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Burning of tuyeres

The tuyere failure may be in the form of leakage or burning of the metal. The most vulnerable point of the tuyere is the tip of the nose., and especially the upper surfaces. It may be due to abrasion of the constantly descending stock during the long period of service, which wears the metal so thin that it cracks under strain. Stoppage of the flow of cooling water, whereby the enclosed water is converted into steam at the hottest point and integrity of the metal destroyed through super heating. Another cause of burning is the alloying of molten iron which drops on the tuyeres in its passage toward the hearth, or is directed toward them too constantly by some obstruction. The burned tuyees that so frequently follow the dislodgement of scaffolds probably result from the splashing against them of molten iron. There are several ways in which a leaky tuyere becomes manifest. The slag becomes dark, shows a black crust or appears foamy or glassy. At the same time the sulphur in iron runs up showing that te hearth is abnormally cool. Sometimes dampness can be seen about the base of the tuyere or cooler. A cold bar thrust in at the peep hole will generally show dampness when withdrawn if there is a leak. Tongues of blue flame may break through the walls

about the tuyere. Sometimes water can be seen looking into the tuyere, if the blast be thrown off. If water inlet of the tuyere be shut off, the gases from hearth will work into the leak and can be ignited by torch at the discharge pipe. Causes of burning

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A well cooled tuyere with a positive water circulation will resist the heating effect of small quantities of mplten iron. Molten slag will not affect bronze unless it carries shots of iron. There are several ways in which the dripping iron may burn the tuyeres. Sometimes the molten material cuts grooves above them, or is deflected by some obstruction, so that a small stream of iron impinges constantly on the same spot in the tuyere, thereby weakening it and heating it to the steaming point. Lumps of fuel or chilled slag lying before the tuyeres may deflect the iron against them and cause damage. If the blast enters through the tuyere under good pressure and penetrates directly to the hearth centre, there is little action immediately above the tuyeres and an accumulation of material forms on the nose of each tuyere and protects it from the dripping iron. If the water supply is suitable, the repeated loss of a tuyere indicates irregular working. The sudden stoppage of a bllastwhen the hearth is full is always a source of danger of tuyeres, since it allows aslag

and metal to flow into them when the pressure is removed. Before throwing off the blast, the slag should always be flushed if possible. If it is near casting time, it may be advisable to open the tapping hole also.

Prevention To high pressure or steam should be used periodically to wash out any that may have formed . Higher pressures should not be used regularly, as experience shows that tuyeres that are3successfully protected by a pressure of 25 lb/sq in will burn frequently with 40 pounds. It is suggested that water at such high pressure striking against the nose of the tuyere, bounds away without allowing sufficient period of contact to cool it properly.