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Legi de compoziie.

Aplicaii
1. Pe mulimea numerelor reale se consider legea de compoziie: x y = 2xy - 6x - 6y + 21
a)Rezolvai n R ecuaia: 11 5 5
x x
b)Demonstrai c H=[3,

) parte stabil a lui R n raport cu legea de compoziie


c)Gsii 2 elemente a,b

Q/Z astfel nct a b

Z
a) 11 5 5
x x

2 11 21 5 6 5 6 5 5 +
x x x x
2 : / 0 10 5 12 ) 5 ( 2
2
+
x x
0 5 5 6 ) 5 (
2
+
x x
Notm t
x
5
Ecuaia devine: 0 5 6
2
+ t t
ac b 4
2
=36-20=16
5 ; 1
2
4 6
2
2 1 2 , 1

t

t
t t
a
b
t
Revenim la notaia fcut:
1 5 5
0 1 5


x
x
x
x
S={0;1}
b) H parte stabil
] , [ H y x H y x
Fie x,y H =[3,

x 3 i y 3

x - 3 0 i y - 3 0
(x-3)(y-3) 0 0 9 3 3 + y x xy /2
+ + + H y x y x y x xy y x xy ) , 3 [ ; 3 21 6 6 2 3 / 0 18 6 6 2
H-parte stabil
c) a,b

Q/Z a.i. a Z b
3 ) 3 )( 3 ( 2
3 ) 6 2 )( 3 ( 3 ) 3 ( 6 ) 3 ( 2 3 18 6 ) 3 ( 2 21 6 6 2
+
+ + + + +
y x
x y y y x y y x y x xy y x
3 ) 3 )( 3 ( 2 + b a b a
Alegem
2
5
3 a si Z b a b + + 5 3 2 3
5
2
2
5
2
5
2
3
Z Q a a /
2
11
3
2
5
2
5
3
) 2
+
Z Q b /
5
17
3
5
2
5
2
3
) 5
+
2. Pe mulimea { } 1 / ) , 0 ( G considerm operaia
y
x y x
ln 3
,oricare ar fi x,y

G
a)Demonstrai c
, G y x
oricare ar fi x,y G
b)Artai c
, x y y x
oricare ar fi
G y x ,
c)Rezolvai n G ecuaia
3
e x x
Rezolvare
a) Fie x,y
0
ln 1 , 0
1 , 0
} 1 /{ ) , 0 (
ln 3
>

'

>

'

>
>

y
x
R y
o x
y y
x x
G
Presupunem prin absurd c 1
ln 3

y
x

'

'

'

1
1
0 ln
1
0 ln 3
1
0
e y
x
y
x
y
x
presupunerea fcut este fals
b)
G y x x y y x , ;
y x x y
e e x y x
y
ln ln 3 ) ln( ln 3
ln 3

Obervaie!
0 ;
ln
> x e x
x
G y x x y y x
e x y
e y x
x y
y x

, ;
ln ln 3
ln ln 3
c) 1 ln 3 ln 3 ,
2 2 3 ln ln 3 3


x x e e G x e x x
x x

G
e
x
G e x
e x
e x
x
x


1
1 ln
1 ln
1

'

e
e
S ,
1

3. Pe mulimea numerelor complexe C, se consider legea de compoziie " " definit prin
y x
= xy + ix + iy 1 - i,oricare ar fi x,y C
a) Demonstrai c
i i y y x y x + + ) )( (
oricare ar fi
C y x,
b) Verificai c
) ( ) ( z y x z y x
oricare ar fi
C z y x , ,
c) Gsii doua elemente
R C/ , b a
astfel nct R b a
d) Demonstrai c ,pentru orice C

n
x x x si N n ,..., ,
2 1
,are loc egalitatea
i i x i x i x x x x
n n
+ + + ) )...( )( ( ...
2 1 2 1

e) Rezolvai n C ecuaia i x x x x + 1
Rezolvare:
a)

C
C
C
C
+ + + +
+ + + + +
+ + + +
+ +
y x i iy ix xy i iy ix xy
y x i i iy ix xy i iy ix xy
y x i i y i x i iy ix xy
y x i i y i x y x
, ; 1 1
, ; 1
, ; ) )( ( 1
, ; ) )( (
2

b)

i z y x iyz ixz ixy xyz
i i i z i y i iyz ix ix x ixz ixy xyz
i i iz iy yz i i iz iy yz x
i iz iy yz x z y x
i z y x iyz ixz ixy xyz
i iz i i y i x i ixy iz z iyz ixz xyz
i iz i iy ix xy i z i iy ix xy
z i iy ix xy z y x
z y x z y x z y x
2
1
1 ) 1 ( ) 1 1 (
) 1 ( ) (
2
1
1 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 ( ) (
, , ); ( ) (
2 2 2
2 2 2
+ + +
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
+ +
+ + +
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
+ +



C
(1)
(2)
Din(1) si (2)
C z y x z y x z y x , , ); ( ) (
c)

R C/ , b a
astfel nct R b a

i i b i a b a + + ) )( (
Alegem
R
+
+
0 ) ( ) 1 (
1
1
i i i i b a
i b
i a


R
R C
R C

+
+
0 ) 2 ( ) 1 (
/ 2
/ 1 1
i i
i b i i b
i a i a

d)

i i x i x i x x x x n P
n n
+ + + ) )...( )( ( ... : ) (
2 1 2 1

Etapa I: verificm P(1) propoziie adevrat
i i x x P / / +
1 1
: ) 1 ( adevrat
EtapaII: Presupunem P(k) propozie adevrat i demonstrm P(k+1) propo.adev.

i i x i x i x x x x k P
k k
+ + + ) )...( )( ( ... : ) (
2 1 2 1


i i x i x i x x x x k P
k k
+ + + +
+ +
) )...( )( ( ... : ) 1 (
1 2 1 1 2 1

Calculm membrul stng al prop. P(k+1)

+1 2 1
...
k k
x x x x [ ]
1 2 1
) )...( )( (
+
+ + +
k k
x i i x i x i x
=
[ ] + + + + +
+
i i x i i i x i x i x
k k
) ( ) )...( )( (
1 2 1
+ + +
+
i i x i x i x
k
) )...( )( (
1 2 1
P(k+1) prop.adevrat
Ambele etape ale principiului ind. matematice au fost verificate

P(n) adevrat

N n
4. n mulimea
2
M (R) se consider matricele:

,
_

,
_

1 0
0 1
,
2 1
6 3
2
I A
i submulimea{ ) (a x G | } 1 , ) (
2
> + a aA I a X
a) Verificai c
A A
2
b) Demonstrai c
R b a ab b a X b X a X + + , ), ( ) ( ) (
c) Artai c dac
G Y X ,
atunci
G y x
d) Demonstrai c [ ]

+ N n n X n X X X 1 )! 1 ( ) ( )... 2 ( ) 1 (
Rezolvare:
a)
A A A A A A

,
_

,
_

,
_


2 2
2 1
6 3
2 1
6 3
2 1
6 3
b)
( )
2
2
2 2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
A ab aA bA I
bA aA I aA bA I I bA I aA I b X a X
+ + +
+ + + + +
) ( ) (
2 2
ab b a X A ab b a I A ab bA aA I + + + + + + + +

R b a ab b a X b X a X + + , ), ( ) ( ) (
c) Fie
1 ), ( , , > a a X X G Y X

1 ), ( > b b X Y
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

X ab b a X b X a X Y X + +

Unde ab b a + +
Demonstrm ca 1 >
0 ) 1 )( 1 ( 0 ) 1 ( ) 1 ( 0 1 ) 1 ( 0 1 0 1 1 > + + > + + > + + + > + + + > + > b a a b b b a ab b a
Adevrat pentru c a > -1,b > -1
d) Formulam propoziia:
[ ] 1 )! 1 ( ) ( ... ) 2 ( ) 1 ( : ) ( + n X n X X X n P
Demonstrm prin metoda induciei matematice c aceast propoziie este adevrat
EtapaI:Verificm P(1) prop.adevrat
P(1): X(1)=X(2!-1)
P(1): X(1)=X(1) prop.adevrat
EtapaII: Presupunem P(k) prop.adevrat i demonstrmP(k+1) prop adevrat
P(k): [ ] 1 )! 1 ( ) ( )... 2 ( ) 1 ( + k X k X X X
P(k+1): [ ] 1 )! 2 ( ) 1 ( )... 2 ( ) 1 ( + + k X k X X X
Calculm membrul stng al propoziiei P(k+1)
[ ] [ ] ) 1 ) 1 ( )! 1 ( 1 1 )! 1 ( ) 1 ( 1 )! 1 ( ) 1 ( ) ( )... 2 ( ) 1 ( + + + + + + + + + k k k k k X k X k X k X k X X X
= [ ] [ ] 1 )! 2 ( 1 ) 2 ( )! 1 ( + + + k X k k X

P(k+1) prop.adevrat
Ambele metode ale induciei matematice sunt verificate

P(n) adevrat
*
N n
5.
Pe R se definete legea de compoziie:
R + + + c b a R c b a c bxy ay ax y x , , ; , , ;
Determinai a,b,c pentru care e = -4 element neutru i
} 5 /{ R x
este simetrizabil
Rezolvare:
e = -4 element neutru
R x x x x ; ) 4 ( ) 4 (
R x c x b ax a c bx a ax + + + + + + : ) 4 ( ) 4 ( ) 4 ( ) 4 (
R x x c bx ax a + + ; 0 4 4
R x a c b a x + ; 0 4 ) 1 4 (

'

+
+

'

4 16
1 4
0 4
0 1 4
b c
b a
a c
b a
Legea de compoziie devine:
} 5 /{ ; 4 16 ) 1 4 ( ) 1 4 ( + + + + + + R x b y b x b bxy y x
simetizabil
R x
'
a.. e x x x x
' '
4 16 ) 1 4 ( ) 1 4 (
'
+ + + + + + b x b x b bxx
4 4 16 ) 1 4 ( ) 1 4 (
' '
+ + + + + b x b x b x bx
8 16 ) 1 4 ( )] 1 4 ( [
'
+ + + b x b b bx x

0 1 16 ;
) 1 4 (
8 16 ) 1 4 (
'
+ +
+ +
+
bx bx
b bx
b x b
x
5 x simetrizabil 5 soluie a ecuaiei 0 1 4 + + b bx
1
0 1
0 1 4 5

+
+ +
b
b
b b
20 4 16
5 1 4
1
+
+

b c
b a
b
20
1
5

c
b
a
Legea de compoziie devine:
20 5 5 + + + y x xy y x