Fa\astanoum c;n mnoum! tneri kam zhayeri vra. Aragilner ambokhch tarin Hayastanum chen mnum. Nranq wa.;noum ;n zrtiz% ;rb ]m;e galis h% cwoum ;n gnoum d;pi Nrank vakhenum en tsrtits, yev yerp dzme galis e, chvum en yev gnum depi faraw% d;pi taq ;rkrn;r! Fa\ g\ou[azin giti% or ;rb garoune ga% de harav, depi tak yerkrner. Hay gyughatsin giti, vor yerp garun ga, yev ot taqana% aragile tar ;rkrn;riz krkin kw;radana Fa\astan! Na giti% or takana, aragil otar yerkrnerits krkin kveradana Hayastan. Na giti, vor aragiln;re galis ;n% gtnoum ir;nz fin bou\ne baxmanoum! aragilner galis en, gtnum irents hin buyn yev bazmanum. Dra famar h% or fa\kakan aan asoum h& Marti innin^ aragiln ir bnin! Dra hamar e, vor haykakan aatsn asum e: Marti innin, aragiln ir bnin. Aragiln;re ,at gtakar jcounn;r ;n! Aragiliz wa.;noum ;n ];re Aragilner shat oktakar tchunner en. Aragilits vakhenum en otser yev wnasatou m\ous k;ndanin;re! vnasatu myus kentaniner.]



aragil ,at kan bou\n ,in;l ,inoum h bar]r a toun va\ ambo[= tari mnal wa.;nal zourt zrtiz ;rb ]m; gal galis h f;anal cw;l d;pi faraw taq [aragil] [shat] [kan] [buyn] [shinel] [shinum e] [bartsr] [tsa] [tun] [zhay] [amboghj] [tari] [mnal] [vakhenal] [tsurt] [tsrtits] [yerp] [dzme] [gal] [galis e] [heanal] [chvel] [depi] [harav] [tak] stork much, many there are nest to build is building high tree house on the houses cliff entire year to stay to fear cold from the cold when winter to arrive is coming to go away to fly over towards, to south warm ;rkir ;rkrn;r g\ou[azi git;nal giti ;rb garoun d taqanal tar ;rkrn;riz krkin gtn;l ir;nz fin baxmanal dra famar aa as;l mart ir bnin gtakar jcoun ] ];re m\ous wnasatou k;ndani [yerkir] [yerkrner] [gyughatsi] [gitenal] [giti] [yerp] [garun] [ot] [takanal] [otar] [krkin] [gtnel] [irents] [hin] [bazmanal] [dra [aats] [asel] [mart] [ir bnin] [oktakar] [tchun] [ots] [otser] [myus] [vnasatu] [kentani] country countries peasant to know he knows when spring air to warm up foreign again to return to find they find their old to breed proverb to say March in its nest useful bird snake the snakes other harmful animal

tn;ri wra[tneri vra]

[yerkrnerits] from countries

va\;ri wra [zhayeri vra] on cliffs

w;radanal [veradanal] gtnoum ;n [gtnum en]

c;n mnoum [chen mnum] dont stay wa.;noum ;n [vakhenal] they fear

hamar] therefore

marti 9-in [marti innin] on March 9

f;anoum ;n [heanum en] they go away cwoum ;n [chvum en] they fly over



a) VAM OU VAMANAK [Zham u zhamanak] vam rop; wa\rk\an k;s vam qaord vam r aawot k;sr k;sriz f;to ;r;ko gi,;r k;s gi,;r ,abaj* amis tari tasnam\ak dar faxaram\ak b) <ABAJWA R:RE ;rkou,abji ;r;q,abji cor;q,abji fing,abji ourbaj ,abaj kiraki c) AMISN:RE founwar ';trwar mart april ma\is founis [zham] [rope] [vayrkyan] [kes zham] [kaort zham] [or] [aavot] [kesor] [kesorits heto] [yereko] [gisher] [kes gisher] [shapat] [amis] [tari] [tasnamyak] [dar] [hazaramyak] [Shapatva orer] [yerkushapti] [yerekshapti] [chorekshapti] [hingshapti] [urpat] [shapat] [kiraki] [Amisner] [hunvar] [petrvar] [mart] [april] [mayis] [hunis]

hour minute second half an hour a quarter of an hour day morning noon afternoon evening night midnight 1. week; 2. Saturday month year decade century millennium

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday


January February March April May June

* The word ,abaj [shapat] has two meanings: week and Saturday.


UNIT 6 foulis gostos s;pt;mb;r fokt;mb;r no\;mb;r d;kt;mb;r d) TARWA :{ANAKN:RE garoun ama a,oun ]m; [hulis] [ogostos] [september] [hoktember] [noyember] [dektember] July August September October November December

[Tarva yeghanakner] THE SEASONS OF THE YEAR

[garun] [ama] [ashun] [dzme]

spring summer fall winter


e) VAMANAKI MAKBA|N:RE [Zhamanaki makbayner] fima f;to aa= mi,t ,arounak ;rb;q ;rb;mn faya. a\sr wa[e ;r;k (;r;k ch) m\ous re wa[e ch m\ous re a\s aawot/gi,;r ;r;k/anz\al gi,;r a\s ,abaj/amis/tari fa=ord ,abaj/amis/tari anz\al ,abaj/amis/tari w;r=;rs ,outow wa[ wa[ouz krkin% noriz a\souf;t a\srwaniz wa[waniz [hima] [heto] [aach] [misht] [sharunak] [yerpek] [yerpemn] [hachakh] [aysor] [vagh] [yerek] [(yerek che) myus or] [vagh che myus or] [ays aavot/gisher] [yerek/antsyal gisher] [ays shapat/amis/tari] [hajort shapat/amis/tari] [antsyal shapat/amis/tari] [verchers] [shutov] [vagh] [vaghuts] [krkin, norits] [aysuhetev] [aysorvanits] [vaghvanits]

now after, then before always continuously never sometimes often today tomorrow yesterday the day before yesterday the day after tomorrow this morning, tonight last night this week/month/year next week/month/year last week/month/year lately, recently soon, shortly early since long again henceforth starting today starting tomorrow



[Zhamatsuyts] [Zham kanisn e?]


a. Vame m;kn h (;rkousn h% corsn h, ..., tasn;rkousn h)! [Zham mekn e (yerkusn e, chorsn e, ..., tasnerkusn e] Its one (two, four, ..., twelve). b. Vame m;k anz k;s h* (;rkousn anz k;s h, ..., inn anz k;s h)! [Zham mek ants kes e (yerkusn ants kes e, ..., inn ants kes e] Its half past one (half past two, ..., half past nine). c. (Vame) m;kn (;rkousn, ;r;qn% corsn% ..., inn) anz qaord h! [Zham mekn (yerkusn, yerekn, chorsn ..., inn) ants kaort e ] Its a quarter past one (two, ..., nine). d. (Vame) m;kn (;rkousn, ;r;qn% ..., oujn) anz fing h! [Zham mekn (yerkusn, yerekn, ..., utn) ants hing e] Its five (minutes) past one (two, three, ..., nine). f. (Vame) m;kn (;rkousn% ;r;qn% ..., oujn) anz qsan h! [Zham mekn (yerkusn, yerekn, ..., utn) ants ksan e] Its twenty (minutes) past one (two, three, ..., eight). e. (Vame) m;kiz** (;rkousiz, ;r;qiz% ..., tasiz) qaord h pakas! [Zham mekits (yerkusits, yerekits ..., tasits) kaort e pakas] Its a quarter to one (two, three, ..., ten). g. (Vame) m;kiz (;rkousiz% ..., tasnm;kiz) fing h pakas! [Zham mekits (yerkusits, ..., tasnmekits) hing e pakas] Its five (minutes) to one (two, ..., eleven). h. (Vame) m;kiz (;rkousiz% ..., tasn;rkousiz) qsan h pakas! [Zham mekits (yerkusits, ..., tasnerkusits) ksan e pakas] Its twenty (minutes) to one (two, ..., twelve).

* Another possible word order is: Vame m;kn anz h k;s (1:30)% tasn anz h qsan (10:20), etc. **Ablative forms such as m;kiz% ;rkousiz etc. can be replaced by the dative forms m;kin% ;rkousin% etc.


2. VAME QANISI#N! [Zham kanisin?]


a. (Vame) m;kin (;rkousin% corsin, ..., tasn;rkousin)! [Zham mekin (yerkusin, chorsin, ..., tasnerkusin] At one (two, four, ... twelve) oclock. b. (Vame) m;kn (;rkousn% fingn% ..., inn) anz k;sin! [Zham mekn (yerkusn, hingn, ..., inn) ants kesin] At half past one (two, five, ..., nine). c. (Vame) m;kn (;rkousn, ..., inn) anz qaordin! [Zham mekn (yerkusn, ..., inn) ants kaortin] At quarter past one (two, ..., nine). d. (Vame) m;kn (;rkousn% ;r;qn%..., oujn) anz fingin! [Zham mekn (yerkusn, yerekn, ..., utn) ants hingin] At five (minutes) past one (two, three, ..., eight). e (Vame) m;kn (;rkousn% ;r;qn, ..., tasn) anz qsanin! [Zham mekn ants (yerkusn, ..., yerekn, tasn) ants ksanin] At twenty (minutes) past one (two, three, ..., ten). f (Vame) m;kiz* (;rkousiz, ..., tasiz) qaord pakas! [Zham mekits (yerkusits, ..., tasits) kaort pakas] At quarter to one (two, ..., ten). g. (Vame) m;kiz (;rkousiz, ..., inniz) fing pakas! [Zham mekits (yerkusits, ..., innits) hing pakas] At five to one (two, ..., nine). h. (Vame) m;kiz (;rkousiz, ..., inniz) qsan pakas! [Zham mekits (yerkusits, ..., innits) ksan pakas] At twenty to one (two, ..., nine).

*All ablative forms such as m;kiz% ;rkousiz etc. can be replaced by the dative forms m;kin% ;rkousin% etc.


A. VERBS I. THE FUTURE AND FUTURE IMPERFECT TENSES (INDICATIVE) To express future activities and events Armenian has two future tenses in the indicative mood: future and future imperfect. Both are compound tenses. 1. Formation of the future tense: The future tense is formed by combining the future participle ending in -;lou (gr;lou) or -alou (kardalou) and the conjugated forms of the auxiliary verb ;m I am. EXAMPLES: gr;lou ;m [grelu em] I am going to write/I shall write, etc. kardalou ;m [kartalu em] I am going to read/I shall read, etc. For the future tense, all regular verbs follow the pattern below: SINGULAR 1st pers. (;s) 2nd pers. (dou) 3rd pers. (na) verb stem -;lou/-alou + ;m verb stem -;lou/-alou + ;s verb stem -;lou/-alou + h PLURAL 1st pers. (m;nq) 2nd pers. (douq) 3rd pers. (nranq) verb stem -;lou/-alou + ;nq verb stem -;lou/-alou + ;q verb stem -;lou/-alou + ;n INDICATIVE MOOD

[verb stem+-elu/-alu + em] [verb stem+-elu/-alu + es] [verb stem+-elu/-alu + e]

[verb stem+-elu/-alu + enk] [verb stem+-elu/-alu + ek] [verb stem+-elu/-alu + en]

gr;l affirmative (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)


kardal negative c;m gr;lou c;s gr;lou ci gr;lou c;nq gr;lou c;q gr;lou c;n gr;lou affirmative kardalou kardalou kardalou kardalou kardalou kardalou ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n negative c;m kardalou c;s kardalou ci kardalou c;nq kardalou c;q kardalou c;n kardalou

gr;lou gr;lou gr;lou gr;lou gr;lou gr;lou

;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n

UNIT 6 2. Formation of the future imperfect tense: The future imperfect tense is formed by combining the future participle ending in -;lou (gr;lou) or -alou (kardalou) and the conjugated forms of the auxiliary verb ;m I am in the imperfect. EXAMPLES: gr;lou hi [grelu eyi] I was going to write, etc. and kardalou hi [kartalu eyi] I was going to read, etc. All regular verbs follow the pattern below: SINGULAR 1st pers. (;s) 2nd pers. (dou) 3rd pers. (na) verb stem -;lou/-alou + hi verb stem -;lou/-alou + hir verb stem -;lou/-alou + hr PLURAL 1st pers. (m;nq) verb stem -;lou/-alou + hinq 2nd pers. (douq) verb stem -;lou/-alou + hiq 3rd pers. (nranq) verb stem -;lou/-alou + hin The future imperfect gr;l (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) affirmative gr;lou hi gr;lou hir gr;lou hr gr;lou hinq gr;lou hiq gr;lou hin negative chi gr;lou chir gr;lou chr gr;lou chinq gr;lou chiq gr;lou chin gr;lou kardal affirmative kardalou hi kardalou hir kardalou hr kardalou hinq kardalou hiq kardalou hin negative chi kardalou chir kardalou chr kardalou chinq kardalou chiq kardalou chin kardalou [verb stem+-elu/-alu + eyink] [verb stem+-elu/-alu + eyik] [verb stem+-elu/-alu + eyin] [verb stem+-elu/-alu + eyi] [verb stem+-elu/-alu + eyir] [verb stem+-elu/-alu + er]

3. Uses of the future tense a) The future tense denotes actions or states that the speaker expects to take place in the future: A\s ;r;ko miasin ;nq ya,;lou! Tonight we will have dinner together. Asoum ;n^ ]\oun h galou! They say it will snow.

UNIT 6 b) In particular contexts, the future may also connote determination, compulsion, threat, or promise on the part of the speaker. A\s re fi,;lou ;m! Ill remember this day. c) In most cases, it is linked to a condition expressed by a subordinate clause: :j; cgas% t.r;lou ;m! If you dont come, Ill be sad. The conditional clause may also be implied: T.r;lou ;m! Ill be sad. d) The future may be used to express an exhortation: An;lou ;s a\n% inc or ;s ;m asoum! Youll do what I tell you to do. Note that the auxiliary verb is not repeated when the clause contains more than one verb: :rg;lou% par;lou oura.analou ;nq! Well sing, dance, and have fun. 4. Uses of the imperfect future tense It denotes actions or states that were anticipated in the past but did not take place: Namake gr;lou hi% ba\z f;to mitqs 'o.;zi! I was going to write the letter, but then I changed my mind. Yi,t a\n pafin% ;rb n;rs hi mtn;lou% doue 'akw;z! I was about to enter the room when the door closed. II. THE IMPERATIVE MOOD The imperative serves to designate commands, requests, demands, offers, and entreaties. In Armenian these can be rendered assertively or prohibitively. 1) Assertive commands are mainly expressed by the imperative mood, which has two second-person forms in Armenian: singular and plural. 1. Imperative Singular: a) Regular verbs form their singular imperative forms by replacing the infinitive endings -;l with -i*r, and -al with -a*. ;rg-;l ;rg-i*r .os-;l .os-i*r

gn-al gn-a* kard-al kard-a*

UNIT 6 b) Verbs with the suffixes -an-% -;n-% -n- and -c- form the singular imperative by adding to the aorist stem the ending -i*r. Infinitive f;-an-al mot-;n-al i=-n-;l 'a.-c-;l faska-zn-;l mot;-zn-;l Aorist f;az-a mot;z-a i=-a 'a.-a faskazr-i mot;zr-i Sing. Imperative f;az-i*r mot;z-i*r i=-i*r 'a.-i*r faskazr-o*u mot;zr-o*u

c) Verbs with the causative suffix -zn- add to the aorist stem the ending -o*u&

d) Prohibitive commands are initiated by the prohibitive particle mi* dont. Most regular verbs derive their prohibitive singular from their assertive forms: ;rgi*r w;rzrou* mi* ;rgir / mi* w;rzrou gna* 'a.i*r mi* gna mi* '

e) Verbs with the suffixes -an-% -;n-% and -zn- form their prohibitive singular by adding to the infinitive stem the ending -a or -i. f;-an-al mo-an-al 2. Imperative Plural a) Regular verbs are derived from the aorist stem and take the ending -;*q: ;rg-;l .a[-al m;-an-al gal out;l lal ;rg;z-i .a[az-i m;az-a ;ka k;ra lazi ;rg;z-;*q .a[az-;*q m;az-;*q* ;*k or ari* / ;k;*q k;*r / k;r;*q la*z / laz;*q** mi* f;an-a mi* mo-an-a wa.-;n-al kor-zn-;l mi* wa.;n-a mi* korzn-i

b) Irregular verbs normally use the aorist stem for both singular and plural imperatives:

c) The plural prohibitive uses the infinitive stem by replacing the infinitive endings -;l with -;q, and -al with -aq. However, -;z;q and -az;q forms are also possible: .os-;l mi* .os-;q% .a[-al mi* .a[-aq or mi* .a[-az-;q gr-;l mi* gr-;q% mot;n-al% mi* mot;n-aq or mi* mot-;z-;q
* In current every-day speech, plural imperative forms derived from the infinitive stem are also common. Compare wax;*q% .m;*q% .os;*q% etc. rather than wax;z;*q% .m;z;*q% .os;z;*q% etc. ** The singular imperative has a variety of irregular endings and forms (see Appendix, table of irregular verb, pp. 334-335).


UNIT 6 B. NOUNS 1. Formation of the ablative The Armenian ablative has no equivalent case in English. Whereas English expresses ablative meaning by such prepositions as from, of, etc., Armenian achieves the same effect by adding the ablative marker to nouns and pronouns. The most common markers for the o ablative in Armenian are -iz and -ouz, which are normally added to the nominative form. i i toun house tn-iz from the house, ar;lq East ar;lq-iz from the East, dou you i o q;x(a)n-iz from you, mard human being mard-ouz from the human being, etc. There are, however, some words that form their ablative based on the genitive case: fa\r Nom. sing.: fa\r father gen. sing.: for abl. sing.: for-iz Nom. sing.: qou\r sister gen. sing.: qro= abl. sing.: qro=-iz When the genitive case ends in -a, there is an -n- included between the genitive form and the ablative ending -iz: Nom. sing.: a[=ik girl Nom. sing.: r day gen. sing.: a[=ka gen. sing.: rwa abl. sing.: abl. sing.: a[=ka-n-iz rwa-n-iz

Some nouns also preserve the genitive singular mutations or alterations of certain root vowels (see pp. 107-108) in the plural: gen. sing.: grqi Nom. sing. girq book Nom. sing. sout lie gen. sing.: sti Nom. sing. fa,iw account gen. sing.: fa,wi gen./dat. plur.: grqiz gen./dat. plur.: stiz gen./dat. plur.: fa,wiz

The diversity of noun stems in the singular is not preserved in the plural. The ablative plural is based on the nominative plural and is formed mostly by simply adding the ablative marker -iz to the plural ending -(n);r: Sing. plur.: qou\r Sing. plur.: fa\r Sing. plur.: a\gi nom. plur.: qou\r;r nom. plur: fa\r;r nom. plur: a\gin;r abl. plur.: qou\r;riz abl. plur.: fa\r;riz abl. plur.: a\gin;riz

Exception to this rule: a limited group of nouns with the plural ending -q% -;nq% -onq% -ik% or -a\q (see Unit 2, p. 33). The ablative of these nouns is based on the genitive/dative plural ending in -z: Nom. sing. Grigor;nq Nom. sing. m;ronq Nom. plur.: kana\q Nom. sing. mardik

gen. plur.: Grigor;nz gen. plur.: m;ronz gen. plur.: kananz gen. plur.: mardkanz

abl. plur.: Grigor;nziz abl. plur.: m;ronziz abl./ plur.: kananziz gen./dat. plur.: mardkanziz

UNIT 6 2. Uses of the ablative case The ablative is used 1. When governed by a verb or an adjective (see Unit 11, p. 264): A\s ,niz wa.;noum ;m! [Ays shnits vakhenum em] I am afraid of this dog. i In this example, the ablative form ,niz of this dog is governed by the verb wa.;nal to be afraid. Note that the English to be afraid is followed by the preposition of (this dog). i i Acqiz f;ou% mtqiz f;ou! [Achkits heu, mtkits heu] Out of sight, out of mind. This proverb contains two ablative forms, acqiz [achkits] [lit.: from the eye] and mtqiz [mtkits] [lit.: from the mind], governed by the adverb f;ou [heu] away, far. 2. To describe various circumstantial details such as source, origin, removal, or distance. It can indicate, for instance, the starting point of an event or an action. a) The person who carried out an action: i A\s nw;rn staz;l ;m morizs! [Ays nvern statsel em moritss] I received this gift from my mother. i The form morizs from my mother is an ablative. It indirectly indicates the performer of the action, namely the person who bestowed the gift. The question here is: oumi#z [umits?] from whom? or by whom? b) The place where an action begins: i Ort;[i#z ;s galis! <ouka\iz! [Vorteghits es galis? Shukayits] Where do you come from? From the market. This example already contains the appropriate question for the ablative form ort;[i#z i from where? <ouka\iz from the market. c) The person, the place or the material from which people or things originate: i :rkouss hl nou\n foriz ;nq! s el nuyn horits enk] [Yerkus We both have the same father. i <;nqe kaouz;zin qariz! [Shenk kautsetsin karits] They built the house from stone.

UNIT 6 i The ablative forms foriz (question: oumi#z [umits?]) and qariz (question: inci#z [inchits?]) indicate the origin of the subjects in question. d) The time as a starting point of an action or event: i M;k ,abajiz kgam! [Mek shapatits kgam] I will come in a week. i Anz\al tarwaniz a\st;[ ;nq! [Antsyal tarvanits aystegh enk] We have been here since last year.

Here, the questions incqa#n vamanakiz [inchkan zhamanakits?] would apply to the starting point in the future, and ;rbwani#z [yerpvanits?] to the starting point in the past. e) The cause of an action or state: i Zrtiz do[oum ;m! [Tsrtits doghum em] I am shivering with cold. i Sowiz ,at;re mafazan! [Sovits shater mahatsan] Many died of starvation.

3. The ablative expresses partitive meaning by indicating a whole from which a part (a piece, a number, etc.) is separated: i Qou\r;riz m;ke sa h! [Kuyrerits mek sa e] This is one of the sisters. 4. The ablative is used in comparisons: i Oskin arajiz (aw;li) jank h! [Voskin artsatits (aveli) tank e] Gold is more expensive than silver. i :s q;xaniz arag ;m waxoum! [Yes kezanits arag em vazum] I run faster than you do. i A\s faziz mi ktor k;*r! [Ays hatsits mi ktor ker] Eat a piece of this bread!

5. The ablative is employed in passive constructions when the original subject is removed from its position and shifted to an indirect object. Compare the following sentence, in which the actual subject has been shifted from the nominative to the ablative form of the noun ar (cf. ariz by the sun) and the pronoun m;nq (cf. m;r+ko[miz by us) (see p. 154): i >ote .an]w;z ariz! [Khot khandzvets arevits] The grass was scorched by the sun. i J,namin fa[jw;z m;r ko[miz! shnamin hakhtvets mer koghmits] [T The enemy was conquered by us.

6. In addition to nouns and pronouns, words of other word classes (adverbs, postpositions, numerals, etc.) may be nominalized and used in the ablative case: i a\st;[ [aystegh] here a\st;[iz [aysteghits] from here i ]a. [dzakh] left ]a.iz [dzakhits] from the left i m;= [mech] in, inside mi=iz [mijits] from the inside

UNIT 6 C. NUMERALS 1. Ordinal numerals Ordinal numerals denote the relative position of things, persons, and phenomena in a sequence, row, class, line, etc. In Armenian, ordinal numerals are derived from cardinal numerals by adding the suffix -rord [-rort] or -;rord [-erort] to the stem. ORDINAL NUMERALS CARDINAL NUMERALS

The first four numbers are exceptions to the rule: 1 m;k 2 ;rkou 3 ;r;q 4 cors [mek] [yerku] [yerek] [chors] aa=in ;rkrord ;rrord corrord [aachin] first [yerkrort] second [yerrort] third [chorrort] fourth

Below are regularly formed ordinal numerals: 5 fing 6 w;z 7 \oj 8 ouj 9 inn or ine 10 tasn or tase 11 tasnm;k 12 tasn;rkou 13 tasn;r;q 15 tasnfing 20 qsan 21 qsanm;k 30 ;r;soun 40 qaasoun 50 fisoun 60 wajsoun 70 \ojanasoun 80 oujsoun 85 oujsounfing 90 innsoun [hing] [vets] [yot] [ut] [inn] or [in] [tasn] or [tas] [tasnmek] [tasnerku] [tasnerek] [tasnhing] [ksan] [ksanmek [yeresun] [kaasun] [hisun] [vatsun] [yotanasun] [utsun] hing] [utsun [innsun] fing;rord [hingerort] fifth w;z;rord [vetserort] sixth \oj;rord [yoterort] seventh ouj;rord [uterort] eighth inn;rord [innerort] ninth tasn;rord [tasnerort] tenth tasnm;k;rord* [tasnmekerort] 11th tasn;rkou;rord [tasnerkuerort]12th tasn;r;q;rord [tasnerekerort] 13th tasnfing;rord [tasnhingerort] 15th qsan;rord [ksanerort] 20th qsanm;k;rord [ksanmekerort] 21st* ;r;soun;rord [yeresunerort] 30th qaasoun;rord [kaasunerort] 40th fisoun;rord [hisunerort] 50th wajsoun;rord [vatsunerort] 60th \ojanasoun;rord [yotanasunerort] 70th oujsoun;rord [utsunerort] 80th oujsounfing;rord [utsunhingerort] 85th innsoun;rord [innsunerort] 90th

* Note that in two-digit numbers (21, 22, etc.), the regular forms -m;k;rord, -;rkou;rord% -;r;q;rord,
cors;rord% etc. ) are employed rather than the common irregular forms (aa=in% ;rkrord% ;rrord% corrord).


UNIT 6 100 far\our 101 far\our m;k 500 fing far\our 1000 faxar [haryur] [haryur mek] [hing haryur] [hazar] far\our;rord [haryurerort] 100th far\ourm;k;rord [haryurmekerort] 101st fingfar\our;rord[hingharyurerort] 500th faxar;rord [hazarerort] 1000th

Corresponding to the patterns above, the question qani#;rord which one ? (in a sequence, in a row, etc.) is derived from the question qani# how many? Armenian uses cardinal, not ordinal, numerals to indicate days of the month. For this purpose, cardinal numbers are nominalized (by adding the definite article -e to the stem) and appear after the genitive form of the noun denoting the month: Ma\isi m;ke The first of May or May the first [Maygen onethe] (literally: The one of May) Founwari w;ze The sixth of January or January the sixth [Januarygen sixthe] (literally: The six of January) Nominalized cardinal numerals are declined like regular -i declension nouns (see p. 100): Aprili ;r;qin On the third of April [Aprilgen threedat] (literally: On the three of April) Ma\isi m;kiz f;to After the first of May [Maygen oneabl after] (literally: After the one of May)

2. Distributive numerals Distributive numerals indicate numeric distribution or assignment of items. To this end a) the suffix -akan is added to the cardinal numerals: m;k ;rkou tase qsan far\our 1 2 10 20 100 m;kakan ;rkouakan tasakan qsanakan far\ourakan [mekakan] one to each [yerkuakan] two to each [tasakan] ten to each [ksanakan] twenty to each [haryurakan] a hundred to each, etc.

Reduced forms such as 5-akan, 20-akan, 35-akan etc. are also common. b) cardinal numerals are reduplicated: m;k ;rkou

1 2

m;k-m;k [mek-mek] one to/of each ;rkou-;rkou [yerku-yerku] two to/of each

UNIT 6 far\our 100 faxar 1000 far\our-far\our [haryur-haryur] hundred to/of each faxar-faxar [hazar-hazar] thousand to/of each

The question for distributive numerals is: qaniaka#n how many each? EXAMPLES: Qaniaka#n dolar stazaq! Qsanakan! [Kaniakan dolar statsak? Ksanakan.] How many dollars did each of you receive? Twenty (each). :rkou-;rkou ,arqi kangn;zinq! [Yerku-yerku shark kangnetsink] We lined up in pairs. 3. Fractional numerals Fractional numerals denote a fraction or fractions of a unit in terms of numerals. The numerator is indicated by a cardinal numeral while the denominator by an ordinal one (ending in -(;)rord) which is very often formed by adding the suffix -akan. EXAMPLES DENOMINATORS: (5) fing fing;rord [hingerort] (9) ine inn;rord [innerort] (7) \oj \oj;rord [yoterort] (20) qsan qsan;rord [ksanerort] There are three exceptions: (2) (3) (4) ;rkou [yerku] ;r;q [yerek] cors [chors] k;s [kes] half ;rrord [yerrort] third qaord [kaort] quarter or fing;rordakan [hingerortakan] or inn;rordakan [innerortakan] or \oj;rordakan [yoterortakan] or qsan;rordakan [ksanerortakan]

EXAMPLES OF FRACTIONAL NUMERALS: 2/3 3/5 ;rkou ;rrord [yerku yerrort] or ;rkou ;rrordakan [yerku yerrortakan] ;r;q fing;rord [yerek hingerort] or ;r;q fing;rordakan [yerek hingerortakan] 3/4 ;r;q qaord [yerek kaort] or ;r;q qaordakan [yerek kaortakan] 6/8 w;z ouj;rord [vets uterort] or w;z ouj;rordakan [vets uterortakan] 12/20 tasn;rkou qsan;rord [tasnerku ksanerort] or tasn;rkou qsan;rordakan [tasnerku ksanerortakan]

Sometimes the syllable -;r in the fractional numbers is reduced:

7/10 \oj tasn;rord [yot tasnerort] or 7/10 \oj tasnordakan [yot tasnortakan]


Interrogative sentences in Armenian Like other languages, Armenian has two types of interrogative sentences: a) specific questions seeking new, supplementary information; b) general questions that require a yes or no-answer. 1) While English employs mostly wh-words for specific questions, Armenian uses interrogative words of diverse origins: o#w [ov?] who?, i#nc [inch?] what?, o#ur [ur?] where?, ;#rb [yerp?] when?, inco#u [inchu?] why?, incp;#s [inchpes?] how?, etc. O#w asaz krkin w;r=in bae! Who had [literally: said] the last word again? However, word order in interrogative sentences is not as rigid as it is in English, where whwords normally appear at the beginning of an interrogative sentence. In Armenian, interrogative words can appear in any position: W;r=in bae krkin o#w asaz! W;r=in bae o#w krkin asaz! Krkin o#w asaz w;r=in bae! Krkin w;r=in bae o#w asaz! [Literally: *The last word again who had?] [Literally: *The last word who again had?] [Literally: *Again who had the last word?] [Literally: *Again the last word who had?]

2) The structure of general yes/no-questions in Armenian also differs from that of English. For example, Armenian does not initiate general questions with an auxiliary verb, as is the case in English (by using to do): (Dou) ispan;r;n .oso#um ;s! Do you speak Spanish? [Literally: *You Spanish speak?] In accordance with the prevalent (SOV-Subject-Object-Verb) word order in Armenian, general questions rarely start with a finite verb. In fact, the word order of general questions and regular statements can be identical, the only difference being the intonation and punctuation. Compare the word order of the statement below: (Dou) ispan;r;n .osoum ;s! You do speak Spanish. However, if the verb itself carries the question mark, it can shift positions: >oso#um ;s ispan;r;n! Do you speak Spanish? [As opposed to write, read, etc.] Since any independent word in a sentence can carry the question mark (see Unit 1, p. 18), we have also the following options: Ispan;r;#n ;s .osoum! Do you speak Spanish? [As opposed to Greek, German, etc.] Do#u ;s .osoum ispan;r;n! Do you speak Spanish? [As opposed to he, they, etc.]
* Ungrammatical sentences in English are marked with an asterisk 134



Formation of nouns denoting persons The most productive suffixes for forming nouns denoting persons are: -azi/-;zi/-zi [-atsi /-etsi /-tsi] -(a)pan [-(a)pan] -ord [-ort] -ic [-ich] -ban [-ban] 1. Nouns formed by the suffix -azi/-;zi/-zi denote residents. These nouns are derived from common and proper nouns of place: g\ou[ [gyugh] village Wan [Van] Van :ran [Yerevan] Yerevan g\ou[azi [gyughatsi] peasant wan;zi [vanetsi] originating from Van ;ranzi [yerevantsi] resident of Yerevan

2. Nouns ending in -(a)pan indicate a profession. They are derived from nouns: dou [du] door dnapan [dnapan] porter part;x [partez] garden partixpan [partizpan] gardner kaq [kak] coach, carriage kaapan [kaapan] coachman 3. The suffix -ic [-ich] added to verbal stems form nouns denoting professions: ;rg;l [yerkel] to sing nkar;l [nkarel] to paint fsk;l [hskel] to control ;rgic [yerkich] singer nkaric [nkarich] painter fskic [hskich] controller

4. The suffix -ord [-ort] comes with verbal and nominal stems and indicates occupations: sa\l [sayl] cart orsal [vorsal] to hunt f;t;l [hetevel] to follow sa\lord [saylort] carter, cartwright orsord [vorsort] hunter f;tord [hetevort] follower

While most of these derivations do not specify gender, some form parallel nouns extended by the suffix -oufi [-uhi], which designates female gender: nkaric [nkarich] painter nkarcoufi [nkarchuhi] female painter ;rgic [yerkich] singer ;rgcoufi [yerkchuhi] female singer g;rmanazi [germanatsi] Geman (male) g;rmanoufi [germanuhi] German (female



The letters } ]% % and Z z Similarly to all East Armenian stops discussed so far (see Unit 2, p. 37, Unit 3, p. 59, Unit 4, p. 83), the East Armenian affricates* are also represented by a triple system. } ]% and Z z are a set of affricates that correspond to the following three distinct sounds:

voiced voiceless non-aspirated voiceless aspirated

} ] Z z

[dz] [ts] [ts]

The meaning of the following words differs in the contrast of the affricates ]% and z: ]a. [dzakh] left a.(;l) [tsakh(el)] (to) sell za. [tsakh] twig 1) } ] stands for the voiced affricate [dz], a composite sound that starts with the voiced stop [d] and ends with the voiced sibilant [z]. It sounds like the combination of [d+z] in the English odds or kids. EXAMPLES: ]ouk [dzuk] fish, ]iq [odzik] collar, ]i [dzi] horse, etc.

2) represents the voiceless non-aspirated affricate [ts], a complex sound that starts with the voiceless non-aspirated stop [t] and ends with the voiceless sibilant [s]. It is pronounced similarly to the English combination [t+s] without any aspiration. EXAMPLES: a[ik [tsaghik] flower, ow [tsov] sea, ia[;l [tsitsaghel] to laugh, etc.

3) Z z represents the voiceless aspirated affricate [ts], a complex sound that starts with the voiceless aspirated stop [t] and ends with the voiceless sibilant [s]. It is pronounced similarly to the English combination [t+s] in lots or cats. EXAMPLES: zanz [tsants] net, baz [bats] open, zouzak [tsutsak] list, etc. EXCEPTION: In a number of words ] [dz] is pronounced as z [ts] after r [r]: bar]r [bartsr] high, 'or] [ports] attempt, bar] [barts] pillow, ar]ak [artsak] prose, d;r]ak [dertsak] taylor, war];l [vartsel] to rent, etc.
* Affricate: a complex sound that consists of a stop and a sibilant (note their romanization). 136


Armenian syllabification and the transitory vowel [] In general, Armenian words form as many syllables as the number of vowels they contain: one syllable two syllables three syllables four syllabes five syllables pat [pat] wall ;tin [etin] eraser entaniq [ntanik] family ;rkou,abji [yerkushapti] Monday wirafatouj\oun [virahatutyun] surgery, etc.

However, this rule does not hold for all Armenian words. Certain words can have two syllables but only one vowel: nkar [nkar] picture ([] between n and k) three syllables but only one vowel: mkrt;l [mkrtel] to baptize ([] between m and k, k and r) As seen above, additional syllables are formed due to the transitory vowel [], which is not written but clearly pronounced between consonants. There are some rules governing this syllabification. For instance, [] is pronounced but not written 1) between two consonants in initial position of words: mnal [mnal] to stay, gnal [gnal] to go, jjou [ttu] sour, ktor [ktor] piece, tkar [tkar] weak, [skhal] mistake, etc. 2) before s, x, and , in initial position of words when followed by the plosive consonants b% p% '% g% k% t% and j (see Unit 10, pp. 240): xgou\, [zguysh] cautious, sks;l [sksel] to start, xgal [zgal] to feel, etc. 3) when the negative particle c- [ch-] is prefixed to verbs: clin;l [chlinel] not to be from lin;l [linel] to be, cgit;m [chgitem] I dont know from git;m [gitem] I know, etc. 4) when k- [k-] and k- [k-] is prefixed to verbs: kgam [kgam] I will/may come from gam [gam], kwax;m [kvazem] I will run from wax;m [vazem] (see Unit 10, p. 224), etc. 5) when the possessive articles -s [-s]% -d [-t], and -n [-n] are suffixed to nouns: tound [tunt] your house from toun [tun] house, mats [mats] my finger from mat [mat] finger, Tigran M;n [Tigran Metsn] Tigran the Great, etc. 6) in the final, unstressed syllable of some words: ark[ [arkgh] box, ast[ [astgh] star, m;tr [metr] meter, etc.


1. Combine appropriate strings of sentences from each of the two columns. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Vame qani#sn h! :#rb ;s galou! Qani# vam a,.at;zir! Vame qanisi#n ;s gnalou! A\sr amsi qani#sn h! F\our;re ;#rb ;n galou! Ort;[i#z ;s galis! Vame ;rkousin! M;kn anz k;s h! Carvi! Fing vam! Gradaraniz! S;pt;mb;ri m;kn h! :r;ko\an!

2. Form mini-dialogues according to the pattern in a, b, c, and d. Replace the words famalsaran with jatron% ya,aran% toun% gradaran, etc. a. Git;#s% j; our gnaz a\s a[=ike! :j; c;m s.alwoum% famalsaran! Qani# famalsaran oun;q! Cgit;m% ba\z m;r qa[aqoum ,at famalsarann;r kan! In] kas;#q% j; sa inc dou h! Kar;m famalsarani doun h! Ort;[i#z h galis a\s ousano[e! In] asazin% or famalsaraniz h galis!




3. Form mini-dialogues according to the given pattern in a, b, c, d, and e. Replace a\sr% where appropriate, with wa[e% a\s ;r;ko% ;rkou,abji re% a\s ,abaj, etc. a. Koux;i imanal% j; ;rb ;kaw nor ousouzice! Kar;m a\sr ;kaw! Fa\rd G;rmania\iz a\s#r vaman;z! O*c% ;r;k vaman;z! Git;#s% j; das;re ;rb sksw;zin! A\srwaniz ;n skswoum! A\srwa fandipoume vame qanisi#n h! Orqan in] fa\tni h% vame corsin!





UNIT 6 4. Answer the questions, using the data in parentheses. a. b. c. d. e. Vame qani#sn h! Vame corsn h (10.00, 4.15, 6.00, 5.20, 10.30, 3.45, etc.) A\sr i#nc r h! A\sr kiraki h (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, etc.) O#r amisn h! Founwar amisn h (March, May, July, October, December, etc.) A\sr amsi qani#sn h! Ma\isi m;kn h (21.03, 28.11, 24.01, 28.05, etc.) Jwakane o#rn hr! Faxar ine far\our qaasounm;kn hr (1889, 1900, 1915, 1922, 1993, 2005, 2007, etc.) f. O#r dasaranoum ;s! (1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, etc.) g. Qaniaka#n dolar stazaq! (10, 30, 45, 50, 100, etc.) 5. Complete the sentences according to the pattern. a. Dou ;#rb ;s dproz gnalou! Vame \ojin! (7:00) b. :ranoufin ;#rb h a\st;[ lin;lou! Vame (4:15) &&& ! c. :r;.an;re vame qanisi#n ;n dproziz galou! (5:20) d. Dase ;#rb h sksw;lou! (8:30) e. Dou vame qanisi#n ;s ya,;lou! (12:30) f. Douq a\sr ;#rb ;q m;kn;lou! (2:45) g. Fa\rikd a,.atanqiz ;#rb h toun galou! (8:15) 6. Respond to the questions using the items in parentheses. Follow the pattern. a. Ort;[i#z ;s galou! Incp;s mi,t% famalsaraniz ;m galou! (famalsaran) b. Isk fa\rikd ort;[i#z h galou! Incp;s mi,t% &&& (a,.atanq) c. Isk ma\rikd ort;[i#z h galou! Incp;s mi,t% &&& (,ouka) d. Isk qou\rikd ort;[i#z h galou! Incp;s mi,t% &&& (gradaran) e. Isk ;[ba\rd ort;[i#z h galou! Incp;s mi,t% &&& (dproz) f. Isk papikd ort;[i#z h galou! Incp;s mi,t% &&& (ya,aran) g. Isk ousouzice ort;[i#z h galou! Incp;s mi,t% &&& (toun) 7. Form interrogative sentences according to the pattern. a. O#w &&& (Moskwa% apr;l)! O#w h Moskwa\oum aproum! b. Ort;#[ &&& (fa\rikd% a,.at;l)! c. :#rb &&& (douq% ya,;l)! d. O#um &&& (dou% girqe% tal)! e. Qani# angam &&& (douq% a\st;[% gal)! f. :rbwani#z &&& (qou\rd% :ran% apr;l)! g. O#r &&& (dou% gou\n;r% sir;l)! h. Ort;[i#z &&& (Maria% gal)! i. Inco#u &&& (;r;.a% lal)!

UNIT 6 8. Ask for information on the whereabouts of persons and items: a. b. c. d. e. a relative a book a special food a piece of clothing a country

9. Translate into Armenian. a. There are 12 months and four seasons in a year. b. The seasons are: spring, summer, fall, and winter. c. Each season has three months. January is the first month, February is the second month, March is the third month, etc., and December is the last month of the year. d. There are thirty or thirty-one days in a month. e. Only February has 28 or 29 days. f. There are 24 hours in a day and 60 minutes in an hour. g. How many weeks are there in a year? Fifty-two. h. How many days are there in a week? Name the days of the week! 10. Derive verbs from the adjectives given in parentheses. a. Toune 'oqr h! (m;) P;tq h m;azn;l! b. W;rarkoun n;[ h! P;tq h &&& (la\n) c. riord Warde t.our h! P;tq h &&& (oura.) d. S;n\ake san h! &&& (taq) e. <apike m; h! &&& ('oqr) f. Lou\se ,at mot h! &&& (f;ou) g. Fagouste kary h! &&& (;rkar) 11. Answer the following questions with reference to the TEXT in this unit. a. Aragile ir bou\ne ort;#[ h ,inoum! b. Aragiln;re ]mane inci#z ;n wa.;noum! c. Aragiln;re ]mane ort;[i#z ;n cwoum! d. Aragiln;re ]mane o#ur ;n gnoum! e. Fa\ g\ou[azin i#nc giti aragili masin! f. I#nc h asoum fa\kakan aae! g. O#w h wa.;noum aragiliz! a. Dou aragil t;s;#l ;s!



Amawa 'ou,e% ]m;wa nou,e! [Amava push, dzmeva nush] The summers thorn (is) the winters almond. Tarwa cors ;[anakn;re drazi ;n% m;ke m\ousin fakaak! [Tarva chors yeghanakner dratsi en, mek myusin hakaak] The four seasons of the year are neighbors, all at odds with one another. Amawa an]rin% ]m;wa arin mi* fawata! [Amava andzrevin, dzmeva arevin mi havata] Do not rely on summer rain, nor on winter sun. Tari ka^ r h pafoum% r ka^ tari! [Tari ka or e pahum, or ka tari] Some years feed for a day, some days feed for a year. Marti innin^ aragile ir bnin! [Marti innin, aragil ir bnin] On the ninth of March, the stork is back in its nest. (Folk belief on the arrival of spring)


Unit 7
Marmni mas;r Uw ct

On the Agenda ...

Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary: Grammar:

Discussing health and well-being . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Body parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 VERBS: 1. The subjunctive mood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 2. The passive voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 NOUNS: The instrumental case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

Armenian-English Contrasts: Prepositions and postpositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Word Formation: Pronunciation: Orthography: Derivation of verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 The letters + =% Y y% and C c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163

or R r ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164


1. A and B are friends; they meet at work. A. I#nc h pataf;l! [Inch e patahel?] Gounat ;s! Fiwand t;sq oun;s! [Gunat es. Hivand tesk unes] B. A. B. A. B. A. B. A. B. A. B. A\o*% law c;m! [Ayo, lav chem] Wa#t ;s xgoum! [Vat es zgum?] Glou.s h zawoum! [Glukhs e tsavum] +;rmouj\oun oun;#s! [Jermutyun unes?] Cgit;m% gouz; mi qic! [Chgitem, gutse mi kich] Faxo#um ;s! [Hazum es?] <at ouv;[! [Shat uzhegh] Bv,ki dim;#l ;s! [Bzhshki dimel es?] D; oc! [De voch] Inco#u ;s ou,aznoum% gna*! [Inchu es ushatsnum, gna?] Wa[e gnalou ;m! [Vagh gnalu em] What happened? Youre pale. You look ill. Yes, Im not well. I dont know what it is. Whats wrong? I have a headache. Have you got a fever? I dont know; maybe a little. Do you have a cough? A bad one. Did you see a doctor? Not yet. Why are you delaying it? Go! Ill go tomorrow.

2. A is a physician, B a patient. A.

Inci#z ;q gangatwoum! [Inchits ek gangatvum?]

Whats your problem?

UNIT 7 B. Kokords zawoum h% [Kokorts e tsavum] do[aznoum ;m! [doghatsnum em] A. B. A. B. A. "ori zaw oun;#q! [Pori tsav unek?] O*c% ba\z sirts h .anoum! [Voch, bayts sirts e khanum] Fima qnn;m ou t;sn;nq! [Hima knnem u tesnenk] Bvi*,k% a#nr h wiyaks! [Bzhishk, tsanr e vichaks?] Mi* mta;q% ;ri mrs;l ;q! [Mi mtatsek, yerevi mrsel ek!] I have a sore throat, and Im shivering. Do you have abdominal pain? No, but Im nauseous. Let me examine you now, and well see (whats wrong). Doctor, am I in a critical state? Dont worry, you probably have a cold.

3. A is a mother who brought her child to the emergency ward. B is the receptionist. A. gn;z;*q% ;r;.a\is qjiz [Oknetsek, yerekhayis ktits] aat ar\oun h galis! [aat aryun e galis] B. A. :#rb h sksw;l! [Yerp e sksvel?] Help me, my childs nose is bleeding profusely. When did it start?

:rkou vam aa= ci ktrwoum! Two hours ago and it wont stop. [Yerku zham aach yev chi ktrvum] Cgit;m^ incn h patyae! [Chgitem inchn e patcha] I dont know whats causing it. When the doctor comes, well find out. I wish the doctor would arrive soon! Look, hes coming!

B. A. B.

Bvi,ke or ga% kimananq! [Bzhishk vor ga, amen inch kasi] :rani@ j; bvi,ke ,out gar! [Yerani te bzhishk shut gar] T;s;*q% afa galis h! [Tesek, aha galis e]



"I{E "i[n aa=in fa\azqiz tg;[ k;ndani h! M; glou. ouni .o,or d;m ori q% wra acq;re a\nqan 'oqr ;n% or gr;j; c;n ;roum! Akan=n;re la\n ;n% m;=qe^ bar]r% otq;re^ t]% morjn hl gor, gou\n ouni! B;raniz dours ;n galis ;rkou .o,or vaniqn;r% oronz ;rkarouj\oune ;rkou m;triz anznoum h! "[i knyije orp;s ];q h aa\oum! Na ir knyijow am;n goro[ouj\oun karo[ h katar;l! Fakaak ir ca';rin^ na qic out;liqow gofanoum h! "i[e f;x ou bari k;ndani h% na bar;kam h mardoun! Enk;rakan h ou a,.atas;r ir ouvow mardoun ,at gtakar h! Saka\n na wtangawor h danoum% ;rb ir f;t anardar ;n warwoum! A\n vamanak 'i[e ir vaniqn;row farwaoum h mardoun% nran ir knyijow g;tin h tapaloum otq;row ko.ktoum!


'i[ aa=in fa\azqiz tg;[ k;ndani m; glou. .o,or q d;m ori wra acq a\nqan 'oqr gr;j; ;ral akan= la\n m;=q bar]r otq t] morj gor,

[pigh] [aajin hayatskits] [tgegh] [kentani] [mets] [glukh] [khoshor] [demk] [vori vra] [achk] [aynkan] [pokr] [grete] [yereval] [akanj] [layn] [mechk] [bartsr] [votk] [tdzev] [mort] [gorsh]

elephant at first glance ugly animal big head huge face on which eye so small almost to be seen ear wide back high foot, leg deformed skin gray


gou\n b;ran dours gal vaniq oronz ;rkarouj\oun m;tr anzn;l knyij orp;s ];q aa\;l goro[ouj\oun katar;l fakaak ca' fakaak ir ca';rin qic out;liq gofanal f;x bari bar;kam mard enk;rakan a,.atas;r ouv gtakar saka\n wtangawor danal ir f;t anardar warw;l farwa;l g;tin tapal;l g;tin tapal;l ko.kt;l

[guyn] [beran] [durs gal] [zhanik] [voronts] [yerkarutyun] [metr] [antsnel] [knchit] [vorpes] [dzek] [tsaayel] [gortsoghutyun] [katarel] [hakaak] [chap] [hakaak ir chaperin] [kich] [utelik] [gohanal] [hez] [bari] [barekam] [mart] [nkerakan] [ashkhataser] [uzh] [oktakar] [sakayn] [vtangavor] [danal] [ir het] [anartar] [varvel] [harvatsel] [getin] [tapalel] [getin tapalel [kokhktel]

color mouth to stick out tusk of which length meter to surpass trunk as hand to serve action to perform despite measure, size despite his size little food to content oneself humble kind friend human being friendly industrious strength useful however dangerous to become with/to him unjust to treat to hit ground to subvert to knock down to the ground to trample



MARMNI MAS:R 'or j m;=q morouq ar\oun marmin oskor ou[;[ kourq a\t kxak akan= armounk acq fonq jarjic d;m q/;r;s mat otq zouzamat yakat max(;r) ];q glou. sirt konq(;r) a[iqn;r

[Marmni maser] [por] [tev] [mechk] [moruk] [aryun] [marmin] [voskor] [ughegh] [kurtsk] [ayt] [kzak] [akanj] [armunk] [achk] [honk] [tartich] [demk/ yeres] [mat] [votk] [tsutsamat] [chakat] [maz(er)] [dzek] [glukh] [sirt] [konk(er)] [aghikner]


abdomen, belly arm back beard blood body bone brain breast, chest cheek chin ear elbow eye eyebrow eyelash face finger foot forefinger forehead hair hand head heart hip(s) intestines


not fod ;rikam ounk srounq ,rjounq l\ard ykou\j mi=namat b;ran ;[oung port orak wix n\ard qij qim q a' matn;mat ous ma,k gang o[na,ar qounq axdr kokord bjamat l;xou atam ;rak iran

[tsnot] [hod] [yerikam] [tsunk] [srunk] [shrtunk] [lyart] [chkuyt] [michnamat] [beran] [yeghung] [port] [tsotsrak] [viz] [nyart] [kit] [kimk] [ap] [matnemat] [us] [mashk] [gang] [voghnashar] [kunk] [azdr] [kokort] [btamat] [lezu] [atam] [yerak] [iran]

jaw joint kidney knee leg lip liver little finger middle finger mouth nail (finger/toe) navel nape neck nerve nose palate palm ring finger shoulder skin skull spine temple thigh throat thumb tongue tooth vein waist


A. VERBS I. THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD Unlike the indicative mood, which denotes certainty and factuality, the subjunctive mood expresses potential, imaginary, conditional, or optional actions. In Armenian, the subjunctive mood has two basic paradigms: a) the subjunctive future and b) the subjunctive past. 1. The subjunctive future The subjunctive future represents simple forms consisting of the infinitive stem and personal endings. There are two sets: 1) those containing -;- (1st conjugation): gr-;l gr-;m% gr-;s% etc. 2) those containing -a- (2nd conjugation): kard-al kard-am% kard-as% etc. Thus, for the subjunctive future, all verbs follow the pattern below: SINGULAR 1st pers. (;s) 2nd pers. (dou) 3rd pers. (na) verb stem + -;m or -am verb stem + -;s or -as verb stem + -i or -a PLURAL 1st pers. (m;nq) 2nd pers. (douq) 3rd pers. (nranq) verb stem + -;nq or -anq verb stem + -;q or -aq verb stem + -;n or -an [verb stem + -enk or -ank] [verb stem + -ek or -ak] [verb stem + -en or -an] [verb stem + -em or -am] [verb stem + -es or -as] [verb stem + -i or -a]

SUBJUNCTIVE FUTURE gr;l (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)


kardal negative cgr;m cgr;s cgri cgr;nq cgr;q cgr;n affirmative kardam kardas karda kardanq kardaq kardan negative ckardam ckardas ckarda ckardanq ckardaq ckardan

affirmative gr;m gr;s gri gr;nq gr;q gr;n

UNIT 7 2. The subjunctive past The subjunctive past forms are also simple and consist of the infinitive stem and a set of special personal endings. There are two sets: 1) those containing -;- (1st conjugation) 2) those containing -a- (2nd conjugation) gr-;l gr-;i% gr-;ir% etc. kard-al kard-a\i% kard-a\ir% etc.

Thus, for the subjunctive past, all verbs follow the pattern below: SINGULAR 1st pers. (;s) 2nd pers. (dou) 3rd pers. (na) verb. stem + -;i or -a\i verb. stem + -;ir or -a\ir verb. stem + -;r or -ar PLURAL 1st pers. (m;nq) 2nd pers. (douq) 3rd pers. (nranq) verb. stem +-;inq or -a\inq verb. stem +-;iq or -a\iq verb. stem +-;in or -a\in SUBJUNCTIVE PAST gr;l (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) affirmative gr;i gr;ir gr;r gr;inq gr;iq gr;in negative cgr;i cgr;ir cgr;r cgr;inq cgr;iq cgr;in kardal affirmative karda\i karda\ir kardar karda\inq karda\iq karda\in negative ckarda\i ckarda\ir ckardar ckarda\inq ckarda\iq ckarda\in [verb. stem + -eyink or -ayink] [verb. stem + -eyik or -ayik] [verb. stem + -eyin or -ayin] [verb. stem + -eyi or -ayi] [verb. stem + -eyir or -ayir] [verb. stem + -er or -ar]

The irregular verbs tal% gal% lal follow the -a- pattern: Infinitive Subjunctive future Subjunctive past (c)tal (c)tam% (c)tas% (c)ta% (c)tanq% (c)taq% (c)tan (c)ta\i% (c)ta\ir% (c)tar% (c)ta\inq% (c)ta\iq% (c)ta\in

3. Uses of the subjunctive future In Armenian, both the future and past subjunctive have a wide range of applications with various meanings. Most commonly, they appear in subordinate clauses.

UNIT 7 The subjunctive future has a) an optative meaning expressing a wish or an urge that can be made in the form of a statement or question: Gam^ t;sn;m^ inc ka! Let me come and see whats on. As;#m% j; cas;m! Should I say it or not?

b) a mandative meaning used in subordinate clauses starting with the conjunction or [vor] that to express a command, a suggestion, a blessing or a curse: ! Astwa cani% or ]\oun ga! God forbid that it snow! Aniwi@ a\n re! Damn that day! Astwa@ lini qo gnakane! May God be your helper! Clini% or ou,anas! Make sure you are not late!

c) a final meaning used in subordinate clauses introduced by or that or orp;sxi [vorpeszi] in order to, to express a purpose or a goal: +anazi% or gors w;r=azn;m! I tried to finish my work. :ka% orp;sxi mi ban .ndr;m! I came to ask for something.

d) an inclusive first-person-plural imperative meaning that may be rendered by Lets ... or Lets not ... ;rg;l .os;l .a[al ;rg;*nq c;rg;*nq .os;*nq c.os;*nq .a[a*nq c.a[a*nq Lets sing! Lets not sing! Lets talk! Lets not talk! Lets play! Lets not play!

e) in a less direct imperative function, the subjective third-person singular and plural forms are often intensified by adding the imperative jo[ let: Jo[ Astwa@ m;x gni! God help us! Jo[ cgna@! Let him/her stay! (Literally: Let him/her not go!) f) a conditional meaning used in a subordinate (conditional) clause initiated by the conjunction ;j; [yete] if. Such conditions leave the question open as to whether the action will be fulfilled or not: :j; o[= mnanq% ,at ban ;nq t;sn;lou! If we stay alive, we will experience many things. g) a temporal meaning used in subordinate (temporal) clauses introduced by the conjunction ;rb [yerp] when. In such clauses, the verb always refers to the future: :rb wa[e m;kn;s% ;t cna\;s! When you leave tomorrow, dont look back.

UNIT 7 4. Uses of the subjunctive past a) The subjunctive past resembles the subjunctive future in its optative meaning. There is, however a difference: the subjunctive past expresses an unfulfilled desire. This could be an action or an event that did or did not take place in the past. Correspondingly, affirmative forms indicate desired but unfulfilled activity and negative forms express events that were undesired but did occur. Usually, the optative meaning is reinforced in sentences starting with the formulas ;rani@ j; &&& [yerani te] I wish ..., I only wish ..., koux;i (or) &&& [kuzeyi (vor)] I wish, or ou@r h(r) or &&& [ur e(r) (vor) ...] I wish ..., etc. Ou@r h(r) (or) ,af;ir! I wish you had won. (But you didnt.) l :rani@ j; a\nt;[ clin;i! I wish I were not there. (But I was)

b) The optative meaning of the past subjunctive can also refer to the future. In that sense, the two forms, future subjunctive and past subjunctive, are very close in meaning, for instance, in constructions such as gnam t;sn;m nran = gna\i t;sn;i nran. However, in these parallel forms the latter expresses a much more urgent desire that is difficult or impossible to fulfill. A popular Armenian song of WWII period starts with the words Jc;i mtqow toun &&& I wish Id fly home in my thoughts ... c) The subjunctive past is often used in subordinate clauses. It appears in temporal clauses introduced by the temporal conjunctions ;rb [yerp] when, f;nz or [hents vor] as soon as, etc. F;nz or na n;rs mtn;r% katakn;rn skswoum hin! As soon as he came in, the jokes would start. d) To express a hypothetical condition, namely in a subordinate (conditional) clause initiated by the conjunction ;j; [yete] if. Such forms imply that the action has not taken place or it is doubtful that it will: :j; ga\ir% gouz; irar fandip;inq! If you came, perhaps we would meet. e) The subjunctive past forms are commonly used in conversation to make a request or to ask for a favor in a more polite way: Law klin;r% or gna\ir Maro\in kanc;ir! It would be nice if you went and called Maro.

UNIT 7 II. THE PASSIVE VOICE Verbs express not only mood, tense, person, and number, but also voice. In languages, voice is used to indicate whether the subject is the doer or the receiver of the action. EXAMPLES: a) active voice: Marde awtom;q;nan waya;z! The man sold the car. In sentence (a), the grammatical subject marde is the doer of the action a.;l% while kaqe the grammatical (direct) object is the receiver of the action waya;l. b) passive voice: Awtom;q;nan wayaw;z mardou ko[miz! The car was sold by the man. In sentence (b), the word order is reversed: the original direct object awtom;q;nan is brought into focus and placed in subject position, while the original subject marde is removed from focus and shifted to the position of indirect object. In sentence (b), the reallife role of the grammatical subject awtom;q;nan is not an active but a passive one. To express this passivity the active verb waya;l must be transformed into the passive verb wayaw;l& Passive verbs are formed by combining the infinitive or the perfect (aorist) stem with the suffix -w- + the infinitive ending -;l. EXAMPLES:

waya;l koc;l kardal moanal dn;l to sell to call to read to forget to put


waya-w;l koc-w;l kardaz-w;l moaz-w;l dr-w;l to be sold to be called to be read to be forgotten to be placed

kardaz-i moaz-a dr-i

Passive verbs are conjugated like regular verbs ending in -;l! Present: Kocwoum ;m% kocwoum ;s% kocwoum h% kocwoum ;nq% kocwoum ;q% kocwoum ;n! C;m kocwoum, c;s kocwoum% etc. Kocwoum hi% kocwoum hir% kocwoum hr% kocwoum hinq% kocwoum hiq% Imperfect: kocwoum hin! Chi kocwoum% chir kocwoum% etc. Kocw;zi% kocw;zir% kocw;z% etc. Ckocw;zi% ckocw;zir% etc. Aorist: Kocw;lou ;m% kocw;lou ;s% kocw;lou h% kocw;lou ;nq% kocw;lou ;q% Future I: kocw;lou ;n! C;m kocw;lou% c;s kocw;lou% etc. Kocwa ;m lin;lou% kocwa ;s lin;lou, etc. Kocwa c;m lin;lou, etc. Future II: Kocw;l ;m, kocw;l ;s, kocw;l h, etc. C;m kocw;l, etc. Perfect:

UNIT 7 Pluperfect Imperative Kocw;l hi, kocw;l hir% kocw;l hr% etc. Chi kocw;l% chir kocw;l% etc. Kocwi*r, kocw;*q; Mi* kocwir, mi* kocw;q&

In a passive sentence, the subject of the original sentence is transformed: 1) from the nominative into the ablative a) active voice b) passive voice a) active voice b) passive voice Dou in] wirawor;zir! You offended me. :s q;xniz wiraworw;zi! I was offended by you. Bolore nran fargoum hin! Everyone respected him. Na bolori ko[miz fargwa hr! He was respected by all.

2) from the nominative into a phrase, using the postposition ko[miz by + abl.:

The subject of the original sentence is often omitted altogether: Awtom;q;nan wayaw;z! The car was sold. This occurs 1) 2) 3) 4) when the doer of the action is unknown: Toune ko[optw;z! The house has been robbed. when the doer of the action is irrelevant: A\s farze ,outow klouwi! This problem will soon be solved. when the doer of the action is easily inferred: Na.agafe w;rentrw;z! The president was re-elected. in reporting, where a tone of detachment and impartiality is relevant: Tnr;ni gore qnnwoum h! The directors case is being examined. The fact that the original grammatical subject can be omitted allows passive verbs to be employed especially in impersonal sentences. Note that this applies only to the thirdperson singular: A\s =oure ci .mwi! This water is not drinkable. Anouns a\sp;s h grwoum! My name is spelled this way. As a rule, only transitive verbs followed by a direct object are readily transformed into a passive verb. However, in impersonal sentences intransitive verbs may sometimes be transformed into passive ones: tal to give trw;l to be given, bazatr;l to explain bazatrw;l to be explained, etc. A\s nw;re ci trwi! This gift is not presentable. Incp;#s h sa bazatrwoum! How can this be explained?

UNIT 7 B. NOUNS 1. The instrumental case The Armenian instrumental has no equivalent case in English. Whereas English expresses instrumental meaning by either a preposition such as with, by, on, etc., or the construction by means of, by way of, etc., Armenian achieves the same effect by adding the instrumental case marker to nouns and pronouns. The most common marker for the instrumental o o case is -ow as in otq foot otqow on foot, matit pencil matitow with a peno cil, ;s I in]anow with me, etc. o Abstract nouns ending in -ouj\oun are the exception to this rule. They may also take the o ending -ouj\amb in the instrumental singular: o o dvwarouj\oun difficulty dvwarouj\amb or dvwarouj\ounow with difficulty o o oura.ouj\oun joy oura.ouj\amb or oura.ouj\ounow with pleasure 2. Uses of the instrumental case A. The instrumental expresses various meanings. a) to show the instrument or the means by which an action is carried out: o Faze danakow ;n ktroum! Bread is cut with a knife. o C;m siroum inqnajiow yanaparford;l! I dont like to travel by plane. b) to denote the addition of one item to another: o Sourye kajow ;m siroum! I like coffee with milk. o A\s apoure brn]ow ;n ;'oum! They cook this soup with rice. c) to indicate the manner, way, or mode in which an action occurs: o Na fouxmounqow ls;z in]! He listened to me with emotion. o Famb;rouj\amb spas;zi! I waited patiently (literally: with patience). d) used with singular forms of temporal nouns to denote limited periods of time: o M;k ,abajow ;ka! I came for a week.

UNIT 7 e) used with plural forms of temporal nouns to express extended periods of time: o o o r;row / ,abajn;row / amisn;row% etc. nran ct;sa! I havent seen him/her for days / weeks / months, etc. B. The instrumental case may be governed by a verb or an adjective (see p. 265): o A\s goumarow bawararwoum ;m! I am pleased (content myself) with this sum. o M;nq fpart ;nq m;r anz\alow! We are proud of our past. In the first example above, the instrumental case is required by the verb bawararw;l to be pleased (to content oneself with something). In the second example, it is the construction fpart lin;l to be proud that governs the instrumental. As can be seen in the translations, the prepositions with and of convey the same meaning in English as the instrumental case marker -ow in Armenian. Along with the instrumental forms, Armenian also uses nouns with postpositions (such as f;t with, or mi=ozow by means of, etc.). These parallel constructions have different meanings. Compare the use of the noun bvi,k doctor in the following two sentences where it is used (a) with the postposition f;t with and (b) in the instrumental case (without a postposition or preposition). EXAMPLES: a) Noundat + postposition f;t with }kan f;t spitak gini ;n .moum! (along with fish) With fish they drink white wine. b) Noun in the instrumental case o Mia\n ]kow c;m k,tana! (by [eating] fish alone) Fish alone doesnt fill me up. OTHER EXAMPLES: a) b) AND: Mardkanz f;#t ;kar! Did you come (along) with people? o "o[ozn;re lzwa hin mardkanzow! The streets were filled with people. gnazqi f;t (along) with the train vs. gnazqow by train a,.atanqi f;t (along) with work vs. a,.atanqow by means of work,etc.


Armenian prepositions and postpositions In languages, aside from declension, there are special words that create a grammatical relationship between words in a sentence. These are prepositions and postpositions. Prepositions appear before nouns and pronouns, and postpositions after them, although some of them can appear before or after nouns and pronouns. English has only prepositions, such as for, after, since, outside, etc. In Armenian, prepositions are less common than postpositions. Armenian postpositions and prepositions require that nouns and pronouns following and preceding them take a particular case. Compare the use of the Armenian postposition masin [masin] about that follows the noun or the pronoun placed in the genitive: qo masin grqi masin mardkanz masin m;r f\our;ri masin [ko masin] [grki masin] [martkants masin] [mer hyureri masin] about you about the book about people about our guests

Below are the most common postpositions classified according to the case they govern.


[aach] in front of on the occasion of against behind on underneath

t;[ roq

[tegh] instead of [orok] during [hamar] for


[aach] before

ajiw [ativ]

fakaak* [hakaak] against famar

a\n ko[m [ayn koghm] beyond a\s ko[m [ays koghm] on this side of except outside except since far from after inside as of, since w;r [verev] above

dimaz [dimats] facing d;m ;t [dem] [yetev]

vamanak [zhamanak] during wra tak m;= [vra] [tak]

fama]a\n*[hamadzayn] bazi* [batsi] according to dours [durs] fam;mat [hamemat] compared to xat [zat] fand;p [handep] towards i w;r [i ver] f;t mot nman ,norfiw* p;s [het] with f;ou [heu] [heto] [ners] [mot] next to, near f;to [nman] like n;rs to [pes] like

[mech] in middle of

m;=t;[ [mechtegh] in the mi= ,our= [mijev] [shurj] between around about

[shnorhiv] thanks sksa* [sksats] starting,

masin [masin]

';n [pokharen] instead n;rq [nerkev] below

* The asterisk indicates words used as both prepositions and postpositions: fakaak im kamqin or im
kam qin fakaak against my wish.


UNIT 7 The most common prepositions are: anka. aanz d;pi est ibr() fanoun minc() orp;s na.qan [ankakh] [aants] [depi] [st] [ipr(ev)] [hanun] [minchev] [vorpes] [nakhkan] independent of without towards according to as for (the sake of) until as, in the capacity of before Abl. Dat. Dat./Acc. Dat. Acc. Dat. Dat./Acc. Acc. Acc.

Compare the use of such prepositions: aanz q;x minc ;r;ko fanoun fa\r;niqi ibr mard [aants kez] [minchev yereko] [hanun hayreniki] [iprev mart] without you till evening for the sake of the fatherland as a human being

Many postpositions are by origin declined forms of nouns. Consider the following nouns in the instrumental case that are chiefly used as postpositions: f;tanqow patyaow mi=ozow [hetevankov] [patchaov] [mijotsov] as a result of because of by means of from from from f;tanqinstr. result patyainstr. cause mi=ozinstr. means

Armenian postpositions and prepositions express various meanings, such as: Place Time Manner Cause Measure Reference Objective m;= in, wra on, tak under, mot next to, w;r above, n;rq below, etc. f;to after, na.qan before, minc till, row during, etc. p;s as, nman like, mi=ozow by means of, etc. patyaow because of, ,norfiw thanks to, na\a depending on, etc. ca' as much as, aw;li more, aw;li qan more than, etc. masin about, w;rab;r\al referring to, ajiw on the occasion of, etc. famar for, fanoun for the sake of, fgout for the benefit of, etc.

Some of them have more than one meaning. Thus, the postposition aa= can indicate both place (in front of) and time (before). The case they govern differs accordingly: Tangen aa= in front of the house Dasizabl aa= before the lesson (See table on previous page.)



Derivation of verbs There are several suffixes in Armenian that form verbs derived from other word classes, such as a) from nouns, adjectives, adverbs and b) from simple verbs. A. To derive verbs from nouns, adjectives and adverbs, Armenian has two productive suffixes: -al (an+al) [an+al] and -;l& It forms 1) intransitive verbs with -al (an+al) [-an+al] a) from nouns: qar [kar] stone enk;r [nker] friend b\our;[ [byuregh] crystal b) from adjectives and adverbs: m; [mets] big taq [tak] warm f;ou [heu] far 2) intransitive verbs with -;l [-el] a) from nouns: ,ounc [shunch] breath gi,;r[gisher] night an]r [andzrev] rain b) from adjectives: kanac [kanach] green apou, [apush] stupid 'a'ouk [papuk] soft 3) transitive verbs with -;l [-el] a) from nouns: ardouk [arduk] iron grpan[grpan] pocket pativ [patizh] punishment ardouk;l [hardukel] to iron grpan;l [grpanel] to pocket patv;l [patzhel] to punish kanac;l [kanachel] to become green ap,;l [apshel] to stun, to get astonished 'a'k;l [papkel] to soften up ,nc;l [shnchel] to breathe gi,;r;l [gisherel] to stay overnight an]r;l [andzrevel] to rain m;anal [metsanal] to grow, to become big taqanal [takanal] to warm up f;anal [heanal] to go away, to depart qaranal [karanal] to harden enk;ranal [nkeranal] to befriend b\our;[anal [byureghanal] to crystalize


UNIT 7 b) from adjectives: datark [datark] empty apafow [apahov] secure parx [parz] clear datark;l [datarkel] to empty apafow;l [apahovel] to secure parx;l [parzel] to clarify

B. To form derivative verbs from simple verbs, Armenian uses various means: 1) the suffix -(a)zn;l/-(;)zn;l to derive transitive (causative) verbs from intransitives: oura.anal to rejoice spas;l to wait qa\l;l to walk oura.azn;l to make sb. happy spas;zn;l to make sb. wait qa\l;zn;l to make sb. walk

Causation may also be expressed analytically by adding the verb tal to give to the main verb: kar;l to sew ou[ark;l to send b;r;l to bring kar;l tal to have sewn ou[ark;l tal to have sent b;r;l tal to have brought

EXAMPLES: A\s fagouste kar;l tw;zi! I had this dress sewn. D;[e ou[ark;l tour! Have the medication delivered. Namake ou[ark;l ;m talis! I am having the letter sent. Redundant forms, i.e. combinations of verbs ending in -(a)zn;l/-(;)zn;l and the verb tal% are common but not recommended: spas;zn;l to make smb. wait spas;zn;l tal to make smb. wait qa\l;zn;l to make smb. walk qa\l;zn;l tal to make smb. walk b) the infixes -t-% -ot- or -at- to create verbs expressing repetitive actions: qa,;l to pull ko.;l to step ktr;l to cut c) the infix -w- to construct a. passive voice from transitive verbs: qnn;l to examine kaouz;l to build span;l to kill qnnw;l to be examined kaouzw;l to be built spanw;l to get killed

qa,kt;l to drag ko.ot;l to trample ktrat;l to cut in pieces

UNIT 7 rfn;l to bless rfnw;l to get blessed (see pp. 154-155)

b. reciprocal verbs from transitive verbs: t;sn;l to see fambour;l to kiss bavan;l to separate t;snw;l to see each other fambourw;l to kiss each other bavanw;l to separate (from each other), divorce

Not all verbs have this flexibility. Reciprocity is also expressed analytically by the reciprocal pronoun irar each other. M;nq irar cfamox;zinq! We did not convince each other. A\s ;rkou enk;rn;re irar siroum ;n& nranq irariz c;n fognoum! These two friends love each other; they do not get tired of each other. c. reflexive verbs from transitive verbs: sanr;l to comb lwanal to wash sanrw;l to comb ones hair lwazw;l to wash oneself

Reflexivity can also be expressed by a reflexive pronoun (i.e. q;x yourself, ir;n himself, etc.): Q;x mi* gowir! Dont praise yourself! As the examples illustrate, -w- is added to the infinitive or aorist stem of the verb& This results in the complex ending -w;l% -azw;l or -;zw;l: sir-;l to love sir-w;l to be loved rfn-;l to bless rfn-w;l to be blessed kard-al to read kardaz-i I read kardaz-w;l to be read karyazn;l to shorten karyazr-i I shortened karyaz-w;l to be shortened dn;l to put, to place dr-i I put dr-w;l to be placed Thus, a series of related verbs can be created that vary in grammatical meaning: intransitive mot;nal to approach m;anal to grow 'a\l;l to shine transitive mot;zn;l to draw closer m;azn;l to make grow 'a\l;zn;l to polish passive mot;zw;l to be brought closer m;azw;l to be made big(ger) 'a\l;zw;l to be polished



The letters + =% Y y% and C c + =% Y y and C c are a set of three affricates that stand for the following three distinct sounds:

voiced voiceless non-aspirated voiceless aspirated

+ = Y y C c

[j] [ch] [ch]

1) + = is the voiced affricate [j], a complex sound that begins with the voiced stop [d] and ends with the voiced sibilant [zh] (cf. the English g in gender or j in jeans). EXAMPLES: =our [jur] water, =;rm [jerm] warm, etc. 2) Y y represents the voiceless non-aspirated affricate [ch], a complex sound that starts with the voiceless non-aspirated stop [t] and ends in the voiceless sibilant [sh] (cf. the English ch in bench). EXAMPLES: yany [chanch] fly, oy [voch] style, yoyanak [chochanak] swing, etc. 3) C c represents the voiceless aspirated affricate [ch], a combination of the voiceless aspi rated stop [t] and the voiceless sibilant [ch] (cf. the English ch in charm, arch). EXAMPLES: cor [chor] dry, camic [chamich] raisin, carcar;l [charcharel] to torture, etc. EXCEPTIONS: in certain positions = [j] can be pronounced like the voiceless aspirated c [ch]: a) after vowels: aa= [aach] before, a= [ach] right, o=il [vochil] louse, m;= [mech] in, aa=in [aachin] first, m;=q [mechk] back, etc. The same applies to all genitive forms ending in -o= [-och], like qou\r [kuyr] sister qro= [kroch] sisters, kin [kin] noch] womans, etc. woman kno= [k
b) after r [r]: ar= [arch] bear, jr=;l [trchel] to wet, w;r= [verch] end, and deriva tions: w;r=in [verchin] last, w;r=nakan [verchnakan] final, etc.

c) after [ [gh]: a[=ik [akhchik] girl, o[= [vokhch] alive, ambo[= [ambokhch] entire, o[=o@u\n [vokhchuyn] salute!, etc.


or R r ? The letters and R r stand for two distinct sound values: [] is an alveolar trilling or rolled sound with a strong vibration, like the r in Russian and Spanish. R r [r] represents a softer, rather liquid sound. The meaning of two words can differ in the contrast of these consonants. EXAMPLES: war;l [varel] to lead kr;l [krel] to carry vs. vs. wa;l [vael] to burn k;l [kel] to forge

For beginners, the distinction between and R r represents a challenge in both pronunciation and spelling. Therefore, the different spellings ( or R r) in certain Armenian words must be memorized. Here are some helpful hints: 1. As any Armenian dictionary shows, there are only a few words starting with the letters or R r& Commonly known words starting with are ;tin [etin] rubber, eraser, axmik [azmik] fighter, oumb [umb] bomb, oyik [ochik] salary, ousastan [usastan] Russia, and their derivatives. There are even fewer words starting with R r: rop; [rope] minute, rop;akan [ropeakan] instantaneous, and the Armenian male name Ra``i [Rafi] Raffi. 2. Within words, usually appears before n: an;l [anel] to take, danal [danal] to turn% bn;l [bnel] to hold% spanal [spanal] to threaten, etc. Exceptions: garnan [garnan], which is the genitive form of garoun spring, etc. 3. Before consonants other than n% the letter r appears in: mard [mart] human being, bourd [burt] wool, ;rdoum [yertum] oath, ward [vart] rose, etc. Exceptions: ];q [dzek] hand, 'aq [pak] glory, kaq [kak] coach, etc. 4. Words, which in Classical Armenian ended in -n% have dropped the final n% leaving the following words with a final : dou [du] door, ama [ama] summer, ]m; [dzme] winter, l; [le] mountain, jo [to] grandchild, etc. 5. Here are some commonly used words with in final position or between two vowels: anta ba k,i asta b; ou pata j,wa

[anta] forest [ba] word [kshi] weight [asta] lining [be] load [tsu] crooked [pata] piece, bite [tshva] miserable

aat ja'a;l goox ououzq aa=in a vaang fakaak

[aat] abundant [tapael] to roam [gooz] haughty [uutsk] tumor [aachin] first [tsa] tree [zhaang] heir, heiress [hakaak] against


1. Answer the questions according to the pattern. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Fiwa#nd ;s! Do[azno#um ;s! Faxo#um ;s! Glou.d zawo#um h! +;rmouj\oun oun;#s! Kokordd zawo#um h! Wa#t ;s xgoum! Fiwand hi% ba\z fima a\ls fiwand c;m! Do[aznoum hi% ba\z &&& Faxoum &&& &&& &&& &&& &&&

2. Form mini-dialogues according to the patterns in a, b, c, and d. Replace the items soury/kaj with j;\/,aqar% wiski/saou\z% [i/=our% gini/soda, etc. a. b. c. d. A. Sourye inco#w ;q .m;lou! B. Ifark; kajow! A. Souryi f;t i#nc b;r;m! B. Mi qic kaj% ;j; kar;li h! A. Soury b;r;#m! B. A\o*% ;j; kar;li h^ aanz kaji! A. :k;*q soury .m;nq! B. S irow% ba\z ;s sourye kajow ;m .moum!

3. Answer the questions according to the pattern. a. Jatron gnazi#r! b. Namak gr;zi#r! c. Girqs kardazi#r! d. Anna\i f;t .os;zi#r! e. "i[e t;sa#r! f. >mor;[;ne k;ra#r! g. Anna\in nw;re tw;zi#r! O*c% O*c% O*c% O*c% O*c% O*c% O*c% c;m gnaz;l% gnam j;# cgnam! &&& &&& &&& &&& &&& &&&

4. Complete the sentences according to the pattern in a. a. b. c. d. e. Doue &&& ('ak;l)! Doue 'akw;z! Drame &&& (a.s;l)! Drame &&& Toune &&& (waya;l)! &&& Farze &&& (qnn;l)! &&& Fiwande &&& (bouv;l)! &&&

UNIT 7 f. Namake &&& (ou[ark;l)! &&& g. Ya,e &&& (;';l)! &&& h. Kaje &&& (ja';l)! &&& 5. Ask questions using the items given in parentheses. Follow the pattern in a. a. Kaje ,aqaro#w ;s .moum% j;# aanz ,aqari! b. J;\e &&& (kitron) c. [in &&& (saou\z) d. Sourye &&& (kaj) e. Ya,e &&& ;s outoum &&& (faz) f. }oun &&& (a[) g. Faze &&& (karag) h. }ouke &&& (jar.oun) 6. Answer the questions following the pattern in a. a. "i[e inco#w h am;n inc anoum! Knyijow! b. Apoure inco#w ;nq outoum! (gdal) c. Ginin inco#w ;nq .moum! (bavak) d. Ousouzcin incp;#s ;q ls;l! (ou,adrouj\oun) e. Incp;#s ;s galis famalsaran! (f;aniw) f. Incp;#s ;s gnoum a,.atanqi! (otq) 7. Form sentences following the pattern in a. a. I#nc ;s groum! (namak% gr;l) Namak ;m groum! b. (girq% kardal) c. (gini% .m;l) d. (.n]or% out;l) e. (namak% ou[ark;l) f. (am;n inc% faskanal) 8. Ask questions starting with an interrogative pronoun (incp;#s% inco#w% etc.). a. Fa\rs ;kaw inqnajiow! b. Na.aya,s k;ra a.orvakow! c. Ya,e patrast;zi karagow! d. Sourys .moum ;m kajow ou ,aqarow! e. Na mi,t spasoum h famb;rouj\amb! f. A,.atanqi ;m gnoum f;aniwow!

UNIT 7 9. Conclude the sentences, using the verbs in parentheses in the subjunctive mood. a. Ouxo#um ;s gam! (gal) b. +anazinq% or m;r gore &&& (w;r=azn;l)! c. Nranq ;kan% orp;sxi };xaniz mi ban &&& (.ndr;l)! d. :rani@ j; dou hl a\st;[ &&& (lin;l)! e. Cgit;m% j; incp;s &&& nran a\d bane! (bazatr;l) f. Cgit;nq% &&& (gnal) j;# &&& (mnal)! g. Ou@r h% or am;n mard q;x nman &&& (lin;l) 10. Translate the sentences, using the appropriate subjunctive forms. a. If I have time, I will be there. b. If you want, we can go. c. I want you to learn this proverb (aa). d. I dont want you to leave. e. If he came, we would see him. f. If you saw Armenia, you would like it. 11. Ask a person a series of questions about her/his health in Armenian. a) A classmate of yours is ill. b) An elderly Armenian lady on the street does not feel well. c) You visit an aunt in the hospital. 12. Answer the following questions with reference to the TEXT in this unit. a. I#nc t;sak k;ndani h 'i[e! b. I#nc gou\n ouni 'i[e! c. Incpisi# acq;r ouni 'i[e! d. Orp;s i#nc h aa\oum '[i knyije! e. "i[e ,atak;#r k;ndani h! f. "i[e ;#rb h wtangawor danoum! g. I#nc h anoum 'i[e% ;rb mardik nra f;t anardar ;n warwoum!



XI PROVERBS Glou.d or zawi% otqid zawe kmoanas! [Glukht vor tsavi, votkit tsav kmoanas] If you get a headache, you will forget your footache. };qe ];q klwana% ;rkouse^ ;r;se! [Dzek dzek klvana, yerkusn el yeres] One hand washes the other, and both wash the face. Bar;kamd h na\oum% j,namid^ otqid! [Barekamt glkhit e nayum, tshnamit votkit] A friend looks at your face, an enemy at your feet. S rtiz sirt yam'a ka! [Srtits sirt champa ka] From heart to heart, there is a path.


Unit 8
Masnagitouj\ounn;r cyx|

On the Agenda ...

Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary:

Describing and comparing people and things . . . . . 170 1. Professions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174 2. Adjectives, antonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 1. The mandative mood . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 2. The nominalized infinitive . . . . . . . 182 ADJECTIVES: 1. Functions of adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . .184 2. Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 PRONOUNS: Declension of personal pronouns . . . . 186 VERBS:


Armenian-English Contrasts: The Armenian deictic system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187 Word Formation: Pronunciation: Orthography: Formation of adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Armenian diphthongs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 The spelling of Armenian diphtongs . . . . . . . . . . . 191


1. A and B are colleagues, discussing their new director after the first meeting. A. M;r nor tnr;nin t;sa#r! [Mer nor tnorenin tesar?] Dourd gali#s h! [Durt galis e?] B. :s na.ordin hi ,at siroum! [Yes nakhortin eyi shat sirum] A. :s sran ;m fawanoum! Nra ;lou\je [Yes sran em havanum. Nra yeluyt] w;r=in vo[owin tpaworic hr! [verchin zhoghovin tpavorich er] B. Ba\z mi qic ;rkar c.os;#z! [Bayts mi kich yerkar chkhosets?] M;amit h jwoum! [Metsamit e tvum] A. Isk artaqini masin i#nc kas;s! [Isk artakini masin inch kases?] G;[;zik mard h% ch#! [Geghetsik mart e, che?] B. Iskap;s% n;rka\anali mard h% [Iskapes nerkayanali mart e] ba\z da i#nc karor h! [bayts da inch karevor e?] A. Kt;sn;s% j; inc fianali [Ktesnes, te inch hiyanali] [;kawar h lin;lou! [ghekavar e linelu] B. Fousanq% or c;s s.alwoum! [Husank, vor ches skhalvum] Have you seen our new director? Do you like him? I liked his predecessor very much. I like this one better. His speech at the last meeting was impressive. But didnt he speak a bit too long? He seems to be haughty. And what do you say about his looks? Hes a handsome man, isnt he? He is indeed a good-looking man, but why is that important? Youll see what a wonderful leader hell be. Lets hope that youre not mistaken.


UNIT 8 2. A and B are girlfriends, engaged in gossip. A. Fawano#um ;s Karo\i n,anain! [Havanum es Karoyi nshanatsin?] B. :s nran d; c;m t;s;l! [Yes nran de chem tesel] A. :r;k ;k;l hr m;r fawaqou\jin! [Yerek yekel er mer havakuytin] B. Incpisi#n h! Dourd ;ka#w! [Inchpisin e? Durt yekav?] A. Karo\iz aw;li bar]rafasak h [Karoyits aveli bartsrahasak e] nraniz^ tariqow m;! [yev nranits tarikov mets] B. Gon; g;[;zi#k h! [Gone geghetsik e?] A. :j; in] farzn;s% tg;[ h! [Yete indz hartsnes, tgegh e] B. I#nc hr fag;l! [Inch er hakel?] A. Anya,ak kin h! [Anchashak kin e] B. F;te .os;zi#r! [Het khosetsir?] A. O*c% ckaro[aza! Inqn hr [Voch, chkaroghatsa. Inkn er ] boloriz ,at .osoum! [bolorits shat khosum] B. In] xarmaznoum h Karo\i ya,ake! [In zarmatsnum e Karoyi chashak] A. Na ;#rb h ya,ak oun;z;l! [Na yerp e chashak unetsel?] Do you like Karos fianc? I havent seen her yet. She came to our party yesterday. What is she like? Did you like her? Shes taller than Karo, and older than him. Is she pretty at least? If you ask me, shes ugly. What was she wearing? She is a woman with no taste. Did you talk to her? No, I couldnt. She did all of the talking. I am surprised at Karos taste. Did he ever have taste?



LAWAGOU|N WKA|AKANE Mi gitnakan ;ritasard gnakan hr 'ntroum karor 'or]arkman famar! <at;re dim;zin fa\tararwa t;[i famar% w;r=ap;s gitnakane entr;z m;kin! Asa*% .ndr;m% farzr;z nran enk;rn;riz m;ke% inco#u entr;zir a\d ;ritasardin! Na oc mia\n q;x ananoj hr% a\l wka\akan hl coun;r! Ouri, j;knaoun;r% orqan git;m% ;kan ou gnazin law wka\akann;row ou bnoujagr;row% isk dou nranz cendoun;zir! As;m%;z gitnakane% j; incou a\d ;ritasardin a,.atanqi endoun;zi! D; spasasrafoum t;sa% j; na incp;s nsta t;[iz w;r kazaw ou ajoe xi=;z tar;z mi tikno=! Gras;n\aks mtn;louz aa= gl.arke fan;z doue 'ak;z aanz a[mouki! Apa spas;z% or ir;n t;[ aa=ark;m! Our;mn qa[aqawari h ou nrbankat! Git;m% or d; ousano[ h% ba\z fatouk jo,ak h stanoum! Our;mn mtawor karo[ouj\ounn;r ouni% endounak h ou a,.atas;r! Farz;ris tw;z arag% y,grit yi,t patas.ann;r% oronq bolorn hl in] gofazrin! Isk ;rb nran farzri% j; incou bnoujagir couni%;z% or sa a,.atanq gtn;lou ir aa=in 'or]n h! :w or ,at hr ouxoum fnaraworouj\oun stanal^ a,.atanqoum ir;n drsor;lou! I@nc ;s karoum% a\s bolor fatkouj\ounn;re% miasin w;rzra% mi#j; mi 'a\loun wka\akan carv;n!


lawagou\n wka\akan gitnakan 'ntr;l gnakan karor 'or]arkoum dim;l fa\tararwa w;r=ap;s

[lavaguyn] [vkayakan] [gitnakan] [pntrel] [oknakan] [karevor] [portsarkum] [dimel] [haytararvats] [verchapes]

best diploma scientist to search assistant important experiment to apply announced finally


;ritasard ananoj j;knaou bnoujagir endoun;l spasasraf w;r k;nal xi=;l tar;z mtn;l fan;l 'ak;l a[mouk aa=ark;l qa[aqawari nrbankat fatouk jo,ak stanal mtawor karo[ouj\oun endounak a,.atas;r arag y,grit gofazn;l gtn;l 'or] fnaraworouj\oun drsorw;l fatkouj\oun miasin w;rzra mi#j; 'a\loun arv;nal

[yeritasart] [antsanot] [teknatsu] [bnutagir] [ntunel] [spasasrah] [ver kenal [zijel] [tarets] [mtnel] [hanel] [pakel] [aghmuk] [aacharkel] [kaghakavari] [nrpankat] [hatuk] [toshak] [stanal] [mtavor] [karoghutyun] [ntunak] [ashkhataser] [arag] [chshgrit] [gohatsnel] [gtnel] [ports] [hnaravorutyun] [drsevorvel] [hatkutyun] [miasin vertsrats] [mite?] [paylun] [arzhenal]

young (man) unknown candidate recommendation to accept waiting room to get up to yield aged to enter take off to close noise to offer polite considerate special stipend to receive mental capacity capable diligent fast, quick exact to satisfy to find attempt, try chance to reveal himself quality taken together Dont you think?/Isnt it? brilliant to be worth



MASNAGITOUJ|OUNN:R [Masnagitutyunner]

fa,wapaf d;rasan* g\ou[atnt;s yartarap;t arw;stag;t nkaric fazagor warsawir darbin ormnadir / f\ousn msawaya ata[]agor gan]apaf ,inarar .ofarar atamnabou\v diwanag;t tnr;n bvi,k d;r]ak tnt;sag;t ];narkat;r ;rkraban osk;ric warsafardar

[hashvapah] [derasan] [gyughatntes] [chartarapet] [arvestaget] [nkarich] [hatsagorts] [varsavir] [darpin] [vormnadir / hyusn] [msavacha] [atakhtsagorts] [gandzapah] [shinarar] [khoharar] [atamnabuyzh] [divanaget] [tnoren] [bzhishk] [dertsak] [tntesaget] [dzenarkater] [yerkraban] [voskerich] [varsahardar]

accountant actor agronomist architect artist artist-painter baker barber blacksmith bricklayer butcher carpenter cashier constructor, builder cook dentist diplomat director doctor, physician dressmaker economist engineer entrepreneur geologist goldsmith, jeweler hairdresser

inv;n;r% yartarag;t [inzhener, chartaraget]

* Some nouns indicating professions have female counterparts formed by the suffix -oufi [-uhi]: d;rasan [derasan] actor d;rasanoufi [derasanuhi] actress, ousouzic [usutsich] male teacher ousouzcoufi [usutschuhi] female teacher (see p. 57). 174


qnnic lragro[ datawor irawaban l;xwaban wayaakan bouvqou\r bouvak n;rkarar d;[agor banas;r lousankaric da,nakafar dacou banast;[ ostikan warcap;t qafana dasa.os ragraworo[ fratarakic j[jakiz qartou[ar ko,kakar warord masnag;t wirabou\v ousouzic atrakan anasnabou\v vamagor banwor gro[

[knnich] [lragrogh] [datavor] [iravaban] [lezvaban] [vachaakan] [buzhkuyr] [buzhak] [nerkarar] [deghagorts] [banaser] [lusankarich] [dashnakahar] [otachu] [banasteghts] [vostikan] [varchapet] [kahana] [dasakhos] [tsragravorogh] [hratarakich] [tghtakits] [kartughar] [koshkakar] [varort] [masnaget] [virabuyzh] [usutsich] [arevtrakan] [anasnabuyzh] [zhamagorts] [banvor] [grogh]

inspector journalist judge lawyer linguist merchant nurse (female) nurse (male) painter pharmacist philologist photographer pianist pilot poet policeman premier priest professor, lecturer programmer publisher reporter, correspondent secretary (male) shoemaker driver specialist surgeon teacher trader veterinarian watchmaker worker writer




[Atsakanner] [hin] [nor] [yeritasart] [tser] [azniv] [anazniv] [zguysh] [anzguysh] [ashkhataser] [tsuyl] [aatadzen] [zhlat] [geghetsik] [tgegh] [ger] [nihar] [taptpvats] [kokik] [tukh] [khartyash] [bartsrahasak] [karchahasak] [hacheli] [thach] [hetakrkrakan] [dzandzrali] [hetakrkraser] [antarber] [uzhegh] [tuyl] [kaj, anvakh] [vakhkot] [lurj] [tetevamit]


fin nor ;ritasard ;r axniw anaxniw xgou\, anxgou\, a,.atas;r ou\l aata];n vlat g;[;zik tg;[ g;r nifar ja'j'wa kokik jou. .art\a, bar]rafasak karyafasak fay;li tfay f;taqrqrakan ]an]rali f;taqrqras;r antarb;r ouv;[ jou\l qa=% anwa. wa.kot lour= j;jamit

old new young old honest dishonest careful, cautious careless diligent lazy generous stingy beautiful ugly fat slim sloppy neat dark (about people) blonde, fair tall short pleasant unpleasant interesting boring curious indifferent strong weak brave, fearless coward serious frivolous


A. VERBS I. THE MANDATIVE MOOD The mandative mood expresses actions or states considered by the speaker to be necessary and obligatory. There are four mandative tenses: 1. Mandative future I The mandative future I is a compound tense consisting of the modal particle piti or p;tq h and the personal forms of the base verb in the subjunctive future (see p. 150): subjunctive future: gr;m/kardam mandative future I: piti gr;m or p;tq h gr;m% piti kardam or p;tq h kardam& All regular verbs follow the pattern given below: SINGULAR
1st (;s) 2nd (dou) 3rd (na) piti or p;tq h + verb stem+;m/am piti or p;tq h + verb stem+;s/as piti or p;tq h + verb stem+i/a [piti or petk e + verb stem+em/am] [piti or petk e + verb stem+es/as] [piti or petk e + verb stem+i/a]

1st (m;nq) 2nd (douq) 3rd (nranq) piti or p;tq h+ verb stem+;nq/anq piti or p;tq h + verb stem+;q/aq piti or p;tq h + verb stem+;n/an [piti or petk e + verb stem+enk/ank] [piti or petk e + verb stem+ek/ak] [piti or petk e + verb stem+en/an]

MANDATIVE FUTURE I gr;l (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) piti piti piti piti piti piti or or or or or or p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq h h h h h h gr;m gr;s gri gr;nq gr;q gr;n piti piti piti piti piti piti or or or or or or kardal p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq h h h h h h kardam kardas karda kardanq kardaq kardan

2. Mandative past I The mandative past I is a compound tense that consists of the particle piti or p;tq h and the conjugated personal forms of the subjunctive past (see p. 151). subjunctive past: gr;i/karda\i mandative past I: piti gr;i or p;tq h gr;i% piti karda\i or p;tq h karda\i&

UNIT 8 All regular verbs follow the pattern given below: SINGULAR
1st (;s) 2nd (dou) 3rd (na) piti or p;tq h+ verb stem+;i/a\i piti or p;tq h + verb stem+;ir/a\ir piti or p;tq h + verb stem+;r/ar [piti or petk e + verb stem+eyi/ayi] [piti or petk e + verb stem+eyir/ayir] [piti or petk e + verb stem+er/ar]

1st (m;nq) 2nd (douq) 3rd (nranq) piti or p;tq h+ verb stem+;inq/a\inq piti or p;tq h + verb stem+;iq/a\iq piti or p;tq h + verb stem+;in/a\in [piti or petk e + verb stem+eyink/ayink] [piti or petk e + verb stem+eyik/ayik] [piti or petk e + verb stem+eyin/ayin]

MANDATIVE PAST I gr;l affirmative (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) piti piti piti piti piti piti or or or or or or p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq h h h h h h gr;i gr;ir gr;r gr;inq gr;iq gr;in piti piti piti piti piti piti or or or or or or p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq h h h h h h karda\i karda\ir kardar karda\inq karda\iq karda\in kardal

3. Formation of the negative paradigms For both the mandative future I and mandative past I, the negation particle c- is prefixed to piti or p;tq h% resulting in cpiti or cp;tq h + the corresponding subjunctive form. MANDATIVE FUTURE I negative (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)

MANDATIVE PAST I cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti or or or or or or cp;tq cp;tq cp;tq cp;tq cp;tq cp;tq h h h h h h karda\i karda\ir kardar karda\inq karda\iq karda\in

cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti

or or or or or or

cp;tq cp;tq cp;tq cp;tq cp;tq cp;tq

h h h h h h

gr;m gr;s gri gr;nq gr;q gr;n

UNIT 8 4. Mandative future II and the mandative past II In addition to the primary set of mandative paradigms, mandative future I and mandative past I, there are two secondary paradigms, which we will call mandative future II and mandative past II. They consist of the mandative future I and past I forms of the auxiliary verb lin;l (cf. piti lin;m and piti lin;i) respectively and the past participle (ending in -a or -aza) (see p. 236): gra or kardaza piti/p;tq h lin;m and gra or kardaza piti/p;tq h lin;i. All regular verbs follow the pattern given below: SINGULAR
1st pers. (;s) 2nd pers. (dou) 3rd pers. (na) participle in -a or -aza participle in -a or -aza participle in -a or -aza piti or p;tq h lin;m/lin;i piti or p;tq h lin;s/lin;ir piti or p;tq h lini/lin;r

1st pers. (m;nq) 2nd pers. (douq) 3rd pers. (nranq) participle in -a or -aza participle in -a or -aza participle in -a or -aza piti or p;tq h lin;nq/lin;inq piti or p;tq h lin;q/lin;iq piti or p;tq h lin;n/lin;in

MANDATIVE FUTURE II affirmative (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) gra gra gra gra gra gra piti piti piti piti piti piti or or or or or or p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq h h h h h h lin;m lin;s lini lin;nq lin;q lin;n


gra gra gra gra gra gra

piti piti piti piti piti piti

or or or or or or

p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq p;tq

h h h h h h

lin;i lin;ir lin;r lin;inq lin;iq lin;in

5. Formation of the negative paradigms For this secondary set of mandative paradigms, the negative particle c- is prefixed to piti or p;tq h% resulting in gra cpiti or cp;tq h lin;m etc. (mandative future II) and gra cpiti or cp;tq h lin;i% etc. (mandative past II).

UNIT 8 6. Uses of the mandative future I a) The mandative future I denotes actions or states anticipated by the speaker in the future. Compared to the indicative future (cf. gr;lou/kardalou ;m etc.), the action expressed by the mandative future I (cf. piti gr;m/piti kardam etc.) contains a sense of necessity or obligation, which at times can be perceived as an action contrary to the speakers wish: A\s tari banak piti/p;tq h gnam! This year I must go to the army. b) The modal particles piti% p;tq h are used as synonyms, although at times the forms with p;tq h express a stronger necessity. In the second person, p;tq h is widely used in orders: Dou p;tq h anmi=ap;s f;anas a\st;[iz! You must leave this place immediately. c) In certain contexts, mandative future I may also connote determination on the part of the speaker to carry out an action in the future: :s piti/p;tq h ,arounak;m im gore! I intend to continue my work. d) Used in the second person, in some contexts the mandative future I may also indicate a supposition or presumption: Enk;ro=s piti/p;tq h yanac;s! You must know my friend. e) At times, piti or p;tq h are followed by the conjunction or, which softens the mandatory meaning. Compare the translation: Enk;ro=s piti/p;tq h or yanac;s! You must certainly know my friend. 7. Uses of the mandative past I a) The mandative past I denotes a potential action or state that according to the speaker could have occured, but did not. Hence the negative meaning of affirmative forms and the affirmative meaning of negative forms. Thus, piti gr;i I should have written implies cgr;zi I havent written and cpiti gr;i I shouldnt have written implies gr;zi I have written. Fa=ord kiraki na piti amousnanar! Next Sunday he was to get married. (In reality, he didnt get married.) b) As the mandative past I indicates potential actions that did not occur, second-person forms are frequently used to express advice or a reproach:

UNIT 8 A\d toune piti gn;ir! You should have bought that house. (You were going to, but didnt.) This can be expressed by shorter sentences, such as: Piti gn;ir! You should have bought (it). A\d bane cpiti an;ir! You shouldnt have done that.

c) The mandative past I may also refer to the present time to express wishes and desires in a more polite manner. In that sense, it corresponds to the English I would ... or I wouldnt...: Piti .ndr;i% or f;ts ga\ir! I would ask you to come with me. 8. Uses of the mandative future II a) The mandative future II indicates an action that in the speakers mind must be completed at a certain point in the future: Minc wa[e a\s a,.atanqe p;tq h awarta lin;m! By tomorrow I must have this work completed. b) Used in the second person, the mandative future II can be synonymous with the imperative mood, indicating an order or a strong demand for an action to be completed at a certain point in the future: Vame 12-in drame b;ra piti lin;s! By 12 oclock you must have brought the money. c) In some contexts, the mandative future II can express an action that according to the speakers conviction or guess must have been completed at the time of speech: Na wa[ouz p;tq h gnaza lini! He must have gone long ago. 9. Uses of the mandative past II a) The mandative past II indicates an action that should have taken place in the past but failed to do so: Namake minc fima piti/p;tq h grwa lin;r! The letter should have been written by now. b) The very meaning of failure imparts to the statement a sense of wrong-doing. Hence the recurrent use of the mandative II in reproaches to others, as well as to oneself. It can be rendered in English by should have, shouldnt have, etc.

UNIT 8 };x piti/p;tq h xangafara lin;i! I should have phoned you. (But I didnt.) A\d bane in] cpiti/cp;tq h asa lin;ir! You shouldnt have told me that. (But you did.) II. THE NOMINALIZED INFINITIVE The Armenian infinitive is readily nominalized and it is used in two forms: a) with the definite article -e/-n b) with the possessive articles -s% -d% -e/-n ;rg;l to sing ;rg;le the singing .a[al to play .a[ale the playing .os;l to speak .os;le the speaking ;rg;ls my singing .a[ald your playing .os;le his/her speaking

The nominalized infinitive is declined like a regular noun following the -ou declension. Below is the declension paradigm of the infinitive with the definite article -e/-n in the singular:* SINGULAR Nom./Acc. Gen./Dat. Abl. Instr. ;rg;le ;rg;lou(n) ;rg;louz ;rg;low .a[ale .a[alou(n) .a[alouz .a[alow .os;le .os;lou(n) .os;louz .os;low

Below is the declension paradigm of the infinitive used with the possessive articles -s% d% -e/-n in the singular: SINGULAR Nom./Acc. Gen./Dat. Abl. Instr. ;rg;ls ;rg;lous ;rg;louzs ;rg;lows .a[al .a[alous .a[alouzs .a[alows .os;ls .os;lous .os;louzs .os;lows

* The plural paradigm is restricted to colloquial speech.


UNIT 8 Uses of the nominalized infinitive The nominalized infinitive ending with the definite article -e/-n is used as an abstract noun indicating an action or state. In this usage, the nominalized infinitive has much in common with the English gerund: .;le wnasakar h! Smoking is harmful. Apr;le arw;st h! Living is an art.

Nominalized infinitives are readily declined and fulfill various functions in sentences: Anzar aanz in] nkat;lou! You passed without noticing me. Lalow ocinc c;s 'o.i! By crying you wont change anything.

In the first sentence, the verb nkat;l is in the dative case as required by the preposition aanz without. In the second sentence, the verb lal appears in the instrumental case. With an attribution to a person, the nominalized infinitive appears with a noun in the genitive case or the possessive adjective im% qo% nra% etc. Most commonly, however, it is used with the possessive article -s, -d, -e/-n (see Unit 3, p. 55). It functions as a verbal noun that indirectly refers to a persons action or state. These personalized infinitives can transform complete sentences into nominal phrases designating facts. Compare: :r;.an ard;n qa\loum h! The child is already walking. Nranq ou,anoum ;n! They are late. Dou .o#um ;s! Are you smoking? Nor toun gn;zir! You bought a new house. Annan ci patas.anoum! Anna is not answering. :r;.a\i qa\l;le m;x oura.azr;z! The childs walking made us happy. Nranz ou,anale in] mtafogoum h! Their being late worries me. .;ld in] xarmazr;z! Your smoking surprised me. Nor toun gn;ld law lour h! Your buying a new house is good news. Nra;le tarrinak h! Her not-answering is strange.

When derived from a transitive verb, these nominalizations may take a direct object:

Nominalized infinitives can also be prefixed with the negation marker c-:

Personalized formations appear also with case markers, as governed by a verb, preposition or postposition: i Fiwandanaloud masin in] cfa\tn;zin! (fiwandanal in genitive +d) They didnt inform me about your falling ill. M;kn;louzs f;to am;n inc 'o.w;z! (m;kn;l in ablative +s) After my departure everything changed.

UNIT 8 B. ADJECTIVES 1. Functions of adjectives As in many languages, Armenian adjectives are used 1) as modifiers of nouns, such as ao[= healthy in ao[= ;r;.a healthy child (attributive function); 2) complements to a copular verb, as fam;[ tasty in ya,e fam;[ h the meal is tasty, or ouv;[ strong in ouv;[ h jwoum he seems strong (predicative function); 3) as modifiers of verbs, indicating the manner in which an action is performed as law good in law ;n paroum they dance well (adverbial function). In all three functions, Armenian adjectives do not change forms. When used alone, however, to refer to people and things, Armenian adjectives function as nouns. As such, they can e n s d e n take on the definite article -e/-n, the possessive articles -s% -d% -e/-n, case markers n; according to the -i declension of nouns, and the plural ending -(n);re. e i s e EXAMPLES: lawe the good one, lawiz from the good one, laws or im lawe my good ; ; one, law;re the good ones, law;row with the good ones, etc. As with regular nouns, the n e definite article -n appears, rather than the common -e% after the final vowel of an adjective n n or after the final consonant, if the following word begins with a vowel: carn ou barin the evil and the good (see p. 283). When adjectives are used to refer to people in general, English and Armenian behave differently: While English uses only the singular, Armenian predominantly employs the plural: faroustn;re the rich, anwanin;re the famous, m;r ;ritasardn;re our young. Moreover, unlike English, where only selective adjectives can be nominalized in this role, Armenian knows almost no restrictions. 2. Comparison To indicate the extent or the degree of quality inherent to certain items, Armenian adjectives have three degrees of comparison: positive, comparative, and superlative. The positive degree is the plain form of adjectives as they appear in dictionaries: law good oura. joyous f;taqrqrakan interesting, etc. 1) The positive degree is used in constructions where two compared items, persons, or events are said to be equal or similar in quality. This is rendered in English by the correlative subordinators as ... as. For this purpose, Armenian uses two constructions. The first construction includes a\nqan &&&% orqan& nou\nqan &&&% orqan& a\nca' &&&% orca' as (much) ... as.

UNIT 8 Nra aa=in w;pe nou\nqan f;taqrqrakan h% orqan w;r=ine! His first novel is as interesting as the last one. The second construction for the positive degree uses the postpositions p;s or ca' that govern the dative case (see Unit 7, p. 158): Arame Arm;ni p;s a,.atas;r h! Aram is as diligent as Armen. 2) The comparative degree serves to compare two items according to greater or lesser degrees of quality. In Armenian, it is always a combination of the comparative aw;li more (for superiority) or nwax or pakas less (for inferiority) with the simple form of the adjective: g;[;zik beautiful aw;li g;[;zik more beautiful f;taqrqrakan interesting nwax or pakas f;taqrqrakan less interesting a) To introduce the second item of comparison, comparative constructions involve the word qan than: Aa=in karge aw;li jank h% qan ;rkrorde! The first row is more expensive than the second one. b) The second item of comparison can be shown in the ablative case: Aa=in karge ;rkrordiz (aw;li) jank h! The first row is more expensive than the second one. c) When adjectives hark back to an earlier sentence or clause for comparison, some sentence structures can be elliptic: Ma\rs mi,t fiwand hr% ba\z fa\rs aw;li ao[= chr! My mother was always ill, but my father was not much healthier. 3) The superlative degree indicates the highest or lowest degree in quality. There are three superlative constructions in Armenian. a) A construction consisting of am;niz of all and the plain form of the adjective: ;ritasard young dvwar difficult am;niz ;ritasard (the) youngest (of all) am;niz dvwar (the) most difficult am;nam; (the) biggest am;na;r=anik (the) happiest m;agou\n the biggest ouv;[agou\n the strongest

b) A derivation consisting of the superlative prefix am;na- and the plain adjective: m; big ;r=anik happy m; big ouv;[ strong

c) A derivation that combines the plain adjective with the superlative suffix -agou\n:

Some adjectives take both (b) and (c) constructions: am;nalaw and lawagou\n the best% am;nabar]r and bar]ragou\n the highest% am;nafin and fnagou\n the oldest% etc.

UNIT 8 C. PRONOUNS Declension of personal pronouns As in English, Armenian personal pronouns make distinctions in person (first, second, and third), number (singular and plural), and case (although in Armenian, there is a more extensive declension paradigm: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, and instrumental). The declension of personal pronouns in Armenian is more developed than that of nouns. Armenian personal pronouns, however, do not distinguish gender in the third-person singular (as in the English he/she/it), but have two sets of pronouns in the third person. SINGULAR
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

PLURAL I you (informal) he/she/it

2nd Person Plural

;s dou a) inq(e) b) na
1st Person Singular

m;nq we douq you (formal and plural) nranq they

1st Person Singular 2nd Person Plural

he/she/it/himself/herself ir;nq they, themselves

Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative Instrumental

;s im in] in] in](a)niz in](a)now

m;nq m;r m;x m;x m;x(a)niz m;x(a)now

dou qo q;x q;x q;x(a)niz q;x(a)now

douq ];r ];x ];x ];x(a)niz ];x(a)now

Form (a): Singular

3rd Person Plural Form (2): Singular


Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative Instrumental


inq(e) ir ir;n ir;n ir;niz ir;now

ir;nq ir;nz ir;nz ir;nz ir;nziz ir;nzow

na nra nran nran nraniz nranow

nranq nranz nranz nranz nranziz nranzow


The Armenian deictic system Deictic words (I, you, here, now, this, that, etc.) reflect the speakers proximity to things, people, time, and place. Languages express this proximity between speaker and reality in different ways. While standard English makes two distinctions (this/that, here/there, etc.), Armenian makes three (a\s/a\d/a\n% a\st;[/a\dt;[/a\nt;[% etc.).* This is illustrated in the table below where deictics indicate various distances from the speaker: (1) immediate proximity (a\s [ays] this near me); (2) moderate distance (a\d [ayt] that near you); (3) greater distance (a\n [ayn] that over there). 1. a\s [ays] 2. a\d [ayt] 3. a\n [ayn] 1. a\st;[ [aystegh] 2. a\dt;[ [ayttegh] 3. a\nt;[ [ayntegh] 1. a\sqan [ayskan] 2. a\dqan [aytkan] 3. a\nqan [aynkan] 1. a\sp;s [ayspes] 2. a\dp;s [aytpes] 3. a\np;s [aynpes]

Here is a table corresponding to the same group of deictics in English. 1. this 2. that 1. here 2. there 1. this much 2. that much 1. this way 2. that way

Consequently, there can be no exact equivalents in translation. As illustrated below, the Armenian groups (2) and (3) are reduced to a single category in English. 1. a\s girqe [ays girk] 2. a\d girqe [ayt girk] 3. a\n girqe [ayn girk]

this book that book

The recurring sounds associated with each of these three groups are s% d and n. Note that these sounds are always present in the Armenian deictic system, for instance, in the personal s s d e n pronouns ;s% dou% na; these sounds also constitute the possessive articles -s% -d% -e/-n& s 1. girqs [girks] my book d 2. girqd [girkt] your book e 3. girqe [girk] or girqn [girkn] his/her book

* Many non-standard English dialects have three demonstratives (cf. this, that, yon/yonder) corresponding to Early Modern English (cf. the Shakespearean here, there, yonder). Compare also the Spanish demonstratives este, ese, aquel and the Latin hic, iste, ille. 187



Formation of adjectives 1. The Armenian adjectival prefixes are: an- [an-], c- [ch-], dv- [dzh-], t- [t-], ap [ap-]. They correspond to the English prefixes un-, dis-, in- and the suffix -less. Of all the adjectival and nominal prefixes in Armenian, an- is the most productive. It is chiefly used to create antonyms derived from a) both radical and derived adjectives: maqour clean ka\oun steady fa=o[ successful patas.anatou responsible b) nouns: n,an sign m;[q guilt fot odor fou\s hope ann,an insignificant anm;[ innocent anfot odorless anfou\s hopeless anmaqour unclean anka\oun unsteady anfa=o[ unsuccessful anpatas.anatou irresponsible

Note that abstract nouns ending in -ouj\oun can be formed from most adjectives with the prefix an- (see Unit 3, p. 58). anfog careless anya,ak tasteless anm;[ innocent anpatiw dishonest anfogouj\oun carelessness anya,akouj\oun tastelessness anm;[ouj\oun innocence anpatwouj\oun dishonor, disgrace

The prefixes c-, dv-, t-% and ap- are less productive. They all have a negative meaning. c- : kam;nal to wish .os;l to speak ckam unkind c.oskan taciturn dvgof discontent dvgou\n pale tg;t ignorant tfay unpleasant aprini illegal apa,norf disgraceful

dv- : gof content gou\n color t- : git;nal to know fay;li pleasant

ap- : r;nq law ,norfq grace

Many of these adjectives can have parallel formations with the more productive prefix an-: ckam - ankam unkind, dvgou\n - angou\n pale, aprini - anr;n illegal, etc.

UNIT 8 2. The adjectival suffixes -ali [-ali]% -;li [-eli]% -akan [-akan]/-;kan [-ekan],-aki [-aki], -a\in [-ayin], -at [-at], -aw;t [-avet], -awor [-avor]/ -;wor [-avor], -awoun [-avun], -; [-e]/-\a [-ya], -;li [-eli], -;[ [-egh], -;ni [-eni], -ic [-ich], -ot [-ot]/-kot [-kot], -\al [-yal], -\an [-yan], -ou [-u], -oun [-un], etc. are productive, adding various meanings to the adjectives derived from nouns, verbs, numerals, etc. They correspond to the English adjectival suffixes, such as -ish, -(l)y, -ful, -able, fold, -en, etc. EXAMPLES: -ali -;li -akan -;kan -aki -a\in -at -aw;t -awor -;wor -awoun -; -\a -;[ -;ni -ic -ot -kot -\al -\an -ou -oun soskal to dread at;l to hate r day ,af profit baxoum many d air gou\n color bou\r scent m;[q guilt, sin oun;nal to have karmir red 'a\t wood apaki glass ouv strength ma\r mother foux;l to move \ou[ grease wa. fear orak;l to qualify ar;lq East fat;l to cut fnc;l to sound soskali dreadful at;li detestable rakan daily ,af;kan profitable baxmaki manyfold da\in aerial gounat pale bouraw;t fragrant m;[awor guilty, sinful ounor wealthy karmrawoun reddish 'a\t; wooden apak\a made of glass ouv;[ strong ma\r;ni maternal fouxic moving (emotionally) \ou[ot greasy, fat wa.kot fearful, faint-hearted orak\al qualified, high-quality ar;l\an Eastern fatou sharp fncoun sounding,



Armenian diphthongs Diphthongs are defined as the combination of two vowels that are pronounced as a complex but unsegmentable, gliding speech sound that makes up one syllable. For instance, the English ai in pain, oy in toy, oa in boat, etc. Armenian does not have diphthongs in the classical sense of the term. It combines, however, one vowel (a% ;% o% ou) with the semi-vowel \ to produce a sequence of two sounds that can in some positions within words be perceived as one syllable. There are two such sound combinations: a) vowel+\ a\ [y]: ba\ [by] verb, a\ [yts] goat, ]a\n [dzyn] voice \ ;\ [y]: j;\ [ty] tea, f;@ [hy] hey! (exclamation) o\ [y]: .o\ [khy] ram, No\ [Ny] Noah ou\ [y]: lou\s [lys] light, bou\n [byn] nest% qou\r [kyr] sister b) \+vowel \a [ya]: \amb [yamb] iamb, k\anq [kyank] life, ka\an [kayan] station, etc. \; [ye]: ;s [yes] I, [yev] and, wa\;l;l [vayelel] to enjoy, etc. \i [yi]: kga\i [kgayi] I would come, mardka\in [martkayin] human, etc. \o [yo]: \oj [yot] seven, ard\oq [artyok] who knows?, etc. \ou [yu]: \ou[ [yugh] oil% f\our [hyur] guest, ard\ounq [artyunk] result, etc. \e [y]: ba\e [bay] the verb% .o\e [khoy] the ram, etc. Of the two groups of sound combinations listed above, those under (a), i.e. vowel+\% are closest to sounds commonly known as diphthongs. However, these sound combinations can be easily segmented in Armenian, whereas in English they cannot. This occurs when new syllables starting with another vowel are added and the stress is shifted to the next syllable. In this case, according to Armenian hyphenation rules, the vowels are separated from \. Compare: ba\ [by] verb - ba-\;r [ba-yr] verbs, j;\ [ty] tea - j;-\i [te-y] of the tea, No-\an Tapan [No-yan Tapan] Noahs Ark, etc. This is how the sound combinations listed above under (b), i.e. \+vowel, can be generated: Fa-\astan [Ha-yastan] Armenia fa-\;r [ha-yer] Armenians fa-\ordi [ha-yorti] son of an Armenian fa-\ouj\oun [ha-yutyun] Armenian race fa-\e [ha-y] the Armenian (person)

from fa\ [hay] Armenian


The spelling of Armenian diphthongs In addition to the combinations a\% ;\% o\% ou\% diphthong-like compound sounds [ey], [ye], [oy], [yo], etc., (see previous page) can result from a variety of other spellings. Here are the most common ones: [ey] is spelled not only ;\ but also h\ in initial position of words of foreign origin (cf. H\`;l Eiffel) [oy] is spelled not only o\ but also \ in initial position of words of foreign origin (cf. \stra. Oistrakh) [ya] is mostly spelled \a, but also ia as in wkianos [ovkyanos] ocean, f;qiaj [hekyat] fairy tale and ;a in fr;a [hrya] Jew, etc. [ye] is predominantly spelled ; in initial position and \; within words (cf. na\;l)% but also as i; as in Wi;tnam [Vyetnam] Vietnam, pr;mi;r [premyer] premier, etc. [yi] is mostly spelled \i after a (cf. ama\i)& It also appears in word forms such as hi [eyi] I was, kas;i [kaseyi] I would say, etc., and in some proper names after a followed by i: Nairi [Nayiri], Aida [Ayida], etc. [yo] is normally spelled \o (cf. \oj)% but also io as in adio [adyo] radio, as well as in certain word forms such as rop;ow [ropeyov] with/by the minute, ]iow [dziyov] by horse, etc. [yu] is regularly spelled \ou (cf. ]\oun), but also iou as in amonioum [amonyum] amonium, z;lsious [tselsyus] Celsius, etc. It also occurs before the suffix of abstract nouns -ouj\oun as in margar;ouj\oun [markareyutyun] prophecy, .ab;ouj\oun [khapeyu tyun] fraud, etc. [y] never occurs initially and medially in Armenian words. It appears only in final position when the definite article e is added to nouns ending in -\: j;\e [tey] the tea% fa\e [hay] the Armenian (person), etc. The sound combination \e [y] is never stressed (see Unit 1, p. 17). All above-mentioned two-sound sequences are segmentable into two syllables and therefore cannot be considered diphthongs: mi-ak [mi-yak] the only, fr;-a [hr-ya] Jew, ti-;x;rq [ti-ye-zerk] universe, ]i-awor [dzi-ya-vor] rider, mi-ouj\oun [mi-yutyun] union, Oukra-ina [Ukra-yi-na] Ukraine, Nairi [Na-yi-ri], stadion [stadiyon], ]iow [dzi-yov], etc.


1. Combine words from the left column with appropriate words from the right column. a. A\s toune nor h% b. A\s a[=ike c. Nou\nqan oura. ;m d. Nor ousano[e e. A\s ;r marde f. Sa am;najank g. Ma\rs fiwand h% a\n a[=kaniz aw;li g;[;zik h! ;ritasardn;riz aw;li ouv;[ h! am;nabar]r jo,ake stazaw! ba\z fa\rs hl ,at ao[= ch! orqan or dou! ba\z m\ouse aw;li nor h! tn;riz m;kn h!

2. Form mini-dialogues according to the patterns in a, b, c, and d. Replace the items tnr;n/;ritasard with a,ak;rt/a,.atas;r% ousano[/.;lazi% gnakan/ maqras;r% a,.ato[e/lour=% etc. a. b. c. d. A. A\nt;[ kangna h m;r nor tnr;ne! B. };r tnr;nn a\sqan ;ritasa#rd h! A. Nor tnr;ni f;t anojaza#r! B. A\o*% orqa@n ;ritasard h! A. M;r nor tnr;nin t;sa#r! Fawano#um ;s! B. A\o*% ,at aw;li ;ritasard h% qan m;re! A. O#rn h ];r tnr;ne! B. Am;niz ;ritasarde!

3. Answer the questions, using antonyms. Follow the pattern. a. A\s ,;nqe ,at fin h% ch#! O*c% endfakaake^ nor h! b. A\s a[=ike g;[;zik h% ch#! O*c% endfakaake^ &&& c. Ousano[e .;lazi h% ch#! O*c% endfakaake^ &&& d. A\s farze karor h% ch#! O*c% endfakaake^ &&& e. Fa\;r;ne dvwar h% ch#! O*c% endfakaake^ &&& f. A\s dase f;taqrqrakan h% ch#! O*c% endfakaake^ &&& g. Arm;ne mi qic ou\l h% ch#! O*c% endfakaake^ &&& 4. Answer the questions according to the pattern. a. A\s girqe ja#nk h! A\o*% aw;li jank h% qan karoum hi! Am;najank grq;riz h! b. A\s a,ak;rtn a,.atas;#r h! A\o*% aw;li &&&

UNIT 8 c. A\s .mor;[;ne fam;#[ h! A\o*% &&& d. A\s bvi,ke la#wn h! A\o*% &&& e. Toune fi#n h! A\o*% &&& f. S;n\ake lousawo#r h! A\o*% &&& g. Dase dvwa#r h! A\o*% &&& h. Fa\;r;ne f;#,t l;xou h! A\o*% &&& 5. Use the nominalized infinitive according to the pattern. a. S iroum ;m kardal! Kardal sir;ls bolore git;n! b. Na mi,t ou,anoum h! Nra mi,t &&& in] n;[aznoum h! c. Fa\astani mrg;re fam;#[ ;n! Fa\astani mrg;ri fam;[ &&& ;s git;i! d. A\s marde ,at wka\akann;r ouni! A\s mardou wka\akan &&& karor ch! e. Dou s;n\ak mta#r! S;n\ak &&& ct;sa! f. Na ,at qa[aqawari h! Nra qa[aqawari &&& karor h! g. Bvi,k kanc;zi! Bvi,k &&& gn;z! 6. Replace the words in boldtype with personal pronouns in the appropriate case. a. A\d marde a,.atakizs h! :s nran wa[ouz ;m yanacoum! b. M;r katoun ;r h% a\ls mouk ci bnoum% ba\z m;nq &&& ,at ;nq siroum! c. :r;.an;re ;kan! Dou &&& t;sa#r! d. A\d kine ousouzcoufis h! :s &&& hi spasoum! e. <oune facoum h! :s &&& wa.;noum ;m! f. Gitnakane gnakan h 'ntroum! &&& wka\akann;re karor c;n! g. Enk;roufis ,at l;xoun;r giti% ba\z &&& ma\r;ni l;xoun fa\;r;nn h! 7. Insert the appropriate forms of the verbs ;m% lin;m or kam. a. Mtaoum ;m% our;mn &&& (I exist) b. A\s qa[aqi m;= law jatronn;r &&& (there are no) c. Kiraki r;re na tane &&& ([usually] is not) d. :j; fima gnas% na a\nt;[ &&& (is expected to be) e. "o[ozn;roum ,at mardik &&& (there are) f. Qani# ousano[ dasi &&& (are usually) am;n r! g. :j; m;x 'ntr;n% m;nq a\st;[ &&& (are not) 8. Complete the sentences following the pattern. a. Inco#u c.os;zir! P;tq h .os;ir!

UNIT 8 b. Inco#u cgn;zir! P;tq h &&& c. M;q;nan cnkat;zi! P;tq h &&& d. Krkin ou,azar! Cp;tq h ou,ana\ir! e. Arm;ne ,out gnaz qn;lou! Cp;tq h &&& f. <at k;ra! Cp;tq h &&& g. Arm;ne ,at .m;z! Cp;tq h &&& 9. How would you say it in Armenian? a. Describe the appearance of your best friend. b. Describe the character of your best friend. c. Describe yourself. 10. You would like to know. You have missed your first Armenian class. You ask : i) a fellow student ii) an older participant in the course a. About the instructor b. About the classroom c. About the group d. About the textbook(s) e. About the assignments f. About the next class 11. Answer the following questions with reference to the TEXT in this unit. a. O#um hr 'ntroum gitnakane! b. Gitnakane gta#w m;kin! c. I#nc farzr;z gitnakanin nra bar;kamn;riz m;ke! d. I#nc ar;z ;ritasarde spasasrafoum! e. I#nc ar;z ;ritasarde gitnakani s;n\ak mtn;louz aa=! f. Incpisi# patas.ann;r tw;z ;ritasarde! g. Inco#u ;ritasarde bnoujagir coun;r! h. Incpisi# fou\s;r oun;r ;ritasarde!



Law h gitounin g;ri% qan ang;tin sir;li! [Lav e gitunin geri, kan angetin sireli] Better to be a wise mans slave than a fools friend. <at anou, h% take 'ou, h! [Shat anush e, tak push e] (If) its very sweet, theres a thorn underneath. (Message: Beware of two-faced people.) Anou, l;xoun m;[riz anou, h! [Anush lezun meghrits anush e] A sweet tongue is sweeter than honey. <at lawe 'ntro[e ,at watin kfandipi! [Shat lav pntrogh shat vatin khandipi] He who searches for the best will encounter the worst.


Unit 9
Bnouj\oun% a[ikn;r k;ndanin;r

atx? Yx? tw T|t

On the Agenda


Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary: Grammar:

Discussing weather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198 Nature, flowers, trees, animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202 VERBS: 1. Resultative constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . .205 2. Two-part verbs or phrasal verbs . . . . . . .207 NOUNS: The locative case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209 PRONOUNS: Interrogative and relative pronouns . . . .210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211

Armenian-English Contrasts: The relative pronoun or(e) Word formation: Pronunciation: Orthography:

Formation of adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212 Connecting words that belong together (liaison) . . .213 Hyphenation in Armenian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215


A and B are roommates discussing the weather. 1. IN SPRING A. B. I@nc fianali ;[anak h a\sr! [Inch hianali yeghanak e aysor!] W;r=ap;s garoun h! a;re [Verchapes, garun e. Tsaer ] kanac;l ;n% a[ikn;re^ bazw;l! [kanachel en, tsaghikner batsvel] A. A\s tarwa ]m;e mi qic [Ays tarva dzme mi kich] ;rkar hr! Arin karot mnazinq! [yerkar er. Arevin karot mnatsink] B. A. Ba\z ,outow ,ogn sksw;lou h! [Bayts shutov shokn sksvelu e] I@nc kary h Fa\astani garoune! [Inch karch e Hayastani garun!] What wonderful weather we are having today! Finally, its spring. The trees have become green, flowers have opened. This past winter lasted a bit too long. Weve missed the sun. But soon the hot weather will start. Spring in Armenia is so short!

2. IN SUMMER A. I@nc taq h a\st;[! [Inch tak e aystegh!] Patoufane cbaz;#nq! [Patuhan chbatsenk?] B. A. B. O*c% drsoum aw;li taq h! [Voch, drsum aveli tak e] Ba\z a\nt;[ dn aw;li maqour h! [Bayts ayntegh otn aveli makur e] A\o*% ba\z a\sr .onaw h! [Ayo, bayts aysor khonav e] Its so hot in here! Shouldnt we open the window? No, its warmer outside. But the air is fresher out there. Yes, but its humid today.

3. IN FALL A. B.

Do#urs ;s galis! [Durs es galis?] A\o*% p;tq h gras;n\ak gnam! [Ayo, petk e grasenyak gnam]

Are you going out? Yes, I have to go to my office.

UNIT 9 A. B. A. An]r h galou! Na\i*r amp;rin! [Andzrev e galu. Nayir amperin] Oci*nc% an]ranoz oun;m! [Vochich, andzrevanots unem] Orotoum h% lso#um ;s! [Vorotum e, lsum es?] Taq fagir% zourt h! [Tak hakir, tsurt e] B. C;m mrsoum! [Indz hamar tsurt che] S iroum ;m xow ;[anake! [Sirum em zov yeghanak!] 4. IN WINTER A. B. A\sr ,at zourt h% mrsoum ;m! [Aysor shat tsurt e, mrsum em] Tasn astiyan xro\iz zar h! [Tasn astichan zroyits tsatsr e] :w i@nc ouv;[ qami h! [Yev inch uzhegh kami e!] Kar;s ]\oun h galou! [Kartses dzyun e galu] A. B. Mi* asa% nori#z ]\oun! [Mi asa, norits dzyun?] Mi* gangatwir! [Mi gangatvir!] A\s tari ]m;e m;[m h! [Ays tari dzme meghm e] A. Irawazi ;s! Mi,t nou\nn h& [Iravatsi es. Misht nuynn e] Amane ]m; ;nq 'ntroum% [Aman dzme enk pntrum,] ]mane^ ama! [dzman ama] Its very chilly today, Im cold. Its ten degrees below zero. And what a strong wind! It looks like it will snow. Dont tell me its going to snow again. Dont complain! Winter is mild this year. Youre right. Its always the same: In summer we long for winter, and in winter we long for summer.

Its going to rain. Look at the clouds! No problem, I have an umbrella. There is thunder, can you hear it? Put something warm on, its cold. I dont feel cold. I like cool weather.


Y<MARIT PATMOUJ|OUN T; mi a kar antai m;=! Mi r nra t;rn;re sks;zin d;[n;l& f;to bolore osk;gou\n dar]an ou m;k-m;k g;tin enkan! A,ounn hr% or kamazkamaz ja';l hr ai t;rn;re! Mi r hl ]\oun ;kaw% ou nra 'ajiln;re ak;zin m;rkaza y\ou[;re 'a'ouk w;rmaki p;s! Sa hl ]m;n hr% or ]\ounow ak;l hr ae! F;to ]\ounn anf;tazaw% ou m;[m mi fowik ,o\;z qna y\ou[;re! Apa are ag;z ou fambour;z y\ou[;re% oronq akw;zin bo[bo=n;row! Nranziz dours ;kan siroun t;rn;r ou a[ikn;r! Garounn hr% or ain fagzr;l hr nor fagoustn;r! I w;r=o a\d aiz ka.w;zin ptou[n;r% oronq p;s-p;s gou\n;row 'a\loum hin ari tak! :kan ;r;.an;r m;k a m;k pok;zin ptou[n;re! Aman hr% or ain tw;l hr oski ptou[n;r! Ba\z patmouj\oune a\st;[ ci w;r=anoum% qani or a\n am;n tari krknwoum h!

GARNAN KAROT Karot;l ;nq q;x% g;[;zi*k garoun% <ou*t ari m;x mot% b;*r taqouk r;r% B;*r pa\a ar% b;*r a[ik siroun% B;*r ;rgo[ jcoun% b;*r kanac da,t;r! Ba*z m;r srt;re% dou ou patoufan% Jo[ bazw;n% a[k;n ward% m;.ak% ,ou,an& "ak s;n\akn;riz dours ganq% axatw;nq% Kanac da,t gnanq% .a[anq% zatkot;nq!




y,marit [chshmarit] true, genuine patmouj\oun[patmutyun] story t; [terevakhit] full of leaves a [tsa] tree anta [anta] forest t;r [terev] leaf sel] sks;l [sk to start d;[n;l [deghnel] to turn yellow f;to [heto] after, then bolore [bolor] all of them osk;gou\n [voskeguyn] gold-colored danal [danal] to become m;k-m;k [mek-mek] one-by-one g;tin [getin] ground enkn;l [nknel] to fall a,oun [ashun] autumn kamaz-kamaz [kamats-kamats] slowly ja';l [tapel] to pour mi r hl [mi or el] and one day ]\oun [dzyun] snow 'ajil [patil] flake ak;l [tsatskel] to cover m;rkaza [merkatsats] naked y\ou[ [chyugh] branch 'a'ouk [papuk] soft w;rmak [vermak] blanket p;s [pes] like me] ]m; [dz winter anf;tanal [anhetanal] to disappear m;[m [meghm] mild fow(ik) [hov(ik)] wind ,o\;l [shoyel] to caress nats] qna [k asleep ar [arev] sun ag;l [tsakel] to rise fambour;l [hampurel] to kiss akw;l bo[bo= siroun a[ik fagzn;l i w;r=o ka.w;l ptou[ p;s-p;s 'a\l;l pok;l ama oski w;r=anal qani or krknw;l karot;l g;[;zik garoun ,o*ut ari b;r;l taq(ouk) pa\a ;rgo[ jcoun da,t baz;l jo[ bazw;l a[k;l ward m;.ak ,ou,an 'ak axatw;l zatkot;l [tsatskvel] to get covered [boghboj] bud [sirun] pretty [tsaghik] flower nel] [hagts to dress [i vercho] finally [kakhvel] to hang [ptugh] fruit [pes-pes] various [paylel] to shine [pokel] to pick [ama] summer [voski] gold(en) [verchanal] to end [kani vor] since [krknvel] to repeat itself [karotel] to miss [geghetsik] beautiful [garun] spring [shut ari] come soon! [berel] to bring [tak(uk)] warm [paytsa] bright [yerkogh] singing chun] [t bird [dasht] field [batsel] to open [togh] may, let [batsvel] to open up [tsaghkel] to bloom [vart] rose [mekhak] carnation [shushan] lily [pak] close [azatvel] to break away [tsatkotel] to jump around



:{ANAK amp(;r) m,ou,/maa.ou[ karkout saou\z ka\ak an]r iaan orot ;rkinq ]\oun 'ojorik/]\ounamrrik ar qami

[Yeghanak] [amp(er)] [mshush/maakhugh] [karkut] [sauyts] [kaytsak] [andzrev] [tsiatsan] [vorot] [yerkink] [dzyun] [potorik/dzyunamrrik] [arev] [kami] [Tsaghikner] [astghatsaghik] [mekhak] [margartatsaghik] [hasmik] [shushan] [hovtashushan] [vart] [kakach] [Tsaer] [nsheni] [khndzoreni] [tsiraneni] [kechi] [baleni]


cloud(s) fog hail ice lightning rain rainbow thunder sky snow storm/snowstorm sun wind

ast[aa[ik m;.ak margartaa[ik fasmik ,ou,an fowta,ou,an ward kakac


aster carnation daisy jasmine lily lily of the valley rose tulip

n,;ni .n]or;ni iran;ni k;ci bal;ni


almond tree apple tree apricot tree birch cherry tree


noyi j.k;ni/ ka[ni armaw;ni tan];ni ;[ni salor;ni nn;ni bardi k;as;ni enkoux;ni ou;ni

[nochi] [tkhkeni/tkhki] [kaghni] [armaveni] [tandzeni] [yeghevni] [saloreni] [nneni] [bardi] [keaseni] [nkuzeni] [ueni] [ntani kentaniner] [gomesh] [hort] [katu] [kov] [shun] [esh/avanak] [ayts] [dzi] [ga(nuk)] [khoz] [chagar] [vochkhar] [Tnayin tchunner] [deghtsanik] [chut] [aghavni] [bad] [sag]

cypress maple tree oak tree palm tree pear tree pine tree plum tree pomegranate tree poplar cherry tree walnut tree willow

gom;, forj katou kow ,oun h,/awanak a\ ]i ga(nouk) .ox yagar

buffalo calf cat cow dog donkey goat horse lamb pig rabbit sheep

d;[]anik yout a[awni bad sag

canary chick dove, pigeon duck goose



faw aqa[a[/aqlor fndkafaw joujak siramarg


[hav] [akaghagh/aklor] [hndkahav] [tutak] [siramarg] [Vayri tchunner] [agav] [artsiv] [baze] [kachaghak] [sokhak] [bu] [kakav] [lor(ik)] [chnchghuk] [saryak] [aragil] [tsitsenak] [anggh] [paytporik] [Vayri kentaniner] [arch] [pigh] [aghves] [ndzught] [napastak] [ayuts] [kapik] [ngeghjyur] [vagr] [gayl]

hen rooster, cock turkey parrot peacock


agaw ariw bax; kaca[ak so.ak bou kaqaw lor(ik) yny[ouk sar\ak aragil i;nak ang[ 'a\t'orik

crow eagle falcon magpie nightingale owl partridge quail sparrow starling stork swallow vulture woodpecker

ar= 'i[ a[w;s en]ou[t napastak a\ou kapik ng;[=\our wagr ga\l

bear elephant fox giraffe hare lion monkey rhinoceros tiger wolf


A. VERBS 1. Resultative constructions A limited number of neutral verbs and all passive verbs (ending in -w;l) form special syntactic constructions known as resultatives. The resultative constructions consist of the auxiliary verb ;m in the present and imperfect tenses respectively and the past participle ending in -a. Resultative constructions denote the state of a subject resulting from previous actions and lasting up to the present ([;s] nsta ;m I am sitting, [a\n] kaouzwa h it is built, etc.), or lasting until some point in the past ([;s] fogna hi I was tired, [dou] qna hir you were asleep, [na] kapwa hr he/she was attached, etc.) All types of verbs listed above follow the pattern below: SINGULAR 1st pers. (;s) 2nd pers. (dou) 3rd pers. (na) infinitive stem + -a ;m/hi infinitive stem + -a ;s/hir infinitive stem + -a h/hr PLURAL 1st pers. (m;nq) 2nd pers. (douq) 3rd pers. (nranq) infinitive stem + -a ;nq/hinq infinitive stem + -a ;q/hiq infinitive stem + -a ;n/hin Present fouxw;l Affirmative hi hir hr hinq hiq hin Negative (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) nsta nsta nsta nsta nsta nsta c;m c;s ch c;nq c;q c;n nsta nsta nsta nsta nsta nsta chi chir chr chinq chiq chin fouxwa fouxwa fouxwa fouxwa fouxwa fouxwa c;m c;s ch c;nq c;q c;n fouxwa fouxwa fouxwa fouxwa fouxwa fouxwa chi chir chr chinq chiq chin

[-ats em /eyi] [-ats es /eyir] [-ats e /er] [-ats enk/eyink] [-ats ek/eyik] [-ats en/eyin] Past to be moved ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n fouxwa fouxwa fouxwa fouxwa fouxwa fouxwa hi hir hr hinq hiq hin

Present Past nst;l to sit down (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) nsta nsta nsta nsta nsta nsta ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n nsta nsta nsta nsta nsta nsta

fouxwa fouxwa fouxwa fouxwa fouxwa fouxwa

UNIT 9 2. Uses of resultative constructions Resultative constructions can be formed from verbs expressing the following meanings: 1) various positions of the body: nst;l to sit down% pak;l to lie down% kangn;l to stand up, enkn;l to fall down% ka.w;l to hang% etc. 2) emotional and physical states: barkanal to get angry, fogn;l to get tired% m;n;l to die% .ow;l to get upset% xarmanal to stun, fousafatw;l to despair, etc. 3) passive verbs derived from transitive verbs by adding the infix -w- (see p. 154): fouxw;l to be moved% ogorw;l to get excited% kaouzw;l to be built% gtnw;l to be found% etc. While Armenian present tense constructions (see pp. 10-11) express actions in progress, resultative constructions denote a state that resulted from a prior action or process. Let us compare parallel forms of the same verbs. Present indicative nstoum ;m barkanoum h kaouzwoum h I am sitting down he/she is getting angry it is being built Present resultative nsta ;m I am sitting barkaza h he/she is angry kaouzwa h it is built

As can be seen, the word order in both the -oum [-um] and -a [-ats] constructions coincides in affirmation. It differs, however, in negation. c;m nstoum I am not sitting down But: nsta c;m I am not sitting ci* b a rkanoum he/she is not getting angry But: barkaza ch he/she is not angry ci kaouzwoum it is not being built But: kaouzwa ch it is not built A closer look at the resultative constructions reveals a difference in temporal meaning depending on the semantics of the base verb. While resultative constructions of verbs denoting human states express present time (qna ;n they are sleeping [now], fogna ;n they are tired [now], etc.), passive verbs of action express past time (kaouzwa ;n they are built, awartwa ;n they are completed, etc.). This allows to express all three dimensions of time: PAST kaouzwa h (it) has been built PRESENT kaouzwoum h (it) is being built FUTURE kaouzw;lou h (it) is going to be built

The same distinction holds for the imperfect forms of resultative constructions: kaouzwa hr (it) was built kaouzwoum hr it was being built kaouzw;lou hr it was going to be built

*Note that the two paradigms, affirmative and negative, differ not only in the word order but also in the way negation of the 3rd person singular is formed: ci vs. ch.


UNIT 9 3. Phrasal or two-part verbs Besides regular verbs, like gr;l or kardal, Eastern Armenian makes extensive use of phrasal or two-part verbs. Phrasal verbs derive from short verbs that indicate movement and common activities (gnal% gal% tal, an;l, etc.) and a complementary word. Many of them have, both in form and content, counterparts in English: n;rs gal to come in, wa\r enkn;l to fall down, w;r k;nal to get up, f;t gal to come back, etc. However, Armenian has by far a greater inventory of such verbs. Phrasal verbs are present in both written and spoken Armenian, but are most typical of informal and colloquial speech. The two parts are perceived as a whole and can often be replaced by another verb with the same meaning: laz lin;l - lal to cry, par gal - par;l to dance, jou\l tal - jou\latr;l to allow, .a[ an;l - .a[al to play, lou mnal l;l to be silent, etc. Such parallel formations can differ slightly in meaning or style: qa, tal to drag - qa,;l to pull, foup tal to push - fp;l to touch, ja' tal to shake - ja';l to pour out, to spill, etc. Some Armenian two-part verbs are have no solid counterpart in Armenian. Compare: zou\z tal to show, kang an;l to stop, ];q b;r;l to obtain, ;r;s tal to spoil (cf. about children), m;= b;r;l to cite% etc. Armenian two-part verbs consist usually of a short verb and a complementary word of any provenance: a noun (]a\n tal to call, wr;v an;l to avenge, ];q tal to touch, etc.), an adverb (m;= b;r;l to cite, n;rs gal to come in, aa= gal to emerge, etc.), an adjective (baz an;l to open, m; .os;l to brag, lou mnal to be silent, etc.), an exclamation (a. qa,;l to long for, wa\ an;l to deplore etc.), etc. In such formations, the base verb is conjugated while the complementary word remains unchanged: baz ;m anoum I open% ]a\n ;m talis I call% m;= ;nq b;r;lou we will cite% a' ;n tw;l they applauded% wa\r ;n enk;l they fell down, etc. Note here the obligatory inverted word order in complex tenses with the auxiliary verb always preceding the participle (see p. 35). There are also two-part verbs consisting of two verbs usually combined by a hyphen. These combinations express two simultaneous or consecutive actions that are perceived as a unity. Due to the dynamism that such formations impart to speech, they are more popular in colloquial use: out;l-.m;l to feast (literally: to eat+to drink), as;l-.os;l to chat (literally: to say+to speak), ;';l-ja';l to cook abundantly (literally: to cook+to pour), an;l-tal to argue (literally: to take+to give), gal-fasn;l to come all the way (literally: to come+to reach), an;l-'a.c;l to escape (literally: to take+to flee), jo[n;lf;anal to get away (literally: to leave+to depart), fagn;l-kap;l to dress up (literally: to wear+to tie), etc. As a rule, both parts are conjugated, appearing in the same tense: outoum-.moum ;nq we are having a feast, qa,;z-taraw he/she pulled (something) away, as;zin-.os;zin they chatted, (na) fag;l-kap;l h he/she is all dressed up, etc.


akan= dn;l angir an;l anz k;nal acq gz;l acqow tal aa= b;r;l aa= gal aa= tan;l aa= qa,;l bar tal baz an;l glou. b;r;l glou. gal glou. fan;l gl.i enkn;l d;m gnal d;m dn;l d;n n;t;l dour gal dours an;l dours gal ; gal ;r;s tal ;r;s an;l ja' tal j an;l jou\l tal xrou\z an;l laz lin;l .a[ an;l .ou\s tal a' tal kang an;l kargi b;r;l (f);t b;r;l

to listen to learn by heart to pass, to go away to glimpse to bewitch (by an evil eye) to create to emerge to further to promote to greet to open to bring about, to achieve to be achieved to come to terms to realize to oppose to resist to throw away to please to expel to exit, to come out to boil to spoil (a person) to get spoiled to shake to get encouraged to allow to chat to cry to play to avoid to applaud to stop to put in order to bring back

(f);t gal to come back (f);t mnal to fall behind (f);t an;l to take back foup tal to push, to squeeze ];q an;l to mock ];q b;r;l to obtain ];q tal to touch ];q m;kn;l to give a hand ];q qa,;l to give up man gal 1& to stroll; 2. to search man a;l to take smb. for a walk m;= b;r;l to cite, to quote m;= enkn;l to meddle, to interfere m;= qa,;l to drag smb. in mitq an;l to think, to contemplate mot gal to approach n;rs gal to come in n;rs qa,;l to drag in, to involve ,ou gal to turn over ,ou tal to turn otnako. an;lto trample par gal to dance sirt an;l to take courage, to dare sirt an;l to get encouraged sirt ma,;l to worry sirt tal to encourage sous k;nal to remain silent wax anzn;l to give up wa\r enkn;l to fall down w;r k;nal to stand up wr;v an;l to avenge take dn;l to appropriate zou\z tal to show 'oul gal to collapse 'o. tal to lend

UNIT 9 B. NOUNS 1. The locative case The locative case generally indicates the location where the action expressed by the verb is taking place. The Armenian locative has no equivalent case in English. Whereas English expresses locative meaning by a preposition such as in (cf. in school), at (cf. at home), etc., Armenian achieves the same effect by adding the locative case marker to nouns and some pronouns. The most common marker for the locative case is -oum% which is added to a nouns nominative singular or plural form. Compare: famalsaran university famalo o saranoum at the university, girq book grqoum in the book, qa[aqn;r cities qa[aqn;roum in the cities, fa\;lin;r mirrors fa\;lin;roum in the mirrors, etc. 2. Uses of the locative case Unlike other cases in Armenian, not all nouns can take the locative case. Due to the meano ing they express, some semantic groups of nouns lack the locative case ending in -oum: abstract nouns (like oura.ouj\oun joy, spasoum expectation, etc.), nouns denoting persons, both proper and common (like Aram Aram, fa\r father, tnr;n director, etc.), nouns not denoting location (like matit pencil, as;[ needle, moury hammer, etc.), the nominalized infinitive (like out;le the eating, apr;le the living) and many time expressions (like founwar January, ;r;q,abji Tuesday, gi,;r night, etc.). When the need for the locative meaning arises, the preposition m;= in is used with the noun in the genitive case: ,abajwa m;= in the week, oura.ouj\an m;= in the joy, out;lou m;= in eating, etc. In o many cases, the locative ending in -oum and the analytical construction noungen+m;= are interchangeable: a,.atanqoum acq;roumd im srtoum grq;roum or or or or a,.atanqi m;= acq;rid m;= im srti m;= grq;ri m;= in the work in your eyes in my heart in the books

In addition to nouns, many other parts of speech can take the locative case marker -oum. o These can be adverbs of place, such as a= up front a=oum in the front, w;r o o above w;roum at the top, f;t behind f;toum in the rear, etc. There are also many other parts of speech that take the locative case marker -oum, such as pronouns: da o o that dranoum in that, sa this sranoum in this, etc. Besides the locative of place, a locative of time is often used to indicate the time within o o which an action takes place: a\s daroum in this century, m;r vamanakn;roum in our o o o times, skxboum at the beginning, w;r=oum at the end, fing roum in five days, orqa#n o o vamanakoum within how much time?, k;s vamoum within half an hour, etc.

UNIT 9 C. PRONOUNS Interrogative and relative pronouns Interrogative pronouns are words with which particular questions are asked: o#w who?, i#nc what?, o#r which?, ou#r where?* (in which direction?), ort;#[ where?*, etc. Without the question mark, these words can serve as relative pronouns. Relative pronouns introduce relative sentences that refer to an antecedent in the main clause or complement certain sentence elements. Here are some of the most common interrogative pronouns and their corresponding relative pronouns in Armenian: O#r which? O#r nkarn ;s siroum! Which picture do you like? Sa a\n nkarn h% or siroum ;s! This is the picture you like. O#w who? O#w hr in] 'ntroum! Who was looking for me? Ow or q;x 'ntroum hr% gtaw! Whoever was looking for you, found you. I#nc what? I#nc ;s korzr;l! What have you lost? A\n% inc korzr;l ;s% a\st;[ ch! What youve lost is not here. Incqa#n how much? Incqa#n ;s wyar;l! How much did you pay? Incqan or wyar;l ;s% ;t kstanas! Youll get back as much as you paid. Ort;#[ where?* Ort;#[ ;s jo[;l entaniqd! Where did you leave your family? Sa a\n qa[aqn h% ort;[ jo[;l ;m entaniqs! This is the city where I left my family. O#ur where?* O#ur piti gna\ir! Where were you supposed to go? :s nranz zou\z tw;zi a\n t;[e% our piti gna\i! I showed them the place where I was supposed to go. :#rb when? :#rb mafazaw fa\rd! When did your father die? C;m moana a\n re% ;rb fa\rs mafazaw! Ill never forget the day when my father died. Incp;#s how? Incp;#s bazatr;m am;n inc! How should I explain everything? Cgit;m% incp;s bazatr;m am;n inc! I dont know how to explain everything. Inco#u why? Inco#u c;kar! Why didnt you come? C;m faskanoum^ incou c;kar! I dont understand why you didnt come.
* Armenian has two pronouns for the question where 1. Ort;#[ inquires about the location of someone or something: Ort;#[ ;s! Where are you? 2. O#ur presupposes motion or direction: O#ur gnaz! Where did he go? Compare the German wo? and wohin?



The relative pronoun or(e) in Armenian 1. The use of relative pronouns in relative clauses in Armenian and English reveals considerable differences. Thus, for the single pronoun or(e) in Armenian, English has a set of three relative pronouns: a) who, b) which, and c) that. Who refers to a personal antecedent, which to a non-personal one, while that does both or follows its own rules. Unlike English, however, Armenian makes a distinction between singular and plural, using or(e) for antecedents expressed in the singular and oronq for plural antecedents: Bvi,ke% or ;kaw &&& The physician who/that came ... A\n ,;nq;re% oronq a\rw;zin &&& Those buildings which/that burnt down ... 2. The English who has two declined forms (whose and whom), while the Armenian or(e) [vor()] has an extensive declension paradigm with two distinct sets for both the singular and the plural:

Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. Instr. Loc. or(e) ori orin orin or(e) oriz orow oroum [vor()] [vori] [vorin] [vorin] (person) [vor()] (non-person) [vorits] [vorov] [vorum]

oronq oronz oronz oronz oronziz oronzow oronzoum [voronk] [voronts] [voronts] [voronts] who, which, that whose, of which to whom, to which whom, which

[vorontsits] from whom, from which [vorontsov] with whom, with which [vorontsum] in whom, in which

Distinctions in case are made according to the government of the verb, distinctions in number according to the number of antecedents. Compare: T[an% orin t;sar% &&& The boy whom/that you saw, ... Kana\q% oronz f;t ;kar% &&& The women with whom you came, ... 3. While the English relative pronoun may be omitted when used as a direct object, the use of a relative pronoun in Armenian relative clauses is obligatory: Kine% orin siroum ;m% &&& The woman (whom) I love, ... 4. Armenian has also a set of indefinite relative pronouns consisting of two words: ow or whoever, oum or whomever, inc or whatever, etc. More expressive forms include the particle hl: ow hl or whoever, regardless of who, inc hl or whatever, no matter what etc.: Ow (hl) or ga% barow ga! Whoever comes, is welcome. Oum (hl) farzn;s% q;x kasi! Whomever you ask, he/she will tell you.



Formation of adverbs While adjectives primarily modify nouns, adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. In doing so, they describe how, when, where, and to what degree an action is performed. The most important types of adverb are: a) adverbs of manner b) adverbs of place c) adverbs of time d) adverbs of cause e) adverbs of measure (question: incp;#s [inchpes?] how?) (question: o#ur [ur?] /ort;#[ [vortegh?] where?) (see note on p. 210) (question: ;#rb [yerp?] when?) (question: inco#u [inchu?] why?) (question: orqa#n [vorkan?] how much?)

According to their formation, various categories of adverbs may be established: 1. Radical adverbs that cannot necessarily be identified as derivations from other words: ;rb;q [yerpek] never, a\st;[ [aystegh] here, dourse/drsoum [durs/drsum] outside, mi,t [misht] always, fima [hima] now, f;to [heto] after% etc. 2. Adverbs derived from adjectives by means of the following suffixes: -abar: bnakan [bnakan] natural bnakanabar [bnakanabar] naturally -aki: ou[i[ [ughigh] direct ou[[aki [ughghaki] directly -ap;s: a\l [ayl] other a\lap;s [aylapes] otherwise -owin: ambo[= [amboghch] entire ambo[=owin [amboghchovin] entirely -or;n: wstaf [vstah] sure wstafor;n [vstahoren] surely 3. Adjectives functioning as adverbs without affixes: ;rkar [yerkar] long ;rkar mnazir [yerkar mnatsir] you stayed (a) long time kamaz [kamats] slow, quiet kamaz qa\lir [kamats kaylir] walk slowly 4. Nouns with case markers: s;r [ser] love n;rka [nerka] present ;rg;l [yerkel] to sing faxal [hazal] to cough sirow [sirov] gladly (instrumental case) n;rka\oums [nerkayums] presently (locative case) ;rg;lis [yerkelis] while singing faxalis [hazalis] while coughing, etc. wax;low [vazelov] (by/in) running fousalow [husalov] hoping, etc. arag-arag [arag-arag] quickly kamaz-kamaz [kamats-kamats] slowly

5. A special participle ending in -is (see p. 237) indicates simultaneity of actions:

6. Many infinitives in the instrumental case can be used as adverbs of manner: wax;l [vazel] to run fousal [husal] to hope arag [arag] fast kamaz [kamats] slow

7. Repetition of adjectives or adverbs constitutes another productive model:

UNIT 9 8. Repetition of nouns, with the first part appearing in the ablative case: t;[ [tegh] place t;[iz t;[ [teghits tegh] from place to place (abl. case) a\r [tsayr] end a\riz a\r [tsayrits tsayr] from one end to the other b;ran [beran] mouth b;rn;b;ran [berneberan] from mouth to mouth

Connecting words that belong together (liaison) In Armenian, some words in an utterance stand out by means of stress while others remain in the background. Depending on their role in a sentence, i.e. whether they are lexical words (nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, numerals, pronouns) or grammatical (auxiliary verbs, conjunctions, particles, the indefinite article), words can be stressed or unstressed respectively. In the flow of speech, many grammatical words are more likely to be unstressed and they may be reduced to weak forms. As a result, in reading or speaking, two or three separately written words can be drawn together, using one stress and uttered all in the same breath. This phenomenon is referred to as liaison. 1. Liaison occurs when a stressed lexical word is followed by an unstressed grammatical word that usually starts with a vowel: anouns* h &&& [anns e] my name is ... axat h [azt e] he/she is free nranq hl [nrnk el] they, too 2. Liaison is particularly evident in comound verbal forms where auxiliary verbs starting in ; connect to participles of the conjugated verb:

Note that in the verbal forms above, the initial ; [ye] is pronounced [e], which is the typical pronunciation of ; in a medial position of words. Compare also the liaison of words other than verbs: o#w ;s (dou) oura. ;m [v es?] who are you? (informal you) [urkh em] I am glad

3. In complex verbal forms, when auxiliary verbs appear with the negative particle c- the stressed word is the auxiliary while the basic verb remains unstressed:
* Note that in this section the stress sign [ *] is used for phonetic purposes only, except for the prohibitive forms on the next page under 5.

( ( (

gnoum ;m &&& galis ;s par;l ;nq

[gnm em] I am going [gals es] you are coming (informal you) [parl enk] we have danced


UNIT 9 c;*m gnoum c;*s galis c;*nq par;lou c;*q .ostaz;l [chm gnum] I am not going [chs galis] you are not coming (informal you) [chnk parelu] we are not going to dance [chk khostatsel] you have not promised

4. In the mandative future, it is the participle that is stressed while the particle piti is unstressed:

However, when the particle piti appears with the negative c-, the stress shifts back: cpiti* goam [chpit goam] I am not going to scream cpiti* as;s [chpit ases] you are not going to say 5. In prohibitive constructions, it is the particle mi* that is emphasized: Mi* .osir [m khosir] Dont speak! Mi* gna [m gna] Dont go! 6. Liaison occurs also in the infinitive form of phrasal or two-part verbs (see pp. 207-208) where the non-verbal element is normally stressed while the verb itself is not: pa*r gal [pr gal] to dance zo*u\z tal [tsyts tal] to show xro*u\z an;l [zryts anel] to have a talk

( ( (

piti goa*m [piti gom] I am going to scream piti as;*s [piti ass] you are going to say it (informal you)

The same applies to all conjugated forms of these verbs where the stress remains always on the non-verbal part. Compare: pa*r ;kanq [pr yekank] we have danced zo*u\z tour [tsyts tur!] show me!

In all other cases in conjugation, when the pattern consists of three words, these are drawn together like one word with only a single stress on the non-verbal component:

7. Two-part conjunctions, with the second part being or or j;% stress only the first part: mia*\n j; [miyn te] only, kar;*s j; [kartss te] as if, f;*nz or [hnts vor] as soon as, qani* or [kan vor] since, etc.

( ( ( (

pa*r ;nq galis [pr enk galis] we are dancing zo*u\z ;m tw;l [tsyts em tvel] I have shown

( ( ( (



Hyphenation in Armenian To hyphenate words, Armenian uses the same sign (-) as English does. The following rules apply in Armenian: 1. One-syllable words such as toun house, l; mountain, lou silent, sounk mushroom, etc., are not divisible. 2. One consonant between two vowels is transferred to the next line: pa-ka-sou-j\oun default, n;-ro-[a-mit forgiving, etc. 3. Two consonants between two vowels are separated: par-tix-pan gardener, baxman-dam consisting of many members, etc. 4. Two vowels appearing in a compound word must be separated: mi-a-nal unite, h-ouj\oun essence, ti-;-x;rq universe, etc. 5. Three consonants between two vowels are divided by keeping the first two consonants together and transferring the third one to the next line: kang-n;l to stand, jarg-man translator, bar]-ranal to rise, to climb, etc. 6. The unwritten but pronounced e [] before and between consonants constitutes a syllable and must therefore be written when hyphenated: ger-k;l to embrace from grk;l, em-be-n;l to grasp from embn;l, 'er-'our foam from 'r'our, es-ke-s;l to start from sks;l, etc. 7. A lone letter cannot be transferred to the next line. 8. Compound words can be separated according to their components: anglou. headless as an-glou., a\sqan this much as a\s-qan, etc. 9. Compound words, with one consonant between two vowels, can be separated either according to their components or according to the general rule by which a consonant between two vowels is transferred to the next line: k;sr noon, midday as in k;s-r or k;-sr% g;ta' river shore as in g;t-a' or g;-ta', ow;x;rq seashore as in ow;x;rq or o-w;x;rq, '[oskr ivory as in 'e[-oskr or 'e-[oskr% etc. 10. Syllables containing the letter \ allow both choices: ank\oun corner as in an-k\oun or ank-\oun% dar]\al again as dar-]\al or dar]-\al, parxouj\oun as in parxou-j\oun or par-xouj-\oun, etc.


1. Combine words from the left column with appropriate words from the right column. }m;e A,oune Amae A\sr :r;.an;*r% Sour;*n% Paro*n Sar\an% .ndr;m% n;*rs fam;z;q! ]\oun h galis! ;k;*q .a[anq! ,at taq h! noriz ,at .onaw h! faya. an]r h galis! patoufane 'aki*r% zourt h!

2. Form mini-dialogues according to the patterns in a, b, and c. Replace the words in boldface with ]\oun gal% orotal% karkout gal% and qami 'c;l& a. b. c. A. I#ncp;s h ;[anake! B. An]r h galis! A. Do#urs ;s gnalou! B. A\o*% ard;n an]re dadar;l h! A. Ls;zi% or a\st;[ ,at an]r h galis! B. :s an]riz c;m wa.;noum!

3. Answer the following questions according to the pattern. a. Out;l ouxo#um ;s! O*c% ,norfakal ;m% ;s nor ;m k;r;l! b. A\s girqe kardaz;#l ;s! A\o*% nor &&& c. Na.aya,;l ouxo#um ;s! O*c% ,norfakal ;m% mi qic aa= &&& d. A\d kinonkare t;s;#l ;s! A\o*% anz\al ,abaj &&& e. M;x f;t soury .m;lo#u ;s! O*c% ,norfakal ;m% nor &&& f. Ouxo#um ;s fangstanal! O*c% ,norfakal ;m% k;s vam aa= &&& g. };q;rd ouxo#um ;s lwanal! O*c% ,norfakal ;m% &&& nor 4. Build sentences following the pattern. a. b. c. d. e. A\s namake ;s gr;zi! Sa a\n namakn h% or ;s gr;zi! A\s ,niz wa.;noum ;m! Sa a\n ,ounn h% oriz &&& Y\ou[;re ]\ounow akw;zin! S ranq y\ou[;rn ;n% &&& a[ikn;re dou b;r;zir! S ranq &&& :r;.an mrg;re k;raw! Sa &&&


UNIT 9 f. A\s danakow faze ktr;zi! &&& g. A\s ya,e dou fawan;zi#r! &&& 5. Complete the sentences, following the pattern. a. :s ;rb;q gini c;m .moum! Dou hl c.m;s! b. :s ;rb;q a\dp;s c;m .osoum! >ndr;m dou hl &&& c. :s ;rb;q c;m ou,anoum! T;*s or &&& d. :s a\dpisi t;[;r c;m gnoum! Clini or &&& e. :s ou,adir ;m! T;*s or &&& f. :s wa[ ;m xarjnoum! Piti .ndr;i% or &&& g. :s doue kamaz ;m 'akoum! :j; kar;li h% &&& 6. Translate. a. The weather is beautiful. Lets go out! b. Its a cloudy day. Stay at home! c. Its cold. Make sure you dont catch a cold! d. Itll rain. Take an umbrella with you! e. Its very windy and its freezing. Take a warm coat! f. There is thunder and lightning. Turn off the lights! 7. Form interrogative sentences with reference to the words in boldface. a. T; mi a kar antai m;=! b. A,oune astiyanabar ja';l hr ai t;rn;re! c. }\an 'ajiln;re ak;zin m;rkaza y\ou[;re! d. }m;e ]\ounow ambo[=owin ak;l hr ae! e. F;to are fambour;z arjnazo[ y\ou[;re! f. Garoune ain fagzr;l hr nor fagoustn;r! 8. How would you say it in Armenian? Discuss the weather in your country. a. In winter b. In spring c. In fall d. In summer 9. Complete the sentences by translating the words and phrases in parentheses. A,oun h! Are (sets early)% r;re karyanoum ;n (nights) ;rkaroum ;n! Arn a\ls ci taqaznoum a\np;s% incp;s (in summer)! :rkinqe faya. (cloudy) h%

UNIT 9 sae qami h 'coum (it rains)! a;ri t;rn;re (change their color) danoum ;n gou\nxgou\n^ d;[in% (brown)% karmir% (golden) narn=agou\n! Kar;s j; m;ke nranz n;rk;l h! (leaves fall) am;nour! Mi r hl (all the trees) m;rkanoum ;n! Mardik patrastwoum ;n (to receive) ]m;e% ]m;e ir (good and bad) ko[m;row! 10. Answer the following questions with reference to the TEXT in this unit. a. Incpisi# patmouj\oun h sa! b. I#nc kar antai m;=! c. I#nc ;[an ai t;rn;re mi r! d. }m;n i#nc ar;z! e. I#nc ;[aw% ;rb garoune ;kaw! f. :#rb ka.w;zin a;riz osk;nman ptou[n;re!

Loun ou[t mi* ,inir! [Lun ught mi shinir] Dont make a camel out of a flea! Ta*se ca'ir% m;*k ktrir! [Tas chapir, mek ktrir] Measure ten times, cut once! Kama*z gna% or ,out fasn;s! [Kamats gna, vor shut hasnes] Go slowly to arrive quickly. "oqri*z sksir% or m;in fasn;s! [Pokrits sksir, vor metsin hasnes!] Start with the small to arrive at the tall.


Unit 10

Ton;r vamanz [|wt tw exvxt|

On the Agenda ...

Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary: Grammar:

Extending and accepting invitations . . . . . . . . . . .220 Holidays and recreation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 VERBS: The hypothetical mood . . . . . . . . . . . 224 PRONOUNS: 1. Reciprocal pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . 230 2. Possessive pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . 230 3. Possessive forms of nouns . . . . . . 231 4. Definite pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 SYNTAX: Simple sentences in Armenian . . . . . .232 Negation in Armenian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234 Formation of participles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236 The vowel -e [] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Punctuation marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

Armenian-English Contrasts: Word Formation: Pronunciation: Orthography:


1. On the telephone. Lady A is inviting lady B to her house for supper. A. B. Bar* ];x% tiki*n Pal\an% do#uq ;q! Hello, Mrs. Palian, is that you? [Barev dzez, tikin Palyan, duk ek?] Bar*% tiki*n Sar\an! [Barev, tikin Saryan] Incp;#s ;q! I#nc ka-cka! [Inchpes ek? Inch ka chka?] A. Ourbaj ;r;ko axa#t ;q! [Urpat yereko azat ek?] Koux;i ];x ];r [Kuzeyi dzez yev dzer] amousnoun enjriqi frawir;l! [amusnun ntriki hravirel] B. A. B. M; fayou\qow kga\inq &&& % [Mets hachuykov kgayink...,] :r;ko\an vame \oje farma#r h! [Yerekoyan zham yot harmar e?] A\o*% ba\z m;nq m;nak c;nq% [bayts menk menak chenk,] f\our oun;nq ~ransia\iz& qou\rs h! [hyur unenk Fransiayits; kuyrs e] A. Oci*nc% ];r qro=n hl b;r;q! [Vochinch, dzer krochn el berek] Our;mn spasoum ;nq ];x! [Uremn spasum enk dzez] B. <norfakal ;nq! Minc ourbaj! [Shnorakal enk. Minch urpat] Hello, Mrs. Sarian. How are you? Whats new? Are you free on Friday night? I would like to invite you and your husband over for supper. We would come with great pleasure ... Does seven oclock in the evening suit you? Yes, but we are not alone. We have a visitor from France; its my sister. No problem, bring your sister along. So, were looking forward to seeing you. Many thanks! Till Friday!

2. A is inviting her friend B to a party for her parents 50th wedding anniversary. A. Gofa*r% koux;i#r kiraki re [Gohar, kuzeyir kiraki or] Gohar, would you like to come over


UNIT 10 in] a\z;l;l! Fawaqou\j oun;m! [indz aytselel? Havakuyt unem] B. A. S irow! I#nc aijow! [Sirov. Inch aitov?] Fors mors amousnouj\an [Hors yev mors amusnutyan] 50-rd tar;dar]n h! [hisunerort taredartsn e] Nranz famar anaknkal klini! [Nrants hamar anaknkal klini] B. A. B. A. B. A. A. Iskap;#s! Qani# fogou ;s frawir;l! [Iskapes? Kani hoku es hravirel?] Fisoun (fogou)! [Hisun (hoku)] A\dqan t;[ oun;#s! [Aytkan tegh unes?] M;r part;xoum h lin;lou! [Mer partezum e linelu] next Sunday? Im having a party. Gladly! Whats the occasion? Its my parents 50th wedding anniversary. Itll be a surprise for them. Really? How many people have you invited? Fifty (people). Do you have that much room? Itll be in our garden.

Karo#[ ;m q;x orh banow gn;l! May I help you with anything? [Karogh em kez voreve banov oknel?] <at ,norfakal ;m% [Shat shnorakal em] gnakan ,at oun;m! [oknakan shat unem] Thank you very much, I have a lot of help.

F;td fa\kakan ;rav,touj\oun b;r! Bring some Armenian music with you. [Hett haykakan yerazhshtutyun ber] B. Am;na\n sirow! [Amenayn sirov] Ouri, i#nc koux;ir% or b;r;m! [Urish inch kuzeyir, vor berem?] A. B. M; a.orvak! [Mets akhorzhak] Anpa\man kb;r;m! [Anpayman kberem] With great pleasure. What else would you like me to bring? A big appetite! Ill bring that for sure.


"OQRIK JOUJAKE Q;i fane mi joujak oun;r% ore .osoum hr! ;rounin nran ,at hr siroum wandaki m;= chr pafoum! Joujake axat jckotoum hr s;n\akoum chr jcoum dours! :rb ;rounin toun hr galis% s;n\aki doue baz hr anoum ou kancoum! "oqri*k joujak% ort;#[ ;s! Joujake patas.anoum hr& A\st;@[ ;m% a\st;@[ ;m! ;rounin oun;r farani t[a% anoune^ Gourg;n! Na faya. galis hr joujaki f;t .a[alou! Mi r% ;rb ;rounin tane chr% Gourg;ne ;kaw% bn;z joujakin grpane dr;z! :rb ouxoum hr gnal% n;rs mtaw ;rounin asaz& "oqri*k joujak% ort;#[ ;s! A\st;@[ ;m% a\st;@[%;z joujake Gourg;ni grpaniz!


q;i 'oqrik joujak ;rouni wandak paf;l axat jckot;l 'a.c;l kanc;l ort;#[ faran anoun bn;l grpan dn;l n;rs mtn;l

[kei] [pokrik] [tutak] [tseruni] [vandak] [pahel] [azat] [tchkotel] [pakhchel] [kanchel] [vortegh?] [harevan] [anun] [bnel] [grpan] [dnel] [ners mtnel]

uncle small parrot old man cage to keep free to fly around to escape, to flee to call where? neighbor name to catch pocket to put, to place to come in




[Toner] [taredarts] [knunk] [tsnndyan taredarts] [tonakhmbutyun] [Surp tsnund] [Zatik] [nshanadrutyun] [hayreri or] [hobelyan] [mayreri or] [Nor tari] [amusnutyan taredarts] [harsanik] [Zhamants] [parahandes] [chashkeruyt] [handes] [krkes] [mrtsutyun] [hamerg] [khrakhchank] [navagnatsutyun] [kerukhum] [arshav] [hyurasirutyun] [hraver] [tatron] [kino] [dashtagnatsutyun] [havakuyt, yerekuyt] [ptuyt] [artsakurt] [champortutyun]


tar;dar] knounq nnd\an tar;dar] tona.mbouj\oun Sourb nound Xatik n,anadrouj\oun fa\r;ri r fob;l\an ma\r;ri r Nor tari amousnouj\an tar;dar] farsaniq

anniversary, birthday baptism birthday anniversary celebration, gathering Christmas Easter engagement (party) Fathers Day jubilee Mothers Day New Year wedding anniversary wedding

parafand;s ya,k;rou\j fand;s krk;s mrzouj\oun fam;rg .ra.yanq nawagnazouj\oun k;rou.oum ar,aw f\ourasirouj\oun fraw;r jatron kino da,tagnazouj\oun fawaqou\j% ;r;kou\j ptou\t ar]akourd yam'ordouj\oun

ball, dance banquet ceremony, gala circus competition concert feast cruising, sea voyage feast hiking hospitality invitation theatre movie, cinema picnic gathering, (evening) party stroll, walk vacation, holiday voyage, trip


A. VERBS I. THE HYPOTHETICAL MOOD This mood expresses actions assumed to be hypothetical, yet probable and necessary. There are four hypothetical tenses: the hypothetical future I and II, the hypothetical past I and II. 1. Hypothetical future I a) The affirmative paradigm of the hypothetical future I is formed by prefixing the conjugated personal forms of the subjunctive future (see p. 150) with k-. Compare: subjunctive future: gr;m / kardam hypothetical future I: kgr;m / kkardam! All regular verbs follow the pattern given below: SINGULAR 1st pers. (;s) 2nd pers. (dou) 3rd pers. (na) k+ verb stem + ;m/am k+ verb stem + ;s/as k+ verb stem + i/a PLURAL 1st pers. (m;nq) 2nd pers. (douq) 3rd pers. (nranq) k+ verb stem + ;nq/anq k+ verb stem + ;q/aq k+ verb stem + ;n/an [k+ verb stem +enk/ank] [k+ verb stem + ek/ak] [k+ verb stem + en/an] [k+ verb stem +em/am] [k+ verb stem + es/as] [k+ verb stem + i/a]

b) The negative paradigm of the hypothetical future I is formed by combining the negated present forms of the auxiliary ;m c;m (see p. 236) with the negative participle of the base verb of the type gri and karda. Compare: c;m gri I will not write% c;m karda I will not read% etc. (see the paradigm below). HYPOTHETICAL FUTURE I gr;l kardal affirmative negative affirmative negative (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)

kgr;m kgr;s kgri kgr;nq kgr;q kgr;n

c;m gri c;s gri ci gri c;nq gri c;q gri c;n gri

kkardam kkardas kkarda kkardanq kkardaq kkardan

c;m karda c;s karda ci karda c;nq karda c;q karda c;n karda

UNIT 10 2. Hypothetical past I a) The hypothetical past I uses the personal forms of the subjunctive past (see p. 151) of the base verb, prefixing them with k-. Compare: subjunctive past: subjunctive past: gr;i karda\i hypothetical past I: kgr;i hypothetical past I: kkarda\i

All regular verbs follow the pattern below:

SINGULAR (;s) (dou) (na) k+ verb stem + ;i/a\i k+ verb stem + ;ir/a\ir k+ verb stem + ;r/ar PLURAL (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) k+ verb stem + ;inq/a\inq k+ verb stem + ;iq/a\iq k+ verb stem + ;in/a\in [k+ verb stem + eyink/ayink] [k+ verb stem + eyik/ayik] [k+ verb stem + eyin/ayin] [k+ verb stem + eyi/ayi] [k+ verb stem + eyir/ayir] [k+ verb stem + er/ar]

b) The negative paradigm of the hypothetical past I is analogous to the negative paradigm of the hypothetical future I. It combines the negated past forms of the auxiliary ;m% i.e. hi chi with the negative participle of the base verb: chi gri I would not write% chir karda you would not read% chinq .osi we would not speak, etc. (see below).

HYPOTHETICAL PAST I gr;l kardal affirmative negative affirmative negative (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) kgr;i kgr;ir kgr;r kgr;inq kgr;iq kgr;in chi gri chir gri chr gri chinq gri chiq gri chin gri kkarda\i kkarda\ir kkardar kkarda\inq kkarda\iq kkarda\in chi karda chir karda chr karda chinq karda chiq karda chin karda

UNIT 10 3. Hypothetical future II and hypothetical past II In addition to the two primary tenses of the hypothetical mood, hypothetical future I and hypothetical past I, there is a pair of secondary tenses, which we will call hypothetical future II and hypothetical past II. They combine the corresponding hypothetical future I and past I paradigms of the auxiliary verb lin;l (cf. klin;m and klin;i) with the past participle ending, in -a or -aza (see p. 236) of the base verb. EXAMPLES: gra klin;m / gra klin;i, kardaza klin;m / kardaza klin;i, etc. All regular verbs follow the pattern given below: SINGULAR (;s) (dou) (na) participle in -a or -aza klin;m/klin;i participle in -a or -aza klin;s/klin;ir participle in -a or -aza klini/klin;r PLURAL (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) participle in -a or -aza klin;nq/klin;inq participle in -a or -aza klin;q/klin;iq participle in -a or -aza klin;n/klin;in


gr;l or kardal (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) gra gra gra gra gra gra or or or or or or kardaza kardaza kardaza kardaza kardaza kardaza klin;m klin;s klini klin;nq klin;q klin;n gra gra gra gra gra gra or or or or or or kardaza kardaza kardaza kardaza kardaza kardaza klin;i klin;ir klin;r klin;inq klin;iq klin;in

4. Formation of the negative paradigms For the negative forms, this set of hypothetical tenses uses the corresponding hypothetical negative paradigms of the auxiliary verb lin;l (cf. c;m lini and chi lini) with the unchanged past participle (ending in -a or -aza) (see p. 236) of the base verb: gra c;m lini I will not have written% gra chi lini I would not have written% kardaza c;m lini I will not have read% kardaza chi lini I would not have read% etc.

UNIT 10 5. Uses of the hypothetical future I In East Armenian grammars, the hypothetical mood is also referred to as the suppositional, conditional and even assertional mood. This confirms the diversity of meanings that this mood imparts to the verb. English does not have a comparable mood, although the hypothetical mood, for the most part, can be easily translated into English. a) The hypothetical future I denotes the speakers strong belief that actions or events will take place at a given time in the future: Kga krkin garoune% ka[ki a,.arfe% m;nq kfa[j;nq! Spring will come again, the world will come into bloom, and we will win. b) The hypothetical future I expresses the speakers determination, intention or promise to perform certain actions: A\s rop;is kgnam% kgtn;m a\d mardoun ou f;t kb;r;m! Ill go right now, Ill find this man and bring him back. In that sense, it appears more often in negative forms: :s im ;rkire c;m jo[ni% c;m gna ananoj t;[;r! I will not leave my country, I will not go to unknown places (i.e. I refuse to go). c) Forms in the second person can appear in orders: Isk fima kgnas ou boloriz n;ro[ouj\oun k.ndr;s! And now you will go and apologize to everybody. d) The hypothetical future I appears in main clauses followed or preceded by a conditional clause with a verb in the subjunctive mood: Ka,.at;m% ;j; dou hl a,.at;s! I will work, if you will also work. :j; dou 'or];s% ;s hl k'or];m! If you try, I will also try.

e) With reference to the present time, both the affirmative and negative forms of this tense can indicate the speakers assumption, guess or supposition: Nranq a\s vamin tane c;n lini! At this time, they wont be at home. Na ,at dram koun;na! He must have a lot of money.

f) In some contexts, this tense denotes recurrent actions and events. It then loses its hypothetical meaning, resembling rather the present tense of the indicative mood: :r;sid kna\i ou kia[i& ;rb;*q ci amaci! Shell look at your face and laugh; shell never feel ashamed.

UNIT 10 This meaning of regularity allows this tense to be widely used in Armenian proverbs: <oune tiro=e kyanaci! The dog recognizes its master. 6. Uses of the hypothetical past I a) In some contexts, the hypothetical past I is used to express recurrent activity in the past. In this case, it loses its hypothetical meaning and resembles the past tenses of the indicative mood: :rb bolore kpak;in% na kan;r ir tiknike k.os;r nra f;t! When everybody went to sleep, she would take her doll and talk to her. b) Another instance where the hypothetical past I loses its hypothetical status and obtains a meaning that resembles the indicative mood is the following: A temporal clause introduced by the temporal conjunction minc before, by the time is followed by the main sentence featuring the aorist tense: Minc ;s mi ba kartasan;i% na doue baz;z ou gnaz! By the time I could utter a word, he opened the door and left. c) The hypothetical past I expresses contrary-to-fact actions. Hence its frequent use in conditional sentences that leave the question open as to whether a condition is met. In most cases, the hypothetical past I forms correspond to English I would constructions: :j; nran t;sn;i% anpa\man kyanac;i! If I saw him, I would definitely recognize him. W;pe kkarda\i% ;j; vamanak oun;na\i! I would read the novel, if I had time. d) Since the hypothetical past I indicates non-factuality and uncertainty, both affirmative and negative second-person forms are frequently used to express advice or reproach: :j; ;s lin;i% chi m;kni kam gon; m;kn;louz aa= zt;souj\oun kas;i! If I were you I wouldnt leave, but at least before leaving I would say goodbye. e) In polite interaction, the hypothetical past I applies to the present time. Thus, koux;i &&& I would like ..., k.ndr;i &&& I would ask ..., in] kas;i#q &&& would you tell me ..., etc. are forms of politeness. While asking someone for a favor, Armenian affirmative and negative forms are synonymous. Compare: N;r;z;*q% in] vame kas;i#q or N;r;z;*q% in] vame chi#q asi! Excuse me, could you tell me the time? <oune ,an mis ci outi! A dog does not eat another dogs flesh.


UNIT 10 f) In rhetorical questions initiated by this tense, great expressivity is achieved: O#w kmta;r% or &&&% O#w chr ouxi &&&% O#w kfamar]akw;r &&&% etc. Who would think that ..., Who wouldnt wish ..., Who would dare ... etc. 7. Uses of the hypothetical future II a) The hypothetical future II indicates an action or an event that the speaker expects to have been completed at some point in the future. Compare: Minc wa[e am;n inc w;r=aza klini! By tomorrow, everything will be finished. b) Marking the future tense is not the main function of the hypothetical future II. It is chiefly used to indicate an assumption, guess, or supposition. In this case, it is rendered in English by constructions that contain may/might, should, and must: A\s nkare t;sa klin;s! You must have seen this picture. (I suppose.) Inqnajin ard;n vamana klini! The plane may have arrived already. (I suppose.) Several synonymous constructions are interchangeable: Lsa klin;s% ... You must have heard ... (I suppose.) T;sa piti lin;s% ... You must have seen ... (I suppose.) P;tq h (or) kardaza lin;s% ... You must have read (this). (I suppose.) 8. Uses of the hypothetical past II The hypothetical past II is commonly used to express an action or an event that could have but did not take place due to an unfulfilled condition: Girqe wa[ouz kardaza klin;i% ;j; fawan;i! I would have read the book if I had liked it. (But I didnt like it.) :j; ;[anake law lin;r% inqnajie ja klin;r! If the weather had been nice, the airplane would have flown. (But it wasnt nice.)

UNIT 10 B. PRONOUNS 1. Reciprocal pronouns Reciprocal pronouns designate objects connected with each other by action or state. These two-way interactions are expressed by the pronouns irar [irar], mim\anz [mimyants], m;km;kou (m;km;ki) each other or one another. Nranq irar siroum ;n! They love each other. S;nn ou Anin mim\anz enk;r ;n! Sen and Ani are friends (with each other).

Reciprocal pronouns are declined and appear in sentences with case markers as governed by verbs and adjectives. Compare: Nranq mim\anzow (instr.) ;n fpartanoum! They take pride in each other. Douq irariz (abl.) ,at f;ou ;q! You are very far from each other. 2. Possessive pronouns Possessive pronouns are derived from possessive adjectives that function as determiners. Cf. im toune my house, qo fou\se your hope, etc. Unlike possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns stand for nouns, taking on the definite article -e after consonants and -ne e n after vowels.* Note that rather than -e or -ne the second option -n or -nn is used when followed by a word with an initial vowel. 1st 2nd ;s dou b) na im qo i ime or ims qone ir;ne m;nq m;r douq ];r ir;nq ir;nz nranq nranz m;re ];re ir;nze nranze

3rd a) inqe ir

nra nrane

EXAMPLES: Sa im girqe ch! This isnt my book. Sa nra matitn h! This is his/her pencil. In] ime tour! Give me mine. :s nrane c;m ouxoum! I dont want his/hers. Sa i#mn h! Is this mine? Qonn ;m ouxoum! I want yours. Sa ];rn h% ch#! This is yours, isnt it?

Afa* ];r nkare% isk m;re cka! Here is your picture, but ours is missing.
* Exceptions: ims as a second option for the regular ime. 230

UNIT 10 3. Possessive forms of nouns To avoid repetition of a previously mentioned proper noun, Armenian uses possessive forms of nouns, i.e. compact one-word nouns that stand for both the noun and a newly introduced genitive attribute: Mariami tar;dar]e martin h% Aramine^ ma\isin! Mariams birthday is in March, Arams (that of Aram) in May. Possessive forms of nouns are derived from the genitive case form. They are created by adding to the genitive form the ending -ne. This applies equally to common and proper nouns. Most nominalized words of other word classes (see p. 285) follow this pattern as well. As seen above, the basic English equivalent is a genitive form with the ending -s, although the meaning of Armenian possessive forms can be more adequately rendered by analytical constructions. EXAMPLES: Sona\i toune Sonas house dprozi yam'an the road to school w;ri farane the neighbor from above 4. Definite pronouns Definite pronouns serve to single out or identify an object or a group of objects in a particular context. Definite pronouns consist of two subclasses, one subclass representing determiners used before nouns, and the other, regular pronouns that stand for nouns. DETERMINERS am;n every ambo[= all, (the) entire bolor all mi qani some, a few \ouraqanc\our each EXAMPLES: Bolor ousano[n;re ;k;#l hin! A\o*% bolore n;rka hin! Am;n m;ke .os;z! Had all students arrived? Yes, all of them were present. Each of them spoke out. Ambo[= girqe kardazi#r! Ambo[=e^ oc! Mi qani h=! Mia\n mi qani#se! Have you read the entire book? Not the entire (book). Just a few pages. Only a few? Am;n ousano[ a\dp;#s h mtaoum! O*c% bolore nou\n kariqi c;n! Do all students think that way? No, not all of them share the same opinion.

Sona\ine Sonas or that of Sona dprozine that of the school w;rine that from above

GENUINE PRONOUNS am;n m;ke every one of them ambo[=e all of it bolore/am;nqe all of them, everybody mi qanise some of them, a few of them \ouraqanc\oure each of them

UNIT 10 C. SYNTAX Simple sentences in Armenian A traditional simple sentence consists of only one independent clause. As discussed earlier (see Unit 2, p. 34), in a simple Armenian clause, be it a statement, question, or command, the conjugated verb typically occupies the final position. The following examples illustrate the most common patterns of Armenian simple statement clauses, with the verb indicated by (V). Other components include subject (S), direct object (O1), indirect object (O2), complement (C), and adverb (A). 1. SV: F\oure ;kaw! (Guestthe/nom came) The guest came.

2. (S)O1V: (M;nq) doue 'ak;zinq! (We doorthe/acc closed) We closed the door. 3. (S)O1CV: (:s) sourye kajow .m;zi! ([I] coffeethe/acc milkinstr drank) I drank coffee with milk. 4. SAV: Enk;rs m;r qa[aqiz f;azaw! (Friendmine/nom our cityabl left) My friend left our city.

5. SO2O1V: :r;.an;re m;x a[ikn;r b;r;zin! (The-childrennom usdat flowersacc brought) The children brought us flowers. 6. SO1AV: Ma\rs ya,e s;[anin dr;z! (Mothermine/nom mealacc tabledat put) My mother put the meal on the table. Although these are the normal patterns of simple clauses in East Armenian, word order is not fixed. Clause elements can change their place in each of the above-listed clauses, depending on choices a speaker makes to stress one particular component of the sentence. Thus, pattern 2 can easily change from SOV to SVO: M;nq 'ak;zinq doue! VSO: "ak;zinq m;nq doue! OSV: Doue m;nq 'ak;zinq!

We closed the door. We closed the door. We closed the door.

UNIT 10 In any of the patterns on p. 232, the verb is presented by a simple verbal tense. More often these patterns appear with complex tenses that are formed by the auxiliary ;m (aux) plus a participle (part) of the basic verb: SO1V(part+aux): (M;nq) doue 'akoum ;nq / 'ak;l ;nq / 'ak;lou ;nq! We are closing / have closed / will close the door. To stress a component of such a clause, inversion is obligatory whereby the stressed element is moved to an initial position of the clause and is followed immediately by the conjugated auxiliary verb (see p. 35). As for the participle, it may occupy various positions, but it never appears before the auxiliary verb. Any of the patterns discussed on p. 232 could be affected by inversion provided it contains a compound tense, whereby the verb (V) is presented by the auxiliary+participle (aux+part). COMPARE PATTERN 2: S+aux+O1+part: M;nq ;nq doue 'ak;l! We have closed the door. (Or: Its we who have closed the door.) part+aux+(S)+O1: "ak;l ;nq (m;nq) doue! We have closed the door. (Or: We did close the door.) O1+aux+(S)+part: Doun ;nq (m;nq) 'ak;l! We have closed the door. (Or: Its the door that we have closed.) COMPARE PATTERN 3: S+aux+part+O1+C: :s ;m .m;lou sourye kajow! I will drink the coffee with milk. (Or: Its me who will drink the coffee with milk.) O1+aux+(S)+part+C: Souryn ;m (;s) .m;lou kajow! I will drink the coffee with milk. (Or: Its the coffee that I will drink with milk.) C+aux+(S)+part+O1: Kajow ;m (;s) .m;lou sourye! I will drink the coffee with milk. (Or: Its with milk that I will drink the coffee.) COMPARE PATTERN 4: S+aux+A+part: Enk;rs h qa[aqiz f;anoum! My friend is leaving the city. (Or: Its my friend who is leaving the city.) part+aux+S+A: F;anoum h enk;rs h qa[aqiz! My friend is leaving the city. (Or: My friend is [indeed] leaving the city.) A+aux+part+S: Qa[aqiz h f;anoum enk;rs! My friend is leaving the city. (Or: Its the city that my friend is leaving.)


Negation in Armenian 1. Affirmative forms of verbs in Armenian are easily transformed into negative ones by placing the negative particle c- [ch] before verbs. The negative particle c- is never stressed. When prefixed to an initial consonant, it is followed by a transitory []=[ch]. a) c- is prefixed to the infinitive and to most of the independent participles: gr;l to write cgr;l not to write% kardal to read ckardal not to read lazo[e he who cries clazo[e he who does not cry% etc. (see pp. 237-238) b) c- is prefixed to the conjugated verb, both base verb and auxiliary: gr;zi I have written gr;lou ;m I will write cgr;zi I havent written c;m gr;lou I wont write

c) c- is prefixed to the modal particle piti or modal phrase p;tq h:* piti gr;m I will write cpiti gr;m I will not write p;tq h gr;i I should have written cp;tq h gr;i I shouldnt have written d) There are two alternatives for the 3rd-person singular form of the auxiliary ;m: ci and ch& Ci is restricted to verbal negation in conjugation: .osoum h he/she speaks ci .osoum he/she does not speak** kfaskana he/she will understand ci faskana he/she will not understand k;r;l h he/she has eaten ci k;r;l he/she hasnt eaten. For all other negations, the regular form ch is used: fiwand h he/she is ill fiwand ch he/she is not ill, bvi,k h he/she is a physician bvi,k ch he/she is not a physician a\st;[ h he/she is here a\st;[ ch he/she is not here, etc. 2. The prohibitive imperative uses the unattached and stressed negative particle mi* dont which is placed before regular imperative forms. Singular: gri*r write! mi* grir dont write! karda* read! mi* karda dont read!, gna* go! mi* gna dont go! Plural: gr;*q write! mi* gr;q dont write! kardaz;*q read! mi* kardaz;q dont read!, gnaz;*q go! mi* gnaz;q dont go!
* Forms with c- prefixed to the verb are rare but acceptable: piti cgr;m% piti ckardam% etc. ** To transform affirmative paradigms into negative ones, Armenian does not use a verb equivalent to the English auxiliary verb to do.


UNIT 10 3. A means of negation at the sentence level is oc no. a) oc can be used alone as a one-word sentence or may introduce a full negative response: Inqnajie vaman;#l h! O*c! or O*c% ci vaman;l! Did the airplane arrive? No. or No, it hasnt arrived. b) Negation is achieved by correlative conjunctions starting with oc% such as oc j; &&& a\l not ... but, oc mia\n &&& a\l not only ... but, etc. Oc j; spanw;l h% a\l wiraworw;l! He was not killed but wounded. Negation is reinforced using the emphatic correlative conjunction o*c &&& o*c. O*c outoum ;s% o*c .moum! You neither eat, nor drink. O*c gi,;r ka q;x famar% o*c z;r;k! There is no night or day for you.

4. Unlike English, double, and even triple negation is standard for East Armenian. This occurs when negative adverbials such as ;rb;q never, oc mi t;[ nowhere, bnaw no way, not at all, oc m;ke no one, ocinc nothing, etc., appear in the same context with negative verb forms: Nranq in] ;rb;q ct;[;kazrin a\d masin! They never informed me about it. (Literally: They never didnt inform me about it.) Oc m;ke ocinc cfaskazaw! Nobody understood anything. (Literally: Nobody didnt understand nothing.) A double negation can produce affirmation, if one of the negated components is an infinitive prefixed with c-: C;m karo[ cgnal! C;m ouxoum cmasnakz;l! I must go. I want to participate. (Lit.: I cant not go. I dont want not to participate.) 5. To seek consent or invite confirmation, sentences can end with tag questions similar to the English ..., isnt it? that directly follow affirmative sentences. Positive tag questions ..., is it? follow negative sentences. Unlike English, however, Armenian always employs negative tag questions ..., a\np;s ch# ..., isnt it so? or ch# ..., no? :[anake g;[;zik h% a\np;s ch#! The weather is nice, isnt it? Dou c;s m;kn;lou% ch#! You wont leave, will you?




A. Formation of participles Armenian has two sets of participles. I. The first set consists of four participles that are bound for use in conjugation paradigms. As such, they are never used independently but only in combination with the corresponding forms of the auxiliary verb ;m in its affirmative and negative forms. 1) The present participle ending in -oum: cf. groum/kardoum in groum ;m/kardoum ;m I am writing/I am reading% etc. and c;m groum/c;m kardoum% I am not writing/I am not reading% etc. (see p. 11-12, 30), groum hi/kardoum hi I was writing/I was reading% etc. and chi groum/chi kardoum% I was not writing/I was not reading% etc. (see pp. 52-53). 2) The past participle ending in -;l/-az;l: cf. gr;l/kardaz;l in gr;l ;m/kardaz;l ;m I have written/I have read% etc., and c;m gr;l/c;m kardaz;l% I havent written/I havent read% etc. (see p. 96-97), gr;l hi/kardaz;l hi I had written/I had read% etc. and chi gr;l/chi kardaz;l% I had not written/I had not read% etc. (see pp. 97-98). 3) The future participle ending in -;lou/-alou: cf. gr;lou/kardalou in gr;lou ;m/ kardalou ;m I am going to write/I am going to read, etc., and c;m gr;lou/ c;m kardalou I am not going to write/I am not going to read, etc., gr;lou hi/kardalou hi I was going to write/I was going to read, etc., and chi gr;lou/chi kardalou I was not going to write/I was not going to read, etc. (see pp. 124-125). 4) The negative participle ending in -i/-a: cf. gri/karda in c;m gri/c;m karda I am not going to write/I am not going to read, etc., chi gri/chi karda etc. I would not write/I would not read, etc. (see pp. 224-225). II. The second set consists of four free participles that function independently in sentences as adjectives, nouns or adverbs: 1) The present participle ending in -o[/-azo[: cf. gro[/kardazo[ in namak gro[ marde the man who is writing a letter% j;rj kardazo[ farans my neighbor who is reading a newspaper. 2) the past participle ending in -a or -aza: cf. gra/kardaza in namak gra marde the man who has written an article% j;rj kardaza farans my neighbor who has read the newspaper. 3) the future participle ending in -;liq or -aliq: cf. gr;liq/kardaliq in mardou

UNIT 10 gr;liq namake the letter that the man will write% faranis kardaliq j;rje the newspaper that my neighbor will read. For the most part, all these participles have no parallel structures in English and are rendered, as the examples show, by relative clauses. Armenian has the choice of both: the participle and the relative clause: kaouzwo[ qa[aqe = qa[aqe% or kaouzwoum h the city that is being built kaouzwa qa[aqe = qa[aqe% or kaouzw;l h the city that has been built kaouzw;liq qa[aqe = qa[aqe% or kaouzw;lou h the city that will be built 4) The temporal or synchronical participle has a predominantly independent adverbial use although it can also appear in secondary conjugation paradigms. It is formed by adding the ending -is to the infinitive of the verb: cf. gr;lis/kardalis while writing/while reading. This participle expresses an action concurrent to the main action: gr;lis s.alw;l to err while writing .os;lis kakax;l to stutter while speaking wax;lis enkn;l to fall while running% etc. B. Nominalization of participles Armenian adjectival participles (see p. 236, 1, 2, 3 under II) can readily nominalize. In this case, they acquire the features of a noun and appear with the definite article -e or -n or the possessive article -s% -d% -e or -n% etc., with the plural ending -n;r% and various case markers. Since adjectival participles are of verbal origin, they can also appear with the negation prefix c-. Nominalized participles follow the -i declension of nouns. o 1) Nominalized participles ending in -o[ refer to a person engaged in an activity. Consider the following examples: e e with the definite article -e: .oso[e - he who speaks with the negation prefix c-: c.oso[e - he who doesnt speak n n with the plural suffix -n;r: .oso[n;re - those who speak

Such nminalizations appear in all sentence positions. Consider the following example in subject position: A,.ato[e sowa ci mna! He who works never stays hungry.

UNIT 10 o Nominalized participles ending in -o[ appear with case markers: i .oso[i f;t - with someone who speaks Thus, more complex agglutinated forms can occur: n e c-.oso[-n;r-e - those who do not speak n i c-.oso[-n;r-i masin - about those who do not speak, etc. Compare the Armenian saying using the nominalized participle in the ablative case: C.oso[n;riz wa.;zir! Beware of those who do not speak. 2) When nominalized, participles ending in -a are employed to refer to objects, facts, a and events.* As such, participles ending in -a appear: with the possessive article -s% -d% -e/-n: s t;sas - what I see/saw/have seen/will see** with the plural marker -n;rs: ct;san;rs - those things that I dont see/didnt see/ will see with both a plural and case marker: i t;san;ris masin - about those (things) that I see/saw/have seen Since the possessive article occurs in all forms indicating person and number, -a formations are used with -s% -d% -e/-n% and with the plural endings -n;rs% -n;rd% -n;re as needed: t;sas t;sad t;sae*** t;san;rs**** t;san;rd t;san;re what I see, saw, will see what you see, saw, will see what he/she see, saw, will see what we see, saw, will see what you see, saw, will see what they see, saw, will see

m;r t;sae ];r t;sae nranz t;sae

Only -a participles derived from transitive verbs (such as t;sn;l to see% ls;l to hear% an;l to take% etc.) can build this type of nominalization. ** Depending on context, forms such as t;sas% lsas% aas% etc., can express present, past or future time. *** Forms with the definite article -e/-n refer here to the third person. Thus, t;sae means what he/she sees/saw/will see, etc. **** These plural forms are colloquial. The parallel analytical forms such as m;r t;sae% ];r t;sae% nranz t;sae are more appropriate for formal speech& 238

UNIT 10 The same formations may be prefixed with the negation marker c-: ct;sas what I dont see, didnt see, wont see ct;sad what you dont see, didnt see, wont see ct;san;rs what I dont see, didnt see, wont see, etc. When neutral verbs expressing corporal and emotional states (such as nst;l% kangn;l% fogn;l% t.r;l% qn;l% etc.) form nominalizations derived by means of -ae, they do not indicate objects, facts, and events as usually with -ae but the person in the indicated state. Therefore, formations as nstae the one who is sitting% fognae the one who is tired% qnae the one who is asleep are functionally closer to those nominalizations ending in -o[e: .oso[e he who speaks% a,.ato[e he who works% etc. Compare the Armenian proverb: Qnan ou m;ae nou\nn h! (He who is ) asleep and (he who is) dead are just the same. Given that brevity is one of their most important characteristics, proverbs make extensive use of the nominalized participles.Compare the -ae noun in a declined form (dative): L;xwi akain d;[ cka! There is no remedy for what the tongue has wounded. Some proverbs include various types of these formations simultaneously: Ouxae aso[e couxae klsi! He who says what he wants, will hear what he does not want. 3) Participles ending in -iq can also appear as a noun, using the endings -s% -d% -e/-n: As;liqs asoum ;m ou gnoum% ba\z lin;liqe lin;lou h! I am saying what he have to say, but it will happen what is bound to happen. 4) Armenian has a group of participial forms going back to declined forms of the infinitive in various cases. a) The genitive case: ;rg;l ;rg;lou% .a[al .a[alou% pak;l pak;lou% etc. The participle in -;lou/-alou has established itself in attributive function: .m;lou =our drinking water, gnalou t;[ place to go, apr;lou zankouj\oun desire to live, etc. b) The instrumental case: gr;l gr;low% kardal kardalow% etc. Participles in -;low/-alow may function as adverbs of manner (see Unit 9, p. 212): Kardalow l;xou c;s sowori% .os;low ksowor;s! You do not learn a language by reading, you learn it by speaking.


The vowel e [] The vowel e [] is the only vowel in Armenian that is never stressed. It is pronounced in various positions of words, but is not always expressed graphically. For its pronunciation, the following rules must be observed: 1. e [] is always written: a) in final position where e [] stands for the definite article: marde [mart] the man, s;[ane [seghan] the table, lour;re [lurer] the news, etc. b) in initial position before the consonants [, m, and n: est [st] according to, e[]al [ghdzal] to long for, embn;l [mbnel] to grasp, enk;r [nker] friend, etc. c) in compound words where components start with a written e []: dasenk;r [dasnker] classmate, norentir [norntir] newly elected, anendounak [anntunak] inept, etc. 2. e [] is slightly pronounced, but not written: a) in initial position of some words, before s, x, followed by the stops b% p% '% g% q% k% t% and j: xba[mounq [zbaghmunk] occupation, s'o'anq [spopank] consolation, xgal [zgal] to feel, etc. b) in initial position of words, after x% ,% and s when non-stop consonants follow: [skhal] mistake, wrong, sgal [skal] to mourn, sraf [srah] hall, ,a\l [shayl] wasteful, ,q;[ [shkegh] splendid, ,';l [shpel] to rub, etc. c) in initial position of words, between two consonants: qnar [knar] lyre, ptou[ [ptugh] fruit, fma\q [hmayk] charm, ptou\t [ptuyt] promenade, mta;l [mtatsel] to think, etc. d) in initial clusters of three consonants, an e [] is pronounced after the first consonant: sndouk [snduk] trunk, mtn;l [mtnel] to enter, srtagin [srtagin] cordial, gndak [gndak] ball (toy), xsp;l [zspel] to curb, etc. e) in initial clusters of four or five consonants, an e [] is pronounced after the first consonant, a second e [] after the second or third consonant: mkrt;l [mkrtel] to baptize, trtn=al [trtndjal] to complain, to grouse, kskal [ksktsal] to grieve, etc. f) in final position of words, before a % r or [: boun [bun] fervent, anr [tsanr] heavy, ast[ [astgh] star, wagr [vagr] tiger, etc. g) in final position of words, when consonants are followed by the personal articles -s and -d: ma\rs [mayrs] my mother, acq;rd [achkert] your eyes, etc.


Punctuation marks Armenian has a distinct set of punctuation marks: 1. [!] The Armenian w;r=ak;t [verchaket] period is used to indicate the end of a sentence. 2. [%] The Armenian storak;t [storaket] comma is used: a) to mark off similar elements, i.e. words, phrases or clauses in a list or sequence where there are either no conjunctions or only a final one; Dou b;r;zir ward;r% ,ou,ann;r m;.akn;r! You brought roses, lilies, and carnations. When listing nouns, phrases, and sentences, Armenian does not use a comma before the conjunctions or ou and: :kaw toun% ya,;z% mi qic fangstazaw noriz gnaz! He came home, had dinner, rested a little, and left again. b) to separate subordinate from main clauses: :rb q;x t;sa% ard;n ou, hr! When I saw you, it was already late. Unlike English, Armenian also separates subordinate clauses that follow the main clause: Kgam% ;j; vamanak oun;nam! I will come if I have time. c) after exclamations and direct address: Ani*% doue ba*z ara! Ani, open the door! 3. [^] The Armenian bouj [but] is used in the following instances: a) to replace omitted words: Dou toun ;s gnalou% isk ;s^ a,.atanqi! You will go home, and I [will go] to work. b) to separate words that are drawn together because of missing words: Im^ q;x twa girqn o#ur h! (Literally: My [^] to you given book where is?) Where is the book that I gave you?

UNIT 10 c) to separate a word from its apposition: Tikin Sar\ane^ ousouzcoufis% a\st;[ h! Mrs. Sarian, my teacher, is here. 4. [&] The Armenian mi=ak;t [mijaket] is used: a) to link clauses that are connected to each other in some way. In that sense, it corresponds to the English semicolon (;): :s fogna hi& oro,;zi fangstanal! I was tired; I decided to rest. b) to indicate what will follow in a sequence. In that sense, it replaces the English colon: Farzs a\s h& o#ur gnazir! My question is: where did you go? c) to anticipate direct speech before quotation marks (see below, 5a): d) to mark abbreviated words: Prn& Pal\an Mr. Palian 5. [&&&] The Armenian cak;rt [chakert] quotation mark is used: a) to open and close quoted material, a word, phrase, sentence or passage from a book or direct speech: Dou asazir& <at oura. ;m! You said: I am very glad. Note that in a dialogue, quotation marks are replaced by a long dash, especially when the answer immediately follows the question: O#ur ;s gnoum! Where are you going? Toun! Home. b) to highlight book titles: <;qspiri Faml;t-e! Shakespeares Hamlet. c) in ironic comments to imply that a word is used in its opposite meaning: :s nman bar;kamn;r ,at ;m t;s;l! I have seen many of such friends. Bolore git;n% j; orqan axniw ;s! Everybody knows how honest you are.

UNIT 10 X EXERCISES 1. Combine words from the left column with appropriate words from the right column. a. Mari% frawiroum ;m b. :rb or gas% c. A\sr bolors d. Tikin Alis% e. A\s r;rin douq f. <norfakal ;m% g. Zawoum ;m% frawirwa ;nq tar;dar]i! ];r f\ourasirouj\an famar! q;x m;r toun ya,k;rou\ji! bolor f\our;re ;ka ;n lin;lou! ba\z c;m karo[analou gal! a\s ;r;ko axa#t ;q! ouxoum ;m };x };r amousnoun frawir;l!

2. Form mini-dialogues according to patterns in a, b, c, and d. Replace ~ransia with Cinastan% G;rmania% Anglia% ousastan, etc. a. A. };r f\oure ort;[i#z h! B. ~ransia\iz! Zawoq mia\n `rans;r;n h .osoum! b. A. M;x mot `ransiazi f\our;r ;n ;k;l! B. I#nc l;xwow ;q nranz f;t .osoum! A. Mi,t `rans;r;n! S iroum ;m a\d l;xoun! c. A. ~ransia\i f;t mi,t kapi m;#= ;q! B. A\o*% `ransiazi ,at bar;kamn;r oun;nq! d. A. F\our;#r oun;q ~ransia\iz! Fam;z;*q nranz f;t m;x mot! B. S irow kganq! Wstaf ;m% or kfawan;q m;r `ransiazi f\our;rin! 3. Answer the questions with a negative response. Follow the pattern. a. Sa qo bavakn h% ch#! O*c% qonn h! (yours) ranq qo j[j;rn ;n% ch#! O*c% (his) b. S c. Sa ];r tounn h% ch#! O*c% (theirs) d. Sa qo nor ousouzicn h% ch#! A\o*% ba\z (yours) hl h! e. S ranq qo grq;rn ;n% ch#! O*c% (his) f. Sa nra t;trn h% ch#! O*c% (mine) ranq ];r nkarn;rn ;n% ch#! O*c% (theirs) g. S 4. Answer the questions according to the pattern. a. M;r toune m; h! Ba\z ];re m;riz aw;li m; h! (douq) b. Im ma\re ,at ;ritasard h! Ba\z (douq) &&& c. M;r ya,e famow h! Ba\z (nranq) &&&


UNIT 10 d. e. f. g. Qo ,oune ,at .;lazi h! Ba\z (;s) &&& Nra nkare g;[;zik h! Ba\z (dou) &&& Nra part;xe m; h! Ba\z (m;nq) &&& Im gore dvwar h! Ba\z (na) &&&

5. Insert the reciprocal pronoun irar in the appropriate form. a. Na ;[ba\rs h! M;nq irar ,at ;nq siroum! b. Sa enk;roufis h! M;nq &&& c;nq bavanwoum! c. :r;.an;re &&& f;t ;n .a[oum! d. <n;re &&& c;n wa.;noum! e. Law enk;rn;re &&& c;n f;anoum! f. Na im enk;rn h! M;nq m;r das;re &&& f;t ;nq patrastoum! g. Mardik or &&& yanacoum ;n% baroum ;n &&&! 6. Insert the appropriate verb form, following the pattern. a. Cgnazi#r! A'so@s% p;tq h or gnaza lin;ir! b. Casazi#r! A'so@s% &&& c. Cgn;zi#q! A'so@s% &&& d. Ckardazi#n! A'so@s% &&& e. Cgr;#z! A'so@s% &&& f. Cmnazi#n! A'so@s% &&& g. Ck;ra#q! A'so@s% &&& 7. Translate into Armenian. a. Youre a good student, but youre late every day. b. This has to come to an end! c. Its not nice to make me wait here for hours. d. If I were you, Id finish this story. e. You should not have done this. f. Dont make me laugh! 8. How would you say it in Armenian? a. Invite your best friend to your new apartment. b. Accept an invitation to a friends birthday. c. Politely decline a friends invitation to a party.


UNIT 10 d. Give reasons for not being able to go to a friends graduation banquet. e. You are a host(ess). How do you offer food/drinks to an official guest? To a friend? f. You are a guest. How do you accept/refuse food/drinks? g. You are a guest. How do you offer your assistance to the host(ess)? 9. Answer the following questions with reference to the TEXT in this unit. a. I#nc h sar\ake! b. I#nc hr anoum q;i fani sar\ake! c. Ort;#[ hr pafoum q;i fane ir sar\ake! d. I#nc hr anoum q;i fane% ;rb toun hr galis! e. I#nc hr patas.anoum 'oqrik sar\ake! f. O#w hr Gourg;ne! g. Inco#u hr galis Gourg;ne q;i fani mot! h. I#nc ar;z mi r Gourg;ne!

XI PROVERBS Aa=^ faz% f;to^ farz! First the bread, then the questions. (Message: When people are hungry, feeding them should be a priority.) Cfrawirwa f\oure ',i wra knsti! An unwanted guest will sit on thorns. Kgna f\oure% kmna moure! The guest will go away, but the soot will stay. F\ourin patwo[n ou anpatwo[e tantikinn h! It is the hostess who treats or mistreats the guest. +ri p;s gnoum h% awaxi p;s mnoum! He goes like water, but stays like sand. (About guests who proceed to leave, yet linger at the door.)


Unit 11

Qa[aq g\ou[ V| tw V

On the Agenda ...

Speech Acts in Dialogues: . . . .Planning leisure time and vacations . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Vocabulary: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .City and Country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Grammar: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SYNTAX: The structure of sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . .255 Armenian-English Contrasts: Government of verbs and adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Word Formation: . . . . . . . . . . .Two-word compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Pronunciation: . . . . . . . . . . . . .Interjections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Orthography: . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Capitalizing words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268


1. A and B are close friends making plans for the evening. A. B. Lsi*r% a\s ;r;ko i#nc ;s an;lou! [Lsir, ays yereko inch es anelu?] Fatouk ragir coun;m! [Hatuk tsragir chunem,] Inco#u ;s farznoum! [inchu es hartsnum?] A. Ouxoum hi mi fay;li t;[ gnal! [Uzum eyi mi hacheli tegh gnal] Kga#s in] f;t! [Kgas indz het?] B. A. O#ur ;s ouxoum% or gnanq! [Ur es uzum, vor gnank?] Cgit;m^ i#nc ;s na.entroum^ [Chgitem, inch es nakhntrum] sryara#n% kino#% j;# jatron! [srcharan, kino, te tatron?] B. A. Gnanq na.^ kino% f;to^ sryaran! [Gnank nakh kino, heto srcharan] Law ga[a'ar h! Gnazi*nq! [Lav gaghapar e. Gnatsink!] Listen, what are you doing tonight? I have no special plans. Why do you ask? I wanted to go somewhere nice. Would you come with me? Where do you want us to go? I dont know, what do you prefer: a caf, the movies, or the theatre? Lets go to the movies first, then to a caf. Good idea! Lets go!

2. A and B are students making plans for a study break: A. B. A. Fa=ord ,abaj das;r cka! [Hajort shapat daser chkan] I#nc ;s an;lou% mnalou ;s qa[aqo#um! [Inch es anelu, mnalu es kaghakum?] O*c% ouxoum ;m qa[aqiz [Voch, uzum em kaghakits] dours gal& kga#s in] f;t! [durs gal; kgas indz het?] B.

Next week we have no classes. What are you doing? Are you staying in town? No, I want to get out of the city. Would you come with me? Where can we go?

O#ur karo[ ;nq gnal! [Ur karogh enk gnal?]



Mi law g\ou[ ka lya'in! [Mi lav gyugh ka lchapin] Cors ko[me^ antan;r ou l;n;r! [Chors koghm antaner u lener]

There is a nice village by the lake. Its surrounded by forests and mountains. Is it far from here? It takes one hour by car. Can we go swimming there? Swim, row, whatever you wish. Id love to join you.

B. A. B. A. B.

F;o#u h a\st;[iz! [Heu e aysteghits?] M;q;na\ow^ m;k vam! [Mekenayov mek zham] Lo[al karo#[ ;nq a\nt;[! [Loghal karogh enk ayntegh?] Lo[al% jiawar;l% inc or kam;nas! [Loghal, tiavarel, inch vor kamenas] S irow q;x kenk;ranam! [Sirov kez knkeranam]

3. A and B are neighbors discussing their plans for the summer vacation. A. B. A. B. A. B. A\s ama i#nc ragir oun;q! [Ays ama inch tsragir unek?] :wropa ;nq ouxoum gnal! [Yevropa enk uzum gnal] :r;.an;rin h#l ;q tan;lou! [Yerakhanerin el ek tanelu?] O*c% nranq g\ou[ ;n gnoum! [Voch, nrank gyugh en gnum] O#r ;rkirn ;q a\z;l;lou! [Vor yerkirn ek aytselelu?] :s G;rmania ;m ouxoum gnal% [Yes Germanya em uzum gnal,] isk amousins^ Founastan! [isk amusins Hunastan] A. Aa=i#n angam ;q [Aachin ankam ek] :wropa m;knoum! [Yevropa meknum?] What are your plans this summer? We want to go to Europe. Are you taking the children along? No, they are going to the country. Which country are you going to visit? I want to go to Germany, but my husband wants to go to Greece. Is this the first time you will be going to Europe?




O*c% ;rrord angamn h ard;n! [Voch, yerrort ankamn e arten] Isk douq i#nc ;q an;lou a\s ama! [Isk duk inch ek anelu ays ama?]

No, its already our third time. And what are you doing this summer? Weve decided to stay in town. Were expecting guests from Russia. I wish you a pleasant summer. And bon voyage to you!


Oro,;l ;nq qa[aqoum mnal! [Voroshel enk kaghakum mnal] F\our;ri ;nq spasoum ousastaniz! [Hyureri enk spasum Rusastanits]

B. A.

Zankanoum ;m ];x fay;li ama! [Tsankanum em dzez hacheli ama] };x hl^ bari yanaparf! [Dzez el bari chanaparh!]


Im ,a@t sir;li tatik%

Wa[e ch m\ous re Nor tari h! <norfaworoum ;m qo papikis

Nor tarin Sourb nounde! };x zankanoum ;m ao[=ouj\oun
;r=ankouj\oun! Minc fima ;s ];x namak chi groum% orowf;t fa\;r;n law gr;l cgit;i! Fima% ;rb sowor;l ;m% karo[ ;m ];x a\s namakow oura.azn;l! :s m;r qa[aqe ,at ;m siroum! Siroum ;m qa\l;l la\n 'o[ozn;row% dit;l bar]r ,;nq;re tarb;r m;q;nan;ri ;rj;ke! Siroum ;m f;aniwow xbosa\gi gnal enk;rn;ris f;t mrz;l! B a\z amane g\ou[n aw;li ;m siroum% qan qa[aqe! G\ou[oum bnouj\oune aw;li g;[;zik h% dn ou =oure^ aw;li maqour% out;liqn;re^ aw;li fam;[! B a\z am;niz lawn a\n h% or douq a\nt;[ ;q! :rb dprozi das;re w;r=anan% amaa\in ar]akourdn;re sksw;n% fa\riks in] ];r g\ou[n h b;r;lou! Anfamb;r spasoum ;m a\d rwan! A\n vamanak kton;nq im nnd\an re! Sirow ou karotow fambouroum ;m q;x papikis! Qo jonik^ Wafan



sir;li wa[e ch m\ous re ,norfawor;l zankanal ao[=ouj\oun ;r=ankouj\oun namak oura.azn;l qa[aq qa\l;l la\n 'o[oz dit;l tarb;r m;q;na ,;nq f;aniw xbosa\gi enk;r mrz;l g\ou[ bnouj\oun d ar]akourd anfamb;r ton;l nnd\an r fambour;l sirow karotow sirow ou karotow jonik [sireli] [vagh che myus or] [shnoravorel] [tsankanal] [aoghchutyun] [yerjankutyun] [namak] [urakhatsnel] [kaghak] [kaylel] [layn] [poghots] [ditel] [tarber] [mekena] [shenk] [hetsaniv] [zbosaygi] [nker] [mrtsel] [gyugh] [bnutyun] [ot] [artsakurt] [anhamper] [tonel] [tsnndyan or] [hampurel] [sirov] [karotov] [sirov u karotov] [tonik] dear, beloved the day after tomorrow congratulate to wish health happiness letter to make happy city to walk wide street to watch various automobile building bicycle park friend to compete village nature air vacation impatiently to celebrate birthday to kiss with love nostalgically hugs and kisses grandson




[Kaghak] [academia] [otanavakayan] [patkerasrah] [poghota] [bank/(dramatun)] [kamurj] [avtobus] [srcharan] [jrantsk] [avtomekena] [dghyak] [mayr tachar] [kaghaki kentron] [yekeghetsi] [krkes] [kaghakapetaran] [hamergasrah] [hyupatosaran] [aandznatun] [antsum] [taghamas] [despanatun] [hivandanots] [hyuranots] [teghekatvakan kentron] [khachmeruk] [mankapartez] [gradaran] [postarkgh] [shuka] [hushardzan] [metro]


akad;mia danawaka\an patk;rasraf po[ota bank/(dramatoun) kamour= awtobous sryaran =ranzq awtom;q;na d[\ak ma\r tayar qa[aqi k;ntron ;k;[;zi krk;s qa[aqap;taran fam;rgasraf f\oupatosaran aan]natoun anzoum ja[amas d;spanatoun fiwandanoz f\ouranoz t;[;katwakan k;ntron .acm;rouk mankapart;x gradaran 'ostark[ ,ouka fou,ar]an m;tro

academy airport art gallery avenue bank bridge bus caf canal car/automobile castle cathedral downtown church circus city hall, town hall concert hall consulate cottage crossing, transition district embassy hospital hotel information centre intersection kindergarten library mailbox market monument metro


mxkij kinojatron jangaran kojo[ a\ramas palat xbosa\gi .orfrdaran f;tiotn d;[atoun ostikanatoun 'ost ;rkajou[i ;rkajou[a\in ka\aran (bnak;li) ,;nq ya,aran/;storan dproz zouza';[k nrbanzq ma\j t;sarvan wa\r;r ;rknaq;r fraparak ar]an .anouj 'o[oz 'o[ozi lapt;r arwar]an gin;toun kapi k;ntron tayar jatron a,tarak ka\aran 'o.adrami=oz

[mzkit] mosque [kinotatron] movie-theater [tangaran] museum [kotogh] obelisk, monument [tsayramas] outskirts [palat] palace [zbosaygi] park [khorhrtaran] parliament [hetiotn] pedestrian [deghatun] pharmacy [vostikanatun] police station [post] post office [yerkatughi] railroad [yerkatughayin kayaran] railway station [(bnakeli) shenk] (residential) building [chasharan/estoran] restaurant prots] [d school [tsutsapeghk] shop-window [nrpantsk] side-street [mayt] sidewalk [tesarzhan vayrer] sights [yerknaker] skyscraper [hraparak] square [ardzan] statue, sculpture [khanut] store, shop [poghots] street [poghotsi lapter] streetlamp [arvartsan] suburb [ginetun] tavern [kapi kentron] telephone centre [tachar] temple [tatron] theatre [ashtarak] tower [kayaran] train station [pokhadramijots] transport



[Gyugh] [yerkragortsutyun] [shtemaran] [au, avak] [varelahogh] [agarak] [dasht] [anta] [akos] [purak] [partez] [khot] [dez] [berkahavak] [blur] [lich] [gomachp] [chahich] [markagetin] [aghats] [le/sar] [lenashkhta] [aygi] [arahet] [gutan] [lchak] [kirch] [get] [getap] [gyughatntesutyun] [gyughakaghak] [hogh] [vtak] [dzor] [akhpyur]


;rkragorouj\oun ,t;maran aou% awak war;lafo[ agarak da,t anta akos pourak part;x .ot d;x b;rqafawaq blour liy goma[b yafiy margag;tin a[az l;/sar l;na,[ja a\gi araf;t goujan lyak kiry g;t g;ta' g\ou[atnt;souj\oun g\ou[aqa[aq fo[ wtak ]or a[b\our

agriculture barn brook fallow land farm field forest furrow grove garden grass haystack harvest hill lake manure marsh meadow mill mountain mountain range orchard path plow pond ravine river riverbank rural economy small town soil stream gorge (water) spring


SYNTAX THE STRUCTURE OF SENTENCES Sentences can contain more than one clause. In large sentences, clauses are linked to each other by coordination or subordination. Correspondingly, sentences are classified into two types: compound and complex. 1. A compound sentence consists of two or more independent, coordinate clauses, each of which could be a simple sentence (see p. 232). Clauses in a compound sentence are connected to each other with or without coordinating conjunctions. The latter type is less frequent. EXAMPLES: (1) "ojorikn anzaw% an]re dadar;z! The storm passed, the rain stopped. (2) Qamin amp;re zr;z% ;rkinqe bazw;z! The wind dispersed the clouds, the sky cleared up. The most common coordinating conjunctions are: and* ou and* EXAMPLES: (1) Fogna hi tane mnazi! I was tired, and I stayed home. (2) <at =anaz% ba\z ckaro[azaw! He tried hard but he couldnt do it. (3) Xrouzoum ;nq kam irar ;nq na\oum! We chat or we look at each other. (4) Fiwand ;m ou taapoum ;m! I am ill and I suffer. In the sentences above coordinate clauses have equal status and may be used independently: and (1) Fogna hi! I was tired. (3) <at =anaz! He tried hard. and (2) Xrouzoum ;nq! We are chatting and (4) Fiwand ;m! I am ill. and Tane mnazi! I stayed home. Ckaro[azaw! He couldnt make it. Irar ;nq na\oum! We look at each other. Taapoum ;m! I suffer. ba\z kam but or

* The coordinating conjunctions and ou correspond to the English and. In certain contexts and ou are
interchangeable: faz ou panir or faz panir bread and cheese. However, the certain phonetic restrictions apply. After words ending in a vowel, rather than ou is used: oski araj gold and silver, Arm;ne Sour;ne Armen and Suren, but Arm;nn ou Sour;ne Armen and Suren. There are also certain rules: In a longer sentence where both and ou have to appear, ou tends to connect words, phrases and clauses: :s ou dou gnazinq a\nt;[ t;sanq nran! You and I went there and saw him. 255


There are other coordinating conjunctions, such as na also, apa then, so, a\sinqn namely, incp;s as well as, apa j; oc otherwise, minc isk and even, ba\z a\np;s yet, our;mn thus, our;mn thus, manawand especially, etc., that do not have exact correspondences in English. Each of the conjunctions saka\n% a\l and isk% for instance, are comparable in meaning to the already mentioned ba\z but. There are, however, subtleties in meaning that are not always easy to translate into English. The conjunction isk poses a special problem% as its meaning can be defined as something between the English and and but. EXAMPLES: (1) M;nq .os;zinq% isk douq lou mnaziq! We spoke out, but (or: and) you remained silent. (2) Nor tarin m;nq ton;zinq m;r tane% isk douq sraf war];ziq! We celebrated the New Year in our home, but (or: and) you rented a hall. Armenian is rich in correlative coordinators, i.e. a pair of coordinating conjunctions that belong to the same construction but are separated in use. There are two types of correlative coordinators, unstressed and stressed. Compare the two separate columns: oc mia\n &&&% a\l orqan &&&% a\nqan ;j; &&&% apa oc j; &&&% a\l EXAMPLES: Douq oc mia\n a=akz;ziq% a\l 'rk;ziq nranz! You not only helped them, but also saved them. Mard orqan ;ranoum h% a\nqan imastoun h danoum! The older one gets, the wiser one becomes. :j; patm;s Anna\in% apa ambo[= qa[aqe kimana! If you tell Anna, the whole city will know about it. O*c dou ;s lsoum% o*c hl jo[noum ;s ouri,n;re ls;n! You neither listen, nor do you allow others to listen. J;* laz ;s linoum% j;* ia[oum ;s! You are crying and laughing at the same time. A\spisow^ * oc.arn;re o[= mnazin% * ga\l;re sowamaf c;[an! Thus both the sheep and the wolves survived.

not only ..., but also the more ..., the more if ..., then not ... but

* &&&% * j;* &&&% j;* o*c &&&% o*c ka*m &&&% ka*m

both ... and ... both ... and ... neither ..., nor ... either ..., or


(Literally: Thus both the sheep remained alive, and the wolves didnt starve.) 2. A complex sentence consists of one main clause and one or more clauses subordinated to the main clause. A subordinate clause is introduced by: a) a subordinating conjunction and is always separated from the main clause by a comma. a\np;s or so that as;s j; as if ;j; if ;j; mia\n if only ;rb (or) when j; that j; ard\oq whether j; ch otherwise j;koux although j;koux even though j;p;t although j; although incp;s or as kar;s j; as if fakaak or despite f;nz or as soon as manawand or especially minc while minc (or) until mincd; whereas, while na.qan before na\a depending onz or as if or that orowf;t because orp;sxi in order to orqan or as much as cna\a or although qan than qani while

The most common subordinate conjunctions are listed below in alphabetical order: Subordinate clauses can follow the main clause. EXAMPLES: (1) P;tq h gnam% orowf;t in] spasoum ;n! I must go because they are waiting for me. (2) Na am;n inc anoum h% orp;sxi fa[ji! He does everything in order to win. (3) Asoum ;n% or in] moaz;l ;s! They say that you have forgotten me. Subordinate clauses can precede the main clause. EXAMPLES: (4) :rb das;re w;r=anan% gnalou ;nq sar;re! When classes end, we will go to the mountains. (5) Minc cpafan=;s% c;s stana! You wont receive if you dont demand. (6) A\np;s law ;s groum% kar;s gro[ lin;s! You write so well, as if you were a writer.


In the complex sentences (1)-(6), clauses do not have equal status: one clause is subordinate to another. In sentence (1) the subordinate clause orowf;t in] spasoum ;n because they are waiting for me is dependent on the main clause P;tq h gnam I must go. As the above sentences demonstrate, subordinate clauses fulfill various functions within complex sentences. They can appear, for example, as an adverb expressing a cause (1), a purpose (2), a time (4), etc. When simple sentences are transformed into subordinate clauses, they are marked by an initial subordinating conjunction, but do not undergo any change in word order. Arm;ne ous;r;n cgiti! Na ;kaw! Fiwand hi! I#nc pataf;z! Git;m% or Arm;ne ous;r;n cgiti! :rb na ;kaw% ;s gnaz;l hi! Bv,ki gnazi% orowf;t fiwand hi! Ouxoum ;m imanal% j; inc pataf;z!

Complex sentences can contain more than one subordinate clause, one depending from the other, thus constituting subordinate clauses of first, second, third degree, etc.: :k;[;zin aa=in ,;nqn hr% The church was the first building ore pat;raxmiz f;to w;rakaouzw;z% (1st degree subordinate clause) that was rebuilt after the war qani or qa[aqoum ;k;[;zi chr mnaz;l! (2nd degree subordinate clause) since no church was left in the city. A\s tari qa[aqoum ;m mnalou% This year I will stay in town orowf;t ouxoum ;m awart;l a\n girqe% (1st degree subordinate clause) because I want to finish the book orn sks;l ;m gr;l anz\al tari% that I started last year, (2nd degree subordinate clause)

;rb ,at aw;li og;,ncwa hi! (3rd degree subordinate clause) when I was much more inspired. 3) Armenian has another method of transforming sentences into subordinate units. Instead of subordinate clauses, it uses nominal phrases that include a nominalized infinitive, with the personal-possessive article -s% -d% etc., or the possessive adjectives im% qo% nra% etc., (see p. 54), and a preposition or postposition (see pp. 158-159) that governs a specific case. Such nominal phrases are are transformed from idependent sentences.


Namake groum hi! (Letterthe I wroteaor.) I was writing the letter. Namakn ou[ark;zi! (Letterthe I sentaor..) I sent the letter. Namake baz ar;zir! (Letterthe you openedaor..) You opened the letter. Namake kardazir! (Letterthe he readaor..) He read the letter.

Na ;kaw namake gr;lous vamanak! (He arrived letterthe writinggen-mine. while) He arrived as I was writing the letter. Na ;kaw namakn ou[ark;louzs aa=! (He arrived letterthe sendingabl-mine. before) He arrived before I sent the letter. Na ;kaw minc namake baz an;ld! (He arrived by the time letterthe openingacc-yours) By the time you opened the letter, he arrived. Na ;kaw namake kardalouzd f;to! (He arrived letterthe readingabl-mine. after) He arrived after you read the letter.

As the examples illustrate, the nominal phrases gr;lous vamanak% ou[ark;louzs aa=% minc baz an;ld% kardalouzd f;to% are rendered into English by subordinate clauses. Many subordinate clauses have equivalent nominal phrases in Armenian: :rb dou gnoum hir% m;nq qna hinq! or Qo gnalou vamanak m;nq qna hinq! When you were leaving, we were asleep. F;nz or Marian in] t;saw% anf;tazaw! or In] t;sn;loun p;s Marian anf;tazaw! As soon as Maria saw me, she disappeared. Girqe cgn;zi% orowf;t mots dram ckar! or Mots dram clin;lou patyaow girqe cgn;zi! I did not buy the book because I did not have money on me. Cna\a or fogna hr% marde ;rkar a,.at;z! or Fogna lin;low fand;r] marde ;rkar a,.at;z! Although he was tired, the man worked for quite a while. Some of these nominal phrases are translated into English as gerundial or infinitive constructions: aanz spas;lou (preposition + infinitivegen) without waiting par;lou t;[/';n (infinitivegen + postposition) instead of dancing t;sn;lou npatakow (infinitivegen + postposition) in order to see fiwand lin;lou patyaow (preposition + infinitivegen) due to being ill


Government of verbs, adjectives, and adverbs In sentences, some words require that another word take a particular form. For instance, Armenian prepositions and postpositions require that nouns following or preceding them be used in a certain case (see pp. 158-159). Verbs, adjectives, adverbs and even some nouns, too, demand that their complement(s) be used in a particular case, with or without a preposition/postposition. This factor, called government, has an impact on the sentence structure of any language. Among languages, the government of verbs, adjectives, nouns, and adverbs may coincide. Compare the government of the verb m,ak;l in the following Armenian sentence and that of the English verb cultivate in the translation of that sentence. Both verbs in the respective languages require a direct object: Nranq m,akoum ;n fo[e! They cultivate the soil. Languages, however, vary as to the way in which verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs are connected to their complements. Considering that in Modern English nouns have only two expressed cases, namely nominative and genitive (cf. father/fathers), and personal pronouns only three cases, i.e. nominative, genitive and objective (cf. I/my/me), discrepancies in the government of verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs in Armenian and English are inevitable. Very often, while Armenian requires only an indirect object, English requires a preposition before the object: Nranq a\nt;[ in] ;n spasoum! They wait there for me. In the above sentence, spas;l to wait takes just the indirect object in], while in English the verb to wait is followed by the preposition for plus the object me. A,.arfe m;x h na\oum! The world is looking at us. Here again, na\;l requires an indirect object (the dative of the personal pronoun m;nq m;x) where the English to look uses the preposition at before us. There are considerable differences in the government of verbs of the two languages: wa.;nal + object in the ablative case (ending -iz) vs. to fear + direct object i A\s ,niz wa.;noum ;m! I fear this dog. gofanal + object in the instr. case (ending -ow) vs. to content oneself + with + object o Qcow gofanoum ;m! I content myself with little. fpartanal + object in the instr. case (ending -ow) vs. to take pride + in + object o Na fpartanoum h ir xawakn;row! He takes pride in his children.


ia[;l + object in the genitive case (ending -i) + wra vs. to laugh + at + object i Mi* ia[ir ouri,n;ri wra! Do not laugh at others! .ousa';l + object in the ablative case (ending -iz) vs. to avoid + direct object i Bolore nraniz .ousa'oum ;n! Evereybody avoids him. It is therefore important to memorize the government of verbs, nouns, and adjectives. In the following pages, some frequently used Armenian verbs and adjectives are grouped according to the case they govern. Verbs requiring the direct object Verbs such as t;sn;l to see, w;rzn;l to take, dn;l to put, faskanal to understand, etc., are transitive verbs and as such they require a direct object. Transitive verbs require the accusative case, and in most languages these verbs represent the largest group of verbs. There is, however, a distinction that East Armenian makes depending on the meaning of the object. With inanimates it takes the accusative, with animates it takes the dative case: T;snoum ;m l;e(acc)! I see the mountain. C;m t;snoum ;r;.an;rin(dat)! I dont see the children. The animate vs. inanimate distinction becomes irrelevant when the reference to the noun is not specific but generic, i.e. the noun is an example of a class in general. In that case, transitive verbs treat nouns as inanimates and require the accusative: M;nq frawir;zinq m;r anoj bv,kin(dat)! We invited the physician we knew. M;nq anmi=ap;s bvi,k(acc)frawir;zinq! We immediately invited a physician. There are verbs that govern two direct objects, the first of them being primary verbs, such as koc;l to name, fcak;l to declare, n,anak;l to nominate, entr;l to choose, dar]n;l to make, etc. In this case, too, the first object takes either the accusative or the dative according to its meaning, while the second object always takes the accusative: :r;.a\in(dat) i#nc(acc) ;q koc;lou! What are you going to name the child? G;n;rale nran(dat) f;ros(acc) fcak;z! The general declared him a hero. Anna\in(dat) qartou[ar(acc) n,anak;zin! They nominated Anna as the secretary. Qa[aqe(acc) Ani(acc) koc;zin! They called the city Ani. Toune(acc) dvo.q(acc) dar]r;z! He turned the house into hell.



Verbs requiring the dative: a[ac;l to beg A[ac;zi m;kin(dat)% or in] gni! I begged someone to help me. dipc;l to touch Nkarn;rin(dat) cdipc;*l! Do not touch the paintings. enk;ranal to join Enk;razi*r m;x(dat)! Join us! anojanal to get acquainted Qa[aqin(dat) anojazanq! We got acquainted with the city. aa\;l to serve aa\oum ;nq fa\r;niqin(dat)! We serve the fatherland. kpc;l to stick Sosin]e kpcoum h matis(dat)! The glue sticks to my finger. fandip;l to meet A\sr Aramin(dat) fandip;zi! I met Aram today. fasn;l to reach Fasanq m;r npatakin(dat)! We have reached our goal. fawatal to believe J,namoun c;n fawata! They dont believe the enemy. f;t;l to follow F;t;zi .orfrdid(dat)! I followed your advice. fnaxandw;l to obey r;nqin(dat) p;tq h fnaxandw;l! One must obey the law. frama\;l to order M;x(dat) frama\;zin% or gnanq! They ordered us to go. mot;nal to approach Mot;z;*q s;[anin(dat)! Come close to the table!];l to envy Bolore nran(dat)]oum ;n! Everybody envies him. na\;l to look Oc oq ,ane(dat) cna\;z! Nobody looked at the dog. nmanw;l to resemble Dou nmanwoum ;s mord(dat)! You resemble your mother. npast;l to contribute Npast;zir fa=o[ouj\ans(dat)! You contributed to my success. o[orm;l to have mercy O[ormi*r a[qatn;rin(dat)! Have mercy on the poor! spanal to threaten Krake m;x(dat) spanoum hr! The fire was threatening us. spas;l to wait F\ourin(dat) ;rkar spas;zinq! We waited long for the guest. w;ragr;l to attribute Am;n inc q;x(dat) w;ragr;zin! They attributed everything to you. wnas;l to harm de ao[=ouj\ans(dat) wnas;z! The air damaged my health. wstaf;l to trust C;m wstafoum fi,o[ouj\and(dat)! I dont trust your memory. gn;l to help Karo#[ ;s in](dat)gn;l! Can you help me? ,norfawor;l to congratulate S rtanz ,norfawor;zi nran(dat) fa=o[ouj\an ajiw! I congratulated him on his success. Adjectives and adverbs requiring the dative: antarb;r indifferent ant;[\ak ignorant arvani worthy endounak capable .orj not familiar

Na im zawin(dat) antarb;r h! He is indifferent to my pain. Nranz dawin(dat) ant;[\ak hinq! We ignored their plot. Ir;nz ba.tin(dat) arvani c;n! They do not deserve their luck. Lawouj\an(dat) endounak h! She is capable of good deeds. Barq;rin(dat) .orj ;n! They are not familiar with the customs.


fay;li pleasant fakaak opposed fawasar equal farmar suitable, fit mot(ik) close nman similar, like pat,ay suitable patrast ready wnasakar harmful gtakar useful, good

>a[e boloris(dat) fay;li hr! We all enjoyed the game. Asais(dat) fakaa#k ;s! Are you opposed to what I say? M;ke m\ousin(dat) fawasar h! One is equal to the other. A\s ko,ikn;re in](dat) farmar ;n! These shoes fit me. Nranz toune m;x(dat) mot h! Their house is close to us. M;nq nranz(dat) nman c;nq! We are not like them. Fagousts pat,a#y h tonin(dat)! Is my dress suitable for the party? Sks;lou(dat) patrast ;nq! We are ready to start. .;le bolorin(dat) wnasakar h! Smoking is harmful to all. Mirge ;r;.an;rin(dat) gtakar h! Fruit is good for children.

Verbs requiring the dative and accusative: Many verbs take two objects, an indirect object in the dative and a direct object in the accusative. Verbs like tal to give, patm;l to tell, bazatr;l to explain, etc., belong to the semantic group of verbs that indicate the act of offering something (a thing or an information) to somebody. The questions asked are o#um to whom? referring to a person and i#nc what? referring to the thing or information offered. Here are some verbs of this group: aa=ark;l to offer Pa,tone(acc) q;x(dat) aa=ark;zin! They offered you the position. bazatr;l to explain >ndire(acc) nran(dat) baztar;zi! I explained the problem to him. jo[n;l to leave Oro,oume(acc) jo[;zi fors(dat)! I left the decision to my father. .ostowan;l to confess Ir s;rn(acc) in] (dat) .ostowan;z! He confessed his love to me. nwir;l to give (a gift) Maro\in(dat) a[ikn;r(acc) nwir;zi! I gave Maro flowers. patm;l to tell A\s loure(acc) nran(dat) cpatm;s! Dont tell him this news. w;radar]n;l to return Apranqe(acc) wayao[in(dat) w;radar]ri! I returned the merchandise to the salesperson. tal to give To*ur in](dat) fou\s(acc)! Give me some hope! zankanal to wish Q;x(dat) lawagou\nn(acc) ;m zankanoum! I wish you the best. ou[ark;l to send Anna\in(dat) namak(acc) ou[ark;zi! I sent Anna a letter. ou[[;l to address Namaks(acc) ou[[oum ;m entaniqis(dat)! I address my letter to my family.

Verbs requiring the ablative: an=at;l to detach bavan;l to separate


Mitqd nraniz(abl) an=ati*r! Detach your mind from him/her! Core jaziz(abl) bavan;zin! They separated the dry from the wet.


ba[kanal to consist Girqe ba[kaza h tas h=iz(abl)! The book consists of ten pages. gangatw;l to complain Cgangatw;s oc m;kiz! Do not complain about anybody. go[anal to steal dadar;l to cease dvgof;l to complain do[al to shiver xrk;l to deprive .ndr;l to ask .ousa';l to avoid f;anal to go away fravarw;l to resign fogn;l to get tired pok;l to tear wa.;nal to fear taap;l to suffer 'a.c;l to escape gtw;l to profit In]aniz(abl) ,at ban go[azan! They stole a lot from me. Na dadar;z go[ouj\oun oun;nalouz(abl)! He ceased to exist. Dvgofo#um ;s qo k\anqiz! Do you complain about your life? Zrtiz do[oum ;m! I shiver with cold. Mi* xrkir q;x out;liqiz! Don't deprive yourself of food! Q;xniz(abl) i#nc .ndr;zi! What did I ask you? Bolore nraniz(abl) .ousa'oum ;n! Everybody avoids him. Fa\r;niqizs(abl) f;az;l ;m! I left my fatherland. Pa,tonizd(abl) fravarw;zi#r! Did you resign from your job? A,.atanqizs(abl) fogn;zi! I got tired of my work. A\st;[iz(abl) mi ktor poki*r! Tear a piece from here! Mi* wa.;zir a\d mardkanziz(abl)! Do not fear those people! Taapoum h anqnouj\ouniz(abl)! He/she suffers from insomnia. Yakatagriz(abl) c;s '! You cannot escape destiny. gtwi*r law ;[anakiz(abl)! Profit from the nice weather!

xgou,anal to beware A\s ,niz(abl) xgou,azi*r! Beware of this dog!

]an]ranal to get fed up }an]raza a\s a[moukiz(abl)! I got fed up with this noise. qaranal to be petrified Wa.iz(abl) qaraza! I was petrified with fear.

Adjectives and adverbs requiring the ablative: axat free ga[tni secretely gof satisfied dvgof unhappy xourk devoid jou\l weak ktrwa cut off f;ou far fogna tired tarb;r different Am;n partakanouj\ouniz(abl) axat h! He is free of any duty. In]niz(abl) ga[tni gor;zir! You acted secretly from me. };r k\anqiz(abl) go#f ;q! Are you satisfied with your life? Wiyakiz(abl) dvgof ;nq! We are unhappy with the situation. Na xgazoumn;riz(abl) xourk h! He/she is devoid of feelings. tar l;xoun;riz jou\l ;m! I am weak in foreign languages. K\anqiz(abl) ktrwa ;nq! We are cut off from life. };r toune m;xniz(abl) f;ou ch! Your house is not far from us. Am;n inciz(abl) fogna ;m! I am tired of everything. M;ke m\ousiz(abl) tarb;r h! One is different from the other.




Verbs requiring the instrumental: bawararw;l to content oneself M;nq mi,t qcow(ins) bawararwoum ;nq! We always content (ourselves) with little. gofanal to be satisfied Bolorn hl gofazan ard\ounqn;row(ins)! Everybody was satisfied with the results. fianal to admire Fianoum ;m q;xnow(ins)! I admire you. xardar;l to decorate Famaxg;std xardar;l ;s ,qan,ann;row(ins)! You have decorated your uniform with medals. xba[w;l to occupy oneself Inco#w(ins) ;s xba[woum! What is your occupation? lzn;l to fill S irts lzr;zir wa.ow(ins)! You filled my heart with fear. They will console themselves with their children. snw;l to nourish oneself Inco#w(ins) ;s snwoum! With what do you nourish yourself? fpartanal to take pride Kan axg;r% or fpartanoum ;n ir;nz 'aapan anz\alow(ins)! There are nations that take pride in their glorious past. oura.anal to rejoice Fa\rs oura.anoum hr ir ordin;ri fa=o[ouj\amb(ins)! My father was rejoicing over the success of his sons. akw;l to cover oneself Da,t;re akw;zin ]\ounow(ins)! The fields were covered with snow. Adjectives requiring the instrumental: faroust rich fpart proud l;zoun full li full n,anawor famous f[i full, pregnant vtwa gifted

m.ijarw;l to console oneself M.ijarw;lou ;n ir;nz xawakn;row(ins)!

Fo[e faroust h m;ta[n;row(ins)! The soil is rich in metals. Fpart ;m q;xanow(ins)! I am proud of you. no[n;ri sirte mi,t l;zoun h sirow(ins)! The hearts of parents are always full of love. K\anqe li h anaknkaln;row(ins)! Life is full of surprises. Qa[aqe n,anawor h ir yartarap;touj\amb(ins)! The city is famous for its architecture. Patmouj\an n;rka ,r=ane f[i h wtangn;row(ins)! The present period of history is full of dangers. vtwa ;s .;lqow(ins)! You are gifted with intelligence.



Two-word compounds Armenian has a great number of two-word compounds, a pair of words with a fixed meaning. These are idiomatic expressions unique to Armenian and widely used as intensifiers. They are written in open form, chiefly connected by the coordinating conjunctions ou or (see the notes on pp. 5 and 255). EXAMPLES: d;[ ou darman remedy (literally: medicine and cure) .a[ ou par childss play (literally: game and dance) lou ou moun= silent (literally: quiet and taciturn) o[= ou ao[= wholesome (literally: alive and healthy) ouv ou korow strength (literally: power and vigor) .;lq ou mitq cleverness (literally: brain and thought) fogs ou zaw sorrow (literally: worry and pain), etc. The elements of these compounds are equal in status and both are stressed. However, they are pronounced as one complex word with a rising intonation towards the second component. Hence the reduction of some of these expressions into one word. EXAMPLES: lazouko lamentation from laz ou ko (crying and deploring) tounout;[ possessions from toun ou t;[ (house and place) aoua. dealings from a ou a. (take and sell) ou[nououe pith, core from ou[(n) ou ou(e) (brain and marrow) kargoukanon orderliness from karg ou kanon (order and rule), etc. When used in everyday speech, conjunctions are often left out, and many two-word compounds established themselves in writing with a hyphen. EXAMPLES: faga-kapa all decked out (literally: dressed-fixed) anjiw-anfamar numerous (literally: innumerable-numberless) a[mouk-a[a[ak brouhaha (literally: noise-screaming), etc. As the examples illustrate, the components of such compounds are synonymous or close in meaning. There are, however, some formations whose components have the opposite meaning. EXAMPLES: jaz ou cor diverse (literally: wet and dry) a= ou ]a. left and right (literally: right and left) gi,;r ou z;r;k all day long (literally: night and day), etc.


Interjections Armenian everyday conversation abounds in interjections, marginal items of speech that carry various meanings but function alone and are not part of a sentence structure. These are short linguistic units that are emotive and situational, express a lot using mostly just one syllable consisting of a few sounds. Sometimes they can, however, be longer than one syllable. Armenian interjections can be grouped into four types that carry out various functions. 1) To convey strong emotion: @ [o!], a@ [a!]% @ [oy!]% o@u\ [uy!]% wa@ [vay!]% =a@n \ \ [jan!]% pa@f [pah!]% etc. Due to the difference of the socio-cultural settings in which the two languages, English and Armenian, function, none of these Armenian interjections can be exactly translated into English. Therefore, some common Armenian interjections from the first group will be listed here according to the various emotions they express. a) happiness: =a@n [jan!]% ou.a@ [ukhay!]% @f [oh!]% a@. [akh!]% etc. \ @f [oh!], fo@ [oho!]% pa fo@ [pa ho!]% ba@ [ba!]% wa@f [vah!]% etc. b) surprise: \ c) grief, anxiety: wo@u\ [vuy!], wo@u, [vush!]% ama@n [aman!]% wa@ [vay!]% a@. [akh!]% etc. 'o@u [pu!], i@f [ih!]% o@uf [uh!]% j\o@u [tyu!]% jo@u [tu!]% etc. d) disgust: e) discontent: @f [oh!], h@f [eh!]% @` [of!]% fe@ [h!]% etc. a@ -a*\-a*\ [ay-ay-ay!], hf;@ [ehey!]% e@f [h!]% a@. [akh!]% etc. \ \ f) reproach: awa@[ [avagh!], wa@. [vakh!]% h@. [ekh!]% a@. [akh!]% etc. g) regret: The special intonation that accompanies each of these interjections is crucial. As the examples a@. [akh!] or @f [oh!] illustrate, depending on intonation, some interjections can express various emotions. 2) To catch the attention a) of a person in general: o@w [ov!], h*\ [ey!], f;* [he!], f;*\ [hey!], hf;*\ [ehey!], b) of a man to* [to!], o* [tso!], a*ra [ara!]% c) of a woman qa* [ka!], a[=i* [aghchi!], etc. Most of these interjections belong to a lower register of every day speech and sound at times vulgar. 3) To incite animals to action or to get their attention, such as to call a) chickens and birds: =o@u-=o@u [ju-ju!], b) cats: '@isi-'i@si [pisi-pisi!], 'i@,i-'i@,i [pishi-pishi!]; to frighten away animals, such as a) cats: 'i*,t [pisht!], b) chickens, birds, and flies: q,a* [ksha!], to provoke a dog to attack someone qe*s-qe*s [ks-ks!], etc. 4) To imitate natural sounds of animals and things, i.e. onomatopoeic words: fa*`-fa*` [haf-haf!] (dog)% i@w-i@w [tsiv-tsiv!] (bird)% miao*u [miau!] (cat), ou[rou[o@u [tsughrughu!] (rooster)% be@xx [bz!] (bee), cre@.k [chrkhk!] (shutting door), .e*,, [khshsh!] (running water), etc.



Capitalizing words 1. As in English, Armenian capitalizes the first word in a sentence, quotation, or verse, and the first letter of proper names: Arm;n Armen :ran Yerevan Kipros Cyprus 2. Religious terms are also capitalized: Astwa God Tirama\r Mother of our Lord T;r Lord 3. In compound proper names, all names start with capital letters: a) official names of countries Am;rika\i Miaz\al Nafangn;r United States of America Fa\astani Fanrap;touj\oun Republic of Armenia ousastani Da,nouj\oun Russian Federation G;rmania\i Da,na\in Fanrap;touj\oun German Federal Republic b) names of people Al;qsandr S;rg;ic Pou,kin Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin +or= Bou, Krts;r George Bush Junior +or= No;l Gordon Ba\ron George Noel Gordon Byron Fo <i Min Ho Shi Min c) geographic names consisting of separate proper names Hlxas-Lojaringia Alsace-Lorraine M; Masis Grand Massis (mountain of Ararat) Adis Ab;ba Addis Ababa "oqr Asia Asia Minor d) churches and other sacred locations that contain the name Sourb Saint Ma\r Ajo Sourb H=miain Holy Sea of St. Etchmiadzin A.jamar Sourb >ac ;k;[;zi* Aghtamar Holy Cross Church Sourb Gorg wanq* St. George Monastery
* See next page, section 4. a).




4. In compound proper nouns, only the first word is capitalized, while specifying common nouns are not. EXAMPLES: a) names of geographic locations Stawropoli ;rkramas Stavropol territory S ow Black Sea Sana liy Sevan Lake b) modern and historical names of states, provinces and districts of countries B\ouxandakan ka\srouj\oun Byzantine Empire Kilikia\i fa\kakan jagaworouj\oun Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Fa\astani aa=in fanrap;touj\oun Armenias First Republic 5. Names of internationally or nationally known prizes, awards, and medals Nob;l\an mrzanak Nobel Prize Sourb M;srop Ma,tozi ,qan,an St. Mesrop Mashtots Medal Fa\r;niqi ,qan,an Fatherland Medal 6. Names of international organizations, unions, and institutions Miaworwa axg;ri kaxmak;rpouj\oun Organization of the United Nations >a[a[ouj\an fama,.arfa\in .orfourd International Peace Council Axg;ri liga League of Nations 7. Names of festivities a) officially celebrated national and international days Marti ouje 8th of March (International Womens Day) Anka.ouj\an r Day of Independence Nor tari New Year b) officially celebrated religious festivities Sourb nndi ton Christmas Day (literally: Day of the Holy Birth) Xatki ton Easter Feast Awag ourbaj Good Friday 8. Names of major events in history Aa=in fama,.arfa\in pat;raxm First World War M; ;[;n The Armenian Genocide (Literally: The Great Disaster) Dimadrouj\an ,arvoum Resistance Movement ~ransiakan m; f;[a'o.ouj\oun (1789-1794 jj&) The Great French Revolution


1. Combine words from the left column with appropriate words from the right column. a. Soni*k% ouxo#um ;s b. I#nc piti na.entr;ir^ c. Mi law g\ou[ git;m d. Tiki*n Alis% e. A\s r;rin douq f. S irow kenk;ranam g. Our hl gnaq% fatouk ragir oun;#q! ];x fa=o[ouj\oun ;m ma[joum! ];x! g\ou[o#um apr;l% j;# qa[aqoum! a\s ama i#nc ;q an;lou! f;ts jatron gnal! g;ti a'in!

2. Form mini-dialogues according to the patterns in a, b, c, and d. Replace the items jatron/kino with g\ou[/qa[aq% anta/l;% marxanq/ptou\t% jangaran/ .anoujn;re, etc. a. A. O#ur ;s gnalou! B. D; c;m oro,;l! Ka*m jatron ;m gnalou% ka*m hl kino! A. Jatro#n hir gnaz;l! B. O*c% jatron ,at c;m gnoum& kino\iz ;m galis! A. Ouxo#um ;s in] f;t kino kam jatron gnal! B. O*c kino ;m siroum gnal% o*c hl jatron! A. O#ur gnanq% kino#% j;# jatron! B. Kino\iz hl% jatroniz hl fogn;l ;m! Tann ;m mnalou!




3. Transform the active into the passive voice. a. Are a\r;z ;r;ss! :r;ss ariz mi,t a\rwoum h! b. C;m karo[ doue baz;l! Doue ci &&& c. Dasa.ose ousano[in qnn;z! Ousano[n;re dasa.osi ko[miz &&& d. An]re 'o[ozn;re maqroum h! "o[ozn;re an]riz &&& e. Law r;re fi,oum ;m! Law r;re mi,t &&& f. A\st;[iz law ;m lsoum! A\st;[iz law &&& g. Anound a\sp;#s ;s groum! Cgit;i% or anound a\sp;s &&&



4. Build sentences according to the pattern. a. :rgo[e na h% ow ;rgoum h! b. Gro[e na h% &&& c. Kardazo[n;re nranq ;n% owq;r &&& d. >oso[n;re &&& e. Nkaro[n;re &&& f. Lo[e &&& 5. Complete the following sentences according to the pattern. a. Ouxan;rs a\n ban;rn ;n% or oux;zi! b. Gran;rs a\n ban;rn ;n% or &&& c. Casan;rs a\n ban;rn ;n% or &&& d. Clsan;rd &&& e. };r oun;zan;re &&& f. };r nwiran;re &&& 6. Complete the following sentences according to the pattern. a. Cgras a\n h% or c;m gr;l! b. Ck;rad a\n h% or &&& c. Couxae &&& d. Clsas &&& e. Coun;zas &&& f. Ckardazad &&& 7. Answer the questions with a negative response. Follow the pattern. a. :#rb ;s a\s nw;re talou! :rb nran t;sn;m% ktam! (nran% t;sn;l) b. :#rb ya,;ziq! :rb &&& (bolore% gal) c. :#rb ;s Anna\in as;lou! :rb &&& (Anna% fandip;l) d. :#rb ;q karkandake ktr;lou! :rb &&& (f\our;re% fawaqw;l) e. :#rb ;s a\d mardou f;t anojaz;l! :rb &&& (gnazq% yam'ord;l) f. :#rb sksw;z ];r enk;rouj\oune! :rb &&& (famalsaran% sowor;l) g. :#rb faskazar% j; inc pataf;z! :rb &&& (namak% stanal) 8. Link the two clauses to each other by using one the following conjunctions: (orowf;t% qani or% j;% orp;sxi% cna\a or% ;rb) a. Dasi cgnazi! fiwand hi! Dasi cgnazi% orowf;t fiwand hi!


b. Girqe gn;zi! Dram coun;i! c. <tap;zinq! Chinq ouxoum ou,anal! d. An]roum hr! Dours ;kanq tniz! e. Dase w;r=azaw! Bolor ;r;.an;re bak gnazin .a[alou! f. <at zourt hr! Na w;rarkou chr fag;l! g. A\s ya,e c;m siroum! Outoum ;m! 9. Translate into Armenian. a. Know what you say. b. What you see you believe. c. He who searches finds. d. He who has no money eats what he finds. e. What will happen will happen. f. He is not somebody who would forget. 10. How would you say it in Armenian? a. Ask a friend what his/her plans are for the next day/weekend/summer. b. Invite a friend to spend some time with you. c. Offer your friend some choices of places to go with you. d. Agree to join a friend on a trip. e. Politely decline to go with a friend to the theater. Give reasons why you cannot go. f. Ask your instructor whether he/she can explain to you the use of an Armenian word. 11. Answer the following questions with reference to the TEXT in this unit. a. Namak gro[e o#w h! b. Namake o#um h ou[[wa! c. Ort;#[ h aproum Wafane! d. Ort;#[ ;n aproum Wafani tatikn ou papike! e. Inco#u minc fima Wafane namak chr groum tatikin! f. Wafane ;#rb h g\ou[ gnalou! g. I#nc h ton;lou Wafane g\ou[oum! h. Ort;#[ ;s siroum apr;l% g\ou[o#um% j;# qa[aqoum!



XI PROVERBS G\ou[azou 'ore qa[aqazou fazow ci k,tana! A peasants stomach cannot be sated with a townsmans bread. G\ou[azou m;=qe or ,itak ;[aw% zanae ou kbousni! If a peasants back is straight, his harvest will be crooked. Karkoute ;a t;[n h ;oum! The hail hits more the spot that it hit before. Ouri,i famar 'os 'oro[e inqe m;=e kenkni! He who digs a pit for someone else will fall into it himself. Ta,a qare g;tnin ci mna! A polished stone wont remain on the ground for long.


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Unit 12

Ton;r ou vamanz [|wt tw exvxt|

On the Agenda ...

Speech Acts in Dialogues: Vocabulary: Grammar:

Discussing news . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Media and news . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 SYNTAX: Direct and indirect speech . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

Armenian-English Contrasts: Nominalizations in Armenian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Word formation: Pronunciation: Orthography: Reduplication in Armenian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .288 Double consonants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Rendering English words into Armenian . . . . . . . 293

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1. A and B are fellow students. A is back from a study trip to Armenia. A. Bari w;rada*r]! [Bari veradarts] Incp;#s hr Fa\astanoum! [Inchpes er Hayastanum?] B. Fianali@ hr! Am;n inc kpatm;m! [Hianali er. Amen inch kpatmem] Welcome back! How was Armenia? It was wonderful. Theres a lot to tell.

Ba\z na. asa^ a\st;[ i#nc ka-cka! But first tell me, whats new here? [Bayts nakh asa, aystegh inch ka-chka?] A. Ls;#l ;s w;r=in norouj\oune! [Lsel es verchin norutyun?] B. I#nc norouj\oun! [Inch norutyun?] A. Famalsarann r;nqn;re 'o.;l h! [Hamalsarann orenkner pokhel e] A\ls ousman war] cka! [Aylevs usman varts chka] B. Iskap;#s! [Iskapes?] A. A\o*! Bolor ousano[n;re [Ayo! Bolor usanoghner] famalsaraniz jo,ak ;n stanalou! [hamalsaranits toshak en stanalu] B. I@nc law lour h! [Inch lav lur e!] A. :w git;s^ a\ls qnnouj\ounn;r [Yev gites aylevs knnutyunner] c;n lin;lou% oc hl jwan,ann;r! [chen linelu, voch el tvanshanner] B. I#nc ;s asoum& anfawatali h! [Inch es asum? Anhavatali e]

Have you heard the latest news? Whats new? The university has changed its rules. There are no more tuition fees. Really? All students will receive a scholarship from the university. Thats great news! And, you know, there will be no exams or grades anymore. Dont tell me! Thats unbelievable!

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UNIT 12 A. "o.anak nranq m;x qnn;lou% [Pokhanak nrank mez knnelu, ] m;nq ;nq gnafat;lou dasa.osn;rin! [menk enk gnahatelu dasakhosnerin] B. C;m karo[ asaid fawatal! [Chem karogh asatsit havatal] A. O#w asaz% or fawatas! [Ov asats, vor havatas?] A\sr aprili m;kn h! [Aysor aprili mekn e] Instead of them examining us, we will evaluate the professors. I cant believe what youre saying. Who said you should believe it? Today is April Fools Day.

2. A and B be are neighbors. They are clearing up a misunderstanding. A. Oc m;kin ban cas;s% ba\z [Voch mekin ban chases, bayts] q;x ga[tniq oun;m as;lou! [kez gakhtnik unem aselu] B. Wstafi*r in]% .ostanoum ;m l;l! [Vstahir indz, khostanum em lel] A. Git;#s% or m;r farane go[ h! [Gites, vor mer harevan gogh e?] B. O#w% Fowi#ke! Q;x o#w asaz! [Ov, Hovik? Kez ov asats?] A. Acqows t;sa! [Achkovs tesa] B. I#nc t;sar! [Inch tesar?] A. T;sa nran go[ouj\oun an;lis! [Tesa nran gokhutyun anelis] Dont tell anybody, but I have a secret to share with you. Trust me, I promise to keep quiet. Do you know that our neighbor is a thief? Who, Hovik? Who told you? I saw it with my own eyes. What did you see? I saw him stealing.

B. C;m fawatoum! Na m;r mot enk;rn h! I dont believe it. Hes a close friend of [Chem havatum. Na mer mot nkern e] ours. A. :r;k gi,;r% ;rb tane chiq% [Yerek gisher, yerp tan cheyik,] ];r bnakaraniz jaqoun dours ;kaw [dzer bnakaranits takun durs yekav] Last night, when you werent home, he sneaked out of your apartment


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UNIT 12 .o,or mi parkow! [khoshor mi parkov] B. S .alwoum ;s! [Skhalvum es] :r;k gi,;r m;nq tann hinq Yerek gisher menk tann eyink] maqrouj\oun hinq anoum! [yev makrutyun eyink anum] Isk Fowike m;x gnoum hr! [isk Hovik mez oknum er] A. B. Isk pa#rke! [Isk park?] Parke m;r a[bn hr% or [Park mer akhpn er, vor ] Fowike tanoum hr ja';lou! [Hovik tanum er tapelu] with a big bag. You are mistaken. Last night we were at home and we were cleaning up. And Hovik was helping us. And what about the bag? The bag was our trash, which Hovik was taking out.

WA{AM:IK JIJ:NIKE O@w ci yanacoum H`;m;r jij;nikin% a\n ,norfali jij;nikin% orn amaa\in gi,;rn;rin galis h% ];r lapt;ri ,our=e bazou.ou' anoum ir j;j j;re! Na aproum h am;niz karyat ou am;niz g;[;zik k\anqow% or kar;li h patk;razn;l! Ya,ak;liq couni% ci karo[ out;l% mi qani vamiz m;n;lou h& ba\z m;n;lou h am;niz bnakan% am;niz id;alakan mafow^ aanz ;ranalou% aanz fiwandanalou% aanz zaw xgalou &&& ! :r=ani@k jij;nik& snndi kariq couni% orowf;t stamoqs couni& k\anqi fogs couni% orowf;t nra vam;re fa,wwa ;n! Ir miak xba[mounqe s;rn h& na bar]ranalou h d;pi ;rkinq^ ir nman wa[am;ik jij;nik gtn;lou! Ou sir;lou h% m;n;lou h^ ir;n nwir;low &&& Na irakanazn;lou h banast;[i ;raxe^ nw;l% sir;l% m;n;l &&& (Est oub;n Saki)

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wa[am;ik jij;nik ,norfali lapt;r ,our=e bazou.ou' an;l j;j karyat k\anq patk;razn;l ya,ak;liq m;n;l bnakan maf ;ranal aanz fiwandanal zaw xgal ;r=anik snound kariq stamoqs fogs orowf;t fa,wa miak xba[mounq s;r bar]ranal ;rkinq gtn;l nwir;l irakanazn;l banast;[ ;rax nw;l [vaghameik] [titenik] [shnorhali] [lapter] [shurj] [batsukhup anel] [tetev] [karchatev] [kyank] [patkeratsnel] [chashakelik] [menel] [bnakan] [mah] [tseranal] [aants] [hivandanal] [tsav zgal] [yerjanik] [snund] [karik] [stamoks] [hoks] [vorovhetev] [hashvats] [miak] [zbaghmunk] [ser] [bartsranal] [yerkink] [gtnel] [nvirel] [irakanatsnel] [banasteghts] [yeraz] [tsnvel] prematurely dying butterfly graceful lantern around to flutter light, not heavy short-lived life to imagine sense of taste to die natural death to grow old without to get sick to feel pain happy nutrition need stomach worry because counted the only occupation love to rise sky to find to dedicate to fulfill, to realize poet dream to be born


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[Mamul yev lurer] [tsanutsum(ner)] [verlutsutyun] [haytararel] [haytararutyun] [hodvats] [heghinak] [shnorhandes] [grakhosutyun] [verchin lurer] [knnadatutyun] [pastagrakan] [khmbagrakan] [glkhavor khmbagir [hartsazruyts] [lragrogh] [yerazhshtutyun] [haghortagrutyun] [haghortel] [hamakarkich] [tkhtakits] [tkhtaktsel] [tkhtaktsutyun] [sevagrutyun] [elektronayin namak] [khoragir] [teghekutyun] [hamatsants] [handes] [namak(ner)] [dasakhosutyun] [dzeagir]


anouzoum(n;r) w;rlououj\oun fa\tarar;l fa\tararouj\oun fodwa f;[inak ,norfand;s gra.osouj\oun w;r=in lour;r qnnadatouj\oun 'astagrakan .mbagrakan gl.awor .mbagir farzaxrou\z lragro[ ;rav,touj\oun fa[ordagrouj\oun fa[ord;l famakargic j[jakiz j[jakz;l j[jakzouj\oun sagrouj\oun hl;ktrona\in namak .oragir t;[;kouj\oun famazanz fand;s namak(n;r) dasa.osouj\oun ];agir

advertisement(s) analysis (to) announce announcement article author book presentation book review latest news criticism documentary editorial editor-in-chief interview journalist music bulletin (to) report computer correspondent (to) correspond correspondence draft e-mail headlines information internet journal, magazine letter(s) lecture manuscript

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UNIT 12 lragir raj;rj amsagir ,abajaj;rj w;p parb;raj;rj banast;[ouj\oun banast;[ qa[aqakan t;souj\oun tpic mamoul mamouli t;souj\oun mamouli fa[ordagrouj\oun tparan tpagratoun ragir fratarakouj\oun fratarakic fratarakcouj\oun adio enj;rzo[ .mbagrouj\oun t;[;kagrouj\oun ;rgiabanouj\oun nsta,r=an fa[ordawar ya f;a.os f;oustat;souj\oun f;as'oum ka\q ka\qh= f;oustazou\z ;[anaki t;souj\oun paty;nafan [lragir] newspaper [oratert] newspaper (daily) [amsagir] newspaper (monthly) [shapatatert] newspaper (weekly) [vep] novel [parberatert] periodical [banasteghtsutyun] poem [banasteghts] poet [kaghakakan tesutyun] political review [tpich] printer [mamul] press [mamuli tesutyun] press review [mamuli haghortagrutyun] press release paran] [t printery pagratun] [t printing press ragir] [ts program [hratarakutyun] publication [hratarakich] publisher [hratarakchutyun] publishing house [adio] radio [ntertsogh] reader mbagrutyun] [kh edition, editors office [teghekagrutyun] report [yergitsabanutyun] satire stashrjan] [n session [haghortavar] speaker (radio, tv) [cha] speech, discourse [heakhos] telephone [heustatesutyun] television pum] [heas televising [kayk] web [kaykej] website [heustatsuyts] TV set [yeghanaki tesutyun] weather forecast [patchenahan] xerox

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SYNTAX Direct and indirect speech Reported speech, i.e. citing something said, written or thought by a person, may be direct or indirect. While direct speech tends to reproduce the exact words of the original, indirect speech conveys the report in the words of the reporter. To open and close quoted material, Armenian employs its quotation marks &&&! When the reporting clause, such as He said, precedes the direct speech, it ends with a [&], the Armenian equivalent of an English colon or semicolon: Qartou[aroufin asaz& Wa[n endoun;louj\an r h! The secretary said: Tomorrow we are having an open house. When the reporting clause follows the direct speech, it is preceded by a comma and a long dash: A\st;[ ci kar;li .;l% aark;z farans! You cannot smoke here, objected my neighbor. However, when the direct speech is interrupted by the reporting clause, opening and closing quotation marks are used in Armenian only once: Mi* gna% .ndr;z ma\rs% m;nq aanz q;x c;nq karo[ apr;l! Dont go, begged my mother, we cannot live without you. In dialogues, especially when utterances follow each other without interruption, quotation marks are replaced by a long dash. Most of the time, such utterances lack reporting clauses: O#ur ;s gnoum! Where are you going? Toun! Home. Mi,t a\s vami#n ;s w;r=aznoum! Do you always finish at this time? :rb;mn nou\nisk aw;li ou,! Sometimes even later. As in other languages, transformation from direct to indirect speech entails certain structural changes. Here are the most common ones: When transforming direct speech into indirect speech, the original speakers words are reported without quotes, and the two clauses merge, with the reporting clause establishing itself as the main clause and the direct speech into a subordinated clause. The latter is introduced by the conjunctions or or j;& Reported state282

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UNIT 12 ments, commands or instructions take or% reported questions (general and special) take j;. 1. Direct speech (statement): Na asoum h& Law ;[anak h lin;lou! He says, The weather will be fine. Indirect speech: Na asoum h% or law ;[anak h lin;lou! He says that the weather will be fine. Direct speech (command): Na m;x asaz& Doue baz;*q! He told us, Open the door! Indirect speech: Na m;x asaz% or doue baz;nq! He told us to open the door. Direct speech (general question): :s nran farzri& To#un ;s gnoum! I asked him, Are you going home? Indirect speech: :s nran farzri% j; toun h gnoum! I asked him whether he was going home. Direct speech (specific question): Na mtaoum hr& O#w h a\s marde! He was thinking: Who is this man? Indirect specific question: Na mtaoum hr% j; ow h a\s marde! He was wondering who this man was.




When the prohibitive imperative is transformed into indirect speech, the prohibitive particle mi* is replaced by the negative prefix c-: Direct speech (prohibitive imperative): Na ;r;.a\in frama\;z& Mi* .osir! He ordered his child: Dont speak! Reported prohibitive order: Na ;r;.a\in frama\;z% or c.osi! He ordered his child not to speak. When direct speech becomes indirect speech, dialogue units undergo certain transformations, to adjust to the reporting and storytelling style. a) In order to keep the logic of narration intact, adjustments are made in personal pronouns with special consideration as to who the person in the reporting clause is, to whom the latter addresses the direct speech, and what the topic of the conversation is: Direct speech: Qou\rs asaz& Xa*ng tour in]% ;rb gord w;r=azn;s! My sister said: Call me, when you finish your work. Reported speech: Qou\rs asaz% or xang tam ir;n% ;rb gors w;r=azn;m! My sister told me to call her when I finish my work.

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UNIT 12 b) While direct speech must be quoted more or less exactly, the reporter is at liberty to reword the reporting clause and instead of the neutral verbs asaz he/she said or farzr;z he/she asked to use a wide range of other more expressive verbs: f;taqrqrw;z he/she inquired, pafan=;z he/she demanded, xgou,azn;l he/she warned, xarmazaw he/she got surprised, fan]narar;z he/she recommended, etc. EXAMPLES: Na na.axgou,azr;z% or 'oqrik sounke karo[ hr jounawor lin;l! He warned that the small mushroom could be poisonous. Ostikane pafan=;z% or bolore axat;n srafe! The policeman demanded that everybody free the hall. Bar;kams im gnaloun aark;z! My friend objected to my leaving. :s f;taqrqrw;zi% j; ort;[iz hr a\dqan drame! I wanted to know from where all that money was coming. c) To align many temporal and local adverbs with the time and place of the reporting, some changes in vocabulary are made. Thus, a\st;[ here in direct speech transforms into a\nt;[ there in reporting speech, or any other exact indication of place, such as a\d wa\roum in that place, tane at home, or 'o[ozoum on the street, etc., as the case may be. Similarly, expressions of time transform: a\sr today a\s ;r;ko tonight wa[e tomorrow ;r;k yesterday fima now anz\al ,abaj last week sraniz aa= before this a\d re on that day a\d ;r;ko on that evening fa=ord re the next day na.ord re the day before a\d pafin% a\n vamanak then, at that time mi ,abaj aa= a week before draniz aa= before that, etc.

d) In indirect speech, Armenian does not necessarily need to shift tenses in order to go back to the time of the utterance as English normally does: Enk;rs farzr;z& Incp;#s ;s! O#ur ;s gnoum! My friend asked , How are you? Where are you going? Indirect speech: Enk;rs farzr;z% j; incp;s ;m our ;m gnoum! My friend asked how I was and where I was going.

Direct speech:

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Nominalizations in Armenian As we have seen throughout this textbook, Armenian can readily nominalize, i.e. form a noun from words that belong to other word classes than nouns (see adjectives, p. 184, infinitives p. 182, participles p. 237, etc). In all of these cases, nominalized words take markers typical of nouns, such as the definite article -e/-n% the possessive article -s% -d% -e/-n% etc., the plural ending -n;r% and case markers. 1. Adjectives: karmir red karmire the red one, karmirs my red one, karmrizs from my red one, karmirn;re the red ones, karmirn;rs my red ones, karmirn;rows with my red ones, etc. 2. Infinitives: kardal to read kardale the reading kardals my reading (the fact that I am reading), kardald your reading (the fact that you are reading), kardalous (patyaow) (because) of my reading, etc. (see p. 182) 3. Participles: ou,azo[ belated ou,azo[e he who is late, ou,azo[n;re those who are late, ou,azo[n;riz from those who are late, etc. asa said asas what I have said, asan;rs all that I have said, asan;rizs from all what I have said, asan;rows with all that I have said, etc. (see p. 237) 4. Pronouns: im my ime mine (singular) imonq the mine (plural nominative) [my folks], imonz to the mine (plural + accusative/dative) [to my folks]; m;r our m;re ours, m;ronq the ours (plural nominative) [our folks], m;ronziz from my/our folks; qo your qone yours, qoniz from yours, etc. 5. Demonstrative and indefinite pronouns: nou\n (same) nou\ne the same, nou\niz of the same, nou\now with the same; \ouraqanc\our each, every \ouraqanc\oure each one, \ouraqanc\ourin to each one, \ouraqanc\ouriz from each one; ouri, other ouri,e the other, ouri,n;re others (plural); bolor all bolore all of them, bolorin to all, boloriz from all, bolorow with everyone, bolors all of us, bolord all of you, etc. 6. Postpositions: f;t with f;ts with me, f;td with you, f;te with him/her, f;tn;rs with us, f;tn;rd with you (plural), f;tn;re with them; m;= in m;=s in me, m;=d in you, m;=e in him/her, m;=n;rs in us / among us, m;=n;rd in you / among you (plural), m;=n;re in them / among them; mot near, next mots next to me, motd next to you, mote next to him/her, motn;rs next to us, motn;rd next to you (plural), motn;re next to them, etc.

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UNIT 12 a) Nominalized postpositions with local meaning are widely used as local adverbials: Postposition a= in front (of) dimaz facing f;t behind wra on d;m against Adverbial a=d in front of you dimazs facing me f;td behind you wran;rs on us d;mn;re opposite them

b) Postpositions with local meaning can be further nominalized in their genitive form: Postposition Genitive drsi n;rsi wra\i taki m;=t;[i Nominalization drsine the one outside n;rsine the one inside wra\ine the one on the top takine the one underneath m;=t;[ine the one in the middle

dours outside n;rs inside wra on tak under m;=t;[ in the middle

7. Temporal or local adverbs can be declined and further nominalized in their genitive form: Adverb a\sr today fima now a\st;[ here wa[e tomorrow a\nt;[ there Genitive a\srwa todays fimikwa present a\st;[i from here wa[wa tomorrows a\nt;[i from there Nominalization a\srwane that of today fimikwane that of now a\st;[ine that from here wa[wane that of tomorrow a\nt;[ine that from there

Note that all nominalizations formed by the possessive article -s% -d% -e/-n can have synonymous analytical constructions with the possessive adjective im% qo% nra% m;r% ];r% nranz. In this case, the nominalized word takes the definite article -e/-n: dimazd gals ouxad mots a=d or or or or or qo im qo im qo dimaz gale ouxae mote a= facing you (informal) my coming what you want next to me in front of you

Some of these nominalizations form their plural only with analytical constructions: nranz ko[qe next to them, m;r aa=e in front of us, etc.

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Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative Instrumental

*Translation: the same

} }

nou\ne* nou\ni(n) nou\niz nou\now

nou\n;re nou\n;ri(n) nou\n;riz nou\n;row

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative Instrumental Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative Instrumental
*Translation: everyone

} }

ambo[=e* ambo[=i(n) ambo[=iz ambo[=ow NO PLURAL

*Translation: all of it, the entire

} } } }

\ouraqanc\oure* \ouraqanc\ouri(n) \ouraqanc\ouriz \ouraqanc\ourow NO PLURAL

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative Instrumental *Translation: each one Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative Instrumental *Translation: the other Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative Instrumental

am;n m;ke* am;n m;ki(n) am;n m;kiz am;n m;kow NO PLURAL

} }

m\ouse* m\ousi(n) m\ousiz m\ousow

m\ousn;re m\ousn;ri(n) m\ousn;riz m\ousn;row

} }

bolore* bolori boloriz bolorow NO PLURAL

*Translation: everybody

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Reduplication in Armenian In Armenian word formation, reduplication plays a great role. Sounds, syllables and entire words are doubled to create new or intensified meanings. Short, mostly one-syllable words are repeated. They are written separately or are connected by a hyphen or by a conjunction. A. Reduplication occurs in almost all parts of speech: 1) Nouns are repeated to form qualitative adjectives that are also used as adverbials: .oumb-.oumb in (many) groups (from .oumb group) 'oun=-'oun= in (many) bunches (from 'oun= bunch, bouquet) t;[-t;[ at (some) places (from t;[ place) t;sak-t;sak of (many) kinds, of many sorts (from t;sak sort, kind) Examples of use are: .oumb-.oumb mardik grouped people (adjective) .oumb-.oumb kangna standing in groups (adverb) 2) Pronouns that can be repeated and are connected with or without a hyphen or conjunction. Reduplication serves here to intensify word meaning or to express uncertainty: ;s ou ;s all by myself (from ;s I) ir;n-ir;n all by himself/herself/itself (from ir;n himself/herself/itself) inc-inc whatever (from i#nc what?): inc-inc mi=ozn;row by whatever means 3) Adjectives and adverbs are doubled a) to heighten the effect of their meaning: sour-sour very sharp (cf. sour-sour .osq;r very sharp words) s-s very black, very dark (cf. s-s acq;r very dark eyes) kamaz-kamaz slowly (cf. kamaz-kamaz faskaza I gradually understood) b) to express repetitive action: qic-qic .m;l to drink little by little m;k-m;k gnal to go from time to time ,out-,out a\z;l;l to visit frequently 4) Numerals are repeated to impart distributive or repetitive meaning: cors-cors kangn;l to stand in fours qani@-qani@ angam how many times!


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UNIT 12 B. Reduplication can be accompanied by sound change or sound reduction. Such repetitions broaden the meaning of the word, indicating a thing or a trait along with something similar. A contrast between repeated words is created by phonetic changes. 1) In the second component of the reduplication, vowels change to ou: o ak ou ouk na\;l to look all over the place (from ak hole) o manr-mounr ban;r all sort of small things (from manr tiny, small) o ]a\n-]oun cka there is not a faint sound (from ]a\n voice, sound) 2) In the second component of the reduplication, the initial consonant is changed, chiefly to an m. This usually results in an intensified meaning or a sense of X and the like, nothing of the sort: m faz-maz cka there is no bread or the like m ]ouk-mouk c;m k;r;l I havent eaten fish or anything of the sort s parap-sarap nsta ;nq We are left sitting entirely idle 3) In the second component of the reduplication, a consonant, usually an m% is added to the initial vowel: m aw;l-maw;l brooms and the like m olor-molor winding, marked by repeated turns and bends c aman-caman dishes and the like 4) In the first component of the reduplication, the initial consonant is removed: aoq-'aoq in full glory, gloriously (from 'aq glory) aran-,aran in many rows (from ,aran row) akas-pakas pointless or redundant (from pakas less) 5) The first syllable of an adjective, mostly indicating color, is taken as the first component of reduplication, and the consonant ' or s is appended to that syllable. Thus, the adjectives meaning is intensified: ' y;rmak white y;'-y;rmak very white ' cor dry co'-cor very dry s karmir red kas-karmir all-red 6) Many reduplications include the preposition a. Such constructions are perceived as one lexical unit: ba a ba word for word, literal (from ba word) vam a vam hour per hour, hourly (from vam hour)

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UNIT 12 7) In some reduplications, one of the components appears in a grammatical form: g\ou[iz g\ou[ from village to village (the first component g\ou[ village appears in the ablative case) ko[q ko[qi side by side (the second component ko[q side appears in the genitive) Some reduplications have preserved older grammatical forms: tar;z tari from year to year (the first component tar;z is an archaic ablative) Since reduplications are perceived as one word, they are often written as such: miami one by one, singly (from mi one) d;mad;m face to face (from d;m(q) face) gou\nxgou\n multi-colored (from gou\n color) .ani.oun disorderly, pell-mell (from .an mixed) dn;dou from door to door (the first component dn; is an archaic ablative) C. Among linguistic units that have resulted from reduplication, there is in Armenian a great number of words in which unlike doubled words written separately or connected by a hyphen or conjunction reduplication has occurred within a single word. These words are predominantly: 1) verbs with iterative meaning: ca'c';l [chapchpel] to measure over (from ca';l [chapel] to measure) do[do[al [doghdoghal] to shiver, to shudder (from do[al [doghal] to tremble) akk;l [tsaktskel] to perforate (from ak;l [tsakel] to pierce) 'a\l'l;l [paylplel] to sparkle, to twinkle (from 'a\l;l [paylel] to shine) mtmtal [mtmtal] ] to ponder (from mta;l [mtatsel] to think 2) onomatopoeic verbs, i.e. verbs formed by imitating sounds. This occurs by repetition of the first syllable both with and without a change in one of the consonant(s): 's'sal [pspsal] to whisper) lwlal [tslvlal] to twitter gogoal [gogoal] to shout gmal [gmal] to grumble kkal [kkal] to croak ,,n=al [shshnjal] to murmur .,.,al [khshkhshal] to sizzle


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Double consonants In Armenian words, double vowels do not occur. Double consonants, however, are quite common. Depending on their position in words, as well as their origine, they can be pronounced as follows. 1. In initial position, double consonants are pronounced separately, adding a syllable to the word by inserting an unwritten e [] between them: jjou ;l xxw;li ddoum kkou ,,ouk [ttu] [tstsel] [zzveli] [dtum] [kku] [shshuk] sour, acid to absorb, to suck disgusting pumpkin cuckoo whisper

2. When they occur in initial consonant clusters due to vowel mutations (see Unit 5, pp. 107-108), double consonants are pronounced separately by inserting e [] between them: nndawa\r snndarar ma\r [tsnndavayr] native country (from nound birth + wa\r location) [snndarar] nutritious (from snound nutrition + adjectival suffix -arar) tsmayr] wet nurse (from i breast + ma\r mother) [ts

3. When clusters result from vowel mutations and appear before vowels, double consonants are pronounced as one prolonged sound: ou[[agrouj\oun [ughghagrutyun] orthography (from ou[i[ straight + grouj\oun writing) fowwap;t [hovvapet] chief pastor (from fowiw pastor + p;t chief) rran [orran] cradle (from ror;l to rock) 4. Double n resulting from the plural formation is a prolonged n: s;[ann;r goronn;r bavinn;r [seghanner] [gortsonner] [bazhinner] tables factors departments from from from s;[an table goron factor bavin department

5. When double consonants result from word formation (in derived and compound words), each of the consonants is pronounced distinctly:

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UNIT 12 from an un- + npatak aim endd;m [entdem] against from end counter- + d;m opposite nutyun] ;rkknouj\oun [yerkk bigamy from ;rk(ou) two + kin woman rpich] (face) towel from ;r;s face + ;r;ssrbic [yeress srbic towel annpatak When passive verbs are derived from transitive verbs (infix -w-), the resulting double ww is pronounced as a longer w: [holovvel] to be declined from folow;l [holovel] to decline [gravvel] to be occupied from graw;l [gravel] to occupy [barelavvel] to be improved from bar;law;l [barelavel] to improve 6. In onomatopoeic words, double consonants play a special role in suggesting a sound. In such words, some double consonants, such as double stops and sibilants, can recur. They are normally pronounced as longer consonants: foloww;l graww;l bar;laww;l yal .,,al bvval yjjal [chal] [khshshal] [bzhzhal] [chttal] to creak to rustle to buzz to crackle [annpatak] aimless

7. In emotional every-day colloquial speech, double consonants can serve to heighten the meaning of some words. In that intensifying function, any consonant can be doubled: [fimmar] [faxxarn;r] [amm;n] [himmar] extremely crazy from fimar [himar] crazy [hazzarner] many thousands from faxar [hazar] thousand [ammen] every single from am;n [amen] each

Note that when foreign common and proper nouns containing double consonants are borrowed into Armenian, they are normally spelled with a single consonant and are pronounced as follows: pro`;sor from professor, J;salia from Thessalia, Apolon from Apollon, komounixm from communism, etc. EXCEPTIONS: Moufamm;d from Mohammed, massa from mass, Anna from Anna, Hmma from Emma, etc.


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Rendering English words into East Armenian To resolve the differences between the two significantly dissimilar alphabets of English and Armenian, some important regulations have been officially adopted and enforced for rendering English words and names into East Armenian. The following important rules apply: 1. The English letters p, t, and k, as well as c (when pronounced as [k]), are to be transliterated as follows: a) in initial position of words p, t, k, and c (when pronounced as [k]) as '% j% and q; b) in all other positions, p, t, k, and c (when pronounced as [k]), as well as pp, and tt as p% t% and k& EXAMPLES: Ja`t (Taft)% Qart;r (Carter)% Q;n;di (Kennedy)% "it (Pitt)% "a\k (Pike)% Qlark (Clark)% Jo\nbi (Toynbee)% Skot (Scott)% j;nis (tennis)% `outbol (football)% badminton (badminton)% jim (team)% mist;r (Mister)% Doua\t (Dwight)% Jouk (Tooke)% Lipman (Lippman), etc. These rules apply as well to the initial p, t, k, and c (when pronounced as [k]) of the second component of compound names: EXAMPLES: Qonor (OConnor)% Mak-Jawi, (MacTavish)% "ort "atrik (Port Patrick)% Mak-Qinli (McKinley)% Mak-Qormik (McCormick)% +or=jaoun (Georgetown)% L;\k "l;sid (Lake Placid), etc. EXCEPTIONS ESTABLISHED BY TRADITION: kongr;sm;n (congressman)% kou-klouqs-klan (Ku Klux Klan)% N\ou |orq (New York)% etc. 2. The English letter combinations ch, ck, and th, must be rendered into c% k% and j: EXAMPLES: c;mpion (champion)% cartixm (Chartism)% Cikago (Chicago)% Bak (Buck)% Lok (Lock)% fok;\ (hockey)% "limouj (Plymouth)% Jomson (Thomson), Smij (Smith)% etc. 3. The English s pronounced as [z] must be transliterated as s: EXAMPLES: Ja\ms (Times)% +;\ms (James)% Ou;\ls (Wales)% +ons (Jones)% etc.

Carlx (Charles)% J;mxa (Thames)% etc.


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UNIT 12 4. The English consonant letter w (also the combination wh) representing a voiced bilabial semi-vowel, transliterates especially in initial position of words as ou, oua% ou;, ouo or oui, depending on the vowel following the w(h). EXAMPLES: Oua\t (White)% Oua\tfol (Whitehall)% Oua\ld (Wilde)% Ouilkinson (Wilkinson)% Ouolstrit (Wall Street)% Doua\t (Dwight)% "ort Qonou;\ (Port Conway), etc. EXCEPTIONS ESTABLISHED BY TRADITION: Walt;r Skot (Walter Scott)% Wa,ington (Washington)% Wil\am (William)% Darwin (Darwin)% Woudro (Woodrow)% Woul` (Wolfe)% Woud (Wood). 5. Various phonetic manifestations of the English vowel a are transliterated as follows: a) the short a as a EXAMPLES: Adams (Adams)% Al;n (Allen)% Alis (Alice)% Farison (Harrison)% Maqsou;l (Maxwell)% Nansi (Nancy)% San`ord (Sanford), etc. EXCEPTIONS ESTABLISHED BY TRADITION: d;ndi (dandy)% Jroum;n (Truman)% l;ndlord (landlord)% c;mpion (champion). b) the long a as ; or ;\ EXAMPLES: D;\wis (Davis)% +;\ms (James)% B;kon (Bacon)% Ou;\ls (Wales)% Q;mbri= (Cambridge), etc. c) the a with a value of o transliterates as o% and in initial position of words as EXAMPLES: Boldouin (Baldwin)% Ouolt;r (Walter)% ld;rman (Alderman)% etc. d) the combinations ey, ai, and ay as ;\: EXAMPLES: L;\ton (Leyton)% D;\ton (Dayton)% J;\lor (Taylor)% ";\n (Paine)% etc. 6. The word-final unpronounced English r must be transliterated in Armenian as r or EXAMPLES: Qart;r (Carter)% ~olqn;r (Faulkner)% "il Farbor (Pearl Harbor)% etc. 7. Foreign and international words that exist in both languages must be spelled in Armenian according to rules established by lexicography. EXAMPLES: Kop;nikos (Copernicus)% Platon (Platon)% `ixika (physics)% .ol;ra (cholera)% qimia (chemistry)% m;.anika (mechanics)% maj;matika (mathematics)% Antonios (Antonius)% etc.

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1. Combine words from the left column with appropriate words from the right column. a. Karoum ;m% b. Bolore farznoum ;n% c. C;m karo[ d. Oura. ;nq% e. >ndr;zi nran% f. Oc m;kin ocinc cas;s& g. :s t;sa% j; fatouk mi ragir oun;#q! or in] famar hl gni a\d grqiz! j; ow h a\d marde! or a\sr hl ousouzice ci galou! j; incp;s jij;nike jaw! asaid fawatal! ga[tniq oun;m q;x as;lou!

2. Form mini-dialogues according to the patterns a, b, c, and d. Replace the word lragir with amsagir% namak% fodwa% famazanz% etc. a. A. Lragire na\;zi#r! Norouj\oune imaza#r! B. I#nc lragir! :s d; lragri vamanak c;m oun;z;l! A. Norouj\oune ort;[i#z git;s! Wafani#z! B. Lragriz! F;nz fima kardazi! A. O#w tw;z q;x a\d loure! Wafa#ne! B. O*c% lragroum kardazi! A. Q;x mi ban ;m as;lou% piti xarmanas! B. :s ard;n bolor lour;re git;m! Lragriz!




3. Transform direct speech into reported speech. a. Na ;r=anik mard h! Bolore git;n% or na ;r=anik mard h! b. O#w h a\d g;[;zik a[=ike! Ouxoum ;m imanal% &&& c. Patoufane baz;*q% .ndr;m! Nranz .ndr;zi% &&& d. Inco#u ;s a\st;[! :s oux;zi imanal% &&& e. Law ;m fi,oum a\d r;re! Wardann in] asaz% &&& f. A\st;[iz la#w ;s lsoum! Anna\in farzri% &&& g. Incp;#s h grwoum anound! Farzri nran% &&& h. :j; ;s qo t;[e lin;i% chi t;[a'o.wi a\s qa[aqiz! Na in] asaz% &&& i. Mi* spasir% gna* mord f;t .osi*r! Na .orfourd tw;z^ &&&

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UNIT 12 4. Combine the two sentences with one of the following conjunctions: ;rb% or% orowf;t% j;% fakaak or% orp;sxi% and j;& a. Dasi cgnazi! Fiwand ;m! b. Toun fasa! Na ard;n m;kn;l hr! c. Bolore spasoum ;n! :#rb h garoune galou! d. <ouka ;m gnoum! Ouxoum ;m a[ikn;r gn;l! e. A\nqa@n fogna ;m! Ba\z jatron gnalou ;m! f. Nor ;m lsoum! Fa\astan hir gnaz;l! g. Girqe gn;zi! <at jank hr! 5. Complete the following sentences, using adjectives with the negative prefix an-. a. Na ya,ak couni! <at anya,ak h! b. Bnaw fawatq coun;s! <at &&& ;s! c. A\s marde nkaragir couni! A\o*% ,at;rn ;n asoum% or na &&& mard h! d. Fou\s coun;nq! Bolorowin &&& ;nq! e. Famb;rouj\oun coun;q! Mi,t &&& ;q! f. A\s bane fawatali# h! O*c% &&& h! g. Asas q;x famar ;rb;q endoun;li ch! Mi,t &&& h! 6. Complete the following sentences according to the pattern a or b. a. Sa im toune ch% sa qonn h! (dou) b. A\s girqe qo#nn h! O*c% Aramine! (Aram) c. A\d marde ];r fa#\rn h! A\o*% &&& ! (m;r) d. O#umn h pa\ousake% ];#rn h! &&& (nranq) e. F;aniwe qo#nn h! O*c% &&& ! (na) f. A\s t;tre Alisinn h% isk a\n &&& (Sour;n) g. A\s fa,wice ];#rn h! O*c% &&& h! (ousano[) 7. Answer the questions by translating the English text. a. A\s nw;re farma#r h! No, because it is not beautiful. b. A\s ya,e koutwi#! Yes, if you warm it up. c. A\s w;rarkoun fawano#um ;s! Yes, I do, but I have no money to buy it. d. A\s gar;=oure fam;[ h% ch#! Yes, although it should be colder. e. A\s marde g;rmanazi# h! Everybody thinks that he is German, but he isnt. f. A\d ,;nqe ;#rb ;n w;r=azn;lou! I cannot tell you before I see the owner. g. A\d toune ];#rn h! Although it is not ours, we like it as if it were ours.


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UNIT 12 8. Translate into Armenian. A. Do you know who this young woman is? B. Which one? A. The one who is talking to your friend, Anna. B. The one with the loud voice? A. Yes, can you tell me what her name is? B. Who doesnt know her? She is a great writer. A. What has she written?. B. She has written a very good novel. A. Have you read it? B: Not yet, but I will. A. I would read it if I were you. B: I promise, I will. 9. How would you say it in Armenian? a. You have heard exciting news on the radio. Ask your friend if he/she knows about it. b. Your friend is surprised by the news. How does he/she react? c. You have read a very interesting book. Advise your colleague to read it. d. Your colleague just returned from China. Welcome him/her and ask about his/her impressions. e. Your neighbor wants to reveal a secret to you. You promise to keep it. 10. Answer the following questions with reference to the TEXT in this unit. a. I#nc h anoum H`;m;r jij;nike amaa\in gi,;rn;re! b. Incpisi#n h H`;m;r jij;niki k\anqe! c. Inco#u H`;m;r jij;nike ya,ak;liq couni! d. Incp;#s h m;noum a\d jij;nike! e. I#nc h H`;m;r jij;niki xba[mounqe! f. Inco#u H`;m;r jij;nike snndi kariq couni! g. O#um ;raxn h irakanaznoum h`;m;r jij;nike! h. Koux;i#r oun;nal H`;m;r jij;niki k\anqe!

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B;rn;b;ran^ klini g;ran! From mouth to mouth it goes, and on and on it grows. Loure stazir ;r;.a\iz kam .iz! Get the news from a child or a madman. Jri ktrae klawana% l;xwi ktrae^ o*c! Whats cut by the sword will heal, whats cut by the tongue wont. As;le f;,t h% an;le^ dvwar! Its easier said than done. Git;zae am;n mardou c;n asi! You should not tell everybody what you know.





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Gambits are conventionally accepted expressions used as tools for communication. They appear as pre-fabricated parts in the form of words, phrases, and sentences and are readily transferable to everyday recurrent situations. Regardless of their complexity, they must be systematically practiced as any other unit of active vocabulary.

1. Greetings
Bar@ (];x)! [Barev (dzez)] O[=o@u\n! [Voghchuyn] Bari lo*u\s! [Bari luys] Bari ;r;ko*! [Bari yereko] Baro@w ;kar/;kaq! [Barov yekar/yekak] Oura. ;m% or q;x/];x t;sa! [Urakh em, vor kez/dzez tesa] Zt;souj\o@un! [Tstesutyun] Aa\vm! [Aayzhm] Mnas/mnaq baro@w! [Mnas/mnak barov] Gnas/gnaq baro@w! [Gnas/gnak barov] Bari gi,;*r! [Bari gisher]

Hello (to you)! Hello! Good morning! Good evening! Welcome! (informal/formal) Im glad to see you (informal/formal). See you later! So long! Good-bye!* (informal/formal) Good luck!* (informal/formal) Good night!

Conventional exchange of salutations when people depart: Mnas/mnaq baro*w Good-bye! (literally: Stay well!) and Gnas/gnaq baro*w Good luck! (literally: Leave well!).




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2. Requesting and receiving personal information

I#nc h };r anoune/axganoune ! [Inch e dzer anun/azganun?] I#nc h anound/axganound! [Inch e anunt/azganunt?] Qani# tar;kan ;s/;q! [Kani tarekan es/ek?] O#r ;rkri qa[aqazi ;s/;q! [Vor yerkri kaghakatsi es/ek?] Qani# l;xou git;s/git;q! [Kani lezu gites/gitek?] Fa\;r;n .oso#um ;s/;q! [Hayeren khosum es/ek?] Angl;r;n git;#s/git;#q! [Angleren gites/gitek?] A\o*% git;m!/O*c% cgit;m! [Ayo, gitem / Voch, chgitem] (>osoum ;m) mi qic/safoun! [(Khosum em) mi kich/sahun] <at law/wat! [Shat lav/vat] What is your name/surname? (formal) What is your name/surname? (informal) How old are you (informal/formal)? What is your (informal/formal) citizenship? How many languages do you know? (informal/formal) Do you (informal/formal) speak Armenian? Do you (informal/formal) know English? Yes, I do. / No, I dont. (I speak) a little/fluently. Very well/not very well.

Faskanoum ;m% ba\z .os;l cgit;m! I understand, but I cant speak it. [Haskanum em, bayts khosel chgitem] O#rn h };r fasz;n! [Vorn e dzer hastsen?] O#rn h };r f;a.osi famare! [Vorn e dzer heakhosi hamar?] Inco#w ;s/;q xba[woum! [Inchov es/ek zbaghvum?] What is your (formal) address? What is your (formal) phone number? What is your (informal/formal) occupation?

Ort;#[ ;s/;q soworoum/a,.atoum! Where do you (informal/formal) study/work? [Vortegh es/ek sovorum/ashkhatum]? Soworoum/a,.atoum ;m X-oum! [Sovorum/ashkhatum em X-um]?

I study/work in the X.



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3a. Identifying things and persons

Sa o#w h! [Sa ov e?] Sa paron/tikin X-n h! [Sa paron/tikin X-n e] Sa i#nc h! [Sa inch e?] Sa X h% ch#! [Sa X e, che?] A\o*% sa X h! /O*c% sa X ch! [Ayo, sa X e. / Voch, sa X che] A\st;[/a\nt;[ i#nc ka! [Aystegh/ayntegh inch ka?] A\st;[/a\nt;[ ;r;q girq ka! [Aystegh/ayntegh yerek girk ka] Ouri, i#nc ka! [Urish inch ka?] Ouri, ocinc cka! [Urish vochinch chka] Who is this? This is Mr. / Mrs. X. What is this? This is a/an X, isnt it? Yes, this is a/an X. / No, this is not a/an X. What do we have here/there? There are three books here/there. What else is there? There is nothing else.

3b. Affirming and denying things

An,o@u,t!/Ifa*rk;! [Anshusht!/Iharke] (<at) yi,t h! [(Shat) chisht e] Wstaf ;m! [Vstah em] Certainly!/Of course! Thats (very) true! Im certain!

Karo[ ;m q;x/];x wstaf;zn;l% or&&& I can assure you (informal/formal) that... [Karogh em kez/dzez vstahetsnel, vor...] S .al h!/Yi,t ch! [Skhal e. / Chisht che] .alwoum ;s/;q% a\dp;s ch! S [Skhalvum es/ek, aytpes che] It is wrong. / It is not true. You are wrong (informal/formal), thats not so.



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4a. Requesting something (an item or a favor)

X-e in] kta#s/kta#q (.ndr;m)! [X- indz ktas/ktak (khntrem)?] Would you (informal/formal) give me the X, please?

Would you (informal/formal) pass me X-e in] k';#s/k';#q! [X- indz kpokhantses/kpokhantsek?] the X? Karo#[ ;s/;q in] tal qo/];r X-e! [Karogh es/ek indz tal ko/dzer X-?] Mi ban ;m .ndr;lou& karo#[ ;s/;q&&& [Mi ban em khntrelu: karogh es/ek...] Bari* ;[ir/;[;q X an;lou! [Bari yeghir/yeghek X anelu] :j; kar;li h% (X ara/ar;q)! [Yete kareli e, (X ara/arek)] Can you give me your (informal/formal) X? I have something to ask you: could you (informal/formal)... Be (informal/formal) so kind as to do X. Is it possible for you (informal/formal) (to do X)?

4b. Responding to a request

Am;na\n sirow! [Amenayn sirov] >ndr;m% ifark;! [Khntrem, iharke] Mi rop;% .ndr;m! [Mi rope, khntrem] Zawoum ;m% ba\z c;m karo[! [Tsavum em, bayts chem karogh] Dvba.tabar xba[wa ;m! [Dzhbakhtabar zbaghvats em] Fima vamanak coun;m! [Hima zhamanak chunem] C;m karo[ X-e tal! In] p;tq h! [Chem karogh X- tal. Indz petk e] Karo#[ ;s/;q mi qic spas;l! [Karogh es/ekmi kich spasel?] Zawoq% p;tq h m;rv;m! [Tsavok, petk e merzhem]

With great pleasure! Here you are! Certainly! One moment, please! Im sorry, but I cannot (do it). Unfortunately, Im busy. Ive no time right now. I cannot give you the X. I need it. Can you (informal/formal) wait a little? Im afraid I must refuse.



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5a. Asking for someones opinion

I#nc h kariq oun;s/oun;q X-i masin! What is your (informal/formal) opinion [Inch e ko/dzer kartsik X-i masin?] about X? X-in fawano#um ;s/;q! [X-in havanum es/ek?] X-e fawan;zi#r/fawan;zi#q! [X- havanetsir/havanetsik?] X-e q;x/];x do#ur h galis! [X- kez/dzez dur e galis?] X-e incp;#s h/hr! [X- inchpes e/er?] C;#s/c;q karoum% or&&& [Ches/chek kartsum, vor... ?] Inc tpaworouj\oun oun;s/oun;q! [Inch tpavorutyun unes/unek?] Do you (informal/formal) like X? (about a person) Did you (informal/formal) like X? (about an object) Does X appeal to you (inform./formal)? How is/was X? Dont you (inform./formal) think that... What is your (inform./formal) impression?

5b. Expressing an opinion

Im kariqow&&& / Est is&&& [Im kartsikov... / [st is...] Fianali@ h/hr X-e! [Hianali e/er X-] Soskali@ h/hr! [Soskali e/er] <at ;m fawanoum X-e! [Shat em havanum X-] X-e ,at h dours galis! [X-e shat e durs galis] Wat ch/chr! [Vat che/cher] Mi ban ch/chr! [Mi ban che/cher] O*c% bnaw/amanin cfawan;zi! [Voch, bnav/amenevin chhavanetsi] In my opinion,... / To me... X is/was wonderful! It is/was terrible! I like X very much. I like X (X appeals to me) very much. It is/was not bad. It is/was nothing special. No, I didnt like it at all.



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GAMBITS S .alwoum ;s/;q&&& [Skhalvum es/ek...] Q;x/];x f;t fama]a\n c;m! [Kez/dzez het hamadzayn chem] :j; in] farzn;s/farzn;q%&&& [Yete indz hartsnes / hartsnek...] Fnarawor h% ba\z&&& [Hnaravor e, bayts...] X-e ,at g;[;zik/famow h/hr! [X- shat geghetsik/hamov e/er] You (informal/formal) are mistaken,... I disagree with you (informal/formal). If you (informal/formal) ask me,... Maybe, but... X is/was very beautiful/tasty.

6. Introducing oneself, family, and friends

Jou\l tw;q };x anojazn;l X-i f;t! [Tuyl tvek dzez tsanotatsnel X-i het] C;m karoum% or irar anoj ;nq! [Chem kartsum vor irar tsanot enk] anojananq! Anouns X h! [Tsanotanank. Anuns X e] Isk ];r ano#une/axgano#une! [Isk dzer anun /azganun?] Irar yanaco#um ;q! [Irar chanachum ek?] Irar ano#j ;q! [Irar tsanot ek?] anojazi*r/anojaz;*q X-i f;t! [Tsanotatsir/tsanotatsek X-i het] Ari*/;k;*q anojazn;m! [Ari/yekek tsanotatsnem] Sa ;[ba\rs h/enk;rs h! [Sa yekhpayrs e/nkers e] Oura. ;m ];x f;t anojanalou! [Urakh em dzez het tsanotanalu] <at oura. ;m! [Shat urakh em]

Allow me to introduce you to X. I dont think we have met. Lets meet! My name is X. And your name/surname? Do you know each other? Have you (two) met? Meet X (informal/formal)! Let me introduce you! (informal/formal). This is my brother/my friend. Im pleased to meet you. Im delighted.



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GAMBITS Nmanap;s/nou\np;s! [Nmanapes/nuynpes] };r masin ,at ;m ls;l! Dzer masin shat em lsel Likewise/Same here. Ive heard a lot about you.

7a. Request for information

Karo#[ ;s/;q in] as;l% j;&&& [Karogh es/ek indz asel te...] Karo#[ ;m q;x/];x mi ban farzn;l! [Karogh em kez/dzez mi ban hartsnel?] In] kas;#s/kas;#q% j;&&& [Indz kases/kasek, te...?] Git;#s/git;#q ard\oq% or&&& [Gites/gitek artyok vor...] Asa*/asaz;*q% .ndr;m&&& [Asa/asatsek khntrem...] Koux;i imanal% j;&&& [Kuzeyi imanal, te...] X-e i#nc h n,anakoum! [X- inch e nshanakum?] Incp;#s h grwoum X-e! [Inchpes e grvum X-?] Incp;#s ;n asoum fa\;r;n X! [Inchpes en asum hayeren X?] X-e incp;#s h artasanwoum! [X- inchpes e artasanvum?] Can you (informal/formal) tell me... May I ask you (informal/formal) something? Would you (informal/formal) tell me... Do you (informal/formal) happen to know that... Tell (informal/formal) me please... Id like to know if/whether... What does X mean? How do you spell X? How do you say X in Armenian? How do you pronounce X?

I#nc tarb;rouj\oun ka X-i Y-i mi=! Whats the difference between X and Y? [Inch tarberutyun ka X-i yev Y-i michev?] C;m faskanoum% j; inc ;s/;q asoum! [Chem haskanum, te inch es/ek asum] Karo#[ ;q aw;li danda[ .os;l! [Karogh ek aveli dandagh khosel?] Karo#[ ;q ];r asae krkn;l! [Karogh ek dzer asats krknel] I do not understand what you are saying (informal/formal). Could you (formal) speak a little slower? Could you (formal) repeat what you just said?



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7b. Responding to a request for information

(A\o*)% lsoum ;m q;x/];x! [(Ayo), lsum em kez/dzez] (A\o*)% .ndr;m! [(Ayo), khntrem] Ifark;/An,ou,t! [Iharke/Anshusht!] (Yes), Im listening to you (informal/formal). (Yes), please. Certainly.

Orqan in] fa\tni h/Orqan git;m&&& As far as I know... [Vorkanov indz haytni e/vorkan gitem...] :j; c;m s.alwoum&&& [Yete chem skhalvum...] Wstaf c;m% ba\z&&& [Vstah chem, bayts...] Kar;m&&& / Karoum ;m% or&&& [Kartsem... / Kartsum em, vor...] Im kariqow&&& [Im kartsikov...] Dvba.tabar cgit;m&&& [Dzhbakhtabar chgitem...] Zawoq% t;[azi c;m&&& [Tsavok, teghatsi chem...] If Im not mistaken... Im not sure, but... I think that... In my opinion... Unfortunately I dont know... Im sorry, Im not from here...

8. Inquiring and reporting about ones well-being and state of health

Incp;#s ;s/;q! Or: O#nz ;s/;q!* [Inchpes ek Or: Vonts es/ek] How are you (informal/formal)?

<norfakalouj\oun% law ;m! Isk do#u/do#uq! Im well, thank you. And you? [Shnorhakalutyun, lav em. Isk du/duk?] (informal/formal) Oci*nc**% isk dou/douq o#nz ;s/;q! [Vochinch, lav em. Isk du/duk?] Not bad, and you? (informal/formal)

* In East Armenian colloquial speech O#nz ;s/O#nz ;q is an equivalent of the more formal Incp;#s ;s/ ;s/Incp;#s ;q for How are you (informal/formal)? **For many beginners, the response oci*nc [vochinch] nothing may be confusing, considering the literal meaning of the word. In East Armenian communication, this response means not bad, in a passable manner, neither good or bad, or so-so. It is a borrowing from the Russian zbxtuj nothing used in corresponding settings.




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GAMBITS :s hl oci*nc% aproum ;nq&&& [Yes el vochinch, aprum enk...] Wa[ouz h q;x/];x c;m t;s;l! [Vaghuts e kez/dzez chem tesel] Incp;#s h qo/];r ao[=ouj\oune! [Inchpes e ko/dzer aoghchutyun?] Law as;nq% or law lin;nq! [Lav asenk, vor lav linenk] "a@q Tiro=e% ao[=/law ;m! [Pak Tiroch, aoghch/lav em] (Dvba.tabar) a\nqan hl law c;m! [(Dzhbakhtabar) aynkan el lav chem] Fiwand/gounat/t.our ;s ;roum! [Hivand/gunat/tkhur es yerevum] Fiwand ;m/,at wat ;m xgoum! [Hivand em/shat vat em zgum] Glou.s/kokords/atams zawoum h! [Glukhs/kokords/atams tsavum e] Akan=n;rs/otq;rs zawoum ;n! [Akanjners/votkers tsavum en] };q;rs do[oum ;n! [Dzekers doghum en] Yakats/marmins a\rwoum h! [Chakats/marmins ayrvum e] S irts .anoum h! [Sirts khanum e] +;rmouj\oun oun;m! [Jermutyun unem] Do[oum/do[aznoum ;m! [Doghum/doghatsnum em] Anza@ lini! [Antsats lini!] Ao[=ouj\oun ;m zankanoum! [Aokhchutyun em tsankanum] Im not bad myself, were getting by... I havent seen you (informal/formal) for a while. How is your health? Literally: Lets say well, to be well. Thank the Lord, Im healthy/well. (Unfortunately), Im not so well. You look ill/pale/sad. Im sick/I feel very bad. My head/throat/tooth aches. My ears/feet ache. My hands are shaking. My forehead/my body is burning. Im nauseous. Ive a fever. Im shaking/Im trembling. Get well! I wish you good health.



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9. Describing people and things, expressing preferences

<at law ;m nran yanacoum! [Shat lav em nran chanachum] >;lazi mard/kin h ;roum! [Khelatsi mart/kin e yerevum] Nran d; law c;m yanacoum! [Nran de lav chem chanachum] Nran ,at ;m fargoum! [Nran shat em hargum] A\d mardoun/kno=e c;m siroum! [Ayt martun/knoch chem sirum] X-e aw;li law mard h% qan Y-e! [X- aveli lav mart e, kan Y-] X-e a,.arfi am;nalaw mardn h! [X- ashkharhi amenalav martn e] X-e fa\tni kananziz h! [X- haytni kanantsits e] C;m siroum X an;l! [Chem sirum X anel] <at ;m siroum X an;l! [Shat em sirum X anel] <at ;m fawanoum a\s gou\ne! [Shat em havanum ays guyn] Na.entroum ;m X-e! [Nakhntrum em X-] Sa im am;nasira X-n h! [Sa im amenasirats X-n e] In] X-e ,at h dour galis! [Indz X- shat e dur galis] In] X-e bnaw ci fouxoum! [Indz X- bnav chi huzum] X-i fand;p antarb;r ;m! [X-i handep antarber em] I know him/her very well. He/she seems to be an intelligent man/woman. I dont know him/her well yet. I have great respect for him/her. I dont like that man/woman. X is a better person than Y. X is the best person in the world. X is a well-known woman. I dont like doing X. I like doing X very much. I like this color very much. I prefer X. This is my most favorite X. X pleases me very much. X doesnt move me at all. Im indifferent to X.




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10. Discussing weather, expressing feelings related to the weather

Incp;#s h ;[anake! [Inchpes e yeghanak?] :[anake law/wat h! [Yeghanak lav/vat e] :[anake bazwoum/'o.woum h! [Yeghanak batsvum/pokhvum e] Ma\l/pa\a r h! [Mayl/paytsa or e] A\sr incqa#n h =;rmastiyane! [Aysor inchkan e jermastichan?] Are 'a\loum h! [Arev paylum e] <at taq/zourt/xow h! Shat tak/tsurt/zov e] de cor/.onaw h! [Ot chor/khonav e] :rkinqe pa\a/ampama h! [Yerkink paytsa/ampamats e] An]r/]\oun h galis! [Andzrev/dzyun e galis] T;[atara' an]r h galis! [Teghatarap andzrev e galis] Karkout h galis! [Karkut e galis] Orotoum/'a\latakoum h! [Vorotum/paylatakum e] M,ou, h! [Mshush e] Sastik qami h! [Sastik kami e] "ojorik/]\ounamrrik h! [Potorik/dzyunamrrik e] How is the weather? The weather is good/bad. The weather is clearing up/changing. Its a dull/bright day. Whats the temperature today? The sun is shining. It is very hot/cold/cool. Its dry/humid. The sky is clear/cloudy. Its raining/snowing. Its raining cats and dogs. Its hailing. There is thunder/lightning. Its foggy. Its very windy. There is a storm/a snowstorm.




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GAMBITS Sanamaniq h! [Sanamanik e] Xro\iz zar h X astiyan! [Zroyits tsatsr e X astichan] Mrsoum ;m! <at ;m mrsoum! [Mrsum em. Shat em mrsum] (Soskali) ,ogoum ;m! [(Soskali) shokum em] Fowanoz/an]ranoz oun;#s/oun;#q! [Hovanots/andzrevanots unes/unek?] Its freezing cold. Its X below zero. Im cold. I am very cold. Im (terribly) hot. Do you (informal/formal) have an umbrella/a raincoat?

11. Inviting and responding to invitations

Ouxoum ;m q;x/];x m;r toun frawir;l! Id like to invite you (informal/ [Uzum em kez/dzez mer tun hravirel] formal) to our place. A\s ;r;ko/,abaj ;r;ko axa#t ;q! [Ays yereko/shapat yereko azat ek?] Law klin;r% ;j; m;x mot ga\iq [Lav kliner, yete mez mot gayik] Are you free tonight/on Saturday night? It would be great if you would come over

];r amousnou/tikno= f;t enjriqi! with your husband/wife for dinner. [dzer amusnu/dzer tiknoch het ntriki] S irow kganq (,abaj re)! O#r vamin! We would gladly come (on Saturday). At [Sirov kgank (shapat or). Vor zhamin?] what time? Zawoum ;m% ba\z c;nq karo[ gal! Im sorry, but we are not able to come. [Tsavum em, bayts chenk karogh gal] Xba[wa ;nq! Ouri, ragr;r oun;nq! We are busy./We have other plans. [Zbaghvats enk&Urish tsragrer unenk] F\our oun;nq! <at gor oun;nq! [Hyur unenk. Shat gorts unenk] Ouri, angam/ouri, aijow! [Urish ankam/urish aitov] <norfakalouj\oun fraw;ri famar! [Shnorakalutyun hraveri hamar] We have guests./We have a lot of things. to do. Some other time./On another occasion. Thank you for the invitation.




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12. Hosting
Baro@w ;kar/;kaq! [Barov yekar/yekak] N;*rs ari/fam;z;*q! [Ners ari/hametsek] >ndroum ;m% n;*rs ;k;q! [Khntrum em ners yekek] Nst;z;*q% .ndr;m! [Nstetsek, khntrem] Wa[ouz h q;x/];x c;m t;s;l! [Vaghuts e kez/dzez chem tesel] I#nc karo[ ;m q;x/];x aa=ark;l! [Inch karogh em kez/dzez aacharkel] Soury koux;#s/koux;#q .m;l! [Surch kuzes / kuzek khmel?] <aqaro#w% j; aanz ,aqari! [Shakarov, te aants shakari?] Mi ktor hl .mor;[;n w;rzr;q! [Mi ktor el khmoreghen vertsrek] >ortikn;riz hl gtw;q! [Khortiknerits el oktvek] S irow% am;n inc ,at fam;[ h! [Sirov, amen inch shat hamegh e] Zawoum ;m% ba\z m;rv;lou ;m! [Tsavum em, bayts merzhelu em] A.orvak coun;m! [Akhorzhak chunem] Sowa (c);m& araw (c);m! [Sovats (ch)em; tsarav (ch)em] Snndakargi ;m f;toum! [Snndakarki em hetevum] N;r;z;*q% p;tq h gnam! [Neretsek, petk e gnam] Welcome (informal/formal)! Come on in (informal/formal)! Please come in (formal)! Sit down, please (formal). Its been a while since Ive seen you (informal/formal). What can I offer you (informal/formal)? Would you (informal/formal) like to have some coffee? With or without sugar? Please, have a piece of cake! Help yourself to the appetizers! Gladly, everything is very tasty. Im sorry, but I must refuse. Ive no appetite. Im (not) hungry; Im (not) thirsty. Im on a diet. I am sorry, I have to leave.




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GAMBITS <at fay;li ;r;kou\j h(r)! [Shat hacheli yerekuyt e(r)] Ard;n gno#um ;q! A\dqan ,o#ut! [Arten gnum ek. Aytkan shut?] A\o*% p;tq h gnam! [Ayo, petk e gnam] Xgazwa ;m ];r f\ourasirouj\ouniz! [Zgatsvats em dzer hyurasirutyunits] Nori*z/hli* fam;z;*q! [Norits/eli hametsek] Douq hl m;x mot fam;z;*q! [Duk el mez mot hametsek] It is/was a very pleasant party. You are leaving already? So soon? Yes, I must leave. Thank you for your hospitality! Come see us again! You should visit us too.

13. Planning leisure time and vacations

A\s ;r;ko/ama/tari i#nc ;s an;lou! [Ays yereko/ama/tari inch es anelu?] Xatike/Sourb nounde / Nor tarin [Zatik / Surp Tsnund / Nor tarin] mot;noum h! I#nc ragr;r oun;s! [motenum e. Inch tsragrer unes?] Ar]akourdn;rin i#nc ;s an;lou! [Artsakurtnerin inch es anelu?] Ouxo#um ;s/;q miasin mi t;[ gnanq! [Uzum es/ek miasin mi tekh gnank?] I#nc ;s na.entroum an;l! [Inch es nakhntrum anel?] Mtaoum ;m ,r=aga\;l! [Mtatsum em shrjagayel] Fatouk ragir coun;m! [Hatuk tsragir chunem] Oc mi ban c;m ragr;l! [Voch mi ban chem tsragrel] What are you (informal) doing tonight/ this summer/this year? Easter/Christmas/New Year is approaching. What are your plans? What do you want to do during the holidays? Do you want us to go some place together? What would you prefer to do? Im planning to take a walk. Ive no particular plans. I havent planned anything.

Mtaoum ;m/;nq qa[aqiz dours gnal! I/we plan to go out of town. [Mtatsum em/enk kakhakits durs gnal]



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GAMBITS Oro,;l ;nq yanaparford;l! [Voroshel em/enk chanaparortel] Ouxoum ;m enk;rn;ris frawir;l! [Uzum em nkerneris hravirel] Law ga[a'ar h! [Lav gakhapar e] We have decided to travel. Id like to invite my friends. Its a good idea!

14. Inquiring about news and reporting news

I#nc norouj\oun ka! [Inch norutyun ka?] I#nc ka-cka! [Inch ka-chka?] I#nc ;n asoum! [Inch en asum?] I#nc ;n groum j;rj;re! [Inch en grum terter?] Nor ban ls;zi#r! [Nor ban lsetsir?] Ls;#l ;s (w;r=in) norouj\oune! [Lsel es (verchin) norutyun?] Ls;zi#r^ inc h pataf;l! [Lsetsir inch e patahel?] Nor lour(;r)n imaza#r! [Nor lur(er)n imatsar?] Whats new? Whats happening? What do they say? What are the newspapers writing? Did you hear anything new? Have you heard the (latest) news? Have you heard what happened? Did you hear the latest news?

15. Telling secrets and reacting to secrets

M;r m;= mna%&&& [Mer mech mna...] Mardou ban cas;s&&& [Martu ban chases] Ga[tniq oun;m% oc oqi cas;s! [Gaghtnik unem, voch voki chases] Keep it between us,... Dont tell anybody,... Ive a secret, dont tell anyone.




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GAMBITS Karo#[ ;s ga[tniq paf;l! [Karogh es gakhtnik pahel?] Anfog ;[ir% m;r m;= kmna! [Anhog yeghir, mer mech kmna] >ostanoum ;m lou mnal! [Khostanum em lu mnal] :rdwoum ;m% mard ci imana! [Yertvum em, mart chi imana] Wstafi*r in]! [Vstahir indz!] :rdwoum ;m% or asas stou\g h! [Yert vum em, vor asatss stuyg e] Acqows t;sa! [Achkovs tesa] Akan=ows ls;zi! [Akanjovs lsetsi] :s ard;n ls;l hi/git;i! [Yes arten lsel eyi/giteyi] I@nc law/wat lour h! [Inch lav/vat lur e] Fianali@ soskali@ lour h! / [Hianali/soskali lur e] Can you (informal) keep a secret? Dont worry, it will stay between us. I promise to keep silent. I promise (literally: swear), I wont tell anybody. Trust me! I swear that what Im saying is true. I saw it with my (own) eyes. I heard it with my (own) ears. I already knew it. What good/bad news! Its wonderful/terrible news!

16. Expressing surprise, doubt

Yi#,t (;s asoum)! [Chisht (es asum)?] Iskap;#s% cgit;i! [Iskapes, chgiteyi] I@nc ;s asoum! :rb;q chi spasoum! [Inch es asum? Yerpek cheyi spasum] Xarmanoum ;m! Ankar;li h! [Zarmanum em. Ankareli e] O#um mtqow kanzn;r! [Um mtkov kantsner?]

Is that true? Really? I didnt know that. Really? Id never have expected this to happen. Im surprised. Its impossible. Who would have thought it!



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GAMBITS C;m karo[ asaid fawatal! [Chem karogh asatsit havatal] Anfawatali/anspas;li h! [Anhavatali/anspaseli e] Clswa ban h! [Chlsvats ban e] Q;x o#w asaz! [Kez ov asats?] Incp;#s imazar! [Inchpes imatsar?] Wsta#f/famoxwa# ;s! [Vstah/hamozvats es?] Fasta#t (git;s)! [Hastat (gites)?] Stoug;lou ;m (j; yi#,t h)! [Stugelu em (te chisht e?)] I cant believe what youre saying. Its unbelievable/unexpected. Thats unheard of. Who told you? How did you hear about it? Are you sure/convinced? (Do you know) for sure? Im going to verify it (if its true).

17a. Asking for advice

I#nc an;m (Astwa@ im)! [Inch anem (Astvats im)] I#nc .orfourd ktas! [Inch khorhurt ktas?] Dou i#nc kan;ir/Douq i#nc kan;iq! [Du inch kaneyir/Duk inch kaneyik?] I#nc kan;ir% ;j; im t;[e lin;ir! [Inch kaneyir, yete im tegh lineyir?] Fima i#nc an;m! [Hima inch anem?] Gna#m% j;# mnam! [X anem, te Y?] Cgit;m^ inc an;m! [Chgitem, inch anem] What should I do (my God)? What would you (informal) advise me (to do)? What would you (informal/formal) do? What would you do, if you were me (informal? What am I to do now? Should I leave or should I stay? I dont know what to do.




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GAMBITS An;lan;li wiyak h! [Anelaneli vichak e] Kora ;m% i#nc an;m! [Korats em, inch anem?] There is no way out. Im lost, what should I do?

17b. Offering advice

:s qo t;[e lin;i% X kan;i! [Yes ko tekh lineyi, X kaneyi] :s km;kn;i% ouri, ;lq cka! [Yes kmekneyi, urish yelk chka] :j; in] ls;s% km;kn;s! [Yete indz lses, kmeknes] :s parxap;s km;kn;i! [Yes parzapes kmekneyi] Aw;li law ch#r lini% ;j; X an;ir! [Aveli lav cher lini, yete X aneyir?] Lawagou\ne X an;ln h! [Lavaguyn X aneln e] Iskap;s cgit;m^ inc as;m! [Iskapes chgitem, inch asem] Cgit;m% dvwar farz h! [Chgitem, dzhvar harts e] Clini j; X an;s! [Chlini te X anes] Ari ouri, mi ban an;nq! [Ari, urish mi ban anenk] "or];zi#r X an;l! [Portsetsir X anel?] If I were you, Id do X. Id leave; there is no other way. If you listen to me, you will leave. Id simply leave. Wouldnt it be better if you did X? The best you can do is X. I really dont know what to say. I dont know, it is a problem. Dont ever do X! Lets do something else. Did you try to do X?

17c. Taking advice

Law .orfourd h! [Lav khorhurt e] Law mitq/ga[a'ar h! [Lav mitk/gaghapar e]

It is good advice. Its a good thought/idea.



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GAMBITS A\dp;s hl kan;m! [Aytpes el kanem] F;t;lou ;m qo/];r .orfrdin! [Hetevelu em ko/dzer khorhrtin] Ill do just that. Ill follow your (informal/formal) advice.

18. Congratulating and expressing wishes (on various occasions)

<norfawo@r (lini)! [Shnoravor (lini)] <norfaworoum ;m tar;dar]d! [Shnoravorum em taredartst] noundd ,norfawo@r! [Tsnundt shnorhavor] <norfawo@r Nor tari! [Shnoravor Nor tari] <norfawo@r Sourb nound! [Shnoravor Surp Tsnund] Qristos far\aw i m;;loz!* [Kristos haryav i meelots] rfn\al h farouj\oun Qristosi!** [Kristos tsnav yev haytnetsav] Qristos naw fa\tn;zaw!*** [Kristos tsnav yev haytnetsav] Congratulations! I congratulate you on your anniversary! Happy birthday! Happy New Year! Merry Christmas*! (Literally: Congratulations on the holy birth [of Christ]) Christ is risen from the dead! Blessed is the resurrection of Christ! Christ was born and made manifest.

rfn\al h fa\tnouj\oun Qristosi!**** Blessed is the manifestation of Christ. [Kristos tsnav yev haytnetsav] <norfawo@ Amanor Sourb nound! r [Shnorhavor amanor yev Surp Tsnund] A happy New Year and a Merry Christmas!

<norfaworoum ;m qo/};r nor pa,tone! I congratulate you on your new position. [Shnorhavorum em ko/dzer nor pashton] <norfaworoum ;m qo/];r n,andr;qe! I congratulate you on your engagement. [Shnoravorum em ko / dzer nshandrek]
* and ** Official exchange of greetings at Easter *** and **** Official exchange of greetings at Christmas 319



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GAMBITS <norfaworoum ;m qo/];r amousnouj\oune! [Shnorhavorum em ko/dzer amusnutyun] Zankanoum ;m ;r=anik ton;r! [Tsankanum em yerjanik toner] Ma[joum ;m qa=ao[=ouj\oun! [Makhtum em kajaoghchutyun] Bari galo*ust! [Bari galust] Bari yanapa*rf! [Bari chanapar] Astwa q;x f;t lini! [Astvats kez het lini] Fa=o[ouj\o@un (;m ma[joum)! [Hajoghutyun (em maghtum)] Astwa q;x/};x f;t lini! [Astvats kez/dzez het lini] Acqd/Acqn;rd lo@u\s! [Achkt/Achknert luys!] We congratulate you on your marriage. I wish you happy holidays! I wish you good health. Welcome! Have a nice trip! May God be with you (informal)! (I wish you) good luck! May God be with you (informal/formal)! Congratulations! (informal/formal) (Literally: Light to your eyes! Used on any happy occasion: engagement, marriage, arrival of loved-ones, etc.) I wish you a long life together! (Literally.: Grow old on the same pillow! Used to congratulate a newlywed couple.) Literally: May [the child] grow up with his father and mother! A wish to the family members of a newborn baby. May God protect (him/her)! Wear it in health! (About new clothing) Literally: Wear it out in goodness, wear out thousands of it! Bon apptit!

Mi bar]i ;ranaq! [Mi bartsi tseranak!] Forow-morow m;ana! [Horov-morov metsana] Astwa (nran) pafi! [Astvats (nran) pahi] Baro@w fagn;s! [Barov haknes!] Baro@w ma,;s% faxa@re ma,;s! [Barov mashes, hazar mashes] Bari a.orva*k! [Bari akhorzhak!]




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GAMBITS Ano@u, (lini)! [Anush (lini)!] Ba[niqd ano*u,! [Baghnikt anush!] K;na@zd/};r k;naze! [Kenatst/Dzer kenats!] Baro@w wa\;l;s/wa\;l;q! [Barov vayeles/vayelek!] Oura.ouj\a*mb wa\;l;s/wa\;l;q! [Urakhutyunov vayeles/vayelek] Jo[ an'or]a*nq lini! [Togh anportsank lini] (<a@t) apr;@s! [(Shat) apres] K;zz;@s/K;zz;@ ! q [Ketstses/Ketstsek] };q;rd dala@r! [Dzerkert dalar] War]qd katar! [Vartskt katar) Zawakzouj\ounn;@rs! [Tsavaktsutyunners] Zawakzoum ;m! [Tsavaktsum em] Astwa fogin lousawori! [Astvats hokin lusavori] Astwa o[ormi fogoun! [Astvats voghormi hokun] Jo[ fo[e j;j lini nra wra! [Togh hogh tetev lini nra vra] Enjoy it! (Lit.: May it be sweet! see Unit 4, p. 81) Hope you had a nice bath/shower! (Lit. May your bath be sweet.) To your (informal/formal) health! (When drinking to somebodys health) Use (informal/formal) it in health! (On seeing anything newly obtained.) Enjoy it in happines (informal/formal)! (Used for house-warmings, for a new car, furniture, etc.) May it be safeguarded! (Said after the purchase of a new car.) Good for you/Bravo! (Lit.: May you live long! Used in praising any good performance] Good for you/Bravo! (Lit.: May you prosper!] Well done! (Lit.: May your (informal) hands thrive! Used in praising someones manual skills, particularly cooking, baking, etc.) Well done! (Mostly said to a Godfather after a baptism ceremony, but also to praise anybody for a good performance.) My condolences! My sympathy. May God bless his/her soul! May God have merci with his/her soul! May the earth be light on him/her! (Said to surviving family members following a funeral)




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19. Speaking on the phone

N;r;z;*q% Anna\in kar;li# h! [Neretsek, Annayin kareli e?] Lsoum ;m! [Lsum em] Annan h lsoum! [Annan e lsum] A\o*% fima kkanc;m! [Ayo, hima kkanchem] (Zawoum ;m% ba\z) X-e tane ch! [(Tsavum em, bayts) X- tan che] (Zawoq) X-e dours h ;k;l! [(Tsavok) X- durs e yekel] X-e qa[aqiz bazaka\oum h! [X- kaghakits batsakayum e] N;r;z;*q% o#w h farznoum! [Neretsek, ov e hartsnum?] Mi vamiz a\st;[ klini! [Mi zhamits aystegh klini] Karo#[ ;q nran mi ban fa[ord;l! [Karogh ek nran mi ban haghortel?] S irow% ];r ano#une! [Sirov, dzer anun?] X-e a\ls a\st;[ ci bnakwoum! [X- aylyevs aystegh chi bnakvum] Fasz;n/f;a.osi famare oun;#q! [Hastsen/heakhosi hamar unek?] Zawoum ;m% ba\z famare coun;m! [Tsavum em, bayts hamar chunem] S .al famar ;q fawaq;l! [Skhal hamar ek havakel] N;r;z;*q! [Neretsek]

Excuse me, may I speak to Anna? Im listening. Anna is is listening. Yes, let me call her. (Im sorry, but) X is not at home. Im sorry, X has left. X is out of town. Who is asking, please? He/she will be back in an hour. May I leave him/her a message? Sure. Your name? X does not live here anymore. Do you have his/her telephone number? Im sorry, I dont have the number. Youve got the wrong number. Pardon me!



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20. Expressing regret, asking for forgiveness, and pardoning

Zawoum ;m! [Tsavum em] N;ro[ouj\oun ;m .ndroum! [Neroghutyun em khntrum] N;ro[ami*t ;[;q! [Neroghamit yeghek] N;rwa ;s/;q! [Nervats es/ek] (I@nc) a'so@s! [(Inch) apsos] Zawoum ;m! [Tsavum em] >ndr;m!/>ndir ch! [Khntrem./Khntir che] Im sorry. I ask for forgiveness. Please forgive me. Its O.K. (Lit.: You (informal/formal) are forgiven.) What a pity! It is regrettable. I beg you./Its not a problem.

21. Expressing gratitude and responses to expressions of gratitude

<norfakalouj\o@un! [Shnorhakalutyun] Xgazwa@ ;m! [Zgatsvats em] Carv;! [Charzhe] (S rtanz) ,norfakal ;m! [(Srtants) shnorhakal em] :ra.tapart ;m (q;x/];x)! [Yerakhtapart em (kez/dzez)] C;m moana qo/];r lawouj\oune! [Ch em moana ko/dzer lavutyun] <at oura. ;m% or karo[aza gn;l! [Shat urakh em vor karoghatsa oknel] Cncin ban h(r)! [Chnchin ban e(r)] Thanks! I appreciate it! You are welcome! I thank you (wholeheartedly). Im indebted (to you) (informal/formal). I wont forget your (informal/formal) kindness. Im very happy that I could be of help. Dont mention it!



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22. Inquiring about prices and assessing goods

I#nc arv; sa/a\s X-e! [Inch arzhe sa/ ays X-?] I#nc h a\s X-i gine! [Inch e ays X-i gin?] Farmar gin h! [Harmar gin e] <at jank h! [Shat tang e] Aw;li hvane oun;#q! [Aveli ezhan unek?] Aw;li m;e/'oqre coun;#q! [Aveli mets/pokr chunek?] Ouri, gou\ni coun;#q! [Urish guyni chunek?] Aw;li jarmn ;m ouxoum! [Aveli tarmn em uzum] T;[aka#n/artasafman\a#n apranq h! [Teghakan/artasahmanyan aprank e?] Karo#[ ;m sa 'or];l! [Karogh em sa portsel?] Fawanoum ;m% gn;lou ;m! [Havanum em, gnelu em] Orqa#n ;m wyar;lou! [Vorkan em vcharelu?] I#nc arv; ambo[=e! [Inch arzhi amboch?] Baro@w fagn;q! [Barov haknek] <norfakalouj\o@un! [Shnorhakalutyun] How much does this/this X cost? What is the price of this X? It is a reasonable price. It is very expensive. Do you have a cheaper one? Dont you have a bigger/smaller size? Dont you have it in another color? Im looking for something fresher. Is it a local/imported merchandise? May I try this (on)? I like it, Ill buy it. How much should I pay? Whats the total cost? Wear it in health! Thanks!



First Conjugation wax;l to run (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)


Second Conjugation .a[al to play


Irregular verb out;l to eat outoum outoum outoum outoum outoum outoum ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n

waxoum waxoum waxoum waxoum waxoum waxoum

;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n

.a[oum .a[oum .a[oum .a[oum .a[oum .a[oum

;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n

waxoum waxoum waxoum waxoum waxoum waxoum hi hir hr hinq hiq hin .a[oum .a[oum .a[oum .a[oum .a[oum .a[oum hi hir hr hinq hiq hin outoum outoum outoum outoum outoum outoum hi hir hr hinq hiq hin


wax;zi wax;zir wax;z wax;zinq wax;ziq wax;zin

.a[azi .a[azir .a[az .a[azinq .a[aziq .a[azin

k;ra k;rar k;raw k;ranq k;raq k;ran

wax;l wax;l wax;l wax;l wax;l wax;l ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n .a[az;l .a[az;l .a[az;l .a[az;l .a[az;l .a[az;l ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n k;r;l k;r;l k;r;l k;r;l k;r;l k;r;l ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n

wax;l wax;l wax;l wax;l wax;l wax;l hi hir hr hinq hiq hin .a[az;l .a[az;l .a[az;l .a[az;l .a[az;l .a[az;l hi hir hr hinq hiq hin k;r;l k;r;l k;r;l k;r;l k;r;l k;r;l hi hir hr hinq hiq hin 325


(;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)

wax;lou wax;lou wax;lou wax;lou wax;lou wax;lou ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n .a[alou .a[alou .a[alou .a[alou .a[alou .a[alou ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n out;lou out;lou out;lou out;lou out;lou out;lou ;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n

Future Imperfect
wax;lou wax;lou wax;lou wax;lou wax;lou wax;lou hi hir hr hinq hiq hin .a[alou .a[alou .a[alou .a[alou .a[alou .a[alou hi hir hr hinq hiq hin out;lou out;lou out;lou out;lou out;lou out;lou hi hir hr hinq hiq hin

Mandative Future
piti piti piti piti piti piti wax;m wax;s waxi wax;nq wax;q wax;n piti piti piti piti piti piti .a[am .a[as .a[a .a[anq .a[aq .a[an piti piti piti piti piti piti out;m out;s outi out;nq out;q out;n

Mandative Past
piti piti piti piti piti piti wax;i wax;ir wax;r wax;inq wax;iq wax;in piti piti piti piti piti piti .a[a\i .a[a\ir .a[ar .a[a\inq .a[a\iq .a[a\in piti piti piti piti piti piti out;i out;ir out;r out;inq out;iq out;in

Assertive 2nd pers. sing.: waxi*r Inclusive plural: 326 Assertive 2nd pers. plur.: wax(;z);*q wax;*nq .a[a* .a[az;*q .a[a*nq k;*r k;r;*q out;*nq


(;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na)k (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)

kwax;m kwax;s kwaxi kwax;nq kwax;q kwax;n k.a[am k.a[as k.a[a k.a[anq k.a[aq k.a[an kout;m kout;s kouti kout;nq kout;q kout;n

kwax;i kwax;ir wax;r kwax;inq kwax;iq kwax;in k.a[a\i k.a[a\ir k.a[ar k.a[a\inq k.a[a\iq k.a[a\in kout;i kout;ir kout;r kout;inq kout;iq kout;in

(;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)

Subjunctive future
.a[am .a[as .a[a .a[anq .a[aq .a[an

wax;m wax;s waxi wax;nq wax;q wax;n

out;m out;s outi out;nq out;q out;n

Subjunctive Past
wax;i wax;ir wax;r wax;inq wax;iq wax;in .a[a\i .a[a\ir .a[ar .a[a\inq .a[a\iq .a[a\in out;i out;ir out;r out;inq out;iq out;in

Present participle Past participle Future participle (1) Future participle (2) Synchronic participle

waxo[ waxa wax;liq wax;lou wax;lis .a[azo[ .a[aza .a[aliq .a[alou .a[alis outo[ k;ra out;liq out;lou out;lis 327


First Conjugation wax;l to run (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) 328 c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n


Second Conjugation .a[al to play c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n

.a[oum .a[oum .a[oum .a[oum .a[oum .a[oum

Irregular Verb out;l to eat c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n outoum outoum outoum outoum outoum outoum

waxoum waxoum waxoum waxoum waxoum waxoum


chi chir chr chinq chiq chin

waxoum waxoum waxoum waxoum waxoum waxoum

chi chir chr chinq chiq chin


.a[oum .a[oum .a[oum .a[oum .a[oum .a[oum

chi outoum chir outoum chr outoum chinq outoum chiq outoum chin outoum

cwax;zi cwax;zir cwax;z cwax;zinq cwax;ziq cwax;zin

c.a[azi c.a[azir c.a[az c.a[azinq c.a[aziq c.a[azin


ck;ra ck;rar ck;raw ck;ranq ck;raq ck;ran

c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n

wax;l wax;l wax;l wax;l wax;l wax;l

c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n

.a[az;l .a[az;l .a[az;l .a[az;l .a[az;l .a[az;l

c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n

k;r;l k;r;l k;r;l k;r;l k;r;l k;r;l

chi chir chr chinq chiq chin wax;l wax;l wax;l wax;l wax;l wax;l chi chir chr chinq chiq chin .a[az;l .a[az;l .a[az;l .a[az;l .a[az;l .a[az;l chi k;r;l chir k;r;l chr k;r;l chinq k;r;l chiq k;r;l chin k;r;l


(;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)

c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n wax;lou wax;lou wax;lou wax;lou wax;lou wax;lou c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n .a[alou .a[alou .a[alou .a[alou .a[alou .a[alou c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n out;lou out;lou out;lou out;lou out;lou out;lou

Future Imperfect
chi wax;lou chir wax;lou chr wax;lou chinqwax;lou chiq wax;lou chin wax;lou chi chir chr chinq chiq chin .a[alou .a[alou .a[alou .a[alou .a[alou .a[alou chi out;lou chir out;lou chr out;lou chinq out;lou chiq out;lou chin out;lou

Mandative Future
cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti wax;m wax;s waxi wax;nq wax;q wax;n cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti .a[am .a[as .a[a .a[anq .a[aq .a[an cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti out;m out;s outi out;nq out;q out;n

Mandative Past
cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti wax;i wax;ir wax;r wax;inq wax;iq wax;in cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti .a[a\i .a[a\ir .a[ar .a[a\inq .a[a\iq .a[a\in cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti out;i out;ir out;r out;inq out;iq out;in


Prohibitive 2nd pers. sing.: Prohibitive 2nd pers. plur.: Inclusive plural:

mi* waxir mi* wax;q cwax;*nq

mi* .a[a mi* .a[az;q c.a[a*nq

mi* k;r mi* k;r;q cout;*nq 329


(;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)

Hypothetical Future
c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n waxi waxi waxi waxi waxi waxi c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n .a[a .a[a .a[a .a[a .a[a .a[a c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n outi outi outi outi outi outi

Hypothetical Past
chi chir chr chinq chiq chin .a[a .a[a .a[a .a[a .a[a .a[a

chi waxi chir waxi chr waxi chinq waxi chiq waxi chin waxi

chi chir chr chinq chiq chin

outi outi outi outi outi outi


(;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)

Subjunctive Future
c.a[am c.a[as c.a[a c.a[anq c.a[aq c.a[an

cwax;m cwax;s cwaxi cwax;nq cwax;q cwax;n

Subjunctive Past
c.a[a\i c.a[a\ir c.a[ar c.a[a\inq c.a[a\iq c.a[a\in

cout;m cout;s couti cout;nq cout;q cout;n

cwax;i cwax;ir cwax;r cwax;inq cwax;iq cwax;in

cout;i cout;ir cout;r cout;inq cout;iq cout;in

Infinite Forms
cwax;l cwaxo[ cwaxa cwax;lou c.a[al c.a[azo[ c.a[aza c.a[alou cout;l couto[ ck;ra cout;lou

Infinitive: Present participle: Past participle: Future participle: 330



;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n

:M and LIN:L INDICATIVE MOOD (Affirmative)

(;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)

linoum linoum linoum linoum linoum linoum hi hir hr hinq hiq hin


linoum linoum linoum linoum linoum linoum


;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n

hi hir hr hinq hiq hin

hi hir hr hinq hiq hin

;[a ;[ar ;[aw ;[anq ;[aq ;[an

;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n

;[;l ;[;l ;[;l ;[;l ;[;l ;[;l

;m ;s h ;nq ;q ;n

;[;l ;[;l ;[;l ;[;l ;[;l ;[;l

Future Imperfect
hi hir hr hinq hiq hin

Mandative future
piti piti piti piti piti piti

lin;lou lin;lou lin;lou lin;lou lin;lou lin;lou

lin;lou lin;lou lin;lou lin;lou lin;lou lin;lou

Mandative Past
lin;i lin;ir lin;r lin;inq lin;iq lin;in

Infinitive Present participle Past participle Future participle Synchronic participle

Infinite Forms

lin;m lin;s lini lin;nq lin;q lin;n

piti piti piti piti piti piti

lin;l ;[o[ ;[a lin;liq lin;lis

Assertive 2nd person singular: Assertive 2nd person plural: Assertive 3nd person singular: Assertive 3nd person plural: Inclusive plural:

;[i*r ;[;*q jo[ lini jo[ lin;n



(;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)

Hypothetical Future
klin;m klin;s klini klin;nq klin;q klin;n

Hypothetical Past
klin;i klin;ir klin;r klin;inq klin;iq klin;in

Subjunctive Future
lin;m lin;s lini lin;nq lin;q lin;n

Subjunctive Past
lin;i lin;ir lin;r lin;inq lin;iq lin;in


c;m c;s ch/ci c;nq c;q c;n c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n

:M and LIN:L

(;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq) (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)

chi chir chr chinq chiq chin lini lini lini lini lini lini

lini lini lini lini lini lini

chi chir chr chinq chiq chin

c;[a c;[ar c;[aw c;[anq c;[aq c;[an

c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n ;[;l ;[;l ;[;l ;[;l ;[;l ;[;l

chi chir chr chinq chiq chin ;[;l ;[;l ;[;l ;[;l ;[;l ;[;l

c;m c;s ci c;nq c;q c;n lin;lou lin;lou lin;lou lin;lou lin;lou lin;lou

Future Imperfect
chi chir chr chinq chiq chin lin;lou lin;lou lin;lou lin;lou lin;lou lin;lou



Hypothetical Future (;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)

(;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)

(;s) (dou) (na) (m;nq) (douq) (nranq)

Mandative Future
cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti lin;m lin;s lini lin;nq lin;q lin;n

Mandative Past
cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti cpiti lin;i lin;ir lin;r lin;inq lin;iq lin;in

Hypothetical Past chi lini chir lini chr lini chinq lini chiq lini chin lini Subjunctive Past
clin;i clin;ir clin;r clin;inq clin;iq clin;in

c;m c;m c;m c;m c;m c;m

lini lini lini lini lini lini

Subjunctive Present
clin;m clin;s clini clin;nq clin;q clin;n

Infinite Forms
clin;l clino[/c;[o[ c;[a clin;liq


Prohibitive 2nd pers.sing. Inclusive plural: Prohibitive 2nd pers. plur.: mi* lin;q/;[;q mi* linir/;[ir


Present participle Past participle Future participle




Infinitive an;l an;l as;l banal b;r;l gal danal dn;l ;ln;l xark;l enkn;l jo[n;l lal lin;l lwanal tal tan;l t;sn;l out;l 334

Present Indicative anoum ;m


Imperfect Indicative Aorist Indicative

Future Subjunctive an;m an;m as;m

Assertive Imperative ara*/ar;*q a* /a;*q asa*/as;*q

anoum hi anoum hi asoum hi bazoum hi b;roum hi galis hi danoum hi dnoum hi ;lnoum hi xarkoum hi enknoum hi jo[noum hi lalis hi linoum hi lwanoum hi talis hi tanoum hi t;snoum hi outoum hi

ar;zi/ari aa asazi

anoum ;m asoum ;m bazoum ;m b;roum ;m galis ;m danoum ;m dnoum ;m ;lnoum ;m xarkoum ;m enknoum ;m jo[noum ;m lalis ;m linoum ;m lwanoum ;m talis ;m tanoum ;m t;snoum ;m

baz;zi/bazi banam/baz;m ba*z/baz;*q b;r;zi/b;ri ;ka dar]a dr(;z)i ;la xark;zi enka b;r;m gam danam dn;m ;ln;m b;*r/b;r;*q ;*k (ari*)/;k;*q dar]i*r/dar];*q di*r/dr;*q ;li*r/;l;*q

xark;m xarki*r/xark;z;*q enkn;m enki*r/enk;*q jo*[ /jo[;*q la*z/laz;*q ;[i*r/;[;*q lwa*/lwaz;*q tou*r/tw;*q ta*r/tar;*q t;*s/t;s;*q k;*r/k;r;*q

jo[;zi/jo[i jo[n;m laz;zi/lazi ;[a lwazi tw;zi tara t;sa k;ra lam lin;m lwam tam tan;m t;sn;m out;m

outoum ;m


Negative participle


Present participle Past participles

Future participle

(cont-ed from p. 334)

mi* ara/ar;q mi* a/a;q mi* asa/as;q mi* baz/baz;q mi* b;r/b;r;q mi* gar/;k;q*


c;m/chi ani c;m/chi ani c;m/chi asi c;m/chi bana c;m/chi b;ri c;m/chi ga c;m/chi dana c;m/chi dni c;m/chi ;lni c;m/chi xarki c;m/chi enkni c;m/chi jo[ni c;m/chi lazi c;m/chi lini c;m/chi lwana c;m/chi ta c;m/chi tani c;m/chi t;sni c;m/chi outi

ano[ ano[ aso[ bazo[ b;ro[ ;ko[ dar]o[ dno[ ;lno[ xarko[ enkno[ jo[no[ lazo[ ;[o[ lwazo[ two[ tano[ t;sno[ outo[

ar;l/ara a;l/aa as;l/asa baz;l/baza b;r;l/b;ra ;k;l/;ka dar];l/dar]a dr;l/dra ;l;l/;la xark;l/xarka enk;l/enka jo[;l/jo[a laz;l/laza ;[;l/;[a lwaz;l/lwaza tw;l/twa tar;l/tara t;s;l/t;sa k;r;l/k;ra

an;lou/an;liq an;lou/an;liq as;lou/as;liq banalou/banaliq b;r;lou/b;r;liq galou/galiq

danalou/danaliq mi* dar]ir/dar];q dn;lou/dn;liq ;ln;lou/;ln;liq mi* dir/dr;q mi* ;lnir/;ln;q

xarn;lou/xarn;liq mi* xarkir/xark;q enkn;lou/enkn;liq mi* enkni/enk;q

jo[n;lou/jo[n;liq mi* jo[/jo[;q lalou/laliq lin;lou/lin;liq lwalou/lwaliq talou/taliq tan;lou/tan;liq mi* la/laz;q mi* ;[ir/;[;q mi* lwana/lwaz;q mi* tour/tw;q mi* tar/tar;q

t;sn;lou/t;sn;liq mi* t;s/t;s;q out;lou/out;liq mi* k;r/k;r;q 335









(The rest of the paradigm is filled with forms of the verb lin;l) (The rest of the paradigm is filled with forms of the verb lin;l) (The rest of the paradigm is filled with forms of the verb git;nal% as well as imanal)










(The rest of the paradigm is filled with forms of the verb oun;nal) (The rest of the paradigm is filled with forms of the verb arv;nal) Imperative: fousa*/fousaz;*q







(The rest of the paradigm is filled with --zankam zanka\i

forms of the phrasal verb fou\s oun;nal) verb zankanal)

(The rest of the paradigm is filled with the

w;r k;nal*% w;r ;m k;noum% w;r hi k;noum% w;r kaza% w;r k;nam% w;*r kaz/w;*r kaz;q% c;m/chi w;r k;na% w;r kazo[% w;r kaz;l% w;r kaza% w;r k;nalou% w;r k;naliq% mi* w;r kaz/kaz;q


* The verb k;nal is never used alone. It is a phrasal verb, appearing always as w;r k;nal to get up.


Simple Verbs
.os;l% goal ;rg;l% .a[al gr;l% kardal

Derivative Verbs
.os;zn;l% goazn;l ;rgw;l% .a[azw;l grot;l% kardazw;l


Regular-Derivative m;anal mot;nal

m;azn;l mot;zn;l fagzn;l

ktrat;l 'o,ot;l jckot;l

k;rtw;l karw;l fargw;l kardazw;l

-an-% -;n-

-azn-% -;zn-% -zn-

-at-% -ot-% -kot-




f;azr;z kaouz;z bouv;z frawir;z The transitive verb is an action verb that requires a direct object to complete its meaning.

f;azw;z aw;rw;z gnw;z graww;z In the active voice, the subject performs the action of the verb, while in passive voice, the subject receives the action.

f;azaw gnaz wax;z qn;z The intransitive verb is a complete action by itself and does not require a direct object to receive the action.



Infinitive (free)* Present (bound)**

soworoum groum kardoum .a[oum -oum -;l% -az;l sowor;l gr;l kardaz;l .a[az;l sowor;lou gr;lou kardalou .a[alou -;lou% -alou sowora gra kardaza .a[aza -a% -aza

Present (free)

Past (free)

Past Future N e g a t i v e Synchronic ( b o u n d ) (free+bound) ( b o u n d ) ( f r e e + b o u d )

sowori gri karda .a[a -i% -a sowor;lis gr;lis kardalis .a[alis -;lis% -alis


sowor;l gr;l kardal .a[al

soworo[ gro[ kardazo[ .a[azo[

-;l% -al

-o[% -azo[

* Free are the infinite forms that have independent use outside the conjugation paradigms. ** Bound are the infinite forms that have no independent use outside the conjugation paradigms.



Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative Instrumental Locative -i D e c l e n s i o n


} }

qa[aq qa[aqi qa[aqiz qa[aqow qa[aqoum

qa[aqn;r qa[aqn;ri qa[aqn;riz qa[aqn;row qa[aqn;roum

The majority of nouns, as well as nominalized adjectives, participles, numerals, proper names, adverbs, and postpositions follow this paradigm. Many nouns belonging to other declension paradigms tend to create parallel formations belonging to the -i declension (see p. 301) a) Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative Instrumental Locative

} }

-ou D e c l e n s i o n

a\gi a\gou a\gouz a\gow a\goum

a\gin;r a\gin;ri a\gin;riz a\gin;row a\gin;roum

The majority of nouns ending in -i, some nouns as mard% Astwa% amousin% etc. and infini- tives follow this paradigm.

b) Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative Instrumental Locative


} }

sir;l(e) sir;lou(n) sir;louz sir;low -



Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative Instrumental Locative

} }

-an D e c l e n s i o n


oro,oum oro,man (or oro,oumi) oro,oumiz oro,oumow --

oro,oumn;r oro,oumn;ri oro,oumn;riz oro,oumn;row oro,oumn;roum

a) all nouns in -oum: agoum (agman)% xgazoum (xgazman)% ,arvoum (,arvman)% etc. Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative Instrumental Locative Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative Instrumental Locative

} } } }

garoun garnan garnaniz garnanow --


b) the words: garoun (garnan)% ama (aman)% a,oun (a,nan)% ]m; (]man)% etc. mouk mkan mkniz mknow -mkn;r mkn;ri mkn;riz mkn;row --

c) monosyllabic words: dou (dan)% mouk (mkan)% ga (gaan)% jo (joan)% etc. Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative Instrumental Locative

} }

manouk* mankan mankaniz mankanow --

manoukn;r manoukn;ri manoukn;riz manoukn;row --

* Ther proper noun Manouk follows the regular pattern: Manouki(n)% Manoukiz% etc.




Nominative barouj\oun Accusative Genitive barouj\an Dative NO PLURAL Ablative barouj\ouniz Instrumental barouj\amb or barouj\ounow Locative -All abstract nouns ending in -ouj\oun: oura.ouj\oun (oura.ouj\an)% taqouj\oun (taqouj\an)% m;ouj\oun (m;ouj\an)% etc. Nominative ank\oun Accusative Genitive ank\an or ank\ouni Dative ank\ouniz Ablative Instrumental ank\ounow Locative ank\ounoum Nouns ending in -oun: ,oun (,an)% ar\oun (ar\an)% ank\oun etc.

} }

ou/a D e c l e n s i o n


} }

ank\ounn;r ank\ounn;ri(n) ank\ounn;riz ank\ounn;row ank\ounn;roum (ank\an)% toun (tan)%

Nominative vam vam;r Accusative Genitive vamwa or vami vam;ri(n) Dative vamwaniz or vamiz vam;riz Ablative Instrumental vamow vam;row Locative vamoum vam;roum Also: r (rwa)% z;r;k (z;r;kwa)% ,abaj (,abajwa)% tari (tarwa)% vamanak (vamanakwa)% gi,;r (gi,;rwa)% ;r;k (;r;kwa)% ]m; (]m;wa, also: ]man)% etc. Nominative fa\r fa\r;r Accusative for fa\r;ri(n) Genitive for fa\r;ri Dative for fa\r;ri(n) Ablative foriz fa\r;riz Instrumental forow fa\r;row Locative --Also: ma\r (mor)% ;[ba\r (;[bor)% knqama\r (knqamor)% knqafa\r (knqafor)% etc. -or D e c l e n s i o n

} }

-wa D e c l e n s i o n



Also: kin (kno=)% enk;r (enk;ro=)% tikin (tikno=)% tal (talo=)% an;r (an;ro=)% sk;sour (sk;sro=)% tantikin (tantikno=)% dasenk;r (dasenk;ro=)% t;r (tiro=)% etc. Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative Instrumental Locative

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative Instrumental Locative

-o= D e c l e n s i o n qou\r qro= qro= qro= qro=iz qro=ow -qou\r;r qou\r;ri(n) qou\r;ri qou\r;ri(n) qou\r;riz qou\r;row --

} }

-o D e c l e n s i o n

soug sgo or sougi sgiz sgow --


Also: lou\s (louso or lou\si)% patiw (patwo or patwi)% four (fro or fri)% etc. Nominative tikna\q (or tikinn;r) mardik Accusative tiknanz (or tikinn;ri(n)) mardkanz Genitive tiknanz (or tikinn;ri) mardkanz Dative tiknanz (or tikinn;ri(n)) mardkanz Ablative tikinn;riz mardkanziz Instrumental tikinn;row mardkanzow Locative --Also: kin-kana\q% paron-parona\q (or paronn;r) no[q (or no[n;r) no[n;ri(n) no[az (or no[n;ri) no[n;ri(n) no[n;riz no[n;row -an]inq an]anz an]anz an]anz an];riz an];row --

Declension of some irregular plural forms

Grigor;nq Grigor;nz Grigor;nz Grigor;nz Grigor;nziz Grigor;nz f;t --

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative Instrumental Locative

ordiq (or ordin;r) ordin;ri(n) ordoz (or ordin;ri) ordin;ri(n) ordin;riz ordin;row -343


Nominative amis a\ri anko[in ank\oun anoun ar\oun b; galoust ga gi,;r dar doustr ;x jo l; lou\s .ndir nound o ounk ka\sr fangist fou\s four ]\oun maf patiw s;r sk;sour s\oun tal 'a.oust r


month widow bed corner noun blood load, burden arrival lamb night century daughter ox grandchild mountain light problem birth great-grandchild knee emperor rest hope fire snow death honor love mother-in-law pillar sister-in-law flight, escape day Genitive

amswa a\rou anko[nou ank\an anwan ar\an b;an galst\an gaan gi,;rwa darou dst;r ;xan joan l;an louso .ndro nnd\an oan nkan ka\s;r fangst\an fouso fro ]\an mafwan patwo siro sk;sro= s\an talo= '\an rwa

(also: amsi) (also: a\rii) (also: anko[ni) (also: ank\ouni) (also: anouni) (also: ar\ouni) (also: b;i) (also: galousti) (also: gai) (also: gi,;ri) (also: dari) (also: dstri) (also: ;xi) (also: joi) (also: l;i) (also: lou\si) (also: .ndri) (also: nndi) (also: oi) (also: nki) (also: ka\sri) (also:fangsti) (also: fou\si) (also: fri) (also: ]\ouni) (also: mafou/mafi) (also: patwi) (also: sk;souri) (also: s\ouni) (also: tali) (also: 'a.ousti) (also: ri)



Monosyllabic Nouns

Monosyllabic Nouns

Polysyllabic Nouns

Polysyllabic N o u n s i n -n





; ba;r ; bn;r ; g;t;r ; lour;r ; ]a\n;r ; a;r ; =r;r ; ma\r;r ; ta;r ; r;r ; qar;r

n b;n;r n gan;r n d(ou)n;r n l;n;r n on;r n jon;r n n(ou)n;r n ;xn;r n ](ou)kn;r n farsn;r n matn;r

n yaaga\jn;r n ;[nin;r n yambarn;r n ;r;.an;r n a[=ikn;r n ousano[n;r n fa\oufin;r n ousouzicn;r n dasatoun;r n dacoun;r n ou,azoumn;r

n go\akann;r n s;[ann;r n pa\mann;r n jcounn;r n pafarann;r n anounn;r n amann;r n gradarann;r n norouj\ounn;r n kanonn;r n qanonn;r







: plural ending: -;r




: plural ending: -n;r

];agir-];agr;r fanqafor-fanqafor;r arotawa\r-arotawa\r;r lragir-lragr;r qara\-qara\;r w;rnatoun-w;rnatn;r sazasar-sazasar;r

mat;nagir-mat;nagirn;r wipagir-wipagirn;r fanqa'or-fanqa'orn;r vamazou\z-vamazou\zn;r m;atoun-m;atounn;r (faroust) ko,kakar-ko,kakarn;r xinakir-xinakirn;r



Inner change

External change



i gini mard M;[ri ou an



wa r ,abaj tari

z Fakob;nq Wardananq Karo\;nq

a a[=ik

o soug s;r four

,oun s\oun ank\oun

fa\r ma\r ;[ba\r

a fatak .n]or

ga qou\r a,oun enk;r% garoun kin% % t;r




Nominative tan(e) for(e) ousman(e) toun fa\r fore ousoum taniz (tniz) foriz ousoumiz





I n s t r u m e ntal


toun(e) fa\r(e) ousoum(e)

tan for ousman

qou\r(e) a,ak;rt(e) ]i(n) r(e) qro=(e) a,ak;rti(n) ]iou(n) rwa(n) faran;nz dst;r(e) a[=ka(n) siro (siroun) bnouj\an(e) qou\r (qro=e) a,ak;rt(in) ]i(n) r faran;nz dst;r a[=ka(n) s;r bnouj\an(e)

faran;nq doustr(e) a[=ik(e) s;r(e) bnouj\oun(e)

qro= a,ak;rti ]iou rwa faran;nz dst;r a[=ka siro bnouj\an

qro=iz a,ak;rtiz ]iouz riz (rwaniz) faran;nziz doustriz a[=kaniz sirouz bnouj\ouniz

tnow forow ousoumow (ousmamb) qro=ow a,ak;rtow ]iow row(rwanow) faran;nzow doustrow a[=kanow sirow bnouj\ounow

-------roum faran;nzoum ---bnouj\ounoum

Proper Inner change



Outer change




bnouj\oun toun


qar mard

qar;r mardik

mard toun a\ou

I n a n imate gric Aram Fa\astan baf qanon Ararat

A n imate mard ousouzic bvi,k

D e f inite fa\re ae aan

I n d e f inite fa\r a aa





a mard a,oun kin r Arm;n;nq Gani ga qou\r ,abaj Wardan;nq


Nominative mardou(n) anta(e)




Ablative mardouz antaiz

Instrumental mardow antaow

Locative -antaoum

mard anta

mardou antai

mardou(n) antai(n)




word is not a proper noun marks tion marks that are taken in quota-

which the second or third are taken in quotation organizations, awards etc.

Geographic names in ture, science, and art that Names of institutions,

Names of works in litera-

important events, state and government agencies, etc.

organizations, institutions,

Names of international


S ow F\ousisa\in saouz\al wkianos Fro ;rkir >a[a[ wkianos Wa\oz ]or Sana liy

Adamiz aa= patmwaq Dan j;akan aasp;l po;m C ari w;r=e f;qiaj I nco#u h a[mkoum g;te kinonkar I nn;rord aliq ktaw Fa \oz a,.arf lragir : rg aanz .osqi ;rav,touj\oun G rakan j;rj lragir

A,.atanq marxakan enk;rouj\oun Awangard art& miaworoum Awtosiro[ kamawor enk;rouj\oun Fraxdan marxada,t Xangak-97 fratarakcouj\oun Hr;bouni bv,kakan k;ntron

Miaworwa axg;ri kaxmak;rpouj\oun ~outboli fama,.arfa\in `;d;razia Nor tari Ma\rouj\an G;[;zkouj\an ton Safmanadrouj\an r :rkrord a,.arfamart Arza.\an axatamart Axga\in vo[ow " arix\an komouna




Country Names Consisting of 2 or 3 Words Compound proper name in which each component is a proper name A,ot :rkaj Tigran M; Safak Parj Zlik Amram Parou\r Sak P;tros Aa=in icard A\ouasirt

Geographic name in which each component is a proper name "oqr Masis Nor Ar;, W;rin Arta,at Ar;l\an Fa\astan Mi=in Asia M; Parni F\ousisa\in Kowkas

Am;rika\i Miaz\al Nafangn;r M; Britania\i Miaz\al Jagaworouj\oun L;na\in {araba[i Fanrap;touj\oun Fa\astani Fanrap;touj\oun ousastani Da,nouj\oun Cinakan Vo[owrdakan Fanrap;touj\oun Arabakan Miaz\al Hmirouj\ounn;r



Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs



un-, -less un-, dis-

ex-, extraunsubinter-, subcounter-

adj. adj., verb

adj., verb, noun adj. verb, noun adj., verb


con-, homo-, unipre-, for-

adj., verb, noun

adj., verb, noun verb, noun

in-, inner un-, non-

adj., verb, noun adj., noun adj.

sub-, underre-, superunun-, ex-

trans-, re-

adj. adj., verb, noun verb, noun

verb, noun

ant;[\ak unaware, anfou\s hopeless aprini illegitimate, ap;ra.t ungrateful, apako[mnoro,;l to disorient artasowor extraordinary, arta;l to export, artafa\t;l to express, artasafman abroad, out-of-country dvgou\n pale ;njark;l to submit, ;njaka subject endfat;l to interrupt, endow\a sub marine fakadir opposite, fakaxd;l to counteract, fakafarwa counter-attack fam;rkrazi compatriot, famat;[;l to combine, famani, homonym;s;l to foresee, na.adrouj\oun preposition, na.aban preface n;rark;l to infuse, n;ra,.arf inner world ckam unkind, unwilling, cgitouj\oun ignorance stor;rkr\a subterranean, storagr\al undersigned w;rstoug;l to revise, w;radanal to return, w;rakazou supervisor tg;t ignorant, tfay unpleasant taraba.t unfortunate, tara;l to extend, taragrouj\oun exile 'o.adr;l to transport, 'o.wr;v

-abar -ly -(a)gin -y, -ly, etc. -ak -able, diminutive -akan/;kan -al, -(l)y,-ish adverb adj., adv. adj., noun adj. ma\rabar motherly, w;fabar naturally srtagin heart-felt, ouvgin violently, ounak able, nawak little boat t;[akan local, tar;kan yearly


GRAMMAR TABLES -ap;s -aki -azou -anoz -anq -aran -awor/or a\in -;li/ali -;[;n -;ni -ly, -wise -ly destined to local action place adverb adverb, adj. adj., noun noun noun noun adj. adj. adj. adj., noun adj., noun w;r=ap;s finally, a\lap;s otherwise ou[[aki directly, masnaki particular mafazou deadly, farsnazou bride-to-be xoranoz barracks, fiwandanoz hospital loganq bathing, a,.atanq work pafaran locker, sryaran coffee house

filled with, -y -like -able coll. material -able, trees/bushes

-(;)zi/(a)zi resident, originating from noun -; made from, -en adj. -ik diminutive adj. -ic instrument, agent, noun, adj. -iq geared / subject to adj., noun -\an originating from adj. -\a made from -ot full of, -y -ord agent -or;n -ly -(a)pan profession -astan/-;stan place, -waq -ouj\oun result of action abstract diminutive female abstract adj. adj. noun adverb noun noun noun noun noun noun

-ouk -oufi -oum


m;[awor guilty, ounor wealthy mardka\in human-like, da\in aerial pa,t;li adorable, o[bali lamentable osk;[;n jewelry, .mor;[;n cookies wa\r;ni wild% ward;ni rose bush, .n]or;ni apple tree, tan];ni pear tree drs;zi outsider% g\ou[azi peasant, g;rmanazi German 'a\t; wooden, m;taqs; made from silk mankik infant, s;[anik little table gric pen, ;rgic singer, grawic attractive as;liq something to say, .a[aliq toy ar;l\an oriental, Aram\an originating from Aram m;ta[\a made from metal \ou[ot greasy (full of fat), a[tot dirty orsord hunter, gnord buyer wstafor;n surely, lr=or;n seriously a\g;pan gardner, dnapan doorman a\g;stan orchard, aastan forest, Founastan Greece kaouzwaq construction, grwaq writing oura.ouj\oun joy, enk;rouj\oun friendship, enj;rzanouj\oun reading, ousano[ouj\oun students (collective) mancouk little boy ;rgcoufi female singer, bv,koufi female physician bouvoum cure, ,arvoum movement, nwayoum conquest 353


kanac% bari% ,itak% ko,t% 'oqr% ;rkar% fpart

'a\t;% mardka\in% pa,t;li% ma\rakan% m;[awor% \ou[ot

Positive qa= 'oqr Comparative aw;li qa= aw;li 'oqr Superlative am;naqa= 'oqragou\n



;r;q (3) qsan (20) ;r;sounfing (35)

;rrord (3rd) qsan;rord (20th) ;r;sounfing;rord (35th)


miaworn;r 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, tasnaworn;r 10, 35, 99 far\ouraworn;r 100, 745 aw;li bar]r jw;r 1955

Absolute Numerals

Distributive Numerals m;kakan% m;k-m;k% tasakan% far\ourakan

m;k ;rrord 1/3 tase tasn\oj;rord 10/17 far\our faxar;rord


Fractional Numerals




Simple bolor miaworn;re (1%2%3%4%5%6%7%8%9) tase qs an tasnaworn;re far\oure% faxare% milione% miliarde

Derived ;r;soun qaasoun fisoun wajsoun \ojanasoun oujsoun innsoun

Compound tasnm;k tasn;rkou tasn;r;q tasncors tasnfing tasnw;z tasn\oj tasnouj tasnine qsanm;k

Complex far\our ;r;soun (130) faxar innsoun;r;q (1093) ;rkou faxar tase (2010)

Written joined together Written separately

From 11 to 99: tasnm;k (11)% qsan;rkou (22)% qaasoun;r;q (43)% \ojanasouncors (74)% oujsoun\oj (87)% innsounine (99)% etc.

Over 100: far\our m;k (101)% ;rkou faxar fing (2005)% faxar ine far\our wajsounm;k (1961)% fing faxar tasn;rkou (5012)% etc.




Arabic numerals
1-in 2-rd 3-rd 4-rd 5-rd 6-rd 7-rd 8-rd 9-rd 10-rd 11-rd 20-rd 30-rd 40-rd 50-rd 60-rd 100-rd 400-rd 500-rd 600-rd 1000-rd

Armenian Alphabet letters

a b g d ; x h e j v va i l . k y n , o

Roman Numerals

Written in Armenian letters

aa=in ;rkrord ;rrord corrord fing;rord w;z;rord \oj;rord ouj;rord inn;rord tasn;rord tasnm;k;rord qsan;rord ;r;soun;rord qaasoun;rord fisoun;rord wajsoun;rord far\our;rord corsfar\our;rord fingfar\our;rord w;zfar\our;rord faxar;rord




irar mim\anz m;km;kou m;km;ki

Demonstrative Reflexive

I n t e r r o gative Relative Indefinite Definite

N e g ative
oc oq ocinc oc mi oc m;ke








m;nq orca#' orpisi# o#r;rord ort;#[ ;#rb% o#ur qani# qani#se qani#;rord

o#w% i#nc incpisi# incqa#n incca#' incp;#s inco#u o#r% o#re orqa#n



inqn;rd nranq inqn;re

sa% da% na% a\s% a\d% a\n% sou\n% nou\n% mi;unou\n% m\ous% a\sp;s a\dp;s% a\np;s% nou\np;s% a\spisi% a\dpisi% a\npisi% nou\npisi% a\sqan% a\dqan% a\nqan% nou\nqan% a\sca'% a\dca'% a\nca'% nou\nca'% a\st;[% a\dt;[% a\nt;[% nou\nt;[ ow% inc incpisi incqan incca'% incp;s incou or% ore orqan orca' orpisi or;rord ort;[ ;rb% our qani qanise qani;rord

inc-or inc-inc omn m;ke mi mi qani miqanise ouri, a\l a\sinc a\ninc a\ninc oro, orh owh ;rbh ;rbiz; oriz; m;kn ou m;ke

am;n(e) am;n mi am;n m;ke am;nqe bolor(e) ouraqanc\our(e) am;n inc(e) \ouraqanc\our oq am;n oq o[=(e) ambo[=(e) fama\n am;na\n



Pointing to an object sa da na

Pointing to a trait a\s% a\spisi% a\d% a\dpisi% a\n% a\npisi% nou\n% nou\npisi% minou\n% m\ous% sou\n

Pointing to quantity a\sqan% a\dqan% a\nqan% nou\nqan% a\sca'% a\dca'% a\nca'% nou\nca'

Pointing to modality and place a\sp;s% a\dp;s a\np;s% nou\np;s% a\st;[% a\dt;[% a\nt;[% nou\nt;[

Asking a question about an object o#w i#nc(e) o#r(e) A s k i n g a q u e stion about the quality of an object incpisi# orpisi# A s k i n g a q u e stion about the quantity of an object incqa#n orqa#n orca#' o#r;rord qani#;rord qani# A s k i n g a q u e stion about the trait of an object incp;#s inco#u ;#rb o#ur ort;#[








-s% -d% -e/-n

d N;rka\ouj\ound s sirts oura.ouj\amb h lzr;l! s ma\rs = im ma\re d girqd = qo girqe n mtqin = ir mtqin e glou.n;re = ir;nz glou.n;re

-s% -d
Fa\r;niqin fas watarim xinwors c;m lqi dirq;rs!



s Sari Gi,;rs arjoun ;m e nsta ampe nman mnaz;l! s hr mardou! A,.arfs oc oqi ci mnaz;l&&& e n s W;r=;rs ;s ;[a d Qa=id anoune wa- >n]ore s;[anin hr! :giptosoum! [ouz ;nq ls;l!

-s% -d% -e/-n

-s% -d%

-e/-n transforms an indefinite item to a definite one, indicating that it is known to the speaker.

indicates possession defines the noun as an apposition referring to or belonging the first or second person:

-s imparts to the noun a demonstrative meaning:

s Your presence has I, the faithful soldier of The apple was on the gi,;rs last night s a,.arfs this world table. filled my heart with our homeland, wont joy. abandon my positions.






Measure and Quantity


am;n t;[% am;nour;q% a\lour% b;rn;b;ran% d;m a d;m (d;mad;m)% d;m ou d;m (d;moud;m)% d;m fandiman% dn;dou% g\ou[;g\ou[% ;t% endaa=% f;ou% m;=t;[% patn i w;r% sarn i w;r% w;r% w;roust% t;[-t;[% tniz-t;[iz% qar;qar

a\vm% ard;n% a\ls% a\souf;t% a\sr% a\nouf;t;u% ams;amis% aa\vm% afaw;t% apa% gi,;rz;r;k% d;% d;s% ;rb;q% ;r;k% vam a vam% vamanak a vamanak% endmi,t% f;to% fima% mi,t% m,tap;s% na.% na.ap;s% na.roq% ,out% ,outow% wa[% wa[e% wa[ouz% wa[roq% w;r=;rs% w;r=iw;r=o% tar;ztari% rop; a rop;% ou,% restr;% r;zr

arag% arag-arag% aragor;n% artaqoust% bar;kamabar% baro\ap;s% gornakanor;n% gitakzabar% danda[% danda[or;n% xou\g-xou\g% iskou\n% lr=or;n% kamaz% kamaz-kamaz% k;nt-k;nt% faxiwfax% fapy;p% fimnowin% fotnka\s% f;txf;t;% fankar% ];az% m;= end m;=% m;rj end m;rj% miasin% miangama\n% mia]a\n% ,arounak% n;rqoust% ou,iou,ow% qa=abar% 'o.;'o.

am;nin% ambo[=owin% aw;l% aw;li s% aaw;l% aaw;lap;s% baxmizs% bolorowin% g;raxanzap;s% gr;j;% dar]\al% ;aki% ;rizs% h*l aw;li% endam;ne% liowin% kisow ca'% krkin% krknaki% faxiw% faya.% famar\a% masamb% masnakior;n% m;kik-m;kik% motaworap;s% noriz% ,at-,at% ca'axanz% sakaw% sakaw a sakaw% 'oqr a 'oqr% 'oqri,at;% qic-qic




Fa\oz l;xoun patmoum h% j; inqe fnd;wropakan l;xwaentaniqi m;= founar;ni ou alban;r;ni nman anka. mi y\ou[ h kaxmoum! Fa\;r;ne z;[akiz h a\n l;xoun;rin% oronzow grwa ;n fndkakan W;dan;re% founakan cqna[ Iliakane ouri, ,at fanraanoj gor;r% oronz ko[qin ,o[oum ;n na fa\ dasakan gor;re! Fa\oz l;xoun^ fing;rord daroum zou\z twa ir katar;louj\amb% wka\oum h a\n bar]r qa[aqakrjouj\an masin% orin karo[az;l h fasn;l fa\ axge! Fa\oz l;xoun patmoum h na fin k\anqiz f;taqrqrakan manramasnouj\ounn;r! Ouni ba;r% oronq patk;roum ;n fa\ vo[owrdi fog;banouj\oune% nra axga\in fin nistn ou kaze% soworouj\ounn;re% krone% na.apa,aroumn;re nra n;rka mta;lak;rpn ou apr;lak;rpe!

Fa\astann ouni cqna[ bnouj\oun% =in= ou kapoutak ;rkinq% ao[=arar maqour d% parx ou wyit =r;r! A\s g;[;zik bna,.arfoum anfi,;li vamanakn;riz sksa aproum ou st;[agoroum h fa\ vo[owourde! Na d; fnagou\n vamanakn;roum st;[;z p;touj\oun% gir ou grakanouj\oun% kaouz;z fo\akap palatn;r% anaik b;rd;r fska amrozn;r! Gtnw;low Ar;lqi Armoutqi .acm;roukoum^ Fa\astane anendfat ;njarkw;l h far]akoumn;ri ou aw;raouj\ounn;ri! Saka\n nou\nisk faya.aki krknwo[ aw;ric pat;raxmn;ri% tar;rkr\a ;rkarat tirap;touj\ounn;ri pa\mann;roum fa\ vo[owourde ci dadar;l a,.at;louz! Na anendfat w;rakaouz;l h j,namou frkixa ou aw;ra qa[aqn;rn ou g\ou[;re^ dranq dar]n;low aw;li g;[;zik ou fo\a,;n! Kaouz;l h nor% m;ke m\ousiz g;[;zik ou xarmanafra, pa363

latn;r ou tayarn;r^ borboq;low j,namin;ri car]e! Fa\;re qa[aqakan annpast pa\mann;ri f;tanqow dar;ri enjazqoum tarb;r t;[;roum kaouz;l ;n tasiz aw;li ma\raqa[aq! A\d h patyae% or tar;rkr\a oro, patmabann;r Fa\astane kocoum ;n ja'ao[ ma\raqa[aqn;ri ;rkir! Fnagou\n ma\raqa[aqn;riz mi qanisi^ Wa[ar,apati% Armawiri% Dwini f;tq;rn ou aw;rakn;re kar;li h t;sn;l Fa\astani taraqoum! Est G& Awag\ani Adaptation from G. Avakyan

A,.arfoum qa[aqn;r ,at kan! Kan m;^ 'aabanwa qa[aqn;r% kan 'oqr ann,an qa[aqn;r kan qa[aqn;r% or nor ;n nwoum! A\d qa[aqn;riz \ouraqanc\ourn ouni ir d;mqe% yartarap;takan ir oye% ir barq;re% ir xargazman f;ankarn;re! Fa\astani ma\raqa[aq :rane faxaram\akn;ri patmouj\oun ouni! A,.arfoum ,at qic qa[aqn;r kan% or oun;n a\npisi patka;li tariq% incp;s :rane! Qa[aqe fimnadrw;l h m;r jwakanouj\ouniz aa= 782 jwakanin ibr qa[aq Hr;bouni! 2018 jwakanin :rane klini 2800 tar;kan! Am;n mi nou\nisk ;ritasard qa[aqoum kar;li h zou\z tal finn ou nore% a\srwann ou wa[wane! :ranoum da dvwar h% gr;j; anfnar! Dar;r ,arounak pat;raxmn;ri b;m dar]a a\s fo[i wra ocncazw;l ;n gr;j; bolor mi=nadar\an qar; fou,ar]ann;re&&& Mnaz;l ;n mia\n a\d fin% ,at fin ourartakan ,r=ani amrozn;re! 20-rd dari skxboum :rane ;[;l h 'oqr qa[aq^ m; masamb kaw; tn;row ououmou 'o[ozn;row! Irakanoum a\srwa :rane nor qa[aq h! Orqa@n sqanc;liqn;r kan nor :ranoum! Anznoum ;s nor 'o[ozn;row% pourakn;row ou fraparakn;row% a\z;loum ;s p;ran% jangarann;rn ou fam;rgasrafn;re xarmanoum ;s% j; a\s ;#rb kaouzw;z% o#w kaouz;z! Ou mi paf glou. ;s .onarfoum fa\ vo[owrdi fanyar;[ xawak Al;qsandr Jaman\ani aa=% or;l h nor :rane! >onarfwoum ;s na a\n mardkanz aa=% oronq ardar qrtinq ;n ja';l^ qare qarin dn;low ou m;x fan]n;low a\srwa :rane!


Minc fing;rord dare fa\;re s;'akan gir coun;in p;takan gor;roum faya. gtw;l ;n parsk;r;n% founar;n asor;r;n l;xoun;riz! Qriston;ouj\an moutqe Fa\astan (301-in) Sourb Girqn ou sourb fa\r;ri gran;re vo[owrdin

matc;li dar]n;lou pafan=e farkadr;z% or fa\oz l;xwi bolor fnc\ounn;re artafa\to[ mi grouj\oun st;[wi! A\d n,anawor gore fa=o[ouj\amb irakanazr;z M;srop Ma,toz wardap;te% ore fa\ vo[owrdin tw;z s;'akan gir^ fa\kakan a\boub;ne! Fing;rord daroum la\n goraouj\oun oun;zo[ Ararat\an .oswaqe m,akw;low dar]aw a\d ,r=ani grakan l;xoun! A\d l;xoun a\sr kocwoum h grabar kam dasakan fa\;r;n! Grabarow h% or jargmanw;zin Sourb Girqn ou fama,.arfa\in a\l fcakawor gor;r! A\d l;xwow grw;zin fa\kakan aa=in inqnourou\n grakan a,.atouj\ounn;re! Fing;rord dare fa\;r;ni osk;darn h! Est L& <anji Adaptation from L. Shant

Osk;dari am;niz ,q;[ gor;riz m;kn h Astwaa,nci fa\;r;n jargmanouj\oune! Fa\kakan ta;ri g\outiz aa= Fa\astani ;k;[;zin;roum a[ojqn;re kardazwoum hin tar l;xoun;row! Fa\ vo[owourde mtqow ou fogow tarin g;ri hr! Ta;ri g\oute% or t;[i oun;zaw 405-in% aa=azr;z famavo[owrdakan ogorouj\oun! Am;nour;q sks;zin dprozn;r bazw;l^ nor s;rounde fa\ a\boub;now ou fa\oz l;xwow krj;lou dastiarak;lou famar! Vo[owrdi restr; m;azo[ arawe fag;zn;lou famar baxmajiw grq;r jargmanw;zin fa\;r;n% a\d jwoum^ Sourb Girqe asor;n;niz! Oro, vamanak anz^ 30-akan jwakann;rin% M;srop Ma,tozi kajo[ikos Safak Parji anmi=akan [;kawarouj\amb nranz ta[andawor a,ak;rtn;re Sourb Girqn ambo[=ap;s jargman;zin founar;n mi entir rinakiz! Fa=ord qa\le ;[aw a\d ;rkou jargmanouj\ounn;ri qnnakan famadroume! Ir l;xwakan g;[;zkouj\an% incp;s na bnagrin fawatarim lin;lou famar Astwaa,nci fa\;r;n jargmanouj\oune tar gitnakann;re koc;zin Jargmanouj\ounn;ri jagoufi!


Fa\ vo[owourde a,.arfi am;nafin qriston\a vo[owourdn;riz m;kn h! A\n a,.arfoum aa=ine ;[aw% or endoun;z qriston;ouj\oune orp;s ;rkri pa,tonakan kron! A\d t;[i oun;zaw 301 jwakanin% ;rb gafakaloum hr Trdat jagawore! Trdate Grigor Lousaworice miasin qriston\a dar]rin Fa\astane fimn;zin fa\ qriston\a aa=in^ H=miani ;k;[;zin Wa[ar,apatoum% orn

am;nafin qriston\a ;k;[;zin h a,.arfoum! A\nt;[ h nstoum minc a\sr Am;na\n Fa\oz Kajo[ikose! Fa\ ;k;[;zin mi,t hl ;[;l h fa\ vo[owrdi pafpanman am;naxor;[ fastatouj\oune! A,.arfow m;k zrwa fa\;rin a\n tw;l h fou\s% fawat miasnouj\oun! Fa\astane faroust h qriston;akan fin ;k;[;zin;row! Xour ch% or a\n kocoum ;n jangaran baz ;rknqi tak! Xour ch na% or a,.arfi am;n ko[miz xbosa,r=ikn;re galis ;n^ t;sn;lou S& H=miaine m\ous fin ;k;[;zin;re! Nranz m;= fatouk yartarap;takan arv;q oun;n 7-rd% 10-rd 11-rd dar;ri ;k;[;zin;re! A\d ;k;[;zin;riz am;nan,anawore S& Fi'sim;i tayarn h! :k;[;zin;ri ,inouj\ounn;re soworabar kaouzwa ;n t;[akan qar;row! Gr;j; bolor ;k;[;zin;rn oun;n nou\n .aca] fatakagie% ore mi qic ;rkarawoun h% incp;s inqe^ fa\kakan .ace! Fa\;re fpart ;n ir;nz fin yartarap;touj\amb!

:rb d; tpagrouj\oun ckar% mardik grq;re ];qow hin artagroum! Fa\ vo[owourde m;kn hr ousman lou\si araw a\n axg;riz% oronq baxmajiw grq;r ;n endrinak;l! Endrinako[n;re afasarak wanakann;r% qafanan;r% dpirn;r hin% oronq a,.atoum hin m; masamb wanq;ri kam ;k;[;zin;ri fam;st .ouz;ri m;= amisn;row% ;rb;mn nou\nisk tarin;row% momi lou\si tak! A\d a,.atanqe nranq kataroum hin fa\ i,.ann;ri m;atounn;ri patw;row! Faya. hl wanq;riz dours gtnwo[ mtaworakann;r hin fan]n anoum a\d a,.atanqe sirafovar k;rpow kataroum orh wanqi famar! Nranq faya. awartoum hin fska fatorn;r% incp;s rinak^ Astwaa,ounce! Endrinako[n;re ,at gitoun hin oun;in g;[;zik ];agr;r! };agr;ri m;agou\n arvaniqe sqanc;li xardankarn;rn ;n% oronz g;[;zkouj\amb fianoum h ambo[= a,.arfe! M;x fasa fa\kakan am;nafin ];agire 887-in grwa mi Aw;taran h% ore n;rka\oums gtnwoum h :rani M;srop Ma,tozi anwan Mat;nadaranoum! A\sr a,.arfi tarb;r m,akouja\in k;ntronn;roum pafwoum ;n aw;li qan 25 faxar fa\;r;n ];agr;r! Est & I,.an\ani Adaptation from R. Ishkhanyan



|ouraqanc\our vo[owrdi patmouj\oun nra k;nsagrouj\ounn h& na.^ karor h nounde^ ort;[ ou ;rb h nw;l% apa ^ ambo[= k\anqe^ inc pa\mann;roum h a\n enjaz;l% inc dvwarouj\ounn;r h a\d vo[owourde fa[jafar;l% m,akou\ji inc arv;qn;r h st;[;l% inc awand h mou;l fama,.arfa\in mtqi ou m,akou\ji gan]arane a\ln! Kan fin vo[owourdn;r% oronq mafaz;l ;n% wa[ouz a\ls go\ouj\oun coun;n& our;mn nranz patmouj\oune t;l h nndiz minc maf! Fa\ vo[owourde a,.arfi am;nafin vo[owourdn;riz h! Nra fnadar\an farann;ri mi masn a\vm aproum h% ir l;xwow .osoum% groum% m,akouja\in nor arv;qn;r st;[oum& dranziz ;n wrazin;re% s;re% fou\n;re% arabn;re% parsikn;re ouri,n;r! Isk fa\;ri fnagou\n faran vo[owourdn;ri mi masn hl a\ls cka! Nranz l;xwow wa[ouz h% or oc oq ci .osoum% nranz m,akou\je ci xarganoum& dranziz ;n% rinak% ,oum;rn;re% asourabab;lazin;re (aqqadazin;re)% .;j;re ouri,n;r! Fin fnagou\n vo[owourdn;ri patmouj\oune law faskanalou famar karor h yi,t patk;razn;l patmouj\an jwakanouj\ounn;re vamanakagrouj\oune! A\vm% est qriston;akan tar;zou\zi% 2007 jwakann h! Sa n,anakoum h% or m;k jwakaniz sksa anz;l h 2007 tari! M;k jwakane famarwoum h Qristosi nnd\an tarin! A\d jwakaniz minc m;r vamanakn enka tarin;ri fa,iwe kocwoum h m;r jwakanouj\oun kam Qristosi nndiz f;to! Isk na.qan m;r jwakane tarb;r dar;roum% tarb;r tarin;ri katarwa d;pq;re famarwoum ;n m;r jwakanouj\ouniz aa= kam Qristosiz aa= katarwa! Kryat^ a\d grwoum h m& j& a& kam Q& a& ! Mi vo[owrdi patmouj\oune grwoum h patmakan a[b\ourn;ri gnouj\amb! A\d a[b\ourn;rn ;n na.^ tw\al vo[owrdi masin patmo[ grawor fou,ar]ann;re^ ar]anagrouj\ounn;r% fin mat\ann;r% apa^ fnagitakan n\ouj;re% tw\al vo[owrdi vo[owrdakan st;[agorouj\oune% fnoum gorawa dramn;re a\ln! Fa\;ri agoum^ n,anakoum h fa\oz l;xwi agoum% ;rb oro,oum ;nq% j; ;rb ort;[ h nw;l fa\oz l;xoun% oro,oum ;nq% j; ;rb ort;[ ;n nw;l a\d l;xwow .oso[n;rn ou mtao[n;re^ fa\;re! Fa\oz l;xoun ir baapa,arow m;x wka\ouj\ounn;r h talis na ir anza ou[ou masin! Est & I,.an\ani Adaptation from R. Ishkhanyan

Incp;s am;n mard mi entaniqi andam h kam orh entaniqiz h ag;l% a\np;s hl am;n mi l;xou orh l;xwaentaniqi moriz h nw;l! A\dp;s am;n l;xou ouni ir ma\re qou\r;re! A\d ma\re l;xwabanouj\an m;= kocwoum h;xou! A,.arfoum ,at l;xwaentaniqn;r kan! Fi,;nq dranziz mi qanise! S;makan l;xwaentaniq% ori m;= mtnoum ;n arab;r;ne% asor;r;ne (aram;;r;ne)% ;bra367

\;r;ne% aqqad;r;ne (asourabab;l;r;ne) a\ln! S;makan a\s l;xoun;re ag;l ;n ma\r s;makan l;xwiz! Apa ka ib;rakowkas\an entaniq% ori m;= mtnoum ;n wraz;r;ne% lax;r;ne%;r;ne% awar;r;ne a\ln! Jourqakan l;xwaentaniq% ori m;= mtnoum ;n jourq;r;ne% \akout;r;ne% [r[ex;r;ne% ouxb;k;r;ne% [axa.;r;ne% ou\gour;r;ne% adrb;=an;r;ne a\ln! Fnd;wropakan entaniq% ori m;= mtnoum ;n fndk;r;ne% parsk;r;ne% fa\;r;ne% founar;ne% alban;r;ne% litw;r;ne% lati,;r;ne% slawonakan l;xoun;re (ous;r;n% c;.;r;n% oukrain;r;n a\ln)% g;rmanakan l;xoun;re (g;rman;r;n% foland;r;n% norw;g;r;n% angl;r;n a\ln)% omanakan l;xoun;re (latin;r;n% `rans;r;n% ital;r;n% oumin;r;n% ispan;r;n a\ln)! A\s l;xwaentaniqn;rn hl oun;z;l ;n ir;nz ma\r l;xoun! Nkati p;tq h oun;nal% or a\vm\an oro, l;xoun;ri famar tw\al l;xwaentaniqi ma\re tat h galis! rinak^ angl;r;ni% ardi g;rman;r;ni% foland;r;ni% norw;g;r;ni g;rmanakan m\ous l;xoun;ri ma\re fnagou\n endfanour g;rmanakan l;xoun h% isk sra ma\re endfanour fnd;wropakan l;xoun h! Kan na ouri, ,at l;xwaentaniqn;r% oronz masin kar;li h kardal l;xwabanakan grq;roum! Isk incp;#s ;n nwoum l;xoun;re! Omanq karoum ;n% j; nor l;xou aa=anoum h ;rkou kam mi qani tarb;r l;xoun;ri .anw;louz! Sa patk;razoum h! Yi,t fakaake% nor l;xoun;r ag;l ou agoum ;n orh l;xwi trofw;louz% bavanbavan lin;louz! A\d k;rp aa=anoum ;n barban;r! :rkou% ;r;q barban;r irariz f;analow^ danoum ;n aan]in l;xoun;r! Karor h fi,;l% or am;n l;xou vamanaki enjazqoum 'o'o.woum h% xarganoum% na trofwoum% a\sinqn^ mas;ri bavanwoum! L;xoun faya. a\nqan h 'o'o.woum% or nou\n vo[owourde ir l;xoun% or .os;l h 1000-1500 tari aa=% dvwarouj\amb h faskanoum! rinak^ 5-rd daroum .oswa fa\;r;ne a\sr fa\;re dvwarouj\amb ;n faskanoum kocoum ;n grabar (grqi l;xou)! Est & I,.an\ani Adaptation from R. Ishkhanyan

Fa\oz l;xoun fa\ vo[owrdi m,takan wkan h! A\n wka\oum h Fa\kakan L;na,.arfoum ,at wa[ vamanakn;riz fa\;ri tarawa lin;lou% incp;s nranz fin ou nor farann;ri masin! :rb fa\kakan z;[;re% liowin an=atw;low fnd;wropakan ma\r vo[owrdiz% inqnourou\n k\anq hin waroum% nranq farab;rouj\an m;= mtan faran a\lal;xou z;[;ri ou vo[owourdn;ri f;t% l;xwakan 'o.axd;zouj\ounn;r t;[i oun;zan! L;xwakan a\d 'o.axd;zouj\ounn;ri ,;rt;re pafpanw;l ;n fa\;r;noum! Ba\z% ifark;% fa\oz l;xwi aanzqe% fimnakan baapa,are q;rakanouj\oune% ma\r l;xwiz vaangwan h! Dar;ri enjazqoum fa\oz l;xoun ,at 'o'o.w;z% ]a'o.w;zin na ma\r l;xwiz vaangwa ba;re% ba\z orqan hl 'o'o.w;zin

dranq% minou\n h% a\sr hl imazwoum h% or fnd;wropakan ;n% ma\r l;xwiz ;ko[! A\d ba;re kocwoum ;n bnik fa\kakan! Fi,;nq dranziz mi qanise^ fa\r% ma\r% ;[ba\r% qou\r% ordi% doustr% jo% acq% ];q% akan=% otq% l;xou% =our% lou\s a\ln! A\l l;xoun;riz fa\;r;nin anza ba;re kocwoum ;n 'o.a\al ba;r kam 'o.aouj\ounn;r! A\spisow^ fa\oz l;xwi fnd;wropakan kam bnik ba;re am;nafinn ;n% aw;li qan 5000 tar;kan! A\d ba;ri jwoum ,at ;n fatkap;s bou\s;r% k;ndanin;r% g\ou[atnt;sakan a,.atanq ou k;nza[ n,anako[ ba;re% oronq% aanz bazaouj\an% s;rtor;n ancwoum ;n Fa\kakan L;na,.arfi f;t! rinak^ fa\;r;noum kan bou\s;ri ptou[n;ri bnik fa\kakan a\spisi anounn;r^ a% bou\s% .ot% gari% a[ik% bardi% ;[ni% bo[k% d;[]% iran% enkou\x% sounk a\ln! Nou\np;s^ k;ndanin;ri ou jcounn;ri anounn;r^ a\% ;x% ga% h,% aqa[a[% faw% a[w;s% ariw% ar=% bor;ni% oxni% i;nak% kounk% ] a\ln! Bnik fa\kakan ;n na g\ou[atnt;souj\oun ou k;nza[ n,anako[ a\npisi ba;r% incp;s^ maoun% jan% cir% gini% aror% art% gom a\ln! Fa\oz l;xwi am;nafin ba;ri mi mase% incp;s asw;z% 'o.aouj\ounn;r ;n fa\;ri fnagou\n farann;ri l;xoun;riz! A\d farann;re wa[ouz ckan% isk nranz l;xoun;re faxaram\akn;r h% inc c;n .oswoum% ba\z a\d l;xoun;ri mi ,arq ba;r pafpanw;l ;n fa\;r;ni m;=! Est & I,.an\ani Adaptation from R. Ishkhanyan

M;srop Ma,tozi anwan Mat;nadarane gtnwoum h Fa\astani ma\raqa[aq :ranoum! A\n fska\akan mi gradaran h% ort;[ pafwoum h fin ];agr;ri mi fska\akan fawaqani! Mot 17 faxar grqiz 14 faxare grwa h fa\;r;n% mnazae^ tar l;xoun;row! A\d ];agr;re n;rka\aznoum ;n 5-18-rd dar;ri fa\ patmicn;ri% 'iliso'an;ri% banast;[n;ri% maj;matikosn;ri bvi,kn;ri gor;re! Dranz jwoum ;n na fin a,.arfi mi=nadari fou\n% asori% fr;a% arab a\l vo[owourdn;ri f;[inaka\in st;[agorouj\ounn;r% oronq jargmanwa ;n fa\;r;ni! Dranziz ,at;re karor fou,ar]ann;r ;n% or pafpanw;l ;n mia\n fa\;r;n jargmanouj\amb% qani or nranz bnagr;re kor;l ;n! A,.arfi am;n ko[miz Fa\astan a\z;lo[ xbosa,r=ikn;re fiaza ;n f;anoum Mat;nadaraniz! Afa j; inc h as;l `ransiazi fasarakakan goric^ Hmmanou;l obl;n 1967-in& A\s gan]arane ir nmane couni ambo[= a,.arfoum! Arv; Fa\astan a\z;l;l t;sn;lou famar j;koux mia\n a\s jangaran-gradarane% our pafpanwoum ;n fra,qow 'rkwa ,at ];agr;r! Nranq pafpanw;l ;n grqi nkatmamb fa\;ri oun;za m; siro ,norfiw wka\oum ;n mi 'aaf;[ anz\ali masin! Fa\;re m; sirt oun;n& mtao[% ya,aki t;r% foumori xgazoumow pa\a ;raka\ouj\amb vtwa vo[owourd ;n! Nranziz \ouraqanc\ouri m;= ka mi banast;[!

Wa[ar,apat qa[aqe gtnwoum h :raniz endam;ne 20 km f;aworouj\an wra! Wa[ar,apat fimnw;l h ;rkrord daroum ;[;l h Fa\astani ma\raqa[aqe! 301-in^ Fa\astanoum qriston;ouj\oune orp;s p;takan kron fastatw;louz f;to% a\st;[ kaouzw;l h H=miani ma\r tayare% ore fa\kakan aa=in ;k;[;zin h dar];l h fa\ ;k;[;zou k;ntrone! H=miani ma\r tayare ir go\ouj\an 1700 tarin;ri enjazqoum mi qani angam ;njarkw;l h norogman ou w;rakaouzman! A\vm na fing gmb;jiz ba[kaza mi patka;li kaou\z h! A\st;[ h gtnwoum ;k;[;zou jangarane% ort;[ pafwoum ;n ;k;[;zakan xanaxan ir;r% kronakan grq;r% g;[arw;sakan ou patmakan arv;qawor ir;r! H=mianoum h gtnwoum na Am;na\n Fa\oz kajo[ikosouj\an ajoe! A\st;[ 1771-in fimnw;l h tparan apa j[ji goraran! 1863-in fimnw;l h bar]ragou\n mi fogor dproz^ Gorg\an y;marane% ore goroum h minc rs ouni fogor krj=a.i p;takanor;n waw;razwa kargawiyak! N;rka\oums Wa[ar,apat qa[aqe fanrap;touj\an bargawayo[ m,akouja\in k;ntronn;riz m;kn h!

Fa\astanoum ;k;[;zakan ,inouj\ounn;ri kaouzoume la\n ja' stazaw qriston;ouj\an endounman f;tanqow! M,akw;zin tayarn;ri baxmaxan% m;ke m\ousiz g;[;zik tiparn;r% saka\n a\d bolori psake fandisazaw 7-rd daroum kaouzwa Xwarjnoz tayare! Ir kaouzo[akan mtaf[azmamb% yartarap;takan ];ri farstouj\amb ou yo.ouj\amb a\n minc a\d ir fawasare ci oun;z;l! Asoum ;n% or iskakan yartarap;takan gori aw;rakn isk g;[;zik h! :w iskap;s% mardou sirte fpartouj\amb ;ra.tagitouj\amb h lzwoum% ;rb mtaoum h a\n fanyar;[ yartarap;ti qarta, warp;tn;ri masin% oronq st;[;l ;n Xwarjnoze^ \oj;rord dari fa\ yartarap;touj\an psake! Fa\ patmicn;riz ,at;rn ;n fiazoumow patmoum Xwarjnoz tayari masin! Patmouj\oune N;rs;s <inarar kajo[ikosin h w;ragroum tayari kaouzoume^ moanalow fi,atak;l boun kaouzo[n;rin^ yartarap;tin m\ous warp;tn;rin! Tayari Xwarjnoz anoune ag;l h xwarjoun baiz% ore n,anak;l h fr;,tak% f;tabar Xwarjnoz n,anak;l Fr;,takanoz! Fa\tni h% or tayari bazman araro[ouj\ane n;rka h gtnw;l B\ouxandia\i ka\sr Kostandin G-e! Na a\nqan h fawan;l tayare% or oro,;l h fa\ yartarap;tin ir f;t tan;l% orp;sxi Kostandnoupolsoum s nman mi tayar kaouzwi! Saka\n yanaparfin yartarap;te mafaz;l h!


Tayare koranw;l h fawanor;n 10-rd daroum ;rkra,arvi patyaow! Dar;ri enjazqoum nra mnazordn;re f;txf;t; akw;l ;n fo[i fast ,;rtow% oc oq ci imaz;l nra t;[e! A\n gtnw;z mia\n 20-rd dari skxboum katarwa p;[oumn;ri ,norfiw! Tayari aa=in ousoumnasirouj\an na.kin ];ri w;rakaxmouj\an famar m;nq partakan ;nq fa\ yartarap;touj\an patmouj\an qa=at;[\ak% m;anoun gitnakan Joros Joroman\anin!

Koux;i a,.arfoum orh ouv t;sn;l% or karo[anar bna=n=;l a\s z;[e! A,.at;*q koran;l a\s z;[e! :njadr;nq% or dar]\al 1915 h! A,.arfe pat;raxmi m;= h& koran;*q Fa\astane! T;s;*q% j; karo#[ ;q! Fan;*q nranz ir;nz tn;riz ou ou[ark;*q d;pi anapat! Jou\l mi* taq% or nranq faz kam =our oun;nan! A\r;*q nranz tn;rn ou ;k;[;zin;re! T;s;*q% j; nranq krkin c;#n apr;lou! T;s;*q% j; nranq krkin c;#n ia[;lou! T;s;*q% j; a\s z;[e dar]\al ci# apr;lou% ;rb qsan tari anz a\d z;[iz ;rkouse irar fandip;n gar;=ratan m;=% c;#n ia[;lou .os;lou ir;nz ma\r;ni l;xwow! A,.at;*q% t;s;*q% j; piti karo[ana#q arg;l;l% or nranq a[r;n a,.arfi m; ga[a'arn;re% t;s;*q% j; piti karo[ana#q arg;l;l% or ;rkou fa\;r .os;n a,.arfi masin% a,.at;*q ou 'or];*q bna=n=;l nranz&&& Translated from W. Saroyans The Armenian and the Armenian


Dvwar h gtn;l mi vo[owrdi patmouj\oun% orn aw;li .aranwa lini fanzagorouj\ounn;row% qan fa\;ri patmouj\ounn h% oronz aaqinouj\ounn;re .a[a[asirakan ;n% isk aratn;re^ bnouj\an f;tanq! Incpisin hl or lini nranz yakatagire% isk a\n t.our h% inc hl or nranz apaga\oum spaswi% a\d axge kmna am;naou,agrawn;riz m;ke% isk nra l;xoun p;tq h aw;li ,at ousoumnasir;l&&& :j; Astwaa,ounce yi,t h m;knabanwa% apa dra.te gtnw;l h f;nz Fa\astanoum! J; a\n ;rkar vamanak ;[;l h fxor ka\srouj\oun% na faxwad;p h anka. ;[;l&&& Parsik satrapn;re jourq 'a,an;re fawasarap;s npast;l ;n a\d ;rkri qa\qa\mane% our Astwa st;[;l h mardoun ir k;rparanqow nmanouj\amb! Translated from Lord Bayrons notes about the Armenians

Fa\astanoum kan m; ou 'oqr ly;r% oronq g;[;zkaznoum ;n nra bnouj\oune! Fa\astani am;niz m; liye Sana liyn h! A\n gtnwoum h l;n;ri wra owi mak;rou\jiz ouni 6430 otq bar]rouj\oun! Nra ;rkarouj\oune 50 m[on h% la\nouj\oune^ 20 m[on% isk .orouj\oune^ 360 otq! Sana lyi =oure qa[zrafam h% a\sinqn^ .m;li h! A\n faroust h ,at fam;[ ]kn;row% oronziz am;nafam;[e i,.an anounow sa[mosaentaniqi ]oukn h! Sana lyi wra ;rj;koum ;n 'oqrik ,og;naw;r% aagastanaw;r makou\kn;r! Saniz b.oum h Fraxdan g;te! Saniz aw;li 'oqrik h Ar'a liye% ore owiz 6706 otq bar]r h! Ar'a lyi =oure s qa[zrafam h! Nraniz h skixb anoum A.our\an g;te!

Sana liye Fa\astani bnouj\an fra,aliqn;riz m;kn h! A\d liye% or fa\tni h na G;[ama liy anounow% ;r;q ko[miz ,r=apatwa h va\;row ou l;n;row% isk m;k ko[me baz h! Lyi =oure qa[zrafam h wyit! re mi qani angam liye 'o.oum h ir gou\ne! A\nt;[ aproum h i,.ane^ sa[monn;ri entaniqi am;nafam;[ ]ouke! San qa[aqi mot ka stor;rkr\a mi hl;ktraka\an% ore lou\s h matakararoum Fa\astani qa[aqn;rin ou awann;rin! 20-rd daroum 70 tarwa ard\ounab;rakan ,afagorman f;tanqow Sani =ourn sks;z xgalior;n pakas;l% lyi =ri makardakn i=n;low^ Sani k[xin dar]aw j;rak[xi! A\vm% kapou\t =r;ri k;ntronoum% f;wiz ;roum ;n m;nawor wanqn ou ;k;[;zin^ .aca] gmb;jow% oronq kaouzw;l ;n sraniz 12 dar aa=! 21-rd daroum% foura.ouj\oun bolor fa\;ri% Sann sks;z krkin m;anal! Da t;[i oun;zaw am;niz aa= fa\ akanawor yartarag;t-;rkraban% akad;mikos Gorg T;r-St;'an\ani =anq;ri ,norfiw% ore fimnawor;l h Sana lyi makardaki pafpanman famar San-Fraxdan kaskadi ,inararouj\oune d;s Stalin\an tarin;ri dvwaragou\n pa\mann;roum! 2001-in Fa\astani Axga\in vo[owi m,aka Sana lyi masin r;nqi kiraman ,norfiw liye cors taroum bar]razaw 150 santim;trow! ragir ka lyi makardake aa=ika 30 taroum bar]razn;l 6 m;trow^ a\n faszn;low 1954 jwakani makardakin% a\sinqn^ owi mak;rou\jiz 1904 m;tr bar]rouj\an! G;[;zik h Sana liye gi,;row! Aliqn;re m;[mor;n .'woum ;n va\;rin% =ri mak;r;sin artazolwoum ;n lousinn ou faxarawor ast[;re!


MANOU<|ANE S:NT HT|:NI ZOUZAFAND:SOUM S;nt Ht\;ni (~ransia) qa[aqap;taranoum bazw;l h Dimadrouj\an ,arvman tar;rkrazi martikn;rin nwirwa zouzafand;s% ort;[ xgali t;[ h fatkazwa Misaq Manou,\ani faka`a,istakan Karmir pasta .mbin! >mbi miak 'rkwa andam Ars;n <aqar\ane ;r h watao[=ouj\an patyaow ci masnakz;l zouzafand;si bazmane! Zouzafand;se kaxmak;rpw;l h Louari fa\ m,akou\ji tan na.agaf Van Grigor\ani na.a];nouj\amb! Isk Kl;rmon ~;ran qa[aqi jat;ra.mb;riz m;ke fand;s h ;k;l Manou,\ani .mbi gndakafarouj\ane nwirwa b;madrouj\amb! Mafapatviz mi qani vam aa= kno=e^ M;lin;in gra namakoum Manou,\ane wstafouj\oun h fa\tn;l% or ~ransia\i vo[owourde axatouj\an bolor martikn;re kkaro[anan farg;l .mbi fi,atake! P;tros Q;,i,\an AZG Armenian Daily #118, 23/06/2007

DRO<MAJ{J:R FA|ASTANI TARWA AIJOW Troqat;ro\i owa\in jangaranoum% our fa=o[ouj\amb ,arounakwoum h Fowfann;s A\waxowskou zouzafand;se% n;rka\azw;l ;n fa\-`ransiakan bar;kamouj\oune .orfrdan,o[ dro,mani,n;r! 54 85 ;wro arvo[ouj\amb dro,maj[j;riz aa=ini wra^ Arm;ni-~rans ;xrani,ow% patk;rwa h XV dari fa\kakan manrankarcouj\an mi drwag% ;rkrordi wra (~rans-Arm;ni)^ ;nsi ma\r tayariz Fr;,taki vpite qandaki patk;re! O[=ou\ni .osqow ;lou\j h oun;z;l ~ransia\oum Fa\astani d;span H& Nalband\ane ,norfawor;l araro[ouj\ane n;rka <al Axnawouri nnd\an tar;dar]e! D;spane t;[;kazr;l h% or nou\n re :ranoum s n;rka\azw;l ;n dro,maj[j;re^ fa\;r;n ;xrani,ow (70 350 dram arvo[ouj\amb)! :lou\j h oun;z;l na `ransiakan kaxmak;rpouj\an n;rka\azouzice% apa^ <al Axnawoure% t;[;kaznoum h |aa= raj;rje! M;lan\a Badal\an AZG Armenian Daily #115, 20/06/2007

FOUNAKAN A+AKZOUJ|AN RAGIR FA|ASTANOUM Xargazman fa\kakan gorakalouj\ounoum ;r;k t;[i oun;za Founastani artaqin gor;ri na.arari 'o.anord^ Ioannis Magriotisi mamouli asoulisi vamanak n;rka\azw;z Sow\an mi=balkan\an bixn;sk;ntroni ko[miz Fa\astanoum% Wrastanoum Oukraina\oum iragorw;liq ragir! A\n kskswi 2003 j&-in kti ;r;q tari! Founastani p;takan b\ou=;iz fatkazwo[ w;z mln ;wro skxbnakan goumarin fawanabar kaw;lana Founastani atra\in banki% a\l kaou\zn;ri masnakzouj\oune! Bolor ;r;q ;rkrn;roum ragire koun;na ;r;q ou[[ouj\oun! Aa=in^ ao[=apafouj\oun bv,kakan aa\ouj\ounn;r!;swoum h bv,kakan gnouj\oun tramadr;l fatkap;s a\n mardkanz% oronq f;awor wa\r;roum ;n aproum! Artaqin gor;ri na.arari 'o.anorde n,;z% or ir;nq a\d 'or]n oun;n! 1998 j&-iz ;rkou bv,kakan k;ntronn;r ;n goroum Alaw;rdioum :ranoum! :rkrord^ krjouj\oun m,akou\j! Pa\manaworwaouj\oun h ];q b;rw;l krjouj\an gitouj\an na.ararouj\an% tar l;xoun;ri famalsarani t;[i founakan fama\nqi f;t Fa\astanoum founakan m,akou\ji l;xwi k;ntron st;[;lou masin! :w w;r=ap;s ;rrord ou[[ouj\oune bixn;sin a=akz;ln h!;swoum h `inansawor;l Fa\astanoum 30-60 'oqr% entan;kan ];narkouj\ounn;r! A\vm ousoumnasirouj\ounn;r ;n katarwoum! Ioannis Magriotise n,oum h% or j; aa=in angam ;n nman ];narkman gnoum% ba\z famoxwa ;n fa=o[ouj\an m;=! Orqa#n goumar p;tq h tramadrwi a\d ;r;q ;rkrn;riz \ouraqanc\ourin^ farzin Founastani 'o.artgorna.arare;z% or da ka.wa h tw\al ;rkri fnaraworouj\ounn;riz zouzab;rwo[ f;taqrqrouj\ounn;riz! Prn Magriotisi kariqow^ Fa\astani paraga\oum kgtagorwi a\d goumariz 11%5 mln ;wro! Mamouli asoulisi vamanak Founastani n;rka\azouzice n,;z% or ir ;rkire mi=axga\in ,r=anakn;roum m,tap;s a=akzoum h Fa\astanin% ince b.oum h dar;ri .orqiz ;ko[ ;rkou vo[owourdn;ri amour bar;kamouj\ouniz! T;[;kazw;z na% or Founastann a\s tari ,our= 100 faxar ;wro gnouj\oun kzouzab;ri Fa\astanin^ zrtafarouj\an wnasn;re 'oqr-inc 'o.fatouz;lou famar! AZG Armenian Daily #075, 19/04/2003


1915-I XOF:RI VAANGN:RI FATOUZOUMN:RI FARZE <AROUNAKWOUM H Am;rikafa\ 'astabann;r Wardg;s :[ia\ani% Mark Kirakosi Bra\n Qabaj;qi^ N\ou |orq La\` apafowagrakan enk;rouj\an d;m bazwa datow 20 mln dolari fatouzoum trw;z 1915-i xof;ri vaangn;rin! A\vm nranq% incp;s fa[ord;l ;nq% banakzouj\ounn;r ;n waroum `ransiakan Aqsa enk;rouj\an f;t% ore fama]a\n;l h 17%5 mln dolar fatouz;l xof;ri ,aawi[n;rin% oriz 3 mln fatkazw;lou h ~ransia\i fa\kakan kaxmak;rpouj\ounn;rin! Aqsa\i awandatoun;re fraparakwa zankoum ir;nz anounn;re y,t;lou famar karo[ ;n dim;l^ ka\qh=% minc a\s tarwa fokt;mb;r amise! "arixi |aa=e t;[;kaznoum h ~ransia\oum nmanabnou\j zanki fraparakman dvwarouj\ounn;ri masin^ kapwa kronakan% z;[a\in patkan;louj\an fangamanqn;row! Fa\oz z;[aspanouj\an xof;ri paraga\oum a\d dvwarouj\ounn;rn ard;n fa[jafarwa ;n! Ma\isi skxbn;rin am;rikafa\ 'astabann;re "arixiz a\z;l;lou hin B;lin^ fandip;lou g;rmanakan Do\c; banki patas.anatoun;ri f;t% oronq% saka\n% dvwaranoum ;n a\s farzoum! Faa=e n,oum h% or a\s ;rou\jn;ri patyan;riz ;n a\s ;rkri gr;j; m;k darwa louj\oune% 1915-i d;pq;rin G;rmania\i m;[sakzouj\oune% na Jourqia\i goradra yn,oumn;re! Est oroum% incp;s nkatoum h j;rje% N\ou |orq La\`i paraga\oum a\d yn,oume a\nqan hl xgali ci ;[;l% orqan Aqsa\i nkatmamb% isk g;rmanakan dramatan d;m bazwa dati aijow jourqakan d;spanatoune dim;l h dataran^ z;[aspanouj\an iro[ouj\oune cendoun;lou namak-pafan=ow! Nman pafan=ow dat h bazw;l na Dr;xdn;r banki d;m% ore famarwoum h fa\ awandatoun;ri goumarn;r \ourazno[! Fa\;re a\s banki gan]ark[;rin i paf hin tw;l na tarb;r arv;qn;r% ,r=anaou h na loure^ 30 tonna ]oulao oskou masin! Goumarn;riz xat B;lin-Ba[dad ;rkajou[oun ancwo[ a\l .ndirn;r s aka ;n% or w;rab;roum ;n Do\c; bankin patkano[ a\s ;rkajou[ou ,inararouj\an wra a,.ato[ far\our faxarawor fa\;ri wyaroumn;rin% t;[oum fa,w;fardari ;njark;louz kam D;r Xori anapatn;re q,;louz aa=! Fi,;zn;nq% or Do\c; banke B;lin-Ba[dad ;rkajou[ou ,inararouj\an gl.awor n;rdno[n ou kapalaoun hr! Do\c; banki .ousa'o[akanouj\oune 'astabann;rin stipoum h fandipoum 'ntr;l G;rmania\i `inansn;ri na.ararouj\an pa,ton\an;ri f;t! |aa=e t;[;kaznoum h% or dramatna\in fa,iwn;ri f;tapndman famar vamanaki safmana'akoum cka% saka\n dramatna\in ark[;roum pafwa oun;zwaqi w;r=in pa\manavame minc 2016 jwakann h! Am;rikafa\ 'astabann;re as;l ;n% or Do\c; banki f;t fi,\al farzow ir;nz na.a];na gore w;r=ine ch% or ir;nq ,arounak;lou ;n f;tapnd;l Fa\ dati minc a\sr cbar]razra farze anwaxn 20 tarb;r kaxmak;rpouj\ounn;ri d;m! AZG Armenian Daily #118, 23/06/2007

NOR DOU{I& G:RMANAKAN ENK:ROUJ|OUNE MIANOUM H XWARJNOZI DA|IN NAWATORMI{IN Founisi 3-in% wa[ aawot\an :rani Xwarjnoz mi=axga\in danawaka\anoum wa\rh=q katar;z g;rmanakan Lou`jfanxa awiaenk;rouj\an A;robous-319 danawe^ skixb dn;low M\oun.;n-:ran-M\oun.;n ,abaje ;r;q angam irakanazwo[ nor cw;rjin! A\spisow% Lou`jfanxan dar]aw Fa\astanoum goro[ corrord ;wropakan awiaenk;rouj\oune^ awstriakan% britanakan c;.akan enk;rouj\ounn;ri f;t! Est m;r f;taxotouj\ounn;ri^ Fa\astann a\nqan hl faroust ;rkir ch% nou\nisk kar;li h as;l a[qat ;rkir h% _ asoum h Lou`jfanxa enk;rouj\an Fa\astani Oukraina\i n;rka\azouzic Antonio Kouokon! _Saka\n Fa\astani tnt;souj\oune arag xarganoum h% d;kt;mb;rin B;linoum G;rmania\i ou Fa\astani na.agafn;re oro,;zin .orazn;l farab;rouj\ounn;re ;rkou ;rkrn;ri mi=% isk a\s aoumow awiaenk;rouj\ounn;re lawagou\n tarb;rakn;riz ;n! Founisi 3-iz minc fokt;mb;ri 24-e n;ra\al enk;rouj\oune :raniz m;kno[ ou[orn;ri famar safman;l h tomsi fatouk gn;r! G;rmania\i zankaza qa[aqi tomsn arv; 299 dolar (f;tadar]^ goumara farke! Fam;matouj\an kargow Awstriakan awiaou[in;roum 410 dolar h)% orh ;wropakan ;rkrine^ 349 dolar% F\ousisa\in Am;rika\ine kam A`rika\ine^ 599 dolar! Lou`jfanxa\i moutqe famenkaw a\s ,abaj Briti, H\rwa\xi fa\tarararouj\ane% or founisi 18-iz enk;rouj\oune krknapatkoum h London:ran jicqn;re^ faszn;low ,abajakan w;zi! Fa\astann a[qat ;rkir h% j; oc^ ;wropakan awiaenk;rouj\ounn;re mrzouj\an m;= ;n mt;l nra da\in ,ouka\i famar! M;r 'or]ag;tn;re ';trwarin ousoumnasirouj\ounn;r ;n anzkazr;l^ gnafat;lou fa\kakan ,oukan nra xargazoumn;re% orp;sxi parx;n% j; incp;s karo[ ;nq bar]rorak aa\ouj\ounn;r matouz;l Fa\astaniz :wropa m;kno[ ou[orn;rin! A\d ousoumnasirouj\ounn;re drakan ard\ounq tw;zin% - asoum h Kouokon! Lou`jfanxa enk;rouj\an :ran-M\oun.;n fakaak ou[[ouj\amb toms;rn sks;l ;n waya;l apriliz! Fa=ord ou[[ouj\oune kbazwi founisi 5-in^ M\oun.;n-Jbilisi cw;rjow (,abaje ;r;q jicq)! A\s cw;rjn;row m;nq npatak coun;nq 'or];r katar;lou! M;nq wstaf ;nq% or Fa\astani Wrastani f;t fastatwo[ kap;re drakan ard\ounq koun;nan% famoxwa ;nq Fa\astani Wrastani xargazman m;=! Oun;nalow Moskwa\i Kii drakan 'or]e^ famoxwa ;nq% or a\s ;rkrn;roum nou\np;s m;r cw;rjn;ri qanakn apaga\oum kaw;lana% - asaz gras;n\aki tnr;n tte! Sour;n D;f;r\an Armenia, June 2005

MOSKWAN% LONDONE :W S:OULE AM:NAJANK QA{AQN:RN :N M;rs;r f;taxotakan enk;rouj\an tw\aln;re wka\akoc;low^ ~ranspr;se fa[ordoum h% or Moskwan f\our;ri famar mnoum h a,.arfi am;najank qa[aqe! :rkrord t;[oum Londonn h% ;rrordoum^ Farawa\in Kor;a\i ma\raqa[aq S;oule! Corrord fing;rord t;[;re xba[;znoum ;n Tokion Fonkonge! Isk am;nahvan qa[aqn h Paragwa\i ma\raqa[aq Asounsione! F;taxotouj\an f;[inakn;rn a,.arfi 143 qa[aqn;roum fam;mat;l ;n 200-iz aw;li apranqn;ri ou spasarkoumn;ri gn;re (kazarani war]akaloum% transport% snound% fagoust% k;nza[i aarkan;r% xwaryanqn;r a\ln)^ orp;s ca'anmou, w;rzn;low AMN-i am;najank qa[aq N\ou |orqe! W;r=inis fam;matouj\amb Moskwan 34%4 tokosow aw;li jank qa[aq h! Endsmin a\s zouzani,e 11 tokosow bar]r h anz\al tarwa zouzani,iz! Londone N\ou |orqiz jank h 26%3 tokosow! Anz\al tarwa fam;matouj\amb jankazoume kaxm;l h 16 tokos! Am;najank qa[aqn;ri tasn\akoum t;[;r ;n xba[;znoum na Kop;nfag;ne% Vne% Z\ouri.e% slon% sakan a\ln! Am;nahvan ;wropakan qa[aqe So`ian h! P;t;rbourge 12-rd t;[oum h% isk "arixe^ 13-rd! AZG Armenian Daily #114, 19/06/2007

WARCAP:T FARP:RE DATAPART:L H% OR A|L P:TOUJ|OUNN:RE >ANWOUM :N KANADA|I N:RQIN GOR:RIN Kanada\i Axga\in hjnik mamouli .orfrdi klor s;[ani vamanak Kanada\i warcap;t S jiw;n Farp;re fastat;l h% or Fa\oz z;[aspanouj\an yanacoume ;rkri p;takan qa[aqakanouj\oun h% a\l oc j; oro, entrwa mardkanz dirqoro,oum% incp;s omanq 'or]oum ;n n;rka\azn;l! Kanada\i Fa\ dati fan]na.mbi 'o.anzmamb% S jiw;n Farp;re endg;l h a\l p;touj\ounn;ri n;rka\azouzicn;ri^ Kanada\i n;rqin gor;rin .anw;lou anendoun;liouj\oune! Orp;s kaawarouj\an [;kawar^ c;m karo[ j;ladr;l mamoulin^ inc gr;l j;rj;roum& na a\l p;touj\ounn;re c;n karo[ m;x j;ladr;l^ inc gr;l% - fa\tarar;l h Kanada\i warcap;te! Fi,;zn;nq% or aprili 24-in S jiw;n Farp;re ;lou\j h oun;z;l Fa\oz z;[aspanouj\an tar;lizi kapakzouj\amb% inci famar .ist qnnadatouj\an hr ;njarkw;l Jourqia\i AGN-i ko[miz! Isk aprili 24-iz m;k ,abaj aa= Jourqian xgou,aznoum hr S jiw;n Farp;rin ;lou\j coun;nal a\npisi fa\tararouj\ounn;row% oroum 1915 jwakani iradar]ouj\ounn;re z;[aspanouj\oun ;n kocwoum! A[awni Farouj\oun\an AZG Armenian Daily #115, 20/06/2007


Adrb;=anzi xinwor Samir Mam;dowe Fa\astani i,.anouj\ounn;rin .ndr;l h ir;n 'a.stakani kargawiyak tal! Armin`o gorakalouj\an t;[;kazmamb^ a\s masin t;[;kazr;l h Fa\astani p;takan fan]navo[owi a,.atanqa\in .mbi [;kawar Arm;n Gabri;l\ane! Samir Mam;dowe ob;rt Qocar\anin h dim;l ma\isi 3-in^ .ndr;low ir;n 'a.stakani kargawiyak tal! Mam;dowe fa\kakan safmann anz;l hr anz\al tarwa d;kt;mb;r 24-in a\ls ci zankanoum w;radanal Adrb;=an^ aknfa\tor;n wa.;nalow axmakan datarani aa= fa\tnw;louz fa\r;niqi dawayanouj\an fodwaow datapartw;louz% incpisi yakatagri ;n arvanaz;l Fa\astanoum fa\tnwa m\ous adrb;=anzi xinworn;re! AZG Armenian Daily #111, 14/06/2007

SIMONSE GOF H NAT-I F:T ANFATAKAN GORENK:ROUJ|AN RAGRIZ Farawa\in Kowkasoum NAT-i gl.awor qartou[ari fatouk n;rka\azouzic ob;rt S imonse% gofounakouj\oun fa\tn;low F\ousisatlant\an gorenk;rouj\an goro[ouj\ounn;ri ragri 'oul;re fa=o[ouj\amb irakanazn;lou ancouj\amb% endg;l h% or gorenk;rouj\oune ci mrzakzoum a\l anwtangouj\an famakarg;ri f;t^ lini da ousastane kam Fawaqakan anwtangouj\an pa\managri kaxmak;rpouj\oune! FF pa,tpanouj\an na.ararouj\an t;[;kazmamb^ fandipmane pa,tpanouj\an na.arar Miqa\;l Farouj\oun\ann anfangstouj\oun h fa\tn;l Aderb;=ani^ :wropa\oum soworakan xinwa ouv;ri pa\managriz dours galou w;r=;rs ara fa\tararouj\an kapakzouj\amb! ob;rt S imonse fa\tn;l h% or NAT-n mot vamanakn;rs fatouk qnnarkoumn;r h kaxmak;rp;lou ousastani Adrb;=ani ko[miz pa\managri fand;p moratorioum fa\tarar;lou w;rab;r\al! ob;rt S imonse karor;l h Fa\astani masnakzouj\oune mi=axga\in .a[a[arar aaq;louj\ounn;roum% bar]r gnafat;low gor;enk;rouj\oune masnaworap;s Kosowo\oum! Ko[m;rn andradar];l ;n A`[anstanoum goro[ NAT-i ISAF-i (Mi=axga\in anwtangouj\an a=akzouj\an ouv;r) kaxmoum Fa\astaniz bvi,kn;r n;ra;lou f;ankarin! Pa,tpanouj\an na.arar Miqa\;l Farouj\oun\ann ir f;rjin t;[;kazr;l h% or Fa\astanoum mardou irawounqn;ri pa,tpane mot r;rs koun;na xinwa ouv;ri farz;row xba[wo[ n;rka\azouzic% ince knpasti ;rkri xinwa ouv;roum mardou irawounqn;ri institouti st;[mane! A[awni Farouj\oun\an AZG Armenian Daily #118, 23/06/2007


Fa\tarar;l h Jourqia\i warcap;t ;=;' Ja\i' Hrdo[ane

:r;k Stambouloum spanw;l h Aks ,abajaj;rji gl.awor .mbagir Frant Dinqe! Spanouj\oune katarw;l h z;r;kow a\n pafin% ;rb Dinqe dours h ;k;l .mbagrouj\an ,;nqiz! :njadrwoum h% or mardaspane ;[;l h ;ritasard% mot 18-19 tar;kan! Spanouj\oune katar;l h atryanaki krakozn;row! Spanouj\an wa\roum ostikanouj\oune fa\tnab;r;l h cors parkouy! Stambouli ostikanouj\oune mardaspanin fa\tnab;r;lou famar ];nark;l h artakarg mi=ozaoumn;r! Ou, ;r;ko\an ];rbakalw;l ;n ;rkou kaska;lin;r! A\s wa\rag spanouj\oune boun xa\rou\j h aa= b;r;l polsafa\ fama\nqoum% incp;s na jourq mtaworakann;ri ,r=anoum% oronq% t;[;kanalow o[b;rgakan mi=ad;pi masin% spanouj\oune datapart;lou famar ,tap;l ;n Aksi .mbagrouj\oun! Spanouj\ouniz f;to a\nt;[ h ,tap;l na Stambouli nafangap;t Mouamm;r G\oul;re! A\d enjazqoum Jourqia\i artaqin gor;ri na.ararouj\oune fand;s h ;k;l spanouj\oune dataparto[ fa\tararouj\amb! Warcap;t ;=;' Ja\i' Hrdo[ane Dinqi spanouj\an masin imaz;l h na.ararn;ri .orfrdi nisti vamanak endfat;low niste^ anfrav;,t frafangn;r h tw;l spanouj\an bazafa\tman ou[[ouj\amb! Warcap;te kargadr;l h n;rqin gor;ri ardaradatouj\an na.ararn;rin an;l fnarawore spanouj\oune bazafa\t;lou famar! :rkou na.ararn;rn iskou\n ou[orw;l ;n Stamboul! Hrdo[ane .ore w,tow n,;l h% or ar\ounot ];q;rn a\s angam fas;l ;n Dinqin! A\s far]akoumn% i d;ms Frant Dinqi% katarw;l h m;r bolori d;m% ou[[wa h m;r miasnouj\an ka\ounouj\an d;m! Dinqi spanouj\oune sae znzou[i axd;zouj\oun oun;zaw na jourqakan mamouli n;rka\azouzicn;ri wra! Nranq% a\d jwoum fanra\in f;oustat;souj\oune% Reuters-e int;rn;ta\in h=;roum iskou\n ar]aganq;l ;n mi=ad;pin! Nranz ;n miaz;l na CNN-e% BBC-n a\l mi=axga\in lratwakan mi=ozn;r! Axgi f;t xrou\zoum Marmara j;rji gl.awor .mbagir ob;r Fatt;y\ane n,;z% or ir;nq .orap;s znzwa ;n spanouj\ouniz! In] baro\alqwa% fousa.ab ;m xgoum! A\s ;rkroum fanra\in kariqe patrast hr .ixa. mtq;r ls;lou! Est ob;r Fatt;y\ani^ Frant Dinqi spanouj\oune farwa hr fa\ fama\nqin% Jourqia\in% .osqi axatouj\ane! Frant Dinqe nw;l h 1954 jwakanin Malajia\oum Stambouli famalsarani ,r=anawart h! 1961 j& entaniqe t;[a'o.w;l h Stamboul! 1996 j& apriliz Dinqn Aksi gl.awor .mbagirn hr! Dinqin jourqakan ardaradatouj\oune f;tapnd;l h famar]ak fa\azqn;ri famar! Na 2005 j& jourq;ri inqnouj\oune wirawor;lou famar datapartw;l hr 6 amswa axataxrkman! Saka\n da c.angar;z nran% or ,arounaki bar]ra]a\n .os;l Fa\oz z;[aspanouj\an masin! W;r=in ,er=anoum faya.aki hin jourq axga\namoln;ri spanaliqn;re nra nkatmamb! Est Fakob Caqr\ani Adaptation from AZG Armenian Daily #010, 20/01/2007

OUSASTANI NA>AGAFI RINAKOW Ma\isi 17-in o usastani ma\raqa[aqi Qristos Am;na'rkic tayaroum Moskwa\i Fama\n ousio patriarq Al;qsi\ B-i Art;kri ous ou[[a'a ;k;[;zou aa=nord N\ou |orqi mitropolit Lawri mi= knqw;z ou srbagorw;z mi fama]a\nagir (Kanonakan miabanman kam fa[ordouj\an [communion] akt)% ore ou,agraw ;rou\j h na m;x^ fa\;ris famar! "astor;n a\d aktow fa=o[ouj\amb psakw;zin 1991 j&-iz^ >orfrda\in Miouj\an 'louxoumiz i w;r ous ou[[a'a ;k;[;zou ;rkou fatwan;ri mi= skswa w;r=in ;r;q tarin;rin pa,tonakan bnou\j staza banakzouj\ounn;re! ous ;k;[;zou paaktoumn sksw;l hr 1917 j& bol,ik\an f;[a'o.ouj\amb^ zari ou nra g;rdastani andamn;ri gendakafarouj\ane f;ta iradar]ouj\ounn;row% ousastanoum pa,tonakan aj;ixmi fastatoumow! ous ;k;[;zou N\ou |orqi j;me f;taga\oum art;rkri a\l j;m;r ir;nz anfnaxandouj\ounn hin fa\tn;l ousastani patriarqouj\ane% isk 1927 j&-in% ;rb ousio S;rgi\ patriarqe ;k;[;zin katar\al ocncazoumiz 'rk;lou mtafogouj\amb pa,tonap;s ir fawatarmouj\ounn hr fa\tn;l komounistakan kaawarouj\ane% kap;rn ambo[=owin .xw;l hin ;rkou fatwan;ri mi=% an=at\al fatwan ir;n fa\tarar;l hr ous ou[[a'a fawatqi miak pa,tpane! Storagrwa fama]a\nagire art;rkri ous ;k;[;zoun w;rapafoum h n;rqin% n\oujakan% warcakan a\l irawasouj\ounn;r^ inqnawarouj\an t;sqow! Saka\n% m\ous ko[miz% ;k;[;zou m;kouj\oun h apafowoum ousastani patriarqi makani n;rqo% w;r=inis w;rapaf;low art;rkri ;k;[;zou fowwap;ti entrouj\oune fastat;lou (k;t 4)% art;rkri j;m;ri louarman kaxmaworman oro,oumn;rin fama]a\n;lou (k;t 6)% j;makan aa=nordn;ri (fa\rap;tn;ri) entrouj\oune waw;razn;lou (k;t 7)% ;k;[;zakan araro[ouj\ounn;ri enjazqoum aa=ini^ ousio patriarqi anoune fi,;lou (k;t 9)% m\ouone ousio patriarqiz stanalou (k;t 13) a\l karoragou\n irawasouj\ounn;r! Fama]a\nagri go\azman ka\azman goroum wyakan hr ousastani na.agafi d;rakataroume% ore na.agaf;z fama]a\nagri storagrman araro[ouj\oune storagr;louz aa= .acaknqw;z srbapatk;re fambour;z! Na am;nin cjaqzr;z% endfakaakn^ am;n ]ow endg;z p;touj\an an]amb ir d;re ;k;[;zou w;ramiaworman goroum! :w a\d d;rn h% or p;tq h n;rka\oums rinak na.a,awi[ dana fa\ ;k;[;zou w;ramiaworman famar! Sa a\n aije ch .oranalou fa\ ;k;[;zou paaktman patyan;ri m;=% w;rstin baz;lou fin w;rq;r% fakaak or dranq d; ar\ounafosoum ;n! Ba\z iskakan aijn h endg;lou m;r p;takan i,.anouj\ounn;riz an]amb fanrap;touj\an na.agafiz aknkalwo[ drakan ou gornakan mi=amtouj\an anfrav;,touj\oune! :j; baxmamilion ous vo[owrdi miasnouj\an famar ;k;[;zou miouj\oune karor h% apa fa\ vo[owrdi famar^ aaw;l s! Est Fakob Aw;tiq\ani Adaptation from AZG Armenian Daily #112, 15/06/1991

LOUR:R D:SIZ OU D:NIZ :R:WAN! 2007 j& founisi 15-in Ma\r Ajo H=mianoum Am;na\n fa\oz kajo[ikos Gar;gin B-n endoun;l h krjouj\an% gitouj\an% axga\in 'oqramasnouj\ounn;ri kroni gow FF na.agafi .orfrdakanin kiz st;[wa marmni andamn;rin^ na.agafi .orfrdakan S;rgo :riz\ani gl.aworouj\amb! Fandipmane n;rka ;n ;[;l Fa\astani ousakan% qrdakan% fr;akan% asorakan% oukrainakan% b;laousakan% l;fakan% wrazakan founakan fama\nqn;ri n;rka\azouzicn;r! <norfakalouj\oun fa\tn;low w;fa'a fa\rap;tin^ krjouj\an% gitouj\an% axga\in 'oqramasnouj\ounn;ri kroni gow na.agafi .orfrdakan S;rgo :riz\ane n,;l h% or W;fa'ae oc mia\n tarb;rouj\oun ci dr;l% a\l xorazr;l h vo[owourdn;ri bar;kamouj\an ogin! Am;na\n fa\oz kajo[ikosn hl ir f;rjin fordor;l h axga\in 'oqramasnouj\ounn;rin pafpan;l axga\in dimagie ibr fawatarim qa[aqazin;r an;l kar;lin i barrouj\oun Fa\astani! "ARIX! In] famar m; patiw hr stanal ];r ,norfaworanqe ~ransia\i na.agaf entrw;lou kapakzouj\amb% - asoum h ~ransia\i na.agaf Nikola Sarkoxin M;i Tan Kilikio kajo[ikos Aram Aa=inin f[a namakoum i nra ,norfaworakan ou[;r]i ~ransia\i na.agafi pa,tonoum entrw;lou kapakzouj\amb! :s kan;m fnarawor am;n inc fa\ `ransiazi vo[owourdn;ri mi= darawor bar;kamouj\an amrapndman famar! ~ransia\i na.agafn endg;l h% or ~ransia\i w;rab;rmounqe fa\ vo[owrdi fand;p an'o'o. kmna! :s xgazwa ;m Fa\oz z;[aspanouj\an farzoum ~ransia\i na.agafi dirqoro,man aijow nra fasz;in aswa ];r .osq;riz famoxwa ;m% or Jourqia\i ko[miz Fa\oz z;[aspanouj\an yanacoume a\d ;rkri baro\akan partakanouj\ounn h! Fawastiaznoum ;m ];x% or aa=ika\oum s nou\nqan wyakan kgor;m a\d ou[[ouj\amb! KAFIR:! A\srwa drouj\amb arabakan a,.arfi bnakcouj\oune kaxmoum h 331 milion% fa[ord;l h :giptosi M;na lratwakan gorakalouj\oune^ wka\akoc;low arabakan p;touj\ounn;ri liga\i tnt;sakan komit;i x;kouzagire! Endsmin bnakcouj\an ayi t;mp;re tar;kan 3 tokosiz aw;li ;n (1%7 tokos)!;soumn;ri fama]a\n^ 2000 jwakanin arabakan ;rkrn;ri endfanour bnakcouj\oune kfasni 400 milioni! DPROZAKANN:RE SAFMAN :N ANZNOUM! >orfrda\in safmanapafn;re >abarowski cors dprozakann;ri bn;l ;n safmann anzn;lis! Nranziz am;nam;e 12 tar;kan h!;re fand;r]aworwa ;n ;[;l incp;s farkn h^ qart;xn;row% ko[mnazou\z;row% snndamj;rqn;row! Nranz npatakn h ;[;l fasn;l cinakan <aoulin m;nastane^ ou,ou sowor;lou famar! SIDNI! W;r=;rs ;mbrandti B;f;[x;bou[e Dawij jagawori namake kar381

dalis ktawe anspas;lior;n graw;z awstraliazi bvi,kn;ri ou,adrouj\oune! A\n% ince arw;stas;rn;ri famar dasakan ;mbrandt h% bvi,kn;ri famar dasakan qa[zk;[ h% - as;l h nranziz m;ke! :xrakazouj\an aije B;f;[x;bou[i ]a. krqin qa[zk;[i parx ;razo[ a.tan,ann;rn ;n! Or bvi,kn;re yi,t ;n nkat;l^ 'ast h! ;mbrandti bnordoufin ;[;l h nra kine^ F;ndrik; So`;lse% ore qa[zk;[iz mafaz;l h ktawi st;[oumiz ine tari anz^ 36 tar;kan fasakoum! B:LGRAD! Farawslawia\i arqouniqi aqsorwa jagavaange aa=in angam p;tq h a\z;li ir fa\r;niqe% orowf;t ,at mtafog h a\nt;[ awalwa iradar]ouj\ounn;row! I,.an Al;qsandre B;lgrad kvamani fokt;mb;ri 5-in k'or]i .a[a[ouj\an banakzouj\ounn;r war;l fakamart ko[m;ri f;t! Fi,;nq% or Farawslawia\i arqouniqe aqsorw;l hr d;s 1941-in! G|OU{AZIN:RI KARIQE! A\n farzin% j; anz\ali qa[aqakan goricn;riz ow h aaw;l famakr;li ous g\ou[azin;ri famar% m;amasnouj\oune tw;l h Mal;nkowi axganoune^ patyaaban;low% or 50-akan jwakann;ri k;s;rin na xgalior;n joulazr;z fark;re endar]ak;z tnam;r] fo[amas;ri jou\latr;li safmann;re! :rkrord t;[oum fa\tnw;l h &&& L;onid Br;vne! N,w;l h nra wastake fasarakouj\an ka\ounouj\an goroum! Goro[ qa[aqakan goricn;riz mrzakiz ci oun;z;l oc anfa\t Virinowskin! Sa hl bar]r patwi h arvanaz;l wyakanouj\an ir npatakin fasn;lou kam famar! qi MOSKWA! <arounakwoum h L;nini fou,ar]ann;ri p[oume! Incp;s fa\tn;zin ousastani n;rqin gor;ri na.ararouj\an mamlo k;ntroniz% gostosi 26-in L;ningradoum Wasil\an k[xou gorkomi ,;nqi motaka ar]anin kanac n;rk ;n lzr;l% Kostow qa[aqoum Nivni Nowgorodi marxi Prawdinsk awanoum L;ninin n;rk;l ;n spitak gou\now% isk Saratowi marxi :kat;rinowka awanoum^ d;[in gou\now! NIG:RIA! Nig;ria\i pr;xid;nt g;n;ral Ibrafim Baba=idan armt\an p;touj\ounn;riz pafan=oum h fatouz;l a\n wnase% or A`rika\in patya;l h sterkawayaouj\oune! Na fa\tarar;l h% or aw;li qan 30 mln a`rikazin;ri strkazoumow h m;ap;s pa\manaworwa A`rika\i f;tamnazouj\oune% mincd; na.kinoum :wropan A`rikan gr;j; fawasar makardak ;n oun;z;l! PR:TORIA! 1991 j&-i grakan lawagou\n st;[agorouj\an famar Nob;l\an mrzanake ,norfw;l h Farawa\in A`rika\i bnakcoufi% spitakamorj gro[ Nadin Gordim;rin!


M>IJAR GO< (1140-1213)

Mi angam ast[;re vo[ow ar;zin! Nranziz ;ragou\nn asaz& M;nq ,at ;nq& inco#u lousni ar;gaki ';n gi,;r ou z;r;k c;nq lousaworoum! M;k ouri,e;z& Orowf;t miaworwa c;nq! :w oro,;zin miaworw;low^ na. fa[j;l ar;gakin! Ba\z fankar ag;z lousine% nranq .amr;zin! S raniz or a\sp;s .amr;zinq% asazin nranq% fapa i#nc klin;inq% ;j; ar;gake ag;r! :w x[=alow .ostowan;zin ir;nz partouj\oune! >ratoum h aaks% j; jou\l;re% incqan hl jwow ,at lin;n% c;n karo[ana fa[j;l fxorin!

Ga\le ;ranalow gnoum h oc.ari foti mot ou asoum& A\vm apa,.aro[ ;m ,at ;m ];x w,tazr;l% ousti ouxoum ;m gal ];r tan maqro[e danal% orp;sxi jo[ouj\an arvananam ];r manoukn;rin ouri, ga\l;riz s pafpan;m! :w oura.analow oc.arn;re ,n;rin asoum ;n& A\ls mi n;[;q nran! Ga\le mnoum h a\dt;[% famb;roum% minc m;anoum ;n gan;re% apa sksoum h fo,ot;l out;l nranz! I w;r=o ,at;re% nkat;low a\d% satk;znoum ;n nran! Aaks a\spisi .rat h talis& ,out cfawatal caragorin!


Nn;nin jx;nin kam;zan sirow kapw;l mim\anz ou ;rdw;zin qa[zrouj\amb% ba\z nn;nou jjwouj\an patyaow ]an]razaw jx;nin% nranz da,inqe;z! Aakis imastn a\n h% or siro[n;re na. p;tq h 'or];n mim\anz barq;re% j; bolor ko[m;row nma#n ;n irar% isk ;j; oc^ f;,touj\amb k.a.twi s;re!


}kn;rin m;[adr;z nranz jagawore& Inco#u ;q outoum ];xniz manr ]kn;rin! Famar]akouj\oun stanalow^ ]kn;re patas.anoum ;n& Orowf;t q;xniz sowor;zinq! <at;re ;kan q;x ;rkrpag;lou% klan;low^ q;x k;rakour dar]rir! Est a\dm^ ir;nq s fandougn ;[an! Aaks fandimanoum h% or oc j; .osqow% a\l gorow p;tq h .rat;l!

Mi angam Galianose dasa.osouj\oun h kardoum marmni ao[=ouj\an masin^ as;low! :j; mard xgou\, lini out;lou .m;lou m;=% m;r bv,kouj\an kariqe ci xga! A\s ls;low^ mi mard o*c outoum h% o*c .moum! Draniz na anr fiwandanoum h j,namanoum Galianosin! Imanalow a\d^ Galianosn asaz& O@w anmit mard% cgit;#s dou% or m;nq bnouj\an ararice c;nq% a\l gnakane! Inco#u cfaskazar .osqis imaste% or yi,t warw;ir! A\s rinakiz soworoum ;nq% or ou,adrouj\amb p;tq h ls;l imastounn;ri ou bvi,kn;ri .osqe .ousa';l a\raf;[ouj\ounn;riz^ * aaw;liz% * nwaxiz% orowf;t ;rkou d;pqoum hl cariq ka!


WARDAN A|G:KZI (1170-1235)

Mi a\ou kor\oun n;z% fawaqw;zin k;ndanin;re^ kor\ounin t;sn;lou oura.analou! A[w;sn ;kaw fand;si vamanak baxmouj\an m;= a\ouin;z bar]ra]a\n ou anarg;z% j; a#\d h qo xorouj\oune% or noum ;s mia\n m;k kor\oun oc baxmajiw! A\oue fandartabar;z asaz& A\o% ;s noum ;m mi kor\oun% ba\z a\ou ;m noum oc q;x nman a[w;s!


Mi i,.an kar .ist car ou aniraw! :w nou\n qa[aqoum aproum hr mi a\ri kin% i,.ane% fark pafan=;low% n;[oum hr nran% a\ri kinn a[ojoum hr% or i,.ann oun;na .a[a[ ou ;rkar k\anq! Gnazin% asazin i,.anin^ qo carouj\an famar a[ojoum h a\rin! :w i,.ane ;kaw ou asaz& :s q;x bariq c;m ar;l% o@w kin% dou in] famar inco#u ;s a[ojoum! A\ri kinn asaz& Qo fa\re wat mard hr% ;s ani;zi% na m;aw! Dou nst;zir nra t;[e^ aw;li .ist car! :w a\vm wa.;noum ;m% or m;n;s% qo ordin q;xniz aw;li car lini!


Mi imastoun a[qat mard oun;r ou\l ordin;r! Mafwan vamin na kanc;z ordin;rin asaz& O@w xawakn;r% im na.nin;re ,at gan] ;n ja[;l m;r a\goum% ;s zou\z c;m ta nra t;[e! A\d gan]e kgtni na% ow ,at a,.ati .or 'ori! :w for mafiz f;to ordin;rn sks;zin a,.at;l m; ;andow .orn hin waroum% orowf;t \ouraqanc\ourn a,.atoum hr% or inqe gtni gan]e! :w a\gin sks;z ay;l xoranal aat b;rq tw;z nranz farstazr;z gan];row!


:{:GNE :W A:RE
Mi jagawor xbosanqi ;law^ ,r=;lou l;n;roum fowitn;roum! :w t;saw% or m;am; a;r ka\in kotrtwa ou ',rwa% mia\n m;k ;[;g kar^ kangoun% anarat! :w jagaworn asaz& O@w ;[;gn% asa* in]% j; incp;s fastatoun ;s mnaz;l% ;rb m;am; a;r ',rw;l ;n! :w ;[;gn asaz& O@w jagawor% ;rb sastik fo[m bar]razaw% a;re fpartouj\amb fakaak kangn;zin fo[mi d;m% fo[me nranz ',r;z% isk ;s .onarfw;zi fo[mi kam qow afa kangoun ;m!

Mi imastoun xinwor pat;raxm hr gnoum% na ;rkou otqow ka[ hr! :w xinworn;riz m;kn asaz& O@w o[orm;li% o#ur ;s gnoum! Q;x iskou\n kspan;n% orowf;t 'a.c;l c;s karo[! :w na asaz& O@w anmit% ;s c;m gnoum pat;raxm^ 'a.c;lou% a\l kangn;lou% kw;lou fa[j;lo*u!

:k;[;zin par;zaw \our srbouj\amb aaz& :s ;m tayarn Astou% d;pi in] ;n galis qafanan;re vo[owourde^ a[ojq matouz;lou Astoun patarag% fa,twoum h Astwa a,.arfi f;t% m;[q;rin jo[ouj\oun h linoum! A\n vamanak =ra[azn asaz ;k;[;zoun& Inc or dou asoum ;s% ardar h y,marit% ba\z dou im ;ra.tiqe mi moana% or gi,;r-z;r;k a,.atoum ;m a[oum a\n% inc outoum ;n qafanan;re vo[owourde apa q;x ;n galis a[oj;lou ;rkrpag;lou Astoun!



Mi mard korzr;l hr h,e! Na mormoqalow a\s ou a\n ko[m hr ,r=oum% 'ntroum ou chr gtnoum! Fandipoum h na mi ga\li! O@w ;[ba\r% farznoum h marde% korzr;l ;m im i,ouke% c;#s gt;l! :[ba@ r% qo h,e ;s ;m gt;l% patas.anoum h ga\le! \ B;@r% or qo gtn;lou war]e tam! O@w mard% asoum h ga\le% qo h,e ti[mi m;= hr .rw;l! :s ;r;q r carcarw;zi% faxiw karo[aza fan;l! Git;i% or a[qat mard ;s% in] war]afatou\z lin;l chir karo[% war]i t;[e h,d k;ra!

Mi jagawor ir xorqow yanaparf hr gnoum! Na ;rkou sourb fa\r;ri t;saw gar,;li fagoustow! Jagawore i=aw nvou\giz .onarfw;low fambour;z nranz! Xorawarn;re sks;zin trtn=al% j; a\s jagawore ir m;am;n;rin patiw ci talis% cncin mardkanz m;aroum h! Jagaworn imanalow frama\;z cors sndouk sarq;l& ;rkouse^ artaqoust g;[;zik ou qandakaxard^ li a[bow ou awaxow% isk m\ous ;rkouse^ artaqoust tfay% kprot% m;=e li oskow ou margartow! :w kanc;low bambaso[ i,.ann;rin^ jagaworn asaz& Gnafat;z;*q entr;z;*q cors knqa ast[;riz orn ouxoum ;q! Nranq entr;zin g;[;zikn;re banalow t;san% or lzwa ;n a[bow ou awaxow% xe[=azin! Jagaworn asaz& A\dp;s ;q na\oum ;r;sin pa\a fagoustin a\n mardou% or n;rqoust li h a[t;[ouj\amb! Isk a\s sourb fa\r;re% oronz fandip;zi% artaqoust hin a[tot% isk n;rqoust^ li fogou ,norfow!

Omn a[qat mard mi ktor mis hr .orowoum anmardabnak wa\roum! :w afa mi ariw fankaraki slazaw w;riz% fa',tak;z misn ou bar]razn;low^ taraw! A[qate% g;tnin ;r;si wra enka% laz ;[aw^ as;low& Cwa\;l;@s! Ariwe taraw misn ir bou\ne% dr;z ]ag;ri a= ou inqe gnaz! Mi ka\% or kpa hr mnaz;l msin% a\r;z arwi bou\nn ou ]ag;rin!


Mi ;rkri jagawor wa.yanw;l hr! :w ;rb i,.ann;rn ou na.ararn;re ir;nziz m;kin jagawor entr;lou famar miabanouj\an chin galis% mi ,inakani ordou karg;zin jagawor! Isk nra fa\re% galow palat t;sn;low ir ordoun jagaworakan fand;r]n;ri m;=% farznoum h nran& Ord\a@k% yanaco#um ;s in]! Incp;#s karo[ ;m yanac;l% patas.anoum h ordin% ;rb i*n] c;m yanacoum!


Parsawoum hr bax;n fawin ou asoum& Inco#u a\dp;s an,norfakal ;s qo tiro= nkatmamb% inco#u ;s xgou,anoum nraniz! C;#s t;snoum in]% wa\r;ni lin;low fand;r]% f;nz or t;rs souloum kam ];qi ,arvoumow kancoum h% anmi=ap;s mot;noum ;m nran! Isk dou j; nw;l ou snw;l ;s nra tan m;=% ba\z .ousa'oum ;s nraniz! <am'ourn ;m fi,oum% orowf;t m;xaniz ,at;rin .orow;zin% isk bax;n;riz^ oc m;kin! Orqan or ;s faw ;m t;s;l ,am'ouri wra% o@w jcounn;ri arqa% ;j; dou g;j mi bax; t;sn;ir% karoum ;m% or andar] kf;ana\ir mardouz% ;j; faxar angam famox;in ou baxoum pargn;r .ostana\in% dar]\al chir fama]a\ni ;njarkw;l nra kancin!


Jagawori palatoum aa\o[ ;rkou i,.an at;low atoum hin irar! Mi angam% kam;nalow 'or];l nranz% jagaworn asaz& >ndr;z;*q in]aniz% inc or ouxoum ;q! Ba\z imaz;*q% m;ki .ndrai dimaz m\ousin krknakin piti tam! Jagawo*r% farznoum h m; i,.ane% inc or .ndr;m% im pa,tonakiz i,.anin ;rko#use ktas! A\o*% inc or .ndr;s% kan;m% asoum h jagawore! M; i,.ane mtaoum h& :j; ;s mi qa[aq oux;m% kta! Ba\z im enk;ro=e ;rkouse kfasni% sirts kpa\ji! Jagawo*r% dimoum h na% q;xaniz .ndroum ;m% or im m;k acqe fan;s! Jagawore frama\;z fan;l m; i,.ani acq;riz m;ke! Parx h% or]otn ir an]in aw;li j,nami h% qan ouri,n;ri!

Mi mard ir kno= f;t anznoum hr fn]a arti motow! T;sno#um ;s% orqan g;[;zik ou law h fn]a arte% asoum h na kno=e! Oc j; fn]a h% a\l .ouxa h% fakayaoum h kine amousnoun! Qani amousinn asoum h^ fn]a h% kine j;^ ch% .ouxa h! Barkanalow^ amousine kno=e n;toum h =oure! :w qani or kinn a\ls chr karo[ .os;l% ousti fanoum h ];qe =riz dours ou% ;rkou matn;re mkrati p;s ,arv;low% minc m;n;le pndoum% j; arte .ouxa h!


"i[n ir ordoun fan]n;z Platonin^ imastasirouj\oun ousan;lou! :w ousouzice fan]narar;z a,ak;rtin coq;l lsaranoum% isk na ckaro[azaw! Patwir;z na% or glou.e .onarfi g;tnin% a\d s ckaro[azaw! Platone a\n vamanak ;t w;radar]r;z nran fore asaz& Arvani h% or qo ordin jagawori palatoum lini^ mi,t otqi kangna^ oc im lsaranoum% qani or o*c nst;l karo[ h o*c glou. .onarf;l!


Mi mard toun hr ,inoum! "oroum hr tan fim qe% ,aroum a[\ousow% isk a[\ousi wra ,aroum hr qar! I#nc ;s anoum% ;[ba\r% asoum h m;ke% p;tq h n;rqoum qare ,ar;l% w;roum^ a[\ouse! Patrastwoum ;m amousnanalou% ia[;low patas.anoum h tant;re% kins or ga% minou\n h% ,ou h talou toune% pat;re kou[[w;n!

Bab;loni jagawore m; xorabanakow qa[aq mtn;lis t;saw mi ;rounou% or armaw;ni hr tnkoum! O@w ;rouni% asoum h jagawore% inco#u ;s tnkoum! Ch# or da

qaasoun tari f;to piti ptou[ ta% isk dou a\sr-wa[e gnalou ;s! Jagawo@r%;z ;rounin% mi mard tnk;l hr armaw;ni% ;s wa\;l;zi ptou[e% ;s hl tnkoum ;m% or m;k ouri,e wa\;li! Tw;*q nran faxar dram% frama\oum h jagaworn ir ;njakan;rin% orowf;t bari lawa.of mard h! W;rzn;low drame^ ;rounin gof ;[aw yakatagriz! Inco#u gof ;[ar% farznoum h jagawore! Orowf;t% patas.anoum h ;rounin% am;n a tnko[ qaasoun tarin lranalouz f;to h wa\;loum% isk ;s a\sr wa\;l;zi!


Mi r gostos ka\srn imazaw% or Fom h vaman;l mi tarakan% ore am;n incow ,at nman h ir;n! Ka\sre kanc;z nran ir mot ou t;sn;low^ ,at oura.azaw! Nranq mi qic xrouz;zin% a\nouf;t ka\sre farzr;z& Fors vamanakn;roum ard\oq ma\rd ;k;#l h Fom! Ma\rs^ oc%;z tarakane% ba\z fa\rs ,at angam h Fom ;k;l!


Mi ,at vlat ou faroust mard marmar qariz patrast;l h talis ir ar]ane! Zou\z talow qandake bar;kamn;riz m;kin^ na farznoum h& Incp;#s h qandakwa% nma#n h ard\oq in]! :*w fogow% * marmnow ,at nman h q;x% patas.anoum h bar;kame!

M;afaroust mi mard% or ,at hr ]an]ranoum% kanc;z n,anawor bvi,kn;ri darman .ndr;z ir anbouv;li a.tin! Gitnakann;re mia]a\n fa\tarar;zin% j; ba.tawor mi mardou ,apike mia\n karo[ hr ir;n bouv;l! Fiwande spasaworn;r ou[ark;z am;n ko[m% or 'ntr;n% gtn;n b;r;n a\d fra,agor ,apike%& ba\z bolorn hl ];nouna\n fousafat w;radar]an! M;k ba.tawor g\ou[azi hin mia\n gt;l% a\n hl ,apik coun;r!



Mi jagawor ir jagaworouj\an k;se talis h w;xirin! Mi r hl jaqoun na\oum h% t;snoum% or w;xirn ir gan]araniz mi oski go[azaw! Mtaoum h& Jagaworouj\ouns sra f;t falal k;s ;m ar;l% hs mardoun i#ncn h stipoum% or im gan]araniz mi oski h go[anoum! W;xirin kancoum h ir mot% asoum& W;xi*r% q;x tasnfing r vamanak ;m talis% ma*n ari% gti*r% ;k in] asa*% j; i#ncn h a,.arfqoum watiz hl wate! Or casazir% q;x ka. ;m talou! W;xire gnoum h tasn rwa m;= ambo[= ;rkire pttoum% sran-nran farzou'or] anoum% oc m;kn hl ci kar;noum ta! Tasn riz f;to galis h jagawori mot% asoum& Jagawo*rn apra k;na% ,at ;m man ;k;l% farzou'or] ar;l% imazo[ cka! Jagawore% j;^ C;m imanoum% fing r h mnaz;l^ \a* gti% \a* ka. ;m talou! W;xire noriz h d;s-d;n enknoum% .;loq mardkanz farzou'or] anoum% fnar ci linoum% c;n gtnoum patas.ane! Hsp;s fou\se ktra w;radanoum h! Mi fandi mi=ow anz k;nalis t;snoum h^ mi coban% oc.arn aa=n ara% ara;znoum h! Ko[qown anznoum h% bar ci talis! Or mi qic gnoum h% cobane ];n h talis& A*\ yambord% ;s ;r mard ;m% ko[qows anz kazar% inci# bar ctwir! W;xirn asoum h& F;nz im dardn ou zaws q;x bar ta@ n hr &&& l _ Dard ou zawd i#nc h% asoum h cobane% patmi t;nam% balqi kar;nam gn;m! Hnqa@n imastoun% .;loq mardkanz mot ;m gnaz;l% c;n kar;z;l mi ban an;n% dou i#nc piti an;s% asoum h w;xire! I#nc ka or% asa*% gouz; kar;nam mi banow gn;l% asoum h cobane! W;xire patmoum h& :s hsinc jagawori w;xirn ;m! Jagawore ir ;rkri k;se in] hr tw;l% mi r hl nra gan]araniz mo oski go[aza! Fimi tasnfing r vamanak h tw;l% as;l h^ gna pttir% man ari% farzou'or] ara% in] b;r% j; incn h a,.arfqoum watiz hl wate! Hs tasnfingn rn anz h k;noum% am;n t;[ man ;m ;k;l% farzou'or] ar;l% c;m karo[anoum hd farzi patas.ane gtn;m! Cobann asoum h& W;xi*r% afa*% ya[;ri tak tawari a[b ka% fawaqir k;r% im ambo[=

oc.arn hl tam q;x^ im ';n q,i*r% hd* farzi patas.ann hl as;m! W;xirn acq h aoum cors ko[me% t;snoum h mard cka% ya[i takiz a[be fawaqoum h% outoum! Cobani oc.are fawaqoum% q,oum h% f;to hl farznoum& D;* asa% i#ncn h a,.arfqoums watiz hl wate! Agafouj\ounn ou acqaakouj\oune% patas.anoum cobane! W;xire gnoum h jagawori mot% asoum& Jagaworn apra k;na% gt;l ;m farzid patas.ane! A,.arfqis watiz hl wate agafouj\ounn ou acqaakouj\ounn h! Hd o#w h q;x hd bann as;l% farznoum h jagawore! Hsinc sari cobane% patas.anoum h w;xire! Jagawore mard h ou[arkoum% hd cobanin b;roum ;n palat% jagaworouj\an k;se talis h nran! W;xirin hl hd pa,toniz fanoum ou f;aznoum palatiz!


Mard ou kin ;n linoum% ;rkousn hl ,at ou\l! Na sran h asoum^ kowe =oure tar% sa^ nran! Fama]a\nouj\an c;n galis! W;r=e pa\man ;n dnoum& Ow aa=ine .osi% na kowe tani =oure! Kine gnoum h farani toun! Marde mnoum h tane m;nak! M;k hl mi ananoj mard h mtnoum toun% bar talis! Sa ];n ci fanoum! Asoum h& Fiwa#nd ;s! Ci .osoum! Acq;rd c;#n t;snoum! Ci .osoum! Inc anoum - ci anoum^ ];n ci fanoum! Hs or t;snoum h hd ananoj marde% fawaqoum h tan ;[a-c;[ae% lznoum parke% ,alakoum-dours gnoum! Mi qic f;to kine toun h mtnoum% t;snoum h^ ocinc cka tane% am;n inc srba-tara! Xarmaza asoum h& A*\ t[a% hs m;r tan ;[a-c;[ae o#w h tar;l! Mardn hn ko[miz w;r h jcoum oura.aza% asoum& Dou aa=i*ne .os;zir% kowe do*u p;tq h tan;s =oure!

* In the Ararat-valley, and particularly in the Lori region dialects, the combination a\ contracts into an h in initial position and ; in medial position of words. Thus, words like a\s% a\d% a\n appear as hs% hd% hn and ma\r% fa\r% a\r as m;r% f;r% ;r! 392

Mi mard gnaz f;ou ;rkir^ a,.atanq an;lou% enkaw mi g\ou[! T;saw^ a\s g\ou[i mardik ];ow ;n 'a\t kotratoum! A.p;*r% asaw% inco#u ;q ];ow 'a\t anoum% mi#j; kazin coun;q! Kazinn i#nc ban h% farzrin g\ou[aziq! Marde ir kazine gotkiz fan;z% 'a\te =ard;z% manr;z% dars;z m\ous ko[me! G\ou[aziq a\s or t;san% wax;zin g\ou[am;=% ]a\n twin irar& To*% ;k;*q% t;s;*q% kazin a.p;re inc araw! G\ou[aziq fawaqw;zin kazni tiro= .ndr;zin% a[ac;zin% ,at apranq twin ou kazine ];izn aan! Kazine aan% or f;rjow kotr;n ir;nz 'a\te! Aa=in re tanout;re taraw! Kazine wra b;raw j; ch^ ote ktr;z! Goalow enkaw g\ou[am;=! To*% ;k;*q% ;k;*q% kazin a.p;re kata[;l h% ots ktr;z! G\ou[aziq ;kan% fawaqw;zin% 'a\t;rn aan% sks;zin kaznin ;;l! ;;zin% t;san^ ocinc c;[aw! "a\t;re kit;zin wran% krak tw;zin! Boze bar]razaw% cors ko[me bn;z! :rb krakn i=aw% ;kan baz arin% t;san^ kazine karmr;l h! Goazin& Wa@ % t[;*q% kazin a.p;re barkaz;l h% t;s;*q^ onz h karmr;l& ort;[ \ or h% m;r mi 'or]anq kb;ri! I#nc an;nq! Mta;zin% mta;zin ou wy;zin^ tan;n bante gz;n! Taran-gz;zin tanout;ri marage! Marage liqe darman hr& gz;zin j; ch^ krakn aaw% boze ;rkinq bar]razaw! G\ou[aziq sarsa'a wax;zin tiro= ;tiz j;^ :*k% astou siroun% kazin a.pore ban faskazrou! Est Fowfann;s Jouman\ani Kazin a.p;re f;qiaji (Adaptation from Hovhannes Toumanian, 1869-1923)

Linoum h - ci linoum% mi jagawor h linoum! Hs Jagawore ir ;rkroume fa\tnoum h& Ow hnp;s sout asi% or ;s as;m^ sout h% im jagaworouj\an k;se ktam nran! Galis h mi fowiw% asoum h& Jagawo*rn apra k;na% im f;re mi daganak oun;r% or hst;[iz

m;knoum hr% ;rknqoum ast[;re .anoum! Kpatafi*% patas.anoum h jagawore! Im papn hl mi cibou. oun;r% mi ;re m;knoum% ar;gakize waoum! Sta.ose glou.e qor;low dours h gnoum! Galis h mi d;r]ak! Asoum h& N;ro[ouj\o*un% jagawo*r% ;s wa[ piti ga\i% ou,aza! :r;k ,at an]r ;kaw% ka\akn;re pa\j;zin% ;rkinqe patw;z% gnaz;l hi karkat;lou! Fa*% law ;s ar;l% asoum h jagawore% ba\z law chir karkat;l& hs aawot mi qic an]r ja'w;z! Sa hl h dours gnoum! N;rs h mtnoum mi a[qat g\ou[azi^ kote m;=qin! Do*u inc ;s ouxoum% a*\ mard% farznoum h jagawore! In] mi kot oski ;s part% ;k;l ;m tan;m! Mi kot oski#% xarmanoum h jagawore! So*ut ;s asoum% ;s q;x oski partakan c;m! Ch*% ch*% y,marit ;s asoum% .osqe 'o.oum h jagawore! Y,marit ;m asoum^ mi kot oskin tour! Est Fowfann;s Jouman\ani Soutasane f;qiaji (Adaptation from Hovhannes Toumanian, 1869-1923)

Vamanakin mi mard ou knik ;n linoum! Hs mard ou knike irar chin fawanoum! Marde knkan hr asoum fimar% knike mardoun% mi,t irar f;t kwoum hin! Mi r hl marde mi qani 'ouj ;[ ou brin] h anoum% talis h m,aki ,alake% tanoum toun! Knike barkanoum h& A*\% or asoum ;m fimar ;s% c;s fawatoum& Hsqan ;[n ou brin]e miangamiz inci# famar ;s a;l-b;r;l& ford q;l;#.n ;s talis% j;# t[id farsaniqn ;s anoum! I#nc q;l;.% i#nc farsaniq% a\ knik% i@nc ;s .osoum% tar pafi% bar;k;ndani famar! Knike fangstanoum h% tanoum h pafoum!


Anz h k;noum mi avamanak% hs knike spasoum h% spasoum h% bar;k;ndane ci galis! Mi r hl ,;m qoum nsta h linoum% t;snoum h mi mard arag-arag 'o[ozow anz h k;noum! };e dnoum h yakatin ou ];n tali& A*.p;r% a*.p;r% fala mi kangnir! T[;n kangnoum h! A*.p;r% bar;k;ndane dou fo c;#s! Anzworakane nkatoum h% or hs knka ale pakas h% asoum h& Fa% ;s ;m bar;k;ndane% qou\rik =an% i#nc ;s asoum! Hn ;m asoum% or m;nq qo aan fo c;#nq% or qo ;[n ou brin]e paf;nq! D; ari tar! Hs marde n;rs h mtnoum% sranz ;[n ou brin]e ,alakoum ou gnoum! Marde galis h toun% knikn asoum h& Fa*% hn bar;k;ndann ;kaw ou ir ban;re taraw! I#nc bar;k;ndan &&& i#nc ban;r &&& A*\ hn ;[n ou brin]e &&& Wa* qou an.;lq toune qandwi% or asoum ;m fimar ;s fimar ;s h*li &&& \ O#r ko[me gnaz! A*\ hn ko[me! Hs marde ]i h nstoum% enknoum bar;k;ndani ;tiz! Galis h fasnoum ir;n! Bari r% hs yam'owe mard ci# anz;l! Anz;l h! I#nc oun;r ,alakin! :[ ou brin]! Incqa#n vamanak klini! Bawakanin vamanak klini! Or ]in q,;m^ kfasn;#m! C;s fasni% dou^ ]iow% na^ otow! Minc qou ]in cors ote k'o.i% na ;rkou otow ,out-,out kgna! Ba incp;#s an;m! Incp;#s p;tq h an;s& ouxoum ;s% ]id jo[ in] mot% dou hl nra p;s otow waxi% gouz; fasn;s! Fa@% hd law ;s asoum! W;r h galis% ]in jo[noum sra mot ou otow yanaparf enknoum! Sa f;anoum h j; ch% bar;k;ndane b;e bar]oum h ]ioun% yam';n oum% q,oum! Hs marde otow gnoum h% t;snoum h cfasaw% ;t h danoum% t;snoum^ ]in hl cka! Galis h toun! Noriz sksoum ;n kw;l% marde^ ;[ ou brin]i famar% knike ]iou! Est Fowfann;s Jouman\ani Bar;k;ndane f;qiaji (Adaptation from Hovhannes Toumanian, 1869-1923)


Linoum h% ci linoum^ mi aqlor h linoum! Hd aqlore qou=ou= an;lis mi oski h gtnoum! Ktourn h bar]ranoum ou kancoum& ou[rou[o@u% 'o[ ;m gt;@ &&& l Jagawore lsoum h% ir naxir-w;xirin frama\oum h^ gnan% .l;n-b;r;n! Naxir-w;xire gnoum ;n^ .loum-b;roum! Aqlore kancoum h& ou[rou[o@u% jagaworn in]anow apr;@z &&& Jagawore oskin ;t h talis ir naxir-w;xirin% asoum h& :*t tar;q% ir;n tw;q% j; ch a,.arfqowe min k.a\taaki hd anpitane &&& Naxir-w;xire oskin tanoum ;n% ;t talis aqlorin! Aqlorn hl ktourn h bar]ranoum& ou[rou[o@u% jagaworn in]aniz wa.;@z &&& Jagawore barkanoum h% ir naxir-w;xirin frama\oum h& Gnaz;*q% asoum h% bn;z;q hd srika\in% glou.e ktr;*q% ;';*q% b;r;q out;m% prn;m draniz! Naxir-w;xire gnoum ;n% aqlorin bnoum% or tan;n! Tan;lis kancoum h& ou[rou[o@u% jagaworn in] f\o@ur h kanc;l &&& Tanoum ;n morjoum% p[in]n ;n ko.oum% or ;';n% kancoum h& ou[rou[o@u% jagaworn in] taq-taq ba[niq h [rk;@ &&& l :'oum ;n% b;roum% jagawori aa=n ;n dnoum% kancoum h& l Jagawori f;t s;[an ;m nst;@ % ou[rou[o@u &&& Jagawore ,tapow w;rznoum h koul talis! Kokordow gnalis kancoum h& N;[-n;[ 'o[ozn;row anz ;m k;noum% ou[rou[o@u &&& Jagawore frama\oum h naxir-w;xirin^ journ;re fana patrast k;nan% or min ];n fani xark;n! Aqlore or jagawori 'orn h fasnoum% kancoum h! Lous a,.arfqoumn hi% mouj t;[n ;m enk;l% ou[rou[o@u &&& Xark;z;*q &&& frama\oum h jagawore! Naxir-w;xire xarkoum ;n% talis ;n jagawori 'ore patoum! Aqlore dours h prnoum% 'a.coum h% ktouri wra kangnoum h ou kanncoum& ou[rou[o@u &&& Est Fowfann;s Jouman\ani Anfa[j aqlore f;qiaji (Adaptation from Hovhannes Toumanian, 1869-1923)



Vamanakow Ar;lqi mi fra,ag;[ a,.arfoum ardaramit ou .;lazi mi jagawor h ;[;l! Na oun;z;l h ;r;q ordi! Mi r kanc;l h ordin;rin as;l& S ir;li* ordin;r% t;sno#um ;q% or ];r fa\re ;raz;l h ou hl ci karo[ ;rkire kaawar;l! :s wa[ouz i=a klin;i im gafiz% ;j; katarwa t;sn;i a\n mitqe% or ;rkar tarin;r pa,ar;l h fogis% ];xaniz ow or karo[ana imastoun k;rpow lou;l im a\d mitqe% na kstana im jage% na kkaawari im vo[owrdin! Apra@ k;na m;r sir;li fa\re! Sourb h m;x famar nra w;f kam qe! A\d i@nc m; mitq h% or ci karo[az;l lou;l nra imastoun fogin! Afa t;snoum ;q a\d afagin ou m;aawal ,t;marane% or wa[ouz ,in;l ;m! Im 'a'agn hr a\d lzn;l a\npisi mi banow% or am;napitanin lin;r a,.arfis ;r;sin% orow karo[ana\i ba.tawor dar]n;l im vo[owrdin! A\d ,t;marane d; mnoum h datark% fima% ow ];xaniz karo[ana a\n a\r;a\r lzn;l a,.arfi a\d am;napitani banow% jo[ na arvani lini gafin! A;*q gan];rizs incqan or koux;q aan]in-aan]in ou[i enk;q qa[aq;qa[aq% a,.arf;a,.arf& gt;*q a\d bane lzr;q im ,t;marane! Ordin;re fambour;zin for ];qe yanaparf enkan! Ambo[= ;r;q angam qaasoun r nranq ,r=;zin a,.arf;a,.arf% t;san ouri, mardik% barq;r ou vamanakin ;kan kangn;zin for a=! Barow ;q ;k;l% angi*n ordin;rs! Gt;#l ;q ard\oq b;r;#l% inc or am;napitani bann h a,.arfoum! A\o*% gt;l ;nq% sir;li* fa\r%;zin ordin;re! :w fa\re w;rzr;z ordin;rin ou gnazin ,t;marani doue! Jagawore baz;z doue kanc;z m; ordoun& Inco#w klzn;s a\s afagin ,t;marane% sir;li* ord\ak! I#nc banow% ore a,.arfoum am;napitanin lini! Fazow klzn;m a\s afagin ,t;marane% jankagi*n fa\r! I#ncn h a,.arfoum am;napitani bane% qan faze! O#w karo[ h aanz fazi apr;l! A\n vamanak fa\re kanc;z mi=n;k ordoun ou[[;z nou\n farze! :w mi=n;k ordin fan;z grpaniz mi bou fo[% parx;z d;pi fa\re% asaz& Fo[ow klzn;m a\s ,t;marane% jankagi*n fa\r! Aanz fo[i faz cka! Aanz fo[i o#w karo[ h apr;l! Apa fa\re dim;z krts;r ordoun minou\n farzow! Lou\sow klzn;m a\s afagin ,t;marane% imasto*un fa\r% lou\so*w mia\n! <at ja'a;zi% ,at a,.arfn;r t;sa% ba\z lou\siz anfrav;,t ocinc cgta! Lou\sn h am;napitani bane% mia\n gitouj\an lou\sow kar;li h kaawar;l a,.arfe! Apr;*s% goc;z oura.aza fa\re% q;*x h arvani im gafe% qani or lou\sow ou gitouj\amb piti lzn;s jagaworouj\ound! Est D;r;nik D;miry\ani Aw;lorde (Adaptation from Demirjian, 1877-1956)


Mi mard mi ktor tw;z n;rkararin n;rk;lou! I#nc gou\ni n;rk;m% farzr;z n;rkarare! A\np;s n;rkir% asaz patwiratoun% or lini o*c karmir% o*c d;[in% o*c kanac% o*c kapou\t% o*c s! La*w% asaz n;rkarare! :#rb gam ktore tan;lou% farzr;z ktori t;re! Ari a\npisi r% or lini o*c ;rkou,abji% o*c ;r;q,abji% o*c cor;q,abji% o*c fing,abji% o*c ourbaj% o*c ,abaj o*c hl kiraki%;z n;rkarare!


Am;n aawot a[b tano[ m;q;nan galis h m;r bak% ou warorde xange fnc;zn;low b[awoum h& Xibi@ % xibile dours b;r;@ &&& l q Kins tn;zin;rin asoum h& :s famo Saf\ani kinn ;m% in] wa\;l ch a[bi dou\le ];qis bak dours gal! :s hl famo Saf\ani ma\rn ;m% in] wa\;l ch% or farann;re a[be ];qis t;sn;n! T[as asoum h& Isk ;s Famo Saf\ani t[an ;m% inco#u p;tq h a[be ;s ja';m! Yarafat\al w;rznoum ;m a[bow li dou\ln ou asoum& :s Famo Saf\ann ;m% in] wa\;l h% or tan a[be ;s ja';m!
Klara J;rx\an% adiovpitn;r vo[owaouiz


Fa\re nsta j;rj h kardoum! Ordin das h patrastoum ko[qiz anendfat farz;r talis& Fa\ri*k% i#nc ban h wakououme! Cgit;m% asoum h fa\re ktrouk! Isk i#nc h n,anakoum ka\qh=! :s ort;[i#z imanam! Isk m[one qani# m;tr h! A\d m;ke cgit;m! Fa\rik% migouz; ;s im farz;row .angaro#um ;m q;x! Bolorowin hl o*c! Farzn;low h% or mard ban h soworoum!

Wardanik Enk;*r Margo% };x partakan ;m a\n am;ni famar% inc ;s git;m! Ousouzcoufi I@nc kariq ka ,norfakalouj\oun fa\tn;l a\dqan cncin bani famar!

Ousouzcoufi Wardanik% mi#j; im farze a\dqan dvwar h! Wardanik @% inc ;q asoum% enk;r Margo! Farze bolorowin hl dvwar ch! Patas.ann h% or dvwar h!

Enk;r Margon galis h dasaran ou asoum& A\sr ;rgi das h% ba\z nor ;rg c;nq sowor;lou! };xaniz \ouraqanc\oure ;rg;lou h mi ;rg% ore law giti! A,ak;rtn;riz ,at;re ];q ;n bar]raznoum ou ;rgoum! :rb f;rje fasnoum h Wardanikin% na fravarwoum h! Inco#u c;s ouxoum ;rg;l% farznoum h enk;r Margon! Orowf;t mia\n mi ;rg git;m% a\n hl^ ,at wat .osq;row! Isk dou ;rgi*r% ba\z wat .osq;ri ';n asa tra-la-la! Wardanikn sksoum h ;rg;l& Enk;r Margo% tra-la-la-la% q;x asoum ;m% tra-la-la-la &&&


}knors Ard;n ;r;q vam h% or in] ;q na\oum! Inco#u inqn;rd c;q 'or]oum ]ouk orsal! Dito[ Famb;rouj\oun coun;m!

I#nc ;s anoum! Namak ;m groum! O#um ;s groum! In]! I#nc ;s groum q;x! Cgit;m% or namakn stanam% kimanam!

Fa\ri*k% ;s ort;[i#z ;m ;k;l! Q;x aragiln h b;r;l! Isk qou\riki#s! <ouka\oum ;nq gn;l! Fapa ma\rike ort;[i#z h! Nran gnaz;l ;n% owiz ;n b;r;l! Isk do#u% ort;[i#z ;s ;k;l! In] antaoum ;n gt;l! Mi#j; m;r entaniqoum mi normal nwa mard cka!

Ma\ri*k% dou ort;#[ hir% ;rb ;s nw;zi! Fiwandanozoum! Isk fa\ri#ks! A,.atanqi t;[e! Our;mn oc m;kd tane chi#q% ;rb ;s nw;zi!

Dprozoum% qnnouj\ouniz f;to! Incp;#s anzaw ];r qnnouj\oune!


<at wat! 90 tokose ktrw;z! Our;mn a\dqan m;# h ];r dasarane!

Safak% ,ound la#w ,oun h! Fa% Go =an% law ,oun h% o*c facoum h% o*c koum!

O#nz ;s% Go =an% i#nc ka-cka! Inc t;snoum ;s^ ka% inc c;s t;snoum^ cka!

Afa* ;rkou .n]or% m;ke q;x% m\ouse^ qou\rikid% asaz ma\rike Lousikin! Qic anz Lousike n;rs mtaw ou asaz& Mi .n]ore k;ra! M\ouse tour qro=d! Sa imn h% mi qic aa= ;s nra .n]orn ;m k;r;l!

A,ote ouxoum h a,.atanqi endounw;l! Ba\z inqe kakaxoum h! Farznoum ;n& Mi#,t ;q kakaxoum! O-o-o-c-c-c! Mi-mi-mi-a\n .o-.o-.o-s;-s;-s;-lis!

Bv,ki endounaranoum! A,ote nor dours h galis bv,ki motiz! I#nc asaz bvi,ke% farznoum h ir;n spaso[ enk;re! S rti anbawararouj\oun% d;[na.t% ar\an yn,oum% ,aqara.t ouri, ,at ban;r &&& D; oura*. ;[ir% our;mn ,at ao[= ;s! Mard p;tq h ;rkaj\a ao[=ouj\oun oun;na% or a\d bolor fiwandouj\ounn;rin dimana!

Bv,ki endounaranoum! Ma\rn a,.atoum h fangstazn;l ir ;r;.a\in% or laz h linoum ou fravarwoum mtn;l bv,ki mot! Mi* wa.;na% bali*ks% bvi,ke q;x oci*nc ci an;lou! :j; ocinc ci an;lou% fapa inco#u ;nq ;k;l bv,kin% farznoum h ;r;.an!

Wardane f\our h gnoum enk;ro=^ Arm;ni mot! T;snoum h Arm;nin^ ,an f;t d;m-dimaz nsta% m;=t;[oum^ ,a.mati ta.take! Hd i#nc ;q anoum% farznoum h Wardane! <a.mat ;nq .a[oum! I@nc .;loq ,oun h% fianoum h Arm;ne! Hnqan hl .;loq ci! Mi,t m;k xro\ow tarwoum h!

Arm;ne f\our h gnoum enk;ro=^ Sour;ni mot! T;snoum h% or Arm;ne akwarioumiz ir miak ]ouke fan;l h ou a'i m;= h pafoum! Hd i#nc ;s anoum% farznoum h Arm;ne! }kans warv;znoum ;m =riz dours ,nc;l! Dou gi@v ;s% .;[y ]ouke ksatki% asoum h Arm;ne ou gnoum! Fa=ord re Arm;ne krkin galis h ou nou\n bann h t;snoum! T;sno#um ;s% asoum h Sour;ne! }ouks ard;n warvwoum h! A\sr 5 rop; akwarioumiz dours mnalow^ aanz =ri dimazaw! :rb mi qani r f;to Arm;ne krkin a\z;loum h enk;ro=e% ]oukn a\ls ci ;roum! Farznoum h& }oukd ort;#[ h! Tase rop; d ,nc;z% dimazaw% ba\z ;rb =oure gz;zi% .;[dw;z!



A[jamar k[xin% or fa\tni h ir wa[n=akan fi,atakn;row% tarawoum h Wana lyi farawar;l\an masoum^ faxar ouj far\our m;tr bar]rouj\an wra! Finawourz k[xin^ wij.ari k;t ]kan t;sqow% ]gwoum h farawiz f\ousis^ kanacaxard pocn ou fska glou.e d;pi w;r karkaa! Lyi f\ousisarmt\an masoum bar]ranoum h S i'ane^ glou.e m.rya ;rknqi laxouri m;=% isk nraniz qic f;ou ;roum ;n k[xin ,r=anako[ l;n;re^ Grgoun ou N;mrouje% Andokn ou owasare! Fa\ marde dar;r i w;r sir;l% gourgour;l h lourj kapou\ti mi=iz dours pra a\d kanac fangrwane% xardar;l baginn;row ou tayarn;row birt otq;riz anko. fo[i a\d pataike dar]r;l dra.tanman mi ank\oun! Aawotwa ,nk,nkan x;'\oue oulor;n .a[oum h pa[pa=oun aliqn;ri f;t% nawake faxiw nkat;li safoum h owi fa\;lanman mak;rou\ji wra! F;woum sks;l hin ouri, nawakn;r hl ;ral& owe k;ndananoum hr! Inc-or t;[iz lswoum hin m;lama[]ot ;rgi ja.ali fnc\ounn;re! Lyi mot^ bar]radir qarako' va\i wra% kangna hr mi mard^ la\n;xr gl.arkow ou ;wropakan fagoustow% aknd;t na\oum hr l;na,.arfi g;[;zkouj\ounn;rin! :wropa\i ou Asia\i ,at ;rkrn;r ,r=aga\a a\d mardn a\vm srti jrjiow hr na\oum k[xou g;[zkouj\ounn;rin! <ourj;re inc-or ;rg hin mrmn=oum% isk a= ];qe% 'oqr-inc aa= m;kna% faxiw nkat;li znzwoum hr! Jwoum hr^ ant;san;li wr]nafarwan;r hr talis% or fogou m;= afaw;t dro,mi g;[at;sil bnouj\an ;rangn;re! Ananoje "anos J;rl;m;x\ann hr! Fankar inc-or ban fi,;low^ fap,tap za i=aw qa\l;rn ou[[;z d;pi A[jamar k[xou fa\tni qara\re! Na s;pa] araf;tow anzaw a\\ami yarpkouj\amb% nra ou[;kizr^ Gaspare% chr karo[anoum fasn;l f;tiz! :rb nranq mtan qara\r% ,'ojwa kang aan& nranz jwaz^ mt;l ;n mi fo\akap tayar^ fast% o[ork s\oun;row aasta[iz gl.iwa\r ka.wa a,tanakn;row! <outow nranz acq;rn ent;lazan a[ot lou\sin% nranq parx t;san bnouj\an an];ak;rt fra,aliqn;re! Aasta[iz ka.wa hin o[kou\xi ] oun;zo[ gou\nxgou\n fanqaqar;r% fska k;ronn;r fi,;zno[ kra\in qarazoumn;r! Est Xarxand Dar\ani Ariw Waspourakani w;pi (Adaptation from Zarzand Daryan, 1912-1984)


Kamsar\ane fankarakii ;kai nman mi wa\rk\an mnaz an.os% apa noriz sks;z na\;l ir ,our=e^ t;sn;lou famar a\n% inc or g\ou[azin g\ou[ hr anwanoum! T;[e% our kang hr a;l kaqe% g\ou[ami=ow anzno[ .you[in hr! G;tine akwa hr a[bakou\t;row ajari ',ourn;row! A\d endar]ak a[b\ousi wra 'o[ozn;ri ';n enka hin inc-or ououmou anzq;r% oronz ;rkou ko[m;roum ankarg ou ,;[ zrwa hin fo[aak bar]rouj\ounn;r! Dranq g\ou[azin;ri kawa,;n f\ou[akn;rn hin^ n;[ ';[k;r oun;zo[ patoufann;row ou 'oqrik dn;row% oronq lou\sn stanoum hin ;rdikn;riz! T;sarane ap,;zouzic tpaworouj\oun hr jo[noum! Kamsar\ane lou lsoum hr tirazouin! Ouri, angam gouz; na ou,adrouj\oun cdar]n;r% arfamarf;r tirazouin% ba\z a\s angam nra bazatrouj\ounn;re lour= mtafogouj\an t;[iq twin! G\ou[n a\nqan hr qa[za ou o[orm;li% or mi kaapan chr karo[anoum k;r gtn;l ir ]i;ri famar% isk da g\ou[azin;ri anfogouj\ouniz ou an,norfqouj\ouniz h mia\n% anfnarin h nranz m;= apr;l ou gor;l! W;r=in f;touj\oune 'o.anak nran t.r;zn;lou% mi jaqoun fayou\q patya;z& ch# or .ocendotn;rn a\nqan xor;[ ;n ou anfa[jafar;li% or inqn stipwa hr drv;l \our ou.te^ ir kam qiz anka.! G\ou[r jo[n;l-f;analou nman mi mitq anzaw Kamsar\ani gl.ow% ba\z da mi zolq hr mia\n% or asoupi nman 'a\l'l;z ou anzaw wa\rk;nap;s! Nra fogou acq;re mnazin s;a a\n lousawor k;tin% ori wra grwa hr fa\ g\ou[azou barrouj\an famar a,.at;lou% tqn;lou \our wyie! <outow a\st;[ fasaw tanout;re^ mi=afasak% amrakou% .o,or dimag;row% .;lazi acq;row bar;fambou\r mi mard! Tan a[\ous; patin f;n;low ];qi 'oz.e^ an,tap mot;zaw f\ourin% qa[zravpit o[=oun;z% farzr;z nra ao[=ouj\ouniz% ou[orouj\an fangamanqn;riz fa\tn;z \our ,norfakalouj\oune% or na ,norf hr ar;l \our tane f\ourenkalw;lou! Kamsar\ane fa\tn;z ir ow lin;le% asaz% or yanaparford;lou npatakow h a\vm gtnwoum Cibou.lououm! Est Mourazani Aaq\ale wipaki (Adaptation from Muratsan, 1854-1908)

Mi r^ a,nane% P;trose kaqow bvi,k hr tanoum fiwand kno= famar! Mot qaasoun tar;kan t[amard hr na^ al;.an max;row% ga=i p;s gounat d;m qow% .ofoun% t.our acq;row! A,nana\in j.pot r;riz m;kn hr& ampama ;rknqiz anendfat ma[oum hr an]re^ mialar% srtama,% ta[tkali! de fag;za hr minc oskorn;re ja'anzo[ ana.orv .onawouj\amb! "o[ozi lyaza k;[tot z;.a=oure d;soud;n ,prt;low^ kaqe gnaz-kang aaw m .ar.oul tan rndar]ak baki aa=! i Bvi,ke P;trosi f;t i=aw kaqiz % a,.at;low anzn;lou famar farmar t;[ gtn;l% mtaw bake% ort;[ kawa\in z;.i m;= ;roum hin ]i;ri smbakn;ri baxmajiw f;tq;r^ an]ri =row li!

P;trose bv,kin outik-moutik sandou[qn;row aa=nord;z n;rqnafarke! Bvi,ke mtaw s;n\aki nmanouj\oun oun;zo[ kisa.awar mi nkou[^ .onaw pat;row g;ranaak aasta[ow! Nkou[i ga[= f;[]ouzic de miangamiz .';z nra d;m qin! Dan dimaz% mi ank\ounoum% drwa hr fiwandi mafyakale^ maqour anko[now! Fiwande% oskraza ];qe kisow ca' w;rmaki takiz fana% roroum hr mankan roroze% or drwa hr pati tak^ ir ko[qin! Jij;[\a waaranoum yrjyrjoum hin ta,;[n;re^ lousawor;low mouj fatake! Mi k;rp kjn;low ir kma.qaza baxoukn;rin^ fiwande nst;z& na ,ncoum hr anr ou fatou% ;rkar taraouj\oun waxa mardou nman! Bvi,kn sks;z qnn;l nra kourqe% jikounqe! :rb na w;r=azr;z ir xnnoumn;re% mi ko[m kanc;z P;trosin asaz& Ar\an pakasouj\oun% joq;ri joulouj\oun% ma[]i anca' koutakoum% n\ard;ri grgwaouj\oun! P;tq h ;rkarat bouvoum% law snound fangist! Bvi,ke d;[atoms gr;z% mi qani .orfourdn;r hl tw;z % ;rb ouxoum hr frav;,t tal% ];qi m;= xgaz P;trosi ];qi ,o,a'oume! Farkawor ch% asaz na^ ];qe f;t qa,;low! Qi#c famar;z% j;# .[yaz% danouj\amb mta;z P;trose gl.afak% n;rqin fouxmounqe jaqzn;low^ bv,ki f;t ou[[w;z dours! Est Nar-Dosi Bar;rar ord;gir wipaki (Adaptation from Nar-Dos, 1867-1933)

A\d riz ;rkou ;[bor farab;rouj\ounn;rn aw;li larw;zin!\ane^ a\d ambari,t ou ambartawan sp;koul\ante% anendfat grgoum hr Miqa\;lin^ oc a\nqan dat banalou ;[bor d;m% orqan kontr-ktaki mi=ozow Smbatin =[agrgi wiyaki m;= paf;lou! An]raordi nman ;rkarawoun iran oun;zo[ a\d angof mardoun n\arda\naznoum hr Smbati sanasrtouj\oune% na xr ou gi,;r .orfoum hr^ inc mi=ozn;r gtni fakaakordin fa[j;lou famar! Mi#j; Smbate^ for ko[miz ambastan\al% Alim\ann;ri entan;kan r;nqn;re otnafara% entaniqiz taraza a\d ;ritasarde% piti anpativ wa\;li afagin farstouj\oune% ano[=a.of mi ;ritasard% ore ;rbh ci tqn;l% ci mta;l fankar tiraz;l h milionn;ri! O*c% da anardarouj\oun h% inqe ;rb;q jou\l ci ta nran fangist wa\;l;l fa\rakan 'o[;re! Na ;rbiz; chr kaskaoum% or Smbatn atoum hr ir;n^ mtqoum famar;low .arda.% a\las;rwa mard! :w a\s fangamanqn aw;li hr borboqoum nra j,namakan xgazoume^ anbar\azakamor;n tramadr;low nra d;m! Saka\n na chr korznoum ir sanasrtouj\oune artaqoust Smbati f;t warwoum hr an.ab bar;kamouj\amb ou aknaanqow! Smbate andastiarak patan\aki nman chr jaqznoum ir arfamarfanqn ou anbar\azakam w;rab;rmounqe! Iskap;s%\ann inqe fou\s coun;r kontr-ktaki xorouj\an wra! Da mi mi=oz hr^ Smbatin wa.;zn;lou drd;lou% or g;j masamb gofazni ir qro=e^ talow nran vaangouj\ouniz mi orh mas! M\ous ko[miz^ ktake fnar;l hr^ Miqa\;lin ir ];q;ri m;= an;lou% ard;n a;l hr! A\vm

nranq ibr da,nakizn;r kapwa ;n m;kendmi,t .arda. ];narkouj\an bolor f;tanqn;row%\ann xgoum hr% or Miqa\;le aanz ir;n ci karo[ oc mi qa\l an;l! Isk a\s fangamanqe ];ntou hr nran mi a\l npataki famar% orin fasn;ln aw;li d\ourin hr famaroum% qan Alim\ani vaangouj\ouniz oriz; ban stanale! Est <irwanxad;i Qaos w;pi (Adaptation from Shirvanzade, 1858-1935)!

M;xaniz far\ourawor tarin;r aa= ,at ou ,at f;ou^ ow;ri ou wkianosn;ri m\ous a'in% kar mi a,.arf! A\nt;[ a[ikn;r ka\in^ cqna[% jij;n;ri p;s xwarj ou jrjoun% a[b\ourn;r ka\in^ akanakit% karkacoun! Ba\z a\nt;[ mardik car hin% angouj ou]! Mi orb ou a[qat manouk hr aproum a\d mardkanz m;=! Na mia\nak hr% incp;s mi jcoun^ ama\i va\;ri ;rp;ri m;=! :w na m;azaw bolori acqi a=^ ant;s ou anfa\t! Ou ;rb patani dar]aw% jo[;z a\d qarsirt a,.arfe yam'a enkaw^ mi ouri,% law ou f\ourenkal a,.arf gtn;lou! Mi owa'i awaxn;ri wra^ zamaqin% ,o[,o[oun mi ]ouk t;saw^ fog;warqi m;= jalik-jalik galis! Patanin% ]ouke grka% qnq,ouj\amb taraw-baz jo[;z owi m;=! }ouke% ;rb ou,qi ;kaw% asaz mardou l;xwow& Bari* t[a% inc or sirtd kouxi% asa*% ;s kkatar;m qo zankouj\oune! Patanin 'oqr-inc mta;louz f;to asaz& To*ur in] mardou krqi tak qare iskakan sirt dar]n;lou mi fnar! Dou s;r ;s ouxoum% qa=asi*rt t[a% ,a*t law& ktri*r owa'i ;[;gn;riz m;ke% sri*ng ,inir gna* mardkanz m;=% ;rgi*r! :w ;rb t;sn;s% or nranz acq;re arzounqow lzw;zin% imazi*r% or qare sirt dar]aw! A\sp;s .rat;z ]ouke souxw;z owi 'r'rad;x aliqn;ri m;=! A\np;s qa[zr% a\np;s fog;graw dours ford;zin fnc\ounn;re srngi 'o[iz% a\np;s qnqou, ou fog;xma\l& ou[[aki srti .orqiz dours za\t;zin d\oujakan fnc\ounn;re% or ',rw;zin angjouj\amb bnwa srt;re! Mardik dours jan tn;riz% ,r=apat;zin patanoun aa=in angam nkat;zin% or a[qat h ou mia\nak& grk;zin ou fambour;zin nran aa=in angam ir;nz k\anqoum w,tafar f;k;kazin&&& A\d rwaniz a,.arf ;kaw ;rge% ou ;rgi mi=ozow fouxw;zin qar srt;re% a\d rwaniz s;re w,ti f;t anbavan^ bou\n dr;z mardkanz krqoum% nranz srti m;=! Est Aw;tiq Isafak\ani Siro ;rge patoumi (Adaptation from Avetik Issahakian, 1875-1957)


Ambo[= qa[aqe ansowor mardou wra jo[noum hr ;rkajou[ou ka\arani tpaworouj\oun% our am;n oq ,tapoum h% waxoum% froum ou frwoum^ wa.;nalow gnazqe 'a.zn;l! A= ou ]a. srenjaz anznoum ;n tna\in ou war]ou kaq;re^ tan;low gori mardkanz! Nora] .anoujn;re^ fska zouza';[k;row% liqn ;n faya.ordn;row& mtnoum ;n% dours galis% gnoum% wayaoum% .aboum ou .abwoum ou mi,t ,tapoum! Am;n inc 'o.woum h t;ndagin ja'ow% isk am;niz aa=^ mardkanz artaqine! Mi ;rkfarkani ,;nqi a= Smbate t;saw .oumb-.oumb mardkanz% or .orfrdawor fa\azqn;r 'o.anak;low^ 's'soum hin! Na m;.anikor;n glou.e bar]razr;z ,;nqi yakatin kardaz^ Borsa! Mi qanise% Smbatin yanac;low% patkaanqow f;t qa,w;zin^ nran yanaparf talou% m\ousn;re .onarf glou. tw;zin! Smbatn anznoum hr^ am;n ko[miz endoun;low siralir o[=ou\nn;r vpitn;r! Na xgaz mi t;sak arfamarfanq nou\nisk no[kanq d;pi a\d mardik% or patrast hin mim\anz fo,ot;l% mim\anz koul tal^ fgout ir;nz ,afi! Na mi t;sak amoj xgaz ir mtawor baro\akan a,.arfi a=! A\d pafin na kangna hr ;rkou mardou mi=& m;kn a\vm\an Smbatn hr% m\ouse^ ;rkou amis aa=wa Smbate% m;ke^ milionn;ri vaangorde% m\ouse^ a\n a[qat ;ritasarde% or ir entaniqe pafoum hr masnawor das;row% foriz aniwa% g;rdastaniz artaqswa&&& Ori#n mot;nal% ori# f;t ]oulw;l ami,t&&& Smbatn xgaz% or ir mtq;re gnoum ;n f;ou! Na fankar znzw;z ou kang aaw& fi,;z anz\al re ;[bor^ M iqa\;li f;t oun;za ana.orv .osakzouj\oune! A\o*% ;j; ktakn rinakan h% .ndire klouwi inqnestinq\an% aanz im kam qi% mtaoum hr na sandou[qn;row bar]ranalis! Smba@t% ls;z na mi anoj ]a\n f;t na\;z! Grigor Fab;j\ann hr% or fif ou qrtnam.a mot;noum hr! Na milionatiro= awag ordoun .ndroum hr ,norf b;r;l Q\axim-b;gi tane kaxmak;rpwo[ .n=ou\qin! Smbate zankanoum hr m;rv;l% ba\z f;taqrqrouj\oune g;raxanz;z& arv; mi angam n;rka lin;l Miqa\;li enk;rakan ,r=anoum t;sn;l^ incp;s h na anzkaznoum ir k\anqe! Est <irwanxad;i Qaos w;pi (Adaptation from Shirvanzade, 1858-1935)

:rb "arixoum hi% mi qani enk;rn;riz fraw;r staza^ Nor tarin miasin dimawor;lou ,q;[ ;storann;riz m;koum! ;storani endar]ak dafliye 'oqr a 'oqr lzw;z fasarakouj\amb% bolor s;[ann;rn xba[w;zin! Pcras;r kana\q pynwa hin am;naw;r=in moda\ow! Nranz akan=[;ri man\akn;ri% aparan=ann;ri matanin;ri agatn;rn ou adamandn;re b\ourawor ast[;ri p;s 'a\l'loum hin ;r'n;rang ou akna.tit lou\sow! Dafliye lousaworwa hr ine-tase fska\atip =af;row% oronq ast[;ri nman ,o[,o[oum hin w;riz!

Orotendost ;rav,touj\oune jndaz% t;[-t;[ sks;zin par;l xou\g;re! |ouraqanc\our s;[aniz yaaga\joum hin fncoun ia[% qrqi=% xwarj ]a\n;r! Aknd;t na\oum hi ,our=s^ motikn ou f;oun& bolori acq;ri m;= pa\a vpit kar gofounakouj\oun! Kar;s a\s mardik ;rbiz; wi,t chin t;s;l% orh t.our vam chin oun;z;l fima fawaqw;l hin a\st;[^ nou\n fawatqow endoun;lou nor ;ko[ tarin! Vamanake qani mot;noum hr gi,;rwa vame 12-in% a\nqan endfanour xwarjouj\oune lzwoum hr% ouyanoum% or piti a[mk;r ,ampa\ni ,,;ri pa\j\ounn;row piti ford;r ,,;riz foso[ 'r'roun ginou f;t! "o[oziz^ ;storani fska lousamoutn;riz n;rs hin na\oum znzotin;r faga mardik% sowallouk manoukn;r! Mi qani ;r;.an;r nou\nisk fandgnor;n n;rs hin .zkw;l kkw;l dan mot! Spasaworn;re xa\rou\jow anendfat dours hin q,oum nranz! Xarfour;li ban h a,.arfe% asaz enk;rn;rizs m;ke! Qani a[qat ka ,our=d% ;r=anik c;s karo[ lin;l% far;z m\ouse! Am;nqe spasoum hin .orfrdawor wa\rk\anin^ vame 12-in% ;rb mi zawagin% a[io[orm yic lsw;z& dan mot hr! Spasaworn;riz m;ke bounzqow farwa;l hr mi .art\a, ;r;.a\i ;r;sin! :r;.a\i qjiz fosoum hr ar\oune& o[orm;lin xarfouranqiz ycoum hr! Kana\q fankaraki ]a\niz sarsazin ak;zin ir;nz marmar\a ous;rn ou folani baxoukn;re! <at;re n\arda\naza hin& cgit;s ow^ oum d;m! ;storani kaawarci framanow ;rav,touj\oune jndaz% orotendost ]a\n;ri m;= .;[dw;z ;r;.a\i lazi ]a\ne! Est Aw;tiq Isafak\ani Nor tarwa dimaworoume "arixoum patmwaqi (Adaptation from Avetik Issahakian, 1875-1957)

:w afa vamanake ci ou,aznoum ir gnouj\oune% orp;sxi faskananq% j; Komitasi gore am;niz aw;li fi,;znoum h M;srop Ma,tozi goroun;ouj\oune! Enj;rz;low vo[owaoui n\ouj;re^ .;lamit enj;rzo[e ci karo[ cxgal% cfaskanal ou cembn;l% or Komitase mi f;rjakan d;m chr fa\ m,akou\ji patq mouj\an m;=! Nra osk;x mat\anoum ;rb;q ci xba[;zni mia\n mi drwag! Na mimia\n ;rgafan chr% j;koux daragl.a\in^ mi ambo[= dprozi fimnadir! Miavamanak na m; gitnakan hr% m;kn a\n ;r=anik fa\tnagoro[n;riz% oronz fawaqakan anoune Koloumbos hr! Na fa\ ;rgi lawagou\n kataro[e^ nou\np;s skxbnaworo[e! Isk .mbawa#re% ousouzi#ce% banas;#re&&& A\s am;ne qa= fa\tni h ;j; oc bolorin% apa ,at;rin! A\spisin hr m;k hl Ma,toze! Lin;low m;r aa=in l;xwabane^ za\sr na mnoum h .o,oragou\ne& anza-gnaza tasnfing dar;ri enjazqoum mi a\npisi d\oura,arv ou m,ta'o'o. l;xou% incpisin h fa\;r;ne% ckaro[azaw .otorw;l nra kargadra fnc\ounakan famakargiz& `-n a\n bazaouj\ounn h% or fastatoum h r;nqe!

Na baazior;n m;r aa=in q;rakann h aa=in dasagirqe% m;r dprozn;ri aa=in tnr;nn ou aa=in ousouzcap;te! Aa=in jargmann hr aa=in m;knice! A\s fa\tni h famar\a boloris! Ba\z Ma,tozi dimaqandake awartoun chr a\nqan vamanak% qani chr gitakzwa% or m;r m;agou\n qa[aqag;tn hr na! M;r tigrann;riz ou ;rwandn;riz% ar,akn;riz ou wa[ar,akn;riz oc oq ;rbh a\np;s cxgaz vamanaki xark;rake% incp;s a\d dpire% or ir houj\amb ou manawand kocmamb f;ou hr qa[aqakanouj\ouniz! A\vm gtnwa h Ma,tozi a\s am;nabnoro, ou am;nahakan dimagin hl% nra dimaqandake awartwa h! Aa=in pafin% an,ou,t% artaoz kjwa% ;j; xougaf;e ,arounakwi^ Komitase na kocwi qa[aqag;t! Est Parou\r Saki Dimankari ambo[=azman famar fodwai (Adaptation from Paruyr Sevak, 1924-1971)

P;tros Masis\ani bnakarane^ mifarkani% yaqyqwa pat;row% 'ta dn;row% n;[ lousamoutn;row% gtnwoum hr :& qa[aqi mi f;t enka% 'o,;ak 'o[ozi wra! Fnr\a a\d kaou\ze^ as;s No\i vamanakn;riz mnaza% gr;j; .ar.l;l hr% ba\z snafawat tant;re^ Masis\anr% orn ir atrawa,.aouakan goroun;ouj\an anna.enjaz fa=o[ouj\ounn;re kapoum hr a\d bnakarani% nra m;= ;[a oski aqa[a[i f;t% jou\l chr talis w;ranorogcakan orh gor! Nou\nisk endar]ak bakoum aya .a[o[i orj;rin kar;s adamordou ];q ;rbiz; chr kp;l% nranq m;az;l hin ir;nz wa\r;ni famar]akouj\an m;=! Masis\ann a\n faroustn;riz hr% oronz parsk;r;n for=or=oumow kocoum ;n nowqisa% a\sinqn^ nor qsaki t;r% or n,anakoum h a[qatouj\ouniz bar]raza drami t;r dar]a norena faroust! A\s faroustn;re hap;s xanaxanwoum ;n vaangakan dramat;r;riz ir;nz endfanour warqagow am;niz aa=^ nranow% or nranq% ibr ct;sn;r% mardou am;n mi arvaniq% am;n katar;louj\oun drami m;= ;n t;snoum! Dranq ;raka\oum ;n% j; .;lq% ,norfq% gitouj\oun% axnwouj\oun% wark% patiw% mi .osqow^ am;n ban oun;n% orowf;t 'o[ oun;n! Isk nranz% or xourk ;n a\d ,norfiz% arfamarfoum ;n% ditoum orp;s an,norfq% anpitan araran;r% oronq p;tq h ir;nz kamakatare lin;n mia\n% oc aw;lin! Ba\z drami koutakman anfag t;ncin liowin bawararouj\oun talou famar mia\n oski aqa[a[e% a\sinqn^ ba.te bawakan chr! Masis\ane ir goroun;ouj\an a\gaagin isk gl.i enkaw% or mi=ozn;ri mi= cp;tq h .trouj\oun dn;l% cp;tq h ;rknc;l% enkrk;l% fravarw;l xartou[i mi=ozn;riz% .ab;ba\ouj\ouniz ou ,o[oqorj;louz% mtazain plann;re p;tq h dar]n;l irakan ou ar;akan% fa[jafar;l bolor .ouj;rn ou .ocendotn;re% bolor mi=ozn;re i spas dn;l fgout ir farstazman ba[]anqin! Am;n mi=oz nra famar sourb hr% ;j; fasznoum hr npatakin!

:w a\d bolore na anoum hr oc j; caramtouj\ouniz drdwa% a\l bolorowin bnakan hr famaroum% a\s patyaow nra .i[ye mi,t fangist hr! Est Ra``ou Oski aqa[a[ w;pi (Adaptation from Raffi, 1835-1888)

<;qspirn ir Faml;tow ti;x;rqe dr;z mardou m;=^ Faml;ti ,ourj;row axdarar;low& Inqs in] famar mi ambo[= ti;x;rq ;m! Faml;te^ a\s anfou\s ;raxo[e% ori bnain axnwouj\oune a\las;rwoum h ou danoum kaska% kaskae^ ma[]% g;ragou\n fakadrouj\ounn h Makb;ji% ori m;= tirap;touj\an arawe% mardka\in aa\amolouj\an anfagourd ]gtoume a\las;rwoum h tanoum d;pi dato[ouj\an mjagnoum ou d;pi oyrapart fanzanq! :j; Faml;te lin;r sosk mi id;alist% k'rkw;r ;r=anik kapr;r ir ;raxn;row! Saka\n id;alist lin;louz bazi na endounak h t;sn;l a,.arfe ir n;rqin acq;row% a\np;s% incp;s na ka! M;douxa\i gl.i nman anendfat nra acq;rin na\o[ irakanouj\an davan patk;re sa;znoum h nra ar\oune% c;xoqaznoum nra gor;lou zankouj\oune% dar]noum nran mi stw;r^ k;ndani mardkanz a,.arfoum! Oc fa[jafar;l karo[ h nran% oc hl moanal! Na t;snoum h mardka\in fasarakouj\oune^ ir ano[orm manramasnouj\amb% ou mardoun^ aanz dimaki! A\s sars;zouzic fa\tnouj\ouniz f;to nra bnain t;[i h talis mi anbouv;li xxwanqi d;pi a,.arfn ou marde! :w ;j; ci iragoroum ir;n partadrwa andr,irim\an framane^ lou;l wr;ve ir spanwa for% kam qi joulouj\ouniz ch% incp;s karoum h G\oj;n% a\l a\raf;[ arfamarfanqiz d;pi a,.arfn ou a,.arfa\ine! Inci# famar mi ban ];nark;m i#nc gout draniz% mtaoum h na! I#nc h a\d louj\oune% or xmsoum h daniazou ,ourj;re anhouj\an ,;mqin! A\d louj\oune% est is% a,.arfe bar;'o.;lou% srbagr;lou anfnarinouj\an fand;p o[b;rgoui endwxoumn h% aazoume anou[[;lii d;m% or artafa\twoum h a\ragou\n xxwanqow% anbouv;li no[kanqow mafazo[ Faml;ti ,ourj;rin! A\d am;na.os louj\ounr a,.arfe znzo[ mi a[a[ak h d;pi nore% d;pi galiqe slazo[ mi kanc% mi fou\s% gouz; mi dawananq! Est Wafram "a'ax\ani Faml;te% incp;s t;sa grqi (Adaptation from Vahram Papazian, 1888-1968)


Anpar'ak wi,te fogou m;=^ na andadroum ja'a;z tar vo[owourdn;ri fa\r;niqn;roum% zawakiz ;[aw angnakan adamordoun! Aaw nran ir srti m;=% mtaw nra sirte% .osq asaz% .osq ls;z imazaw% or am;nour% a,.arfi bolor a\r;roum hl wi,te m;k h% s;re^ m;k! :w na f\ous;z bolori famar ir ;rge% siro% taapanqi% axatouj\an fog;xma\l ;rge! :w ws;ma.of ;rgice^ anbavan zoupe ];qin% ja'a;z a,.arf;a,.arf% ;[aw a\la\l ;rkrn;roum ou mi r^ k\anqi iriknamoutin% imastoun 'or]ow ou a,.arfembnmamb% fognab;k ou yam'an;ri 'o,in ara yakatin% w;radar]aw fa\r;ni toun! Ou ;rgi mrmoun=ow ;law Aragai lousaford lan=n i w;r% enko[man;z jou\rijou\r a[ikn;ri m;=! W;re^ ;rkni laxouroum% ya.roum-y.oum hin iaanaj fawq;ri ;ramn;re% mim\anz ]a\n talis% ]a\n anoum qa[zrafnc\oun% fog;jrji da\la\low! N;rqoum na t;saw aw;rakn;ri mo.irn;riz w;r bar]razo[ qa[aqn;r% ,;n;r^ ktourn;rin .i kapou\t w;nn;r! Ls;z fa\aba% bna,.arfik ;rge f;rkwori% karotawa na\;z Ararat\an da,tin% M; ou " oqr Masisn;rin% na\;z w,tow ou e[]anqow li% jrjoun srti =;rm arzounqn;row zo[w;zin a[kaj;rj;re! Fouxajajaw fogin .a[a[w;z% akan=in ;rkna\in fnc\ounn;re ggw;zin% ou a[ikn;ri bourmounqow arba^ fandart nirf;z! F;qiaja\in ;raxe d; nor hr skixb a;l% ;rb fankar ls;z mi afasarsou ]a\n! ;r arwi p;s baz ar;z acq;rn ou ir d;m t;saw anagorou\n% dv.;m mafe! Aanz dou\xn isk ;rk\ou[i% anjaqou\z arfamarfanqow anfo[do[d na\;z mafwan acq;rin ou anwrdow farzr;z& I#nc h ouxad! Mafwan d;m qin jrjaz safmk;zouzic vpite& Miamit h qo farzmounqe oc wa\;l imastounin& i#nc p;tq h ouxi mafe mafkanazouiz! Bar]razaw mi fonqe imastoun ;rgci% jri p;s k;w;z yakati wra! Dou fogis ;s ouxoum% ba\z ;s a\n bavan;l ;m bolorin% q;x talou ocinc ci mnaz;l% asaz ;rgice nirf;z baxmas'\ou a[ikn;ri m;=^ Aragai xmrou.t lan=in! Est Sour;n A\wax\ani Yakatagire fa\oz w;pi (Adaptation from Suren Ayvazyan, 1915-1981)

:r;q r anendfat fog;fangist hr katarwoum! Am;nqn a,.atoum hin ir;nz farganqe matouz;l! A\ls oc oq chr bambasoum gou milionatiro=e% oc oq chr asoum% j; Markos a[an ;[;l h .ab;ba% anfag ko[optic% bnakal entan;kan farki tak! Mafn am;nqin fa,t;zr;l hr nra f;t% % inqnestinq\an faskanali h% am;n oq a,.atoum hr ir w,takzouj\oune% srti mrmoun artafa\t;l vaangn;rin! <at;re 's'souqow mim\anz akan=in ,,n=oum hin% j; ordin;riz dvgof ;rounin d; ;rkar kapr;r% ;j; srtoum coun;nar Smbati zawe! 0@% ma,;z .;[y mardou fogin marmine ano[=a.of ordou anf;j;j% Alim\ann;ri tan famar warkab;kic ararqe! M;[adranqn artafa\toum hin kzk-


tour ,,n=\ounow! |ouraqanc\oure wa.;noum hr^ migouz; loure fasni milionn;ri vaangordin^ Smbatin% ore dastiarakw;l hr moskow\an mi=awa\roum% bnaworouj\amb axniw hr% anencas;r! Bann a\n h% or o[= qa[aqe git;r% or fds hin znd;l Miqa\;li ;raxanqn;re% or Alim\ann;ri tan gor;ri [;ke Smbati ];qn hr anznoum! Ktake baz arin fangouz\ali mafwan ;rrord re! Da na.^ fangouz\ali xgazmounqn;ri srtabou. x;[oumn hr% apa^ gornakan-pa,tonakan anfou\x mi waw;rajou[j^ nra jo[a milionn;ri f;taga ba.ti w;rab;r\al! ;rounin as;l hr% .akan qafana T;r-S imone^ ar]anagr;l! Fangouz\ale am;niz aa= patwiroum hr Smbatin Miqa\;li warqagie 'o.;l% nran ou[i[ yanaparfi b;r;l^ ktr;low a\n a\las;rwa k;nza[iz% zo' ou ,wa\t k\anqiz% ori m;= restr; 'toum h nra ;ritasard marmine! F;to patwiroum hr arjoun fsko[ouj\oun oun;nal Ar,aki wra% sir;l ou farg;l more% apr;l nra f;t mi farki tak% anbavan! A\nouf;t .ndranqi ou a[;rsanqi .osq;row pafan=oum hr ou[[;l ir s.ale! Galow gornakanin^ fangouz\ale bazi mi qani ann,an nw;rn;riz^ ir cqawor axgakann;rin ou bar;gorakan npatakow% bolor ir ,arvakan ou an,arv ka\q;re banka\in j[j;rn ou stanaliqn;re fan]noum hr Smbati tnrinouj\ane! Est <irwanxad;i Qaos w;pi (Adaptation from Shirvanzade, 1858-1935)

Ou, ;r;ko hr ard;n% ;rb Pape% w;r=ap;s% gnaz ir nn=arane^ fangstanalou! Da for aan]narann hr^ orsi faxwag\out morjin;row ou p;s-p;s x;nq;row xardarwa mi sraf% orn a\vm dar];l hr nn=aran% our wawoum hin ;rkou \ojnast;[ araj; a,tanakn;r% oronq lousaworoum hin baxmat;sak morjin;rn ou x;nq;re% 'a\t; nrbak;rt mi mafyakal^ ir m;taqs\a anko[now% dn;re^ k;rpas\a waragou\rn;row! Na sks;z anfangist f;t ou aa= qa\l;l srafi ;rkarouj\amb^ na.,axard fatake ako[ gorgi wra\ow ou chr karo[anoum fangstanal& qn;lou zankouj\ounn angam 'a.;l hr nraniz! Ard\oq fognaouj\o#unn hr patyae% j;# mi a\l ban! Inco#u ;rkire fasaw a\s drouj\an% o#w h m;[awor% mi#j; mia\n parsikn;re% mtoroum hr na! D;m mom;ri jrjazo[ qe lou\s;ri n;rqo ;roum hr ma\l% fogna ou =[a]ig! Iskap;s fima^ a\s ;r;ko% aw;li qan ;rbh% nra a= kisad;me znzwoum hr anendfat% na dar]\al chr karo[anoum as;l^ fognaouj\ouni#z h da% j;# rwa tpaworouj\ounn;riz! Mtq;ri fa.oun for]anqe ;rb;q chr joulanoum% a\l endfakaake% qani gnoum% danoum hr fama ou tirakan! Na 'or] ar;z joja';l ir;niz a\d fou,;re^ wa[wa an;liqn;ri masin mta;lou% ckaro[azaw& a\d mtq;re% or pa,ar;l hin nra o[= houj\oune% anfangstouj\an f;t zaw hin patyaoum

nran! Pape xgou,or;n% or carjnazni xinworn;rin% anzaw mi=anzqow mot;zaw :r;mia\i s;n\aki dane! Aa=in bane% or nkat;z% lou\si mi barak zolq hr% or ;roum hr dan y;[qiz! :r;mian .orasouxwa groum hr cnkat;z Papi n;rs gale! Pape nst;z nra dimaz^ jikn;low ;otanou wra % jiknozi ';,;rn ou[[;low% dim;z :r;mia\in& Inco#w piti w;r=anan a\s a[;tn;re% .osi*r% :r;*mia% ;s qo .orfrdi kariqn ;m xgoum! :r;mian xgaz% or arqan .ist fouxwa h% or nran p;tq h fangstazouzic .osq;r as;l% ousti fangist tonow asaz& S ir;li@d im Pap% m;x mnoum h nor a[;tn;ri aa=n an;l% da kani r;zr aw;lazo[ m;r xorqe% or lzwa h wr;v.ndrouj\amb% m;r xorawarn;re% or% incp;s t;sar% ocinc c;n .na\oum fa\r;niqi q;x famar! Est St;'an Xor\ani Pap jagawor w;pi (Adaptation from Stepan Zoryan, 1989-1967)

Mi qani rwa enjazqoum anojaza qa[aqi fasarakouj\ane% or im wa[wa fandisat;sn hr lin;lou! :w ;s faskaza% or am;n gnow p;tq h nway;l nranz% oronq fasarakakan kariqi aa=in =oujakn ;n lin;lou! Nkaricn;r hin dranq% qnnadatn;r% banast;[n;r^ fine d;s cmoaza norin cent;laza mardik% paawn;r^ nawjalini bourmounqow% oronq anendfat 70-akan jwakann;ri kori`;\n;ri anounn;row hin ;rdwoum% ba\z nranz ko[qin ka\in osk;f;r g;rmanoufin;r^ xousp ou sae lr=ouj\amb% ,w;doufin;r^ angou\n acq;row% folandoufin;r% oronq cna\a wa[ouz aproum hin ousastanoum% ba\z paf;l hin ir;nz tofmik inqnourou\nouj\oune^ d; 'oqr-inc a[awa[wa! A\spisi .a\tab[;t fandisat;sin tir;lou famar bawakan chr krkn;l a\n mi=ozn;re% oronziz gtw;l hi Moskwa\oum! Ank;[ ou inqnabou. anmi=akanouj\oune% ori wra fimnw;l hi minc fima% a\st;[ karo[ hr ditw;l orp;s miamit gawaakanouj\oun% isk apawin;l mia\n armta;wropakan arw;sti oyin^ ainqn;lou famar inqnafawan a\d fandisat;sin% wtangawor sa\jaqoum klin;r! Inch% fog;kan a\dpisi ;rkwouj\an pa\mann;roum sks;zi Faml;ti j;llo\i 'or];re! Ba\z o#w hi ;s L;ningradi fandisat;si famar^ mi fa\ d;rasan% or ;k;l hr f;ou Kowkasiz % orp;s j;llo ou Faml;t% .a[alou hr `rans;r;now! T;sno#um ;s% sir;li* enj;rzo[% j; orqan anr h Monoma.i gl.arke% orqan anfrav;,t^ anfo[do[d fawate ouv;rid fand;p am;n angam% ;rb farke pafan=oum h m;x^ d;rasann;ris% dimagraw;l nor fandisat;si! B;m mta aanz a'afarouj\ounn;ri aa=in angam im k\anqoum! Yi,t


h% or da ;[aw w;r=ine! :rkrord na.adasouj\ouniz xgazi% or ,'aza ou antarb;r dafliye fawaq;z ir;n% jou\l ou anpat,ay nstan;rn ou[[w;zin% aa=in kargi wra ]gwa otq;re fawaqw;zin! Louj\oun tir;z dafliyin% jan]razaw faxargl.ani wi,ape% mi mard dar]aw% mi rop;i enjazqoum fawaq;low nran im ];q;ri m;=^ ka.ard;zi arw;sti ouvow ar]ak;zi ir;nz tn;re^ mia\n n;rka\azman w;r=oum! Est Wafram "a'ax\ani F;tadar] fa\azq grqi (Adaptation from Vahram Papazian, 1888-1968)

:rb nw;z :r;mian^ Margari ou Al.ajouni tasn;rkou;rord xawake% no[n;re faxiw hin a\re a\rin fasznoum& outo[ b;ran^ ,at% a,.ato[^ qic! F;txf;t; 'o.w;z am;n inc% restr; barwoqw;z entaniqi wiyake! A\s barrouj\oune l;l\a\n w;ragrwoum hr :r;mia\in! Ou qani gnoum% na danoum hr gourgouranqi .orfrdapa,takan siro aarka% ;[ba\rn;rn ou qou\r;rr nra f;t warwoum hin oc a\n ar\a fogazo[ouj\amb ou 'a\'a\anqow% orin arvananoum h soworabar tan am;nakrts;re% a\l inc-or \ourrinak mi ;rk\ou[aouj\amb! "oqrouz no[n;re nran ousman twin na.^ tna\in qafana\i mot% apa^ Waraga wanqi Vaangaworaz warvaranoum^ asto pa,tamounqi aa\ouj\ane nwirw;lou! Warvaranoum :r;mian acqi hr enknoum ir f;xafambou\r warw;zo[ouj\amb% fa',takwa% andadroum parapmounqn;row% n;ram'o' mta,.arfow! Warvap;tn;rn ou fogor fa\r;re% oronz fa\tni hr ir;nz fog;ordoun asto aa\ouj\ane ena\ab;r;lou fangamanqe% fawatoum fawataznoum hin% or mi nor >rim\an Fa\rik h lin;lou na% mi ariw% ori j;row noriz ;rknambar] sawan;lou h Waspourakan a,.arfe! Anznoum hin tarin;re% wanqi dpranozoum ygnak\az% fogou anbasir da,nouj\an ou andorrouj\an m;= :r;mian gi,;r ou xr =;rm;andor;n a[ojoum hr^ ounkndir ;rkna\in ]a\nin% anhaza% anfa[ord a,.arfik k\anqi j;* ,a\la,ouq% j;* qstmn;li h=;rin! Maga[aj\a .nkajou\r ou .ora.orfourd grq;riz gjaatouj\an% bar;pa,touj\an% qriston;akan .onarfouj\an% apa,.arouj\an .osq;r hr an.on= qa[oum na^ m;[salir ou ambari,t mardkanz 'rk;lou encaqa[zouj\ouniz ou a.tain molouj\ounn;riz! :w oc mi ban chr p[toroum nra anenky;li fogin^ drd;low astwaendd;m ararqn;ri! :w ;rb awart;z warvarani dasenjaze% wanqi al;xard miabann;re miakam ou miasirt% anjaqou\z ogorouj\amb ou bar\azakamouj\amb patrastwoum hin nra m; ou srbaxan man! Est Xarxand Dar\ani Ariw Waspourakani w;pi (Adaptation from Zarzand Daryan, 1912-1984)

Ar;gake ag;z% nra frakarmir ,o[;ri tak 'a\l'l;zin ;[\amow pata endar]ak da,t;re! :roum hin d;[nakanac part;xn;row ,r=apatwa lq\al g\ou[;re! Ari tak famatara s'w;l hr oukrainakan da,tankare^ ir bolor fma\qn;row ou bou\r;row! Parx% ja'anzik r hr! Falwoum hin ;[\amn ou m;rkasaou\ze% blourn;re psp[oum hin faxar;rang% kar;s =ardwa apakin;ri milionawor ktortanqn;r hin ,a[ trwa fouji da,t;ri wra ou 'a\l'loum hin iaani nourb gou\n;row! M;srop\ann a,.atoum hr cna\;l akann;riz a\landakwa .ordoubord yanaparfn;ri ko[me% or ct;sni w;n-w;n ,or;row sowallouk ;r;.an;ri .mb;re^ z;.;ri mi=ow qa\l;lis% ct;sni tna\in .a\tab[;t ir;row bar]a sa\lakn;rn ou ]i;ri anw;r= diakn;re! S rtaymlik patk;rn;r hin dranq! A\dp;s t;[afan ;[an% ;r ou ;r;.an;r ga[ji yam'an;rn enkan^ lazoukoow ou faacanqow% w;r=in angam na\;low ja'our mnaza tn;rin ou ama\azo[ g\ou[;rin! Lsw;z goumartaki framanatari orotendost kance^ danaw;@r% danaw;@r&&& Fognab;k martikn;re wa\rk;nap;s ]oulw;zin g;tnin! Xofrap M;srop\ann aa=ine nkat;z d;[in% ptoutanman ou.e fo[i w;r-w;r .o\azo[ s ,atrwann;re! F;to lsw;zin ;rkrord% ;rrord% corrord pa\j\ounn;re^ m;ke m\ousiz .olakan% m;ke m\ousiz afasarsou! Ou fankar tir;z mi ansowor louj\oun&&& Framan ;[aw otqi ;ln;l! M;srop\ann aragor;n w;r kazaw! Nou\n rop;in% irar gn;low% m;k-m;k otqi kangn;zin m\ousn;re! Mi xinwor f;t dar]aw% na\;z M;srop\anin% orn awtomatn ousiz ka.a^ w;rzr;l hr mi bou safo[ ou mot;zr;l .owafou\x d;m qin! Jou. fo[e bouroum hr anoj% qa[zr% ;raxa\in bourmounqow% ]awari p;s fatik-fatik ou srsou! Inco#w ;s xba[wa% farzr;z awtomataworn;riz m;ke! Xofrape t.raf; fa\azqow na\;z nran% na\;z ban m;=% fo[in% oumb;riz bazwa ]agarin ou ,,n=az& M;[q h fo[e&&& Est Frac\a Qocari M; tan xawakn;re w;pi (Adaptation from Hrachia Kochar, 1910-1965)

K;sgi,;r hr! >orounk% qa[zr qni m;= Kamsar\ane chr t;s;l% j; incp;s forixone ako[ amp;re% bard-bard koutakw;low% lousine ak;zin% apa danda[or;n jan]r maa.ou[e sqo[;z sar ou ]or! F;to sks;z barak an]r ma[;l% apa qic-qic gnalow sastkazaw ou fordazaw! Qamin ,aac;low 'ojorkoum hr an]re fosanqn ou[[oum d;pi srafe% our 'a\t; ja.ti wra a\d wa\rk\anin qa[zr qni m;= hr aaq\ale! Ba\z fankar pa\j;z mi orot% fandipakaz blourn;re do[do[azin% an]ri ,aac\oune kar;s krknapatkw;z!

Kamsar\ane w;r jaw t;[iz sarsa'ow t;saw oc mia\n di m;= mrrko[ f;[;[e% a\l ir anko[nou ;r;sn ambo[=owin jr=wa! Bazi draniz% fo[aak ktouriz t;[-t;[ oroum hr p[tor an]ra=oure! A\d anaknkal patafariz ,'ojwa^ Kamsar\ane do[oum hr! Nran farkawor hr mi akaran^ anendfat fordazo[ an]riz patsparw;lou famar% na% afa% gt;l hr a\n! Baz;z a.oin kiz 'oqrik s;n\aki doue% fap,tap ';z anko[inn a\nt;[ gtnwo[ yyan ja.ti wra ou pak;z qn;lou! Saka\n canzaw qaord vam% a.oiz 'co[ srt.anic fote sks;z anfangstazn;l nran! Fogna% n\arda\naza baz;z s;n\aki doue noriz pak;z% ba\z mi ko[miz^ ja.ti yyoze% m\ous ko[miz^ anfangist .orfrdaouj\ounn;re jou\l chin talis nirf;l! Faxiw acqe 'ak;l hr% ;rb qa[ziz ar\an arawi lw;re w.talow far]akw;zin 'a'kak;nza[ f\ouri wra sks;zin ir;nz s gore! P;trose sks;z ,ououmou gal% ba\z ixour% ocinc chr gnoum! Arnaba[] lw;re wa[ouz hin spasoum mi a\dpisi fam;[ orsi% a\n hl i@nc orsi&&& Nranq% ifark;% am;nin hl cgit;in% or Kamsar\ane famalsaranakan h irawaban% a\d patyaow hl oum hin nra ar\ounn angjor;n% aanz dat ou datastaniz wa.;nalou! A\sp;s t;z ;rkou-;r;q vam% ba\z tan=aliz ou =[agrgi paf;rin fa=ord;zin fousab;r anour=n;re&&& An]rn anzaw% qamin dadar;z% a[ojarann sks;z bazw;l! Est Mourazani Aaq\ale wipaki (Adaptation from Muratsan, 1886-1967)

Nou\n no[kali ;raxe^ afawor ou sarsa'axdou% w;r=in ,abajwa enjazqoum ;rrord angam a\zi ;kaw q;i Jorosin! A\nt;[^ ;rkroum hr% ir;nz finawourz enkoux;nou tak& M;fm;d h`;ndin ;rkar% kma.qaza matn;row s;[moum hr ir kokorde! anr% m[]awan=a\in ;raxiz q;i Jorose faxow arjnazaw! Na acq baz;z mouj s;n\akoum anmi=ap;s ];qe taraw kokorde! Inc-or ban d;m hr a;l kokordin% qor hr talis% yankoum! Na ouxoum hr ,';l s'rjna d;m qe% kourqe% ba\z faxe .;[doum hr! S;n\akoum gon; m;ke lin;r! Kno= mafiz f;to^ fing-w;z tari% m;nak hr qnoum aa=in angam m;knoum;ki kariqn xgaz! >or gi,;r hr% qstmn;li ;raxe% mjan f;t ,a[a.wa% chr ouxoum s;n\akiz dours gal& lou\se wa;l hr p;tq! Nran jwoum hr^ ;j; lou\s lini% * kokordi yankoze kanzni% * faxe! Q;i Jorose mi k;rp pokw;z anko[nouz% a'l';low wa;z lou\se tarrinak fa\azqow na\;z ,our=bolore! W;r=in ,abajwa enjazqoum gamwa hr anko[noun! Ard;n chr .osoum% ]a\ne ktrw;l hr& ,ounce fif hr% ouvafat% acq;re 'os hin enk;l^ endg;low aknakapiyn;ri .orouj\oune% anendfat .;[dwoum hr faxiz! Ba\z a,nanamouti a\d re^ lousad;min% q;i Jorose nkn;roum ouv xgaz ];na'a\tin f;nw;low^ do[do=oun qa\l;row dours ;law! Ast[;re cqaz;l hin% mia\n lousast[n hr jrjoum fa\oz l;naparin% bazkourq sar;rin!

Q;i Jorose ,ncaf;[] hr linoum% n\ard;re qandwoum hin% ba\z na f;woum mnaza ir ;rkri f;t hr% ori karotiz m[ktoum hr sirte! Na yigow bar]razr;z glou.e arzounqakala acq;row na\;z ;rknqin! Ar,alou\se^ goun;[% .orfrdawor% aw;li g;[;zik jwaz nran! Est Mou,;[ Gal,o\ani Q;i Jorose wipaki (Adaptation from Mushegh Galshoyan, 1933-1980)

:kaw frav;,ti re! :s =anq;r hi gor dnoum% or anbasir paf;m ousouzci anoune% ba\z krqis tak 'jjo[ am;nafa[j xgazmounqe^ s;re% 's'souqow anendfat krknoum hr nra anoune^ >onarf% mrrkoum fogis! fan ap;re f;toum hr in]% .orfourdn;r talis& nane ou[;kzis^ ]iapanin% patwiroum hr in] law tan;l xgou\, mnal% or pa\ousake cenkni% d\ouraxgaz A,ote% mi ank\ounoum kkwa% cdimanalow n;rqin fouxmounqin% srboum hr jarjicn;riz ka.wa artasouqi kajiln;re kzktour farz;r ou[[oum in]! Ba\z im fogin% ambo[= houj\ouns oronoum hr nran% t;ncoum mimia\n nran! :rb anznoum hinq dprozi motow% a,ak;rtn;re i=an blrakow^ in] bari yanaparf ma[j;lou! A[=ikn;riz omanq laz ;[an! Nranq * vptoum hin% * srboum arzounqe% or oroum hr a[b\ouri p;s! Lalis hr >onarfi qou\re! M;ke j;^ Ousouzi*c% m;x cmoanas! Youtikn hr! Na mi,t dproz hr galis for m; 'a'a.e ;rkar fnama, tr;.n;row! Orb hr Youtike^ lik-mn=ik mi ;r;.a% orin bolore siroum hin! Na 'ajajw;z nkn;ris% m; 'a'a.i takiz t;sa qe! Kaza =;rmor;n fambour;zi yakate% nra .;loq acq;re% lazakouma d;m incp;s fan ap;re^ im yakate! W;r=ap;s anznoum ;nq >onarf;nz tan motow! Anfoun fouxmounqiz .;[dwoum ;m% na\oum baki ko[me& oc oq ckar! >onarfin bakoum ct;sa! T.our qa\loum ;m ]iapani f;tiz! D;moud;m fouji art;rn ;n^ kanac gotiow% bar]ounqi wra ;rouk fowiwe% kjna ir anbavan ];na'a\tin% f;toum h oc.arn;ri fotin! M\ous ko[mi kanac art;roum kana\q qa[fan hin anoum! Nranz m;= fankar t;sa&&& >onarfin&&& M;r fa\azqn;re irar fandip;zin% ;s nra acq;roum vpit ct;sa! Araf;tow bar]ranalis mi,t f;t hi na\oum! Kaza kana\q kanacin enka jcounn;ri hin nman! :w a\d ;ramiz m;ke^ gor, ,or;row mi a[=ik% aw;li faya. hr bar]ranoum% ];qe dnoum yakatin% or ari ,o[;re c.angar;n t;sn;lou antai m;= falwo[ araf;te mia\nak anzworin&&& Est Aks;l Bakounzi >onarfi a[=ike patmwaqi (Adaptation from Axel Bakunts, 1889-1937)


Kaqi ';n b;natar `ourgone ;r\a fognatan= yam'ordouj\ouniz f;to apaga wipasanin faszr;z f;qiaja\in gor, qa[aqe^ Baqou! Brd\a ar.alou[e fagin% morj; gdakow gawaazi miamit patanou fa\azqi aa= s'woum h fou\s;ri ou fou\x;ri qa[aq Baqoun^ as`altapat 'o[ozn;row% gorarann;ri ou fanq;ri jan]rafos .ow% nawja\in bourg;ri s antan;row! Incpisi@ fakadrouj\oun <ama.ou k;nsajrji ou xwarj% ba\z andorraw;t bnouj\an ou a\s ma\l% anfrapou\r% v.ora\in nawja,.arfi mi=! Danadavan ja.i h i=noum anf\ourenkal qa[aqin anent;l patanou fogoun! Jwaz in]% groum h m;a,norf wipasane% j; i=noum ;m mi t;sak dvo.q% our piti fawit;nap;s tan=w;m^ a\d f;[]ouzic% jan]r .i ou mri m;= farouza .ocendotn;re fa[jafar;lou famar! Ba.ti qmafay mrrike mi qani tari aa= Baqou hr n;t;l na Ab;l\ani entaniqe^ fanapaxr\a faz fa\ja\j;lou! Kine^ Mariame% <irwanxad;i moraqou\rn hr! Aa=in re minc k;sgi,;r nranz krts;r ou awag ordin;re anfoun 'a'agow farzou'or] hin anoum <ama.ou anzoudar]iz% ar\a k\anqiz% ir;nz barbaow xwaryafarou\z patmouj\ounn;r anoum! Baqoun f\ourenkal qa[aq chr encazqe nor saza patanou famar& a\nt;[ i d;r ;lan nra fou\s;re% fds znd;zin znoramit% mtazain bolor aasp;ln;re! Anjan gawaazi patanou famar d\ourin chr a\d qa[aqoum apastan gtn;le! Farmar orh a,.atanq gtn;lou famar gi,;r ou xr oronoumn;r hin p;tq% na ja.ali ou kisaqa[z r;r hin linoum! Ourbaja.os% ;rkcot patanin ;rka@r% ;rka@r d;g;roum hr owa'in% na\oum f;azo[ danda[enjaz ,og;naw;rin%]oum nawabaxriqn;rin kjna anfog nawordn;rin% oronq bolorn hl oura. ou xwarj hin% isk inqe^ nranz fasakakiz% ba\z ard;n k\anqi fogs;riz kqa^ mia\n ;raxafou\s% ;raxat;nc mi patani h! Est Frant Jamrax\ani <irwanxad; a,.atouj\an (Adaptation from Hrant Tamrazyan, 1926-2001)

A,oun h! Yam';xrin ;rkinq hin .o\az;l bardin;re^ kanac% d;[in% d;[nakarmir% narn=agou\n^ st;[;low mi .yankar! Y;'-y;rmak sajou\r a[awnin;ri mi ;ram% a,nan ariz arba% .;nj ptou\tn;r hr anoum karkacoun awaki wra! Jij;[aak tn;riz m;ki endar]ak bakoum .anw;l ;n baz kanace% moug karmire% ,aganakagou\ne% wardagou\ne ;rangn;r faxarajou\r% oronz famar anoun piti 'ntr;s kam mta;s^ dranq t;s;#l ;s ;rbh! Isk a\gin;#re! :j; m;ke ;rbh ouxoum h ;ranouj\ouniz kargin .;njanal% our;mn a,nane famar]akouj\oun piti oun;na mtn;l Ararat\an da,ti orh a\gi kam j;koux anzn;l nra ko[qow! D; f;ou f;wiz q;x parouroum ;n fay;li bou\r;re!

>a[o[i o[kou\xn;re 'a\l'loum% acqow ;n anoum m;rj end m;rj% a;ri y\ou[;riz as;s fima kkajkj;n malaca tan];re% k;s-k;s lin;low ari b;rane kenkn;n d;[];re qa[zrafam% ariz ,ikna .n]orn;re kf;[;[;n yam'ad! Ma\qle% ]ig bna a[=ka ];qe% slazaw farj da,tow m;k! Fasmike% ckaro[analow f;t;l ;ritasardi enjazqin% pokw;z nra pirk ];qiz 'o.;low ou[[ouj\oune^ aa= n;tw;z! Qamin gxoum% .yyoum hr nra osk;d;[]an max;re% ja'oum qrtna d;m qin% ba\z na ,arounakoum hr inqnamoaz% .;lakorou\s waxqe! Ma\ql-Wane anhaza^ ;ranouj\amb f;toum hr nran! Fasaw% bn;z! Ou nranq jawalw;zin a,nan ;r'n;rang n;rk;ri m;=! :ran\an f;qiaja\in a,oun hr% mjn,a[i nourb ,o[;re f;[;[oum hin nranz% osk;xwa .ot;rn as;s ir;nq hin asoum^ tror;z;*q m;x&&& :w Ma\qle% a\o*% piti ;rdw;r% or a\dpisi ;ranouj\oun ;rbh ourh ci t;s;l! Sa ounki i=aw Ararati d;moud;m% kazaw% glou.e .onarf;z g;tnin% inc-or ,,n=az% inc-or ;rdw;z ou fambour;z fo[e! Fasmike t;saw% or nra acq;re 'ak hin% fambour;z nran ou f;nz a\d vamanak nkat;z nra a\t;rin saa arzounqi ;rkou kajiln;rn ou ,ourj;ri wra mnaza srbaxan fo[e! Wane srti ankapt;li m[oumow am'o';z a[=kan ir grki m;=% amour s;[m;z krqin d; carjnaza a[ojqiz^ asaz& :rani nran% ow otqi tak fogou m;= xgoum h ma\r fo[i andorric bou\re! Est Bogdan W;rd\ani a[ikn;rs mnazin f;woum w;pi (Adaptation from Bogdan Verdian, 1919-1992)

:rb g;n;ral Fowfann;s Ba[ram\ani^ anz\aloum fam;st anoune taraw;z Fa\r;nakan m; pat;raxmi tarin;rin% S'\ouqi fa\;riz namakn;ri anendm;= f;[;[ fos;z d;pi na! Mi lousnka ;r;ko% ;rb pat,gamboum awartw;l hr entan;kan a,.ou\v xrou\ze% g;n;rale% kjna ir gras;[anin% .orasouxw;l hr inc-or namaki enj;rzanouj\an m;=! A\sp;s hr skswoum namake& };x groum h bnrraniz armatafan ;[a tara,.arfik mi fa\ kin% ore xr ou gi,;r ;rax;l h gtn;l ir ;[bore^ jourqakan sriz 'rkwa miak faraxatin a,.arfis wra! :rkar vamanak chi karo[ gr;l& wa.;noum hi^ fds znd;in a\n ;raxn;re% oronzow lzw;l hr fogis a\np;s anspas;lior;n! nw;l ;m Wana owi a'am;r] mi 'oqrik g\ou[oum! Bolore% bolore fi,oum ;m% incp;s a\srwa a\gabaze% * m;r bar]r l;n;re% * .or ]or;re% m;r b;rri part;xn;re% * m;r m,taou' liye% * A[jamara wanqe^ k[xou wra! Ka# ard\oq mi ouri, cqna[ ;rkir% incpisin m;rn hr% oriz xrk;z m;x vant j,namin! Fi,o#um ;q Douq a\d am;ne! Jourqakan \aja[aniz enkaw im fa\re^ arna,a[a. d;m qow% ma\rs^ anm;[

fa\azqe anardar ;rknqin ou[[a% ;[ba\rn;rs% qou\r;rs&&& Axatw;zinq mimia\n ;s ou ;[ba\rs! :s^ ouj tar;kan mi a[=ik% ;[ba\rs^ ine tarow in]niz m; mi patan\ak% 'a.anq anta% f;to m\ous 'a.stakann;ri f;t^ Ala,k;rt% Kars! A\nt;[ ;s ;[bors korzri! Na% frazan aa% gnaz j,namouz wr;v lou;lou% isk ;s% mrrki b;rann enka t;ri nman% tarw;zi andrwkian\an a\s ;rkire^ Am;rika! F;to imaza% or ;[bors t;s;l ;n Sardarapati kiwn;roum % w;r=ap;s% fima^ fama,.arfa\in a\s af;[ jofoubofoum% g;n;ral dar]a! S ir;li* Fowfann;s% faraxa@ts% mi#j; Douq im ;[ba\re c;q& o*c% ci karo[ pataf;l% or im qro=akan sirte in] .abi! Jou\l tw;q storagr;l a\sp;s^ Qo qou\r Anafit! G;n;rale 'oqr-inc .orf;louz f;to gr;z& Jankagi*n qou\rs% namakd ,at foux;z in]! :s nw;l ;m oc j; Jourqafa\astanoum% a\l S\oun\az a,.arfoum minc a\sr Anafit anounow qou\r coun;i% fima oun;m! M;x mi ma\r ci n;l% ba\z n;l h mi* vo[owourd! Qo ;[ba\r^ Fowfann;s! Est Frac\a Qocari G;n;rali qou\re patmwaqi (Adaptation from Hrachia Kochar, 1910-1965)

J;lik-m;lik% carayyi mi a[=nak hr Marane! :rb patafoum hr% hqskoursia hin gnoum (est enk;r Souqias\ani^ bnagitakan ar,awi) d;pi ]outi kam Karmir sari bar]ounqn;re% incp;s mi,t% na ,r=as'\ou .ot;ri m;= anpa\man aa=in f;rjin 'ntroum hr ourzi manrat;r% nrbabou\r a[ikn;r! Kar;s f;wiz xgoum hr% j; ort;*[ ;n jaqnwa dranq% o*r qararanqn;roum ;n kkwa! :w ;rb gtnoum hr% gofavpit coqoum hr g;tnin% fakwoum ourzi qnqou, a[ikn;rin% xgou,or;n pokoum% embo,.noum nranz arb;zno[ bou\re apa amraznoum max;rin ou d;[]an ,r=axg;stin! A\d wa\rk\ann;rin nra acq;re zolzloum hin% qamin m;[mor;n aanoum hr jaw,\a max;re^ ourzi a[ikn;row xardaroun% ''aznoum dar]aalq;row ,ore^ endg;low wtit marmine! :r=ankaza^ slazik fasakow m;k kangnoum hr% mi aknjarj anhaza na\oum lourj ;rknqin % j aa% ;j;ra\in mi slazqow jcoum blourn i wa\r% incp;s pince qami mta a\\am! Xarmanali chr% or nraniz mi,t ourzi bou\r hr galis% fa\tni chr% j; o*w hr nran mi angam as;l Ourzi Maran% ou a\dp;s hl anoune kp;l-mnaz;l hr! gostos\an lousnka gi,;r hr! A[b\ouri go[trik fou,ar]ani mot^ akazian;ri kajnam,ou, stw;roum% mia\nak kangna hr Marane! <our=bolore mi trtma,ouq andorrouj\oun hr tiroum! Lousajaja. spasoumi m;= inc-or mi .owq hr famak;l Maranin! N;ram'o'% faxiw nkat;li n\arda\in ,arvoumow na anendfat qandoum-f\ousoum hr am;re! M;rj anqjij xnnoum hr ou;nou tak lousastw;riz go\aza van\ake% m;rj ounkndroum [ridn;ri mialar rfn;rge% aknawyit a[b\ouri .o.o=\ounr inc-or ananoj ]a\n;r! M;kendm;=


fa\azqn ou[[oum hr lousnka\i araj ,o[;ri tak gi,;ra\in forixonoum gagrwa M; ou "oqr Masisn;ri bibliakan katarn;rin! T;rn;ri ann,an ,r,\ouniz angam Marani marmnow sarsou hr anznoum! St;p-st;p anenddimadr;li zankouj\oun hr oun;noum 'a.c;lou d;pi toun% d;pi ma\rakan taqouk girke% ba\z wa\rk\an anz inc-or ananoj ouv% srtajrji mi ban f;t hr pafoum nran% mi anembn;li ou ana[art xgazmounq qnq,or;n jowoum% ka.ardoum hr nran% oriz d;a'jij sirte jprtoum hr! Da nra siro aa=in vamadrouj\ounn hr! Est >acik Frac\ani Ourzi marane w;pi (Adaptation from Khatchik Hrachian, 1912-1982)

Aawot hr! Lousnka gi,;rin fa=ord;l hr Ararat\an da,ti lousapa\a aawotn;riz m;ke! Noraag ari aa=in yaaga\jn;ri n;rqo Masisi ;rknakarka gagaje oskorw;l 'a\l'loum hr wardagou\n ,o[q;row% oronq acq hin akoum! Aragai ;rknafoup gagaje chr ;roum& na d; pata hr ]\ouni p;s y;rmak m;gow% orp;s mi .onarf ou amoj.a farsik% or sqo[oum h qe \our d;m anja'anz ,[ar,ow! Kanacaak% fouji margag;tinn;re% zo[wa wa[ord\an margaritn;row% 'jj;l hin faxarabou\r faxarajou\r a[ikn;row wawoum hin iaani ;r'n;rang gou\n;row! "coum hr m;[m s\ouqe% a[ikn;re vptoum hin% dalar .otabou\s;re^ 'oum ou aanwoum% da,ti andorr mak;rou\je rorwoum hr fiasqanc al;koouj\amb! G;[;zik hr a\d aawote! Jcounn;ri bar;fnc\oun ywo[\ounn;re jndaznoum hin de% b\ourawor jij;n;re ;r'n;rang a[ikn;ri nman zanwa hin di m;= ,tapow ou anfagourd oum hin baxmabou\r a[ikn;ri n;ktare! Spitak aragile% karmir otq;re forixonakan dirqow ou[i[ m;kna% la\n j;re anendfat ja'afaroum hr^ ,tap;low d;pi Araqsi moroutn;re! };nasoun ;[=;roun% wa\ri wijn ou a\\ame dours hin ;k;l >osrowi antan;riz axat% famar]ak waxwxoum hin ,r=aka marg;ri wra! Chr ;roum mimia\n marde! Am;n aawot jcoune kardoum hr ir,alou\s\an rfn;rge% nra f;t ls;li hin vra=an m,aki ;rgi m;[mror fnc\ounn;re! Ari tak 'a\l'loum hr manga[e% ;oum hr gore% osk;[;n foun]qe \our liaat b;[mnaworouj\amb pargatroum hr wastakab;k ,inakani a,.atanqe! Isk a\s aawot ckar fn]wore% fasounaza arte% anqa[ ou an.nam mnalow% coraz;l% jar,am;l hr% ou anm;kin% endfanour mi sarsa' kar;s jaoum hr ,r=aka\qoum! Am;n aawot sourb tayari kocnaki aa=in fnc\ounn;ri f;t xarjnoum hr fowiwe! Oc.arn;ri anou, ma\oune% ar=an;ri oura. baac\oune k;ndanaz421

noum hin kanacaw;t fowitn;re .ist a.orvalour a[moukow! Isk a\s aawot chin ;roum o*c fowiwe o*c nra fote! Zirouzan ganoukn;re ja'aoum hin sar ou ]or % orp;s fa\rakorou\s orboukn;r% oronoum fowwin! Est Ra``ou Samw;l w;pi (Adaptation from Raffi, 1835-1888)

F;t\al re^ aawot\an% ;rb Pape patrastwoum hr m;kn;l T;r;nti d[\ake% ;[anake fankar 'o.w;z& parx ;rkinqe akw;z mjin% sajou\r amp;row% ou qami bar]razaw! Papin f\ourenkalo[ Fawnouni i,.ane .orfourd tw;z yanaparf cenkn;l ou[orouj\oune f;ta]g;l wa[wan% ba\z Pape cfama]a\nw;z! I,.ann a\ls cenddimazaw% f\ourenkalouj\an karge c.a.t;lou famar! :rb jagawore frav;,t tw;z i,.anin ou nra g;rdastanin nvou\ge q,;z aa=% bolore miab;ran goc;zin& Bari yanapa@rf% arqa*! Jiknapaf gounde% nixakn;row ou a[;[n;row xinwa% f;t;z jagaworin! Pape ]in waroum hr Baji ou :r;mia\i m;=t;[e^ a,.ou\v xrouz;low nranz f;t! :r;mia\i mi ko[qiz ka.wa hr soure% m\ous ko[qiz^ ka,w; pa\ousake% ori m;= pafoum hr ir anawart mat\ane! :rb jagaworakan ,qa.oumbe dours ;kaw antaiz% f;woum^ bar]ounqi wra% ;raz T;r;nti d[\ake^ ,r=apatwa kanacaxard a;row! Fom;azi xoraware mi qani xorakann;row endaa= ;kaw fa\oz jagaworin! Bari galo*ust% arqa*% o[=oun;z T;r;nte^ ];qe bar]razn;low! Mtn;low a;row ,r=apatwa bake^ Pape nra ou[;kizn;rn i=an ]i;riz tantiro= aa=nordouj\amb qar; sandou[qn;row bar]razan d[\ake! T;r;nte f\our;rin aa=nord;z mi endar]ak sraf% or kafaworwa hr b\ouxandakan 'a'ouk baxmozn;row ou ajon;row! Pat;rin ka.wa hin x;nqi tarb;r t;sakn;r^ jr;r% da,ou\nn;r% orsi k;ndanin;ri^ ;[=;roui% a\\ami glou.n;r^ g;[;zik ;[=\ourn;row% isk a\d bolori k;ntronoum^ waraxi mi glou.^ ;rkar vaniqn;row! F\our;rin aa=nord;zin ya,asrafe% ori k;ntronoum drwa hr mi ;rkar s;[an^ liqe am;n t;sak .ortikn;row ou emp;liqn;row! Faxiw hr jagawore n;rs mt;l% ;rb fnc;z m;[m nwagaouj\oun% or galis hr srafi .orqiz! Nwagaouj\an ]a\n;ri tak T;r;nte m; fogaouj\amb nst;zr;z Papin nra famar patrastwa fatouk baxmozi wra% or drwa hr s;[ani w;roum% apa inqe t;[ bn;z s;[ani a= ko[moum^ arqa\in motik! N;rda,nak ;rg ou nwagi tak ya,k;rou\jn sksw;z! Est St;'an Xor\ani Pap jagawor w;pi (Adaptation from Stepan Zoryan, 1889-1967)


Isk antae ci# m;noum! O*c% ci m;noum antae! A\n vo[owrdi nman h& mafanoum h m;ke% nwoum h m\ouse% ;rrorde% corrorde& enka darawor bni mot nor ,iw h ayoum ou go\atoum! Wa.e m; xgazoum h& a\n ;rb;mn andamalou\ h anoum mardoun% ba\z faya. m[oum h fnaragitouj\an .ixa.ouj\an! A\dp;s pataf;z antaapat bar]ounqow '[ mardkanz f;t! T;sn;low ir;nz f;tapndo[ ]iaworn;rin^ xinwa jiknapafn;row% nranq endarmazan wa.iz% saka\n xgalow ir;nz k\anqin spanazo[ wtange^ iskou\n ;j aragazrin qa\l;re ga[tni kaanow mtan antai .orqe! re mjnoum hr% antae^ ma\lwoum& bar]raza qamin roroum hr a;re% nranz y\ou[;re xarkwoum hin irar ou .,,oum^ m;*rj m;[m sarsouow% m;*rj bar]r% tagnapafar^ antae lzn;low baxma]a\n v.orow! Mouje gnalow jan]ranoum hr& nra f;t i=noum hr louj\oune% or ;rb;mn;rb;mn .a.twoum hr inc-or tarrinak ]a\n;riz! "a.stakann;ri .oumbe an.os ou l;l\a\n anendfat gnoum hr aa=! :w orqan aa= hr ,arvwoum% antan aw;li hr .tanoum% qa\l;le danoum hr dvwarin! <at;rn ard;n fogn;l hin% qa\loum hin^ m; yig goradr;low! :rb m;ke kam m\ouse sa\jaqoum hr% enknoum% iskou\n w;r hr k;noum ;rk\ou[a ,arounakoum anfa\t% anoro, ou[in! Nranz jwoum hr^ ir;nz d; f;tapndoum ;n% ousti ankarg ,arounakoum hin aa= gnal minou\n ou[[ouj\amb^ i,.ann;ri ];qe cenkn;lou famar! Mar;*% minc o#ur piti qa\l;nq% fogna otq;re faxiw 'o.;low^ farzr;z ine tar;kan mi a[=ik! H*f% gnanq% a[=i*ks% hl f;t mi* na\ir% srdo[a asaz ma\re! A\ls ankaro[ hin aa= ,arvw;l& .oumbe kang aaw mi bazatoum! T[amardik t;[aworw;zin ou[[aki g;tni wra% cna\a .onaw hr ou jaz% kana\q^ fagoustn;ri kapozn;rin% omanq hl nst;zin tapalwa ou 'ta aabn;ri wra! Antai gi,;ra\in ]a\n;re ;rk\ou[ali sarsouow hin lznoum mardkanz srt;re! a;ri sa[arjn;ri aranqiz m;k-m;k ;roum hin manr ou m; ast[;r^ fandart jarjo[ acq;ri nman! :rknqi kapou\t `onin gagrw;z Fardago[i yanaparfe! Est St;'an Xor\ani Fa\oz b;rde w;pi (Adaptation from Stepan Zoryan, 1889-1967)

Taragrouj\an z;[aspanouj\an arfawirqn;riz fi,o[ouj\ans m;= an=n=;li mnaza sars;zouzic% afaxarfour ;[;napatk;rn;riz m;kn h fa\ d;a'jij ou sowallouk manoukn;ri wayaqe S;pili wrann;ri tak! S;pile dv.;m ou tan=allouk fa\;rin^ d;pi dvo.q tano[ aa=in ka\arann hr! 1915 jwakani d;kt;mb;ri w;r=;rin% mi lousnka gi,;r% fasa a\nt;[


t;sa% or da,te akwa hr b\ourawor wrann;row% oronq l;zoun hin >arb;rdiz% Malajia\iz% Tigranak;rtiz% Partixakiz a\l ko[m;riz g;r;wara j,wa taragirn;row% oronq% ir;nz akoujn;re lqa% d;g;roum hin anf\ourenkal ;x;rqoum! Ti`e% vanta.te% do[hrozqe rakan 500-600 k\anq hin fn]oum! A[bafawaq sa\l;re rniboun wraniz wran hin anznoum^ diakn;r fawaq;lou% am;n sa\li m;= tasiz tasn;rkou diakn;r dixoum! Patafoum hr% or fog;warqi m;= gtnwo[n;rin s m;an;ri f;t sa\l;ri m;= hin n;toum! Ba\z am;niz srtaymlike manoukn;ri wayaqn hr! Gooxamit ou ambartawan faroust kana\q ,r=oum hin wrann;re^ farzn;low& a.ou ;r;.a cka#&&& A\n ma\r;re% oronq d;s karo[ hin mi pata faz fa\ja\j;l% soskoumow ou arfamarfanqow q,oum hin gnordn;rin% isk nranq% oronq an;l wiyakoum hin% anoji% lazoukoow% an;qow al;ko srtow faroust kananz hin fan]noum ir;nz xawakn;rin^ mi qani araj drami dimaz! Gnordn;rn ir;nz f;t b;roum hin a.orvagrgi orh ban& 'oqrik a[=ka ];qe% rinak% mi narin= hin talis (a\d kana\q mi,t a[=ikn;r hin gnoum)% ou .;[y% anoji 'oqrike far]akwoum hr narn=i wra! F;to zou\z hin talis ;giptazor;nn ou asoum& A\s hl kaqi m;= kout;s! Ou sowafar 'oqrike% incp;s anm;[ gae% or mi bou .oti f;tiz h gnoum% lalow f;toum hr kananz% aaw;l^ ;giptazor;nin% ;rb;mn-;rb;mn na\oum f;t^ ma\rikin! Qani@-qani angam .;laf;[ ma\r;re pojkoun x[=oumow wax;l kaqi mi=iz f;t ;n .l;l ir;nz xawakn;rin^ drame ambari,t gnordn;ri ;r;sin ,prt;low! >;@[y ma\r;r&&& Est :rwand t\ani S;pili wrann;rou tak fou,agrouj\an (Adaptation from Yervand Otian, 1969-1926)

S ir;li* Fi'sim;% im angi*n qou\rik& dou xarmanoum ;s% j; incpisi ;[anakow hi gr;l namaks! :s% est ;rou\jin% trtn=alou fim cp;tq h oun;nam% a\np;s ch#% sir;li* q qou\rik! Ba\z ari t;s% or a\dp;s ch! W;r=in vamanakn;rs in] j,wa ;m xgoum aanz orh aknfa\t patyai! Namak ;s pafan=oum% i#nc gr;m% i#nc oun;m gr;lou% ;rb ,our=s ou n;rss katar\al datarkouj\oun h tiroum! Ocinc cka% oc mi fimnawor ban% oriz karo[ana\i amour kac;l canf;tanalou famar% ori wra karo[ana\i k;ntronazn;l ja'ao[ mtqis enjazqe^ cmolorw;lou famar! :raka\ir^ mi anfoun% .or.orat taraouj\oun% ori m;= enk;l h mard& na taraoum h ];q;rn a\s ou a\n ko[m% orp;sxi mi ban gtni% oriz karo[ana bn;l^ aw;li .ore cenkn;lou famar% ba\z

mi,t fandipoum h datark taraouj\an^ otq;ri tak fatak cgtn;low! Y,marit h% ka im m;= mi xgazmounq% ori famar partakan ;m ;[bors% j;p;t a\d xgazmounqe bar;rar axd;zouj\oun h oun;z;l in] wra% ba\z% angi*n qou\rik% faskano#um ;s% j; orqan ;ritasard ;m ;s d;% sirts ou fogis bnakanabar d;pi ince piti ]gt;n! Anz\al kiraki m;r toun ;kaw Jomas Gasparice^ fors wa[;mi bar;kame (dou yanacoum ;s nran)! Na nou\nn h mnaz;l% fagoustn hl nou\nn h^ nou\n .ounaza gl.arke^ karmir ;rixow% nou\n xg;ste^ fnouj\ouniz saza ;rkaj; koyakn;row% nou\n ];na'a\te% oriz nsta vamanak angam ci bavanwoum! :s nsta hi s;n\akoum^ baz lousamouti a=% Tourg;n hi kardoum! Fa\rs nsta hr lousamoutiz f;ou^ m;=qe d;pi in] ara% mta.of na\oum hr qa[aqin! Na a\n astiyan .orasouxwa hr ir mtamounqn;ri m;=% or cnkat;z% j; incp;s Jomas Gasparice mot;zaw ir;n danda[% ;r;roun qa\lqow! <at .orn ;s mtaoum% a[a* Gorg% asaz Jomas Gasparice^ fa\azqe fa;low nra wra! Fa\rs fankar sja'w;z na\;z nran& A@% Jomas Gasparic% a\d do#u ;s% bar (ou m;kn;z nran ir ];qe)! Incp;#s ;s% q;`d la#w h! Fam;zi*r% nsti*r! Est Nar-Dosi Anna Saro\an wipaki (Adaptation from Nar-Dos, 1867-1933)

L;ninakani fin ja[;riz m;koum^ }ori bo[axoum% orn am;na\n irawamb d; karo[ hr kr;l G\oumri anoune% ir 'oqrik tan m;= m;noum h a[b\ourn;ri a,.arfafcak warp;te^ ousta Mkrtice! :rb a\z;louj\an ;kan srtamot enk;rn;re^ n;se% Aw;tiqe% Misake% Fab;je% oustan% arfamarf;low marmnoum restr; ayo[% do[hrozqi sarsoun ou mrmoue fi,;zno[ srs'ouqn ou t;nde% yig ou =anqow kjn;low do[do=oun ];q;rin% mi k;rp enko[man;z ta'ak bar]in andorr% maro[ fa\azqe ou[[;z nranz ko[me! Mkrti#c% i#nc h ;[;l% enci# ;s pak;l% ousta\in dim;z Misake! W;r=in pak;ls h% n;ro*[ ;[;q% asaz oustan! Fa*rs =an% ajon;*r tour! Enk;rn;re% incp;s endounwa h nman d;pq;roum% srtapnd;zin nran% famoxwaouj\oun fa\tn;zin% or endam;ne \oj-ouj riz f;to na otqi kkangni% miasin kgnan Wardap;ti ba[e% mi law q;` kan;n! Enk;rn;ri gnalouz f;to na ,arounak;z paka mnal anxga% an,arv% endarmaza! Marmnoum xgoum hr endfanour joulouj\oun% inc-or jmbir% j; chr korzr;l gitakzouj\oune% antarb;r hr dar];l d;pi a,.arfe! Inqnestinq\an parx h% or a\d wiyakoum nran a\ls oc mi mitq chr fouxoum% oc mi 'a'ag coun;r& nra ou[;[oum ]aworwoum hin anmi=ap;s hl fds hin zndoum anf;j;j%

f;[f;[ouk patk;rn;r! A\vm% gi,;r ou xr% sra ou[;[i akwo[ darpasiz n;rs h sprdoum \ouraqanc\our manrouq% inc or gtnwoum hr nra t;so[ouj\an da,toum% nra acq;ri a=! Isk a\nt;[ gtnwo[e mimia\n fandipakaz ma\ji akanakit a[b\ourn hr^ nra ou[;[i ];q;ri aa=in gore! Fing tari anendm;= ouri, warp;tn;ri mot a,ak;rt;louz f;to qsanw;z tar;kan Mkrtice awart;z a\n% ibr ir aa=in inqnourou\n a,.atanqe! G\oumrou fcakawor warp;tn;re manraxnin stoug;zin a[b\oure% znz;zin gl.aqare^ amo#ur h ard\oq% .m;zin =riz^ sa#n h ard\oq% ];qow 'ak;zin .o[owaki b;rane^ =oure f;t ci# .'i% ci# endfatwi ard\oq! A[b\oure dimazaw am;napafan=kot qnnouj\an! Mkrtcin ];nadr;zin ousta! Est Mkrtic Arm;ni F;[nar a[b\our wipaki (Adaptation from Mkrtich Armen, 1906-1972)

Bvi,kn;ri konsilioumiz f;to Markos Alim\ani drouj\oune restr; watjarazaw! Saka\n Smbati vamanman loure nran wa\rk;nap;s fan;z l;jargiakan m[]awan=iz% lousaworw;z nra d;m mi an.ab oura.ouj\oun anmi=ap;s qe% parx;z yakate% ore nra wajsounam\a ;rkara]ig k\anqi enjazqoum ;rbh chr artafa\t;l xwarjouj\oun! Mimia\n mi paf fiwande .oraxnin fa\azqe ou[[;z ordou d;m qin% apa ar]ak;low mi .oul mrmn=\oun^ do[do=oun ];q;row grk;z ambastan\al ordou gangraf;r glou.e s;[m;z al;ko krqin kar;lwou\n ca' pind! Tikin Alim\ann sks;z f;k;kal! Nran f;t;z a[=ike^ Marjan% f;to^ ordin;re! A\vm ;rounin karo[ hr ir fogin awand;l% @% oc fangist% incp;s k'a'ag;r% a\l mi anfoun wi,t baxmaf; srti m;=! Ouj tari hr^ na chr t;s;l awag ordoun% orin anfagor;n sir;l hr anbasir sirow orin piti fan]n;r ir bolor gor;re! :w oc mia\n chr t;s;l% a\l chr ouxoum t;sn;l% ls;l nra anoune% qani or na ir ano[=a.of warqagow warkab;k;l hr Alim\ann;ri tan bari anoune! A@f% orqa@n fousa.ab ar;z ir;n a\d sirwa ordin% orpisi@ fog;kan twa\tanq patya;z% ore j,namin;riz]amitn;riz jaqzn;lou famar qi farkawor hin sastik yig;r% kam g;rbnakan xorouj\oun! Apr;lou anfagourd t;nce a\ls chr f;taqrqroum mafam;r]in% a\l anr ou an;l wiyake% ore nran drdoum hr k\anqi g;j w;r=in wa\rk\ann;rin an=atw;l fogin kro[ ;rkentranqiz oro,;l ir dirqe m; ordou nkatmamb! I w;r=o mi .or% ,at .or fa\azq% or galis hr g;r;xmani .orqiz% am;n inc parx;z m;[sagor ordou famar! M;na#k ;s ;k;l% karo[azaw mia\n barba;l m;no[e! M;nak%;z ordin^ kaf;low farzi houj\oune! Ma\l vpite aknjarjor;n t;[i tw;z fouso ,o[in% fogou andorrin! Ba\z afa ;rounou p[tor fa\azqe enkaw ordou osk; matanou wra% ore nra amousnouj\an n,ann hr!

Anzae w;radar]n;l ci lini% fa*\r% rfni*r% artasan;z ordin .;[dwa ]a\now% ori m;= xgazwoum hr dae kski% ba\z oc x[=oum! Aniw;*s% ;j; w;r=in kam c;s katari&&& a\s sars;zouzic ba;re qs mrmn=az fa\re saco[ ,rjounqn;ri mi=iz! Est <irwanxad;i Qaos w;pi (Adaptation from Shirvanzade, 1858-1935)

Bano@n&&& Mi 'oqr g\ou[ h sa^ jaa kanacaxard ou g;[at;sil bar]rawandaki wra! Oloraptou\t% n;[lik 'o[ozn;ri a= ou ]a. ko[m;roum ko[q ko[qi ,arwa ;n an] ou .[youk .ryijn;r^ m;=qm;=qi kpzra% 'oqrik blrakn;ri nmanwo[ ououzik ktourn;row% oronz w;roum ;rdikn;rn ;n! G\ou[i armt\an ko[moum Marali g;[axard sar;rn ;n^ kanacapat% a[kaw;t ';,;row! A\d sar;ri akanakit a[b\ourn;riz h skixb anoum Banoni l;na\in g;take% ore% y;[q;low blrakn;ri kourqe% srenjaz i=noum h za ir clo[ ,aac\ounow .a.toum ,r=aka\qi andorre! Na gi,;r ou xr ;oum h ir a';re% m;rj wyit% m;rj p[tor aliqn;row 'r'ourjqoum nranz ;r;sin! La#z h linoum g;te% j;# gangatwoum h% oc oq cgit;! Garnane^ f;[;[n;ri vamanak% g;te wararoum h ir enjazqi m;= an;low m; ou 'oqr qar;r^ aa= h m[oum ir a[mkafou\x aliqn;re% anxor barkouj\amb xarkoum a'am;r] va\;rin! A\s =ra;% ou[[a]ig qarava\;riz m;ki katarin^ s;pa] bar]ounqi wra% gtnwoum h mi finawourz m;nastan^ bnakan parispn;row ,r=apatwa! Da Banoni fa\tni srbawa\rn h^ Astwaaine% or kaouz;l ;n qriston;akan aa=in dar;ri fawataz\aln;re^ ;rknakarka a\d bar]ounqiz a astwa ou[[;lou ir;nz srtabou. a[ojqn;re! Oc oq cgit;% j; ;*rb h kaouzw;l a\d tayare% o*r anarg ];qn h aw;rak dar]r;l asto toune& o*c mi gir% o*c mi fi,atakouj\oun cka a\d masin! Ba\z Banoni bnakcin farkawor hl ch da% na famoxwa h% or a\s aw;rak kamarn;ri tak% a\s kisakoran .orann;roum zanouzir enka mamapat qar;ri m;= hl astwa klsi ir ja.amrmoun= a[ojqn;re! L;na\in mi n;[ araf;t a\sr hl =;rm;and ou.taworin aa=nordoum h d;pi aw;rak m;nastane% or fawati mom;r wai anz\al 'aqi t.our mnazordn;ri wra% fambouri srbawa\ri mrota ou dar;ri ,nciz ma,wa qar;re! Est Aw;tis Afaron\ani Banon patmwaqi (Adaptation from Avetis Aharonian, 1866-1948)


M;r g\ou[e gtnwoum h bar]radir l;an farawa\in lan=;rin! N;rqoum moug kanac antan;rn ;n tarawoum% isk w;roum^ alpiakan arotn;re^ kana@c% a[ko@t% bouraw;@t! O#w h ';l a\s ,q;[% ;r'n;rang gorg;re^ an];agor% ka.ardo[ gou\n;row&&& Antaaxourk bar]ounqn;re xardarwa ;n kanacow ou da,ta\in p;s-p;s a[ikn;row% isk l;an gagajn;ri mi= sarafarj;r ;n 'wa% xmrou.t margag;tinn;r% our amane kanace ''oum h owi nman! A[sti fowtoum mialar w,,oum h l;na\in aatabou. a[b\ourn;riz skixb ano[ g;te! Nra a'am;r] m;-m; qar;ri y;[q;roum =ra'os;r kan% oronz m;= w.toum ;n karmra.a\t ]kn;ri wtan;re! Fordaat an]rn;riz f;to g;te p[torwoum h% gogooum gaxaxa wi,api nman% isk amane barakoum% danoum h f;xafambou\r mi g;tak! A\d g;ti go[trik a';rin h anz;l im mankouj\oune^ nra p;s giv ou ansan]% nra p;s f;x ou qa[zrakarkac! Ou fima% ;rb krkin a\zi ;m ;k;l mankouj\ans nwirakan wa\r;rin% acqis aa= im mankouj\an patk;rn;rn ;n galis^ orp;s wa[ouz ',rwa qa[zr ;raxi b;korn;r! G;tn hli ir faw;rvakan w,,ozow lznoum h ]ore% hli karmra.a\t;re^ nrbin .al;row ou 'wa j;row% jprtoum ;n akanakit =r;roum% jcoum =rw;vn i w;r! Am;n inc nou\nn h% mia\n im mankouj\an enk;re^ Bo[are% ori facoze d; akan=oums h% cka! Orskan Qocarn hl orsi ci gnoum ou qa\loum h ir oujsounfing tarin;ri b;an tak! G;taki fosanqn i w;r gnalow^ fasa l;nafowite% ort;[ow fosoum h g;te^ mirinak ou ja.ali w,,ozow! Ou in] jwaz^ im mankouj\an anoj ]a\n;row lzw;z fowite% kar;s m;r Bo[ari facozn hi lsoum% forj;ri baace% enk;rn;ris kanc;re! Fima ouri, ;r;.an;r ;n .a[oum im mankouj\an enk;r g;taki a'in! Nranz b;rkrali kanc;riz% gooum-goc\ounn;riz jndoum h ]ore! :s f;anoum ;m faraxat wa\r;riz^ mi .orin a'sosanq srtis m;=! Est Wa.jang Anan\ani G\ou[i qafanan patmwaqi (Adaptation from Vakhtang Ananyan, 1905-1980)

Wa[ouz h ard;n^ in] fangist ci talis mi mitq^ mi fin partamourfak^ j[jin fan]n;lou a\n am;ne% inc git;m% inc ka im mtapatk;roum Parou\r Saki masin% a\n% inc m;k ouri,e karo[ h cimanal% qani or tarb;r ;n ;[;l Parou\ri farab;rouj\ounn;re tarb;r mardkanz f;t% nranz aa= na bazw;l h tarb;r ca'ow ou k;rpow! :rb .osqe w;rab;roum h Parou\ri p;s wiyo[% aso[-.oso[ benkoun bnaworouj\ane% or ir anfangist mitqe spaoum hr oc mia\n graka-


nouj\an m;= ar\a k\anqoum% nra zra mtq;re% nra banawor st;[agorouj\oune a\np;s hl kmnan anfa\touj\an m;=% ;j; akan=alour;re gric can;n! Mincd; dranq karor% ;rb;mn ca'axanz karor ;n ir bnaworouj\ounn ou st;[agorouj\oune faskanalou famar! Aa=in angam a\s am;ni masin .osq bazw;z anpatm;lior;n fouxa.ow mi=awa\roum^ 1972-i founwari 24-in% ir nnd\an 48-rd tar;lizin% ;rb inqe ckar a\ls% ir nor bnakaranoum% our a\np;s hl nran cwiyakw;z apr;l a\nt;[! :w a\d re ag;z g;j fou,;row korouste m;[m;lou mitqe! Da h% or stipoum h gric an;lou do[azo[ ];qow gr;lou% j; incp;s ;m t;s;l Parou\rin% inc ;m ls;l nraniz% incp;s ;m faskaz;l am;n incow% na fakasouj\ounn;row faroust a\d bnaworouj\oune! A\n tarin;re% isk dranq qic c;n% oronz enjazqoum in] ba.t h wiyakw;l lin;lou Parou\ri enk;re% a,.atakize% xrouzakize% w;r=ap;s ir namakn;ri fasz;at;re% in] ;ri irawounq ;n talis gr;lou nra masin% gr;lou aanz ocinc aw;lazn;lou ocinc pakas;zn;lou% incp;s patwir;l h ,;qspir\an o[b;rgouj\an f;rose! Gr;l mi anfati masin% or ;kaw ou 'a\latak;z fa\ fogor k\anqi ;rknakamaroum^ as;s ibr wka\ouj\oun% or m; anfatn;re mia\n fnoum c;n ;[;l% or nranq karo[ ;n nound an;l ou afagnanal na m;r r;roum anzn;l anvamanak m;r ap,afar fa\azqi aa=! Mia\n ir aproume ch% or artafa\t;l h Wafram Maw\ane% ;rb gr;l h& Nman anvamanak m; koroustn;ri dimaz kar;s fanzawor ;s xgoum q;x d; o[= ;[a lin;loud famar% ba\z incp;s asoum ;n% a\sp;s kam;zaw yakatagire! Est Lon Fa.w;rd\ani Parou\re fou,agrouj\an (Adaptation from Levon Hakhverdian, 1924-2003)

Lso#um ;q &&&% spas;z;*q mi 'oqr% ;s ];x kpatm;m bolorn skxbiz&&& Gno#um ;q &&&% la*w% ;s kpatm;m a[ikn;rin ou .ot;rin&&& S un kakacn;r% la@w ls;z;q ari patmouj\oune&&& iro* A[=iks fiwand hr! qow% osk;gangour Git;#q% na hl ];x nman mi a[ik hr^ na.,ounik d;m max;row! A[=iks fiwand hr&&& Bvi,ke ;kaw% i=aw m;r bnakarane& na t.our hr& inco#u&&& Fa@% fi,oum ;m% na chr siroum n;rqi fark;re&&& Na i=aw n;rq% na\;z im a[=kan% na\;z s;n\aki pat;rin! >onaw h% asaz% piti 'o.;q bnakarane% piti arko[ s;n\ak yar;q&&& Qani# ;r;.a oun;q% farzr;z!


:r;qn hin% ;rkouse m;an% mnaz a\s m;ke&&& axat;z;*q im a[=kan& na m;r tan fogin h&&& Na inc-or d;[ gr;z ou t.our d;m qow dours gnaz! Fa\ri*k% i#nc gr;z bvi,ke% farzr;z a[=iks! Ar gr;z% sir;li*s% ar gr;z% or 'a\li q;x wra ou axati zawiz&&& Ou a\n re gnazi ar 'ntr;lou! Gnazi ,at f;ou% qa[aqi a\re ou gta arko[ mi bnakaran! S irou@n kakacn;r% ari* xawakn;r% aw;li law ch#r ];x mot b;r;i im osk;amik a[=kan! Douq nran kxoug;iq karmir ou kanac&&& Ba\z% fa@% git;m% douq nran faz chiq ta&&& douq snwoum ;q wa[ord\an zo[ow&&& Ls;z;*q% ;s d; c;m w;r=azr;l&&& &&& M\ous aawot piti tan;i a[=kans ari toun% ba\z ;rb lousazaw% na in] kanc;z% ];qs bn;z ou 'ak;z acq;re&&& F;to ;kan mardik ou taran nran&&& Ou ;rb osk;amik a[=iks f;azaw m;xniz% m;nq bolors a\rw;zinq lalouz% isk ;s dar]a ari fiwand! :s gnoum hi% nstoum 'oqrik g;r;xmani mot spasoum araagin! Ou mi,t t;snoum hi a[=kans^ are grka ir max;re nra wra 'a&&& Ba\z ;rb patmoum hi ari masin% kins ou ma\rs chin fawatoum& nranq karoum hin% j; ;s .;lagar ;m% o[boum hin a\rwa% zamaqa acq;row! Ou mi r hl dim;zi arin& Fxo*r ar% asazi% mi m; gangat oun;m q;xaniz&&& inco#u dou mi ,o[q .na\;zir im a[=kan% inco#u span;zir ou tarar nran&&& Na t.r;z ou mjn;z! Gna*% asaz fa\tni*r a,.arfin% asa@% or w;ri farke ari ,o[q;re .l;z% stw;r ]g;z n;rqi farkin ou span;z a\n osk;f;r a[=kan! Est Mows;s Araxou Are patmwaqi (Adaptation from Movses Arazi, 18781964)

S;pt;mb;ri 13% cor;q,abji % 1922 K;sriz f;to^ vame ;rkousin% fa\oz ja[i ou[[ouj\amb n,marwoum h la\naawal ou.! Tan w;rnafarkiz ditoum ;nq a\d ou.e! Ouri, tn;ri taniqn;riz hl ,at;re ditoum ;n a\n ou asoum% j; fa\oz ja[e kraki h trwa& omanq hl asoum ;n% j; krake Fa\noziz ch% a\l nra motaka ja[;riz! Iro[ouj\oune an]amb stoug;lou npatakow yam'a ;m enknoum! Founakan fiwandanozi mot t;snoum ;m kananz% or ir;nz manoukn;rin grka% anca'afas ;r;.an;ri ];qiz bna ou kapozn;r aa^

l;[apata 'a.coum ;n! Xanaxan gou\q;r ,alaka t[amardik f;toum ;n ir;nz kananz! Aa=anoum ;m minc Kajer=e [lou 'o[oze% ort;[iz ;roum h S& St;'anosi^ d;s kangoun mnaza ;ak;rt gmb;je! Frd;fe ;rkou ou[[ouj\amb h tarawoum& m;ke^ ;k;[;zouz w;r gtnwo[ Fa\nozi% m\ouse^ Aa=nordarani norakaou\z .anoujn;ri dimaz gtnwo[ ,;nq;ri ou[[ouj\amb! A\s ;rkou j;re mim\anziz an=at ;n% aknfa\t h% or frd;fe mitoumnawor h% qani or krakn sksw;l h miavamanak m;kiz aw;li t;[;roum! Fa\nozi frd;fe aw;li endar]ak h% aw;li awaloun! Qa\l;rs ou[[oum ;m d;pi Calge=e Ba,e% ba\z Kajer=e [louiz Calge=e Ba,e tano[ anzman wra fandipoum ;m mi jourqi% or mot;noum h in] ou asoum& M;nq p;tq ;[an ar;zinq% douq ;*t dar];q! Jourqe% or% an,ou,t% frd;fi farzoum goroun masnakzouj\oun oun;r% in] s ir z;[akize gorakizn;riz m;ke kar;low^ j;ladroum h% or a\ls caa=anam% a\l ;t danam! Iro[ouj\oune faskazo[i nman patas.anoum ;m^ ,a*t law kang anoum mi paf% orp;sxi jourqe 'oqr-inc f;ana f;ts .osakzouj\an cbnwi! :rb 20-30 qa\l f;anoum h% ;t ;m danoum qa\l a qa\l f;toum nran^ ;rkousis mi= pafpan;low minou\n f;aworouj\oune! Minc founakan fiwandanoz a\s k;rp ;nq qa\loum! Jourqe ou[[woum h d;pi `rankn;ri ja[e% isk ;s mtnoum ;m fiwandanozn;ri 'o[oze ou mi ;rkar ,ounc qa,oum! Sarsa'ow ditoum ;m 'a.stakann;ri anfamar baxmouj\ane! Founakan italakan fiwandanozn;ri patoufann;re l;zoun ;n 'a.stakann;row% oronz m;= kan anoj d;m q;r% isk folandakan fiwandanozi dn;re amour 'akwa ;n! <tap anznoum ;m a\d 'o[ozow fasnoum nawafangsti toune! Patmoum ;m t.our kazouj\an masin& tn;zin;re bolore w;rnafark ;n bar]raz;l! ou.e la\naawal ampi p;s tarawoum h Fa\oz ja[iz minc "ounja% mo.irn;re ja'woum ;n m;r glou.n;ri wra! Qamin% or fa\oz ja[i ko[miz d;pi "ounja h 'coum% f;texf;t; sastkanoum h kraki isk araroumiz! Ma\ramoutiz frd;fe ard;n anz;l h founaz ja[;re% ort;[iz .o,or .mb;row d;pi Qara' ;n .ouvoum afagin baxmouj\ounn;r! K;sgi,;rin krake tarawoum h tarb;r ou[[ouj\ounn;row ou an;raka\;li aragouj\amb fasnoum minc nawafangist! Frd;fi awalmane xougenjaz nawafangstoum baxmapatkwoum h afoudo[i matnwa mardka\in hakn;ri aliqe% ore tarawoum h minc "ounja! Est Karap;t >ac;r\ani Xm\ouniakan arkan;rs 1922-in ragri (Adaptation from Karapet Hatcherians Diary, 1876-1952)


Papikis ragri enj;rzoume ard;n fasounaza tariqoum o*c mia\n fastat;z nra masin im oun;za kariqe% a\l na in] gn;z lrazn;lou 12-am\a ;r;.a\i fi,o[ouj\an m;= ourwagwa nra patk;re! Nra xspwaouj\oune^ ragrouj\an famar ba;rn entr;lis% patkaanq h n;r,ncoum! A\sp;s^ 1915-i z;[aspanouj\ounn aknark;lis bvi,k >ac;r\ane xgou,abar goraoum h endfanour t;[afanoum% anz\ali s.aln;r kam aqsor artafa\touj\ounn;re! Tpaworic h na nra artakarg mardasirouj\oune! ragri m;= na tarb;r aijn;row artafa\toum h mardkanz barrouj\an% arvanapatwouj\an axatouj\an farz;ri f;t kapwa ir mtafogouj\ounn;re! Na fand;s h galis na orp;s anou[[;lior;n lawat;s mard% ore% qa=aanoj lin;low fakaakordi^ anz\aloum gora otn]gouj\ounn;rin ou wa\ragouj\ounn;rin% ,arounakoum h fawatal mardou bnain aaqinouj\ounn;rin! Mia\n a\dp;s kar;li h faskanal bvi,k >ac;r\ani tatanoumn;re% ;rb na kangna hr andofakan qa[aqiz% 1922 jwakani Xm\ounia\iz% f;analou oro,man aa=! :rkar vamanak na famoxwa hr% or jourq;re c;n krkn;lou anz\ali s.aln;re a,.arfin zou\z ;n talou% or ir;nq qa[aqakirj axg ;n! Ir a\s lawat;souj\an m;= na tatanwoum h mia\n a\n vamanak% ;rb ir acqow h t;snoum fa\;ri ja[e^ Fa\noze koranwa manawand% ;rb ];rbakalwoum h! Farz h agoum% j; ard\oq bvi,k >ac;r\ane s.alaka#n hr! <at d\ourin h f;tin fa\azqow m;[adr;l nran^ vamanakin wyakan qa\l;ri cdim;lou ir anmi=akan entaniqe aw;li ,out Xm\ounia\iz cfan;lou% manawand ir ir kno=^ Ak-Fisaroum mnaza faraxatn;rin jourq;ri \aja[aniz c'rk;lou famar! Wstaf ;m% or dra famar na ir ambo[= k\anqi enjazqoum ir;n m;[awor h xgaz;l^ jo[n;low ir xawakn;rin baxmajiw farzadroumn;row% oronziz gl.aworn a\n hr% j; incp;s karo[ hr ir;nz a\dqan imastoun fa\re a\dpisi animast oro,oumn;r ka\azn;l m\ous fa\ bvi,kn;ri f;t vamanakin cf;anal a\d dvo.a\in qa[aqiz! Nmanrinak qnnadatouj\ounn;r ls;l ;m fangouz\al morizs^ nra f;t a\d n\ouji ,our= .os;lis! :j; ma\rs ir for ragire kardaza lin;r% wstaf ;m% or na ir for oro,oumn;re a\d ygnavama\in r;rin aw;li yi,t piti embn;r! Ch# or bvi,k >ac;r\ane ir;n famaroum hr Jourqia\i rinawor qa[aqazi% est oroum^ ir qa[aqaziakan partakanouj\ounn;re a\d ;rkri fand;p liouli katara qa[aqazi! Orp;s ardaradat mard^ na ir nman faxarawor qriston\an;ri p;s parxap;s i wiyaki chr;s;lou mot;zo[ a[;te &&& :ra.tapart ;m papikis^ patmouj\ane nman karor 'astajou[j jo[a lin;lou famar% akanat;si mi wka\ouj\oun% ore fastatoum h% or fa\ vo[owrdi :[;ne 1915 jwakani o[b;rgouj\amb ir w;r=e ci gt;l% or incp;s fxor ;rkra,arviz f;to t;[i ;n oun;noum lrazouzic znzoumn;r% 20-rd dari aa=in z;[aspanouj\ane fa=ord;l ;n ouri,^ awalow aw;li 'oqr% ba\z oc nwax koranarar a[;tn;r% oronziz m;ke 1922-i Xm\ounia\i a[;tn hr! Fatwa Dora Saqa\ani^ Karap;t >ac;r\ani Xm\ouniakan arkan;rs 1922-in ragire n;rka\azno[ a,.atouj\ouniz! (Dora Sakayan, 1931-)




HAMO SAHIAN Translated by Dora Sakayan

M;r l;xoun^ m;r .i[yn h da% Sourb faze m;r s;[ani% M;r fogou kancn h ardar Ou fame m;r b;rani! M;r l;xoun ou.n h m;r tan% M;r k,in a,.arfi m;=% Na a[n h m;r inqnouj\an% Houj\an .orfourde m;! M;r l;xoun ar\o*unn h m;r% Ar\ouniz aw;li jank& M;r bourmounqn ou gou\nn h m;r% M;r l;xoun m;nq ;nq or kanq! Na piti m;r aa=in Ou w;r=in s;re lini% I#nc oun;nq hl a,.arfoum% Or a\sqan m;re lini!

Our language is our inner voice, The sacred bread on our board, The just plea of our soul, And the taste in our mouth. It is the smoke of our hearth, Our weight in this world, The salt of our selfhood, The great sense of our breath. Our language is our blood, Even dearer than blood. Our scent and our color, It is us, the way we are. Our language is our love, Both the first one and the last, What else is there in this world That belongs to us that much?



SYLVA KAPUTIKIAN Translated by Dora Sakayan

A\s garnan f;t% a\s a[kounqi% A\s jcnaki% a\s awaki% F;tn a\s ;rgi ou xarjonqi Bazw;z l;xo@un im mankiki& Ou jojow;z ba mi angin Fa\k\an l;xwiz m;r srbaxan% As;s masounq fa[ordouj\an Dipaw mankans ,rjounqin&&& Lsi*r% ordi*s% patgam orp;s Siro[ qo mor .o@sqe srtanz% A\srwaniz fan]noum ;m q;x Fa\oz l;xou@n faxaragan]! Ktr;l h na% fanz ast[alou\s% :rkinqn;re vamanaki% <aac;l h .owafou\x Slazqi f;t fa\k\an n;ti! :w M;sropi sourb fanyarow Dar];l h gir ou maga[aj% Dar];l h fo*u\s% dar];l dro*,% Paf;l ;@rje m;r^ ana[art&&& Nranow h mrmn=az;l Fa\ pandou.te w;rqn ir srti% Nrano*w h orotaz;l Kwi ;rgn im vo[owrdi& Nranow h ma\rs =af;l In] roroz dr;l mi r%

With the blossoms of this spring, When brooks bubble and birds sing, With Mother Nature at her peak, My infant son began to speak; And he uttered a priceless word In Armenian, oh what splendor! As though a piece of Holy Bread Touched my infants lips so tender. Listen, my son, to this command, Listen to your mothers words with care: As of today, I hand you down The Armenian tongue, precious and rare. It traveled like a stellar light Through the firmament of ages, It clamored with the rapid flight Of our arrows most courageous. Thanks to the genius of Mesrop, It became letters, parchment, art, Hence our banner and our hope, Helped us advance, set us apart. With it, the Armenian migrant muttered The pain of his aching wounds, With it, my people thundered Their war songs in martial tunes. With it on her lips, my mother then young, Laid me in the cradle one day.


Fima ;k;l% q;@x h fas;l Nra karkace darawor&&& Ba*z ,ourj;rd% .osi@r% angi*n% Vir da\la\li@r% i*m sirasoun% Jo[ mankana* qo ,ourj;rin M;r al;f;@r fa\oz l;xoun! Pafi*r nran bar]r ou wyit% Ararati sourb ]\ouni p;s% Pafi*r nran srtid motik% Qo pap;ri ay\ouni p;s! Ou oso.i xarkize s Dou pa,tpani*r krqow nran% Incp;s mo@rd kpa,tpan;s% J; sou*r qa,;n mord wra! Ou t;*s% ordi*s% ou*r hl lin;s% A\s lousni tak ou@r hl gnas% J; mo*rd angam mtqiz fan;s% Qo ma@\r l;xoun cmoana*s&&&

The sweet sounds of our tongue Ring out anew, coming your way. Part your lips, speak up, my joy, Chirp cheerfully, hum a song, May on your lips, my lovely boy, Our ancient tongue turn young. Keep it up-high, and keep it bright, Like the snow on Ararats peak, Keep it next to your beating heart, Like an ancestral relic. Defend your tongue against the foe, Stand up for it in deed and word, As if your mother you would defend If she were threatened with a sword. And look, my son, wherever you are, Under this moon, however far you get, Even your mother you may ignore, Your mother tongue, do not forget!

:{I<: CAR:NZ (1877-1937)

YEGHISHE CHARENTS Translated by Dora Sakayan

M;r l;xoun ykoun h ou barbaros% Anakan h% kopit% ba\z minou\n pafin Pa\a h na% orp;s m,taborboq 'aros% Wawa frow an,;= dar;roum fin!

Our language is pliant yet barbaric, It is manly, rough, yet sends out rays Like an ever-glowing beacon, Whose flame was kindled in ancient days.



SYLVA KAPUTIKIAN Translated by Dora Sakayan

Acq ;nq baz;l% ou dou m;r d;m ;[;*l ;s% ka*s% Ararat% Ba\z am;n r m;xniz f;ou ou m;x anfas% Ararat! As;s mi r k;rt;l ;n q;x% or marmar; qo t;sqow Anfas t;nci% anfag siro ar]an danas% Ararat! A,.arfi m;= am;n fa\i am;n a\riz ;roum% Ba\z mnoum ;s f;o@u% f;o@u% mnoum ;ra@x% Ararat! A,.arfn;ri anapatoum vo[owourds^ mi b;dwin% Im ja'aik ;[ba\rn;ri kapou\t mira@v% Ararat! A.% m;r karotn ;l;*l% dixw;*l% d;@m h a;l ';,;rid Ou .owa^ dar];l h g;t% dar];l Ara*x% Ararat! Acq ;nq baz;l q;xniz f;ou% qo karotow ;raz;l% Mi#j; piti m;n;nq mi r q;xniz anma@s% Ararat&&&

Since we opened our eyes, you have been towering before us, Ararat, Yet day-by-day youre far away from us, out of reach, Ararat. As though they carved you one day to be the marble-shaped statue of an unreachable goal, of an insatiable love, Ararat. Although seen from all over the earth by all Armenians, You remain distant, you remain a dream, Ararat. In the wilderness of worlds my people are now Bedouins; To my straying brothers youre a blue mirage, Ararat. Oh, our nostalgia has piled up around your feet, Ararat, Anguish made it a flood, made it the river Arax, Ararat. We opened our eyes away from you, we grew old longing for you. How can we die one day, apart from you, Ararat?


AW:TIQ ISAFAK|AN (1875-1957)

AVETIK ISAHAKIAN Translation by Alice Stone Blackwell H, MY FATHERLAND H, my fatherland, how lovely thou art; Thy mountain peaks are lost in the mists of heaven. Thy waters are sweet, thy breezes are sweet; Only thy children are in seas of blood.

H@\% =an-fa\r;niq% incqa@n siroun ;s% Sar;rd kora ;rkni mowi m;=& +r;rd ano*u,% fow;rd ano*u,% M;nak bal;qd aroun-owi m;=!

Qou fo[in m;n;m% angi*n fa\r;niq% A@.% qic h% j; or mi k\anqow m;n;m% :rn;k oun;nam faxar ou mi k\anq% Faxa*rn hl srtanz q;x mata[ an;m!

May I die for thy soil, thou priceless fatherland! Oh, it is little if I die with one life! Would that I had a thousand and one lives, To offer thee, all from my heart.

Ou faxar k\anqow qou dardin m;n;m% Bal;qid mata*[% mata*[ qou siroun& M;nak mi k\anqe jo*[ in]i paf;m% H*n hl qou 'aqi gowqe ;rg;loun%

To die for thy sorrow with a thousand lives! Let me offer myself for thy children, for love of thee! Let me keep for myself only one life, That I may sing the praise of thy glory,

Or artouti p;s w;@r ou w;@r ya.r;m Nor rwa ;gid% axi*x fa\r;niq% Ou ano*u, ;rg;m% ba*r]r ou xil gow;m Kanac ard% axa*t fa\r;niq&&&

That I may soar high like the skylark On the rising of thy new day, noble fatherland, And sing sweetly, praise loudly Thy bright sun, thou free fatherland!



Ka finawourz mi xrou\z% J; mi t[a% Miamorik% Siroum h mi a[=ka! A[=ikn asaw& In] bnaw Dou c;s siroum% J; ch gna*% Gna* mord si*rte b;r! T[an molor% gl.ikor Qa\l aaw% Laz;z% laz;z% A[=ka mot ;t ;t daaw! :rb na t;saw% xa\razaw& _ H*l c;ras <;mqis% asaw% Minc sirte cb;r;s! T[an gnaz orsaz Sari a\\am% Sirte fan;z% b;r;z tw;z a[=kan! :rb na t;saw% xa\razaw& _ Kori*r acq;s% J; faraxat Mord sirte cb;r;s! T[an gnaz^ morn span;z% :rb wax ktar Sirte ];qin% Otqe saf;z& enkaw war! :w sirte mor asaw t.our% Lazakmaz% Wa*\% .;[y t[as% Oc mi t;[d czawa#z&&&

There is an old tale About a boy, An only son Who fell in love with a lass. You dont love me, You never did, said she to him. But if you do, go then And fetch me your mothers heart. Downcast and distraught The boy walked off And after shedding copious tears Came back to his love.

AVETIK ISAHAKIAN Translated by Ara Baliozian

The girl was angry When she saw him thus And said, Dont you dare come back again Without your mothers heart. The boy went and killed A mountain roe deer, And offered its heart To the one he adored. But again she was angry And said, Get out of my sight. I told you what I want Is your mothers heart. The boy went and killed His mother, and as he ran With her heart in his hand He slipped and fell. My dear child, My poor child, Cried the mothers heart, Did you hurt yourself?


MICHAEL NALBANDIAN Translation by Alice Stone Blackwell

Axat Astwan a\n riz% :rb fay;zaw ,ounc 'c;l% Im fo[an\ouj ,inwaqin K;ndanouj\oun parg;l& :s anbarba mi manouk :rkou ];qs parx;zi :w im anxor j;row Axatouj\ounn grk;zi! Minc gi,;re anfangist rorozoum kapkapa Lalis hi andadar% Mors qoune .angara% >ndroum hi noraniz Baxoukn;rs ar]ak;l% :s a\n riz ou.t;zi Axatouj\oune sir;l! Jojow l;xwis minc kap;rn Ar]akw;zan% bazw;zan% Minc no[qs im ]a\niz >ndazin ou b;rkr;zan%& Na.kin .osqn or asazi& Chr fa\r kam ma\r% kam a\l inc% Axatouj\o@un% dours jaw Im mankakan b;raniz! Axatouj\o#un% in] krkn;z Yakatagire w;riz& Axatouj\a#n dou xinwor Kamis grwil a\s riz! O*f% ',ot yanaparfd% Q;x ,at 'or]anq ke spas;& Axatouj\oun siro[in A\s a,.arfe .ist n;[ h! Axatouj\o@un% goc;zi% Jo[ orota im "a\la*k% ka\a*k% four% ;rkaj% Jo[ daw dn; j,namin % :s minc i maf% ka.a[an% Minc anarg mafou s\oun Piti goam% pit krkn;m Andadar^ axatouj\o@un!


WHEN God, who is forever free, Breathed life into my earthly frame, From that first day, by His free will When I a living soul became, A babe upon my mothers, breast, Ere power of speech was given to me, Even then I stretched my feeble arms Forth to embrace thee, Liberty! Wrapped round with many swaddling bands, All night I did not cease to weep, And in the cradle, restless still, My cries disturbed my mothers sleep. O mother! in my heart I prayed, Unbind my arms and leave me free! And even from that hour I vowed To love thee ever, Liberty! When first my faltering tongue was freed, And when my parents hearts were stirred With thrilling joy, to hear their son Pronounce his first clear-spoken word, Papa, Mamma, as children use, Were not the names first said by me; The first word on ray childish lips Was thy great name, O Liberty! Liberty! answered from on high The sovereign voice of Destiny: Wilt thou enroll thyself henceforth A soldier true of Liberty ? The path is thorny all the way, And many trials wait for thee; Too strait and narrow is this worldFor him who loveth Liberty. Freedom! I answered, on my head Let fire descend and thunder burst; Let foes against my life conspire, Let all who hate thee do their worst: I will be true to thee till death ; Yea, even upon the gallows tree The last breath of a death of shame Shall shout thy name, O Liberty! 439



:ran dar]a im Hr;bouni% Dou m;r nor Dwin% m;r nor Ani% M;r 'oqrik fo[i dou m; ;raxanq% M;r dar; karot% m;r qar; naxanq! Krkn;rg& :ran dar]a im Hr;bouni% Dar;r ;s anz;l ba\z mnaz;l ;s patani! Qo Masis forow% qo Araqs morow% M;anas darow% :ran! M;nq ar\an kanc;r oun;nq m;r srtoum% Ankatar t;nc;r oun;nq m;nq ,at! M;r kancn aanz q;x ixour kkorci% Aanz q;x m;r t;ncn ixour ksaci! Krkn;rg& :ran dar]a &&& K\anqoum am;n s;r linoum h tarb;r% Isk m;nq bolors ;nq q;xnow farb;l% Taq h s;re m;r^ ,;k qar;rid p;s Fin h s;re m;r^ ]ig dar;rid p;s! Krkn;rg :ran dar]a &&&


PARUYR SEVAK Translated by Dora Sakayan

Reborn Yerevan from Erebuni, Our modern Dvin, our new Ani, In our little land youre the greatest goal, Our ancient dream, our grace of stone. Refrain: Reborn Yerevan from Erebuni, You have lived so long, yet you remain in infancy, With Massis your father, with Arax your mother, Stay forever young, Yerevan! Our hearts are filled with ancestral calls, Unaccomplished goals we have a lot, Without you, our calls will be lost in vain, Without you, our goals we will not attain. Refrain: Reborn Yerevan ... Love has many ends, many shapes in life, But we all became entranced by you. Our love is warm, like your sunny stones, Our love is old, stemming from eons. Refrain: Reborn Yerevan ...



Apr;@l% apr;@l% a\np;*s apr;l% Or sourb fo[ed ;rb;q cxga qo aw;lord anrouj\oune! Apr;@l% apr;@l% a\np;*s apr;l% Or dou inqd hl ;rb;q cxgas qo s;'akan manrouj\oune! Ou j; fankar anp;tqouj\oun q;x famar;s% j; inqd q;x arfamarf;s ou fama;s% q;x f;t wiyi*% q;x cxi=i*& famb;ratar q;x f;t .osi@% fakaako*um q;x famoxi inqe&&& fxor Fanrouj\oune&&& Apr;@l% apr;@l% a\np;*s apr;l% Or ouri,i .indow .ndas% Or ouri,i znouj\ounow Inqd hl znas% inqd hl jndas! Lin;s% mnas am;nqi f;t% Nranz kamqin fpatakw;s% :s-d .an;s m; m;nq-i f;t% Nranz zawow lou tapakw;s! Trw;s nranz lou\si nman :w c.ab;s^ fou\si nman! Ar,alou\si nman bazw;s nra*nz famar% W;r=alou\si nman bozw;s nra*nz famar!


PARUYR SEVAK Translated by Dora Sakayan

To live, to live, to live in a way, That your saintly earth wont feel your heaviness. To live, to live, to live in a way, That you yourself dont feel your own tininess. And if you happen to regard yourself As useless, or just to disregard yourself, And you insist on that stubbornly, The mighty Community itself will argue with you, and speak to you patiently to convince you of the contrary... To live, to live, to live in a way, That you rejoice with the joy of others, That you revel with the triumph of others, And you, too, cheer with them. Be, stay with your peers, Comply with their will, Blend your I with the great We, Suffer silently their grief. Be loyal to them like the light, and not deceptive, like hope. Unfold yourself like the day-break, for them, Inflame yourself like the sunset, for them.


J; laz lin;s^ nranz famar% J; baz lin;s^ nranz famar! :w fa@z lin;s nranz famar^ fogor fa@z% Q;x nranzow k\anqoum xin;s :w nranzow k\anqoum lin;s ogorwa@! :w nranzow k\anqoum lin;s jou\l kam ouv;[% :w nranzow k\anqoum lin;s bou\l kam mv;[% J,wa^ incp;s anapastan% Faroust^ incp;s la\n ta'astan&&& Apr;@l% sa\r;@l% apr;l a\np;*s% Or nranz f;t mjn;s-amp;s :w nranz f;t ,anjar]akw;s& M;kt;[ fankar endar]akw;s% M;kt;[ danas goundoukik& M;kt;@[ bazw;s% m;kt;@[ 'akw;s% Incp;s namak kam bazik&&& Apr;@l% apr;*l% apr;l m;kt;*[% K\anqd .an;l nranz k\anqin% Taapanqd^ taapanqin% +anqd^ =anqin% Zanqd^ zanqin% :w ;njarkw;l nranz kamqin% Nranz kamqn hl q;x ;njark;l%Danal * ,anj% * ,anjarg;l&&&


If you cry, its for them, If you fly, its for them, Be bread for them, Spiritual bread. Get strength from them in life, Get zeal from them for life. Be one of them, whether frail or strong, And be with them, whether a fly or a throng, Be poor like a pauper And rich like the vast prairie. To live, to live, to live in a way, That you darken with them like clouds, And you strike with them like thunder, With them you expand all at once, With them you contract all at once. With them you close and open up, Like a letter or a card. ... To live, to live, to live together, To blend your life with their life, Your pain with their pain, Your strife with their strife, Your grain with their grain, Comply with the will of others, Yet impel your own will to others. And in heavens global vault Be both thunder and lightning bolt.


PAROU|R S:WAK (1924-1971)

PARUYR SEVAK Translated by Dora Sakayan

Asoum ;n% j; miangamiz k\anqoum oci@nc ci katarwoum& Miangamiz o*c mi karp;t o*c mi gorg ci patwoum% Miangamiz b;rd ci ,inwoum ou ci qandwoum miangamiz% Miangamiz ]\oun ci galis ci 'coum angam qamin! Mi*rg ci fasnoum miangamiz% o@ur mnaz j;^ .;loqanan% Xo@u\g c;n kaxmoum miangamiz% o@ur mnaz j;^ ;r;qanan! Miangamiz c;n k,tanoum c;n xgoum =ri kariq% O*c a\srn h anz\al danoum% o*c hl wa[n h danoum galiq! A\s am;ne yi,t h farka*w F;nz a\sp;s h% incp;s or ka! Saka\n ;j; im k\anqi m;= g;j farzn;in mi* angam in]% J; ;s i#nc ;m g;radasoum% I#nc ;m ouxoum Ou ;raxoum% :s kas;i& Inc linoum h% jo[ or lini miangami@z&&&

They say nothing happens instantly in life, No carpet nor tapestry is worn out at once, Instantly no fortress is built, nor is it destroyed at once, The snow doesnt fall all at once, nor does the wind blow all at once. Fruits do not ripen, much less do people wisen at once, Men and women do not couple, much less do they triple at once, People are not instantly sated, nor do they instantly crave for water, Today doesnt turn instantly past, nor does tomorrow turn future. All this is certainly true, And this is just the way it is. But if in my life they would ever ask me once, What would I prefer, What would I desire, And to what would I aspire, I would say:

Whatever is going to happen, let it happen at once...


PAROU|R S:WAK (1924-1971)

PARUYR SEVAK Translated by Garig Basmadjian

O@u,-o@u, ;n galis% ba\z o*c ou,aza& nwoum ;n nranq yi*,t vamanakin! :w vamanakiz aa= ;n enknoum% Dra famar hl c;n n;roum nranz! Antofm c;n nranq kam anfa\r;niq& Fasarak foriz ou moriz nwa% S;roum ;n nranq a*\n wa\r;nouz% Or hl ch@r karo[ apr;l qara\roum! S;roum ;n nranq a*\n ;roukiz% Or na.entroum hr qn;l takaoum! S;roum ;n nranq a*\n patanouz% Or sirafarw;z ir isk patk;rin! S;roum ;n nranq bolo@r nranziz% Or satana\in fogin ;n a.oum% Mia\n j; an;*n mtaan ir;nz% I@nc 'ou\j% j; m;n;n vamanakiz ,out! Anwtang^ incp;s frd;fn ari% Anwnas^ incp;s gtakar lortoun% Wa. ;n n;r,ncoum p;touj\ounn;rin Minc isk ir;nz kamqi fakaak! Arqan;ri f;t .osoum ;n dou-ow% :j;% ifark;% lsoum ;n nranz% Isk j; c;n lsoum^ m;@k h% c;*n li% K.os;n nou\nisk ir;nz ko,ki* f;t! Ow safmanoum h nor r;nq ou karg^ Fa\tararwoum h r;nqiz dours! Ba\z c;@n wa.;noum nranq car mafiz& Aproum ;n dvwar ou m;noum ;n f;,t&&&

They appear the latest, but they are never late, They are born in time, But they always fall before it, And they are never pardoned. They are not without a family or a homeland. They are born of ordinary parents Or a savage unable to live in a cave. They are brought forth by the old man Who prefers to sleep in a jug, Or by the lad Who falls in love with himself. They are born of those Who sell their souls to devils To execute their thoughts So what if they are executed. They are harmless like the fire of the sun, Innocent like the useful grass-snake. They inspire fear in states and governments, Even against their will. They address kings in the second person singular, Of course if they listen to them, And if they dont, its all the same, They speak with their shoes. He who frames a new law or rule Is declared to be outside the law. But they do not fear death: They live with difficulty and die easily.


:{I<H CAR:NZ (1897-1937)


:s im anou, Fa\astani arafam ban ;m siroum% M;r fin saxi o[banwag% lazakouma larn ;m siroum% Arnanman a[ikn;ri ou ward;ri bo*u\re waman% Ou nair\an a[=ikn;ri f;xaykoun pa*rn ;m siroum! Siroum ;m m;r ;rkinqe moug% =r;re =in=% liye lous;% Arn aman ou ]m;wa wi,apa]a\n bouqe ws;m% Mjoum kora .ryijn;ri anf\ourenkal pat;re s Ou fnam\a qa[aqn;ri faxaram\a qa*rn ;m siroum! Our hl lin;m c;m moana ;s o[ba]a\n ;rg;re m;r% C;m moana a[ojq dar]a ;rkajagir grq;re m;r% Incqan hl sour sirts .oz;n ar\ounaqam w;rq;re m;rHli@ ;s orb ou arnawa im Fa\astan \a*rn ;m siroum! Im karota srti famar o*c mi ouri, f;qiaj cka% Nar;kazou% Qoucaki p;s lousapsak yakat cka& A,.arf anzi*r% Ararati nman y;rmak gagaj cka& Incp;s anfas 'aqi yam'a^ ;s im Masis sa*rn ;m siroum!

:{I<: CAR:NZ

:w warp;tn;r .onarf ou fanyar;[% F[k;l ;n a\n dar;r% :w 'a\l;l h na m;rj% incp;s b\our;[% M;rj koptaz;l! incp;s l;na\in qar!



Translated by Gerald Papasian and Nora Armani

I love the sun-drenched zestful taste of our peerless Armenian words. I love the languishing sad tunes of our lamentful ancient lutes. Our fragrant flowers, blood-red roses and our ripe and luscious fruits. I love the undulating dances of our fair Nayirian girls. I love our haunting dark blue skies, our crystal springs and light-soaked lakes. The summer suns and dragon-winds of winters unrelenting cold. The uninviting blackened walls of our wretched homely huts. I cherish each stone of our martyred cities thousands of years old. Wherever I wander on earth, theyre in my heart our mournful airs. Our time-worn manuscripts and parchments in my mind have turned to prayers However deep our bleeding wounds might pierce and ravage my hearts core, My orphaned land, blood-scorched Armenia, I will love you even more. No balm can sooth my restless soul, my ever-roving yearning heart. For me, no hallowed brow glows like Nareks or Kuchaks art. Traverse the world no holy peak youll find so bright, for ever white. Like an unreached road of glory, I love my mountain Ararat.


YEGHISHE CHARENTS Translated by Dora Sakayan

And masters, humble and ingenious, Have polished it for ages, It sparkled, like a crystal, at one instant, It hardened like a rock, at another.



PAROUYR SEVAK Translated by Garig Basmadjian

:rb w;r=alou\sn m.rywoum amp;ri m;=^ sanri nman% Ou fototo[ barak qamin% ,niki p;s% kang h anoum Am;n j'i% ai% gou[]i am;n mardou aa=% Ou ;rb zourte ;ritasard zou\z h talis ir ouvn ard;n^ Stip;low ,apik koyk;l ou mrmn=al .osq;r dvgof& Ou ;rb mjan jaw,i wra orwa fa=ozn h .lanoum% Isk fat ou k;nt lou\s;rn as;s danoum ;n fin xardankar% Miami@t ;m danoum noriz% fawatoum ;m ardarouj\a*n& Ou jwoum h% j; ;s piti im &&& bnakan mafow m;n;m!

When twilight rakes the clouds like a comb and the thin, sniffing wind stops like a puppy before every shrub, tree, clod and man, when the young cold shows its strength making us button our shirts and grumble, when the days bark is deadened on the deep velvet and the strewn lights seem ancient adornments one again I become naive, once more I believe in justice, and it seems to me I shall die a natural death.



HOVHANNES SHIRAZ Translated by Dora Sakayan


Entering the world from the cradle of creation, A worldwide mother love was my first sensation... My brows, the levers of my scale, My eyes, a pair of shells on its rail. And I weighed my mothers saintly love and found It was as great, as it was gentle and profound. I placed Himalaya as the weight, The mountain rebounded, and so did its plate. The plate rose again when I placed the seas, My mothers love pulled it down with ease. I loaded the scale with the stars from above, But none could outdo my mothers love. Your love, my sweetheart, I measured as well, The bars wavered, up and down went the scale. But when I cast some earth of my Masis-Mother Armenia with my fist, The two levers balanced, they came close and kissed...

Mtqi rozqiz ;rb a,.arf mta^ A,.arfoum^ a,.arf mor s;re gta &&&

Fonq;rs^ lakn ;n im nvari% Acq;rs^ nra xou\g jas;rn ari% :w k,;zi mors s;re sourb% Or incqan m; hr% a\nqan .orn ou nourb& Fimala\n ibr k,aqar dri^ W;r jaw l;e f;tn ir nvari& ow;re dri^ w;r ;lan krkin% War qa,;z mors s;re srbagin& Ast[abou\l;re^ dri k,aqar^ Noriz ma\rikis s;re qa,;z war&&& Qo s;rn% im sira% qo s;rn hl dri^ W;r ou war arin nvar nvari%&&& Ba\z ;rb Masis-ma\r im Fa\astaniz Mi bou fo[ dri^ :kaw fambour;z nvar nvari&&&


FAMO SAF|AN (1914-1993)

:j; minc angam Lsa lin;s% j; ;s a\s a,.arfoum ckam% Minou\n h% kgam% inc hl lini% kgam% Our hl lin;m kgam! :j; minc angam ;s kouraza lin;m% :j; minc angam lou\sd mara lini% W;r=in fou\sd qamin aa-tara lini% Aanz lou\si kgam% ;s a\s angam kgam M;nouj\an m;= lazo[ ;rgid wra! :j; minc angam Qo fawati fand;p dou m;[q ara lin;s :w famara lin;s% or a,.arfoum ckam% :j; minc angam fo[s ma[a lin;s% :j; minc angam mtqow ja[a lin;s% :j; minc angam in] wtara lin;s W;rfou,;rid w;r=in .onaw qaran]awiz% Minou\n h% kgam% inc hl lini% kgam% :w kycas fankar tarrinak zawiz &&& Kgam% glou.-gl.i ou ];q-];qi ktanq% Laz klin;nq m;a m;[qid wra! :j; minc angam faxar sari ;t Faxar kapow kapwa% .acow .acwa lin;m% Tqna-tan=wa lin;m% minou\n h% kgam! Inc hl lini% kgam% ckanc;s hl% kgam% :w kb;r;m ;s q;x oura.ouj\oun mi m; Anaknkal dar]is iro[ouj\amb Qo tan ou qo fogou taro[ouj\amb% :raxn;rid% k\anqid to[ouj\amb! Kgam kdanam gta ba.ti vpit :w fawati vpit^ taapanqiz ma,wa% Artasouqiz .a,wa d;mqid wra! :j; minc angam m;=qs alwa lini% :j; minc angam otqs wawa lini% :w yakatis faxar fo[mi farwa lini% Minou\n h% kgam% our hl lin;m% kgam! G;tni takiz kgam% Mi f;awor anfa\t molorakiz kgam! Kgam ou ja' ktam Fardago[i 'o,in ,;mqid wra!


HAMO SAHIAN Translated by Dora Sakayan

Even if you heard I exist no more in this world, Just the same, I will come, whatever it takes, I will come, Wherever I am, I will come. Even if I have lost my sight, Even if in your house there is no light, And you have given up all your hope, I will reach you in the dark, I will then come To the tearful song of your solitude. Even if you have sinned against your faith Having accepted my cruel fate, Even if you have buried me in your head, And have strewed earth on my grave, Even if you have driven me out Of your brains last humid cave, Just the same, I will come, whatever will be, I will come; And you will shriek out with unusual pain ... I will come and we will, hand-in-hand, head-to-head, Weep over your deadly sin. Even if I am behind a thousand mountains, Fastened with a thousand knots, nailed to a cross, Perturbed and tormented, just the same, I will come. Whatever it takes, even without your call, I will come. And I will bring you the greatest joy In virtue of my sudden return. And Ill fill your home and your soul With that joy for as long as you live and dream. I will appear as fortunes smile, And the smile of faith on your face That is bleary with tears, weary of pain. Even if my back is folded, Even if my feet are charred, And my wind-blown forehead scarred, Just the same, I will come, whatever it takes, I will come. I will come from under the earth, From a remote and unknown planet. I will come and shake off the dust Of the milky way on your doorstep.


M;r yam';n .awar% m;r yam';n gi,;r% Ou m;nq anfatnoum Hn anlou\s mjnoum :rka@r dar;row gnoum ;nq d;p w;r Fa\oz l;n;roum Dvar l;n;roum! Tanoum ;nq fnouz m;r gan];rn angin% M;r gan];re ow% Inc or dar;row :rkn;l h% n;l m;r .orounk fogin Fa\oz l;n;roum% Bar]r l;n;roum! Ba\z qani angam ,;k anapati rdoun;re s Irarou ;t :ka@n xark;zin m;r qarwann axniw Fa\oz l;n;roum% Arnot l;n;roum! Ou m;r qarwane ,'oj% soskafar% Jalanwa% =ardwa% Ou fatwa-fatwa Tanoum h ir;n w;rq;rn anfamar Fa\oz l;n;roum% Sougi l;n;roum! Ou m;r acq;re na\oum ;n karot F;ou ast[;rin% :rknqi ;rin% J; ;#rb kbazwi pa\a aawot% Fa\oz l;n;roum% Kanac l;n;roum!


HOVHANNES TOUMANIAN Translated by Mischa Kudian


Sombre is our path, Dark as the very night: Yet upwards have we climbed Endlessly through the long centuries, In the Armenian mountains, Those rigorous mountains. Of old have we borne our such vast And priceless treasures, To which for centuries Have our souls profound given birth, In the Armenian mountains, Those lofty mountains. But frequently have the black hordes Of the scorching desert Come and struck hard, Repeatedly, at our noble caravan, In the Armenian mountains, Those blood-stained mountains. Yet our caravan, confused, terrified, Plundered, massacred, And torn asunder, Ever bears its innumerable wounds, In the Armenian mountains, Those mourning mountains. And our eyes turn their yearning gaze Upon the distant stars, Upon the limits of the heavens, Wondering when a bright morn will break In the Armenian mountains,t Those green, green mountains.



Jo[ fo[r j;j lini qo wra &&& :w f;to anr mi qar ;n dnoum A\d fo[i wra! :w f;to anr mi dar h nstoum A\d fo[i wra! :w f;to fo[i mi sar h nstoum A\d dari wra&&& Jo[ fo[r j;j lini qo wra!


HAMO SAHIAN Translated by Dora Sakayan

May the earth be light on you, And they place a stone On that earth. And then a century sits On that earth. And then a mountain of earth sits On that century May the earth be light on you.


HAMO SAHIAN Translated by Dora Sakayan I am not afraid to see myself fade, I do not fear my share of death, But I shudder at the thought of our planet, Ingenious yet tired, defenseless, inept. I dread seeing its endlessness end.

Im clin;louz ;s c;m wa.;noum :s c;m wa.;noum im bavin mafiz Saka\n nkn;rs do[oum ;n anw;r= M;r fognafanyar% ba\z .;[y ou anyar A\s moloraki Anwa.yanouj\an wa.yani afiz!


HAMO SAHIAN Translated by Dora Sakayan For how many, many millions of years You werent here, I wasnt here. And we shall never be so near, For how many, many millions of years. Who will ever come, just to assess What we have found; wholl ever guess?

Qani% qani milion tari Dou cka\ir% ;s cka\i! Ou m;nq irar c;nq patafi Qani% qani milion tari&&& O#w piti ga% or mtai% Ginn imana m;r gtai!



HAMO SAHIAN Translated by Dora Sakayan


:w i#nc h tw;l in] bnouj\oune% Fawit\an norog ir fnouj\oune% Ir =rw;vn;ri anqnouj\oune :w fognafolow ir krknouj\oune&&& Ir qara'n;ri famb;rouj\oune% Ir .[yi aa= ir g;rouj\oune% Ir andoundn;ri taro[ouj\oune% S;'akan w;rq;rn apaqin;lou Karo[ouj\oune&&& Ir safo[i .onawouj\oune&&& Masr;nou ',ot .onarfouj\oune&&& Inqnaba,.oumi oura.ouj\oune% Inqnam;rvoumi .ixa.ouj\oune% Inqnouj\an patiwn ou jankouj\oune% Inqn ir m;ouj\amb cpar;nalou :r=ankouj\oune!


And what did nature offer me? Its oldness in constant renovation, Its waterfalls in restless agitation, And its pattern of cyclic repetition... The patience of its coasts, Its captivity to its own conscience, The capacity of its cavities, The ability to mend its wounds. The humidity of its barren land, The humility of the thorny rose-hip plant, The felicity of self-devotion, And the bravery of self-abnegation. The dignity and value of identity, And the bliss of not boasting about its own supremacy.

:{I<: CAR:NZ (1897-1937)

YEGHISHE CHARENTS Translated by Dora Sakayan

Incqan or four ka im srtoum bolore q;x& Incqan krak ou wa .ndoum bolore q;x& Bolo@re tam ou nwir;m% in] o*c mi four jo[ cmna^ Do@u cmrs;s ]man zrtoum% bolo@re q;x&&&


All the warmth there is in my heart, all is yours; All the flames and sheer delight, all is yours; Let me grant you the warmth I hold, let me stay without; So you dont freeze in winters cold, all is yours...



HOVANNES HOVANNISSIAN Translated by Alice Stone Blackwell

Q;x spaso[ cmnaz% O#ur ;s gali% a*\ garoun& Gowqd aso[ cmnaz% Xo@ur ;s gali% a*\ garoun! S-mouj pat;z a,.arfin% Sar ou ]or daan arin% M;x wa\ b;r;z hs tarin O#ur ;s gali% a*\ garoun! B\oulb\oule ga^ jo[ ];n ta% Hl o#w piti q;x .nda% Hl o#r sirte kjnda Xour ;s gali% a*\ garoun! B\oub\ouln ;kaw^ ward couni% a[koze ka^ ward couni Hl o*w a or dard couni O#ur ;s gali% a*\ garoun! Dou ;t b;rir fawq;rin% O#nz t;r eln;n bn;rin Sa*[ t;[ cka m;r ;rkrin Xour ;s gali% a*\ garoun! A,ou[i b;rane 'ak% Sax-q\amanc;n 'aki tak% Sirtn a hrwoum ankrak O#ur ;s gali% a*\ garoun! Q;x spaso[ cmnaz% Xour ;s gali% a*\ garoun! Gowqd aso[ cmnaz O#ur ;s gali% a*\ garoun!

WHERE art thou coming, Springtime sweet? Thou comst in vain, O Spring! I No one is left to wait for thee, No one thy praise to sing. Deep darkness has enwrapped the world; To mount and valley cling Red stains of blood; this year brought woe. Where art thou coming, Spring? The nightingale may sing to thee; Who else, where all are slain, Is left to smile? What heart can stir? O Spring, thou comst in vain! The nightingale has come, but found No rose with silken leaf. Here is the flower-bed, but no flower. Who else is free from grief? Although thou hast brought back the birds, How shall they find their nests? No spot in all our fatherland Unspoiled, unruined rests. The minstrels mouth is closed today; No flutes or viols ring; His heart is burning without fire. Where art thou coming, Spring? No one is left to praise thee now On mountain or on plain; No one is left to wait for thee; O Spring, thou comst in vain!


G:WORG HMIN (1918-1998)

GEVORK EMIN Translation by Dora Sakayan

Inc ouxoum hi q;x .ostowan;l :w ga[tni hi pafoum im fogoum% A\nqan faraxat ou a\np;s an;[% Dou lsoum hir ;r;k fam;rgoum! Dou h*l nou\nn hir ouxoum in] as;l% Inc ;s ls;zi ;r;k fam;rgoum&&& Ba\z ort;[i#z hr =oujakn imaz;l Anba ga[tniqe im ou qo fogou&&&


What I wanted to disclose to you And was keeping in my heart, You heard genuinely and frankly At the concert last night. You, too, wanted to come out With what I heard last night... How could the violin find out About the wordless secret of our hearts?

FOWFANN:S <IRAX (1914-1984)

HOVHANNES SHIRAZ Translated by Dora Sakayan

M;nq .a[a[ hinq m;r l;n;ri p;s% Douq fo[m;ri p;s .ouv;ziq wa\rag! M;nq ];r d;m ;lanq m;r l;n;ri p;s% Douq fo[m;ri p;s zrw;ziq wa\rag!

We were peaceful like our mountains, You burst in fiercely like gusty winds. We stood up against you like our mountains, You dispersed fiercely like gusty winds. But we are eternal like our mountains, You will vanish fiercely like gusty winds.

Ba\z m;nq faw;rv ;nq m;r l;n;ri p;s% Douq fo[m;ri p;s kkorc;q wa\rag!



agaf [agah] avaricious, stingy agafouj\oun [agahutyun] avarice, stinginess agarak [agarak] farm agaw [agav] crow Adrb;=an [Adrbejan] Azerbaijan adrb;=anakan [adrbejanakan] Azeri, Azerbaijani adrb;=an;r;n [adrbejaneren] Azeri, Azerbaijani (language) adrb;=anzi [adrbejantsi] Azeri, Azerbaijani (person) axat [azat] free axatamit [azatamit] liberal axat;l [azatel] to free, to rescue axatw;l [azatvel] to get free axatouj\oun [azatutyun] liberty, freedom axatq;[ [azatkegh] parsley axg [azg] nation, people axgabnakcouj\oun [azgabnakchutyun] population axgagrouj\oun [azgagrutyun] ethnography axgakan [azgakan] relative axgakiz [azgakits] related by nationality axga\in [azgayin] national axgouj\oun [azgutyun] nationality axd [azd] announcement, advertisement axdak [azdak] factor, agent axdan,an [azdanshan] signal axd;l [azdel] to influence, to affect axd;zik [azdetsik] influential axd;zouj\oun [azdetsutyun] influence, effect axdou [azdu] effective axniw [azniv] noble, honest, kind axnwouj\oun [aznvutyun] nobleness, honesty, kindness axdr [azdr] hip axniw [azniv] honest, noble axnwouj\oun [aznvutyun] honesty ajar [atar] dung (used for heating)

ajo [ato] chair ajoanist [atoanist] chief residence (rel.) alar;l [alarel] to procrastinate al;ko;l [alekotsel] to undulate aliq [alik] wave al\our [alyur] flour a.o [akho] stable a.orvak [akhorzhak] appetite a.orv;li [akhorzheli] agreeable a.t [akht] disease, vice aakan [atsakan] adjective a;li [atseli] razor ail;l [atsilel] to shave ailw;l [atsilvel] to get shaved aou. [atsukh] coal, charcoal ak [ak] 1. gem, jewel; 2. wheel; 3. fountain akan [akan] mine, explosive device akanat;s [akanates] eyewitness akan= [akanj] ear akan=[ [akanjogh] earring aknark [aknark] hint aknark;l [aknarkel] to hint aknjarj [akntart] wink (of an eye), second, moment aknkal;l [aknkalel] to expect aknkalouj\oun [aknkalutyun] expectation aknoz [aknots] eyeglass akos [akos] furrow akoumb [akumb] club (social) af [ah] fear, terror afab;k;l [ahabekel] to terrorize afab;kic [ahabekich] terrorist afab;kcouj\oun [ahabekchutyun] terrorism afagin [ahagin] enormous, large afawor [ahavor] terrible af;[ [ahegh] cruel, terrible a[ [agh] salt a[al [aghal] to grind a[a[ak [aghaghak] scream, outcry, uproar a[aman [aghaman] salt shaker a[and [aghand] sect, heresy a[ac;l [aghachel] to implore, to beg 461

a[awni [aghavni] dove, pigeon a[az [aghats] mill a[b [aghp] trash, waste, garbage a[b\our [aghpyur] well, spring, source a[;[ [aghegh] bow, arch a[;t [aghet] disaster, calamity a[i [aghi] salty a[iq [aghik] intestine, bowels a[mk;l [aghmkel] to make noise a[mouk [aghmuk] noise a[\ous [aghyus] brick a[=ik [aghchik] girl, daughter a[w;s [aghves] fox a[t [aght] dirt a[qat [aghkat] poor a[qatouj\oun [aghkatutyun] poverty a[oj;l [aghotel] to pray a[ojq [aghotk] prayer a[ot [aghot] dim a[zan [aghtsan] salad ay [ach] growth ay;l [achel] to grow ay\oun [achyun] ashes, embers, (mortal) remains ama\i [amayi] deserted aman [aman] pot, dish, plate amac;l [amachel] to be ashamed amac;zn;l [amachetsnel] to shame amackot [amachkot] shy, bashful ama [ama] summer amaanoz [amaanots] country house ambastan;l [ambastanel] to accuse, to indict ambartawan [ambartavan] haughty, arrogant ambo. [ambokh] crowd, mob ambo.awarouj\oun [ambokhavarutyun] demagogy ambo[= [amboghch] entire, whole ambo[=akan [amboghchakan] compact, total ambo[=owin [amboghchovin] entirely am;n [amen] every, each, all am;n inc [amen inch] everything am;na- [amena-] (the) most ... am;nour;q [amenurek] everywhere Am;rika [Amerika] America Am;rika\i Miaz\al Nafangn;r [Amerikayi Miatsyal Nahangner] United States of America am;rikazi [amerikatsi] American (male) am;rik\an [amerikyan] American (adj.) am;rikoufi [amerikuhi] American (fem.) amis [amis] month AMN = Am;rika\i Miaz\al Nafangn;r [Amerikayi Miatsyal Nahangner] United States of America amoj [amot] shame amp [amp] cloud ampama [ampamats] cloudy, nebulous amsagir [amsagir] (monthly ) magazine amsakan 1. (adj.) [amsakan] monthly 1. (noun) [amsakan] salary amranal [amranal] to grow strong amroz [amrots] fortress, stronghold, castle amousnalououm [amusnalutsum] divorce amousin [amusin] husband, spouse amousnanal [amusnanal] to marry amousnouj\oun [amusnutyun] marriage amour [amur] solid, firm, strong amouri [amuri] bachelor, single (male) a\b [ayb] name of the first letter of the Armenian alphabet a\boub;n [aybuben] alphabet a\g;gor [aygegorts] gardner a\g;kouj [aygekut] vintage a\gi [aygi] vineyard a\d [ayt] that, this a\dca' [aytchap] that much, so much a\dp;s [aytpes] that way, so, thus a\dpisi [aytpisi] such, similar, like that a\dqan [aytkan] that much a\vm [ayzhm] now, presently a\l [ayl] other, but a\landak [aylandak] hideous, monstrous a\lap;s [aylapes] otherwise a\las;roum [aylaserum] degeneration a\l [aylev] as well a\ls [aylevs] anymore a\ [ayts] goat a\n [ayn] that, it a\nca' [aynchap] that much, as much a\np;s [aynpes] so much, that much a\npisi [aynpisi] such, this kind of a\nt;[ [ayntegh] there a\nqan [aynkan] that much, so much a\o [ayo] yes a\s [ays] this a\sinqn [aysinkn] namely, i.e. a\sca' [ayschap] this much a\sp;s [ayspes] so, this way


a\spisi [ayspisi] this kind of a\st;[ [aystegh] here a\sqan [ayskan] this much a\sr [aysor] today a\t [ayt] cheek a\r [ayr] 1. man, male; 2. cave a\r;l [ayrel] to burn, to kindle a\ri [ayri] widow(er) a\rwa [ayrvats] burnt a\rw;l [ayrvel] to be/get burnt a\z [ayts] visit a\z;l;l [aytselel] to visit a\z;louj\oun [aytselutyun] visitation anaxniw [anazniv] dishonest anaxnwouj\oun [anaznvutyun] dishonesty anali [anali] saltless anaknkal [anaknkal] surprise anamoj [anamot] shameless anapat [anapat] desert, wilderness anaca [anacha] objective? anaak [anaak] unruly, prodigal anasoun [anasun] animal, beast anarat [anarat] immaculate, pure anarg;l [anargel] to scorn, to offend anardar [anartar] unjust anba.t [anbakht] unfortunate, unlucky anbouv;li [anbuzheli] incurable angam [ankam] point of time, 2 ~ twice ang;t [anget] ignorant, unlearned angin [angin] priceless angir [angir] by heart angl;r;n [angleren] English (language) Anglia [Anglia] England angliakan [angliakan] English angliazi [angliatsi] English (male) angloufi [angluhi] English (fem.) angrag;t [angraget] illiterate angouj [angut] merciless angou\n [anguyn] colorless andadar [andatar] continuous, unceasing andam [antam] member, limb andamalou\ [antamaluyts] crippled, paralyzed, invalid andorr [andorr] calm, peaceful andound [andund] abyss an;l [anel] to do an;r;s [aneres] shameless, impudent anxor [anzor] powerless, weak anendfat [annthat] constantly anjiw [antiv] innumerable ani;l [anitsel] to curse, to damn animast [animast] meaningless aniraw [anirav] unjust, wrong aniw [aniv] wheel an.;lq [ankhelk] senseless, foolish an.of;m [ankhohem] imprudent ananoj [antsanot] unknown, strange anka. [ankakh] independent, free anka.ouj\oun [ankakhutyun] independence anka\oun [ankayun] unstable ankanon [ankanon] irregular ankatar [ankatar] imperfect, incomplete ankarg [ankark] unruly ankar;li [ankareli] impossible ankaro[ [ankarogh] unable, incompetent ank;[ [ankeghts] sincere ank\oun [ankyun] corner anko[in [ankoghin] bed (the mattress and the bedding) ankoum [ankum] fall, decadence anfamb;r [anhamber] impatient anfat [anhat] individual anf;tanal [anhetanal] to disappear anfog [anhok] careless anfrav;,t [anhrazhesht] necessary an] [andz] person an]amb [andzamp] in person an]nakan [andznakan] personal, private an]nas;r [antdznaser] selfish an]naspanouj\oun [andznaspanutyun] sui cide an]naworouj\oun [andznavorutyun] person ality an]r [andzrev] rain an]r;l [andzrevel] to rain anya,ak [anchashak] tasteless (about people) anyarak [ancharak] inept, stupid anmaf [anmah] immortal anm;[ [anmegh] innocent anmi=ap;s [anmijapes] immediately anmoanali [anmoanali] unforgettable an,arv [ansharzh] immobile an,norfakal [anshnorhakal] ungrateful an,ou,t [anshusht] sure, certainly anoji [anoti] hungry anwan;l [anvanel] to name, to call anwani [anvani] renowned anca' [anchap] immense, vey much ansafman [ansahman] infinite, boundless ansowor [ansovor] unusual 463

anwnas [anvnas] intact, unharmed anta [anta] forest antarb;r [antarber] indifferent ant;r [anter] unprotected, abandoned antirakan [antirakan] unprotected anzkazn;l [antskatsnel] to spend (about time) anzn;l [antsnel] to pass (by) anzord [antsort] passer-by anoun [anun] name anou, [anush] sweet anou,adir [anushadir] inattentive a,ak;rt [ashakert] pupil, student (male) a,ak;rtoufi [ashakertuhi] pupil (fem.) a,.atas;n\ak [ashkhatasenyak] office, study room a,.atas;r [ashkhataser] diligent a,.atanq [ashkhatank] work a,.atasirouj\oun [ashkhatasirutyun] diligence a,.at;l [ashkhatel] to work a,.arf [ashkharh] world a,.arfagrouj\oun [ashkharhagrutyun] geography a,.ou\v [ashkhuyzh] vivacious, lively a,tarak [ashtarak] tower a,oun [ashun] fall (season), autumn acq [achk] eye apaga [apaga] future apaki [apaki] glass apafow [apahov] secure, safe apa,.ar;l [apashkharel] repent apani [apani] future tense apastan;l [apastanel] to take refuge apazou\z [apatsuyts] proof apazouz;l [apatsutsel] to prove aptak [aptak] slap apr;l [aprel] to live apranq [aprank] merchandise apr;lak;rp [aprelakerp] way of life apr;@s [apres!] Good for you! Bravo! apou.t [apukht] cured and spiced meat apou, [apush] stupid apour [apur] soup a= [ach] right (side), right hand aagast [aagast] sail aagastanaw [aagastanav] sailboat aa [aats] proverb aak [aak] fable aa= [aach] before, in front

aa=ark [aachark] offer aa=ark;l

baxk;rak [bazkerak] pulse baxma- [bazma-] multi-, polybaxmaxan [bazmazan] diverse, manifold baxmajiw [bazmativ] numerous baxmanal [bazmanal] to multiply, to grow in number baxmoz [bazmots] sofa, couch baxmouj\oun [bazmutyun] crowd baxouk [bazuk] arm, forearm bavak [bazhak] cup, mug bavakaya [bazhakacha] toast (speech) bavan;l [bazhanel] to divide, to separate bavanw;l [bazhanvel] to separate bavanoum [bazhanum] separation, division bavin [bazhin] share, part bala or balik [bala or balik] cherished child, offspring ba.;l [bakhel] to collide ba.w;l [bakhvel] to knock, to hit ba.t [bakht] fate, destiny, luck ba.tawor [bakhtavor] lucky, happy bak [bak] yard, courtyard baf [bah] spade ba[adrouj\oun [baghadrutyun] composition, combination ba[a]a\n [baghadzayn] consonant ba[dat;l [baghdatel] to compare ba[kanal [baghkanal] to consist of, to be composed of ba[niq [baghnik] bathhouse, bathroom baykon [bachkon] waistcoat, jacket bambak [bambak] cotton bambasanq [bambasank] gossip bambas;l [bambasel] to gossip ba\ [bay] verb ba\z [bayts] but ban [ban] thing; work banal [banal] to open banali [banali] key banak [banak] army banakan [banakan] rational banakz;l [banaktsel] to negotiate banast;[ [banasteghts] poet banaw;y [banavech] discussion ban=ar;[;n [banjareghen] vegetables banwor [banvor] workman, blue-collar worker banworoufi [banvoruhi] worker (fem.) bant [bant] prison, jail bantark;l [bantarkel] to imprison, to detain bantark\al [bantarkyal] prisoner 466 bantarkw;l [bantarkvel] to get jailed ba,.;l [bashkhel] to distribute ba [ba] word baaran [baaran] dictionary bastourma [basturma] salted and spiced beef bawakan [bavakan] enough, sufficient bawarar [bavarar] satisfactory bawarar;l [bavararel] to satisfy barak [barak] thin barak;l [barakel] to become thin(ner) barba [barba] dialect barbaros [barbaros] barbarian bargaway;l [bargavachel] to flourish, to prosper bard [bart] compound, complex bar;ba.t [barebakht] fortunate bar;b;r [bareber] fruitful, fertile bar;gor [baregorts] benefactor bar;gorakan [baregortsakan] benevolent bar;law;l [barelavel] to improve bar;.i[y [barekhighch] conscientious bar;.os;l [barekhosel] to intercede, to speak on behalf of s.o. bar;kam [barekam] friend (male) bar;kamoufi [barekamuhi] friend (fem.) bar;karg;l [barekarkel] to amend, to improve, to renovate bar;k;zik [bareketsik] wealthy bar;kirj [barekirt] polite, well-behaved bar;ma[jouj\oun [baremaghtutyun] wish, good wish, congratulation bar;npast [barenpast] beneficial bar;sirt [baresirt] good-hearted bar;rar [barerar] benefactor bari [bari] good, kind bariq [barik] good deed, charity barkanal [barkanal] to get angry, to get mad barkouj\oun [barkutyun] anger bar] [barts] pillow, cushion bar]r [bartsr] high bar]ragou\n [bartsraguyn] supreme; upper most; higher (about education) bar]ra.os [bartsrakhos] 1. adj. loud (about people); 2. noun: microphone, speaker bar]rafasak [bartsrahasak] tall bar]ra]a\n [bartsradzayn] aloud bar]ranal [bartsranal] to rise, to mount bar]razn;l [bartsratsnel] to elevate, to raise bar]rouj\oun [bartsrutyun] altitude, height baro\akan [baroyakan] moral, ethical

bar [barev] greeting bar* [barev!] hello! bar;l [barevel] to salute, to greet baz [bats] open bazaka [batsaka] absent, away bazaka\ouj\oun [batsakayutyun] absence bazafa\t [batsahayt] evident, obvious bazaik [batsaik] exceptional bazaakan [batsaakan] ablative (case) bazaouj\oun [batsautyun] exception bazasakan [batsasakan] negative bazas;l [batsasel] to deny bazatr;l [batsatrel] to explain bazatrouj\oun [batsatrutyun] explanation bazar]ak [batsartsak] absolute baz;l [batsel] to open bazi [batsi] except bazik [batsik] postcard baz kanac [bats kanach] light green bazw;l [batsvel] to open up bazoum [batsum] opening bawakan [bavakan] enough b;kan;l [bekanel] to reverse (a decision) b;kor [bekor] piece, fragment; remnant b;[ [begh] mustache b;[mnawor [beghmnavor] fruitful; productive b;m [bem] stage b;madr;l [bemadrel] to stage, to put on (a play) b;nxin [benzin] gazoline b; [be] burden, load b;nakir [benakir] porter b;natar [benatar] cargo-carrying; truck b;ran [beran] mouth b;rd [bert] fortress, stronghold b;r;l [berel] to bring b;rri [berri] fruitful, fertile bjamat [btamat] thumb bvi,k [bzhishk] physician bv,kakan [bzhshkakan] medical bi [bits] stain, blemish blour [blur] hill ba.ndir [btsakhntir]pedantic, fussy b.;l [bkhel] to spring up, to originate bnagir [bnagir] original (work) bnaxd [bnazd] instinct bnain [bnatsin] innate, inborn bnakan [bnakan] natural bnakawa\r [bnakavayr] settlement, residence bnakaran [bnakaran] apartment bnak;li [bnakeli] habitable bnakic [bnakich] resident bnakcouj\oun [bnakchutyun] population bnakw;l [bnakvel] to reside, to live bnankar [bnankar] landscape bna=n=;l [bnajnjel] to annihilate bna=n=oum [bnajnjum] annihilation bnaw [bnav] not at all, never bnaworouj\oun [bnavorutyun] nature, character bnoro, [bnorosh] typical bnoro,;l [bnoroshel] to characterize, to define bnouj\oun [bnutyun] nature box [boz] whore, prostitute bolor [bolor] all bolorowin [bolorovin] entirely, completely bo[bo= [boghboch] bud, shoot, sprout bo[oq [boghok] protest, complaint, appeal bo[oqakan [boghokakan] protestant bo[oq;l [boghokel] to protest bo,a [bosha] gipsy (pejorative) bowandakouj\oun [bovandakutyun] content boran [boran] snowstorm borboq;l [borbokel] to inflame, to kindle borboqw;l [borbokvel] to get inflamed, to blaze bor;ni [boreni] hyena boz [bots] flame, blaze b=i= [bjij] cell bnabar;l [bnabarel] to force; to rape; to torture bnabarouj\oun [bnabarutyun] rape bnagraw;l [bnagravel] to confiscate bnakal [bnakal] to tyrant bn;l [bnel] to hold (onto); to catch, to arrest bni [bni] forced, involontary bnouj\oun [bnutyun] violence bounzq [buntsk] fist Braxilia [Brazilia] Brasil braxilazi [brazilatsi] Brasilian brd\a [brtya] woolen brin] [brindz] rice brout [brut] potter bou [bu] owl bouj [but] blunt, dull; stupid; elision mark (^) bouv;l [buzhel] to cure, to treat bouvqou\r [buzhkuyr] nurse boul[arakan [bulgharakan] Bulgarian (adj) boul[ar;r;n [bulghareren] Bulgarian (language) Boul[aria [Bulgharia] Bulgaria 467

bou\n [buyn] nest bou\s [buys] plant, herb bou\r [buyr] scent, fragrance, aroma boun [bun] original, proper bousakan [busakan] vegetal bousak;r [busaker] vegetarian bourd [burt] wool bourmounq [burmunk] scent, aroma bouq [buk] sleet b; [beve] pole g;[] [geghdz] gland g;[=ouk [geghjuk] peasant g;, [gesh] ugly g;t [get] river g;tin [getin] ground, soil g;tna.n]or [getnakhndzor] girasole g;r [ger] fat, overweight g;ra- [gera-] over-, super-, trans-, most g;ragnafat;l [geragnahatel] overestimate g;radrakan [geradrakan] superlative g;raxanz [gerazants] excellent g;ran [geran] beam, post g;rdastan [gerdastan] family, dynasty, descendants g;r;xman [gerezman] grave g;ri [geri] captive, slave g;rmanakan [germanakan] German (adj.) g;rmanazi [germanatsi] German (male) g;rman;r;n [germaneren] German (language) G;rmania [Germania] Germany g;rmanoufi [germanuhi] German (fem.) gjal [gtal] to commiserate, to have compassion giv [gizh] insane, crazy, mad; stupid gi [gits] line gin [gin] price gini [gini] wine ginow [ginov] drunk gi,;r [gisher] night gi,;ranoz [gisheranots] nightgown gi,;r;l [gisherel] to stay overnight gitakiz [gitakits] conscious gitakzouj\oun [gitakitsutyun] consciousness git;liq [gitelik] knowledge git;nal [gitenal] to know gitnakan [gitnakan] scholar, scientist gitouj\oun [gitutyun] science gitoun [gitun] knowledgeable, erudite gir [gir] letter, graphic sign giranal [giranal] to grow fat girk [girk] lap, bosom girq [girk] book gl.agir [glkhagir] capital (letter) gl.awor [glkhavor] main, major gl.ark [glkhark] hat, cap glor;l [glorel] to roll, to turn over glou. [glukh] head; chief g;l [gtsel] to draw gmb;j [gmbet] dome g\ou[ [gyugh] village; countryside

gagaj [gagat] top, summit, peak gagajnak;t [gagatnaket] peak, zenith; culmination, climax gaxan [gazan] beast, brute gaxananoz [gazananots] zoo gaxar [gazar] carrot gaja [gata] Armenian pastry gal [gal] to come, to arrive gaf [gah] throne ga[a'ar [gaghapar] idea, notion, concept ga[j [gaght] emigration, migration ga[j;l [gaghtel] to emigrate, forced to leave the homeland ga[= [gaghch] lukewarm ga[tni (adj.) [gaghtni] secret, undiscovered ga[tniq (noun) [gaghtnik] secret, mystery ga[ouj [gaghut] colony; community ga\l [gayl] wolf gang [gang] skull, cranium gangat [gangat] complaint gangatw;l [gangatvel] to complain gangour [gangur] curly gan] [gandz] treasure ga(nouk) [ga(nuk)] lamb gawaxan [gavazan] cane, rod, stick gawaj [gavat] cup, glass gawa [gava] province, region gar;=our [garejur] beer gari [gari] barley gar,afot [garshahot] stench, stink gar,;li [garsheli] detestable, base garoun [garun] spring gdal [gtal] spoon g;[agitouj\oun [geghagitutyun] aesthetics g;[agrouj\oun [geghagrutyun] calligraphy g;[arw;st [gegharvest] fine arts g;[;zik [geghetsik] beautiful g;[;zkouj\oun [geghetskutyun] beauty 468

g\ou[azi [gyughatsi] peasant; farmer g\ou[aqa[aq [gyughakaghak] countrytown, large village g\out [gyut] invention gnal [gnal] to go, to leave, to depart gnafat;l [gnahatel] to value, to appreciate gnazq [gnatsk] train gn;l [gnel] to buy, to purchase gndak [gndak] ball, bullet gnord [gnort] buyer, customer gncou [gnchu] gypsy gognoz [goknots] apron gol [gol] lukewarm golor,i [golorshi] vapor, steam gof [goh] contented, satisfied gofanal [gohanal] to content (oneself) gofar [gohar] jewel gofazoum [gohatsum] satisfaction go[ [gogh] thief go[anal [goghanal] to steal gom [gom] stable, stall; barn go\akan [goyakan] noun, substantive go\ouj\oun [goyutyun] existence, being gon; [gone] at least goc;l [gochel] to exclaim, to shout goal [goal] to scream, to shout goox [gooz] haughty, arrogant gow;l [govel] to praise gow;st [govest] word of praise goti [goti] belt gorg [gorg] carpet, rug gor [gorts] work, affair, act, business goradoul [gortsadul] strike (by workers) goraxourk [gortsazurk] unemployed, jobless gora;l [gortsatsel] to use, to spend goraran [gortsaran] factory; organ (anatomy) gor;l [gortsel] to act, to work goriakan [gortsiakan] instrumental (case) goric [gortsich] agent, activist goriq [gortsik] instrument goro[ouj\oun [gortsoghutyun] operation gort [gort] frog g;fik [gehik] vulgar, trivial gtn;l [gtnel] to find gtnw;l [gtnvel] to be found, to be situated grabar [grabar] classical Armenian grag;t [graget] literate, lettered, educated gragir [gragir] secretary, clerk (male) gragroufi [gragruhi] secretary, clerk (fem.) gradaran [gradaran] library, bookcase gra.anouj [grakhanut] bookstore grakan [grakan] literary grakanouj\oun [grakanutyun] literature grapafaran [grapaharan] bookcase gras;[an [graseghan] desk gras;n\ak [grasenyak] office, study room gras;r [graser] lover of letters grawaya [gravacha] bookseller graw;l [gravel] to occupy, to confiscate grawor [gravor] written, in writing grata.tak [gratakhtak] blackboard gr;j; [grete] almost, nearly gr;l [grel] to write gric [grich] pen grk;l [grkel] to embrace gro[ [grogh] writer grpan [grpan] pocket grouj\oun [grutyun] writing grw;l [grvel] to be written gouj [gut] compassion, pity goulpa [gulpa] sock, stocking goumar [gumar] sum, amount goumaroum [gumarum] assembly; addition gou\n [guyn] color gounat [gunat] pale gounawor [gunavor] colored gourgouranq [gurgurank] affection gouz; [gutse] maybe, perhaps

da [da] this, that, this one daga[ [dagagh] coffin dadar [datar] pause, rest dadar;l [datarel] to stop (intr.) dadar;zn;l [dataretsnel] to stop, to suspend davan [dazhan] cruel, severe dafiy [dahich] hangman dafouk [dahuk] sledge, sleigh danak [danak] knife danda[ [dandagh] slow Dania [Dania] Denmark daniakan [daniakan] Danish daniazi [daniatsi] Dane da,inq [dashink] pact, treaty da,nak [dashnak] Armenian federalist da,nakafar [dashnakahar] pianist da,nakiz [dashnakits] ally da,namour [dashnamur] piano (musical instrument) da,t [dasht] field 469

dan [dan] bitter, tart danal [danal] to turn (into), to become das [das] lesson, class dasagirq [dasagirk] textbook dasa.os [dasakhos] lecturer, professor dasakan [dasakan] classical dasakarg [dasakark] rank, class (in society) dasawand;l [dasavandel] to teach, to educate (in class) dasaran [dasaran] class, classroom dastiarak [dastiarak] educator dastiarak;l [dastiarakel] to educate dastiarakouj\oun [dastiarakutyun] upbringing, education daw [dav] plot, conspiracy dawayan [davachan] traitor, betrayer dawayan;l [davachanel] to betray, to plot dat [dat] lawsuit, cause datapart;l [datapartel] to condemn, to sentence datawarouj\oun [datavarutyun] trial datawor [datavor] judge dataran [dataran] tribunal, court datark [datark] empty datarkouj\oun [datarkutyun] emptiness dat;l [datel] to judge dar [dar] century darak [darak] shelf; drawer daran [daran] snare; hiding place darbin [darpin] blacksmith dar]\al [dartsyal] again, anew dar]n;l [dartsnel] to turn, to return; to change (into) darman [darman] remedy, cure darman;l [darmanel] to remedy, to cure ddmik [dtmik] zucchini ddoum [dtum] pumpkin, squash, zucchini d;[ [degh] medicine, medication, drug d;[agor [deghagorts] pharmacist d;[atoun [deghatun] pharmacy d;[in [deghin] yellow d;[] [deghts] peach d;[]anik [deghtsanik] canary d;[n;l [deghnel] to turn yellow d;m [dem] against, opposite d;m [demk] 1. face, visage; 2. person q (grammatical category) d;pi [depi] toward d;pq [depk] case; event, incident d; [de] yet, still 470 d;span [despan] ambassador d;spanatoun [despanatun] embassy d;rasan [derasan] actor, comedian (male) d;rasanoufi [derasanuhi] actress d;r]ak [dertsak] tailor d;r]akoufi [dertsakuhi] dressmaker d;r]an [dertsan] thread dv- [dzh-] mal-, dis-, undvba.t [dzhbakht] unfortunate, unhappy dvgof [dzhgoh] discontent, dissatisfied dvgou\n [dzhguyn] discolored, pale dvo.q [dzhokhk] hell dvwar [dzhvar] hard, difficult diak [diak] corpse, dead body dix;l [dizel] to pile, to heap up, to accumulate dimadr;l [dimadrel] to resist, to withstand dimak [dimak] mask dimawor;l [dimavorel] to meet; to pick up, to fetch dimaz [dimats] facing, in front of dimazkoun [dimatskun] resitant, durable dipc;l [dipchel] to touch diwanag;t [divanaget] diplomat ditaworouj\oun [ditavorutyun] intention dit;l [ditel] to observe, to watch dito[ouj\oun [ditoghutyun] observation, remark dirq [dirk] position, situation d\ourin [dyurin] easy dn;l [dnel] to put, to place do[ [dogh] (1) shiver, tremor; (2) tire do[al [doghal] to tremble, to shake, to shiver dpir [dpir] church clerk dproz [dprots] school dprozakan [dprotsakan] schoolboy, school-girl, student dra.t [drakht] paradise drakan [drakan] 1. positive 2. dative (case) dra famar [dra hamar] therefore dram [dram] 1. money; 2. Armenian currency drazi [dratsi] neighbor dro,(ak) [drosh(ak)] flag dou [du] you (informal) dou\l [duyl] pail, bucket dn;dou [dnedu] from door to door dou [du] door doustr [dustr] daughter dours [durs] out douq [duk] you (formal) d [dev] devil, demon


;bra\akan [yeprayakan] Hebrew, Hebraist ;giptakan [yegiptakan] Egyptian, of Egypt ;giptazi [yegiptatsi] Egyptian (male) ;giptazor;n [yegiptatsoren] corn :giptos [Yegiptos] Egypt ;giptoufi [yegiptuhi] Egyptian (fem.) ;x [yez] ox ;xaki [yezaki] singular (in grammar); unique ;x;rq [yezerk] shore, edge, brink ;j; [yete] if ;lak [yelak] strawberry ;ln;l [yelnel] get up, rise; ascent, emerge ;lou\j [yeluyt] public appearance ;lq [yelk] exit ;kamout [yekamut] income ;k;[;zi [yekeghetsi] church ;[anak [yeghanak] manner, mode, melody ;[ba\r [yeghpayr] brother ;[;g(n) [yegheg(n)] reed, cane ;[;n [yeghen] great crime (used for Armenian genocide) ;[nik [yeghnik] roe ;[=;rou [yeghjeru] deer ;[=\our [yeghjyur] horn ;[oung [yeghung] fingernail ;njadr;l [yentadrel] to suppose ;njaka [yentaka] subject ;agou\n [yeaguyn] tricolor ;al [yeal] to boil ;s [yes] I, myself ;sas;r [yesaser] selfish ;sasirouj\oun [yesasirutyun] egoism :wropa [yevropa] Europe ;wropakan [yevropakan] European ;wropazi [yevropatsi] European citizen ;t [yet] back, backward ;t [yetev] back, behind ;rax [yeraz] dream ;ravi,t [yerazhisht] musician ;rav,touj\oun [yerazhshtutyun] music ;ra.tagitouj\oun [yerakhtagitutyun] gratitude ;ra.tapart [yerakhtapart] grateful ;rak [yerak] vein ;ram [yeram] flock ;rani@ [yerani] I wish ..., if only ... ;ra,.aworagir [yerashkhavoragir] warranty, bail ;ra,.awor;l [yerashkhavorel] to warrant,

to guarantee ;#rb [yerp?] when? ;rb;mn [yerpemn] sometimes ;rb;q [yerpek] never ;rb or [yerp vor] when, whenever ;rg [yerk] song ;rg;l [yerkel] to sing ;rgic [yerkich] singer (male) ;rgcoufi [yerkchuhi] singer (fem.) ;rdoum [yertum] oath ;rdw;l [yertvel] to oath, to swear ;r;.a [yerekha] child ;r;k [yerek] yesterday ;r;ko [yereko] evening ;r;s [yeres] face, visage ;r;soun [yeresun] thirty ;r;q [yerek] three ;rj [yert] marching; journey ;rj;k;l [yertevekel] to commute ;rj;kouj\oun [yertevekutyun] traffic, communication ;rikam [yerikam] kidney ;ritasard [yeritasard] young, young man ;ritasardouj\oun [yeritasardutyun] youth ;rk [yerk] literary work ;rkaj [yerkat] iron (metal) ;rkar [yerkar] long ;rkarat [yerkaratev] long-lasting ;rkarouj\oun [yerkarutyun] length ;rkinq [yerkink] heaven, sky ;rkir [yerkir] earth, land ;rknagou\n [yerknaguyn] sky-blue ;rkna\in [yerknayin] heavenly, celestial ;rkcot [yerkchot] timid ;rkcotouj\oun [yerkchotutyun] timidity ;rkto[ [yerktogh ] note, a few lines ;rkraban [yerkraban] geologist ;rkrabanouj\oun [yerkrabanutyun] geology ;rkragor [yerkragorts] peasant, farmer ;rkragorouj\oun [yerkragortsutyun] agriculture ;rkra\in [yerkrayin] terrestrial ;rkra,arv [yerkrasharzh] earthquake ;rkrord [yerkrort] second (ordinal number) ;rkrpag;l [yerkrpakel] to worship ;rkou [yerku] two ;r,ik [yershik] sausage ;r=anik [yerjanik] happy ;r=ankouj\oun [yerjankutyun] happiness ;rrord [yerrort] third 471

;ral [yereval] to appear, to seem ;raka\;l [yerevakayel] to imagine ;raka\ouj\oun [yerevakayutyun] imagination :ran [Yerevan] Yerevan (capital of Armenia) ;rou\j [yerevuyt] appearance, phenomenon ;'a [yepats] cooked ;';l [yepel] to cook ;'w;l [yepvel] to be cooked xxw;li [zzveli] disgusting, loathsome xin;l [zinel] to arm xinwor [zinvor] soldier xi=;l [zichel] to yield, to give in x[=al [zghjal] to repent xma\lw;l [zmaylvel] to be raptured xof [zoh] victim xof;l [zohel] to sacrifice xow [zov] cool, fresh xorq [zork] army, troops xsp;l [zspel] to restrain, to curb, to repress xwarj [zvart] joyous, gay xwaryanal [zvarchanal] to amuse oneself, to have fun xrkanq [zrkank] privation, hardship xrk;l [zrkel] to deprive xro [zo] zero xrou\z [zruyts] conversation; tale xrouz;l [zruytsel] to chat, to converse xrpart;l [zrpartel] to slander, to defame xrpartouj\oun [zrpartutyun] slander,defamation xougadipouj\oun [zugadiputyun] coincidence xougaran [zugaran] toilet, bathroom xou\g [zuyk] pair; couple xousp [zusp] restrained, composed xour [zur], i xour [i zur] in vain xourk [zurk] deprived, devoid

xamb\ou[ [zambyugh] basket xa\ranal [zayranal] to get angry xa\rou\j [zayruyt] anger xanaxan [zanazan] different xanaxan;l [zanazanel] to distuiguish xangak [zangak] bell xangafar;l [zangaharel] to phone, to call xang;l [zangel] to phone, to call xaanz;l [zaantsel] to rave, to be delirious xawak [zavak] child, offspring Xatik [Zatik] Easter xarganal [zarganal] to get developed xargazn;l [zargatsnel] to develop xard [zart] ornament, decoration, adornment xardankar [zartankar] adornment, decoration xardar;l [zartarel] to decorate, to adorn xark;l [zarkel] to strike, to hit xarmanal [zarmanal] to be surprised, to be astonished xarmanali [zarmanali] bizarre, strange xarmanq [zarmank] astonishment, amazement xarmik [zarmik] cousin xba[wa [zbaghvats] busy, occupied xba[w;l [zbaghvel] to occupy oneself xbosanq [zbosank] amusement, recreation xbosa,r=ik [zbosashrjik] tourist xbosaptou\t [zbosaptuyt] stroll xbosn;l [zbosnel] to take a walk, to promenade xgal [zgal] to feel xga\oun [zgayun] sensitive xgazoum [zgatsum] feeling, sentiment xg;st [zgest] dress xgou\, [zguysh] careful, cautious xgou,anal [zgushanal] to avoid x;ro [zeo] zero x;nq [zenk] weapon, armament xxwanq [zzvank] disgust; detestation xxw;l [zzvel] to be disgusted, to get tired (of) 472

hak [eyak] creature, being hakan [eyakan] substantial, essential hap;s [eyapes] in reality hg [ek] female hgouz [ekuts] (dial.) tomorrow hvan [ezhan] cheap, inexpensive hvanouj\oun [ezhanutyun] cheapness hl [el] too, also hl;ktraka\an [elektrakayan] power station hl;ktrakan [elektrakan] electric(al) hl;ktrakanouj\oun [elektrakanutyun] electricity hli [eli] again, too, also; nevertheless h, [esh] donkey, ass h= [ej] page hstonazi [estonatsi] Estonian (person) hston;r;n [estoneren] Estonian (language) Hstonia [Estonia] Estonia houj\oun [eyutyun] essence


e[]al [ghtsal] to wish embi, [mbish] wrestler embn;l [mbnel] to grasp, to comprehend emp;l [mpel] to drink emp;liq [mpelik] beverage, drink; liquor, spirits endar]ak [ntartsak] spacious, wide endg;l [ndgtsel] underline; stress; point out endgrk;l [ndgrkel] embrace; encompass endd;m [ntdem] against enddimanal [ntdimanal] to resist, to oppose endla\n;l [ndlaynel] to enlarge endfakaake [nthakaak] on the contrary endfanrap;s [nthanrapes] in general endfanour [nthanur] general; total; main endfat;l [nthatel] to interrupt, to discontinue endmi,t [ndmisht] forever endmi=;l [ndmichel] to interrupt endmi=oum [ndmichum] intermission, pause endounak [ntunak] capable, apt endoun;l [ntunel] to accept, to agree endoun;louj\oun [ntunelutyun] reception; admission endrinak;l [ntorinakel] to copy endrinakouj\oun [ntorinakutyun] copy, duplicate, transcript enjazq [ntatsk] course enj;rzaran [ntertsaran] textbook, reading hall enj;rz;l [ntertsel] course enjr;l [ntrel] to have supper enjriq [ntrik] supper ena [ntsa] gift, present ena\;l [ntsayel] to donate enkal;l [nkalel] to comprehend, to perceive enk;r [nker] friend (male) enk;rakz;l [nkeraktsel] to associate, to accompany enk;ranal [nkeranal] to join, to accompany enk;rouj\oun [nkerutyun] society, company, friendship enk;roufi [nkeruhi] friend (female) enkn;l [nknel] to fall, to decline enkou\x [nkuyz] walnut en]ou[t [ndzught] giraffe entani [ntani] domestic, familiar entaniq [ntanik] family entir [ntir] first-class, exquisite, fine

entr;l [ntrel] to elect, to choose entrouj\oun [ntrutyun] choice, election est [st] according to

jag [tag] crown jagawor [takavor] king jagaworouj\oun [takavorutyun] kingdom jagoufi [takuhi] queen jaj [tat] paw; palm (of hand) ja.i [takhits] sorrow, grief; affliction jakard [takart] trap, snare ja[ [tagh] neighborhood ja[amas [taghamas] district, quarter ja[;l [taghel] to bury ja[w;l [taghvel] to be buried ja[oum [taghum] burial, funeral jan [tan] tan (yogurt beverage) janaq [tanak] ink jangaran [tangaran] museum jank [tank] expensive, costly jankagin [tankagin] dear, beloved; costly, valuable jan]r [tandzr] thick (about liquid) ja,kinak [tashkinak] hadkerchief jaam;l [taamel] to fade, to wither jat;rakan [taterakan] theatrical jatron [tatron] theatre jargman;l [targmanel] to translate, to interpret jargman(ic) [targman(ich)] translator, interpreter jargmanouj\oun [targmanutyun] translation, interpretation jargmanw;l [targmanvel] to be translated, to be interpreted jarjic [tartich] eyelash jar.oun [tarkhun] tarragon jarm [tarm] fresh jarmazn;l [tarmatsnel] to freshen jarmouj\oun [tarmutyun] to freshen jaz [tats] wet ja' [tap] strength; pace; efficacy ja'a;l [tapael] to wander, to roam ja';l [tapel] to pour, to spill ja'w;l [tapvel] to flow, to be poured jaqnw;l [taknvel] to hide jaqstoz [takstots] hiding-place jaqoun [takun] secretly j; [te] that 473

j;j [tetev] light; easy j;l [tel] wire, thread j;ladr;l [teladrel] to dictate, to advise j;knaou [teknatsu] candidate, contender j;\ [tey] tea j;\aman [teyaman] teapot j;p;t [tepet] although j;rj [tert] (1) newspaper; (2) leaf j;ri [teri] imperfect, defective, faulty j;rouj\oun [terutyun] defect, fault, shortcoming j;rs [terevs] perhaps, maybe j;' [tep] (1) bran; (2) dandruff j;q [tek] declined; oblique j; [teyev] although, even though jjwas;r [ttvaser] sour cream jjou [ttu] sour ji(ak) [ti(ak)] shovel, oar jiawar;l [tiavarel] to row, to paddle jix [tiz] span of hand (unit of measure) jij;[ [titegh] tin jij;nik [titenik] butterfly jikounq [tikunk] back; support jiw [tiv] number j[ja.a[ [tghtakhagh] card game j[jakiz [tghtakits] correspondent j[jakz;l [tghtaktsel] to correspond jmbouk [tmbuk] drum jmr;l [tmrel] to grow numb, to get sleepy jmr;zouzic [tmretsutsich] narcotic j\ourimazouj\oun [tyurimatsutyun] misunderstanding j,nami [tshnami] enemy j,wa [tshva] miserable j,waouj\oun [tshvautyun] misery jojow;l [totovel] to stammer, to stutter jo[n;l [toghnel] to leave, to allow, to let jo[ouj\oun [toghutyun] pardon, grace jonir [tonir] pit oven jo,ak [toshak] stipend, pension jo [to] grandson, granddaughter joq [tok] lung joqa.t [tokakht] tuberculosis jicq [tichk] flight jc;l [tchel] to fly jcoun [tchun] bird jwabanouj\oun [tvabanutyun] arithmetic jwal [tval] to seem, to appear jwakan [tvakan] numeral, date jwan,an [tvanshan] cipher, mark (school) 474 jwark;l [tvarkel] to count jr=;l [trchel] to wet jr=w;l [trchvel] to get wet jrqafa\ [trkahay] Armenian from Turkey jrqoufi [trkuhi] Turk (fem.) joux [tuz] fig jouj [tut] mulberry joulanal [tulanal] to weaken, to soften joulouj\oun [tulutyun] weakness jou. [tukh] brown-skinned, dark-haired jou[j [tught] paper jou\l [tuyl] weak jou\latr;l [tuylatrel] to allow jou\n [tuyn] poison jounawor [tunavor] poisonous jounawor;l [tunavorel] to poison jou, [tush] cheek jour [tur] sabre jourq [turk] Turk jourqakan [turkakan] Turkish (adj.) jourq;r;n [turkeren] Turkish (language) Jourqia [Turkia] Turkey jou' [tup] bush jouq [tuk] spit jq;l [tkel] to spit j [tev] arm, wing

vam [zham] hour vamagor [zhamagorts] watchmaker vamadrw;l [zhamadrvel] to make an appointment vamadrouj\oun [zhamadrutyun] appointment vamakan [zhamakan] hourly, per hour vamanak [zhamanak] time vamanakakiz [zhamanakakits] contemporary vamanaka,r=an [zhamanakashrjan] epoch, period of time vamanakawor [zhamanakavor] temporary vamanakazou\z [zhamanakatsuyts] timetable vaman;l [zhamanel] to arrive vamanz [zhamants] pastime vamanoum [zhamanum] arrival vamazou\z [zhamatsuyts] watch, clock vamk;t [zhamket] deadline va\ [zhay] cliff, rock vang [zhang] rust vangot [zhangot] rusty

vaang [zhaang] heir, heiress vaang;l [zhaangel] to inherit vaangord [zhaangort] heir, heiress vaangouj\oun [zhaangutyun] inheritance, heritage v.takan [zhkhtakan] negative v.t;l [zhkhtel] to deny vo[ow [zhoghov] meeting, assembly vo[owrdakan [zhoghovrtakan] popular vo[owourd [zhoghovurt] people vpit [zhpit] smile vptal [zhptal] to smile vouvkal [zhuzhkal] abstinent i,.anoufi [ishkhanuhi] princess i,.;l [ishkhel] to reign i=;zn;l [ijetsnel] to lower, to take down i=n;l [ijnel] to descend isk [isk] but, and iskakan [iskakan] real ispanazi [ispanatsi] Spanish (male) iskap;s [iskapes] really iskou\n [iskuyn] immediately ispanakan [ispanakan] Spanish (adj.) ispan;r;n [ispaneren] Spanish (language) Ispania [Ispania] Spain ispanoufi [ispanuhi] Spanish (fem.) Isra\;l [Israyel] Israel isra\;lakan [israyelakan] Israelite isra\;lazi [israyelatsi] Israelite italakan [italakan] Italian (adj.) italazi [italatsi] Italian (male) ital;r;n [italeren] Italian (language) Italia [Italia] Italy italoufi [italuhi] Italian (fem.) ir (1) [ir] thing; (2) [ir] his/her/its iragor;l [iragortsel] to realize, to fulfill iradar]ouj\oun [iradartsutyun] event iradrouj\oun [iradrutyun] situation irakan [irakan] real irakanouj\oun [irakanutyun] reality iran [iran] bust, body, trunk Iran [Iran] Iran iranakan [iranakan] Iranian (adj.) iranzi [irantsi] Iranian (person) irap;s [irapes] really iraw [irav] truly irawaban [iravaban] lawyer irawag;t [iravaget] jurist irawamb [iravamb] rightly irawounq [iravunk] right, entitlement irar [irar] each other ir;n [iren] him/her ir;nz [irents] their, them ir;nq [irenk] they irikoun [irikun] evening iro[ouj\oun [iroghutyun] reality, truth iroq [irok] truly, really, in fact

ibr() [ipr(ev)] as, as if igakan [igakan] feminine, female ixour [izur] in vain iv [izh] viper i[] [ights] desire, longing im [im] my imanal [imanal] to know, to realize, to be aware of imast [imast] meaning, sense imastoun [imastun] wise imazn;l [imatsnel] to inform; to warn ime [im] mine ine% inn [in, inn] nine in] [indz] me, to me inn;rord [innerort] ninth innsoun [innsun] ninety i#nc [inch?] what? inc or [inch vor] whatever incp;#s [inchpes?] how? incpisi# [inchpisi?] what kind of? incou# [inchu?] why? incqa#n [inchkan?] how much? inqe [ink] he, she, it inqnak;nsagrouj\oun [inknakensagrutyun] autobiography inqnafos [inknahos] fountain pen inqna,arv [inknasharzh] motorcar inqnas;r [inknaser] selfish inqnaspanouj\oun [inknaspanutyun] suicide inqnourou\n [inknuruyn] self-reliant, independent, original inqs [inks] myself i,.an [ishkhan] prince i,.an ]ouk [ishkhan dzuk] Sevan trout

laj [lat] cloth lal [lal] to cry la\n [layn] broad, wide 475

la\nouj\oun [laynutyun] width la\nq [laynk] width lan= [lanj] slope lapt;r [lapter] lantern law [lav] good lawagou\n [lavaguyn] the best lawanal [lavanal] to improve lawa, [lavash] lavash, Armenian flat bread lawat;s [lavates] optimist lawazn;l [lavatsnel] to improve, to better latinakan [latinakan] Latin (adj.) latin;r;n [latineren] Latin (language) lar;l [larel] to stretch; to tune; to set (a clock) larwa [larvats] tense laz [lats] cry, crying laz lin;l [lats linel] to cry la';l [lapel] to eat, to gorge, to devour l;xwaban [lezvaban] lingust l;xwabanouj\oun [lezvabanutyun] linguistics l;xwa.oumb [lezvakhumb] language group l;xou [lezu] language, tongue l;f [leh] Polish (male) l;fakan [lehakan] Polish (adj.) L;fastan [Lehastan] Poland l;f;r;n [leheren] Polish (language) l;foufi [lehuhi] Polish (fem.) l;[i [leghi] gall, bile l; [le] mountain l;zoun [letsun] full lix;l [lizel] to lick limon [limon] lemon liy [lich] lake lin;l [linel] to be liqe [lik] plenty; full l;l [ltsel] to yoke lkti [lkti] impudent l\ard [lyart] liver lobi [lobi] beans lolik [lolik] tomato lok [lok] only, just lo[al [loghal] to swim lo[anal [loghanal] to bathe lo[aran [logharan] bathroom l;l [lel] to remain silent louj\oun [lutyun] silence ls;l [lsel] to hear, to listen lwanal [lvanal] to wash lwazaran [lvatsaran] sink; washroom lwazq [lvatsk] washing; laundry lragir [lragir] newspaper 476 lranal [lranal] to end, to expire lrazn;l [lratsnel] to complete lriw [lriv] completely lrt;s [lrtes] spy lzn;l [ltsnel] to fill, to pour lzon [ltson] filling lzw;l [ltsvel] to get filled lou [lu] flea lou [luts] 1. yoke; 2. diarrhea lou;l [lutsel] to solve, to dissolve lou\s [luys] light, brightness lou [lu] silent lousabaz [lusabats] dawn; sunrise lousafogi [lusahoki] the late; deceased lousankar [lusankar] photograph lousankarcouj\oun [lusankarchutyun] photography lousawor [lusavor] bright lousawor;l [lusavorel] to illuminate lousin [lusin] moon lour [lur] news, message lour= [lurj] serious lq;l [lkel] to abandon, to leave

.ab;ba [khapeba] swindler, impostor .ab;l [khapel] to deceive .abousik [khapusik] deceitful .a.t;l [khakhtel] to displace; to violate .ak [khak] not ripe (about fruits) .a[ [khagh] game, play .a[al [khaghal] to play .a[aliq [khaghalik] toy .a[a[ [khaghagh] calm, peaceful .a[a[ouj\oun [khaghaghutyun] peace .a[o[ [khaghogh] grapes .a\j;l [khaytel] to sting, to prick .a\taak [khaytaak] disgraceful, infamous .angar;l [khangarel] to disturb, to annoy .and [khand] jealousy .anouj [khanut] shop, store .ac [khach] cross, crucifix .aca] [khachadzev] in the form of a cross .an [khan] mixed .an;l [khanel] to mingle, to mix .awar [khavar] dark(ness) .arda. [khardakh] fraudulent, tricky .aris. [khariskh] anchor .;lagar [khelagar] mad, crazy .;lazi [khelatsi] intelligent, clever

.;loq [khelok] wise, intelligent, clever .;lq [khelk] brains, intelligence; wisdom .;[d;l [kheghdel] to strangle, to choke .;[y [kheghch] poor, unfortunate .;nj [khent] stupid, crazy, insane .x;l [khzel] to break off, to pull away .jan [khtan] spur; incentive .ixa. [khizakh] brave, courageous .i[y [khighch] conscience .ist [khist] strict, severe .it [khit] dense, thick .[yal [khghchal] to pity .you[i [khchughi] main road .mbagr;l [khmbagrel] to edit .mbagric [khmbagrich] editor .mbagrouj\oun [khmbagrutyun] edition .m;l [khmel] to drink .micq [khmichk] conscience .mor [khmor] dough .nam;l [khnamel] to take care .na\;l [khnayel] to save, to spare; to set aside for future use .ndir [khntir] matter, problem, question .ndranq [khntrank] request, demand .ndr;l [khntrel] to ask, to beg, to request .n]or [khndzor] apple .n]or;ni [khndzoreni] apple tree .n=ou\q [khnjuyk] feast, dinner party; good cheer .ox [khoz] pig .ofanoz [khohanots] kitchen .of;m [khohem] prudent .of;mouj\oun [khohemutyun] prudence .o[owak [khoghovak] pipe, tube .o\ [khoy] ram .onaw [khonav] humid .onawouj\oun [khonavutyun] humidity .onarf [khonarh] humble .onarfw;l [khonarhvel] to bow .o,or [khoshor] huge, large, gross .ocendot [khochndot] obstacle .osakiz [khosakits] speech partner .osakz;l [khosaktsel] to converse .osakzouj\oun [khosaktsutyun] conversation .os;l [khosel] to speak .ostanal [khostanal] to promise .osq [khosk] speech, spoken word, phrase .ot [khot] grass, turf; herbage .or [khor] deep, profound .oramank [khoramank] sly, cunning, crafty .orj fa\r [khort hayr] stepfather .orj ma\r [khort mayr] stepmother .orf;l [khorhel] to think, to meditate, to reflect .orfrdakz;l [khorhrtaktsel] to consult .orfourd [khorhurt] advice; thought; counsel .orowa [khorovats] roasted, grilled, broiled; barbecue .orow;l [khorovel] to barbecue, to roast .ortak;l [khortakel] to destroy .orouj\oun [khorutyun] depth .ow;l [khovel] to break up, to become alienated, to not talk to each other .rat [khrat] advice .rat;l [khratel] to advise [khrkhinj] neigh .r.n=al [khrkhnjal] to neigh .ouvan [khuzhan] crowd, mob .oul [khul] deaf .ouyap [khuchap] panic, alarm .oumb [khumb] group .ousa';l [khusapel] to avoid, to shun .ouz [khuts] cell .ou' [khup] cover, lid .';l [khpel] to hit, to attack

ag;l [tsakel] 1. to originate; 2. to rise (about the sun) agoum [tsakum] origin a.;l [tsakhel] to sell a.s [tsakhs] expense a.s;l [tsakhsel] to spend, to expend ak;l [tsatskel] to cover akoz [tsatskots] cover, tablecloth; bedspread akw;l [tsatskvel] to get covered ak [tsak] hole, opening ak;l [tsakel] to pierce, to prick a[ik [tsaghik] flower a[kaw;t [tsaghkavet] abounding with flowers, florid a[k;l [tsaghkel] to bloom a[r [tsaghr] sarcasm, ridicule; joke a[r;l [tsaghrel] to ridicule am;l [tsamel] to chew amon [tsamon] chewing gum a\r [tsayr] edge, end, border a\raf;[ [tsayrahegh] extreme; absolute anoj [tsanot] known, acquaintance 477

anr [tsanr] heavy a [tsa] tree aa [tsaa] servant, valet aa\;l [tsaayel] to serve, to wait upon awal [tsaval] volume araw [tsarav] thirst, thirsty a' [tsap] clap a'afarouj\oun [tsapaharutyun] applause ; [tsets] beating ;;l [tsetsel] to beat ;r [tser] (about people) old ;rouj\oun [tserutyun] old age iaan [tsiatsan] (1) rainbow; (2) iris il [tsil] bud, sprout i [tsits] breast; udder ia[ [tsitsagh] laughter ia[;l [tsitsaghel] to laugh ia[;li [tsitsagheli] ridiculous i;nak [tsitsenak] swallow (bird) iran [tsiran] apricot .a.ot [tskhakhot] tobacco .;l [tskhel] to smoke n;l [tsnel] to give birth nndawa\r [tsnndavayr] birthplace no[n;r [tsnoghner] parents not [tsnot] jaw nw;l [tsnvel] to be born nound [tsnund] birth nound [tsnund] Christmas ow [tsov] sea oz [tsots] (1) breast, bosom; (2) gulf ;l [tsel] to bend w;l [tsvel] to incline, to be bent ragir [tsragir] program rar [tsrar] package, envelope ou[ak [tsughak] trap ou\l [tsuyl] lazy ounk [tsunk] knee ou [tsu] crooked kajsa [katsa] kettle ka.;l [kakhel] to hang kakac [kakach] poppy kafou\q [kahuyk] furniture ka[amb [kaghamb] cabbage Ka[and [Kaghand] New Years Day ka[apar [kaghapar] pattern ka[in [kaghin] hazelnut ka[ni [kaghni] (1) oak; (2) hazel bush kam [kam] or kama\akan [kamayakan] arbitrary kamar [kamar] arch kamaz [kamats] slow(ly) kamour= [kamurj] bridge kam [kamk] will power q ka\aran [kayaran] train station ka\ [kayts] sparkle ka\ak [kaytsak] lightning ka\sr [kaysr] Emperor ka\ta [kayta] robust Kanada [Kanada] Canada kanadakan [kanadakan] Canadian kanadazi [kanadatsi] Canadian (male) kanadoufi [kanaduhi] Canadian (fem.) kanac [kanach] green kanac;[;n [kanacheghen] green vegetables, greens; grass, herbs kanga [kanga] stop, station kangn;l [kangnel] to stop, to stand (up) kanj;[ [kantegh] lamp kan.;l [kankhel] to prevent; to avert kan.ik [kankhik] cash kanon [kanon] rule, regulation, law kanonadrouj\oun [kanonadrutyun] constitution; charter kanonawor [kanonavor] regular kanc;l [kanchel] to call ka,aak;rouj\oun [kashaakerutyun] bribery, corruption ka,a;l [kashael] to bribe ka,aq [kashak] bribe, bribery, corruption ka,i [kashi] leather, skin ka,kand;l [kashkandel] to bind, to restrain; to hinder kaca[ak [kachaghak] magpie kap [kap] tie, link; communicaton; connection kap;l [kapel] to link, to bind, to tie kapik [kapik] monkey kapou\t [kapuyt] blue kaawar;l [kaavarel] to govern

kaxdour;l [kazdurel] to invigorate, to vivify kaxmak;rp;l [kazmakerpel] organize kaxmak;rpouj\oun [kazmakerputyun] organization kaxm;l [kazmel] to form, to constitute kaj [kat] milk kajil [katel] drop kajo[ikos [katoghikos] Catholicos, Patriarch of all Armenians 478

kaawarouj\oun [kaavarutyun] government kaouz;l [kautsel] to build kaouzo[ [kautsogh] builder kaouzwaq [kautsvatsk] structure kaq [kak] coach, carriage kaska [kaskats] doubt; skepticism kaska;l [kaskatsel] to suspect, to doubt kawiy [kavich] chalk katak [katak] joke, fun kata[i [kataghi] fierce, wild; furious katar;l [katarel] to fulfill katar;louj\oun [katarelutyun] perfection katar\al [kataryal] perfect katou [katu] cat kar [kar] (1) sewing; (2) there was karag [karak] butter karap [karap] swan karas [karas] water jar karg [kark] order, rule; rank, row kargapaf [karkapah] orderly kardal [kartal] to read kar;l [karel] to sew kar;li [kareli] possible kar;kz;l [karektsel] to have compassion with kar;nal [karenal] to be able kariq [karik] demand, need kar;l [kartsel] to think, to presume kariq [kartsik] opinion karr [kartsr] hard, tough karkandak [karkandak] cake, pastry karkout [karkut] hail kary [karch] short, brief karmir [karmir] red karmir p[p;[ [karmir pghpegh] red pepper karo[ [karogh] able karo[anal [karoghanal] to be able karot [karot] (1) (adj.) needy, in want of; (2) (noun) nostalgia karot;l [karotel] to miss karor [karevor] important, necessary kazin [katsin] adze kazouj\oun [katsutyun] situation, status, condition kaw [kav] clay kawiy [kavich] chalk ka'aric [kaparich] lid, cover kaqaw [kakav] partridge k;[;q;l [keghekel] to exploit k;[ [keghts] fake, false k;[awor [keghtsavor] hypocrite k;[t [keght] dirt k;[tot [keghtot] dirty k;[ [keghev] peel, bark k;nal [kenal] to stay, to remain, to stop, to lie k;ndani [kentani] (1) (adj.) alive; (2) (noun) animal k;nsabanouj\oun [kensabanutyun] biology k;nsakan [kensakan] vital k;ntron [kentron] center k;as [keas] cherry k;s [kes] half; part k;sgi,;r [kesgisher] midnight k;sr [kesor] noon, midday; daytime k;t [ket] point, dot, full stop k;tadrouj\oun [ketadrutyun] punctuation k;rakr;l [kerakrel] to feed, to nourish k;rakour [kerakur] meal, food k;rp [kerp] manner, way k;rpar [kerpar] character, features k;zz;* [ketstse] long live! kxak [kzak] chin, jaw kin [kin] woman, wife kisam\a [kisamya] semi-annual kisat [kisat] incomplete, partially done kiraki [kiraki] Sunday kirq [kirk] passion klor [klor] round k;l [ktsel] to bite ki [ktstsi] stingy kkou [kku] cuckoo k[xi [kkhzi] island k[k[anq [kkhkkhank] fecal matter, excrement; dung krytazn;l [krchtatsnel] to gnash, to grind kma.q [kmakhk] skeleton k\anq [kyank] life kniq [knik] stamp, seal; impression, mark knyij [knchit] trunk knyi [knchi] wrinkle knyot [knchot] wrinkled, complicated knqafa\r [knkahayr] godfather knqama\r [knkamayr] godmother knq;l [knkel] 1. to baptize, to christen; 2. to seal k,;q [kshek] balance, scale k,i [kshi] weight k,;l [kshel] to weigh k,tamb;l [kshtambel] tto reproach, to condemn k,tanal [kshtanal] to be satiated, to have 479

enough (food) koj [kot] handle kojo[ [kotogh] monument, obelisk ko. [kokh] wrestling ko.;l [kokhel] to tramp, to press kokik [kokik] tidy, neat kokon [kokon] bud kokord [kokort] throat ko[ [kogh] rib, flank, side ko[m [koghm] side ko[mnaki [koghmnaki] secondary, oblique ko[mnazou\z [koghmnatsuyts] compass ko[mnoro,;l [koghmnoroshel] to orient ko[opt;l [koghoptel] to to rob, to steal ko[p;l [koghpel] to lock, to close ko[p;q [koghpek] lock ko[q [koghk] side; cover (of a book) ko[qe [koghk] nearby koyak [kochak] button konq [konk] waist ko,ik [koshik] shoe ko,kakar [koshkakar] shoemaker ko,t [kosht] rude, coarse, impolite koc [koch] call, appeal koc;l [kochel] to name, to call, to appeal kocw;l [kochvel] to be called kopit [kopit] rude, uncivil kotr;l [kotrel] to break, to smash koranal [kor] to bow, to bend korix [koriz] kernel, stone; nucleus koran;l [kortsanel] to destroy koranoum [kortsanum] desruction koranw;l [kortsanvel] to get destroyed korc;l [korchel] to get lost korzn;l [kortsnel] to lose koroust [korust] loss, detriment kpc;l [kpchel] to stick kaf;l [kahel] to guess kiw [kiv] battle, fight; war kw;l [kvel] to fight kounk [kunk] 1. crane (bird); 2. crane (machine) kski [kskits] grief, sorrow ktak [ktak] testament ktaw [ktav] linen; work of art, painting ktor [ktor] piece ktr;l [ktrel] to cut ktrouk [ktruk] concise; sharp; decisive ktour [ktur] roof ktouz [ktuts] beak 480 krak [krak] fire krak;l [krakel] to open fire kr;l [krel] to carry, to bear krj;l [krtel] to educate krjwa [krtvats] educated krjouj\oun [krtutyun] education kria [krya] turtle krk;s [krkes] circus krkin [krkin] again krknako,ik [krknakoshik] overshoe krkn;l [krknel] to repeat krknouj\oun [krknutyun] to repeat kryat;l [krchatel] to reduce krts;r [krtser] younger kron [kron] religion kronakan [kronakan] religious kronawor [kronavor] clergyman koul tal [kul tal] to swallow kou\r [kuyr] blind kout [kut] seed, grain, pit koutak;l [kutakel] to accumulate kourq [kurtsk] breast

fagn;l [haknel] to wear, to put on fagnw;l [haknvel] to dress oneself, to get dressed fagoust [hakust] dress, garment fagoust;[;n [hakusteghen] clothing, gar ments fax [haz] cough faxal [hazal] to cough faxar [hazar] thousand faxiw [haziv] hardly faxwag\out [hazvagyut] rare faxwad;p [hazvadep] rare(ly), scarce(ly) falaanq [halatsank] persecution fala;l [halatsel] to persecute fal;zn;l [haletsnel] to melt (trans.) falw;l [halvel] to melt (intrans.) faka- [haka-] antifakakr;l [hakakrel] to dislike fakaak [hakaak] contrary, opposite, adverse fakaakord [hakaakort] adversary fakas;l [hakasel] to contradict fakasouj\oun [hakasutyun] contradiction fa[janak [haghtanak] victory fa[j;l [haghtel] to win, to conquer fa[ord;l [haghortel] to inform, to notify; to

declare faya. [hachakh] often faya.;l [hachakhel] to frequent faya.ord [hachakhort] customer, client fay;li [hacheli] pleasant, enjoyable fayou\q [hachuyk] pleasure fam [ham] taste, flavor famaxg;st [hamazgest] uniform fama.mb;l [hamakhmbel] to bring together, to gather fama.mbw;l [hamakhmbvel] to come together, to gather famakargic [hamakarkich] computer famakr;li [hamakreli] lovely, good-looking fama]a\n [hamadzayn] agreed, concordant fama]a\nw;l [hamadzaynvel] to agree fama,.arfa\in [hamashkharhayin] international famaca' [hamachap] proportional fama [hama] stubborn, tenacious famaot [hamaot] short