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Unit

Expansion Devices
Unit Overview
The expansion device is often called the metering device, and certain types may be referred to as expansion valves. This is a small component but one of the four necessary for the refrigeration cycle to function. It can be a valve or a fixed-bore type and is one of the dividing points between the high- and low-pressure sides of the system. The compressor is the other component separating the high- and low-pressure sides. The expansion device is located in the liquid line between the condenser and the evaporator, usually at the inlet to the evaporator. Its function is to meter the liquid refrigerant into the evaporator. The three types of devices used on modern equipment are the thermostatic expansion valve, the automatic expansion valve, and the fixedbore type such as a capillary tube. The thermostatic expansion valve meters the refrigerant to the evaporator using a thermal sensor to monitor the superheat at the suction line. Electronic expansion valves (EEVs) use a solid-state controller to instruct a stepper motor to control the modulation of the valve's port. Thermistors act as one of the inputs to the controller for evaporator superheat control. The stepper motor can act in any direction at 200 steps per second. The automatic expansion valve meters refrigerant to the evaporator by using a pressure-sensing device that maintains a constant pressure in the evaporator. The capillary tube is a fixed-bore metering device that has no moving parts. It controls refrigerant flow by pressure drop. This may be in the form of a small diameter tube, which in some applications can be quite long.

Key Terms
Algorithms Automatic Expansion Valve Balanced Port TXV Capillary Tube Cross Liquid Charge Bulb Cross Vapor Charge Bulb Dual Port TXV Electronic Expansion Valve Error Expansion (Metering) Device External Equalizer \^/ Feedback Loops Fixed-Bore Device Liquid Charge Bulb Offset Pressure Limiting TXV Proportional, Integral, and Derivative (PID) Controller Refrigerant Receiver Step Motor Electronic Expansion Valves Thermostatic Expansion Valve

(TXV)
Vapor Charge Bulb

REVIEW TEST
Name Date Grade

Circle the letter that indicates the correct answer. 1. The thermostatic expansion valve regulates refrigerant flow to the evaporator based on: A. heat of compression. (B. suction line superheat. C. external equalizer pressure. D. evaporator pressure. 2. The capillary tube is a type of: k. external equalizer. (J3.' metering device. C. TXV sensor. D. device that senses superheat.

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3. TheTXV sensing bulb is mounted: A. on the liquid line between the condenser and the TXV. EL at the inlet to the condenser. C.< on the suction line between the evaporator and compressor. D. on the compressor discharge line. 4. An external equalizer is used when: A. the pressure drop across the evaporator is excessive. B. the liquid line pressure becomes too great. C. the receiver is too full of refrigerant. D. the pressure drop at the automatic expansion valve becomes too great. 5. When the load on the evaporator increases, the TXV: (A) increases the flow of refrigerant. B. decreases the flow of refrigerant. C. maintains the flow of refrigerant. D. decreases the pressure across the evaporator. 6. The liquid charge bulb is: A. a sensing bulb on an automatic expansion valve. B. a bulb attached to one end of a capillary tube. C. a sensing bulb at the inlet of the expansion valve. a TXV sensing bulb charged with a fluid similar to that of the system refrigerant. 7. Superheat is: (Ay the sensible heat absorbed by the refrigerant after it has boiled to a vapor. B. the heat of compression at the compressor. C. heat used to boil the liquid in the evaporator. D. latent heat given off by the condenser. 8. The sensing bulb and transmission tube are a part of the: A. automatic expansion valve. B. capillary tube. C. king valve. 10. The thin metal disc connected to the needle in the TXV is called the: A,, spring. C. seat. / By diaphragm. D. sensing bulb. 11. Liquid refrigerant should be completely boiled to a vapor: A. close to the inlet of the evaporator. B. approximately halfway through the evaporator. C. near the outlet of the evaporator. D. halfway through the suction line. 12. The cross liquid charge bulb at the TXV contains fluid that: A. has similar characteristics to the system fluid to prevent liquid refrigerant from enter.~ ing the suction line. ! B.) has different characteristics from the system fluid and helps prevent liquid refrigerant from flooding over to the compressor. C. causes the valve to stay open during the off cycle. D. follows the typical pressure-temperature relationship. 13. Balanced portTXVs are used: A. to feed refrigerant at a normal rate with low ambient temperatures. B. to feed refrigerant at a normal rate with high ambient temperatures. C. to stop refrigerant flow during low ambient temperatures. D. to stop refrigerant flow during high ambient temperatures. 14. The pressure-limiting TXV: A. allows the compressor to operate at low temperatures. B. shuts off the condenser fan during a hot pull down. C. continues to feed refrigerant to the evapo- rator during a hot pull down. D. shuts off the refrigerant flow to the evaporator when it has reached a predetermined pressure. 15. The automatic expansion valve was deSigned to: A. maintain a constant pressure in the evaporator. B. meter refrigerant to the evaporator with an electronic sensing device. C. reduce refrigerant flow when the evaporator pressure drops. D. vary the pressure in the evaporator under low ambient conditions.

TXV-

9. A small amount of superheat in the suction line is desirable with a TXV to: A. keep the proper amount of refrigerant in the receiver. B. insure the proper head pressure at the condenser. C. keep from starving the evaporator. ;D. insure that no liquid refrigerant enters the compressor.

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16. What force is cancelled out when using a balanced port TXV? A. Liquid force B. Evaporator force C. Bulb force D. None of the above 17. What type of TXV uses a large port for pulldown capacities and a smaller port for holding loads? A. Balanced port B. Liquid charged . Cross charged (l Dual port l) 18. Which type of valve uses a control board, transistors, thermistors, and a stepper motor controlled by an algorithm? (A.) Electronic expansion valve B. Balanced port valve C. Dual port valve D. None of the above 19. The difference between the superheat set point of an electronic expansion valve and the actual superheat is called: A. An error B. An algorithm C. A range D. A differential 20. The terms offset and error are one and the same. 00 True B. False

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REVIEW TEST Name


Circle the letter that indicates the correct answer. 1. Two-temperature operation of a refrigeration system is necessary when: A. the compressor must be protected from overloading. B. more than one evaporator, each at a different temperature, is operating from one compressor. C. the coil in the evaporator is excessively -> Ion9/DJ a multiple-circuit distributor is used. 2. The EPR valve is installed in the suction line at the evaporator outlet and it: A. modulates the suction gas to the compressor. B. will let the evaporator pressure go only as low as a predetermined point. C. will provide the same service as an automatic expansion valve when coupled with a TXV. D. all of the above. 3. Normally there is a gage port known as a gage port installed in the EPR valve body. two-temperature Schrader C. low ambient D. one-time 4. The crankcase pressure regulator (CPR) is installed in the suction line near the: Qv) compressor. B. evaporator. C. EPR. D. multiple-circuit distributor. 5. A hot pull down is when: A. there is excessive ice on the evaporator. B. the condenser has been flooded. C. the metering device is starving the evaporator. (6) the temperature of the load is high and the compressor has to run for a long period of time to lower the temperature. 6. A valve used to protect the compressor during a hot pull down is the: A. CPR valve. C. TXV. B. EPR. D. gage manifold.

Date

Grade

7. A one-time relief valve is constructed with: A. a fusible plug. B. an adjustable spring. C. a Schrader port. D. a two-temperature mechanical valve. 8. A low ambient control is used to m cold weather. (A) maintain an acceptable head pressure B. lower the compressor crankcase temperature C. route refrigerant to the receiver D. reduce refrigerant flow to the evaporator

9.

is a type of low ambient temperature head pressure control: A. CPR C. EPR [B.) Fan cycling D. Off-cycle defrost is another type of low ambient temperature head pressure control: Air volume control using shutters and dampers B. Planned defrost C. Pumping down the system using the king

10.

valve
D.

Internal heat

11. The solenoid valve is frequently used to control fluid flow. This valve: A^ has a slow reaction time. B.: has a fast or snap action. C. is used to control fan speed. D. is a normally open valve. 12. Condenser flooding may be used: A. for compressor protection. B. to insure sufficient oil in the compressor crankcase. Q to keep liquid refrigerant from the compressor, D. to control head pressure in low ambient temperature conditions. 13. One use for the low-pressure switch is: (A) for low charge protection. B. to keep liquid refrigerant from the compressor. C. to throttle refrigerant to the compressor. D. to keep the compressor from flooding.

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14. The high-pressure control: A. shuts off the condenser fan when a high , pressure exists. {^f shuts down the compressor when the head pressure is excessive. C. insures that enough refrigerant reaches the evaporator. D. controls the CPR at the compressor. 15. Random defrost is accomplished: A. with a timer. B. using a high-pressure control. C. using a low-pressure control. (5) during the normal off cycle. 16. Defrost using internal heat is accomplished with: fi. a sail switch. (B.) hot gas from the compressor. C. electric heating elements. D. mullion heaters. 17. The receiver is located in the: A. suction line. J3, compressor discharge line. (C.) liquid line. D. evaporator outlets. 18. The king valve is normally located: i AJ between the receiver and the expansion valve. B. at the evaporator outlets. C. between the compressor and the condenser. D. between the condenser and the receiver. 19. The suction line accumulator is located in the suction line and its primary purpose is to collect: A./ liquid refrigerant and oil. B. contaminants and moisture. C. excess vapor refrigerant. D. acid produced by the compressor. 20. The oil separator is normally located between the: A. condenser and the receiver. B. evaporator and the compressor. ,&^ receiver and the expansion valve. D. compressor and the condenser. 21. Electronic evaporator pressure regulating valves use a sensor in the refrigerated case's: discharge air. return air. C. evaporator outlet. D. evaporator inlet. 22. Electronic evaporator pressure regulating valves are powered by a(an): A. magnetic valve. B. electric valve. C. pressure. D. bi-polar step motor. 23. Low charge protection and control of refrigerated space temperature are the two major applications for a low-pressure switch in refrigeration. True B. False 24. On an automatic pump-down system, the thermostat controlling the liquid line solenoid is located: A. on the evaporator. B. on the liquid line. C. in the outside ambient. D. in the refrigerated space. 25. Oil pump discharge pressure minus crankcase pressure is: A. gross oil pressure. B. differential oil pressure. (CJ net oil pressure. D. none of the above. 26. A relay wired to the load side of a contactor or motor starter which acts like an inductive-type ammeter and is sensitive to current flow is: (A.) the current sensing relay. 13. the potential relay. C. the magnetic relay. D. none of the above. 27. Electronic oil safety controllers use a to sense net oil pressure. A. thermistor B. transistor C. capillary tube D. pressure transducer 28. The remote sensing bulb on a defrost termination and fan delay switch is located: (XA\ on the evaporator. B. on the fan housing. C. on the defrost heater. D. none of the above. 29. The oil return line connecting the oil separator to the compressor's crankcase should be just above temperature most of the time. A. compressor crankcase B. discharge C. evaporating ; D. room
V ,'

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Key Terms
Alkaline Analog Auger Bacteria Bin Switch Cam Switch Cell-Type Ice Chloramines Crescent-Shaped Ice Cylindrical-Shaped Ice Digital Electronic Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM) Error Code Flights Flush Cycle Freezing Cylinder Hardness Ice Flake Machine Ice Quality Infrared Electric Eye Inputs Internet Light Emitting Diode (LED) Liquid Floodback Microprocessor Outputs PH Preventive Maintenance Protozoa Purge Valve Reverse Osmosis Sanitizing Scale Inhibitor Self-Diagnostic Sequence of Events Siphon Sonar Total Dissolved Solids Turbidity Viruses Weep Holes Wet Compression

REVIEW TEST
Name Date Grade

Circle the letter that indicates the correct answer. 1. A type of material often used on evaporators because it is durable, very sanitary, and resists corrosion is: brass. C. copper, stainless steel. D. plastic. c 2. Cutting surfaces on an auger for a flake ice machine are called: Qv flights. C. knives. B. edges. D. blades. A dirty evaporator from mineral deposits on a flake ice machine will cause: . high suction pressure. (By< low suction pressure. C. high head pressure. D. quiet operations.

6.

is made using a gear motor and auger? A. Cube ice (C.) Flake ice B. Cylinder ice D" Block ice

, 7. Methods used for proper ice bin control are: A. sonar. C. infrared eye. B. thermostats. D., all of the above. / 8. Ice production for a flake ice machine depends on: A. inlet water temperature. B. surrounding air temperature. C. inlet water purity. D. both A and B. Which type of ice is made inside a tube within a tube evaporator? A. Cell type ice C. Cylindrical ice B. Sheet ice ft). Flake ice

e 3.

> 9.

4. The of an ice flake machine has the highest failure rate. A. bin control B. dump solenoid C. microprocessor D. gear motor assembly 5. A periodic way of ridding unwanted mineral build-up in the water of an ice machine is: A. a flush cycle. B. bin cleaning. C. a chemical treatment. D. none of the above.

10. Pre-chilling the evaporator in an ice machine before the water pump comes on helps prevent in the water sump. A. air bubbles C. slush B. mineral deposits (p.) all of the above 11. Most ice cube machines are defrosted by: A. Electric defrost. Q Ambient defrost. B. Natural defrost. D. Hot gas defrost.

12. Liquid refrigerant returning to the compressor while the compressor is operating is called: A. liquid slugging. B, migration. i C.) liquid floodback. u. none of the above. 13. On some ice machines, air is introduced by way of between the ice slab and the evaporator plate to release the suction force between the evaporator and the jce slab. (/U weep holes C. gravity B. air pump D. water stream 14. As the low-side pressure drops on an ice machine, a reverse-acting low-pressure control will its contacts at a set low pressure. A. open ; B. \e 15. A small computer that has a sequence of events or algorithm stored in its memory for controlling the functions of many ice machines is called a: A. diode. C. transistor. B. transducer. D.) microprocessor. 16. The microprocessor will associate an ice maker malfunction with a(n) and display it on a light emitting diode (LED) display. A. ' error code B\e code C. malfunction code D. none of the above 17. Ice production, cycle times, and system operating pressures for an air-cooled ice machine depend on what two factors? A. air temperature entering the condenser B. water temperature entering the ice machine C. relative humidity of the ambient air D. both A and B

18. A buildup of minerals that forms a flaky coating on the surface of the evaporator and water system on many ice makers is: A. slime. B. sediment. C. scale. D. none of the above. 19. The thermal cooling capacity of ice is referred to as: Aj hardness. C. coolness. B. compactness. D. density. 20. Sanitizing an ice machine gets rid of: A. bacteria. C. protozoa. B. viruses. D. all of the above. 21. Cleaning an ice machine with an approved ice machine cleaner gets rid of: A. viruses. C. scale. B. bacteria. D. sediment. 22. Water conditions can be broken down into: A. suspended solids. B. dissolved minerals and metals. C. chemicals. D. all of the above. 23. Chemicals in water are removed by: A. sanitizing. B. cleaning. C. carbon filtration. Tb. reverse osmosis. 24. A dirty condenser on an ice machine will cause: A. high head pressure. B. low head pressure. C. low suction pressure. D. none of the above. 25. A restricted metering device on an ice machine will cause: A. high head pressure. B. high suction pressure. C. low suction pressure. D. none of the above.

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I if.
Unit
Special Refrigeration Applications
Unit Overview
Transport refrigeration is the process of refrigerating products while they are being transported from one place to another by truck, rail, air, or water. Truck refrigeration systems include the use of ice for short periods of time, dry ice (solidified and compressed carbon dioxide), liquid nitrogen, liquid carbon dioxide (COz), Eutectic solutions, and compression-type refrigeration systems. Products shipped by rail are refrigerated with a selfcontained unit located at one end of the refrigerated car. These are generally diesel-driven motor generator units similar to those units used on trucks. Extra-low-temperature refrigeration, below -10F, is generally used to fast freeze foods on a commercial basis. These temperatures may be as low as -50F. Often two stages of compression are used to achieve temperatures this low. For even lower temperatures, cascade refrigeration may be used, which might include two or three stages of refrigeration. When food is frozen, the faster the temperature of the product is lowered, the better the quality of the food. Ships that must have refrigeration systems for their cargo may have large on-board refrigeration systems or may use self-contained units that are plugged into the ship's electrical system. For air cargo hauling, ice or dry ice is generally used with specially designed containers. On-board refrigeration systems would be too heavy.

Key Terms
Ammonia Cascade Refrigeration Carbon Dioxide (CO?) Refrigeration Liquid Nitrogen Marine Refrigeration Marine Water Boxes Nose-Mount Piggy-Back Cars Quick Freeze Railway Refrigeration Sublimation Transport Refrigeration Truck Refrigeration Under-Belly Mount

Dry Ice
Eutectic Extra-Low-Temperature

REVIEW TEST Name Date Grade

Circle the letter that indicates the correct answer. 1. Dry ice is composed of: A. liquid nitrogen. B. liquid carbon dioxide. (C.) solidified carbon dioxide. TlC solidified ammonia. 2. Sublimation is to change from a: A. liquid to a vapor. ; B. solid to a vapor. C. vapor to a solid. D. solid to a liquid.

3. Air A. B. C. D.

in the atmosphere is approximately: 78% nitrogen. 21% nitrogen. 78% oxygen. 78% carbon dioxide.

4. An Eutectic solution is: A. a phase change solution. B. a very warm solution. C. an acid solution. D. an explosive solution.

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5. Liquid nitrogen is used to: A. clean the inside of refrigerated trucks, B. clean the tubes in marine refrigeration systems. C. refrigerate products in a truck, D. provide the cooling in a standard kitchen refrigerator. 6. Extra-low-temperature refrigeration is used to: insure that ice cream remains hard, B; quick freeze meat and other foods, C. provide refrigeration in large ships, D. provide refrigeration for meat in large supermarkets. 7. Cascade refrigeration: A. utilizes flowing water to provide refrigeration. B.) utilizes two or three stages for low-temperature refrigeration. C. provides medium-temperature refrigeration. D. provides high-temperature refrigeration. 8. Condensers that have marine water boxes have: A. removable water box covers. B. tubes made of cupronickel. C. tubes that can be cleaned. D. all of the above. 9. Dry ice changes state at: A. -44 F. C. -320 F. 25F. D. -109F. 10. Liquid nitrogen changes state at: A. -44F -d- -320F. B. 25 F. D.' -109F.

11. Vapors given off from liquid nitrogen are: A. odorless. B. oxygen depriving. C. colorless. D.) all of the above. 12. A Compressor with capacity control will: A. operate at reduced capacity. B. operate at a higher capacity than rated. C. pump excess oil. D. need more horsepower than rated. 13. Most truck refrigeration systems: A. will never shut off. B. must be started up manually. (X will not operate in cold climates. (D.) start and stop automatically. 14. Most transport refrigeration is sized: (A) to hold the load temperature only. B. to pull the load temperature down. C. to use maximum fuel for refrigeration. D. with no capacity control. 15. Quick freezing of foods: A. is never done because it changes the flavor. B. preserves the flavor and quality of foods. C. is only done in other countries. D. none of the above. , 16. Chillers for ship refrigeration often circulate for low-temperature refrigeration. A. water. B. nitrogen. C. fish oil. D. brine.

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5. When the temperature is above 70F, the temperature difference between the ambient and the condensing temperature for most standard units is approximately: A. 15F. C. 30F. B. 20F. 'tf 45F. 6. In a wastewater water-cooled system, the temperature difference between the condensing refrigerant and the leaving water temperature is approximately: A. 10F. C. 30F. B. 20F. /D. varies. 7. In a recirculating water-cooled system, the temperature difference between the water entering and the water leaving the condens, er should be approximately: ( A; 10F C. 30F & 20F. D. 40F. 8. If there is a low refrigerant charge in a system using a capillary tube, the: A. suction and discharge gages will both indicate a high pressure. B. suction and discharge gages will both indicate a low pressure. C. suction gage will indicate a higher-thannormal reading and the discharge gage will indicate a lower-than-normal reading. D. suction gage will indicate a lower-than-normal reading and the discharge gage will indicate a higher-than-normal reading. 9. When the compressor in a system with a capillary tube is sweating, it is a sign of: A./ refrigerant overcharge. BT a malfunctioning crankcase heater. C. a malfunctioning king valve. D. all of the above. 10. Three major functions of a condenser are to desuperheat the hot gas, condense the refrigerant, and: A. pump the refrigerant to the expansion valve. B. reduce the pressure of the refrigerant entering the evaporator, C. absorb heat from the ambient air. subcool the refrigerant before it leaves the coil. 11. The condenser should not be located where the fan discharge air is: A. subcooled. B.) recirculated. "C'.' partially vaporized. D. superheated. 12. If a sight glass shows bubbles during a normal operation, it indicates: A. an overcharge of refrigerant. B. a low charge of refrigerant. 13. When an evaporator has a water coil to transfer heat from, the temperature difference between the evaporating temperature and the leaving water temperature is called the: A. arrival. B. delta. ( C.' approach. D. none of the above.

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