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UNIVERSITATEA PETRE ANDREI DIN IAI DEPARTAMENTUL PENTRU NVMNT CU FRECVEN REDUS I NVMNT LA DISTAN FACULTATEA DE ECONOMIE

LIMB STRIN II Anul I, Semestrul II

RALUCA STOICA

Raluca STOICA

CUPRINS
1. Recruitment procedure
Activitate tematic pentru consolidarea vocabularului

Prezentul simplu Prezentul continuu Aplica ii practice Teste de autoevaluare Solu ii la testele de autoevaluare

2.

The CV and the Letter of Application


Activitate pentru consolidarea vocabularului tematic Prezentul perfect simplu Aplica ii practice Teste de autoevaluare Solu ii la testele de autoevaluare Lucrare de verificare

3.

The Market Economy

Activitate tematic

pentru

consolidarea

vocabularului

Trecutul simplu Trecutul continuu Aplica ii practice Teste de autoevaluare Solu ii la testele de autoevaluare

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4.

Inflation
Activitate pentru consolidarea vocabular tematic Modalit i de exprimare a viitorului Aplica ii practice Teste de autoevaluare Solu ii la testele de autoevaluare Lucrare de verificare

Bibliografie (de elaborare a cursului)


Ciuciuc, Olea, English for Business Purposes, Teora, Bucureti 1999 Emmerson, Paul, Business Grammar Builder, Macmillan, 2002 Evans V. , Grammarway 4, Express Publishing House, 1999 Evans V. , Grammarway 3, Express Publishing House, 1999 FLOWER, John, Phrasal Verb Organiser, Heinle, Thomson, 2002 Lott, Hester, Real English Grammar, Marshal Cavendish Education, 2005 McCarthy Michael, Grammar for Business, Cambridge University Press, 2009 Paidos, Constantin, Gramatica limbii engleze, Institutul European, 1993 Pile, Louise, Intelligent Business workbook, Longman, 2005 Robbins, Sue, Business Vocabulary in Practice, HarperCollins Publishers, 2006 Rogers, John, Market Leader, English Practice File, Longman, 2005 Sion Chris, Talking Business in Class, Delta Publishing, 2008 Tullis, G., New Insights into Business, Express Publishing House, 2004 Turcu, Fulvia, Limba englez pentru ntreprinztori i oameni de afaceri, Editura Sagittarius Iai, 1991 http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org

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INTRODUCERE
Modulul intitulat Limba modern ( englez) se studiaz n anul I i vizeaz dobndirea de competen e n domeniul limbii engleze pentru afaceri. Obiectivele cadru pe care i le propun sunt urmtoarele: formarea deprinderilor necesare pentru receptarea si decodarea corect a unui mesaj scris i/ sau vorbit n aceasta limb strin att la nivelul comunicrii orale ct i la acel al limbii scrise; asimilarea vocabularului cu specific economic; dezvoltarea abilit ilor de comunicare in limba englez. Con inutul este structurat n urmtoarele unit i de nv are: Recruitment procedure The CV and the letter of application The Market Economy Inflation In prima unitate de nv are, intitulat Recruitment procedure, vei regsi operaionalizarea urmtoarelor competen e specifice:

te vei familiariza cu procedura urmat att de candidat ct i de angajator pentru a fi angajat sau pentru a angaja personal; vei putea discuta despre posibilit ile pe care le are o persoana n cutarea unui loc de munc; vei putea diferen ia i folosi n context prezentul simplu i prezentul continuu; pentru aprofundare i autoevaluare i propun exerci ii i teste adecvate. Dup ce ai parcurs informa ia esen ial, n a doua unitate de nv are, The CV and the Letter of Application, vei achiziiona, odat cu cunotinele oferite, noi

competen e: Limba englez

s i redactezi propriul CV dup modelul Europass; s redactezi o scrisoare de inten ie


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s participi la simularea unui proces de recrutare/selec ie (realizarea unui anun pentru un post vacant, a unui interviu simulat etc) vei putea diferen ia i folosi n context prezentul perfect simplu i prezentul perfect continuu care i vor permite s rezolvi testele propuse i lucrarea de verificare corespunztoare primelor dou unit i de nv are. Ca sa i evaluez gradul de nsuire a cunotin elor, vei rezolva o lucrare de evaluare pe care, dup corectare o vei primi cu observa iile adecvate i cu strategia corect de nv are pentru modulele urmtoare. Dup ce ai parcurs informa ia esen ial, n a treia unitate de nv are, The Market Economy, vei achizi iona, odat cu cunotin ele oferite, noi competen e: -

s faci distinc ia ntre conceptul de economie centralizat, economie de pia i cea de tip mixt;

s discu i despre avantajele i dezavanatajele celor dou tipuri de economii; vei putea diferen ia i folosi n context trecutul simplu i trecutul continuu; te vei familiariza cu verbele neregulate cele mai uzitate n limba englez pentru aprofundare i autoevaluare i propun exerci ii i teste adecvate. . Dup ce ai parcurs informa ia esen ial, n a patra unitate de nv are, intitulat Inflation, vei achiziiona, odat cu cunotinele oferite, noi competen e:

s ai capacitatea de a explica n cuvintele tale, n limba englez no iunea de infla ie; vei fi asimilat elemente noi de vocabular tematic te vei fi familiarizat cu modalit i de exprimare a viitorului n limba englez pentru aprofundare i autoevaluare i propun exerci ii i teste adecvate Pentru o nv are eficient ai nevoie de urmtorii pai obligatorii: Citeti modulul cu maxim aten ie; Eviden iezi informa iile esen iale cu culoare, le notezi pe hrtie, sau le adnotezi n spa iul alb, rezervat special n stnga paginii; Rspunzi la ntrebri i rezolvi exerc iile propuse; Mimezi evaluarea final, autopropunndu- i o tem i rezolvnd-o fr s apelezi la suportul scris; Compari rezultatul cu suportul de curs i explic- i de ce ai eliminat anumite secven e; n caz de rezultat ndoielnic, reia ntreg demersul de nv are. Pe msur ce vei parcurge modulul i vor fi administrate dou lucrri de verificare pe care le vei regsi la sfritul unit ilor de nv are 2 i 4. Vei
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rspunde n scris la aceste cerin e, folosindu-te de suportul de curs i de urmtoarele resurse suplimentare (autori, titluri, pagini). Vei fi evaluat dup gradul n care ai reuit s opera ionalizezi competen ele. Se va ine cont de acurate ea rezolvrii, de modul de prezentare i de promptitudinea rspunsului. 40% din not provine din evaluarea continu (cele dou lucrri de verificare) i 60% din evaluarea final.

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UNIT 1 RECRUITMENT PROCEDURE LEARNING OBJECTIVES at the end of this unit the student should:

have become aware of the procedure both a candidate and an employer have to use in order to get hired or hire new staff be able to talk about the possibilities one has when looking for a job using topic related vocabulary PART I READING PART II VOCABULARY PRACTICE Topic-related vocabulary PART III LANGUAGE FOCUS Present Tense Simple/ Present Tense Continuous PART IV Practice SELF-EVALUATION TEST ANSWERS TO THE SELF-EVALUATION TEST TIME NEEDED TO COVER THE TOPIC 4 hours

I. Filling a vacancy: Lead-in activities and reading Fill in the following words in the gaps in the text below: A. Applicant application interview references application form job description short-listed apply candidate job

curriculum vitae or CV (Br. E.) or rsum (US) employment agencies vacancies

Many people looking for work read the .. advertised in the newspapers by companies and . To reply to an
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advertisement is to for a job. (You become a . or an). You write an , or fill in the companys , and send it, along with your and a covering letter. You often have to give the names of the two people who are prepared to write for you. If your qualifications and abilities match the ..you might be ., that is selected to attend an B. When employees give notice, i.e. inform their employer that

they will be leaving the company (as soon as their contract allows), in what order should the company carry out the following steps? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. either hire a job agency (or for a senior post, a firm of establish whether there is an internal candidate who could be examine the job description for the post, to see whether it needs to follow up the references of candidates who seem interesting invite the short-listed candidates for an interview make a final selection receive applications, curricula vitae and covering letters, and try to discover why the person has resigned write to all the other candidates to inform them that they have

headhunters), or advertise the vacancy promoted (or moved sideways to the job be changed (or indeed, whether the post needs to be filled)

make a preliminary selection (a short list)

been unsuccessful C. Listening (NIB, p23): 1.You will hear David Smyth, the Personnel Manager of a Major European Insurance company, answering questions about the way he interviews and selects candidates. In the first extract he talks about the four points listed below. Listen and number them in the order in which he mentions them. a the mistakes a candidate can make at an interview
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b the qualities a candidate must have c his advice to interviewees d the kinds of things a candidate is expected to know Listen again and make notes on each point. 2. In the second extract, David Smyth talks about the stages of an interview. Listen to what he says and complete the following chart. 1 Interviewer is informed that the candidate has arrived 2 3 4 5 6 7 D. This is part of a report that a personnel manager wrote after interviewing a candidate for the position of Director of Software Development. Pay attention to the use of the present tense simple and present tense continuous INTERVIEW ASSESSMENT: Articulate (coherent) and well presented, Paul Sutherland is an excellent candidate for the post of Director of Software development. He wants to leave his present employer, a small computer company because he feels that he does not use his knowledge of software engineering to the full. He is looking for a more challenging position where his field of specialization can be exploited in a more stimulating environment. He
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realizes that our company is growing rapidly, and that he would be expected to contribute to that growth. He is familiar with our existing range of software and regularly reads our publications. Although at present he is living in the south, he says that he is willing to go wherever we decide to send him. He occasionally travels to various European countries for trade fairs and exhibitions and enjoys meeting people of different nationalities. At the moment he is attending a training course at the Goethe Institute in order to perfect his German. Personnel Manager 27 January 2000 II. Build your vocabulary A. Complete the sentences with a suitable item from the box:1 applicant period a vacancy 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. financial package a reference interview resume a shortlist The starting salary of the successful .........................will be The usual American English word for CV is Our company has .for a graduate in economics. Applicants will be called for ..between 10 We ask all our new employees to work . of The interview panel will draw up of only five Please send ..together with your CV. decided on the basis of qualifications and experience. a covering letter a headhunter a probationary

and 16 April. between one and three months. candidates.

Rogers, John, Market Leader, workbook, pp. 32-33, Longman, Pearson Education Limited, 2005.

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8. 9. 10.

It is usual to ask your previous employer for when For high performers, a good is not all that They hired to attract some executives from a

you apply for a job. matters. They need a challenge as well. rival company.

III. Language focus: Present simple/ Present Continuous Present Tense Simple Forms: Affirmative: I work at a hotel. You work He/She/It works We work You work They work. Interrogative: Do I work Do you work? Does she work?..... USE: Ex: It is used for permanent states, repeated actions and daily He works at a hotel (permanent state) He meets the sales reps every Thursday. (daily routine/repeated actions) For general truths and laws of nature: Water boils at 100 C. For timetables (planes, trains, etc.) and programmes; routines. Negative: I do not work (dont) You do not work He/she /it does not We do not work. You do not work They do not work.

The plane to London takes off at 6:50 am.

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The present simple is used with the following time expressions:

usually (de obicei); generally (n general), often (adesea), always (ntotdeauna), never (niciodat), everyday (n fiecare zi), every year, on Thursday, at night (noaptea), in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening (diminea a, la prnz, seara). If the adverb is negative, the verbal form will be positive. We never have a rest in the afternoon. Third person sg. spelling peculiarities: General rule; verb + s: set- sets Verbs that end in: ss, sh, ch, x, ob + es: scratches, fixes, misses Verbs that end in vowel + y add s: say-says Verbs that and in consonant + y change the y into i and add es: try - tries

Present Tense Continuous Forms: Affirmative: I am working at a hotel these days. am not working (Im not) You are working not working We are working working. You are working not working They are working not working. Interrogative: Am I working Are you working? Is she working?..... Use:
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Negative: You

I are

He/She/It is working He/she /it is not working We are not You They are are

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For actions taking place now, at the moment of speaking: Sorry, For temporary actions; that is actions that are going on around

Mr Clark cant see you at the moment. Hes talking to a customer. now, but not at the actual moment of speaking. Helen is working hard these days. Right now shes reading a newspaper. (She is not working at the moment of speaking). anger. Youre always forgetting to pay the bills. For actions that we have already arranged to do in the near future, especially when the time and place have been decided. Theyre moving into their next house next week. Melanie is getting married at 3 this afternoon. - To talk about a changing or developing situation or a current trend More and more forests are disappearing because of fires. Computer games are getting better every year. Present participle: spelling peculiarities: General rule: verb+ ing. draw- drawing Verbs that end in ie y +ing lie lying Verbs that end in e, give up e and add ing; dive diving One-syllable verbs that end in vowel + consonant, double the consonant: put putting with the adverb always, constantly, continually, etc. for actions which happen very often, usually to express annoyance, irritation or

IV. Practice A. Read the text below, then use the words given to make questions about Pierre.2 My names Pierre Meyer. Im from Luxembourg, and Im an IT consultant. I have a passion for anything thats related to computers. I graduated in maths and computer science from Imperial College London. Since then, Ive been working on a very exciting project in Bulgaria,
2

Rogers, John, Market Leader, workbook, pp. 32-33, Longman, Pearson Education Limited, 2005.

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developing new software for a government ministry. In addition, I also train the ministry IT staff in the use of new technologies. Im going back home in three months time, when the project finishes. Ive just read about an interesting vacancy for an IT job with a famous bank, so Im going to apply. I love what I do because its not only about machines. I work in a team most of the time. On top of that, Im also responsible for training a lot of people. 1 Pierre/ do/ for a living? 2 Where/ from? 3 think/ project in Bulgaria? 4 project/ finish? 5 job/ only about computers? people. 6 have/ any other responsibilities? Yes. He also has to train a lot of people. B. Read the text in exercise A again, then write the questions for Pierre Meyer. From Luxemburg. In maths and computer science. For a government ministry. The ministry IT staff. When the project finishes. . Hes an IT consultant. . From Imperial College London. He says its very exciting .. In three months time. . No, it isnt. He very often works with

Pierres answers below. 1. 2.. 3. 4..................................................... 5. 6.


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7. 8 not only computers. 9. C.

An IT job with a bank. Because I work with people, Yes. Most of the time.

Match the sentences 1-5 with their uses a)-e).3

a) Permanent facts b) Habits and repeated actions c) Actions in progress at the moment of speaking d) Temporary actions happening around now. e) Current trends and changing situations 1. These days were selling more and more of our products abroad. _____ 2. Look! Theyre selling malt whisky at 20% discount in duty free! _____ 3. Were selling the new model, but we dont have any stock right now. ______ 4. We usually sell around 40% of our annual total at Christmas time. ________ 5. We sell a full range of consumer electronics, from TVs to cameras. ________ D. 1 2 3 4 Decide which order is the most usual, a) or b) a) I every day arrive at the office at about nine. b) Every day I arrive at the office at about nine. a) I always check my email before doing anything else. b) Always I check my email before doing anything else. a) This takes a lot of time usually as I receive so many. b) This usually takes a lot of time as I receive so many. a) Most of the time the emails are not very urgent. b) The emails are most of time not very urgent.

Emmerson, Paul, Business Grammar Builder, pp.12-17 Macmillan, 2002.

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5 about.

a) I quite often get junk email from companies I dont know b) I get quite often junk email from companies I dont know

about. 6 a) I about once a month delete all my junk email. b) I delete all my junk email once a month. E. Jane introduces Claude to Joa in London. Complete the

dialogue by putting each of the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the present simple. Jane: Claude, (1) .. (you/know) Joa? Joa . (be) from Brazil, but he worked with me in Paris last year. He . (know) a lot about your line of work. Claude: Really! Well I (be) very pleased to meet you, Joa. Joa: Joa: Pleased to meet you Claude. I .(work) in the oil industry as a market analyst. Claude: So, what exactly .(you/do) Claude: Oh, so you . (make) decisions about level of production? Joa: No, I . (not make) any decisions really. My job .. (involve) studying market trends and giving advice on levels of production. Claude: Joa: Claude: (supply) Joa: London? Still, thats a lot of responsibility. Well, yes, but Brazil (not/be) a major I work for a French company that specialised equipment to the oil industry. We

producer like Saudi Arabia. What about you?

..(be) one of the biggest companies in our market. Oh, really? And (you/often/come) to

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Claude:

Yes,

quite

often. an

My office

company here. It

..(have) Eurostar. Could I give you my card?

.(not/ take) long to get here now, if you travel by

F. Complete this newspaper article about the Brazilian company Gerdau by using the words from the list below. Each set of words fills two spaces. is becoming/companies is making/flexible is is is attracting/attention is approaching/ market share getting/right is raising/plants modernising/law Gerdau: a Brazilian success story Gerdau, the Brazilian steel maker, 1a.. one of Latin Americas most successful 1b.. . It 2a.. productivity in its 2b; it 3a the price and timing of its takeovers to of smaller understand companies 3b it investors and, 4a. most important, is beginning/expectations

4b. . Investors want a firm thats focused and transparent, with a simple share structure, and thats exactly what Gerdau gives them. The only problem in the short term is a problem of success. Gerdau 5a a 50% 5b in its domestic market, and so it 6a the 6b .of Cade, the monopolies authority. These days its much easier to do business in Brazil. The government is simplifying the company-tax structure, it 7a.the labour market more.7b by changing the restrictive labour laws, and it.8a company8b in general.

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G. Complete the sentences by putting the verbs in brackets into the present simple or present continuous. 1. I . (look at) the details on the screen right now. 2. I . (look at) the sales results in detail every month. 3. The production line .. (not, work) at weekends. 4. The production line (not, work) at the moment. 5. Yes, I agree. I .(think) its a good idea. 6. I . (think) about it. Ill let you know tomorrow. 7. Helen ..(stay) at the Astoria while shes in Madrid this month. 8. Helen . (stay) at the Astoria when shes in Madrid. 9. We ..(take) a sample for testing once a day. 10. We ..(take) a big risk if we go ahead with the project. 11. They. (be) usually very flexible if we need to change the order. 12. They . (be) flexible about giving us credit for a few more months. H. Read about Celines daily routine and make sentences, as in the

example. Then, talk about your daily routine using adverbs of frequency. Morning: - usually wake up at 7 I. always drive to work normally get to work by 9 often watch TV never go to bed before 11 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: Maggie and Jill, two friends, are talking at a party. M: Jill, how nice to see you. I (not think) weve seen each other since that party at Jims last year. How.. (you/get on)?
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Evening: - usually have dinner at 6

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J: Oh, fine. Everything .. (go) very well. M: .. (you still/go out) with Dave? J: No, Im not, but I .(go out) with someone called Jamie: I met him at my pottery class. M: Is he here now? J: Yes look, hes over there. He (talk) to Charlotte. M: Oh, yes, I. (see) him. . (he/wear) a yellow jumper? J: Yes, thats him. M: Oh, he (look) really nice. J: He is. Ill introduce you to him when he (come) over here. So what about you? How ..(life/treat) you? M: Not too badly. I . (still/ work) at that awful caf. I. keep looking for other jobs but the problem is that I . (feel) so tired when I.(get in) that I(not have) much energy to look through all the job ads and everything. Oh well, I .. (suppose) something else will come up soon. J: I.. (hope so). Oh look, Jamie.(come over) here. . (you/want) to meet him? Oh, yes.

SELF-EVALUATION TEST:
1. Cross out the item which does not normally go with the key word. a) b) c) d) e) f) an interview: to call for, to hold, to carry out, to apply a post: to shortlist, to take up, to appoint somebody to applicants: to interview, to reject, to advertise, to shortlist ones CV: to fill up, to submit, to update, to send a contract: to sign, to terminate, to enter into, to work a salary: to earn, to pay, to receive, to submit

2. Read the texts and put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or the present continuous.
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a) Michael McIntosh ..(be) a very busy man. Every morning, he (leave) home at 8 oclock, and (go) to his office. He .(usually/have) meetings until lunchtime, and in the afternoon, he (often/visit) the people of Madewell. He really(enjoy) talking to people. At the moment, he and his team .(organize) his election campaign. There are elections in June and he .(hope) to persuade lots of people to vote for him. Next month, he .(go) to London to meet the Prime Minister. They ..(have) a meeting to discuss future plans for Madewell. b) Debbie ..(work) as an administrator at the university. She ..(organize) all the timetables and teaching schedules. She ..(work) very long hours at the moment because its the start of the academic year but she .(go) on a short holiday at the end of the month. c) Simon and Sylvia ..(stay) in a cottage in the Yorkshire Dales this month. The cottage(belong) to a cousin of Sylvias but the cousin is away: she(cycle) around Norfolk for a few weeks. Simon and Sylvia often (use) the cottage when Sylvias cousin is away. They really.(enjoy) being in the middle of the countryside.

Answers to the self-evaluation test: 1. 2. a) to apply; b) to shortlist; c) to advertise; d) to fill up; e) to a) is; leaves; goes; has, visits, enjoys; are organizing; hopes; work; f) to submit goes; have b) works; organizes; is working; is going

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BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Ciuciuc, Olea, English for Business Purposes, Teora, Bucureti 1999. Emmerson, Paul, Business Grammar Builder, Macmillan, 2002. Evans V. , Grammarway 4, Express Publishing House, 1999. Evans V. , Grammarway 3, Express Publishing House, 1999. Paidos, Constantin, Gramatica limbii engleze, Institutul European, 1993. Pile, Louise, Intelligent Business, workbook, Pearson Education Limited, 2005. Tullis, G., New Insights into Business, Express Publishing House, 2004. Turcu, Fulvia, Limba englez pentru ntreprinztori i oameni de afaceri, Editura Sagittarius Iai, 1991.

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UNIT 2: THE CV AND THE LETTER OF APPLICATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES at the end of this unit the student should:

have become aware of the procedure both a candidate and an employer have to use in order to get hired or hire new staff be able to talk about the possibilities one has when looking for a job using topic related vocabulary PART I READING PART II VOCABULARY PRACTICE Topic-related vocabulary PART III LANGUAGE FOCUS Present Perfect Simple/ Present Perfect Continuous PART IV PRACTICE TIME NEEDED TO COVER THE TOPIC: 4 hours

D. The Curriculum Vitae REMEMBER: The CV (resume) is an OUTLINE of all you have to offer a prospective employer. It is a presentation of your qualifications, your background, and your experiences, arranged in such a way as to convince a businessperson to grant you an interview. It is the first impression you make on an employer. For that reason, it must look professional and exemplify those traits you want the employer to believe you possess.

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Study the CV carefully to see how Fiona Scott has presented the information about herself. Where do you think each of the headings should be placed? Are CVs in your country presented differently? References Skills Activities Personal Details Education

Professional experience

---------------Fiona Scott 52 Hanover Street Edinburgh EH2 5LM Scotland Phone: 0131 449 01237 E-mail: fiona.scott@caledonia.net ------------------1991-1992 London Chamber of Commerce and Industry Diploma in Public Relations 1988-1991 University of London BA (Honours) in Journalism and Media Studies (Class II) 1981-1988 Broadfield School, Brighton A levels in German (A), English (B), History (B) and Geography (C) -----------------1995-present Public Relations Officer, Scottish Nature Trust Responsible for researching and writing articles on all aspects of the Trusts activities and ensuring their distribution to the press Editor of the Trusts monthly journal In charge of relations with European environmental agencies 1992-1995 Press Officer, highlands Tourist Board Preparation of promotional materials and brochures Co-ordination of media coverage Summers of The Glasgow Tribune newspaper 1990 and 1991 Two three-month training periods as assistant to the Sorts Editor Arranging and conducting interviews Preparation of articles covering local community sports events -----------------IT Office 2000 and windows NT, Excel, Internet, Powerpoint Languages Fluent German and proficient in French Additional Driving licence (car and motorcycle)
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-----------------Skiing, rock climbing, swimming Ski Instructor (grade II) Secretary of the local branch of Action, an association organizing sports activities for disabled children ------------------Geoffrey Williams Professor of Jouranlism University of London Tel.: (office) Address: (office) Brenda Denholm Sports Editor The Glasgow Tribune Tel.: (office) Address: (office)

E. The Letter of application

REMEMBER: A letter of application is a sales letter in which you are both a salesperson and a product, for the purpose of an application is to attract an employers attention and persuade him/her to grant you an interview. To do this, the letter presents what you can offer the employer rather than what you want from the job. Like a CV, it is a sample of your work; and it is, as well, an opportunity to demonstrate, not just talk about, your skills and personality. If it is written with flair and understanding and prepared with professional care, it is likely to hit its mark. 52 Hanover Street Edinburgh EH2 5LM UK th 8 January 2000 Natalie Baudoin Patagonia Gmbh Reitmorstrasse 50 8000 Munich 22 Germany Dear Ms Baudoin, I am writing to apply for the position of Public Affairs Associate which was advertised last month in the Independent. Although I am presently employed by a non-profit making organization, it has always been my intention to work in a commercial environment. I have been working for this organization for five years but I would
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particularly welcome the chance to become a member of your companys staff as I have long admired both the quality of the products that it provides and its position as a defender of environmental causes. As you will notice on my enclosed CV, the job you are offering suits both my personal and professional interests. My work experience has familiarized me with many of the challenges involved in public relations today. I am sure that this, together with my understanding of the needs and expectations of sport and nature enthusiasts, would be extremely relevant to the position. Moreover, as my mother is German, I am fluent in this language and would definitely enjoy working in a German speaking environment. I would be pleased to discuss my curriculum vitae with you in more detail at an interview. In the meantime, please do not hesitate to contact me if you require further information. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Fiona Scott II. Useful language: Letters of application: To begin letters: I am writing to apply for the position/ position I am writing in connection with /with regard to the vacancy in your Sales Department, as advertised in The Times on/of 14th October. Experience / qualifications: I am currently/ At present I am employed/ working as I was employed as (position) by (company) from (date) to (date) During this time, I held the position of. /was responsible for. My duties included I have received training in../completed an apprenticeship, etc. My qualifications include/I am presently studying/ attending a course
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of.. advertised in yesterdays

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I am due to take my final examinations in June I have /hold/ obtained/was awarded a degree/diploma/certificate in I have successfully/recently/completed a course in (subject) at (place) To end letters: I enclose/ please find enclosed my CV/references from. I would appreciate a reply at your earliest convenience/ as soon as possible. I would be available for an interview at any time/ until the end of June/ etc. I would be pleased/ happy to supply you with any further information/details.. Please contact me should you have any questions/queries. III. Language focus: Present Perfect Simple and Continuous Present Perfect Simple: Affirmative: S+ have/has+ Past Participle; Negative: S+ have/has + not + Past Participle I have (Ive) arrived You have arrived He/ she/ it has arrived We have arrived You have arrived They have arrived Interrogative: Have I arrived? Have you arrived? Has he/she/it arrived? The past participle: the past participle of the regular verbs is formed by adding ed to the short infinitive form of the verb: play-played Spelling rules: Limba englez

I have not arrived (havent) You have not arrived He/she/it has not arrived We have not arrived You have not arrived They have not arrived

verbs that end in e drop the e: to translate- translated;


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one-syllable verbs that end in short vowel + consonant double the The plurisyllabic verbs that end in short vowel+ consonant double

final consonant: to stop stopped; the final consonant only if the accent falls on the last syllable: To prefer preferred; verbs that end in l double the final consonant regardless of the verbs that end in consonant +y, -y changes into i: to try- tried verbs that end in vowel +y, y remains unchanged; to play- played accent: to travel-travelled;

The ending ed is read USE: For an action which started in the past and continues up to the /d/ after vocalic and consonant sounds: played /pleid/ closed; /t/ after voiceless consonant sounds; dressed; washed; asked; /id/ after the sounds /t/ si /d/: translated opened; moved; lived watched; stopped

present, especially with state verbs such as be, have, like, know, etc. In this case we often use for and since. Rachel has had this job for three years. For and action which has recently finished and whose result is visible in the present She has just washed her hair. (She has now wrapped her hair in towel, so the action has finished). For an action which happened at an unstated time in the past. The exact time is not mentioned because it is either unknown or unimportant. The emphasis is placed on the action. The Taylors have bought a sailing boat. (The exact time is unknown or unimportant. What is important is the fact that they now own a sailing boat.) He has broken his arm.
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For an action which has happened within a specific period which

is not over at the moment of speaking. We often use words and expressions such as: today, this morning, afternoon, week, month, year etc. She has received three faxes this morning. (it is still morning) She received three faxes this morning (it is afternoon or evening) Present Perfect Continuous Affirmative: S + have been/has been + V-ing I have been writing since 2 oclock in the morning. She has been writing since 2 oclock in the morning. Negative: S + have+ not+ been+ V-ing

I have not been writing (havent been) since 2 oclock in the morning. She has not been writing since 2 oclock in the morning. Interrogative: Have+ S + been + V-ing Have you been writing? Has she been writing? USE: To put emphasis on the duration of an action which started in the past and continues up to the present, especially with time expressions such as: for, since, all morning/ day Sarah has been picking vegetables for two hours. For an action which started in the past and lasted for some time. The actions may have finished or may still be going on. He is dirty. He has been playing football. To express anger, irritation or annoyance. Somebody has been giving away our plans. Note: With the verbs live, work, teach and feel (=have a particular emotion) we can use the present perfect or present perfect continuous with no difference in meaning. We have lived/ have been living here for twenty years.
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Both Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous are used

with the following time expressions: How long How long have you known Jack? How long have you been learning English? For I have known Jack for five years. I havent seen Emily for a long time. Since They have been married since last April. Lately/recently Have you seen any good films lately/recently? Urmatoarele adverbe si locutiuni adverbiale sint specifice timpului Present Perfect Already We have already seen this film. Yet Has Roger left yet? Simon has not finished yet. Just I have just phoned Bill. Always She has always loved animals. Ever Have you ever been abroad? Never She has never been to France. So far I have sent twenty invitations so far.

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IV. Practice A. Complete the sentences by putting the verbs into a form of the present perfect. Use contractions where possible. 1. Are you sure it isnt working? .(you/try) it? 2. I (never/see) such a boring presentation. 3. Luckily, our customers ..(not/complain) about the price rise. 4. We .(already /spend) quite a lot of money on this project. 5. ..(they/reply) to your last email? 6. I .(not/get) the figures to hand can I call you back later? 7. Unemployment ..(go/up) by 2% since January. 8. Im sorry, shes not here. She.. (just/leave). 9. Their shares ..(fall) by 15% since the merger. 10. (you/ever/take) the Eurostar to Brussels? B. Underline the correct tense: 1. Liz and I are good friends. We know/have known each other for four years. 2. Sarah is very tired. She has been working/is working hard all day. 3. Where is John? Hes upstairs. He does/is doing homework. 4. I cant go to the party on Saturday. I am leaving/have been leaving for Spain on Friday night. 5. Jane has finished/is finishing cleaning her room, and now she is going out with her friends. 6. I didnt recognize Tom. He looks/is looking so different in a suit. 7. I dont need to wash my car. Jim washes/has washed it for me already. 8. Ian has been talking/is talking to his boss for an hour now. 9. Claires train arrives/has arrived at 3 oclock. I must go and meet her at the station.

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10. Would you like to borrow this book? No. thanks. I have read/have been reading it before. 11. Where are you going/do you go? To the cinema. Would you like to come with me? 12. Have you seen my bag? I am searching/have been searching for it all morning. 13. Is Colin here? I dont know. I havent seen/havent been seeing him all day. 14. Sophie is very clever. She is speaking/speaks seven different languages. 15. We are moving/have moved house tomorrow. Everything is packed. C. You are writing a letter to a friend. In the letter you give news about yourself and other people. Use the words given to make sentences. Use the present perfect. Dear Chris, Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you. 1 I/buy/ a new car.. 2 my father/ start/a new job.. 3 I give up/smoking.. 4 Charles and Sarah/go/to Brazil. 5 Suzanne/have/a baby.. D. You are asking somebody questions about things he or she has done. Make questions from the words in brackets. 1. (ever/ride/horse?) . 2. (ever/be/California?) . 3. (ever/run/marathon?) 4. (ever/speak/famous person?) .. 5. (always /live/in this town?) 6. (most beautiful place/ever/visit?) .. E. Read the situations and complete the sentences:
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1. The rain started two hours ago. Its still raining now. Itfor two hours. 2. We started waiting for the bus 20 minutes ago. Were still waiting now. We..for 20 minutes. 3. I started Spanish classes in December. Im still learning Spanish now. since December. 4. Ann began looking for a job six months ago. Shes still looking now. ..for six months. 5. Mary started working in London on 18 January. Shes still working there now. .. since 18 January. 6. Years ago you started writing to a pen friend. You still write to each other regularly now. We for years. F. Read the situations and write two sentences using the words in brackets. 1. Tom started reading a book two hours ago. He is still reading it and now he is on page 53. (read/for two hours) (read/53 pages so far) 2. Linda is from Australia. She is travelling round Europe at the moment. She began her tour three months ago. (Travel/for three months) She (visit/six countries so far) 3. Jimmy is a tennis player. He began playing tennis when he was ten years old. This year he is national champion again- for the fourth time. (Win/the national championship again for the fourth time) (play/tennis since he was ten). 4. When they left college, Mary and Sue started making films together. They still make films.
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(Make/ten films since they left college) They.. (Make/ films since they left college). G. Read this text about the performance of the Ford car company. Complete the text with the verbs from the list below, using the present perfect. make fall launch be have cut withdraw spend take perform FORD: the road to recovery Although Ford.operating profits of over $7 billion in its American market this year, the story in Europe very different. Its market share ..from 12% six years ago to only 9% now. The truth is that rivals like Volkswagen and Renault much better over recent years. They ..costs and .exciting and successful new models. In contrast, Ford ..its large saloon, the Scorpio, which was not selling well. But Ford .a lot more success at the higher end of the market. Over the last few years it .a lot of money buying brands such as Jaguar, Aston Martin and Land Rover, and these models have much higher profit margins. It some time to sort out the problems at Jaguar in particular, but its now a successful part of the business.

SELF-EVALUATION TEST
A. For each situation, ask a question using the words in brackets. 1. You have a friend who is learning Arabic. You ask: (how long/learn/Arabic?) How long have you been learning Arabic? 2. You have just arrived to meet a friend. She is waiting for you. You ask: (how long/ wait?)
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3. You see somebody fishing by the river. You ask: (How many fish/catch?) 4. Some friends of yours are having a party next week. You ask: (how many people/invite?).. 5. A friend of yours is a teacher. You ask: (how long/teach). 6. You meet somebody who is a writer. You ask: (how many books/write?) (how long/write/books) 7. A friend of yours is saving money to go on holiday. You ask: (how long/save?). (how much money/save?). B. Put the sentences in the right order, and then rewrite the letter. Dear Mrs. Hunter, A. I enclose a reference from my present employer and I would be grateful if you would consider my application. B. I have been working for Margate Education Department since 1999. C. With reference to your advertisement in Thursdays edition of the Daily Star, I am interested in applying for the position of Primary school teacher. D. I am available for an interview any weekday morning. E. During this time, I have enjoyed teaching a variety of subjects, including English, General Science and Games. F. I completed my certificate in Education at Preston Teacher Training College in 1998. G. I look forward to hearing from you. H. I consider myself to be punctual, hard-working and fair. I. I am 28 years old and currently teaching at Margate. I have a BSc degree awarded by Glasgow University in 1997 J. I enjoy working with children and have good organizational skills. Yours sincerely, Steven Davies

Answers to the self-evaluation test A. 2) How long have you been waiting?; 3) How many fish have you caught? 4) How many people have you invited? 5) How long have you been teaching? 6) How many books have you
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written?/ How long have you been writing books? 7) How long have you been saving? / How much money have you saved?
B.

Dear Mrs Hunter,


With reference to your advertisement in Thursdays edition of the Daily Star, I am interested in applying for the position of Primary school teacher. I am 28 years old and currently teaching at Margate. I have a BSc degree awarded by Glasgow University in 1997. I completed my certificate in Education at Preston Teacher Training College in 1998. I have been working for Margate Education Department since 1999. During this time, I have enjoyed teaching a variety of subjects, including English, General Science and Games. I consider myself to be punctual, hard-working and fair. I enjoy working with children and have good organizational skills. I enclose a reference from my present employer and I would be grateful if you would consider my application. I am available for an interview any weekday morning. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely Steven Davies

TEST: recruitment procedure and recruitment file (CV and letters of application) A. Write your Cv using the Europass template
B. Read the advertisement and complete the following recruitment file. JOB SPECIFICATION 1 Company 2 Location.. 3 Position 7Contact 4 Duties. PERSON SPECIFICATION 8Essential
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5 Salary 6 Benefits..

9Desirable

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SALES NEGOTIATOR What price sales success? Dealing in the oil and fuels market is a high-powered activity, and Texaco Fuel and Marine Marketing is a major player within it. We deliver bunker fuels to ports worldwide, negotiating the sales of many millions of barrels of fuels each year. So our small team is critical to profitability. Negotiating spot sales- both prices and volumes with ship owners and shipping lines is exceptionally competitive. It calls for a clear head and keen commercial acumen. And since youll be working under pressure and rapidly changing conditions, youll need to be capable of rapid decision-making. Most important is that you are a gifted communicator. Someone capable of both information gathering and communicating at all levels and with a wide variety of customers, both in the UK and abroad. Obviously a strong sense of geography is valuable and both a European language and a background in the oil and marine industries would be useful though not essential. The key qualities are an eye for a deal, good telephone skills and the ability to work well within a team environment. The price of achievement is high. For the right individual we offer a competitive salary and an attractive benefits package which includes a share option scheme as well as the prospect for career advancement within this world-leading oil company. We are currently based in Knightsbridge but we are moving to brand new custom-designed offices in Westferry Circus, Canary Wharf. These offices will be part of one of the highest developments of its kind in Europe and will be linked to other centres in London by greatly improved road and rail transport. To apply, please write to Peter Sweetman, Human Resources Adviser, Texaco Limited, 1 Knightsbridge Green, London SW1X7QJ.

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Write a letter of application to apply for the job advertised in the text above.

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UNIT 3 THE INVISIBLE HAND OF THE MARKET LEARNING OBJECTIVES at the end of this unit the student should:

be able to distinguish between the concepts of market economy and planned economy to debate upon the advantages and disadvantages of the two types of economies

PART I READING PART II VOCABULARY PRACTICE Topic-related vocabulary PART III LANGUAGE FOCUS Past Tense Simple/ Past Tense Continuous PART IV PRACTICE TIME NEEDED TO COVER THE TOPIC: 4 hours

I. Reading session: By following their self-own interest in open and competitive markets, consumers, producers and workers are led to use their economic resources in ways that have the greatest value to the national economy at least in terms of satisfying more of peoples wants. The first person to point out this fact in a systematic way was the Scottish philosopher Adam Smith, who published his most famous book An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, in 1776. Smith was the first great classical economist, and among the first to describe how an economy based on a system of market could promote economic

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efficiency and individual freedom, regardless of whether people were particularly industrious or lazy. Smith argued that if people are naturally good and kind, a market economy offers them a great deal of economic freedom to carry out their good deeds, backed up by an efficient system of production which generates more material goods and services for them to use in doing those good works. But what if people are selfish, greedy or lazy? Anyone who wants to enjoy more of the material goods and services produced in a market economy faces strong economic incentives to work hard, spend carefully, save and invest. And most successful businesses have to produce good products, sell them at market prices, pay their employees market wages, and treat their customers courteously even if that isnt their natural way of doing things. The basic reason for that kind of change in some peoples behaviour is competition. As Adam Smith pointed out, when there are several butcher shops in a community, any butcher who is rude or tries to sell inferior meat at unreasonable prices soon looses business and income to other butcher shops. () the more a greedy or selfish butcher wants to enjoy a higher standard of living, the more he or she will try to meet the competition and build up a large base of satisfied customers. Or, as Smith described this feature of market economies, people are led: as if by an invisible hand to work and behave in ways that use resources efficiently, in terms of producing things that other people want and are willing to pay for, even though that may have not been part of their original intentions. One other factor must be at work for Smiths invisible hand to function properly: the butcher must own or rent the shop, so that he or she has the rights to its profits. Without this right to private property and to the profits it brings, the invisible hand of competition will not motivate business to offer the best and most varied products at reasonable prices. By decentralizing the control of economic resources letting individual producers decide what and how to produce to satisfy their customers competition and self interest insure that most resources available in a
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market economy are used efficiently, which is to say in their most valuable uses as directed by what consumers demand and buy. II. Build your vocabulary A. Find words in the text that have the same meaning as the following ones: To warrant; hard-working; avaricious; thoroughly; well-known; to benefit; wisely; to put aside; income; characteristic; to provide; B. Answer the following questions: 1. 2. 3. Who wrote An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth What is the role of competition in a market economy? Can you name the main features that make a market economy

of Nations?

different from a command one? C. Match the words in column A with their definitions in column B.
1. subsidy a. The state of a company which is unable to pay its debts and has to be wound up. (to wind up= a lichida firma, compania) b. Inability to find a job c. A component of the market forces which when it prevails makes prices of goods rise. 4. supply d. A payment by a government to producers of certain goods to enable them to sell their products at a low price. 5. demand 6.ownersship e. Rights over property. f. Employment of personnel in 7. bankruptcy g. excess A of the real necessities. component of the market forces which when it
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2. overstaffing 3. unemployment

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prevails

makes

prices

of

goods fall.

D. Read the following text and make a list of the features specific for each type of economy

The Free enterprise system has the following features: 1. Private ownership. Any of us can purchase whatever tools of production, equipment, buildings or stock are needed to carry on business or for other private purposes. We can buy sell these assets just as we like. 2. Freedom of choice. By freedom of choice we mean you are free to choose your own job or to decide what goods and services you should buy. Businesses or enterprises have a similar freedom. They may buy whatever resources they wish, use them however they want to, enter those markets which they believe to be most profitable, and generally organise their affairs as they think best. 3. Competition. Firms compete with one another for their business; moreover, having obtained it, they cannot even then be sure of it for the future. Firms have to ensure that they provide goods and services that the consumer likes at prices that are competitive and, if they do not, they will very quickly go out of business! 4. Free market. Capitalisms controlling mechanism is the market, and traditionally the Government plays a passive role-not interfering. It is in the free market- in which businesses and individuals buy and sell goods and services that prices are determined. Central Planning was a concept developed by Marx. Horrified by social injustice and the degradation of the worker caused by the 19th century British factory system, he argued that the only remedy was control by the State. Such a system was called a command economy, because there was lack of choice. The State owned the countrys resources, it owned and operated industry. The individual was subservient to the State which
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took decisions in what it perceived to be the best interest of the whole community. The State rather than the consumer was sovereign and decided what and how to produce the goods and services, and moreover, who should receive these goods and services. The Mixed Economy All economies are, in fact, a mixture of the free enterprise and the planned systems. In the United Kingdom central planning assumes more importance when a socialist rather than Conservative Government is in power. Again, the UK was, during the Second World War, one of the most highly planned economies ever seen. The UK and France are often cited as examples of the mixed economies. While many of the decisions relating to what goods and services should be produced, how they should be produced and who should receive them are decentralised, the State does intervene in many ways. (The Structure of Business, Pitman, 1990, pp 3-7, in Ciuciuc, Olea, English for Business Purposes, Teora, Bucureti 1999) E. D. Fill in the gaps with words from the list at the end of the text.
A market economy is based on private .. (1) in contrast to planned economy where ..(2) ownership prevails. In a free market economy efficiency is the key word, while on the other hand command economy most likely leads to .. (3). In a free market economy inefficient business go (4), whereas in a command economy business are . (5), thus allowing them to survive in spite of their non-satisfactory economic performance. This enables the latter type of economy to resort to . (6), that is employing more personnel than actually required. Market economy leads to high .(7) of goods and services, while on the other hand planned economy will not focus on offering high quality goods and services to .. (8). This is due to the fact that in the latter type of economy there is actually no .. (9), as there are state (10) and therefore the options of the customers are severely restricted. On the other hand in a market economy companies freely (11) for a larger .(12), and are thus forced to be
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efficient and employ .. (13) according to real necessities and (14) their resources with utmost care. bankrupt, compete, competition, customers, inefficiency, manage,

monopolies, overstaffing, ownership, quality, share, staff, state, subsidized. E. Collocations. Match collocations with the suitable definitions. 1. a bear market; 2 a bull market; 3 a falling market; 4 a rising market; 5 a firm market; 6 a depressed market; 7 a sluggish market. a. a market where there are few transactions and therefore prices go down; b. where prices are expected to rise; c. where there is a slow rate of activity; d. a market in which a dealer is more likely to sell securities, foreign exchange e. where prices do not drop and possibly are about to rise; f. where prices are expected to fall; g. in which a dealer is more likely to be a buyer than a seller.4

IV. Focus on Language: A. 1. 2. Past Tense Simple (Trecutul Simplu) Adam Smith published his most famous book An Inquiry into the Smith was the first great classical economist.

Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, in 1776.

Forms: the past tense of the regular verbs is built by adding ed to the short infinitive form of the verb. The past tense of the irregular verbs (2nd form of the verb) can be found in the table below Affirmative: I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ you/ they bought a new car yesterday. I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ you/ they watched a comedy last night.

The activities C,D,E, have been taken from the text book Test your Business English Vocabulary, by Alexander Hollinger, Teora Publishing House, Bucuresti, 2006.

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Interrogative: Did I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ you/ they/ buy a new car yesterday? Did I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ you/ they/ watch a comedy last night? Negative: yesterday. I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ you/ they did not/ didnt watch a comedy last night. USE: We use the past tense simple to describe actions and states which happened at a definite time in the past. The time is stated, already known or implied: yesterday, two days ago (orice combina ie cu ago), last week, last year, in 1970, How long ago?, then, when etc. They spent their holidays in Switzerland last winter. They had a great time. past. First I wrote my homework, I watched a film on the TV and then I had a walk. to) People travelled/ used to travel by carriage in those days. 4. To speak about the life and the activity of people who are no longer alive Marilyn Monroe starred in a number of successful films. BUT Tom Cruise has starred in a number of successful films. The past tense of irregular verbs: spelling rules A) verbs that end in e add d bake- baked B) one-syllable verbs that end in vowel+ consonant double the consonant: stop stopped C) verbs that end in consonant+y change the y into and add ed fry- fried
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I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ you/ they did not/ didnt buy a new car

For actions which happened immediately one after another in the

To describe habitual actions in the past (can be replaced with used

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D) verbs that end in vowel + y add ed without any other changes: staystayed Irregular Verbs Infinitive be beat become begin bend bet bite blow break bring build burn buy catch choose come cost cut do dream drink drive eat fall feed fight find
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Past simple Was/were beat became began bent bet bit blew broke brought built Burnt/burned bought caught chose came cost cut did Dreamed/dreamt drank drove ate fell fed fought found
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Past participle been beaten become begun bent bet bitten blown broken brought built Burnt/burned bought caught chosen come cost cut done Dreamed/dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed fought found

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fly forget forgive freeze get give go grow hang have hear hit hold hurt keep know lay lead learn leave lend let lie lose make mean meet pay put read ride ring
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flew forgot forgave froze got gave went grew Hung/hanged had heard hit held hurt kept knew laid led learnt left lent let lay lost made meant met paid put read rode rang
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flown forgotten forgiven frozen got given gone grown Hung/hanged had heard hit held hurt kept known laid led learnt left lent let lain lost made meant met paid put read ridden rung

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rise run say see sell send set shake shine shoot show shrink shut sing sink sit sleep smell spend spread stand steal swear swim take teach throw understand wake wear win write
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rose ran said saw sold sent set shook shone shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slept Smelt/smelled spent spread stood stole swore swam took taught threw understood woke wore won wrote
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risen run said seen sold sent set shaken shone shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept Smelt/smelled spent spread stood stolen sworn swum taken taught thrown understood woken worn won written

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B. Past Tense Continuous: Forms: Affirmative: I was talking You were talking He/ She was talking Negative: I was not talking (wasnt) You were not talking He/she was not talking Interrogative: Was I talking? Were you talking? Were they talking?

USE: For an action which was in progress at a stated time in the past. We do not mention when the action started or finished. At seven oclock yesterday evening they were having dinner. For an action which was in progress when another action interrupted it. We use the past continuous for the action in progress (longer action) and the past simple for the action which interrupted it (shorter action). He was walking down the street when he ran into an old friend. For two or more simultaneous past actions. To describe the atmosphere, setting, etc. in the introduction to a She was talking on her mobile phone while she was driving to work. story before we describe the man events. One beautiful autumn afternoon, Ben was strolling down a quiet country lane. The birds were singing and the leaves were rustling in the breeze. The past continuous is used with the following time expressions: while, when, as, all morning/ evening/day/ night, etc.

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V. Practice: A. Read what Sharon says about a typical working day:

I usually get up at 7 oclock and have a big breakfast. I walk to work, which takes me about half an hour. I start work at 8.45. I never have lunch. I finish work at 5 oclock. Im always tired when I get home. I usually cook a meal in the evening. I dont usually go out. I go to bed at about 11 oclock. I always sleep well.

Yesterday was a typical working day for Sharon. Write what she did or didnt do yesterday. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. D. She . at 7 o clock. She. a big breakfast. She. Itto get to work. .at 8.45. ..lunch. .at 5 oclock. . tired when .home. a meal yesterday evening. ..yesterday evening. ..at 11 oclock. well last night. Put one of these verbs in each sentence:

Buy; catch; cost; drink; fall; hurt; sell; spend; teach; throw; win; write; 1. 2. 3. 4.
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Mozart .more than 600 pieces of music. How did you learn to drive? My father . me We couldnt afford to keep our car, so we.it. I was very thirsty. I .the water very quickly.
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5. 6. 7. 8.

Paul and I played tennis yesterday. Hes much better than me, so Don.down the stairs this morning and

he easily. .his leg. Jimthe ball to Sue, who .it. Ann . A lot of money yesterday. She

..a dress which ..$100. E. Complete the sentences. Put the verb into the correct form,

positive or negative. 1. It was warm, so I .off my coat. (take) 2. The film wasnt very good. I ... it very much. (enjoy) 3. I knew Sarah was very busy, so I her. (disturb) 4. I was very tired, so I .to bed early. (go) 5. The bed was very uncomfortable. I ..very well (sleep) 6. Sue wasnt hungry, so she anything. (eat) 7. We went to Kates house but she ..at home. (be) 8. It was a funny situation but nobody .. (laugh). 9. The window was open and a bird into the room. (fly) 10. The hotel wasnt very expensive. It very much (cost) 11. I was in a hurry, so I time to phone you. (have) 12. It was hard work carrying the bags. They . very heavy. (be) F. Complete the dialogue using the verbs from the list below in the past simple. There is a mixture of affirmative, negative and question form. There is one negative question. go take buy think sell like have (x2) make (x2) be (x4)

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DALE: JILL: DALE:

Hi, Jill. You to the Milan fashion Show last . you. a good trip? Yes, it was great. ..you . any useful contacts? lot of good contacts but we

week, didnt you?

JILL: Well, there loads of people at the show, and I.a DALE: new styles? JILL: No, no, that ..the problem. The shoes ..really well, but we.. so successful with some of our other products, like handbags, for example, and there ..much more competition this year. DALE: DALE: Who from? Oh, but his clothes are expensive. Um, (12) JILL: Well, the Paul Smith stand was really busy. people at the show our prices were too high? JILL: Possibly. But we the authority to lower them at the time. DALE: Oh, what a shame. So it was a waste of a trip then? JILL: Well, not exactly.I .. this great pair of Prada shoes and this Gucci handbag .. nearly as many orders as last year. Oh, why was that? they.. our

SELF -EVALUATION TEST


A. A friend has just come back from holiday. You ask him about it. Write your questions. 1 (where/go): Where did you go? 2 (go alone). 3 (food/good) 4 (how long/ stay there?) . 5 (stay /at a hotel?) . 6 (how/ travel?) .
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7 (the weather /fine?) . 8 (what /do in the evenings?) . 9 (meet anybody interesting?) .

B. Complete the sentences by putting the verbs in brackets into either the past simple or past continuous. 1. Paris? 2. While I . (negotiate) the contract, my boss (phone) me to say that he wanted completely different conditions. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. The last time something like this (happen), she Ann .(explain) her proposal when Pedro We never got the chance to interview him. While we When he (finish) reading the article, he Everyone . (wait) for the meeting to begin when he When I .(clean) the piece ..(call) a press conference immediately. ..(interrupt) her. . (investigate) the incident, he (resign). (give) it to me. (call) to say that he was stuck in a traffic jam. I(drop) it by mistake. I . (find) the missing file while I When Tim . (arrive), we .. (look) for some other documents. (tell) him what had happened. Sometimes the same tense is used twice; sometimes different tenses are used. What (eat) when you .. (go) to

Answers to the self-evaluation test A: 2) Did you go alone?; 3) Was the food good?; 4) How long did you stay there?; 5) Did you stay at a hotel?; 6) How did you travel?;
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7) Was the weather fine?; 8) What did you do in the evenings?; 9) Did you meet anybody interesting? B. C. 1. did you eat/ went; 2. was negotiating/ phoned; 3. happened/ called; 4. was explaining/ interrupted; 5. were investigating/ resigned; 6. finished/gave; 7. was waiting/ called; 8. was cleaning/ dropped it ; 9. found/ was looking; 10. arrived; told

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UNIT 4 INFLATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES at the end of this unit the student should: be able to explain in their own words the phenomenon of inflation

PART I READING PART II VOCABULARY PRACTICE Topic-related vocabulary PART III LANGUAGE FOCUS Ways of expressing future PART IV PRACTICE TIME NEEDED TO COVER THE TOPIC: 2 hours I. Reading session: Will inflation remain one of the most intractable problems confronting societies in transition from centralized to free market economies? It will be, however, a challenge that such societies must meet if they are to enjoy the material benefits that a market economy can provide. Inflation is an increase in the average price level of the goods and services produced and sold in an economy. Inflation typically occurs in a market economy for one of two reasons: either people increase their spending faster than producers are able to increase the supply of the goods and services; or there is a decrease in the supply of goods and services to consumers and/or producers, which drives up prices. Inflation has sometimes been described as an increasing amount of money chasing a shrinking number of goods.
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Inflation hits economies in transition hard because price liberalization the removal of government control of prices is an essential step towards a market economy. The initial result of such price liberalization is predictable a wave of price increases for goods that were in chronic short supply. Why? Because the government held their prices artificially low, so demand perennially outstripped supply, or because of other economic distortions and inefficiencies created by government decisionmakers. In addition, if people are holding large amounts of money at the time of this transition (since there was little of value to buy) the pressure of inflation can be even greater. Nevertheless, the rewards of enduring the inevitable bout of inflation during this transitional period are substantial. Unfettered by government, the market mechanisms of supply and demand will begin to function. High prices signal strong demands and the market, albeit slowly and haltingly at first, responds with increased production. Peoples money may have lost value, but what money they have is now real and consumers can buy the goods that are beginning to appear in stores. With supply increasing, prices stabilize and queues begin to disappear as consumers realize that more and varied products will continue to be available for sale. Entrepreneurs and investors eager to benefit from the new economic freedom are going to start new business and compete to provide goods and services. Thus more jobs will be created while prices will moderate further. The key element in this transition is for the government to relinquish its role in setting prices and permit the market forces of supply and demand to establish prices for virtually all goods and services. When such a free market is established, inflation may persist, but it is a far more manageable and less threatening problem than in the early, hard days of economic transition. (What is Market economy, USIS, 1992) MONETARY POLICY
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Monetary policy is how the government tries to improve the countrys economy by using banks and money, acting on the level of deposits and loans, and on interest rates and exchange rates. As well as keeping inflation low, a government will seek to keep unemployment low and output rising. However, it cannot do all three things at the same time. For instance, if it is very successful in lowering unemployment, the shortages of workers may cause wages to rise, as employers bid for more employees. The workers will spend their increased wages in the shops and this may cause prices to rise thereby causing inflation to rise. A government may have to choose therefore between these aims or goals. Mrs. Thatchers government (in office between 1979 1990) chose the reduction of inflation as the goal which should be given the utmost priority. Unemployment, economic growth and the enormous gap between exports and imports were not considered so important. (Banking: 1990, pp. 27-28) II. Build your vocabulary: A. Answer the following three questions based on what you have just read. What is inflation? What causes inflation? What is meant by monetary policy? B Match the word in column A with their corresponding definitions in column B. A b Exchange rate c Currency B 2 The quantity of money issued by a countrys a Interest rate 1 The price of one currency in terms of another monetary authorities (usually the central bank) 3 The expansion of the output of an economy, usually expressed in terms of the increase of national income. The Business, Pitman,

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d GDP(gross domestic product)

4 The monetary value of all the goods

and services produced by an economy over a specific period. e Recession 5 The income from an investment, or the income obtained from a tax. f Economic growth services g Yield country h Purchasing power 8 The amount charged for a loan, usually expressed as a percentage of the sum borrowed i Money supply 9 Falling investment, rising unemployment, and sometimes falling prices III. Focus on Language: Ways of expressing future A. verb I will (Ill) buy the red shirt. Negative: Subject + will + not = short infinitive of the main verb I will not buy (I wont) the red shirt. Interrogative: Will + Subject + short infinitive of the main verb Will you come to my party? Future Simple: Affirmative: Subject + will + short infinitive of the main 7 The money in use in a particular 6 The ability to purchase goods and

Forms:

Use: a) In predictions about the future, usually with think; believe; be afraid; probably, etc. E.g. I believe prices will remain steady in the following months. b) c) For on the - spot decisions. For actions/ events/situations which will definitely happen in the E.g. Its late. Ill take a taxi home. Ill lend you my car if you want. future and which we cannot control.
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e.g. Winter will set in early this year. He will be 40 next month. Be going to: Use: a) e.g. b) e.g. B. Use: a) in reference to the immediate future e.g. he is about to be elected president of the merged company. C. Use: a) for a previous arrangement e.g. Mother is to arrive tomorrow. E. Present Tense Simple: for timetable and official programmes: To be to for plans, intentions or ambitions. Im going to buy a sports car. in predictions when there is evidence that something will happen Someones going to fall over that box if you dont move it. To be about to

in the near future.

e.g. The train leaves at eight oclock tomorrow morning. F. Present Tense Continuous: for a future event which is planned by

the speaker (the decision is all his/hers) e.g. I am flying to London in order to attend the matches of the national football team. G. Future Continuous: Use: for actions which will be in progress at a stated future time. a) Answer the following questions giving as many answers as possible:
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e.g. This time next week hell be flying to Morocco. IV. Practice A. a) b) c) d) e) f) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. sales. D. 1. Translate the following sentences into English: Voi discuta cu reprezentan ii departamentului Resurse Umane n match the sentences 1-6 with their uses a)-f) a future fact an opinion about the future an instant decision a future plan or intention a prediction with evidence in the present situation a future arrangement Im going to ask my boss for a pay rise next week. Im sorry to hear that. Ill find out what the problem is right now. Im sorry, but I wont be here tomorrow. Ill be in Paris. Im meeting Angela for lunch. Do you want to join us? Their share price will probably rise when the market recovers. With so much competition its going to be difficult to increase

legatura cu posturile vacante. In mod sigur sptmna viitoare vom da un anun la ziar. 2. 3. Mine ntre orele 8 i 9 voi citi titlurile tuturor publica iilor Sptmna viitoare pe vremea asta vom discuta clauzele financiare care vor fi trimise de ctre sucursala firmei noastre n Cluj. contractului ce va fi ncheiat conform n elegerii noastre pn pe data de 1 august. 4. 5. Directorul acestei firme a spus c pia a serviciilor se va dezvolta Suntem pe punctul de a lua o msur deosebit de importanta din ce n ce mai mult n Romnia. referitoare la strategia de dezvoltare a compartimentului de marketing. E.
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Put the verbs in brackets into the correct future tense:


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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Are you looking forward to your holiday? Were having a party on Saturday. Have you finished the report yet? Why are you buying all those vegetables? This writing is too small for me to read. Are you excited about your trip? I cant hear the television very well.

Oh, yes! This time next week I . (lie) on the beach. Oh, good. I.. (make) a cake to bring along. Yes. I . (give) it to you in a minute. Because I .. (make) vegetable soup. Give it to me and I ..read it for you. Yes. This time tomorrow I . (sit) on the plane. I (turn up) the volume. F. 1. 2. 3. 4. hours. 5. 6. 7. 8. hours. 9. 10.
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Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect or the future By 3 oclock, she .. (study) for six hours. By the end of next month, Sam .. (finish) the project. He. (not/start) painting the kitchen before By the time she arrives in Paris, she . (travel) for four I hope I .. (buy) my own house by the time By Saturday, Lisa. (diet) for two weeks. Hopefully, they .. (learn) everything by the time By 4 oclock, I in the hairdressers for three By Christmas, I.. (work) for this company for By next weekend, Brian (move) house.
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perfect continuous.

Tuesday.

Im thirty-five.

they sit the exam.

eighteen months.

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11. 12. G.

Hopefully, the builders.. (finish) building the house By Tuesday, Alan.. (sail) for twelve days. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct future tense.

by next month.

Dear Victoria, The holidays are coming and Ive made lots of plans. This time next week, I (buy) Christmas presents for my family and friends. I (get) everything in one day, so that I can enjoy myself for the rest of the holidays. Im staying at home with my family on Christmas day, but two days later I (leave) for Austria. Becky and I (spend) a week there skiing. Im sure we .. (have) a wonderful time. When I come back from Austria, I.. (probably/ have) a party, because its my birthday on January 5th. I . (be) nineteen! I hope you..come. Well, I must go now. Im going to help my mother with the housework. See you soon! Love, Penny F. 1. Underline the correct words in each mini-dialogue. A: Are you free next Tuesday morning?

B: Sorry, Ill have/Im having a meeting with Sue. A: Oh, right. Well, what about Thursday? 2. A: What are your plans for next year? B: Well open/ Were going to open a new factory in Hungary. A: That sounds interesting. 3. A: What do you think about their new marketing campaign? B: I think itll probably succeed/its probably succeeding. A: Do you really? 4.
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A: What about tomorrow at around five thirty?


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B: OK, Ill see you then. / Im seeing you then. A: Bye. 5. a lot. B: Yes, I see. So, what are you going to do? / What are you doing? A: Resign! 6. A: It would be nice to see you next week. B: Yes, it would. Are you doing anything/ Will you do anything on Wednesday? A: No, Im free. G. Complete the sentences by putting the verb in brackets into the A: So as you can see, Ive been thinking about this problem quite

most appropriate future form. Choose between will, going to and the present continuous. 1. Have you heard the news? Vivendi (buy) Seagram. 2. I.(meet) Andrea at nine next Thursday morning outside the station. 3. Ive just had a call from Richard he . (be) late. 4. Next year .. (be) the companys centenary year. 5. This taxi driver is terrible. He .(have) an accident. 6. In the future video-conferences . (probably replace) many international meetings. 7. We ..(test) the new machine sometime next week. 8. I .. (go) to Manchester on Friday. 9. Would you mind waiting for a moment? I .(not be) long.

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SELF EVALUATION TEST


A. Fill in the text with the following words: interest rates, purchasing power, competitor, exchange rate, effect, yield, currency Interest And Exchange Rates And Their Links With Inflation These can be complex. When prices in the country rise, the government may seek to raise 1to restrain people from spending. This rise in interest rates will cause foreigners, attracted by higher 2 on their funds, to buy that currency and so raise its 3... . Also, savers will require higher interest rates as some compensation for the loss of 4of their savings. Unfortunately- just like the boy who cried wolf so many times that nobody bothered when the wolf really came- increasing interest rates too many times may have the opposite 5.... If inflation is surging ahead, than foreign investors may take fright and sell that currency, even though interest rates have been raised. A country with a high rate of inflation can usually sell its exports if it makes them cheaper, by lowering the exchange rate (the price) of its 6.. to compensate for the high cost of its exports. For instance, if the price of a ten pound toy made in the UK raises to 12 pound then, at DM 2.80 to 1 pound, its costs in German currency raises from DM 28 to DM 33.60. This increase may cause German Buyers to buy from a cheaper foreign or German 7.. B. Complete the sentences using the correct future forms of the verbs in brackets. There may be more than one possibility. 1. 2. OK? 3. Look out! That ladder ..(fall)! Do you think the car.. (start) if I turn on the ignition? Ive got to go now, but I (see) you next week,

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4. 5. 6. 7. 8. year. 9.

They say the weather (get) worse in the next I (be) a pilot when I grow up, said the little boy. The train (leave) in five minutes lets go! Now, lets look at the timetable. We _____________ (arrive) in We ______________ (plan) to buy a new house sometime his You________________ (fail) the exam if you dont study more.

few days.

Rome at 6.45 and we ___________(depart) at &.30 for Naples.

10. I _____________ (carry) those bags for you; they must be very heavy.

Answers to the self-evaluation test A. interest rates; yield; exchange rate; purchasing power; effect; currency; competitor B. will start; Ill see; is going to fall; is going to get; am going to be; leaves; arrive; depart; are planning; will fail; will carry TEST: The Tenses of the Indicative Mood Choose the correct answer: 1. I wonder if Paul me a lift to work. a. is giving b. will give c. will be giving 2. I met Mrs Houston while I ..the shopping. a. had done b. am doing c. was doing 3. Hurry up! The guests .here any minute now. a. are b. will be c. will have been 4. .Jane today? I have a message for her. a. Will you be seeing? b. Will you have seen c. Will you have been seeing 5. Sophie hard these days in order to pass her exams. a. studies b. is studying c. studied
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6. I must go now. The bus .in five minutes. a. leaves b. is leaving c. will leave 7. How long ..in this house? Ten years. a. do you live b. have you lived c. were you living 8. I .for three hours before I finished my homework. a. have been studying b. had been studying c. was studying 9. I couldnt get into the house because I ..my keys. a. lose b. have lost c. had lost 10. Sharon ..very friendly these days, which is surprising. a. is b. is being c. was being Complete the sentences: A: (you/go) out last night? B : No..(I/stay) at home. A: What .. .. (you/do)? B: ( I/watch) television. A: (you/go) out tomorrow night? B: Yes, . (I/go) to the cinema. A: Which film (you/ see)? B: .. (I/not/know). (I/not/decide) yet.

A: Are you on holiday here? B: Yes, we are. A: How long . (you/be) here? B: (we/arrive) yesterday. A: And how long .. (you/stay)? B: Until the end of the week. A: And.. (you/like) it here? B: Yes, (we/have) a wonderful time. A: . (I/lose) my glasses again.
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.. (you/see) them? B: .. (you/wear) them when ..(I/come) in. A: Well, . (I/not/wear) them now, so where are they? B: (you/look) in the kitchen? A: No, . (I/go) and look now

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