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# MTH 261 PROBLEM-BASED ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS FOR SECONDARY TEACHERS

## WHY DO I NEED TO KNOW THIS?!?

Source: http://itsgettinghotinhere.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/science_questioning2.gif

## WHEN DID YOU FIRST START LEARNING TO DRIVE A CAR?

http://superguilho.blogspot.com/2011/07/electric-porsche-911-tries-to-show.html

## YOU NEED TO KNOW THIS SO YOU CAN

Source: http://forrestermaths.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/maths-image.jpg

understand BIG concepts so that you may better explain them connect your graduate studies to what you could be teaching continue to learn

## The Concept of Inverse

, Dr. Douglas Lapp (2008), Unit 1: Connecting Mathematical Concepts: Secondary to Undergraduate, pg 1.

CONCEPT MAP

, Dr. Douglas Lapp (2008), Unit 1: Connecting Mathematical Concepts: Secondary to Undergraduate, pg 2.

## CONCEPT MAP HOW TO GET STARTED

Start with your BIG topic: Inverse function What are the concepts, items, or descriptive words that you can associate with this idea? Use a top down approach, working from general to specific or use a free association approach by brainstorming nodes and then develop links and relationships.
Source: http://www.graphic.org/concept.html

WHY is 0 considered the identity element for addition and 1 considered the identity element for multiplication?

## FORM AND FUNCTION ACTIVITY

Properties of Real Numbers

B A

e f g h j k

B A

e f g h j k

e f g h j k

f e j k g h

g k e j h f

h j k e f g

j h f g k e

k g h f e j

## WHAT DOES IT MEAN FOR A SET TO BE CLOSED?

GROUP
Closed Associative Identity Inverse

## May or may not be commutative

SUBGROUP
Closed Associative Identity Inverse

## THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ALGEBRA

We believe Mathematical Content Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge need to develop simultaneously This means... Integrate Mathematical Learning with the Theories and Practice for Teaching

THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE

## Pirie and Kieren Model

Framework to Study the Growth of Understanding Has layers like an onion

## All of the learners relevant prior knowledge

Pirie,S & Kieren, T. (1994) Growth in mathematical understanding: How can we characterise it and how can we represent it? Educational Studies in Mathematics, 26 (2-3), 165-190.

Learners engage in specific activities aimed at helping them to develop particular ideas/images for a concept

No longer tied to actual activities. The learner has interiorized the action.

## Start developing theories

Full understanding

Source: http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=knowledge&view=detail&id=6B7BA302D9D88A7F2E264A21E571D3B2E3D5DD05

FOLDING BACK

FOLDING BACK
Occurs when a new situation requires the learner to revisit earlier images and understanding to inform their new thinking

The learner reflects on their current and previous understanding The previously held image may need to be modified or broadened (creates deeper understanding)

What sort of Primitive Knowledge would you expect is needed to learn about quadratic equations?

What sort of activities could you do to help students develop and image for quadratic equations?

What would be an example that would show you a learner is at the image having level for understanding about quadratic equations?

What sort of properties would you expect learners to notice when exploring quadratic equations?

Where might folding back occur when learning about quadratic equations? Give an example.

THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE

## Pirie and Kieren Model

Framework to Study the Growth of Understanding

4. Folding Back

## INVERSES AND THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS

F-BF.4. Find inverse functions. Solve an equation of the form f(x) = c for a simple function f that has an inverse and write an expression for the inverse. For example, f(x) =2 x3 or f(x) = (x+1)/(x1) for x 1. (+) Verify by composition that one function is the inverse of another. (+) Read values of an inverse function from a graph or a table, given that the function has an inverse. (+) Produce an invertible function from a non-invertible function by restricting the domain.

## Suppose you are given the following algorithm:

Start with a number, add 5 to it. Divide the result by 3 Subtract 4 from that quantity Double your result. The final result is 10. Working backward, find the original number.

## All of the learners relevant prior knowledge

Learners engage in specific activities aimed at helping them to develop particular ideas/images for a concept

No longer tied to actual activities. The learner has interiorized the action.

## Start developing theories

Full understanding

## DEFINE THE BINARY OPERATION

= + 5
WHAT IS THE IDENTITY OF THIS FUNCTION?

B A

ro

d1

d2

r1

r2

ro v d1 d2 r1 r2

B A

ro ro v d1 d2 r1 r2

v v ro r1 r2 d1 d2

d1 d1 r2 ro r1 d2 v

d2 d2 r1 r2 ro v d1

r1 r1 d2 v d1 r2 ro

r2 r2 d1 d2 v ro r1

ro v d1 d2 r1 r2

B A

ro ro v d1 d2 r1 r2

v v ro r1 r2 d1 d2

d1 d1 r2 ro r1 d2 v

d2 d2 r1 r2 ro v d1

r1 r1 d2 v d1 r2 ro

r2 r2 d1 d2 v ro r1

ro v d1 d2 r1 r2

B A

e f g h j k

e f g h j k

f e j k g h

g k e j h f

h j k e f g

j h f g k e

k g h f e j

SIDE-BY-SIDE COMPARISON
B A

ro ro v d1 d2 r1 r2

v v ro r1 r2 d1 d2

d1 d1 r2 ro r1 d2 v

d2 d2 r1 r2 ro v d1

r1 r1 d2 v d1 r2 ro

r2 r2 d1 d2 v ro r1

B A

ro v d1 d2 r1 r2

e f g h j k

e f g h j k

f e j k g h

g k e j h f

h j k e f g

j h f g k e

k g h f e j

MAPPING
= *, , , , , + to = *0, , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 +

0
1 2 1 2

4. MAPPING NOTATION
= 0 = = 1 = 2 = 1 = 2

## 6/7. CYCLE NOTATION

As you saw in the lab, cycles can be represented in several ways
Mapping Notation 1 = 2 2 = 3 3 = 1

## Array Notation means = 1 2 3 or

Cycle Notation

2 3 1

= 1 2 3

CYCLE NOTATION
What if S = {1, 2, 3, 4} How would you write: 1 2 3 4 3 4 1 2 In cycle notation? 1 3 (2 4)

CYCLE NOTATION
What do you think 1 3 (1 2) means?
We usually write cycles as disjoint cycles. If they are not disjoint, one action follows the other. Here, 12 213 31 1 3 1 2 = (1 2 3)

MAPPING BETWEEN

= *, , , , , + = *0, , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 +
1 3 1 3 1 0 2 2 , 2 2 , 0 1 3 1 3 1 2 2 2 2 1 3 1 3 1 0 2 , 2 2 , 2 0 1 3 1 3 1 2 2 2 2

3 = , , , , ,

0 1 2 1 2

1 0 0 1

1 0 0 1
1 3 2 2 3 1 2 2 1 2 3 2 3 2 1 2

1 3 2 2 3 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 3 1 2 2

0 1 2 1 2

1 0 0 1

1 0 0 1
1 3 2 2 3 1 2 2 1 2 3 2 3 2 1 2

1 3 2 2 3 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 3 1 2 2

## : More specifically, : , (,)

= = 2 What did you get for ?
This is called operation preserving, more formally.

HOMOMORPHISM

In #9a you were asked, What two properties of functions must be true to say every element in one world is mapped to exactly one element on the other world and no element in any world goes unmapped?

ONE-TO-ONE
A function mapping T to M is called one-to-one (1-1) if whenever (a) = (b), a = b 0 1 2 2 1

NOT ONE-TO-ONE
A function mapping T to M is called one-to-one (1-1) if whenever (a) = (b), a = b

0
1 2 2 1

ONTO
A function mapping T to M is called onto if for all m in M, there exists a t in T such that (t) = m [All of M is used] 0 1

NOT ONTO
A function mapping T to M is called onto if for all m in M, there exists a t in T such that (t) = m [All of M is used] 0 1 2 2 1

MAPPING :
= *, , , , , + to = *0, , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 +

0
1 2 1 2

A HOMOMORPHISM

: , (,)
That is one-to-one (injective) and onto (surjective)
is called an

ISOMORPHISM