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GHIDUL CANDIDATULUI LA EXAMENUL LINGUA LIMBA ENGLEZ DE AFACERI

TESTUL SCRIS

Proba 1- Ascultat
Proba de ascultat const dintr-un exerciiu care are n jur de 6 subpuncte. Materialul se ascult de dou ori. Candidaii au aproximativ 1 minut pentru a citi exerciiul nainte de a asculta materialul. Numrul maxim de puncte care poate fi acumulat este de 6. Acest exerciiu poate fi de trei feluri: Tipul 1: Adevrat sau fals n cazul acestui tip, trebuie s decidei dac propoziiile date sunt adevrate sau false, n funcie de materialul ascultat. Recomandri:

nainte de a asculta materialul, citii cu atenie propoziiile concentrndu-v asupra cuvintelor cheie. Unele propoziii au dou pri; ambele pri trebuie s fie adevrate pentru ca propoziia s fie adevrat. la prima ascultare concentrai-v doar asupra informaiilor din propoziiile date; n materialul ascultat vor fi i informaii suplimentare irelevante pentru sarcin. Bazai-v decizia pe ce auzii, nu pe ceea ce credei dvs. despre subiect. propoziiile apar n aceeai ordine ca i informaiile relevante din materialul ascultat.

la a doua ascultare verificai-v rspunsurile.

Tipul 2: Text cu spaii de completat n cazul acestui tip de exerciiu trebuie s completai spaiile unui text care se refer la materialul ascultat. Numrul de spaii poate varia de la 5 la 10. Dac numrul maxim de cuvinte pentru un spaiu este specificat rt instruciuni nu depii acest numr. Recomandri:

scriei exact cuvintele pe care le auzii; acest exerciiu testeaz atenia pe care o putei acorda detaliilor. nainte de a asculta citii cu atenie textul dat i ncercai s anticipai tipul de informaie care va trebui completat. nu v ateptai s auzii aceleai cuvinte ca i n textul dat; concentrai-v pe sens, nu form. spaiile apar n ordinea n care apare informaia relevant n textul ascultat. pentru a v verifica, acordai atenie scrierii corecte a cuvintelor din spaiile respective f nu depii numrul maxim de cuvinte pentru un spaiu, dac acesta este specificat.

Tipul 3: Alegei varianta corect (A, B, C,...) n acest tip de exerciiu trebuie s alegei o opiune (i numai una) dintrun numr de variante date, n funcie de materialul ascultat. Recomandri: nainte de a asculta, citii ntrebrile i variantele, concentrnduv asupra ntrebrilor i a cuvintelor cheie. n timp ce ascultai fii contieni de faptul c vei auzi alte cuvinte dect cele din variantele date. Nu alegei o variant doar pentru c apar aceleai cuvinte precum n textul ascultat! Deseori vei constata c n variantele incorecte apar exact aceleai cuvinte ca i n textul ascultat, aceste variante fiind incorecte pentru c nu rspund corect ntrebrii. Fii ateni la context ] la ntrebarea la care rspundei.

- ntrebrile apar n ordinea n care sunt tratate n materialul ascultat la a doua ascultare verificai-v rspunsurile.

PROBA 2 - CITIT
Proba de citit const dintr-un text din care au fost scoase un numr de aproximativ 6 propoziii. Propoziiile sunt date la sfritul textului, plus o propoziie care nu se potrivete n text i care nu trebuie selectat. Numrul maxim de puncte care poate fi obinut este de 6. Acest exerciiu testeaz nelegerea organizrii textelor. Recomandri:

acordai aproximativ 10-15 minute acestei sarcini. nti citii textul ignornd spaiile goale pentru a nelege ideile principale. cnd citii textul a doua oar, putei aplica urmtoarea strategie: de fiecare dat cnd ajungei la un spaiu, citii cu atenie propoziia dinaintea spaiului i cea de dup spaiu pentru a vedea dac exist cel puin o legtur de sens ntre propoziia aleas de dvs i text. De fiecare dat cnd ajungei la un spaiu, luai n considerare toate propoziiile date, nu le eliminai, deoarece riscai s facei greeli. propoziia care este n plus poate fi fie prea general pentru a se potrivi n text, fie apropiat de alt propoziie, dar totui nepotrivit n text. pentru a v verifica, citii textul cu propoziiile completate de dvs. pentru a vedea dac conexiunile ntre idei sunt logice.

PROBA 3 - GRAMATIC SI VOCABULAR


A treia prob a testului scris testeaz cunotinele dvs. de gramatic i vocabular. Ea const n 30 de ntrebri, fiecare punctat cu 0,2 puncte, grupate n 4 tipuri de sarcini de lucru, dup cum urmeaz:

1. un paragraf n care exist spaii libere, numerotate, pe care dvs. trebuie s le completai, alegnd un cuvnt care s se potriveasc n aa fel, nct propoziia care rezult s aib sens; se testeaz cunotinele referitoare la structur i vocabular Recomandri: citii nti ntregul paragraf aa cum este, cu spaii libere; uneori indiciul se gsete n propoziia care vine dup spaiul liber pe care trebuie s l completai; reinei c trebuie s adugai un singur cuvnt! trebuie s stabilii nti ce parte de vorbire lipsete (substantiv, verb, adjectiv, adverb, prepoziie etc.), n funcie de topica fireasc a limbii, dup care, dac este cazul, concentrai-v pe forma pe care trebuie s o aib respectivul cuvnt (numr i caz la substantiv, timp la verb etc.); nu dai mai multe variante de rspuns pentru c n acest caz, chiar dac una dintre variante este corect, rspunsul dvs. nu va fi luat n considerare;

2. un paragraf n care exist spaii libere, numerotate, pe care dvs. trebuie s ie completai, alegnd un cuvnt dintre 4 variante care vi se ofer Recomandri:

dac nu suntei siguri care este varianta potrivit, eliminai nti variantele care sunt evident greite (ca sens sau ca form); uneori putei alege varianta corect prin eliminarea celor incorecte; nu dai mai multe variante de rspuns pentru c n acest caz, chiar dac una dintre variante este corect, rspunsul dvs. nu va fi luat n considerare

3. cteva propoziii n care mai multe segmente sunt numerotate i subliniate i care conin o greeal, pe care dvs. trebuie s o identificai; Recomandri: greelile pot varia de la ortografie la topic; citii cu atenie segmentele subliniate i concentrai-v asupra tuturor detaliilor lexico-gramaticale;

nu dai mai multe variante de rspuns pentru c n acest caz, chiar dac una dintre variante este corect, rspunsul dvs. nu va fi luat n considerare;

4. cteva propoziii n care exist spaii libere numerotate, pe care dvs. trebuie sate completai n aa fel nct propoziia s aib sens; cuvntul pe care trebuie s l adugai se obine prin derivarea cuvntului pe care l avei scris cu majuscule la sfritul propoziiei; Recomandri: derivai cuvntul de la sfritul propoziiei, nu alegei un alt cuvnt, din dreptul altei propoziii; determinai ce parte de vorbire completeaz corect propoziia |j apoi folosii sufixe i/sau prefixe specifice respectivei pri de vorbire (fii ateni i la acordul gramatical); pentru aceast prob ortografierea corect a cuvntului derivat este esenial citii propoziia cu mult atenie pentru a identifica eventuale conotaii negative, care reclam utilizarea unor prefixe i/sau sufixe cu neles negativ; nu dai mai multe variante de rspuns pentru c n acest caz, chiar dac una dintre variante este corect, rspunsul dvs. nu va fi luat n considerare; pentru a fi bine pregtii pentru aceast prob nu ncercai s nvai cuvinte derivate pe de rost; v recomandm s citii mult, folosind dicionarul i s reinei cuvintele n familii de cuvinte.

Pentru toate cele 4 sarcini de lucru v recomandm s nu lsai necompletat foaia pentru rspunsuri. Chiar dac nu suntei absolut siguri de corectitudinea rspunsului, exist ansa ca el s fie corect, deci trecei-l pe foaia dvs.

PROBA 4 - SCRIERE
Proba de scriere din cadrul testului pentru obinerea certificatului de competen lingvistic evalueaz capacitatea dumneavoastr de a concepe i produce un text de aproximativ 180 de cuvinte n limba strin studiat.

Acest lucru presupune att cunotine lingvistice, ct i cunotine referitoare la formatul i organizarea unui tip de text, precum i folosirea registrului adecvat n funcie de cititorul preconizat Tipurile de text cu care vi se cere s fii familiarizai sunt: - scrisorile formale (scrisoarea de intenie, scrisoarea de reclamaie) scrisorile informale - rapoartele - eseurile - articolele Temele pe baza crora vor fi formulate cerinele de lucru sunt fie cele menionate n programele de studiu, fie sunt subiecte de interes general, hs relevante pentru experiena dumneavoastr academic sau profesional. Recomandri generale: -

Nu uitai c price text conine o parte introductiv, un cuprins i o ncheiere sau concluzie. Fiecare idee nou trebuie formulat i dezvoltat ntr-un paragraf. Delimitai clar paragrafele, fie ncepnd fiecare nou paragraf la circa doi centimetri de marginea paginii, fie lsnd un spaiu ntre paragrafe. Organizai fiecare paragraf n mod logic, ncepnd cu ideea principal, pe care o dezvoltai cu detalii i exemple relevante. Propoziiile mai scurte, dar cu neles clar sunt de preferat celor foarte lungi, dar incoerente. Avei n vedere cititorul pe care-l presupune tipul de text cerut i adoptai registrul potrivit (fie formal, fie informai). Fii consecvent n folosirea acestui registru. Referii-v constant la cerinele de lucru. Nu includei n text dect informaiile relevante pentru tema propus. Nu folosii n text fraze copiate din cerina de lucru, sau fraze nvate n prealabil, dar care nu au legtur cu sarcina de lucru dat. Nu uitai c trebuie s producei un text coerent i bine legat. Utilizai elemente de legtur care s v ajute s organizai logic textul de la un captja altul. Respectai limita de cuvinte specificat n sarcina de lucru, dezvoltnd toate aspectele menionate n cerina de lucru. Un numr prea mare de cuvinte poate nsemna c ai introdus n

text o serie de informaii irelevante, iar un numr de cuvinte semnificativ mai mic dect cel cerut indic faptul c rspunsul este incomplet. ncercai s scriei cite. Examinatorii nu pot evalua dect ceea ce pot citi.

Recomandri specifice privind fiecare tip de text: 1 Tipul de text Scrisori formale/ informale DA: - respectai formatul adecvat scrisorilor formale/informale - menionai adresele expeditorului i destinatarului - nu uitai s ncepei i s ncheiai scrisoarea folosind formulele de adresare adecvate - respectai formatul adecvat rapoartelor. Acestea au titlu i cuprind paragrafe care au i ele titluri, n funcie de natura informaiei oferite. - putei organiza informaia n liste cu subpuncte - folosii un stil concis, clar i un ton impersonal, potrivit registrului formal - eseurile de tip argumentativ presupun un echilibru ntre numrul de argumente pro i contra. Prezentai fiecare argument n cadrul unui paragraf separat, dar delimitat. - concluzia eseului argumentativ rezum probele prezentate i ofer opinia dumneavoastr asupra temei dezbtute - folosii un stil neutru NU: ! - nu introducei subtitluri, liste sau subpuncte n cuprinsul unei scrisori - nu folosii informaii irelevante pentru sarcina de lucru dat - nu uitai c rapoartele presupun, pe lng analiza unei situaii, i o parte final cu sugestii sau recomandri

Rapoarte

Eseuri

- de regul, eseurile nu au titlu - nu organizai informaia n liste cu subpuncte - nu v rezumai la generaliti. Prezentai amnunte concrete i exemple din propria experien.

Articole

- articolul trebuie s aib ntotdeauna un titlu interesant - n special introducerea i ncheierea trebuie s capteze interesul cititorilor - utilizai conectori logici, att n interiorul paragrafelor, ct i ca legtur ntre paragrafe succesive, pentru a da coeren textului

- nu uitai cui i este | adresat articolul i adaptai registrul i stilul acestui grup de cititori - nu folosii informaii 1 irelevante pentru tema articolului propus - nu introducei liste i subpuncte

Elementele urmrite de ctre examinatori n procesul de evaluare Pe o scal de la 1 la 6, examinatorii vor avea n vedere urmtoarele aspecte: - formatul i modul de organizare a textului; vi se cere s cunoatei diferenele de format ntre scrisoare i raport, raport i articol etc. trebuie s tii cum s organizai informaia n paragrafe bine alctuite i clar delimitate - coerena i coeziunea textului: organizarea logic a argumentelor aa nct textul s conduc fluent spre o concluzie i utilizarea instrumentelor lingvistice (cuvinte/fraze de legtur, conectori logici) adecvate pentru atingerea acestui scop; - complexitatea structurilor lingvistice utilizate i acurateea acestora; - relevana vocabularului pentru tema propus; - utilizarea adecvat a registrelor formal i informai i adaptarea stilului la tipul de cititor; - acurateea ortografiei.

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B. TESTAREA ORALA
Proba oral din cadrul testului pentru obinerea certificatului de competen dureaz 5-7 minute i cuprinde dou pri, fiecare dintre acestea presupunnd discutarea unui subiect diferit i urmrind verificarea unor competene de vorbire diferite.

Subiectul 1
Partea nti a probei orale const ntr-o miniprezentare de un minut pe o tem aleas de dumneavoastr diritr-un set de subiecte formulate pe baza programei, n limbajul de specialitate studiat (limbaj general sau limbaj de afaceri). Aceast miniprezentare urmrete s evalueze: - modul n care ai reuit s v nsuii cei mai importani termeni de specialitate n aa fel nct s-i putei folosi n mod relevant - modul n care reuii s organizai i s producei un discurs corect i coerent n limba strin, pornind de la o tem dat, argumentndu-v logic opiniile aducnd exemple ilustrative pentru tema respectiv Vei avea la dispoziie cel puin 5 minute n care s v pregtii discursul, timp n care putei face notie care s v ajute n prezentare. Atenie: nu este recomandabil s scriei i apoi s citii ntregul discurs. Examinatorii vor nelege faptul c ai putea avea emoii, ns nu vor lua n considerare dect partea vorbit liber a prezentrii dumneavoastr i nu ceea ce citii. Dat fiind c n aceast parte suntei invitai s vorbii timp de un minut pe tema aleas, aceast limit de timp nu va fi redus dect n urmtoarele condiii: - dac, prin cuvinte sau gesturi, dai de neles examinatorilor c nu mai dorii s continuai. Examinatorii v vor acorda cteva secunde de gndire i/sau v vor ntreba dac mai avei ceva

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de adugat, nainte de a trece la partea urmtoare a probei orale; dac vorbii n limba romn. Nu uitai c acest test evalueaz exclusiv capacitile dumneavoastr de a vorbi n limba strin.

Examinatorii nu vor interveni dect dac, dup epuizarea limitei de timp de un minut, cortinuai s vorbii. Nu vei fi depunctai, ns vei fi rugai s trecei la partea urrhtoare a testului. De aceea, ncercai s profitai de minutul acordat prezentrii ca s convingei examinatorii c avei cunotinele de limb strin necesare obinerii punctajului de trecere.

Subiectul 2
Partea a doua a probei orale cuprinde un dialog de 3-4 minute cu examinatorii, pornind de la un nou subiect pe care l vei alege dintr-un set formulat pe baza programei i conform limbajului de specialitate studiat (limbaj general sau limbaj de afaceri). Odat ales subiectul i comunicat examinatorilor, acetia vor iniia o conversaie la care vei fi invitai s participai. Interviul urmrete s evalueze: - modul n care nelegei limba vorbit, producnd rspunsuri relevante n funcie de subiectul abordat i participnd activ la dialog. - modul n pare tii s v exprimai acordul sau dezacordul i s v explicai poziia n legtur cu cele discutate Durata acestei pri i numrul ntrebrilor pot varia n funcie de lungimea rspunsurilor dumneavoastr. Dac rspunsurile vor fi scurte, vi se vor adresa mai multe ntrebri. In momentul n care examinatorii vor considera c le-ai oferit dovezi suficiente privind abilitile dumneavoastr de comunicare n limba strin, acetia v vor anuna sfritul probei orale. In partea a doua, vi se ofer posibilitatea de a discuta cu examinatorii pe tema aleas. Profitai de ocazie pentru a v exprima opiniile i a aduce exemple relevante din experiena dumneavoastr academic sau profesional. Mai ales, nu uitai s dovedii c avei capacitatea de a comunica eficient n limba strin.

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Sfaturi utile pentru proba oral: - n partea nti, citii cu atenie cerinele de lucru de pe biletul de examen i referii-v strict la subiectul pe care vi se cere s-l prezentai. - n cazul n care nu nelegei un cuvnt sau o fraz din formularea subiectului, nu este recomandabil s cerei examinatorilor s v ofere traduceri sau explicaii. ncercai s dezvoltai partea din subiect pe care o nelegei, sau s deducei din context sensul cuvintelor/frazelor care nu v sunt familiare. - Folosii-v toate cunotinele de limb strin pentru a trata subiectele complet i pentru a da posibilitatea examinatorilor s v evalueze corect. - Pe tot parcursul testului, vorbii clar i destul de tare pentru a fi auzit. Urmai ntocmai instruciunile examinatorilor. Elementele urmrite de ctre examinatori n procesul de evaluare: Fiecare dintre cele dou pri ale testului se noteaz, pe baza unui punctaj, de la 1 la 6, n funcie de performana dumneavoastr n partea respectiv. n ambele pri ale testului, examinatorii vor avea n vedere: - complexitatea i acurateea limbajului - relevana vocabularului pentru subiectul tratat - modul de organizare al discursului i modul n care tii s folosii toate resursele lingvistice de care dispunei pentru a v face neles de ctre interlocutor - pronunia (cu precizarea c aceasta nu trebuie s fie neaprat perfect, ci doar suficient de clar pentru ca interlocutorul s v neleag corect mesajul) - abilitile de comunicare n dialogul cu un interlocutor (felul n care ascultai i rspundei i felul n care reuii s v facei cunoscute opiniile, acceptnd sau nu punctul de vedere al interlocutorului).

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III. EXEMPLE DE TESTE, PE PROBE DE EXAMEN

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READING

Test 1
You are going to read a magazine article about money. Choose from the list (A - H) the sentence which best summarises each part (1 6) of the article. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. A B C D E F G H Royal portraits on coins made them easier to use. It has become more difficult to say wht money actually is. Criminals mad a profit while reducing the value of coins. Cash may disappear as cards take over. For most people, money means the things it can get them. Banknotes were introduced as a more convenient form of money. Weight, not number, was once the key to a coin's worth. The type of metal in coins can mean stability for governments.

Making Money Coins are survivors in the changing world of finance 0 E The pound coin in your purse or pocket is a form of money that is easy to understand: it might buy a pound of apples, three chocolate bars or a tube ride across central London. If you're on the average wage of 240 a week, it takes you about ten minutes to earn one, and of course it can take only seconds to spend one. Whatever its value is in theory, to most of us the only point of a pound coin is in what it can buy us.________________ 1 This form of money has not changed much since coins were first introduced in Asia Minor in the 7th century BC. The first coins were made from a mixture of gold and silver, and to judge their value they had to be weighed rather than counted. This of course made buying things more complicated than it is today. 2

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Money has always meant power, so governments naturally want to control the supply of money. They originally did this by stamping the ruler's head on each coin. Governmental control of money became a guarantee that a coin was worth its face value, and also meant that people could just count coins rather than weighing them, thus saving time and effort. 3 While this arrangement made life easier, some cheats came up with the idea of trimming bits of metal from the edges of coins, which they then melted down for profit This meant that the coins were not actually worth what they were supposed to be, so special rough edges were introduced in the late seventeenth century to prevent this practice. 4 Governments used to reduce the amount of precious metal in coins, but this devaluing of coinage has been blamed for the collapse of entire political systems. The empires of ancient Greece and Rome were built on stable coinage; the quantity of silver in Greek coins hardly changed in four centuries. But when Romn emperors began to devalue their coins in order to make money for the government, the empire began to fail. 5 The world of money has become very complex. The financial and banking system is so complicated that people cannot even agree on a precise definition of money. At one extreme it is seen as simply the notes and coins which we use every day, while at the other money is defined as any valuable goods or services which can be exchanged for cash.

6
Nowadays money comes in three commonly used forms: notes, coins and plastic cards. Coins are now the least important part of the financial system, and will probably become even less important as more and more people use credit and debit cards as an easy alternative to filling their pockets and purses with cash. {Source: Virginia Evans, Practice Exam Papers for the Revised Cambridge Examination; Express Publishing* 1998) KEY 1G 2A 3C 4H 5B 6D

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Test 2
Read the following text about German banks. Then choose the best sentence from the box below the text to fill each of the gaps (e.g. 0 - B). Do not use any letter more than once. There is one extra sentence. 5 Big German Banks in Loan Pool Five of Germany's largest banks, mired in their worst downturn since World War II, plan to announce on Wednesday that they will pool up to $50 billion worth of investment-grade loans in a new joint venture. 0 B Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank, Commerzbank, HVB Group, and DZ Bank will participate in the venture to be run by the state development bank, Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau, or KfW. The venture could raise up to 5 billion euros ($5.44 billion) through the sale of bonds backed by the loans. 1__ The move is a radical step by the banks to confront their many problems, which range from mounting bad loans to plummeting profits and share prices, according to industry: analysts. "The banks are showing they're willing to try unorthodox solutions," said David Williams, a banking analyst at Morgan Stanley in London. They're saying, 'Our share prices have been killed. We've got to embrace change. We've got to do things that were once unthinkable.'" Executives at the banks said the proposal was not related to a rumoured plan by the government to set up a "bad bank" an entity to take over and sell off nonperforming loans from the private banks. "This is not a bad bank," said a banker who spoke on condition of anonymity. "This is a good bank." Under the plan, he said, the banks would put their most creditworthy loans into the venture. 2__ Because KfW is state owned, the banks are expected to contend that the government should not tax them on the transfer of loans. Moving the loans off the balance sheets of the banks would free capital because the banks would no longer have to back the credit risk of the loans with equity. It would also improve their rates of return for shareholders, and that could jolt their dismal share prices. 3 __. "We are very hopeful that this program will help bring about the necessary funds for small and medium-size companies," Barbara Hendricks, a top official in the finance ministry, said in an interview with Bloomberg News. 4 __ Bankers here have repeatedly had to dispel suggestions that Germany is facing a banking crisis like that in Japan.

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How Germany can avoid such a crisis is being hotly debated. 5 __ Analysts have said that without state intervention the prospect of a bank that would take over bad loans is unlikely. The problem with creating such a bank, Mr. Williams said, is "the banks have to admit they've got those bad loans. 6 __ (Source: Adapted from http://query.nytimes.com/gsMullpage.html) A. German government officials, who had a hand in arranging the joint venture, hope the banks will use their greater financial flexibility to resume lending, particularly to small and medium-size companies, which have experienced a drying up of their credit as Germany's economy skirts a recession. B. The move, which is dependent on a change in German tax laws, could help to lighten the banks' overburdened balance sheets. C. "in such a scenario, he added, "the shareholder still has to take some pain ultimately." D. The pooling, known in industry jargon as securitization, is common in other countries, but Germany's venture is notable for its size and collaborative nature. E.. Earlier this year, the chief executive of Deutsche Bank, Josef Ackermann, floated the idea of the government's setting up a bank to take over bad loans in a meeting with the chancellor, Gerhard Schroder. F. That would allow KfW, which has a triple-A credit rating, to sell bonds backed by the loans. G. But some sort of solution is urgently required, since an increasing number of German firms are warning that bank financing is proving hard to secure in the present difficult climate. H. Of the major private banks, only Deutsche Bank managed to eke out a profit in the last year. KEY 1D 2F 3A 4H 5E 6C

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Test 3
Read the following text about new regulations and standards for accountants. Choose the best sentence from below to fill each of the gaps in the text (e.g. 0 - D). Do not use any letter more than once. There is one extra sentence. The procession of companies admitting to having lied in their reported accounts has undermined faith in corporate numbers and put the accounting profession under pressure to change its ways. 0.__ The first priority for those who set accounting rules has been to try to choke off the most obvious loopholes. Looking further into the future, however, some see the crisis in accounting as an opportunity to change the shape and content of accounts more fundamentally 1. __ Under such circumstances, profits may come to be stated as a range of figures, each of them arrived at by using different accounting assumptions. This may sound worryingly uncertain, but it might be better than trying to rely on a brittle illusion of accounting exactitude, which is liable to collapse during times of economic strain. For the moment though, the efforts of regulators and standard-setters are focused on five main areas: Pro-forma accounts. These are the first sets of results produced by companies in America: they are unaudited and do not follow America's GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles). In the years of the stock market bubble they were shamelessly abused. Companies regularly reported huge profits in their pro-forma earnings statements, only to register even larger losses in their official filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). 2.__ Off-balance-sheet vehicles. These include the "special-purpose entities" made famous by Enron, which gave them the names of suitably fanciful characters in the Star Wars movies. 3.__. The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), America's privatesector standard-setter, issued guidance on these vehicles in January, which Ford and General Motors say will have a material impact on their profits this year. But some think that the new rules are weak because they allow exemptions for "qualifying" specialpurpose entities. Stock options. Most significant of all, perhaps, is the attempt to force companies to account for stock options granted to their employees. This week, FASB agreed that the cost of employee stock options should be treated as an expense. The question is how to value

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them. 4. __ Opposition is gathering once more, although this time recent accounting scandals should lend support to FASB's position. Pension funds. Another controversial aim is to make companies change the way they account for their employee pension schemes. Britain's new standard on pensions, FRS17, forces them to measure pension assets at market value. In future, if a company's pension fund owes its members more than it owns in assets, the difference will be shown on the balance sheet Outside Britain, such gaps can be smoothed out over years, with the result that some companies are still recording profits from their pension schemes despite the fact that the schemes themselves are in deficit. 5.__ Revenue recognition. This is the vexed issue of when precisely to include revenue in the accountsfor example, when an order is made, when it is shipped, or when payment is received. Revenue recognition has been the main reason for restatements of accounts by American companies in recent years. 6.__ Again, the effect could be far-reaching: companies could be made to look far smaller if they are prevented from pulling revenue forward from future periods, as many do now. (Source: http://w4. stern, nyu. edu/news/news/20Q3/april/0426economist html)

A. Britain's approach will spread: in March, FASB said it would start examining ways to improve accounting for employee pension plans, with the aim of publishing a new standard on pension accounting in America next year. B. They allowed the Houston oil trader to hide hundreds of millions of dollars of liabilities from investors' eyes. C. Sir David Tweedie, chairman of the International Accounting Standards Board (lASB) in London, and his equivalents around the world want to lay down new rules on when a company can recognise revenue. D. In the 1990s, accountants clearly failed to keep up with the tricks that were devised to help companies inflate their profits. E. Since the end of March this year, companies have been compelled to show how they reconcile their pro-forma figures with the numbers subsequently produced according to GAAP rules, of which there are hundreds.

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F. The growing use of market values for assets and liabilities (instead of the accidental "historic.cost" at which they were obtained) is going to make shareholders' equity and profits swing around far more than in the past. G. Standard-setters may find it a struggle to bring in tough new measures. But they have a wider agenda that finance directors will eventually find it hard to resist. They want to stop companies using accounting rules to create the impression that profits rise remorselessly every yearby, in effect, smoothing out their earnings. H. The standard-setters may yet have a fight on their hands. In 1994, Congress threatened to take away FASB's standard-setting powers if it did not abandon its attempt to make companies "expense" their stock options. KEY 1F 2E 3B 4H 5A 6C

Test 4
Read the following article about business ethics. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A-J the one which fits each gap (1-9). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Ethical Decision-making Quick Test by Bruce A, Hamm Often, making ethical decisions in the work place is a delicate balancing act between competing forces. Easy decisions like "should I embezzle hundreds of thousands of dollars" are obvious and generally do not require much help or analysis to determine whether they are ethical or not. 1.__ Having a quick test allows you to make the easy decisions and recognize when the decision may be a bit more difficult. If at any point, you cannot legitimately answer the question, you might consider asking someone else for help. 2.__ Remember, generally the decisions are yours and you have to live with the results, so be prepared to accept responsibility for them. Is it legal?

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This is the first filter through which your ethical decision will pass, 3.__ A business law professor in an MBA course once stated that the law is generally about 12 years behind society's concept of ethical practices. Don't simply stop your ethical decision making process at whether an action is legal. It may not be against the law but it may also riot be the right thing to do. If the answer is no or raises objections, you must stop, reject the action and take another course 4.__ . How would it look in the news? Okay, you've determined that your action is legal. Now, how would it look to the rest of your community, the nation and ever more frequently, the world? It's one thing for you or even your close associates to know about your decisions and actions but entirely another when people outside your inner circle know about them. 5.__ Would you be embarrassed to have these events known? How would your company perceive publicity surrounding your actions? If the answer is unacceptable, stop, reject the action and take another course. If the answer is acceptable, go on to the next criteria. Does it comply with our company values? What are your company values? Okay, let's first assume your company values are legitimate ones. Do your actions conform to them? For example: if your values say something about treating employees fairly, do you have a legitimate process for applying discipline and/or discharge? Do managers fire people in the heat of an emotional upheaval or is there an appropriate escalation of discipline before the company allows such a step? 6.__ If your action conforms to your corporate values, move on to the next criteria. Under the same circumstances, would I want the result of this decision to happen to everyone? Am I treating others as I want to be treated? How do you want to be treated? If you've made a mistake do you take responsibility for it? Have you accepted appropriate discipline with an attitude conducive to correcting the behavior? 7.__ If you've done something well, do you expect an appropriate reward, even if it is only verbal? Do you give that same level of reward to your staff or coworkers? For decisions concerning others, is the result of the action fair? Does the person affected get only the appropriate degree of reward or discipline? Would others agree with your perception of the outcome? If ho, stop, reject the action and take another course. If yes, move on to the next criteria. How will I feel after the decision is known? Can I face myself the next morning? This is the man in the mirror story (updated to include the woman in the mirror). 8.__ How do you feel about the decision? Even if it is a tough decision and the outcome would affect someone negatively, have you

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acted out of the overall best interest of everyone concerned? If the answer is no, stop, reject the action and find another course. If yes, take the action with good confidence you've resolved your dilemma. Often with subsequent information we regret our actions but we also realize that we make decisions with the information available at the time. If the decision does not need to be made immediately, have you given your proposed action enough reflection to feel confident about its outcome? This process may seem long. 9.___ Every time you discard a particular option run the next alternativa through this same practice. Taking the time to review decisions with an ethical perspective is critical to making the right choices. When a company's people focus on their ethical behavior, everyone involved is better off. (adapted and abridged from http://www.work911.com/cgh bin/liriks/iump.cgi?ID=3935) A. If it is legal, go on to the next criteria. B. If your ethical dilemma is obviously at odds with your company values, stop, reject the action and take another course. C. When you shave or apply your makeup and you think of the action you will take, can you look yourself in the mirror and know you are satisfied you've done the right thin? D. It's a bit tougher when the decision is between two competing right things to do. E. In general, they may even share part of the responsibility. F. However, the more you use it, the more quickly you can work through the decision review process on subsequent occasions. G. The word discipline has its origins in the Greek word meaning to teach not to punish. H. Talk to your supervisor or, if you are lucky enough to have an ethics officer or ethics helpline, talk to whoever can help you make the final decision. I. How will the people you don't know perceive your actions? J. Legal and ethical are not equivalent concepts. KEY 1D

2H

3J

4A

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6B

7G

8C

9F

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ENGLISH IN USE Test 1


QUESTIONS 1-10 DIRECTIONS: For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. Rosen Sharma is sure about (1)___ thing. His nine-month-old company, Solidcore, a start-up that makes backup security systems (2)___ computers, could not survive (3)___ outsourcing. By lowering his development costs, the 18 engineers who work for him in India (4)___ as little as one-fourth the salary of their American counterparts allow him to spend money on 13 senior managers, engineers and marketing people in Silicon Valley. (5)___ he doesn't outsource, in fact, the venture capitalists who fund start-ups like his won't give him a nickel. Sharma's Indian-American team, tethered by a broadband connection, gets his product (6)___ front of customers faster and cheaper. "As a business, you have to stay competitive," he says. "If we don't do it, our competitors (7)___, and they're going to blow us away." But Sharma's sharp analysis loses its edge when he thinks (8)___ what decisions like his will mean someday for his children. "(9)___ a father, my reaction is different than my reaction as a CEO," he says. He believes that companies (10)___ his will always need senior people in the U.S., like the systems architects who design new products and the experienced salespeople who close deals. QUESTIONS 11-20 DIRECTIONS: For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. "But if you're graduating (11)___ college today, where are the entrylevel jobs?" Sharma asks (12)___. How do you get to that (13)___, skilled job when the path that leads you there has disappeared? That's an issue that economists, politicians and workers are struggling (14)___ as the U.S. finds itself (15)___ the middle of a structural shift in the economy that no one quite (16)___. There (17)___ be a mix-up here. We ordered a recovery, heavy on the jobs, please. What we're getting is a new kind of homeland insecurity powered by the (18)___ of outsourcing, an ominous piece of business jargon that seems to (19)___ that every call centre, insurance-claims processor,

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programming department and Wall Street back office is being moved to India, Ireland or some other place thousands of miles (20)___. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. A of A quit A secure A against A at A waited A should A raise A imply A far B from B quiet B insecure B with B in B awaited B will B rising B implement B out C after C quite C secured C over C on C expected C must C arise C complicate C away D out D quietly D safely D for D into D sighted D need D rise D complement D outside

QUESTIONS 21-25 DIRECTIONS: For each of the following questions (21 to 25) there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. One of the underlined parts, A or B or C or D, makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. 21. To be sure, (A) public anxiety and election-year finger pointing have blurred some important distinctions, (B) To set them straight: most of the jobs (C) that have shifted to places like Mexico and China in the past several decades have been in manufacturing, which (D) is been done with ever increasing sophistication in low-wage countries. 22. Some (A) have blamed also trade-liberalization deals like the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), (B) which the Labor Department estimates (C) was responsible for the loss of more than 500,000 U.S. jobs (D) between 1994 and 2002. 23. (A) That's a significant number but (B) modest in comparison to the millions of jobs (C) that are created and lost annually in the constant churn (D) of the US. economy. 24. Indeed, (A) much of the job loss during (B) the recent U.S. recession was cyclical in nature. (C) But in recent years, one noteworthy segment of the economy began suffering (D) of the permanent chanqe of outsourcing, particularly the movement of service-industry, technology-oriented jobs to overseas locations with lower salaries.

25

25. (A) What puts teeth (B) into the buzz word is the sense that (C) to get outsourced (D) could happen to almost anyone. (Adapted from Time, 22 Feb. 2004) QUESTIONS 26-30 DIRECTIONS: Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (___). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. In theory, we all benefit when we can get services more cheaply abroad. But as a (26)____ matter, there are huge costs of dislocated workers and job (27)____. The answer is not to try to stop outsourcing, but we do have to get serious about job retraining, lifetime learning, extended (28)__ insurance and wage insurance. We may also want to not permit companies to deduct the expense of outsourcing from their (29)____ taxes, and use the (30)____ to help workers who lost jobs. PRACTICE SECURE

EMPLOY COME SAVE

KEY 1 ONE 2 FOR 3 WITHOUT 4 FOR 5 IF 6 IN 7 WILL 8 ABOUT 9 AS 10 LIKE 11 B 12 D 13 A 14 B 15 B 16 C

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

C D A C D A B . D C PRACTICAL INSECURITY UNEMPLOYMENT INCOME SAVINGS

26

Test 2
QUESTIONS 1-10 DIRECTIONS: For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. Most people have no trouble borrowing money or getting a credit card when they apply (1)___ one. Occasionally, however, a person (2)___ refused credit because he or she is considered (3)___ be a "bad risk". In Britain, a number of agencies have been set (4)___ which keep details (5)___ file of any debts a person may have. These details are then given to lenders (6)___ want to check that the person who wants to borrow from them is (7)___ to pay the money (8)___. The agencies receive this information from banks and shops and keep each record (9)___ six years. Unfortunately, this information is not always correct, causing embarrassment and difficulties (10)___ people who do repay money and who, therefore have no idea why their application for credit has been refused. QUESTIONS 11-20 DIRECTIONS: For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. Proposals to ease rules covering work (11)___ for workers from nonEU states have been rejected after a Home Office investigation. (12)___ companies had hoped the Government would relax current arrangements that prevent them from issuing work permits for staff they hire from overseas. Their hopes have been dashed by strong opposition from unions, Whitehall departments and other bodies who feel that relaxing the rules would damage job (13)___ for UK workers and increase recruitment (14)___. (15)___ recruitment of information technology staff is at the heart of the issue. Thousands, mainly from Australia, South Africa and India, are already working in the United Kingdom after applying directly to companies employing them. Agencies are barred from hiring and placing them. The HO launched the review to see whether changes were needed to reflect current and future (16)___ market issues. There were initial signals that ministers and officials were prepared to ease restrictions but the (17)___ in demand for IT staff and the problems afflicting the sector are said to have produced a rethink.

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The hopes for change had been reinforced by the government decision to grant work permit authority to (18)___ involved in recruiting teachers to hire foreign staff to ease shortages in UK schools. Agencies are, however, planning to maintain the (19)___ for change. Ann Swain, chief executive of the Association of Technology Staffing Companies, says her members are disappointed at the outcome of the review. She added: "We believe that this decision is a short-sighted one and is partly based on complacency about IT skill (20)___.The IT market may be depressed at the moment but it will recover and once it does the Government will find itself fire-fighting again to fill the skills gap." D authorisation B allowances C permits 11. A permission 12. A employment B recruitment C engagement D enrolment B vistas C perspectives D lookout 13. A prospects D prices B costs C overheads 14. A expenses D overseas B inland C domestic 15. A abroad D labour C job 16. A employment B work D depression B upturn C stagnation 17. A slump D ministries B agencies C means 18. A channels D strain B pressure C tension 19. A stress D shortage B inadequacy C deficiency 20. A failure QUESTIONS 21-25 DIRECTIONS: in each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. 21. Greg Driscoll took (A) a little for granted before (B) accepting the job of president and chief executive of Enerwise Global Technologies, an energy technology company. He (C) interviewed the company's board members and its (D) entire executive team and even spoke with middle managers. 22. He then prodded (A) people outside the company to get (B) a sense of Enerwise's reputation in the industry. "In companies like this, everyone has (C) an aggressive view on how fast it's going to grow, so you have (D) to take that with a grain of salt," Mr. Driscoll said. 23. Today, things (A) aren't always as they seem. (B) Satisfied bv the answers he received, he took charge (C) of the company, based

28

in Kennett Square, Pa., last winter. The company (D) began operating 18 months ago as a spinoff of Connective Inc. of Wilmington, Del. 24. Job seekers and employees (A) on different rungs of the corporate ladder (B) are doing all thev can to protect (C) themselves of problems, economic or sometimes ethical, that (D) have been dragging down many companies. 25. Some executives, (A) even those well below the level of chief executive, are trying (B) to negotiate specific contracts and severance packages, or (C) inquiring of liability protection. Others are working to improve their resumes and reputations in their companies, (D) by taking courses or by volunteering for extra work assignments. QUESTIONS 26-30 DIRECTIONS: Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space ("___"). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. Patricia Hewitt, the Trade & Industry Secretary, 26. BUSY yesterday scrapped all 183 of its (26)___ 27. WASTE support schemes, saying the system was 28. TRANSFER confusing and (27)___. The 1 billion that her 29. INVEST department used to dole out is now being 30. SEE (28)___ to a single pot distributed by an (29)___ committee. From now on, the money will be considered as part of an investment portfolio (30)___ by a committee.

KEY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

FOR I IS TO UP ON WHOfTHAT LIKELY j BACK i FOR

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

FOR C B A B D D A B

29

19 20 21 22 23 24 25

B D A C B C C

26 27 28 29 30

BUSINESS WASTEFUL TRANSFERRED INVESTMENT OVERSEEN

Test 3
QUESTIONS 1-10 DIRECTIONS: For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. Most (1)___ say that they wish to employ the (2)___ person for the right job. A recent report (3)___ Britain's independent Institute of Manpower Studies, however, disagrees (4)___ this. The report states that most employers wish to avoid (5)___ the wrong person. Rather than looking for the right person, they are looking for applicants to turn (6)___. The report also suggests that in Britain and in many (7)___ parts of the world, the selection methods used to identify the right person for the job certainly do not match up to those (8)___ to evaluate a piece of new equipment. Recruiters used three main selection methods: interviewing, checking curriculum vitae or application forms (9)___ predecided criteria, and examining references. Most of the recruiters consulted in this survey stated that these selection methods were used more (10)___ weeding out unsuitable candidates rather than for finding suitable ones. QUESTIONS 11-20 DIRECTIONS: For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. Interviews were considered to be more (11)___ than either curriculum checks or references from past employers. Research, however, proves (12)___. Interviewers' decisions are often strongly influenced by their (13)___ assessment of the written application. Also, different recruiters interpret facts differently. One may consider candidates who have frequently changed jobs as people with (14)___ and useful experience.

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Another will view such candidates as unreliable and unlikely (15)___ for long in the new job. Some employers (16)___ great importance on academic qualifications whereas the link between this and success in management is not necessarily strong. Some recruiters use handwriting as (17)___.The report states that there is little evidence to support the (18)___ of the latter for assessing working ability. References, also, are sometimes unreliable as they are rarely critical, whereas checks on credit and security records and applicants' political leanings are often the opposite. The report is more favourable towards trainability tests and those which test personality and personal and mental (19)___. The report concludes by suggesting that interviewing could become more reliable if the questions (20)___ more structured and focused on the needs of the employing organisation. 11 12 . 13 . 14 . 15 . 16 . 17 . 18 . 19 . 20 . . A reliable A different A prevision A broad A staying A accord A a criterion A value A capacities A are B reliant B difference B preview B large B to stay B afford B an element B valour B skills B were C professional C other way C previous C big C stay C put C a factor C validity C dexterity C would be D secure D otherwise D precarious D high D to be D place D a marker D valuables D qualities D had been

QUESTIONS 21-25 DIRECTIONS: In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. 21. One of (A) mv main ambitions is (B) to travel around the world. (C) visiting as many countries as possible. I think that (D) to travel is a very good way to learn about life. 22. (A) It is important to understand that (B) there are many different ways to live/ and (C) that our own culture is not (D) necessarily better then other cultures.

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23. On the other hand, I realise that (A) it is very hard (B) getting to know a foreign country well (C) if you are just passing through as a tourist That is why (D) I would try to talk to the local people of the country I was visiting. 24. (A) If we did not have understand (B) each other's language, then maybe (C) we could talk in English. I would not like (D) to travel on my own because that could be lonely, or even dangerous.
25. I (A) would take my best friend with me. The only problem I

have (B) about travelling around the world is money. I (C) would have to save for years (D) so to be able to afford such an expensive holiday! QUESTIONS 26-30 DIRECTIONS: Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (__). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. With this letter you will find your invitation to attend the Annual General Meeting of the Society. Please note that it will take place on 10 September (the last newsletter ( 26)___ stated that the meeting would be CORRECT on 9 September). The meeting will begin at 8pm but (27)___ will be FRESH available from 7pm. You will therefore have time to chat (28)___ with committee members and officials of the FORMAL Society before the meeting commences. At 8pm, the Chairman will make a brief (29)___ speech and then put forward some proposals INTRODUCE for your (30)___. The enclosed agenda gives a full APPROVE description of the business to be conducted at the meeting. KEY
1 2 3 4 5 EMPLOYERS/ MANAGERS RIGHT BY WITH EMPLOYING/ HIRING 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 DOWN OTHER USED AGAINST FOR A D

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13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

C A B D A C B B D D

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

A D
CORRECTLY REFRESHMENTS INFORMALLY INTRODUCTORY APPROVAL

Test 4
QUESTIONS 1-10 DIRECTIONS: For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. Why New Products Fail by Jill Konrath "It's our sales force, John," complained Chris Morgan, product manager for the 5540. "They've really dropped the ball on us. All our research showed that (1)___ we came out with a product with the capabilities of the 5540, the marketplace (2)___ jump on it. Well, we did ... and now, quite frankly, I question whether the sales force knows (3)___ to sell it". Unfortunately, this same scenario - or one very much (4)___ it - is being played out with increasing regularity these days at both large (5)___ small companies in virtually every sector of American business. To most managers, the question is an all-too-familiar one: Why (6)___ a highquality product that's priced right and introduced to the market (7)___ an opportune time end up as a failure? All too often, it seems, the simplest conclusion is that the sales force is inadequate. (8)___ the other hand, there are two sides (9)___ every story. Let's return (10)___ a moment to our fictional scenario and take a look at how the sales organization perceives the 5540. QUESTIONS 11-20 DIRECTIONS: For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. "I don't know who in the world ever thought the 5540 (11) ___ our ticket to the big time," grumbled senior sales rep Pat Johnson. "I'm

33

approaching my best prospects. I'm telling them all about the 5540 and what it can do (12) __ them. But when I tell them how much it costs, they say, 'Whoa - our problems aren't that bad.' They're not (13)___ to spend that much money. Marketing screwed up again." Can Chris and Pat both (14) __ about the same product? And if so, why are their perceptions so different? How could this well-researched, high-quality product- one that has seemingly been priced according to its value - be involved in such a struggle (15)__ acceptance in the marketplace? These kinds of questions (16) __ over and over with new product rollouts. In most cases, they can be addressed and answered simply by examining the process of how a new product is introduced to the sales force. DOING YOUR LEVEL BEST (17)__ the time a new product is ready for market, companies have often invested millions of dollars and several years of time and effort in the project (18)__ launch time, many companies- for (19) ___ reason - close their pocketbooks. After all that expense, they suddenly try to find the cheapest way to bring the new product (20)___. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. A is A for A ready A talk A on A crop up A At A By A whatever A in B was B to B aware B speak B about B crop on B in B At B whichever B out C will be C from C willing C be talking C over C crop in C By C For C no C over D has been D with D wishful D tell D for D crop against D For D In D some D up

QUESTIONS 21-25 DIRECTIONS: For each of the following questions (21 to 25) there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. One of the underlined parts, A or B or C or D, makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. 21. They (A) don't want to pull their sales and management people (B) out from the field for meetings or training. They (C) shrink from the cost of additional tools or materials (D) to assist in the selling process.

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22. Or they're (A) overly optimistic about the ability (B) of their salespeople to quickly grasp (C) a new selling strategy. In short, they just don't realize that selling a new product may require (D) an entire different process from selling an existing one. 23. (A) Prior to launching a new product, a company (B) needs to analyze the relationship (C) between the product and the customer. This relationship will (D) on turn determine the level of the difficulty of the sale. 24. When (A) a sales reps calls on the same customer to sell (B) a product extension of their existing line, the sale is relatively easy The sales rep (C) understands the customer's needs and knows how decisions are made. The customer is (D) familiar with the sales rep, the sales rep's company, and knows what to expect. 25. When a new product is introduced (A) to an existing customer the difficulty of closing the sale (B) increases slight. The critical selling task (C) is figuring out what problems the new product (D) solves for customers and how it addresses their needs. The sales rep must then ensure the sales effort focuses on these areas. QUESTIONS 26-30 DIRECTIONS: Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space ("__"). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. The sale gets (26)___ more difficult as the rep PROGRESS ventures into new territory. New customers can be defined as: 1) those in a different industry; 2) those in the same industry but PRIORITY with no (27)___ experience with the company; or 3) new areas within an existing customer's business. Many times these new customers have (28) ___ DIFFER terminologies, ways of doing business, and key concerns. Their problems - and how the new product solves them - are (29)___. KNOW But the product does have marketplace (30) ___ ACCEPT making it a less risky decision. (Source: http://www.marketingsource.com/articles/view/1512)

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KEY 1 IF 2 WOULD 3 HOW 4 LIKE 5 AND 6 DOES 7 AT 8 ON 9 TO 10 FOR 11 B 12 A 13 C 14 C 15 D 16 A

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

C B A B B (out of) D | (entirely) D (in turn) 1 A (rep) | B (slightly) PROGRESSIVELY j PRIOR DIFFERENT I UNKNOWN ACCEPTANCE

36

WRITING
Test 1
Situation: You have received a venture offer from Blue Safari, inviting you to invest in their real estate prospect. Task: In no more than 150-200 words write a formal letter of reply, giving at least three reasons for not accepting the business partnership. Feel free to use fictitious names and addresses. Sample letter - Decline of venture offer Huskit Pic. 79 Bridgeway London SNI 3RT 1 April 2007 John Jones, CEO Blue Safari 65 Coastline Drive Kingston Jamaica Dear Mr. Jones Thank you for choosing our corporation as potential investor in your venture and sending me the information on Blue Safari. With reference to your business concept, which I found very interesting, I have to make three observations which drove me to getting to the final decision. First, I became doubtful when I analysed your business pian, which lacks in presenting precise information concerning your competition on the market Second, at a closer look, I realized that the teams of managers you are working with are too young and inexperienced, having no proven track record in the field.

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Finally, another serious inconvenience occurred to me when I realized the fact that investing in your business would imply covering a geographic area I am not familiar with, and sending my specialists away from our headquarters in London for an extended period of time. Therefore, I am returning your material under separate cover, not before wishing you the best of luck in your new venture. Yours sincerely Mark Morrow

Test 2
Situation: As the head of the research group investigating the application of stateof-the-art technology in Ratbus Bank, your responsibility is to regularly present a proposal regarding the latest set of technology related issues. Task: Write a 200-250 word proposal, including the following: a brief outline of the current uses of technology in the banking system a description of what technological improvements could be made a presentation of the way of implementation an enumeration of the possible drawbacks. Sample Proposal To: The R&D Department From: G.G. Smith, Head of the Research Group Subject: State-of-the-art Banking Technology Date: 20, August, 2005 Background We all know that the speed with which our bank adopts new technology is not as important as the quality of the solution it adopts. Therefore, I suggest that we thoughtfully consider the attributes of a new information system to be certain it will interoperate with our existing systems, and the solution we find is capable of withstanding the ever changing market. Proposal Since the future is increasingly pointing to the use of digital documents and digital signatures, I suggest that we, too, give more consideration to

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the electronic equivalent of a written signature or written document. In this way we would keep up the pace with the e-commerce marketplace, which, these days, is generally focusing on digital signature as an essential component. This is, in large part, due to digital signatures addressing the issues of authentication, non-repudiation and message integrity. Implementation Concerning the aspect of implementation, I recommend the careful analysis of the following points: the adopting of a set of new technologies, services and bank policies the creation of digital documents and the associated requirements for document management, storage and access security, periodic hardware upgrades, and disaster recovery facilities the creation of new jobs in the form of new technology-management positions. Possible drawbacks Although the advantages outgrow disadvantages, I have to mention the fact that, if our bank will deploy these technologies, it should exercise caution in selecting a vendor. Owing to the initial and ongoing costs, it is unlikely that we will opt to develop our own digital signature technology and, thus, we will be outsourcing this function or purchasing this capability for our existing infrastructures. Furthermore, the lack of interoperability between the bank's system and the frequently updated systems of the vendors on the market may result in several dysfunctions.

Test 3
Situation: For some time now your clients have been complaining about the bad communication skills of your accountants. As a result of this situation you have decided to put them on a training course. Task: Write a 100-150 word memo in which you: - announce them about the course - give them some details about the course - ask them to inform you when they prefer to attend the course

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Sample Memo To: All accountants From: J. Mass, Manager of the HR Department Subject: Improving communication skills Date: 22, May, 2005 Our clients have been complaining, for some time now, about the lack of basic communicative skills of our accountants, especially when it comes to explaining how generally accepted accounting principles apply into practice. In order to help our staff become better communicators we decided to organize a training course in speaking and writing skills. Since the course is six months long, four hours per week, and all the staff is invited to take part in it, we have to find the best solution regarding the most suitable timing of this event. Therefore, please let me know as soon as possible (no later than Monday 18) the days of the week you choose for attending the course, and whether you want to meet your instructor: early in the morning; late in the evening.

Test 4
Write an essay of opinion on the following topic: "IT Has Changed the World" Sample essay of opinion IT has definitely had a great impact on dur world! Nowadays we are surrounded by technology and we can do things that our predecessors wouldn't even have dreamed about. We can travel faster, diseases that were incurable in the past can be cured today, not to speak about the large amounts of information that can be stored and accessed from anywhere, anytime. Are we dependent on IT? Whether we admit it or not, we can no longer ignore computers and the Internet. Communicating with people living in other countries is no longer a problem. The speed at which messages

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are transmitted and the low costs implied have convinced even our grandparents that computer literacy is a must, not a mere fashion of our days. IT is present in all domains of activity, from agriculture to commercial activities, from education to manufacturing activities, not to speak of banking and advertising. Businesses which have not invested in cutting edge technology take the risk of being uncompetitive and can be forced to withdraw from the market Does IT have negative effects? Skeptics and traditionalists say that it has. They say it will make us less human and addiction to computers might distort interpersonal communication. It might be true, air things have always had positive and negative aspects, but in this case, if we were to enumerate the advantages of IT, for sure they will outnumber the disadvantages. Considering these aspects, we have to admit that IT has indeed changed our lives. It depends on each of us whether we want to see the advent of technology as being progressive of, on the contrary, the cause of all our problems. For those used to blame rather than learn and take good advantage of innovations it is high time they changed their approach. It is not too late!

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SPEAKING - PART 1

Task 1
Make a short presentation (of about 1 minute) on the following topic: Marketing: Art or Science? Refer to: o what marketers do; o the marketing mix (the 4 Ps: product, price, promotion, place); o the skills that good marketers need nowadays; o whether these skills are closer to what artists are endowed with or to what scientists know and apply daily.

Task 2
Make a short presentation (of about 1 minute) on the following topic, stating whether you agree or disagree with the problem presented: Bank loans have changed people's lives. Do you agree? Refer to: o the general economic context that has encouraged the proliferation of credits; o the way in which interest rates affect people's attitudes towards banks; o whether or not you have ever thought about taking a loan; o the contribution of this and other banking services to the well-being of society.

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Task 3
Make a short presentation (of about 1 minute) on the following topic, stating whether you agree or disagree with the problem presented: A business without advertising is like throwing kisses to a girl in the dark. Do you agree? Refer to: o whether or not advertising is relevant in today's business world; o the most well- known advertising media and their effectiveness; o the reasons for which well-known companies still choose to spend a significant amount of money on advertising.

Task 4
Make a short presentation (of about 1 minute) on the following topic: What would motivate you in a job? Refer to: o the extent to which money is more important than job satisfaction in your case; o whether or not more responsibility could motivate you or reduce your enthusiasm in a job.

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SPEAKING - PART 2 Task 1


PRESENTATIONS Examiner: Have you ever given a presentation in front of an audience? Was it a business presentation? Candidate: Think about a situation when you spoke in front of an audience (even if it was only in a seminar) and describe your experience. Examiner: What makes a good presentation? Candidate: Refer to: o the importance of beforehand preparation and methods to prepare (speaking in front of a mirror, recording oneself, practicing in front of friends etc); o the qualities that presenters need in order to be effective (communication skills, self-confidence, the ability to prepare well etc).

Task 2
BUSINESS TRAVEL Examiner: Would you like to have a job that implies business travel? Candidate: Answer the question giving reasons for your choice. If the answer is no, try to explain (otherwise your answer could be interpreted as a refusal to speak). Think about the advantages and disadvantages of traveling for business purposes. Examiner: What facilities should hotels offer to business people? Candidate: Connection to the Internet, conference room, fax, telephone etc.

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Task 3
MEETINGS
Examiner: Which do you think are more effective: formal or informal meetings? Candidate: Make your choice and give reasons. Informal meetings could be more effective because they are less rigid and the participants may feel free to express their views. Formal meetings, on the other hand, are better organized. Examiner: What is the role of the chairperson in a meeting? Candidate: Most meetings require a chairperson in order to control and direct the proceedings. They carry the authority to keep order and maintain progress in line with the agenda. Examiner: What are the personal qualities that chairmen need? Candidate: Authority: The chair will need to maintain control to ensure that progress is made in line with the schedule - as defined in the agenda. Flexibility: Following an agenda does not always imply unquestioning devotion to it. For example, if an unplanned deviation could produce a clarification or the bonding together of meeting participants, then this might represent a very effective strategy. Impartiality: It is important that the chair supports an equal and fair consideration of all sides of the argument. This can be especially difficult where the chair is privately on one side of the debate. Maturity: the chair must be able to accept and work with a broad cross section of personalities. They should view each meeting without too much preconception as to how individuals will act and react, but be able to respond as the need arises.

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Task 4
ENTREPRENEURSHIP Examiner: What qualities does an entrepreneur need? Candidate: o knowledge of the domain o good managerial skills o self-confidence o willing to take risk Examiner: What is the role of the business plan? Candidate: o keeps objectives clear o helps when applying for a bank loan o allows to identify possible weaknesses o keeps record of business development