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Alfabetul limbii engleze

a[ei] b[bi:] c[si:] d[di:] e[i:] f[ef] g[dji:] h[eitch] i[ai] j[gei] k[kei] l[el] m[em] n[en] o[ou] p[pi:] q[kju:] r[a:] s[es] t[ti:] u[ju:] v[vi:] w['dablju:] x[eks] y[wai] z[zed]

Verbul

In limba engleza sunt doua categorii de verbe: -verbe regulate -verbe neregulate Verbele regulate: Cele mai multe verbe in limba engleza sunt regulate. Ele se conjuga astfel: Indicativ prezent : I call You call He calls She calls We call You call They call Forma interogativa: Do I call ? Do you call ? Does he call ? Does she call ? Do we call ? Do you call ? Do they call ? I do not call You do not call He does not call She does not call We do not call You do not call They do not ask Forma interogativ-negativa: Don't I call ? Don't you call ? Doesn't he call ? Doesn't she call ? Don't we call ? Don't you call ? Don't they call ?

- - - La indiativ prezent, numai prsoana a treia (III-a) singular, verbele primesc un "-s", celelalte ramanand neschimbate. - - - Pentru verbele terminate in "ch", "sh", "ss", "x" - la persoana III-a singular va fi "-es". - - - Verbele terminate in "y" precedate de o consoana, schimba pe "y" in "i" si primesc terminatia "-es". - - - Verbele terminate in "o" primesc terminatia "-es" Toate verbele din limba engleza (cu exceptia celor doua verbe auxiliare: HAVE = a avea si BE = a fi) se conjuga la formele simple interogative si negative cu ajutorul auxiliarului DO/DOES.

Past tense : La Imperfect si Perfect Simplu verbele neregulate primesc terminatia "-ed". I called You called He called she called We called You called They called Forma negativa: I did not call You did not call He did not call She did not call We did not call You did not call They did not call Forma interogativa: Did I call ? Did you call ? Did she call ? Did he call ? Did we call ? Did you call ? Did they call ? Future Tense: Viitorul in limba engleza se formeaza cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare SHALL/WILL urmate de infinitiv. - auxiliarul SHALL - pentru persoana I singular si plural - auxiliarul Will - pentru restul persoanelor I shall call You will call He will call She will call We shall call You will call They will call Forma negativa : I shall not (shan't) call You will not call He will not call Forma interogatv-negativa: Didn't I call ? Didn't you call ? Didn't she call ? Didn't he call ? Didn't we call ? Didn't you call ? Didn't they call ?

We shall not call You will not call They will not call Forma interogativa : Shall I call ? Will you call ? Will he call ? Will she call ? Shall we call ? will you call ? Will they call ? Mai-mult-ca-perfect(past perfect): M.m.c.p se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar HAVE la trecur (adica HAD) +participiu trecut al verbului. I had called You had called He had called She had called We had called You had called They had called Conditionalul prezent : Se formeaza cu verbele auxiliarele SHOULD/WOULD + infinitivul verbului. I should call You would call ... Conditionalul trecut : Se formeaza din conditionalul prezent al verbului HAVE + participiu trecut al verbului I should have called you would have called He would have called She would have called We should have called You would have called They would have called Participiu prezent: Se formeaza adaugand "-ing" la infinitivul verbului. to call = a striga, a suna -> calling = strigand Participiu trecut :

Se formeaza adaugand "-ed" la infinitivul verbului call -> called

Nr. Tense 1. Present Tense Simple

Form S + V1 Do/Does + S + V1 S + Do/does + not + V1

Used to express 1.actiuni obisnuite repetabile 2.adevaruri general valabile 3.repros, constatari 4.in loc de viitpr- pentru actiuni planificate oficial

Romana Prezent

2.

Present Tense Continous

1.actiuni care se petrec in momentul vorbirii(now, at present, at the moment) S + To be + V-ing 2.actiuni temporare(today, this week, this mounth) 3.repros accentuat aproape de prezent. 4.actiuni oficiale planificate neoficial 1.actiune termiata in moment trecut neprecizat (lately, just, always, offe, ever, never) S + have/has + V3 2.actiune terminata in perioada de timp neterminata Have/has + S + V3 (today, this week) 3.actiune terminata care are legatura cu prezentul S + have/has + been + v-ing Have/has + been + S + V-ing actiune inceputa in trecut care se continua si in prezent sau al carui rezultat se vede acum in prezent For + perioada de timp Since + inceputul de timp

Prezent

3.

Present Perfect Simple

Perfect compus

4.

Present Perfect Continous

prezent

5.

S + V2 Actiunitrecute terminate in momentul precizat(ago, last, Past tense simple Did + S + V1 yesterday, in 1990) S + did + not + V1 Past tense continous Past perfect simple Past perfect continous actiune trecuta in progres: S + was/were + Vwhile + timp continuu ing when + timp simple S + had + V3 S + had + been + V-ing

perfect compus imperfect

6. 7. 8.

exprima o actiune trecuta terminata inaintea altei actiuni m.m.c.p. trecute actiune trecutain progres, inceputa inaintea altei actiuni trecute imperfect

In limba engleza este foarte important sa stim conjugarea celor doua verbe auxiliare :HAVE si BE. TO HAVE = a avea Indicativ prezent : I have you have He has She has We have You have They have Imperfectul si perfect simplu: I had you had He had

She had We had You had They had M.m.c.p. I had had you had had He had had She had had We had had You had had They had had Viitorul: I shall have You will have He will have She will have We shall have You will have They will have Conditional prezent : I should have You would have He would have She would have We would have You would have They would have Conditional trecut : I should have had You would have had He would have had She would have had We would have had You would have had They would have had Participiu prezent: having Participiu trecut : had

TO BE = a fi Indicativ prezent : I am

You are He is She is We are You are They are Imperfectul: I was You were He was She was We were You were They were M.m.c.p.: I had been You had been He had been She had been We had been You had been They had been Viitor: I shall be You will be He will be She will be They shall be You will be Yhey will be Conditional prezent: I should be We would be ... Conditionalul trecut : I should have been He would have been ... Participiu prezent : being Participiu trecut : been

Adverbul

Adverbul este cel care ne spune mai mult despre verb, care intareste verbul. Majoritatea adverbelor se formeaza din adjective. Ele seformeaza astfel: - pentru majoritatea adverbele - la adjectiv se adauga teminatia -ly : bad - badly hard - hardly - pentru adjectivele care se termina in -le, ca sa formam adverb, se shimba terminatia -le in -ly simple - simply probable - probably -pentru adjectivele care se termina in y, precedat de o consoana, ca sa formam adverb shimbam pe y in i si apoi adauga terminatia -ly easy - easily happy - happily Exceptii : well = bine; cum trebuie fast = repede; strâns very = foarte; chiar; prea never = niciodata; deloc always = totdeauna often = adesea still = înca; si mai; totusi Gradele de comparatie ale adverbelor sunt aceleasi ca si la adjective si se formeaza in acelasi moduri. Pozitiv badly far late little well Comparativ worse farther further later less better Superlativ the worst the farthest the furthest the latest the last = ultimul the least the best

Adverbele sunt de mai multe feluri : - de loc - de mod - de timp - precizat - neprecizat : already = deja, pana acum always = intotdeauna ever = totdeauna, vreodata just = tocmai often = adesea never = niciodata sometimes = uneori, cateodata seldom = rareori still = inca, mai O modalitate usoara de a tine minte adverbele de timp si care ne arata cat de des cineva face ceva :
100% always

usually frequently often 50% sometimes occasionally rarely seldom hardly ever 0% never

Adjectivul

Adjectivele, in limba engleza , sunt invariabile ( nu se acorda cu substantivele in gen,numar si caz ). Adjectivele stau inaintea substantivelor (I like Chinese food) sau dupa anumite verbe auxiliare (to appear, to be, to become, to feel, to get, to look, to keep,to seem, to taste, to make,to smell,to sound, to turn, to taste). Desi stau dupa verbe, ele nu descriu verbul si subiectul propozitiei (in majoritatea cazurilor substantive sau pronume). Ex: The examination did not seem difficult. Your friend looks nice. Unele din adjectivele care pot sta numai dupa verbele auxiliare: asleep, awake, afraid, alike, alive, alone, annoyed, difficult, ill, nice, sorry, upset, well (She is alone.). Asa cum am mai spus, avem adjective care stau inaintea substantive: Ex : I like big black dogs. She was wearing a beautiful long red dress. Care este ordinea corecta pentru adjective ? 1) Ordinea generala: opinion, fact Ex : a nice French car (not a French nice car) "Opinion" este ceea ce crezi despre subiectul propozitiei/frazei . "Fact" este ceea ce este adevarat despre subiectul propozitiei/fraziei. 2) Ordinea normala a adjectivelor este : size, age/temperature , shape, colour, material, origin: Ex : a big, old, square, black, wooden Chinese table Size : small, little, thiny, big Age/Temperature : old, new, hot, cold Shape : round, square Color : yellow, red, blue Material : plastic, silver Origin : Chinese, Romanian, Franch 3) Determiners usually come first, even though they are fact adjectives:

· · · · ·

articles (a, the) possessives (my, your...) demonstratives (this, that...) quantifiers (some, any, few, many...) numbers (one, two, three)

Here is an example with opinion and fact adjectives:
adjectives determiner opinion fact age two nice old shape round colour red candles noun

Cand vrem sa folosim doua adjective care se refera la o culoare folosim “and”. Ex: Newspapers are usually black and white. Gradele de comparative ale adjectivelor : gradul pozitiv : arata prezenta normala a unei calitati a obiectelor (fara comparatii) Ex : She is beautiful. gradul comparativ : compara doua sau mai multe obiecte o in masura egala : comarativul de egalitate : he is as tall as his brother o in masura inegala :- comparativul de superioritate : he is taller then she. - compartivul de inferioritate : not as tall as … gradul superlativ: este de doua feluri : relative(in comparative cu alte elemente) Ex : The biggeste : Cel mai mare The smallest = Cel mai mic The most important = Cel mai important absolute (fata de el insusi) Ex : Very gig = Foarte mare Very small = Foarte mic Very/Highly important = Foarte important Comparativul de egalitate se formeaza prin incadrarea adjectivului : “ as…as “ Ex : as tall as = la fel de inalt ca, tot atat de inalt ca Pentru sens negative : incadram adjectivul in : “not as/ so…as” Ex : not as/so tall as = nu atat/ asa de inalt cat/ca Comparativul de inferioritate se formeaza incadrand adjectivul in expresia : “not so(as)…as “ sau “less…then” Ex : not as tall as/ not so tall as = nu atat de inalt ca Less tall then = mai putin inalt ca Atentie la aceste 4 expresii: So much the better = Cu atat mai bine So much the worse = Cu atat mai rau So much the more = Cu atat mai mult So much the less = Cu atat mai putin Expresia “cu cat..cu atat” nu are echivalent in limba engleza. (Cu cat) mai curand, (cu atat) mai bine = The sooner, the better.

(Cu cat este)casa mai veche, (cu atat este) pretul mai mic. = The older the house, the smaller the price. Adjectivele terminate in –e mut suprima aceasta vocala inaintea terminatiilor -er , -est . Ex : large – larger – the largest fine – finer - the finest Adjectivele terminate in – y precedat de o consoana, schimba pe y in i inaintea lui – er si – est . Ex : heavy – heavier – the heaviest Adjectivele terminate in – y precedat de o vocala raman neschimbate : Ex : gay – gayer – the gayest (vesel) Acest adjective este foarte rar folosit in sensului lui propriu, intrand in raza vulgar a vocabularului. Adjectivele monosilabice terminate in consoana, o dubleaza la comparative si la superlative : Ex: big – bigger – the biggest Unele adjective au forme diferite la comparativ si superlativ: Good – better – the best = bun(a) Well – better – the best = bine Bad – worse – the worst = rau Ill- worst – the worst = bolnav Much – more – the most = mult(a) Many – more – the most = multi(e) Little – less – the least = putin Adjectivele posesive: Se pun intotdeauna inaintea substantivelor: My = meu, mea, mei , mele Your = tau, ta, tai, tale His = lui, sau, sa, sai, sale, dansului, dumnealui, domniei sale Her = ei, sau, sa, sai, sale, dansei, dumneaei Its (pers III neutru) = lui, ei , sau, sa, sai , sale Our = nostril, nostru, noastra, noastre Your = vostru, voastra, vostri, voastre, d-voastra Their = lor, dansilor, danselor, dumnealor Adjectivele demonstrative: Pentru apropere: This = acest, acesta, ast, asta, aceasta, asta Those = acestia, acesti, asti, astia, aceste, acestea, astea, , aste Pentru departare: That = acela, acel, ala, aceea, acea, aia Those = acei, aceia, ai, aia, acelea, alea

Articolul

Articolul nehotarat (care se traduce in romana : un , o ): a = inaintea unei consoane (a car) an = inaintea unei vocale (an inkpot) Articolul nehotarat este acelasi pentru toate genurile. Trebuie tinut cont atunci cand vorbim ca articolul nehoratat nu se accentueaza si nici nu se face pauza dupa el. LA plural nu exista articol nehotarat(atunci cand este cazul se folosestie some = niste, unele). Exista unele exceptii : a ewe = o oaie/mioara a Europian = un european a union = o uniune, un sindicat a university = o universitate Articolul horatat: Articolul hotarat in limba engleza este THE , atat la singular cat si la plural, la toate genurile. Ca si la articolul nehotarat, in vorbire, articolul hotart nu se accentueaza si nici nu se face pauza dupa el.

Conjunctia

Conjunctia este partea de vorbire care leaga cuvinte sau propozitii.

Conjunctiile pot sa fie: - coordonatoare = atunci cand leaga doua propozitii de acelasi fel; - subordonatoare = atunci cand leaga o propozitie principala cu una secundara. Conjunctiile coordonatoare Conjunctiile coordonatoare arata ca elementele pe care ele le unesc sunt identice(similare) in importanta si structura.

+
Intotdeauna conjunctiile coordonatoare se gasesc intre cuvintele sau propozitiile pe care le leaga. • •
I like [tea] and [coffee]. [Ram likes tea], but [Anthony likes coffee].

Conjunctiile coordonatoare sunt sapte (7) la numar. Ele sunt cuvinte simple, formate din doua sau trei litere. Iara un mod usor si distractiv de a tine minte conjunctiile coordonatoare :
F
Fo r

A
And

N
Nor

B
But

O
Or

Y
Yet

S
So

Conjunctiile subordonatoare Cele mai comune conjunctii subordonatoare sunt : after although as because before how if once since than that though till until when where whether while Conjunctiile subordonatoare leaga o propozitie secundara de una principala. Intotdeauna conjunctia subordonata se gaseste in fata propozitiei secundare. Ram went swimming although it was raining. Ram went swimming although it was raining.

Although it was raining, Ram went swimming. Atentie la urmatoarele constructii : ...either ...or = ...sau ...sau ...neither ...nor = ...nici ...nici ...nor only ...but also = ...nu numai ...ci(dar)si ...both ...and = ...ata ...cat si

Numeralul

Numeralul cardinal : zero = zero = 0 one = unu = 1 two = doi = 2 three = trei = 3 four = patru = 4 five = cinci = 5 six = sase = 6 seven = sapte = 7 eight = opt = 8 nine = noua = 9 ten = zece = 10 Atentie la o deosebire de limba romana. In limba engleza se foloseste virgula in locul punctului din romana. hundred = suta = 100 thousand = mie = 1,000 million = milion = 1,000,000 Astfel ceea ce scriem in romana 1,7 - in engleza vom scrie 1.7 = one point seven. Numeralul ordinal : first = prim; second = al doilea third = al treilea; a treia De la patru in sus , numealul ordinal se formeaza din numeralul cardinal + th (dar

atentie ca -y se inlocuieste ci - ieth ). fourth = al patrulea fifth = al cincilea sixth = al saselea seventh = al saptelea eighth = al optulea ninth = al noualea tenth = al zecelea eleventh = al unsprezecelea twelfth = al doisprezecelea thierteenth = al treisprezecelea twentieth = al douazecilea thirtieth = al treizecilea fiftieth = al cincecilea Datele se exprima in limba engleza cu numeralul ordinal : The first of May sau May the first Numeralul multiplicativ : once = o data; twice = de doua ori; De la trei in sus , numeralele multiplicative se formeaza din cel cardinal + times three times = de trei ori four times = de patru ori Numeralele fractionale : one whole = un intreg (o unitate) one haf = o jumatate = 1/2 one third = o treime = 1/3 one quarter = un sfert, o patrime = 1/4 one tenth = o zecime = 1/10

Prepozitia

Prepozitiile sunt cuvintele care fac legatura intre partile de vorbire. Sunt peste 150 de prepozitii in limba engleza.Lista cu cele mai uzuale prepozitii le gasiti la Cuvinte necesare/Prepozitii. Prepozitii de loc: In general se tine cont de urmatoarele reguli:

at = pentru un punct, un reper in = pentru o anumita zona on = pentru o suprafata Iata aici cateva exemple :
at punct, un reper at the corner at the bus stop at the door at the top of the page at the end of the road at the entrance at the crossroads at the entrance in zona in the garden in London in France in a box in my pocket in my wallet in a building in a car on suprafata on the wall on the ceiling on the door on the cover on the floor on the carpet on the menu on a page

Exista expresii standar cu prepozitiile de loc.Iata-le :
at at home at work at school at university at college at the top at the bottom at the side at reception in in a car in a taxi in a helicopter in a boat in a lift (elevator) in the newspaper in the sky in a row in Oxford Street on on a bus on a train on a plane on a ship on a bicycle, on a motorbike on a horse, on an elephant on the radio, on television on the left, on the right on the way

Prepozitiile de timp : at = atunci cand timpul este precizat in = pentru luni, ani, secole si perioade lungi on = pentru zile si date Iata cateva exemple:
at in on

timp precizat at 3 o'clock at 10.30am at noon at dinnertime at bedtime at sunrise at sunset at the moment

luni, ani, secole si perioade lungi in May in summer in the summer in 1990 in the 1990s in the next century in the Ice Age in the past/future

zile si date on Sunday on Tuesdays on 6 March on 25 Dec. 2010 on Christmas Day on Independence Day on my birthday on New Year's Eve

Atunci cand folosim last, next, every, this - nu folosim si at, in, on. Exemple: I went to London last June. (not in last June) He's coming back next Tuesday. (not on next Tuesday) I go home every Easter. (not at every Easter) We'll call you this evening. (not in this evening)

Pronumele

Pronumele personale : Nominativ : I = eu you = tu, dumneata, dumneavoastra he = el, dansul, dumnealui she = ea, dumneaei we = noi you = voi they = ei,ele, dansii, dansele, dumnealor Acuzativ-dativ : me = mi-, ma, pe mine, imi you = ti, te, pe tine, iti, dumitale, dumneavoastra him = i-, l-, pe el, ii,(lui)

her = i-, -o, pe ea, ii us = ne-, noua, pe noi you = v-, voua, pe voi them = i-, le-, loe, pe ei, pe ele Pronumele reflexive : myself = eu insumi/insami, pe mine insumi/insami yourself = tu insusi/insati, pe tine insuti/insati himself = el insusi/pe el insusi herself = ea insasi/pe ea insasi ourselves = noi insine, pe noi insine yourselves = voi insiva, pe voi insiva oneself = pe sine insusi (insasi) Pronumele posesiv : mine = al meu, a mea, ale mele, ai mei yours = al tau, a ta, ale tale, ai tai his = al lui, a lui, ale lui, ai lui hers = a ei, ale ei, al ei, ai ei ours = a noastra, al nostru, ale noastre, ai nostri yours = al vostru, a voastra, ai vostri, ale voastre theirs = al lor, a lui, ai lor, ale lor Pronumele demonstrative sunt identice ca forma cu adjectivele demonstrative(numai ca in cazul pronumelor, acestea inlocuiesc substantivele).

Substantivul

Substantivul, in limba engleza, are patru genuri: - genul masculin = substantive care denumesc persoane de gen masculin (boy, man, son , brother, king) - genul feminin = substantive care denumesc persoane de gen feminin (woman, mother, girl, wife, sister) - gen neutru = substantivele care denumesc obiecte si animale (dog, , purse, window, cat) - genul comun = substantivele care au aceeasi forma atat la masculin cat si la feminin (teacher, doctor, friend, author) Deosebirea dintre substantivele feminine si masculine se face astfel: - se foloseste cuvinte diferite pentru feminin si masculin : Feminin aunt = matusa Masculin uncle = unchi

daughter = fiica girl = fata hen = gaina nice = nepoata sister = sora mother = mama wife = sotie woman = femeie

son = fiu bou = baiat cock = cocos nephew = nepot brother = frate father = tata husband = sot man = barbat

- se adauga un sufix: prince - princess actor - actress waiter - waitress - pentru locuitorii unei tari, terminate in sh si ch, genul persoanei se indica folosind cuvintele: man si woman. an Englishman - an Englishwoman a Romanianmam - a Romanianwoman

Pluralul substantivelor : 1)- In general se realizeaza adaugand "-s" la substantivul la singular: cat + "s" = cats dog + "s" = dogs 2)- pentru substantivele terminate in "s", "x", "sh", "ch","zh", "z" sau "j" pluralul se formeaza adugand "-es" sau "-s", daca substantivul se termina in "e" mut. bus + "es" = buses box + "es" = boxes dish + "es" = dishes church + "es" = churches mirage + "s" = mirages prize + "s" = prizes bridge + "s" = bridges 3)- a) - pentru substantive terminate in "y" pluralul substantivelor se formeaza adaugand "-s", daca "y" final este precedat de o vocala(a, e, i, o, u). boy + "s" = boys - b) - pentru substantivele terminate in "y", unde "y" final este precedat de o consoana, pluralul substantivelor se formeaza astfe: se transforma "y" in "i" si apoi se adauga "-es" baby - y + "s" = babies 4)- a) - pentru substantivele terminate in "o", pluralul substantivelor se formeaza adaugand "-s", daca "o" este precedat de o vocala (a, e, i, o, u). radio + "s" = radios - b) - pentru substantivele terminate in "o", unde "o" este precedat de o consoana, pluralul substantivelor se formeaza adaugand "-es". tomato + "es" = tomatoes

Atentie : - pentru substantivele legate (referitoare) de muzica - pot forma pluralul adaugand "-s", chiar daca "o" este precedat de o consoana piano + "s" = pianos 5)-pentru substantivele terminate in "f" sau "fe", pluralul substantivelor se face adaugand "-s". roof + "s" = roofs giraffe + "s" = giraffes - Exista exceptii la aceasta regula.Unele substantive terminate in "f" sau "fe" fac pluralul schimband pe "f" in "-ves". Iara aceste exceptii : calf - calves = vitel/ vitei elf- elves = spiridusi/i half - halves = jumatate/jumatati knife - knives = cutit/cutite leaf - leaves = frunza/frunze loaf - loaves = franzela,paine/franzele life - lives = viata/vieti penknife - penknife = briceag/bricege sheaf - sheaves = snop/snopi staff - staves = portativ scarf - scarves = esarfa, fular/esarfe,fulare - dar si scarfs self - selves = ins, fiinta shelf - shelves = raft/rafturi thief - thieves = hot/hoti wolf - wolves = lup/lupi wife - wives = sotie/sotii 6)- urmatoarele substantive nu respecta nici o regula in formarea pluralelor :

Singular alga alumna alumnus antenna (on a bug's head) antenna (on a television) appendix bacterium bison buffalo bus cactus child corps criterion crisis datum deer die dwarf foot fish goose half

Plural algae alumnae alumni antennae antennas appendixes, appendices bacteria bison buffalos, buffaloes, buffalo buses, busses cacti, cactuses children corps criteria crises data deer dice dwarfs, dwarves feet fish, fishes geese halves

hippopotamus hoof louse man medium memorandum moose mouse octopus ox scarf series sheep staff (stick or line for charting music) staff (group of workers) stegosaurus swine talisman tooth wharf woman

hippopotami, hippopotamuses hoofs, hooves lice men media memoranda moose mice octopi, octopuses, octopodes oxen scarves, scarfs series sheep staves staffs stegosauri swine talismans teeth wharfs, wharves women

Viitorul Simplu ( Simple Future )
In lectia aceasta vom vedea cum se formeaza si cand se intrebuinteaza Viitorul Simplu al unui verb. A. FORMARE Viitorul Simplu se formeaza cu auxiliarul will urmat de infinitivul verbului de conjugat.

1. Forma afirmativa: I will come You will come He will come We will come

You will come They will come 2. Forma interogativa : Will I come ? Will you come ? Will he come ? Will we come ? Will you come ? Will they come ? 3. Forma negativa : I will not come You will not come He will not come We will not come You will not come They will not come 4. Forma interogativ-negativa Will I not come ? Will you not come ? Will he not come ? Will we not come ? Will you not come ? Will they not come ? B. INTREBUINTARE (cand folosim acest aspect al Viitorului in vorbire) 1. Viitorul Simplu il folosim in legatura cu asteptari, predictii, opinii sau presupuneri care se vor desfasura in viitor. Don't worry. She'll come back. Nu te ingrijora. Se va intoarce. My son will be ten next month. Fiul meu va implini zece ani luna viitoare. 2. Viitorul Simplu se foloseste pentru a descrie actiuni obisnuite ce vor avea loc in viitor. Drivers will always have to pay their speed tickets. Soferii intotdeauna vor trebui sa-si achite amenzile pentru depasirea vitezei. Babies will be born and old people will die, as usual. Copii tot se vor naste, si batranii se vor stinge, ca de obicei.

3. Viitorul Simplu se foloseste in cadrul propozitiilor conditionale de tip 1, precum si in propozitii temporale. We will punish him if he does it again. Il vom pedepsi daca va mai face acel lucru din nou. He will come home when he finishes his work. El va veni acasa dupa ce isi va termina treaba. 4. Viitorul Simplu se foloseste pentru a descrie actiuni ce exprima intentia (mai ales cele luate in momentul deciziei). I will have some Pepsi, please. As dori un Pepsi, va rog. I like this car. I will buy it. Imi place aceasta masina. O voi cumpara.

Perfectul Prezent Simplu ( Present Perfect )
In lectia aceasta vom vedea cum se formeaza si cand se intrebuinteaza Perfectul Prezent al unui verb. A. FORMARE Perfectul Prezent se formeaza cu auxiliarul to have( have, has ) urmat de participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat. ( Nu uitati: la un verb regulat, participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed; la verbele neregulate, el reprezinta a treia forma de baza.) 1. Forma afirmativa: I have arrived You have arrived He has arrived We have arrived You have arrived They have arrived 2. Forma interogativa : Have I arrived ? Have you arrived ? Has he arrived ? Has she arrived ? Have we arrived ? Have you arrived ? Have they arrived ? 3. Forma negativa :

I have not arrived You have not arrived He has not arrived She has not arrived We have not arrived You have not arrived They have not arrived 4. Forma interogativ-negativa Have I not arrived ? Have you not arrived ? Has he not arrived ? Has she not arrived ? Have we not arrived ? Have you not arrived ? Have they not arrived ?

IMPORTANT !!!
Perfectul Prezent se foloseste cel mai adesea atunci cand dorim sa scoatem in evidenta un efect pe care il are in prezent o actiune desfasurata in trecut. Ex: I have eaten = Am mancat (deci nu mai imi este foame). Somebody has stolen my pen = Cineva mi-a furat stiloul (asadar nu mai am cu ce scrie) B. INTREBUINTARE (cand folosim acest aspect al Prezentului in vorbire) 1.Perfectul Prezent descrie o actiune trecuta, ale carei efecte se fac inca simtite in prezent I have sold my car. Eu mi-am mandut masina(efect=trebuie sa merg la slujba cu autobuzul) He has read that book. El a citit acea carte (efect=ii cunoaste continutul) 2. Perfectul Prezent se foloseste impreuna cu indicatori temporali nedefiniti, cum ar fi: ever, never, before, yet, already, dar niciodata cu indicatori temporali definiti, precum yesterday, last week, a month ago. She has never seen such a car. Ea niciodata nu a vazut o asemenea masina. I have already solved that problem. Eu deja am rezolvat acea problema. 3. Perfectul Prezent se foloseste pentru a descrie o actiune care a inceput in trecut si se continua si in momentul vorbirii(aceeasi parte a zilei, aceeasi zi, acelasi an, etc). We haven't eaten today yet. Azi inca nu am mancat.

4. Folosit impreuna cu just acest timp descrie ceea ce s-a intamplat de curand. In romana acest lucru se exprima cu perfectul compus si adverbul tocmai. They have just got married. Ei tocmai s-au casatorit. We have just arrived. Noi tocmai ce am sosit. 5. Perfectul Prezent descrie o actiune inceputa in trecut si care se prelungeste in prezent. In acest caz, se traduce cu prezentul: How long have they been here? De cand sunt ei aici? She has been here for three days. Ea se afla aici de trei zile. 6. Perfectul Prezent simplu se foloseste cu expresiile: This is the first time... si It's (a long time) since... This is the first time I have been in a cave. E prima data cand ma aflu intr-o pestera. It's a long time since you have visited me. De mult nu ai mai fost in vizita la mine

In lectia aceasta vom vedea cum se formeaza si cand se intrebuinteaza Perfectul Prezent Continuu al unui verb. A. FORMARE Perfectul Prezent Continuu se formeaza cu auxiliarul to have( have, has ) urmat de aspectul continuu al participiului trecut al verbului de conjugat. (participiul trecut simplu: worked, cleaned; participiul trecut continuu: been working, been cleaning.) 1. Forma afirmativa: I have been walking You have been walking He has been walking We have been walking You have been walking They have been walking 2. Forma interogativa : Have I been walking ? Have you been walking ? Has he been walking ? Has she been walking ?

Have we been walking ? Have you been walking ? Have they been walking ? 3. Forma negativa : I have not been walking You have not been walking He has not been walking She has not been walking We have not been walking You have not been walking They have not been walking 4. Forma interogativ-negativa Have I not been walking ? Have you not been walking ? Has he not been walking ? Has she not been walking ? Have we not been walking ? Have you not been walking ? Have they not been walking ? B. INTREBUINTARE (cand folosim acest aspect al Prezentului in vorbire) Perfectul Prezent continuu se foloseste aproximativ in aceleasi situatii ca si Prezentul Perfect simplu. Totusi, accentueaza ideea de continuare in prezent a actiunii descrise: He has read that book. A citit acea carte. ( Deja cunoaste continutul) He has been reading that book for three hours. Citeste cartea aceea de trei ore. (si inca n-a terminat-o)

Prezentul Continuu ( Present Continuous)
In lectia aceasta vom vedea cum se formeaza si cand se intrebuinteaza Prezentul Continuu al unui verb. 1. La forma afirmativa auxiliarul apare de cele mai multe ori in forma sa contrasa: I'm running You're runnning He's running We're running They're running

2. La forma interogativa se inverseaza ordinea dintre subiect si auxiliar: Am I running? Are you running? Is he running? Is she running? Are we running? Are you running? Are they running? 3. La forma negativa cuvantul not precedat de auxiliar apare de cele mai multe ori in forma sa contrasa (dar niciodata dupa am) : I' m not running You aren't running He isn't running She isn't running We aren't running You aren't running They aren't running 4. Forma interogativ-negativa Am I not running ? Aren't you running ? Isn't herunning ? Isn't she running ? Aren't we running ? Aren't you running ? Aren't they running ? B. INTREBUINTARE (cand folosim acest aspect al Prezentului in vorbire) 1. Pentru a descrie o actiune in curs de desfasurare in momentul vorbirii. In acest caz, este insotit adesea de o indicatie temporala, cum ar fi now, at the moment Look! He's wasing his car. Priveste! El isi spala masina. What are you doing there? Ce faci acolo? 2. Pentru a descrie pozitiile corpului: She's standing. Ea sta in picioare He's leaning against a wall. El sta sprijinit de un perete. 3. Cand e vorba de o actiune viitoare, prevazuta sau programata:

They're buying a new house in May. Ei isi cumpara o casa noua in luna mai. What are you doing next Monday? Ce faci lunea viitoare? 4. Cand e vorba de ceva care s-ar putea produce in orice moment: He looks funny when he's playing his trumpet. Arata comic atunci cand canta la trompeta. 5. Impreuna cu always, pentru a exprima iritarea sau dezaprobarea: She's always coming in when we talk something important. Intotdeauna trebuie sa intre in camera fix cand vorbim noi lucruri importante.

Prezentul Simplu
In lectiile trecute am invatat despre anumite parti de vorbire care nu cereau enorm de mult efort pentru a fi retinute, insa incepand cu lectia de acum vom invata din tainele Verbului. Si asa cum va asteptati probabil, vom incepe cu Prezentul. Numai ca in limba engleza Prezentul are doua forme: una simpla si una continua. In lectia aceasta vom vedea cum se formeaza si cand se intrebuinteaza forma simpla a Prezentului unui verb. A. FORMARE 1. La forma afirmativa se foloseste infinitivul fara particula "to" al verbului: to run / run I run You run We run They run La persoana a III-a singular se adauga terminatia -s: He runs She runs 2.La forma interogativa se foloseste auxiliarul do sau does (la persoana a III-a singular) urmat de verb: Do I run? Do you run? Does he run? Does she run? Do we run? Do you run? Do they run?

Observati ca numai auxiliarul se conjuga! 3.La forma negativa se foloseste do not(cu forma sa contrasa don't) sau does not(cu forma sa contrasa doesn't) pentru persoana a III-a singular: I do not (don't) run You do not (don't) run He does not (doesn't) run She does not (doesn't) run We do not (don't) run You do not (don't) run They do not (don't) run 4.La forma interogativ-negativa se foloseste don't / doesn't, inversandu-se ordinea dintre subiect si auxiliar. Forma contrasa e cel mai des folosita: Don't I run ? Don't you run ? Doesn't he run ? Doesn't she run ? Don't we run ? Don't you run ? Don't they run ? B. INTREBUINTARE (cand folosim acest aspect al Prezentului in vorbire) 1. Pentru a descrie o actiune care se repeta in mod regulat: I go to school every day. Merg la scoala in fiecare zi. Do you brush your teeth every day? Te speli pe dinti zilnic? 2. Pentru a exprima un obicei: He reads a lot. El citeste mult She doesn't smoke. Ea nu fumeaza 3. Pentru a exprima un adevar general, de exemplu o lege a fizicii: Water freezes at 0 degrees. Apa ingheata la 0 grade. The Earth spins around the Sun. Pamantul se invarte in jurul soarelui. 4. Pentru a reda o succesiune de evenimente scurte: He unlocks the door, comes in and takes off his shoes near the door. El descuie usa, intra si se descalta langa usa.

5. Pentru a exprima o actiune programata in viitor, in special atunci cand se specifica momentul producerii ei: Your train leaves at two o'clock. Trenul tau pleaca la ora doua. We meet him tonight. Ne intalnim cu el diseara. 6. Intr-o propozitie subordonata introdusa prin if sau unless, atunci cand verbul din principala este la viitor: I'll come if they come. Voi veni daca vor veni si ei. 7. Dupa when, as soon as, before, after , intr-o fraza in care verbul din principala este la viitor: We'll tell you when we meet again. Iti vom spune cand ne vom intalni din nou. 8.- Cu verbele care exprima un sentiment (love, hate, prefer, like, dislike...) - cu verbele care nu presupun notiunea de durata ( seem, want, belong, know, mean, wish) - si cu verbele care redau cuvintele cuiva ( say, tell, ask, answer) I like movies. Imi plac filmele. You seem tired. Pari obosit. What does he mean? Ce vrea sa spuna?

Numeralul Ordinal
the 1st / first = primul the 2nd / second = al doilea the 3rd / third = al treilea the 4th / fourth = al patrulea the 5th / fifth = al cincilea the 6th sixth = al saselea the 7th / seventh = al saptelea the 8th / eighth = al optulea the 9th / nineth = al noualea the 10th / tenth = al zecelea the 11th / eleventh = al unsprezecelea the 12th / twelfth = al doisprezecelea the 13th / thirteenth = al treisprezecelea the 14th / fourteenth = al patrusprezecelea the 15th / fifteenth = al cincisprezecelea the 16th / sixteenth = al saisprezecelea the 17th / seventeenth = al saptesprezecelea the 18th / eighteenth = al optusprezecelea

the 19th / nineteenth = al nouasprezecelea the 20th / twentieth = al douazecilea the 21st / twenty-first = al douazecilea the 22nd / twenty-second = al douazecisiunulea the 23rd / twenty-third = al douazecisidoilea the 24th / twenty-fourth = al douazecisipatrulea the 30th / thirtieth = al treizecilea the 50th / fiftieth = al cincizecilea the 100th / hundredth = al o sutalea

Pronumele personal
Nominativ I = Eu You = Tu He = El She = Ea It = El, Ea (pentru obiecte, lucruri neinsufletite) We = Noi You = Voi They = Ei Genitiv Mine = Al meu Yours = Al tau His = Al lui Hers= Al ei Ours = Al nostru Yours = Al vostru Theirs = Al lor Dativ (to) me = mie (to) you = tie (to) him = lui (to) her = ei (to) it = Lui, ei (pentru obiecte, lucruri neinsufletite) (to) us = noua

(to) you = voua (to) them = lor Acuzativ me = pe mine you = pe tine him = pe el her = pe ea it = pe el, pe ea (pentru obiecte, lucruri neinsufletite) us = pe noi you = pe voi them = pe ei

Numeralul Cardinal
1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine 10 ten 11 eleven 12 twelve 13 thirteen 14 fourteen 15 fifteen 16 sixteen 17 seventeen 18 eighteen 19 nineteen 20 twenty 21 twenty-one 22 twenty-two 23 twenty-three 24 twenty-four 25 twenty-five

30 thirty 40 fourty 50 fifty 60 sixty 70 seventy 80 eighty 90 ninety 100 one hundred 200 two hundred 250 two hundred and fifty 1,000 one thousand 2,000 two thousand 2,574 two thousand five hundred and seventy-four 1,000,000 one million 2,000,000 two million 1,000,000,000 one billion Un lucru care trebuie evidentiat e faptul ca in limba engleza se foloseste virgula pentru a separa miile. Ati observat probabil faptul ca dupa numarul 1 din 1000 se adauga virgula, rezultand in scris 1,000. Desigur, nimeni nu va va pedepsi daca nu folositi acest sistem, insa e bine de stiut:-)

Verbul To Be
Afirmativ I Am = Eu sunt You Are = Tu esti He Is = El este She Is = Ea este It Is = El/Ea Este We Are = Noi suntem You Are = Voi sunteti They are = Ei sunt Interogativ Am I ? Are You ? Is He ?

Is She ? Is It ? Are We ? Are You ? Are They ? Negativ I Am not You Are not He Is not She Is not It Is not We Are not You Are not They are not

Verbul To Have
Afirmativ I Have = Eu am You Have = Tu ai He Has = El are She Has = Ea are It Has = El/Ea are We Have = Noi avem You Have = Voi aveti They Have = Ei au Interogativ Do I Have? Do You Have? Does He Have? Does She Have? Does It Have? Do We Have? Do You Have? Do They Have? Negativ

I do not Have You do not Have He does not Have She does not Have It does not Have We do not Have You do not Have They do not Have

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