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PDH & SDH

PDH
PLESIOCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERARCHY. A TECHNOLOGY USED IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORK TO TRANSPORT LARGE QUANTITY OF DATA OVER DIGITAL TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT SUCH AS FIBRE OPTIC AND MICROWAVE RADIO WAVE SYSTEMS. THE TERM PLESIOCHRONOUS IS DERIVED FROM Greek plesio which means near, and chronous, time. IT MEANS THAT PDH NETWORKS RUN IN A STATE WHERE DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE NETWORK ARE ALMOST, BUT NOT QUITE PERFECTLY SYNCHRONISED.

PDH
SENDING A LARGE QUANTITY OF DATA ON FIBRE OPTIC TRANSMISSION SYSTEM. TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION ARE SYNCHRONIZED BUT TIMING IS NOT. THE CHANNEL CLOCKS ARE DERIVED FROM DIFFERENT MASTER CLOCKS WHOSE RANGE IS SPECIFIED TO LIE WITHIN CERTAIN LIMITS. THE MULTIPLEXED SIGNAL IS CALLED A PLESIOCHRONOUS SIGNAL. PDH SIGNALS ARE NEITHER SYNCHRONOUS NOR ASYNCHRONOUS.

PDH
PDH ALLOWS TRANSMISSION OF DATA STREAMS THAT ARE NOMINALLY RUNNING AT THE SAME RATE, BUT ALLOWING SOME VARIATION ON THE SPEED AROUND A NOMINAL RATE. BY ANALOGY, ANY TWO WATCHES ARE NOMINALLY RUNNING AT THE SAME RATE, CLOCKING UP 60 SECONDS EVERY MINUTE. HOWEVER, THERE IS NO LINK BETWEEN WATCHES TO GUARANTEE THEY RUN AT EXACTLY THE SAME RATE. IT IS HIGHLY LIKELY THAT ONE IS RUNNING SLIGHTLY FASTER THAN THE OTHER.

VERSIONS OF PDH
THERE ARE TWO VERSIONS OF PDH NAMELY 1) THE EUROPEAN AND 2 ) THE AMERICAN. THEY DIFER SLIGHTLY IN THE DETAIL OF THEIR WORKING BUT THE PRINCIPLES ARE THE SAME. EUROPEAN PCM = 30 CHANNELS NORTH AMERICAN PCM = 24 CHANNELS JAPANESE PCM = 24 CHANNELS IN INDIA WE FOLLOW THE EUROPEAN PCM OF 30 CHANNELS SYSTEM WORKING.

EUROPEAN DIGITAL HIERARCHY


30 Channel PCM = 2 Mbps 2 Mbps x 4 = 8 Mbps 8 Mbps x 4 = 34 Mbps 34 Mbps x 4 = 140 Mbps 140 Mbps x 4 = 565 Mbps

EUROPEAN PDH HIERARCHY WITH BIT RATES


MUX BIT RATE PARTS PER MILLION CHANNELS

2 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

+/- 50 ppm 30

8 Mbps
34 Mbps 140 Mbps

8.448 Mbps

+/- 30 ppm 120


+/- 20 ppm

34.368 Mbps

480 1920

139.264 Mbps +/- 15 ppm

DESCRIPTION OF EUROPEAN E-CARRIER SYSTEM


THE BASIC DATA TRANSFER RATE IS A STREAM OF 2048 KBPS. FOR SPEECH TRANSMISSION, THIS IS BROKEN DOWN INTO 30 X 64 KBIT/S CHANNELS PLUS 2 X 64 KBPS CHANNELS USED FOR SIGNALLING AND SYNCHRONIZATION. ALTERNATIVELY, THE WHOLE 2 MB/S MAY BE USED FOR NON SPEECH PURPOSES, FOR EXAMPLE, DATA TRANSMISSION. THE EXACT DATA RATE OF THE 2 MBPS DATA STREAM IS CONTROLLED BY A CLOCK IN THE EQUIPMENT GENERATING THE DATA. THE EXACT RATE IS ALLOWED TO VARY SOME PERCENTAGE (+/50 PPM) EITHER SIDE OF AN EXACT 2.048 MBPS. DIFERENT 2 MBPS DATA STREAMS CAN BE RUNNING AT SLIGHTLY DIFERENT RATES TO ONE ANOTHER.

MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUE
IN ORDER TO MOVE MULTIPLE 2 MBPS DATA STREAMS FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER, THEY ARE COMBINED TOGETHER OR MULTIPLEXED IN GROUPS OF FOUR. THIS IS DONE BY TAKING 1 BIT FROM STREAM #1, FOLLOWED BY 1 BIT FROM STREAM #2, THEN #3, THEN #4. THE TRANSMITTING MULIPLEXER ALSO ADDS ADDITIONAL BITS IN ORDER TO ALLOW THE FAR END RECEIVING MULTIPLEXER TO DECODE WHICH BITS BELONG TO WHICH 2 MBPS DATA STREAM, AND SO CORRECTLY RECONSTITUTE THE ORIGINAL DATA STREAMS. THESE ADDITIONAL BITS ARE CALLED JUSTIFICATION BITS OR STUFFING BITS

30 Chl Digital Hierarchy


2.048 Mbps

8.448 Mbps

34.368 Mbps

139.264 Mbps

Primary Mux 30 Chls

II order Mux
120 Chls

III Order Mux 480 Chls

IV Order Mux
1920 Chls

X4

X4

DIGITAL MUX CONCEPTS


BIT INTERLEAVING: ALTERNATELY EACH CHANNEL CODE CAN BE SCANNED ONE DIGIT AT A TIME. THE MULTIPLEXED SIGNAL IS CALLED A BIT INTERLEAVED SIGNAL. BIT INTERLEAVING IS USED IN HIGHER ORDER MULTIPLEXING.

A1

A2

A3 A4

B1

B2

B3

B4

C1

C2

C3

C4

D1

D2

D3

D4

DIGITAL MUX CONCEPTS


BYTE INTERLEAVING WORD / BYTE / BLOCK INTERLEAVING: IF THE CHANNEL TIME SLOT IS LONG ENOUGH TO ACCOMMODATE A GROUP OF BITS THEN THE MULTIPLEXED SIGNAL IS CALLED A BYTE INTERLEAVED OR WORD INTERLEAVED SIGNAL.
A1 B1 C1 D1 A2 B2 C2 D2 A3 B3 C3 D3 A4 B4 C4 D4

SLIP, JUSTIFICATION AND JITTER


SLIP THIS OCCURS WHEN THE INCOMING BIT
RATE DOES NOT MATCH WITH THE DIVIDED MUX/DEMUX CLOCK RATE. SAME BIT MAY BE READ TWICE OR LOSS OF BITS WILL OCCUR.

JUSTIFICATION:- IT IS A PROCESS OF ADDING


ADDITIONAL BITS TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF SLIP. JITTER:- DISPLACE MENT OF A PULSE FROM ITS NORMAL SIGNIFICANT INSTANT IS CALLED JITTER.

JUSTIFICATION -TYPES

POSITIVE JUSTIFICATION

JUSTIFICATION

NEGATIVE JUSTIFIATION POSITIVE-NEGATIVE JUSTIFICATION

JUSTIFICATION
IF MUX CLOCK RATE IS HIGHER THAN TRIBUTARY RATE, IT IS KNOWN AS POSITIVE JUSTIFICATION. THIS IS USED UPTO 140 MBPS SYSTEMS. IF MUX CLOCK RATE IS LOWER THAN TRIBUTARY RATE, IT IS KNOWN AS NEGATIVE JUSTIFICATION. IF ON AN AVERAGE, MUX CLOCK RATE AND TRIBUTARY BIT RATE ARE EQUAL, IT IS CALLED POSITIVE-NEGATIVE JUSTIFICATION.

PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN HIGHER ORDER MULTIPLEXING AND SOLUTIONS FOR THEM


1. MUX CLOCK SPEEDS SHOULD BE SAME AT BOTH THE ENDS. SOLUTION :- THIS PROBLEM IS SOLVED BY USING P L L CIRCUIT AT TERMINAL B TO RECOVER THE CLOCK. SYNCHRONIZATION:- SOLUTION- THIS IS SOLVED BY FRAME ALIGNMENT WORD (FAW). TRIBUTARY BIT RATE AND MUX CLOCK (DIVIDED) SHOULD BE THE SAME:- SOLUTION - SOLVED BY PULSE STUFFING OR BIT STUFFING OR JUSTIFICATION PROCESS. THISMEANS ADDING ADDITIONAL BITS.

2.

3.

FOTS
FIBRE OPTIC TRANSMISSION SYSTEM. SUB SYSTEMS DIGITAL MULTIPLEX SUB SYSTEM. OPTICAL LINE TRANSMISSION SUB SYSTEM. CENTRAL SUPERVISORY SUB SYSTEM POWER SUB SYSTEM ALARM SUB SYSTEM

Fiber Optic Cable


Fig 6.6

FIBRE OPTIC CABLE


Fiber Optic Cable
Consists of many extremely thin strands of solid glass or plastic bound together in a sheathing Transmits signals with light beams No risk of sparks, safe for explosive environments More expensive than coaxial, but more bandwidth Different colors of light are used to simultaneously send Multiple signals

OPTICAL LINE TRANSMISSION SUB SYSTEM

OPTICAL LINE TERMINATING EQUIPMENT. LINE SWITCHING EQUIPMENTS LINE SUPERVISORY EQUIPMENTS ORDERWIRE EQUIPMENTS. SUPERVISORY SERVICE DATA REMOTE SERVICE DATA

LIMITATIONS
LOWER CAPACITY. ADD AND DROP DIFFICULT. COMPLEX MULTIPLEXING AND DEMULTIPLEXING. NO UNIVERSAL STANDARD INTERWORKING BETWEEN HIERARCHIES COMPLEX.

DISADVANTAGES OF PDH SYSTEM


PDH IS NOT IDEALLY SUITED TO THE EFFICIENT DELIVERY AND MANAGEMENT OF HIGH BANDWIDH CONNECTIONS. PDH IS NO LONGER EFFICIENT TO MEET THE DEMANDS PLACED ON IT. TO ACCESS THE LOWER ORDER TRIBUTARY, THE WHOLE SYSTEM SHOULD BE DEMULTIPLEXED. BANDWIDTH LIMITATIONS MAX CAPACITY IS 566 MBPS ONLY. NO COMMON STANDARDS AMONG VENDORS. TOLERANCE IS ALLOWED IN BIT RATES. POINT TO POINT CONFIGURATION ( LINEAR WORKING ) ONLY IS POSSIBLE. IT DOES NOT SUPPORT HUB. NO PROVISIONING FOR NMS.

EVOLUTION OF SDH
FIBER OPTIC BANDWIDTH:Bandwidth of the optical fiber can be increased and there is no limit TECHNICAL SOPHISTICATION:Using VLSI techniques which is also cost effective INTELLIGENCE:Availability of cheaper memory opens new possibilities CUSTOMER SERVICE NEEDS:Requirement of customer services can be easily met w/o much additional equipments

EVOLUTION OF SDH
TOTALLY SYNCHRONOUS SYSTEM. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD/SYSTEM MULTIPLEXING STANDARD. IN 1988, (ITU-T) 18TH STUDY GROUP FORMULATED CERTAIN STANDARDS FOR MULTIPLEXING. THE MAIN AIM IS TO ACCOMMODATE THE EXISTING PDH SIGNALS ALSO. ADOPTING THE DIFFERENT VENDORS EQUIPMENTS. DISADVANTAGES OF PDH LED TO THE INVENTION OF SDH.

DIFFERENT SERVICES
LOW/HIGH SPEED DATA VOICE INTERCONNECTION OF LAN COMPUTER LINKS FEATURE SERVICES LIKE HDTV BROAD BAND ISDN TRANSPORT

EXISTING NETWORK

565 Mbps
5 6 5 TH ORDER 5
m 4 RTH ORDER b / s

140 Mbps 34 Mbps

3RD ORDER

8 Mbps
2 ND ORDER

2 Mbps

WHAT IS

SDH ?

SYNCHRONOUS :
ONE MASTER CLOCK & ALL ELEMENTS SYNCHRONISE WITH IT.

DIGITAL:
INFORMATION IN BINARY.

HIERARCHY:
SET OF BIT RATES IN A HIERARCHIAL ORDER.

WHAT IS SDH?
SDH IS A HIERARCHICAL SET OF INFORMATION STRUCTURE (DIGITAL TRANSPORT STRUCTURE) TO CARRY PAY LOAD. SDH MULTIPLEXING:- A PROCEDURE BY WHICH MULTIPLE LOWER ORDER PATH LAYER SIGNALS ARE ADAPTED INTO HIGHER ORDER PATH OR MULTIPLE HIGHER PATH LAYER SIGNALS ARE ADAPTED INTO MUX SECTION LAYER. POINTER DEFINES FRAME OFFSET VALUE OF A VIRTUAL CONTAINER. SDH MAPPING:- THE PROCEDURE BY WHICH THE TRIBUTARY ARE ADAPTED INTO VIRTUAL CONTAINERS AT THE BOUNDARY OF THE SDH NETWORK.

ADVANTAGES OF SDH
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. SIMPLIFIED MULTIPLEXING/DEMULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUES. DIRECT ACCESS TO LOWER ORDER TRIBUTARIES. ACCOMMODATES EXISTING PDH SIGNALS. CAPABLE OF TRANSPORTING BROADBAND SIGNALS. MULTI-VENDOR, MULTI OPERATOR ENVIRONMENT. PROTECTION SWITCHING TO TRAFFIC IS OFFERED BY RINGS. ENHANCED BANDWIDTH. NMS FACILITY. UNLIMITED BANDWIDTH GROWTH OF THE EXISTING TO THE HIGHER ORDER SYSTEM IS SIMPLE.

The Container (C)


Basic packaging unit for tributary signals (PDH) Synchronous to the STM-1 Bitrate adaptation is done via a positive stuffing procedure Adaptation of synchronous tributaries by fixed stuffing bits Bit by bit stuffing

The Virtual Container (VC)


Formation of the Container by adding of a POH (Path Overhead) Transport as a unit through the network (SDH) A VC containing several VCs has also a pointer area

The Tributary Unit (TU)


Is formed via adding a pointer to the VC

The Tributary Unit Group (TUG)


Combines several TUs for a new VC

The Administrative Unit (AU)


Is shaped if a pointer is allocated to the VC formed at last

The Syncronous Transport Module Level 1 (STM-1)


Formed by adding a Section Overhead (SOH) to AUs Clock justification through positive-zero-negative stuffing in the AU pointer area byte by byte stuffing

STM1 Frames

270 Columns (Bytes)


1 1 9 270

transmit row by row

RSOH
3 4 5 AU Pointer

Payload
(transport capacity)

MSOH
9

RSOH: Regenerator section overhead MSOH: Multiplex section overhead Payload: Area for information transport Transport capacity of one Byte: 64 kbit/s Frame capacity: 270 x 9 x 8 x 8000 = 155.520 Mbit/s Frame repetition time: 125 s

FRAME REPRESENTATION
1ST ROW
9 261 I 9 2ND ROW 9 I 261 3RD ROW 9 261 261 9TH ROW 9 I 261

S O H

PAY LOAD

270

(MATRIX REPRESENTATION)

REDUCED MUX STRUCTURE


STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4
TUG-3

C-4 140Mbps TU-3 VC-3 C-3 TUG-2 TU-1 VC-1 C-1 2Mbps 34Mbps

(REDUCED DIAGRAM FOR SDH-MULTIPLEXING)

Containers: C-3, C-2, C-12 and C-11


Container C-11 C-12 Carries signals at 1.544 Mbit/s 2.048 Mbit/s

C-2

6.312 Mbit/s

C-3

34.368 Mbit/s and 44.736 Mbit/s

C-4

139.264 Mbit/s

TERMINOLOGY & DEFINITIONS


SDH:Set of hierarchical structures,standardized for the

transport of suitably adapted pay load over physical transmission network STM:Synchronous transport module It is the information structure used to support section layer connections in SDH
VIRTUAL CONTAINER :used to support path layer connections in the SDH LOWER ORDER VC ( VC1,VC2,VC3) HIGHER ORDER VC (VC3 ,VC4)

SDH BIT RATES


SDH Levels STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64 Bit rates in Kbps 155520 622080 2488320 9953.28

SOH BYTE ALLOCATION


A1A2 B1B2 D1..D3 D4..D12 E1-E2 F1 J0 K1 K2 S1 Frame alignment Error monitoring Data comm channel for RSOH Data comm channel for MSOH Order wire channel Maintenance STM Identifier Automatic protection switching SYNCHRONISATION STATUS

M1

Txmn Error acknowledgement


Media dependent bytes

2 Mbps mapping

STM-1

AUG

AU-4

VC-4 x3 TUG-3

x7 STM-n AUG AU-n VC-n

Synchronous Transport Module


Administrative Unit Group: One or more AU(s) Administrative Unit: VC + pointers Virtual Container: payload + path overhead

TUG-2

x3
TU-12 VC-12 C-12
E1: 2.048Mb/s

The following are the different steps in the mapping of 2Mbps stream
Formation of container C12 Formation of virtual container VC12 Formation of tributary unit TU12 Multiplexing of TU12 s to form TUG3 Multiplexing of TUG3s to form VC4 Formation of administrative unit AU4 Formation of administrative unit group AUG Adding SOH to form STM1

SDH NETWORK ELEMENTS


The different network elements are

SYNCHRONOUS MULTIPLEXER SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL CROSS CONNECT REGENERATOR NMS

NETWORK ELEMENTS
SYNCHRONOUS MULTIPLEXER As per ITU-T Rec. synchronous multiplexer performs both multiplexing and live line terminating functions. synchronous multiplexer replaces a bank of plesiochronous multiplexers and associated line terminating equipment.

SYNCHRONOUS MUX
Types of synchronous

multiplexers TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER(TM) ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(ADM)

TM
TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER(TM)

TM Accepts a no. Of tributary signals and multiplex them to appropriate optical/electrical aggregate signal viz STM1,STM4,STM16 etc.

TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER(TM)

ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(TM) ADM is designed for THRU mode of operation. Within ADM its possible to ADD channels or DROP channels from THROUGH CHANNELS

ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(TM)


At an ADM site ,only those signals that need to be accessed are dropped or inserted The remaining traffic continues thru the NE without requiring special pass thru units or other signal processing

ADM
ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(TM)

AGGREGATE SIGNAL SDH(E/O) ADM

AGGREGATE SIGNAL SDH(E/O)

TRIBUTARY SIGNALS (PDH/SDH)

ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(ADM)


ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(ADM)

CROSS CONNECT EQUIPMENT

Cross connect equipment functions as a semi permanent switch for varying bandwidth control it can pick out one or more lower order channels for transmitting signal without transmission channels Channels can be 64Kbps up to STM1 Under software program the need of demultiplexing

TYPES OF NETWORK TOPOLOGY


STRING/BUS/LINEAR Topology RING Topology STAR Topology MESH Topology

STRING/BUS/LINEAR TOPOLOGY

TM

ADM

REG

ADM

ADM

TM

Aggregate signal Tributary signal

(STM1/STM4/STM16)

(2/34/140Mbps/STM1(e)/ STM1(o))

RING TOPOLOGY
Ring is a linear network looped back to itself Network elements are ADMs or REGENERATORS Every node on a ring has two communication paths to each other node via the two directions around the ring.

RING TOPOLOGY
ADM

ADM

Aggregate signal Tributary (2/34/140Mbps/STM1(e)/ STM1(o)) signal

(STM1/STM4/STM16)

RING TOPOLOGY
Ring network is self healing type(allowing rerouting of traffic when a link fails). The simple topology of a ring facilitates the implementation of protocols that can detect failure of a fiber segment or node and rapidly reestablish communications, typically in timeframes on the order of milliseconds. This is referred to as protection or protection switching

RING TOPOLOGY
Rings gives greater flexibility in the allocation of band width to the different users. Normally used in LAN,WAN, Core Network,Regional Network etc.

STAR TOPOLOGY
Traffic passes thru a central node called HUB. The HUB is a DXC. If HUB fails ,total traffic fails.