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Requirements for Testing of Power Swing Blocking Functions in Protection IEDs

Alexander Apostolov, Benton Vandiver

Questions?

Questions
Why are we testing? What are we testing? How are we testing?

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Why are we testing?

Why are we testing?

Why are we testing?

North American Blackout 2003

North American Blackout 2003

Who to blame?
Animal Rights Groups Back-to-Nature Groups Hackers al-Qaeda Reckless deregulation NIMBY BANANA UPEF

Why the cascade spread?


Sequential tripping of transmission lines and generators in a widening geographic area, driven by power swings and voltage fluctuations. The result of automatic equipment operations (primarily relays and circuit breakers) and system design

Number of Lines, Transformers and Generators Tripped

Protection systems operation during the blackout


Transmission line protection operation for tree faults Transmission line protection operation due to overload conditions Transmission line protection due to power swings Underfrequency load-shedding Generator protection operation

What are we testing?

Power Swing Detection Methods

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Power Swing Detection Methods

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Power Swing Detection Methods

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Power Swing Detection Methods

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Power Swing Detection Methods

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Power Swing Detection Methods

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Power Swing Detection Methods

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Power Swing Detection Methods


Load Impedance

Fault Trajectory dR(k-n)

dX(k-n)

dR(k) dX(k) Power Swing Trajectory

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Power Swing Detection Methods


Fault

PH1

PH2

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Power Swing Detection Methods


Power swing Fault

2.5 cycles PH1 PSB active PSB removed

PH2

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How are we testing?

Power Swing Testing Methods

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Power Swing Testing Methods

t2

X t1

t0

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Power Swing Testing Methods

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Power Swing Testing Methods

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Power Swing Testing Methods

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Power Swing Testing Methods

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Power Swing Testing Methods

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Power Swing Testing Methods

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Conclusions
Conventional testing methods may work for the testing of electromechanical or solid state relay, but are not adequate for the testing of power swing detection functions in advanced distance relays. Testing using advanced waveform recording replay tools or transient simulation of synchronous, asynchronous or asynchronous with fault conditions is required.
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