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Atkinson, R.L., Atkinson, R.C., Smith, E.E., Bem, D.J. (2002) Introducere in psihologie. Bucuresti, Ed. Tehnica pp.

719-727; 766-772

bLtricilorroJt m scril or ci Mi di'nru noi rreD, .arc dildcirL 'ntrlt soirc dtr\ioli. desigtrrmli{r nc rc!hSi ciid |'crioldc 'naifumizeaTi ghidchrdc condtrili Elc n.al'itnuir.0 dctrimxli. supir4i hri idn rru i'dccvrti in rczolvarer sirrtii o fd6o.ill rl{i o4riirz \i,'li fild unor indoi'li dc ri'rc rirta.In..&u Jc r duc.o perio e de singurararc. codplc\q dc \iati rarirftc @rcSicu*nsn(cnrus.r rl dkpcnrs. Dc fapl ap.ori'nrtiv d inr o t dr dri'nbiri rchdolrAicc rcim di,rr {icrnirorlnio ulblc]11i si smirle Mulre din corrirso lc anotioriljl $u ncrtala sc\qr, ccl tllir 'rpiilc trostrctld liorte cu pivnc . n'rcii. o dni tu oun'l lielii carc, da.il ene rclLgic. cisitolicy farnilc s.\. $nr prrc dhgtroiic l. \r li da3ific.ti .d tulbun'b scnrnul nrrcbfuii- valoriL. iar roci!lc rrrc NnrrLl (Rci8cr r933). I.a,

Comportanrentul anormal
ln d.cn crpirolnewn indrc rrttrlia lrdr osupR irdivizilor.arc tr' tuii m.nol. Eovc.cir si,supE lclor . ru dszrolr{ $ilui dc viali ot(di{ qNc ComDd.'!.Drcl. dsspE mE di{udB 5nd clrsilicdc cr ,!n(m,lc . d . ria cum ron r'.dq linir do dutrrr.rlic idr compon!tu ul .nmal' ri cel ,..tro. cn. dlPlne dean cbri. 'nal scrdnr,,.linri dc iormi'. Moi frrlc ( saiacreri$ici. nrillimca,Eculdei ri ideliSenledscnneazi o corc8,riudc valoi ai,ncicl,d sunrmisumr tu c.dn,l unei populilii Mijoritarea oancriln * incadE .a in c .eoria de inillimc mcdic,in ri'$p cd putini i' i!i7i rutrl anomalde i'rlli sru lmmd dc sutrzi. O defiiitlc tr rfonnaln4ii are la bdzl lrevenl. id eici co.rpo,rdnginrl monnal tru o. lllcvcnti vrriiio:i stru $r. devi dc h ,orni. D.r. p.trivit rcenei dclinilii, *ren dc inr.lis. , eD erhm dr fcricita ra fi clasilicdi cr anom i. Pnn umrro. ld dcli.ia! compdrtuml|li !trohhll, rrcbdc si lui'n in co6ldcnrc (dnriorr ccvrinii nrll dccii ilccverta

anormalit!tii Delinirca
Cc intelegen tin contonlnenr ? Cr. su crnciilc dd dife .rurul ftn icE dc componamcnto | r'? in -nonnr r..!si privinl. nu extsttun co(sctrs. dir najo lrfl irerci lo.dcadcsoi{ or trulildc! slnl limdrmeDh.c 0rr \ru pc min lrc diLxrc Lnnii.srLc dcn,ilii

DEVINREA DO LA NORMIiI,I' socL{LE, Ficclr. seiede arc an(mirc DDIII:REA DE L,{ NORJIItrLE{rndJdc. sru !or@, pcntu tri .nn STATISTICI. Cuunrul !.orml in romm.nr ascctrrbili compotumDhn

120
$r dcliazipr!trurlar h r$reionns de isfcl dc conoo. socL.htc. loars aceier. apm unele cu prcbleDie arurci cind dsvicruude lr nomde sociaLee$e diliztn drpt ftireriu ponru dennirer rmrmaln:ilii. Compona:ncnrul c! e$c cofsideru. Nmal de ciite o scicrarc. poarc fi co'sldert ano'nul de c re alra. De .renplu, mcnbdi und tibui rfricre nu conside'tca slc ncobi9nuir arzi s, voclc6nd laprniDeninuvo$erb sru de sd vczi .cva ciindtrtrexGt nimicacolo, dr rsemener compodrmee sud.con. sidcErc anotuale de cite najorirarea socier4ilor alti pmbbna eft .ceea. o modlficrrii iI iimp r concepiurtri de amnnalil.lein cadrulaceleir:isocietiti. Acun 30de xri. najorirlrco imriclnild conside(u c. nLmrul tunjuanei sru aparit,a oprorpc eol pe plojt sur! .onponamcnls monnare. Aniz . acene componan'eite tiM si fic vizur. mri dcgnb, ca n'$recomponenre $ilului Je de virFdecit schnclcunci morhaliriti Prh umare. ideilc dc Nmalitarc !i anomLirde diferi dc la o sochhtc la slli si 0 lu08ul timptrluiin cadnl 'le acclci.ti so.ierrti orice denriiie a DormLiitlLir.bu c si fic c.va maicon plexi decdt nivelul blelegcEsocirli dc i'rd:p1al,dnci d arccfcdcrdvc6. xnL l)ra i'divnluLL,iMu r!]ptu soculiil Utrcl. ripuri de lo'njrotumenrd{\i,,i: (r: i'r{(tutuMi uu btriiimer individtrtu tifubai poalc si ribi o lca ri diir Cj puleni.i de nullime.nKil si ftr pod: nqgc cr !(obuztrl la nunciiitrD rlcoolir .nrc coin'mi ladiril debrdfir: 'na s:i-I pi$re- o l de nuNi: i Poare taDrcic ntqc!rcisi sesirucidil)Ah; carc roarc dc compodncnt dcvi!fl !!:: (ur nocLve socieGlii adoLcscctrt ::: s,. :1 ,Frplozii violent dc aercsivitaEr individDa'anoc.arcCuic h.olc tri: Drea uei fieu.i publice). Da.d u! Licriteiiu iratlaptnri c acsr! coi,pr__ ,lo r renre h considerlc vor ano marc DTSCONFORTULPERSON.IL. C: de rlpatdeacrirer u n.ntrl.a, xmrrl likt.ine me n i f in i s u b ie c in e a n n -

indivizilor diagnonicali o lrlbr.:. cr


i'iaabll. F. i!:: aniori. dep.i'nali sr! rgirati. irr mL:: suldi de iNoirie, rprlie su i: numercNedurci Uncdi. dsconLr pe(oml pdle fi sinsutulsnnpbm j: !normalirarci componancmul id,:: indn Nici sna dinre a.cic definitii r,
mmpl di * l !:

c omc a conpona,ncrrului mom!]. :: m,lorirdo caDrild. ror. ..1. prl_ CO}TPORT IIf,NfUL INADAII. criterii frecvenlandinica. d:\itri:: T A1,ii loculdcfini icompoiamentului sociala, componaciiul ifadlpur :i j ! ,roi,nil ii rcnnenii delirntei de La conlonulpeisoDrl Nnnch narisri.!sausociehle, trmerot dcrxo l! dirgnoiicrnr mornL:jj: odrtii dc ttii,r{i diD doneniL'lsocirl ftcd .li .cl h. impodanr direriu ele Cestenormalitatea: inodulnr .rru .ompodamenrul rfecrerzi btrrislrruJ iidnnlLLLLi sau r EtrpulLLi Norrulnrkr ene chil mri rLi,:: :. smLaL cotrfo' ihrc cu &cn c un'. rn dcntri( dccir anorm.lirlc!. dn : coDpotumcntul dronndld.ci cl csc riralea p!iholoEilor 6rc

12r
trm oarclc cnlnrli i'dici bunfua@ dtrotionali Accnc crracbrhiici nu fac dtrli"clii precis.nrru sin a{can. fi )i ilccliNea nrrllLiir mli dcgmbilcle rePrczinli risintri p! care le pdcdit P{$ananomrh nnr{ nasud nai hir. d.cir indiyidul cn cnc diasno$icd cr l. re,c.plia .Ji.itrni a rcaltaii. hdiri zii ndrmal snn rcrl\ri tu cuh'ueo 5. propiilor lc&tii, .ap..iriii t i:, inrerprcbrea cs. ce s inri'ntll in a jurul ror. Ei nu pcrup ruma din gEJnce!.e frc su rpunaltii.rtrJi sutra.vdlu.d,iibili(atilcti tru i,,t'c oacin c I)ccarenu o lor iftl{, DdDd plini, fr'.ti s!6estinc.zj ihli. 'ici tilile- feriiduicdd smini dificih. I O,n@rrsr.d./. rtr. Pe6un.t him adlpbte su con$rienre t'rop ilc dc noiive ri $dimcnre. Dci ni'nctri dinte noi truSi poale hlclegc pc dcpin $nilc s coD,pondnciLrl. perornelefomule au ocdnrliirlil d. snenai boglrt d.cii cci dirlnoii..ti s sinr !.cdprdi dc cci din jur. Sc si'nl binc cu alrc peBmnc ti surr cap$ili sn rcallionezespotrh in snual sdcirlc I', rccla$iliD). !i ru 5c simrobLitlli sa.ti puni opiniilcin confsmir.r. cu cele rlc !rupJtri. scnrift lh d. non vrl.irc, rla.nra i lipsi n.cccFiii sud pruvalenr.la i'diviTii clre au tos di.sroiicati ca

,4bilitat(u lt a .w4 trk\ii t[.diye. ln d lv iz iin o n n almrc rp d rilis ilib t li Elatii idne t &risfic dr. ctr rlte pe6Gm. Di sum s.nribili h scn trrc{clc ilrom 9i nu ccr pru nulr penrrur:i sarisfaca icvoilo pc6o psnoanel-" rulbri'i ulc Dcscori, cu nenrale su'r diir dc pruocupdc de asiSrnrc!popiei buririti, incir ele devin cxr.m de eg&cmrii.. Iiind p*ocupd. dc propnih rriri si dc lupra.u sirc, ele suri afcc(irtre, dr n'nt i"c{Dob,Le a rirlnmd! pc dc misuri. Utrcori,ae*e pc$ooDe sc rem dc inlinirde, pentu ci rulitiiLc anrcneru!u fd dishcrn! Ormnii binc rdaF \ Abitnd!4.b a .vt.ik tr @(tot to- 6. Pa,tuti.itdtcn uti sunr.npabili si-ri .onli7ca hntat nnptd ..nrodan nfilri. ltt abiliritilcitr ldlviriti prodrdvc, Lc dirizii mnnili sutrt incrc;tori ir phcc vi'!n ri DUhc u slon sDecial abiliritilc lor dc a-ri corbolr penh ErolvrEr p'oblcmdor exncompomneitul Ocazional, acstri. p.r rclionai'nprlsir,dn suntcaplbili rcnliilc. bsenticonici dc .trcrgicri su$epribilibEa ex.esn; h obNali si.Ti inhinczc kndinrcle rxu.lc ri sumd.seorisimpromleuncir.nsiutri a(uici .ind ene Ncs . 4resiv. Acerria por $a ru s. cotrfoirncz. psihologicc rlzulrac din problunele Domclor$.iilq irEi dccizirlor dr ! rolrm' I'om a$fc c{c maideerabll Un s.mid dc lr.diare cnc bin. rad si nu ru7uLrllul unor inpul*ri venitinainhdur rEc deplnc.E{. 'nri obNun p.rru sdenlii .rrc rtrJir, + rtP.i.rc( .t! l'c^omele binc ld!fllr. ru un trnuD,ir psihologir plrologi.a sii ob$nc 'nr Dlveldcaprecicrc pNprci v. or s i'n,ii$mNlc trNi trLlbursri 3 frc[]ir l..i

122
iiti!]. pre n nudeDrii mdicii tri coi side$ ci suLl. dc n..rc no i bonLii despre xn .irtr.M!joirdc. ,lin@ no crre on arn cilreodari Dcle s prome,pe i', cofilumc. iar niMrilc dc cdn,ponamefl, aD.i si ti ciuh'n I ehc ns!:,i .sdnniliLorrc alc pe6oanclo.. cricl,da dire,o{., di o posibilirllc. cclor .R nrcre-ii ( indivizibohrri si contrnicc nnnn.rix m.r (pnL5i inri conci\ Dirsnoni.uL d. lon necijn dc Edtrdn hrtbtrdromc cala s.liialrcnic i'iici de$tr|de putiDdcs mai nrull li,np. va reb"i sr d squli cu prc .onpora'nefrrl peisorrei curoxt c'nell dcsprc r.e$ea pmbrbir cu tcrc! lopo uicli si'nplornch trmiindnid c i n e v r d in scfl i ci uld econsilierealrcoiii cu clc alc ahor di" se'viciul dc p..icdli (rl ciro. aiumir .uG su careru bcncfi.irrdc un arumir rip de bdaEd), c$c, ,l! sc Clasifi car.a coDrportamntului Dcnc!.dc.j!ror lr nrbilner modnruid. Tolurl, rpxr ri dcavrnbic dll pe'nneD m o cri.lrcrildii9roeicii \iL o lrDi laq:, de compo a'neic au fo$ cllsin.lLe ca aronale. Uncle rliinr preann'lr iri brlaria. Ericlrchfrl co'Ipo,hNnle aiorhah rsr rcde t dir cvenimente 3h fieciill .az ti si i. inopriim .. peaorra si r cotrbrnca casifi.iiri $snG Pmticulare. rimp ce ltLe ii ptrtenpicrd.din vcdci! rr nLntnoD,c.{idurcazi roali viab. unele Dc ase'nenea. coinponancnt moflnak rc7u|la ii,,!dirltso o diclidi plsd !'nnonaD.drulLLi boalasru lcziun! a ristnuiui nenos e\phcalie 3 ac.L! coD,port neiti cLasificli..nu n! sp!n. Ddczi'abile slu alc erpflienrelord. om a uar nanercacst compomnr invilare defeduoasc.Dcseori, acelri l$loii se $errpfn r inc'?qloieaTi CLasficarea iulbulir or in!nLrle ulih comp.nNcrhil frecirei persoane!i zdi de cei n,ri Dn'lti diric sll.cilLiiril ptublemeLe e,notLoralc sxLe sur trnice; di N.rsri lad $lc Mr}tnhl Nnn. trucrlni doi ndivizitu Llm .rtc sa ic dias"ori.ll ri ltd i: rta , bnirhr nH; coDipo,lc x.cciJim.nier, \au sli ribi ;d/d.edtia r IJI r icvtiiti (Direm( r iri aoclcry e\perieDte viitii. Ctr 1dr{e rrd suisri.ul Mlnul of M.nhl Diif: ii rceser,cxnti srficienie DsIi lll R siDirirudi'ri dc d.6. 3- ednio.. 'erised car. .orcspunde in inrernaionalfo,N'l dc o'sLi /r., trrid.li d iinitirii or{.s Pi r:t ur snEn d. drrnure m rudatc prhle .{eBoii dc dirlioiic ! asla..i: de Ds\'l lll R sunr p'rTcibru n' L.Lr.i tfuide si dc7.!.tajc Drcli dileritele compo rmeu Nonnrt 16.LUrd ! d rt a c e let u lb l' r' \ r: diterne calue, lrLL pnom spcri ri h dcscoporn prI ll dtrcur&n' dckliu sprcnDrltrLk.r, sruprDo irdivTilor in funqie de ase

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lonkl. p. brr inorn s. pri. J r! r.irul DirgroiiNl ..i,dJr rr{rr uL lll rdi!id o!c d*tu1 J! rniahrir: li..rl pr$aDi sr 4r !.i. LLrpli ri|.id nflr lV DoNUrr.l r!. A{ J ituLLdr \r r .iri i ll ldrL Plr.ir/.. ruLh r. L rJ rq L f rf f i ii\ J rr !\!.rl hrrbtrrri Lrc ir.r cuy{rf LIc jir Jr!c\!r uti Pdlrk nrbn.) h l b u i , i L tn nc Lt^o lrr. (iui r li \: F\i, r! rr ! o h rlii i x d r rlir i: \uL r.obun.L! de rcr n rf t lio in e r p . ' n n ] . I nhri). .rc sc i'rad.!,. ;r A\3 lr i s r s L ' r , fr u/d4 r tr LLbLrtrt.' tLLrgi d. drdi vr li Ldi n olnL. e rrutr. (u btrflr.r t,!/o{ii Dr .ilid Dliilnn e\cn'rr( . tnsorl crfc ,n pr.7rr r!c Jcj,urddlii fizi. dr h.[ifil i ]l brl 1\. r .! . /L L d. r bn li dc r en .r .r lelL! r,o!c ri i , . N r n i . rI r i ^ o lir . 1 L "ili. .r | \r li P rc
r ic.rrr !,iLJldj irLLr (L I

Trrluirr l! D!soDrtirrE i trt b,rnilc d! Jt^!LLre nir ,tdrl rni , d l n r( p t z d r. L;h oici.

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dasificrre, insi prircipa rl codi vom era,ni,r rtrrburfuite rmiorse. rul 'noriv cr tr prcciziadiagnoei.ului. Ambele budrik dc diqiozitic.schizofrniari o r+orii cr:tr gcncrrle si include uD tulbunrc dc peronalibtcdc utr rnumn nctrhlc ou puli[c rip. AhoolGtrul 5i depcndcnt. drog do ln'proDe ln cor$cinti, (ambeLe iica@ca lulbri.i daiomle chs 'liftrc{iat uztrl!i de s$$aili psihorcti!i) nnr 0lhirrii tru .ad roderna dc r.od supra unu, o'4non'c penrn un cu dchli.b lr .aoilohL 6 PeNomliutea nullipli, o iuLbrrre dhociatiri. src dc f*d.dlrr. DSMlIlL jnccrci si i,l,u ner$i consc'sulDrir 8rupar.orulbfii- asmeDca dis a(i n, crpnolur6. 'iabeLtrr62 rc md:i probabiliblca riLorin lunctiede sinptomclc .onpor b'ncnhlc spc.lfica, fid rclcftc h aprr(iei mor!ulbuiiri mertu1e mrjorein oriSins lor stu taramnt hnenllacnc ii'nprl vielii. Srudiul car se by,"azt pe dc a desrie ce ,rsz/,, cliniclcnii l. a.e$ ldbel a descopcrL 0lbrirllc ca indiviziicu pbblomepsihdiosica o nar sDt muk mri coDum la ciie sa asigu.e o.onuiica'e 'nenule subvirdrdc 45 rni, fii'd mri pcsoancle 'nodalilatc spccialisiii p,obrerne ppcisi inrc pe de frc.vcnrc la lemei decer h bfubott. sririhr mentalr. Asitct, DsM-lIt.R Toruri, bi.batii sunt de doui ori inai includcmri muhe caregorii predispuri conprdiv abuztrlri dNgui$ dc cinci dc cu cd lilc trcccde e ile acc$uim:nu:|. oi abuurui de rrcmL compnliv cu Tulbul.ilc cmc inaimc * clasificrie tan'eile TulburirilcptrsoDalildlii rip dc .a neqoze (deorrcc se consideEr fi atrtisocial atetazi nft o p,opo4ic dc tuodaLi{itide contrel al conflicrclor 4 oriinaimult pe bi$riidecat pe fcn.i, inle'n.) smr prczcnrr(c DSMlllR in da. Dai mulle fcnci sufe,i de tulburiri srb lorma r kei catesorii disri,icie ale dispoT(iei lfcdive sau de tulburai rLlbtrdriledrioasej lulburirik soDalo tome :i tulburirile disocidive. Dcsi psihoz. nu mai tprczinli o Trhdurr6.2.Ri, DrcvNrc!t.i rurbudriror $h.b& de.. rtrisd viclii, slr , &ra,r,f' caresorie n,qor6.DsM llt,R rsuunoalre ftp.ul ca oan.nii diaglros cali ctr enhJttt te htiLi arr paprlltit stdct, lchizofrerie,itr1btr6rid.rn.trr, uidc rulbtriliri disp.zilieialccive i rfu ale pae,lqj( Ae!. ar m ie lulburiri mcnhh oqdni.e prczi'tt un conporbment psthoric o iiuniri l. Jirza bolii. Gtrdirta ri perceptia a rcr l h .IdqcP | i rci N k lirilii s!trt puehh afcdar. irr acene p{soare potrvcaI'rlu.i".tii {expe' ienlc s.rzorialc f!hc, de exemplu vo.isau trLd au vederi c udrie) si6au ddnmi (f.lss crdi'\c, cun a. fi coividgdeact lone sinduirc sn conror'te d. o rii,tl]i aiolpulcrnici pr o rhi PLafdi). de .rarc lF misuri .c Privin D,i dcN I mcle lulburiri medr.h d,umeratei', rlbdtrl L6.l in linalul xce$ui capiroL.

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cazulutrorlulbriri pc 4rc l. voD cu caEindividulh conhoLAccrti laclori di*ur., crk!.nfaunei rtrd.cululbumrca por fi: lrllcid, subrurrilia, firsr.are,, resP.cdvrvr nr'i ri$rl pcrsmi de a confli.r.lc ti cv.nindr.l. d. virli lnucdtnclr e horli. L! niwl psiholocic, un rc.limr cbnic de nojdom ri AsF.lul ch.ic !l m.dcluluisrEFur a.!dav.E p.. tc u indilil vul@bil trcobilitrG @d ci sun( MN aur la dhclls fti d.Fsii. vrln {bilildd cet ri slrc$I, El ojut! 1a vulicnbiliroca h o rulbudr nu explic!@ tapttrlui cc unii indivizi de gaditelz! ln trici un cd c[ Pcr$dnas cdpirt o lulburare nclrah cdtrd sunr va inbolndvi. Dd{ prednp.zitia con- confrunbli c! un nidmun d. 5e3! in duc $u N l. mlract.H uBi tubunri rimt cc lllii dmen :;inrbti ln ciudt ad l*ru d.pinde de frtdii dc lB

plrccnler.btri.tricoriirnifar..hrii' il .or!iJe'rren.\oil.!.ky ti. irdnizircr pc,sonari'iti $ xtrri\dqit iiircori 3tr dc n, \cdercdorrlct! i dr. rik tomFii i'rptr[ir. ctui sal(l]r$cr iLnediirir pronriilor lrcbtrirlc ri ft Jro( rolcr rcrmcntrr,.p.Nxrtirdc rDrsoiirti.!tuq.nnic' nu d$ilu mrio'i'l!! .l nr.r'[n.uft ro'nr]ct iltirl. conl disdial di run fo'rMrdur trunt de suzc, iNh'/n 'gztrlb aBncncnlrli o bri(it dc d!liDcv!ntl li o srb{lk:i \rL nDrnrli, trc\oia de arsnric\i i tr. D,.r'rsca conrnclrltrrfl .ealkr.a ii ,nahirr6rer I conrotr thptrtstritc d. \hiorirargr dsli,'$enriktr ju\cirri ri {imiiililor ulli ru m anmir i'ref!: allii (p.trrnr f.milie n pc nl li!r,! Dcnbrli lia,dci)!i o rs,rir cd 'no'rl d! nmar (r rtr lniczt trf piiercr) prin rDrtrii l1e.$mlirltilc r isocirl. si'nl rr$ pu'tr, crcr pcnh c.irrlliJi|lir !i do vi'ro\iri! sru (trr'tliri indilcred dc c,ri srfsi'rti a\oc.rhoncomponancn(tr1 or Ahc p.Rrrliritii dc (itr arhsocirl G.u y,cioparr. nt sLU ) ifch'd:o Drircu!rtriIli der i'rri.r!voir d! \cnalii hn ti ercird! cu inrc'cs st:^{ pcnrruposibiTc riinni. i'x'bitirdc de *l nbre r conponrnrcnhrlui o cr Ptrsonllitrb! de tip .ntisocial cdsonti a mtulrilor puniirc. Accii lrdiviti c@ !! pcronrlitntide rin indi(izi su &{oi or.rdni, inrligcnli. ontho.iil pri sI iihli r si'nt d 5xm$trl. Dai'purerz. cu ulunrr. p( 'cdus rsspon5rhrlirilii, moraliElii inrcrstrtLriccila(i- c u a x . . u y i' ic . b t rn i! n h . iin a ri ceilalliConrronaDeihl cne inJcr Frhda |f dc .oNpctcnri li tor D.nrru NrcrNod rPorpc iMesirc d. si'rcrihrc l! aducd p'on,irirtrEi ob(incii i.voi Cr rtre cuyink. te !trd n{ de mmci, dff iu nau p.!tr trrtrh nmpriir lilxorIelornii',rx mrari. in rinp ce o acoloAgihtii ti imptrlsivifur!acoDdtrc ii pc6oaDir roffah iJi dr scdn!(nri din otrAid k o c*lpidi cm drnrsii pciordcleriDplrii oh lictii) ci .xisri de\r6h b. mrri:3cutr,ol.a7i dan)ni,

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