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http://organicclothing.blogs.com/my_weblog/2007/09/bamboo-facts-be.html Bamboo the plant is wonderfully sustainable; bamboo the fabric isnt so easy to categorize.

There are two ways to process bamboo to make the plant into a fabric: mechanically or chemically. The mechanical way is by crushing the woody parts of the bamboo plant and then use natural enzymes to break the bamboo walls into a mushy mass so that the natural fibers can be mechanically combed out and spun into yarn. This is essentially the same eco-friendly manufacturing process used to produce linen fabric from flax or hemp. Bamboo fabric made from this process is sometimes called bamboo linen. Very little bamboo linen is manufactured for clothing because it is more labor intensive and costly. Chemically manufactured bamboo fiber is a regenerated cellulose fiber similar to rayon or modal. Chemically manufactured bamboo is sometimes called bamboo rayon because of the many similarities in the way it is chemically manufactured and similarities in its feel and hand. Bambusul este planta minune durabil; bambus materialul nu este att de uor de a clasifica. Exist dou modaliti de a procesa bambus pentru a face planta intr-o tesatura: mecanic sau chimic. Mod mecanic este prin zdrobirea prile lemnoase ale plantelor de bambus i de a folosi apoi enzime naturale pentru a sparge zidurile de bambus ntr-o mas moale, astfel nct fibrele naturale pot fi pieptanat mecanic afar i filate n fire. Aceasta este, n esen acelai eco-friendly procesul de fabricaie utilizate pentru producerea de tesatura lenjerie de in sau de cnep. estura bambus fcut din acest proces este uneori numit lenjerie de bambus. Foarte puine lenjerie de bambus este fabricat pentru mbrcminte, pentru c este mult mai mult munc i costisitoare. Fibre de bambus este fabricat chimic Fibr de celuloz regenerat similar cu mtase artificial sau modal. Bambus chimic fabricat este numit, uneori, raionul bambus, din cauza multe similitudini n modul n care este chimic fabricat i similariti n simt i mna. Most bamboo fabric that is the current eco-fashion rage is chemically manufactured by cooking the bamboo leaves and woody shoots in strong chemical solvents such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH also known as caustic soda or lye) and carbon disulfide in a process also known as hydrolysis alkalization combined with multi-phase bleaching. Both sodium hydroxide and carbon disulfide have been linked to serious health problems. Breathing low levels of carbon disulfide can cause tiredness, headache and nerve damage. Carbon disulfide has been shown to cause neural disorders in workers at rayon manufacturers. Low levels of exposure to sodium hydroxide can cause irritation of the skin and eyes. Sodium hydroxide is a strong alkaline base also known as caustic soda or lye. In its dry crystalline form, caustic soda is one of the major ingredients of Drano. This is basically the same process used to make rayon from wood or cotton waste byproducts. Because of the potential health risks and damage to the environment surrounding the manufacturing facilities, textile manufacturing processes for bamboo or other regenerated fibers using hydrolysis alkalization with multi-phase bleaching are not considered sustainable or environmentally supportable.

Cele mai multe tesatura bambus, care este actualul eco-moda furie este chimic fabricat de "gatit" cu frunze de bambus i mldie lemnoase n solveni chimici puternici, cum ar fi hidroxid de sodiu (NaOH - de asemenea, cunoscut sub numele de soda caustica sau lesie) i disulfura de carbon ntr-un proces, de asemenea, cunoscut i drept alcalizare hidroliz combinate cu mai multe faze albire. Att de hidroxid de sodiu i disulfura de carbon au fost legate de probleme grave de sntate. Respiratia niveluri sczute de disulfura de carbon poate provoca oboseal, dureri de cap i leziuni ale nervilor. Disulfit de carbon a fost demonstrat de a provoca tulburri neuronale din lucrtorii de la producatori raionale. Nivelurile scazute de expunere la hidroxid de sodiu poate provoca iritaii ale pielii i a ochilor. Hidroxidul de sodiu este o baz puternic alcalin, de asemenea, cunoscut sub numele de soda caustica sau lesie. n forma sa cristalin uscat, soda caustica este unul dintre ingredientele majore ale Drano. Aceasta este n esen acelai proces utilizat pentru a face raion din produse secundare de deeuri de lemn sau bumbac. Din cauza riscurilor poteniale asupra sntii i daune mediului nconjurtor instalaiilor de producie, proceselor de fabricaie pentru textile fibre de bambus sau de alt natur regenerat folosind alcalizare hidroliza cu multi-faza de albire nu sunt considerate durabile sau ecologic suportabil.

While specifics can vary, the general process for chemically manufacturing bamboo fiber using hydrolysis alkalization with multi-phase bleaching technology which is the dominate technology for producing regenerated bamboo fiber goes like this: n timp ce specificul poate varia, procesul general pentru fabricarea chimic folosind fibre de bambus alcalizare hidroliza cu multi-faza de tehnologia de albire - care este dominat de tehnologie pentru producerea de fibre regenerate de bambus - merge ca aceasta: 1. Bamboo leaves and the soft, inner pith from the hard bamboo trunk are extracted and crushed; 2. The crushed bamboo cellulose is soaked in a solution of 15% to 20% sodium hydroxide at a temperature between 20 degrees C to 25 degrees C for one to three hours to form alkali cellulose; 3. The bamboo alkali cellulose is then pressed to remove any excess sodium hydroxide solution. The alkali cellulose is crashed by a grinder and left to dry for 24 hours; 4. Roughly a third as much carbon disulfide is added to the bamboo alkali cellulose to sulfurize the compound causing it to jell; 5. Any remaining carbon disulfide is removed by evaporation due to decompression and cellulose sodium xanthogenate is the result; 6. A diluted solution of sodium hydroxide is added to the cellulose sodium xanthogenate dissolving it to create a viscose solution consisting of about 5% sodium hydroxide and 7% to 15% bamboo fiber cellulose. 7. The viscose bamboo cellulose is forced through spinneret nozzles into a large container of a diluted sulfuric acid solution which hardens the viscose bamboo cellulose sodium xanthogenate and reconverts it to cellulose bamboo fiber threads which are spun into bamboo fiber yarns to be woven into reconstructed and regenerated bamboo fabric.

1. Frunze de bambus i mduva moale, interior din bambus portbagaj disc sunt extrase i zdrobit;2.Celuloz zdrobit bambus este mbibat ntr-o soluie de hidroxid de sodiu 15% la 20%, la o temperatur cuprins ntre 20 C de grade la 25 de grade C pentru una si trei ore, pentru a forma celuloz alcaline;3.Celuloz bambus alcaline este apoi presat pentru a elimina orice exces soluie de hidroxid de sodiu.Celuloz alcaline este prbuit de un polizor i lsat s se usuce timp de 24 ore;4. Aproximativ o treime din disulfura de carbon mai mult, se adaug celuloz alcaline de bambus pentru a sulfura compus determinnd-o s cristaliza;5. Orice disulfura de carbon rmas este eliminat prin evaporare din cauza xanthogenate de sodiu decompresie i celuloz este rezultatul;6. O soluie diluat de hidroxid de sodiu se adaug xanthogenate sodiu celuloz dizolvare pentru a crea o soluie de viscoz format din aproximativ hidroxid de sodiu 5% i 7% la 15% celuloz fibra de bambus.7.Celuloz vscoz de bambus este forat prin duze spinneret ntr-un recipient mare de o soluie diluat de acid sulfuric, care se intareste viscoz de bambus xanthogenate de sodiu de celuloz i reconverts-l la firele de celuloz din fibre de bambus, care sunt filate n fire de fibre de bambus pentru a fi esute n reconstituite i regenerat bambus tesatura. This gives some feel for how chemically intensive the hydrolysis-alkalization and multiphase bleaching manufacturing processes are for most bamboo fabrics that are promoted as being sustainable and eco-friendly. Acest lucru ofer unele simt pentru modul n care intensiv chimic hidroliza-alcalizare i multifazice de albire procesele de fabricaie sunt de cele mai multe esturi bambus, care sunt promovate ca fiind durabil i eco-friendly.

Newer manufacturing facilities have begun using other technologies to chemically manufacture bamboo fiber that are more benign and eco-friendly. The chemical manufacturing process used to produce lyocell from wood cellulose can be modified to use bamboo cellulose. The lyocell process, also used to manufacture TENCEL, uses N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide to dissolve the bamboo cellulose into a viscose solution. N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide is a member of the amine oxide family. Amine oxides are weak alkalines that act as surfactants and help break down the cellulose structure. Hydrogen peroxide is added as a stabilizer and the solution is forced through spinnerets into a hardening bath which causes the thin streams of viscose bamboo solution to harden into bamboo cellulose fiber threads. The hardening bath is usually a solution of water and methanol, ethanol or a similar alcohol. The regenerated bamboo fiber threads can be spun into bamboo yarn for weaving into fabric. This lyocell processing is substantially healthier and more eco-friendly because N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide is supposedly non-toxic to humans and the chemical manufacturing processes are closed-loop so 99.5% of the chemicals used during the processing are captured and recycled to be used again. Only trace amounts escape into the atmosphere or into waste waters and waste products. Mai nou faciliti de producie au nceput s foloseasc alte tehnologii pentru fabricarea de fibre de bambus chimic, care sunt mult mai benigne i eco-friendly.Procesul de fabricaie chimic folosit pentru a produce lyocell de celuloza din lemn pot fi modificate pentru a utiliza celuloza bambus.Procesul de lyocell, de asemenea, utilizate pentru fabricarea de Tencel , folosete N-methylmorpholine-N-oxid pentru a dizolva celuloza bambus ntr-o

soluie de viscoz. N-methylmorpholine-N-oxid este un membru al familiei oxid de amin. Oxizi de amine sunt baze slabe, care acioneaz n calitate de ageni tensioactivi i de a ajuta rupe n jos structura de celuloz. Peroxidul de hidrogen este adugat ca un stabilizator i soluia este forat printr-filiere ntr-o baie de ntrire care determin fluxurile de soluie de bambus subiri viscoz sa se intareasca in fire de bambus fibre celulozice.Baie de ntrire este de obicei o soluie de ap i metanol, etanol sau alcool un similar. Firele de bambus fibre regenerate pot fi filate n fire de bambus pentru esut n estur. Aceast prelucrare lyocell este considerabil mai sntos i mai eco-friendly, deoarece N-methylmorpholine-N-oxid se presupune ca este non-toxic pentru om, precum i procesele chimice de producie sunt n bucl nchis, astfel 99,5% din substanele chimice utilizate n procesul de prelucrare sunt captate i reciclate fi utilizat din nou. Numai urme scape n atmosfer sau n apele uzate i deeurile. Other chemical manufacturing processes for bamboo fabric are appearing such as using acetic anhydride and acetic acid with sulfuric acid as a catalyst to form acetate fiber which is then spun into a yarn. New nano-technologies are also being introduced into the bamboo clothing industry. GreenYarn, a new startup located in Boston, is developing a bamboo clothing line made from nano-particles of bamboo charcoal. GreenYarns Eco-fabric is manufactured from 4 to 5 year old Taiwanesegrown bamboo that has been dried and burned in 800 degree C ovens until it is reduced to charcoal. The bamboo is processed we dont know how into fine nano particles which are then embedded into cotton, polyester or nylon fibers. This conventional fiber yarn that contains trapped bamboo charcoal nano particles is then woven into fabrics mostly socks and blankets now. Alte procese de fabricaie pentru produse chimice de tesatura de bambus sunt apar, cum ar fi utilizarea anhidrid acetic i acid acetic cu acid sulfuric ca un catalizator pentru a forma Fibra de acetat care este apoi filate n fire-o. Noi nano-tehnologii sunt, de asemenea, introduse n industria de mbrcminte bambus. GreenYarn, un startup nou, situat n Boston, este n curs de dezvoltare o linie de mbrcminte realizate din bambus nano-particule de carbune de bambus. GreenYarn lui "Eco-tesatura" este fabricat de la 4 la 5 ani vechi taiwaneze-grown bambus, care a fost uscat i ars n cuptoarele de 800 grade C, pn se reduce la carbune.Bambus este procesat nu tim cum - n nano-particule fine, care sunt apoi ncorporate n fibre de bumbac, poliester sau nailon. Acest tip de fire de fibre convenional care conine particule de carbune de bambus prinse nano este apoi esute n esturi cea mai mare parte ... osete i pturi acum. Greenyarns Eco-fabric is promoted as being anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-static, de-odorizing, breathable, thermal regulating (cool in hot weather and warm in cool weather), and environmentally friendly. Obviously, a significant part of Eco-fabrics claims to sustainability depend upon the sustainability of the original cotton, polyester or nylon fibers that have been impregnated with the bamboo charcoal nano particles. In a footnote, Greenyarn mentions that the

active bamboo charcoal ingredients will only remain active in the clothing for about six months of active use. Chemically-manufactured bamboo rayon has some wonderful properties which are adored by conventional and eco-aware designers and consumers: Greenyarn lui Eco-tesatura este promovat ca fiind anti-bacteriene, anti-fungice, anti-static, de-odorizare, reglare respirabil, termic (rece n vreme cald i cald, n vreme rece), precum i ecologic. n mod evident, o parte semnificativ a creanelor Eco-esturi de la sustenabilitatea depinde de durabilitatea fibrelor originale bumbac, poliester sau nailon, care au fost impregnate cu particule de bambus nano crbune. ntr-o not de subsol, Greenyarn menioneaz c ingredientele active din bambus carbune va rmne activ doar n mbrcminte pentru aproximativ ase luni de utilizare activ. Chimic-prelucrat bambus raionul are unele proprietati minunate, care sunt adorate de designeri convenionale i ecologice, contient i pentru consumatori:

Bamboo fabric has a natural sheen and softness that feels and drapes like silk but is less expensive and more durable. Bamboo clothing is easy to launder in a clothes washer and dryer. Because of the smooth and round structure of its fibers, bamboo clothing is soft and nonirritating, even to sensitive skin. Some people with chemical sensitivities can not tolerate bamboo clothing. We are not sure if this intolerance is due to the intrinsic nature of bamboo but it more likely because of other chemicals added or used during the manufacturing and finishing processes of the clothing. Bamboo is naturally anti-bacterial and anti-fungal supposedly because of a bacteriostatis agent unique to bamboo plants called bamboo kun which also helps bamboo resist harboring odors. Kun is also sometimes spelled kunh. The bamboo kun in bamboo fabric stops odor-producing bacteria from growing and spreading in the bamboo cloth allowing bamboo clothing to be more hygienic and to remain fresher smelling. Bamboo clothing is hypoallergenic. Bamboo is highly absorbent and wicks water away from the body 3 to 4 times faster than cotton. In warm, humid and sweaty weather, bamboo clothing helps keep the wearer drier, cooler and more comfortable and doesnt stick to the skin. The structure of bamboo fibers make bamboo fabrics more breathable and thermal regulating than cotton, hemp, wool or synthetic fabrics. Bamboo clothing is naturally more wrinkle-resistant than cotton, and while it might still require ironing after washing, bamboo fabric can be ironed at a lower temperature than cotton. Shrinkage during washing and drying is minimal at warm temperatures. Bamboo fibers and fabrics absorb dyes faster and more thoroughly than cotton, modal and viscose with better color clarity. Bamboo fabrics do not need to be mercerized to improve their luster and dye-ability like cotton requires.

Designers such as Kate OConnor use bamboo fabric as an eco-friendly replacement for silk. Speaking of bamboo eco-fashion, Kate OConnor calls bamboo fashion so much cheaper [than silk] and its really good for the environment. It is the perfect summer fabric according to Kate OConnor. Linda Loudermilk, another savvy eco-fashion designer, frequently incorporates bamboo into her eco-fashions. Amanda Shi of Avita has some of the most exciting and originally beautiful eco-fashion in bamboo.

material Bambusul are un luciu natural i catifelare care se simte i draperii de mtase, cum ar fi, dar este mai puin costisitoare i mai durabil. mbrcminte bambus este uor pentru a spala ntr-o main de splat haine i usctor. Datorit structurii neted i rotund a fibrelor, mbrcminte bambus este moale i noniritant, chiar i pentru pielea sensibil. Unele persoane cu sensibilitati chimice nu pot tolera haine bambus. Noi nu suntem siguri dac acest lucru se datoreaz intoleran natura intrinsec de bambus, dar mai probabil din cauza altor substane chimice adugate sau utilizate n timpul proceselor de fabricaie i de finisare a mbrcminte. Bambusul este natural anti-bacteriene si anti-fungice presupune, din cauza unui agent bacteriostatis unic pentru plante de bambus numit "Kun bambus", care, de asemenea, ajut la bambus rezista mirosuri adapostirea. "Kun" este, de asemenea, uneori scris "kunh". Kun bambus din tesatura de bambus se oprete miros productoare de bacteriile din cretere i rspndirea n pnz bambus permite mbrcminte bambus pentru a fi mai igienic i s rmn mai proaspat mirositoare. mbrcminte bambus este hipoalergenic. Bambusul este foarte absorbant de ap i elimin din organism 3 - 4 ori mai repede dect bumbacul. n vreme cald, umed i transpirat, mbrcminte bambus ajuta la mentinerea purttorului uscator, mai rece i mai confortabil i nu se lipete de piele. Structura de fibre de bambus face esturi bambus mai respirabil i de reglare termic dect esturi de bumbac, cnep, ln sau sintetice. mbrcminte bambus este in mod natural mai mult antirid-rezistent decat bumbac, i n timp ce acesta ar putea necesita nc de clcat, dup splare, tesatura de bambus pot fi clcate la o temperatur mai mic de bumbac. Contracie n timpul splrii i uscrii este minim la temperaturi calde. fibre de bambus i esturi absorbi coloranti mai rapid i mai bine dect bumbacul, modal i vascoza cu o claritate mai bun a culorilor. esturi bambus nu trebuie s fie mercerizat pentru a mbunti luciul lor i colorant-abilitatea cum ar fi bumbacul impune. Designeri, cum ar fi Kate O'Connor utiliza tesatura bambus ca o nlocuire eco-friendly pentru mtase. Vorbind de bambus eco-moda, Kate O'Connor numete moda de bambus ", att de mult mai ieftin [dect de mtase] si este foarte bun pentru mediul nconjurtor." "Este tesatura de var perfect", n conformitate cu Kate O'Connor. Linda Loudermilk, un alt savvy eco-designer de moda, frecvent ncorporeaz bambus n ei eco-moda. Amanda Shi de Avita are unele dintre cele mai interesante si frumoase iniial eco-fashion din bambus.

Concluzii
Bamboo the plant and also bamboo the fabric can rate high as an environmentally friendly and renewable resource: Bamboo grows rapidly and naturally without any pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers. Bamboo clothing (both mechanically and chemically manufactured) is 100% biodegradable and can be completely decomposed in the soil by micro-organisms and sunlight without decomposing into any pollutants such as methane gas which is commonly produced as a by-product of decomposition in landfills and dumps. Growing bamboo improves soil quality and helps rebuild eroded soil. The extensive root system of bamboo holds soil together, prevents soil erosion, and retains water in the watershed. Bamboo grows naturally without the need for agricultural tending and large diesel exhaust-spewing tractors to plant seeds and cultivate the soil. Bamboo plantations are large factories for photosynthesis which reduces greenhouse gases. Bamboo plants absorb about 5 times the amount of carbon dioxide (a primary greenhouse gas) and produces about 35% more oxygen than an equivalent stand of trees. Bamboo fabrics and clothing can be manufactured and produced without any chemical additives although eco-certification such as Oeko-Tex is necessary to insure that the manufacturing and finishing processes are healthy. Currently, there are no known genetically modified organisms (GMO) variants of bamboo. Lets hope it stays that way. The bottom line on bamboo. The growing of bamboo is environmentally friendly but the manufacturing of bamboo into fabric raises environmental and health concerns because of the strong chemical solvents used to cook the bamboo plant into a viscose solution that is then reconstructed into cellulose fiber for weaving into yarn for fabric. Bamboo clothing marketers have found a variety of ways to put the most eco-friendly and sustainable face on the manufacturing of bamboo fabric. The dominant manufacturing process of hydrolysis alkalization and multi-phase bleaching is generally referred to as a rather benign process utilizing caustic soda and bleach. The chemicals used are known to create a variety of health problems and neural disorders which can be hazardous to the health of fiber manufacturing workers. If the manufacturing facility lacks adequate pollution control systems all too common in developing countries where regulations and enforcement are nearly nonexistent then these toxic chemicals can escape into the atmosphere through air vents and smokestacks and into waterways through inadequately treated waste water disposal systems. Some bamboo fiber manufacturing facilities trumpet their sustainability and green credentials by establishing ISO 9000 Quality Management policies and ISO 14000 Environmental Management policies. This is largely a PR red herring tossed by the manufacturing facilities and marketers because these ISO standards do not mean that the facilities, their manufacturing processes or their fabrics have been certified by any of the international certification bodies such as SKAL, Soil Association, Demeter, KRAV, or OKO-tex.

Bamboo plante i, de asemenea, bambus tesatura poate evalua de mare ca o resurs regenerabil i ecologic: Bambus creste rapid i natural, fr nici pesticide, erbicide sau ngrminte. mbrcminte bambus (att mecanic, ct i chimic fabricate) este de 100% biodegradabile i pot fi complet descompus n sol de ctre micro-organisme si lumina soarelui, fr descompunerea n orice poluani, cum ar fi gazul metan, care este de obicei produs ca un produs de descompunere n depozitele de deeuri i haldele. Bambus n cretere mbuntete calitatea solului i a ajuta la refacerea solului erodat. Sistemul radicular extins de bambus deine mpreun solului, previne eroziunea solului, si retine apa in bazinul hidrografic. Bambus creste in mod natural, fr necesitatea de a tinde agricole i motorin mare de evacuare-spewing tractoare s planteze semine i s cultive solul. Plantaiilor de bambus sunt fabrici mari, pentru fotosinteza, ceea ce reduce gazele cu efect de ser. Plante de bambus absorb aproximativ 5 ori cantitatea de dioxid de carbon (un gaz cu efect de ser primar) i produce oxigen aproximativ 35% mai mult dect un stand de echivalent de copaci. esturi bambus i de mbrcminte pot fi fabricate i produse fr aditivi chimici, dei certificarea ecologic, cum ar fi Oeko-Tex este necesar pentru a se asigura c procesele de fabricaie i finisare sunt sntoi. n prezent, nu exist organisme cunoscute modificate genetic (OMG) variante de bambus. S sperm c rmne aa. Linia de jos pe bambus. Tot mai mare de bambus este ecologic, dar procesul de fabricaie a bambus n estur ridic probleme de mediu i de sntate din cauza solveni chimici puternici utilizate pentru a gti planta de bambus ntr-o soluie viscoz, care este apoi reconstruit n fibre de celuloz pentru esut n fire pentru esturi. Marketing bambus de mbrcminte au gsit-o varietate de moduri de a pune fata cea mai eco-friendly i durabile privind procesul de fabricaie a tesatura bambus. Procesul de fabricaie dominant a alcalizare hidroliz i multi-faza de albire este, n general, menionat ca un proces destul de benign utilizarea sod caustic i nlbitor. Substanele chimice folosite sunt cunoscute pentru a crea o varietate de probleme de sntate i de tulburri neuronale care pot fi periculoase pentru sntatea lucrtorilor de producie de fibre. n cazul n care nu dispune de instalaie de fabricare a unor sisteme adecvate de control al polurii - mult prea comune n rile n curs de dezvoltare n cazul n care reglementrile i aplicare a legii sunt aproape inexistente -, atunci aceste substane chimice toxice pot scpa n atmosfer prin orificiile de ventilaie i cosuri i n cursurile de ap prin sisteme de tratate inadecvat de eliminare a apelor uzate . Unele faciliti de producie de fibre de bambus tubulare durabilitatea lor i acreditri ecologice prin stabilirea unor politici ISO 9000 de Management al Calitatii si ISO 14000 politicile de management de mediu. Acest lucru este n mare msur un hering rou de PR aruncat n instalaiile de producie i de marketing, deoarece aceste standarde ISO nu nseamn c facilitile, procesele de fabricare a acestora sau de materiale lor au fost certificate de ctre oricare dintre organismele de certificare internaionale, cum ar fi SKAL, Soil Association, Demeter, KRAV, sau ko-Tex.