Sunteți pe pagina 1din 245


d Edibbn



Marine Publishing ~.11111,1,11. Ii .\ln,u,, 04s





lh ligtlls otrt.11 showt*tl bright lalt* in lht* t~vt*ning 21 rht. ?i!i/zNItlJt) in IIiin1irlglc~l. Nt-w York, anal r2b1il inrlc- 10 (tfj 50 aI :\r~c~t~ortIowri J1c.w in D;hricw. I havv tvijovtd ;L titc~linic* intluc-ncxscl tjv I IIt. t;\tk of srnatt 1Jo;iIs 1tit-ir tlc3ign. I tIcA I)uittting. ;~rdl I ticbir us(*. Most rcwarclill,~ of all ;Ispc( lb. tx.1 tiat~s. arc ItIc* tc*:l(*:s lhdl ccbmc ;Itong It.1 I (.I!? c*ulcJilin,g Itic- <grand c~st)c-ric~ncx-c*n(.oulll~lt(l in ItIt* tJuil(liyg ot ;1 l)Oill! thc~rc~ has always Ilt-c-n gr~a saridac[ion 3 just itid fcc-tinSg 01 accomplishIlIlIll rrbla!td to making things with ones own hands. in this age of specialization I t)c~tit-v~ hoal huitding can offer tv~n morr satisfarrion as wctt as rrlaxalion and a c.ti:illc*ngc- (0 individual ahilitv and irigrnuitv. FPw things involvr Itit, manv skills rt*cluirot in \)uil(ting a bcJ;rt c;1( h rxscntial fat- it4 succxsful c~nnplcrion. PlJssibly nothing c*tsc*i5 as rc-wdrttin~g. I;urrht*r. nict-ly tastiiontd. d-t)uilt tJo;tts art* growing mort~ and mor(* t3pt-nsivt-. 10 huittt your own rn;iy wt*tl t)c*;I practic,,lt sotulion ;1s wcdt as rc*wirding. Surctv ttw ,jovs of bring krtloar ;ir(b manifoltl, and t host- t3ptGnc-rd ;Il~o;ird ;1 t>bJal you ti;lvt- Luitl

with your 0wI1 hdntls ;iI( inimt~dsurabtt-. Hot, Stcwartt. tGng t~sc~t~ptionalt~ welt quatiiicd t)v his tong c~sp~-rit*nix~ in r!ic world of small stiit~s. ha5 l)roductd ;I cl~~ai-iy writttbn Its1 of nici-it and grrat worth. Attt-r vt*ilrs as an ;~ppr~-ntic~~- ht. work4 in scvc-rat small boat vards btaforc joining rhr highly rcspecrerl office of naval architect Philip 1.. Rho&s. where he spent manv I yrars cn, gagecl in dcsi<gning and planning numcrous power and sailing vachts. as welt as commt~rciat boats. Ittt* prriod of World War II found him in an tyginrering c-apacitp working bt-twrlrn vari:jalq vards and &sign off&s. Far morr plcasanl work was . . >tirnrd at the wars t%ntI involving vat t.i ax: Bob ac\elrtit (! :I lx)sition wirh a Wrs. Coast firm as superint,.-dent of vachr repair anti construction. Somerime ti;Icr tx returnd IO I hc East Coast where a number of designs werr proctucxd. ranging from 22 LO 73 ftet . which required his cxperirn&i supervision of loft in= anti cnnslruction. lhc vii


f~Ol<I-~ IIOHI) cllrne tjt~ckontd. tJuiltlcr.

wi! h its slowt~r l)acx- anti t*.isitar iivin,g. ant! 13oh ~onrinut~tl his work In~(jlv!rl,q the d~s~gn~n~ anti supervlslon of Ilumtrous var.lli\ iv i~r*is !vi!i! a Floritla whtarl* iIt> is classic- work



wit Ir I ht. cIt*sign rlntl prc),qrt*~~ 01 clulstantling I-cct*ivc-d from riumt~rous in atltliIion rlicb rimt- iI w;ls first

pW ;a< hIS. Bol) S~vwartls l,uhlishd. marrrials wonth-fully prcxn1td.

has bcbtbn ht*ar-iily Hoh has Inatlt~ antl sIandaids

In this larrsl tdition. and presenr rrgularit~ris

revisions daring IO nt-w 10 provicling more* of his marvrial. SO ~~11



Surt-Iv I his comprt~ht~nsive

anti practical

will provitlr~ ! ht- .rnialt~r- boatt~uilrlt~~ arid Itit+ f)roft3sional with ;I worltl 01 v;Ilutd ant1 valid information. Intlccd. scardv a wt.t-k passe-s wht*n. in wriring It-IIt-1-s I(J hoa huiltlvrs ail ovtt I IIt* world. I (1~:no1 sii#gt-51 Hofr(hrr/ltl/~rg ,tlfltrrrfr/ as ;d sourt(- 01 knowlt~tigc,
,~011l1 .Alhill ?I .s.r\ t\nc & XI.E


Dalit~l. C:c~nnc~ ricur

II is indt*tvl


IO rt-;ili/cs rli;tl

IO yc*;11-sli,1\,tb passtbd since

iKl ii1 Tciir

c .> rlihi ;irIll

fuhli5hing (:~m1l1;11iv wt.111 i11ro Ou4int*bs nritl ;1c.tluirc*cl ltw cxqyighr .ll,ctrrrtr/ II 11:*clM~~ll:I Ir.rr, I I\' !Il:lI !-I.:;;:. !!E! ! !::*:x h;1LT !XX~I! :ici; 'Ul! ."I i1ig llii~ tlt~ iidt.: Boris fhil Rhoclt5.;irtli. ihca sniall OII(- of Ilit~ ,qwaItw ;i~Iti mosi vt*rs,iIili* 1i:i\~l

IO flotr//~rrr;tlttr~ Ir-itv1tl.

I1r~;1ll1uildt~1~ slaurit~li

art hi1cv 14. li;rvc- l~oili +;tilrvl

ovt*r lilt- hoi izcjtr ~11tl dt( 111i55t*ill1v mdnv I v~*nl IO llavt* I1t7-Ii t,xl105tvI I0 Inilnv hrr//tltt/,q .IltrtIrrfl/
It~;ll~Ilt~tl 11~01111t 11
;illii il Il;is

irit-ncls. 111ort p(*iq)It~ 5im.t. Ilit- I;151 tvlili~,ti o! flflttr so m;inv who h;ivt* rt-;icl ~1111 l~i*i~Il gri11ifVilIg I0 mt 3 rhv Iwo vac~hr dt~sign sc~lioo~~ in IIitb I S. ~onlinuc~ lacht Dvsign School Insrirurcb. in Brooklin.

\ 1c)c)k. In .icltiilicm. l)ook.

10 us ford.

fhlfl I I/ lr;lr!il,,~ Connc~~it~ut

Alfl t11111: _ IVSC material. a while portions that of rhe hook.

Mainc~. uws rhtk coml)l~tt~ , rtyrinrb ~Ihroqqhout I his hook.

thtb Wtbstlawn [ht. names

of 1ac-h1 DrsiRn.

vou will find providtb ijs advvrtising

ant1 aildrt~~sc~s of firms lo boatbuildrrs. or sty-vice offtvxvl.


IOOIS a11t1111att.arials or firms Zion is noI IO IW vonstrucd

svrvicrhs of valur for the products

9~11h menRarhc-r. lhtb firms I

iwlit~w lha~ Iht* rthacit-r will Iwrwfit fro1n my rt-srilrch ctirc-crly iIlltl lt*ll thtr11 wlI;ll you Ilt-tvt. In adtlitic1ri 10 thia fI!lolo and illusrration thank
of h11za.

of tht* s(1urcx.s. Conli~ct


the following HIothcrs.


sour(vs: Inc



Gtlugcwl drawings I cannot copy fasrw

, for the ust of photos ancl skrrc-ht-s;

given in the caarlit-r tditioll. I wish 10 \1il<hr CI~rpIIralion. ,rlItl Inc.. Hurkins 311 rdition: tliv Xirrbs ciisision . lhis revis and SW nirigazinta articles that for permission IO us{ appeared in 7/1r Rudrf~~r

for ho~h phoros


I did years ago for how-to-build thanking her 5 percmr

close wiihout 1 ran.

ior me with rhan

Dorothv C. Marks fo1 doing some of thth rt*vision meanin,g that she can I;pc a pa,gP 31 times rypIng

KotitW M. .Sltward ,jat~lamt ilk. FItAla

l);lriIlg PillllrsOIl. ii

;I Ilic~i~liIl# Etlilor IIlitl






IL,r-ih -Ix-t~tldrrli

Of IlIt* hoirl

it/ltttlt*r lion







fintb (,I(1

Illil#il/iIl~, ;tinlcVl

was clct~iclt4

I Shoultl

wriits sonll~ ,



amalt-uI ;tIl~l. Ilol!t~luII,. of soIlIt VillUt I0 lhca l~r0ft~SSiC~IIitl. -1lris (It7 ision It~sulltvl ii: ;I sturic5 of LOc.oIIst~ciIlivt* Inorlllllv l)itxx3 I Il;tl Mx*rt* \\~t~ll rtxx~ivt~tl Ill;11 I hty wtrt- Illiltlt* So
inlo il







was c~IiIhusi,isIic.







~r~tl~(~*tl. I Ilt- l)o(bk $viIS l)uhlislIt~tl


iII LI~t~I~t l.t*1It51S 01 itl)l)IovitI II.

wt*r( rtG\c~cl

from afar. On<* IhaI in IIIV mint1 was frton a lurkislt naval oflicc,r who IIOI onI) bouplIr Iht- I)ook. ~LII also l)uilI a I)oaI lrom III\ plans. lil~ll ii#i3ill Olin Sl~pht~IlS. lolcl nit how I tic Ercnr.11 tbtiirion was of \alut* lo him on an ins faIntd yacht ticsi,gncr. slxt.Iion

writ) in I;:urol)t- ~vht*n Ihtb I)ook illusrrarions anti



IO brrak

a language-

harrit*I a ficltl

lxYwc*t*n hiiI

a l)uiltlt*r.


like Ihis al-t- lit~drIt;-II. hc


htx~au~- in SO sm;tll


ortlt-I . Sll
ilb il

As Iimt* wt*nI orl. I he numl~t*r of rqutxIs for Ihtb hook showtd I haI a rt*\,i&m wab in fjo///1lf11/f1it~ .Mtrurrrl/. qain IlOW \VI Il.lVC~ ,g tiont- wirh Ilit- t~nIhu~i3sm of Boris l)I.iIIIt movi~r. a II lioirgh llit7~~
it IlilVt

hcbt-Ii Iimt*s, wlit-Ii Iht* midIiighI

I 1lilVt

oil was burniIi~y I)UI


IOW. I IIiII I WiIS IIOI SO lIi\ll)v wirh his l~rodtling inc~lutlt~S IIrIl( Ot

.lht> IIW l)ook has t)(bcIl rcwriI~cn. 1)icbt.d




Wt.11 a5 It~c~tiniilIIt5



ntw m;tIt~rialS DO noI think building. build tion MY of plans Assuming thr &mrnts The a boat of a drram

I haI Ilao* I)t~t*n accrptcd. IhaI Ihis or any orhrr hope book can Itsac-h all Ihc-rt- is IO know about rewarding. experienced could I Irust Ihal I hi, book. boaring hnd and boaI. br*st I can for is I!) givt- somy guidancr is \erv and desi<gncr. rools. IO 1h0:;c with rhr urgt- IO plus a good will lead IO rhc realizaIhc St-a. with pians and is arm4

an urge IhaI usually from an unt!ersIanding for many

who orherwisc set forth

non enjov

11~ has Ihr ability of boatbuilding

lvith woodworking in this book.

the1.e is no reason

whv an amateur



how IC)use skillfully During the past two decades, mort b and m)rc people have learned both hand and power tools for household chores and improvements, making furniture, people nlaterial building sets that outbuildings, something to form dimensions curved the and see that and the like, and they often turn out very creditable jobs. Such are good candidates th,lt for boatbuilding. shapes Y~I, many is 1101 all squat-c corners; discourages them. And are turned off by the thought bending wood or other flat when thev look into boattable of offunnecessarily

of making

it usually

starts with a lines plan and the attrzriant are GUIVP+ well, thats that. These people

depriving themselves of a very fascinating and satisfying pastime. Constructing the first boat, however small, is an experience not to be soon forgotten. form Watching provides done, a hull hours grow from flat paper vessel is a source is often through the years. to learn States, advantage for books boat the hull until courses boatbuilding principally are located have been in ttre Northeast so that opportunity able to and to the I of drawings after of great and pride flat material day. to the builder. into a shapely When the job is And unlike a boat is used of fun and is super which people parts theraI,y a stressful

carefully a piece over take

the finished

of furniture, of lucky

put in a corner

and soon forgotten,

and dver for plrasurca courses in various Unfortunately. of would-be the craft, purpose so there of this

A number Northwest. number learn The

with the desire of the United can take reason is to introduce from starting

all too few of such is still ample book

the great


of this splendid on bnatbuilding. construction water

by explaining




first laps at the kee;. to build e\prv tyr::

dont purport to teach all the skills of an expert boatbuilder. It is impossible to coker briefly all the information needed boat. deal If you are fortuna:.e from observation. enough When to live in a boatbuilding down to building area, it comes

you can :>Farn a great of boat you want,


the kind


\i 1,

. \ ; -. $ s \, : !I 9 .-----L
/I 3 2 L z 3 .. g, r= s 3 z : 2 2 -T c <


.I/ iI *!t 1. v 1.1 ;/ ; I

L; ,/I ,I 2 d 5 J i k i 2 iJ ti
-, i i

= L E .z 2 z ; -g : 3 2 -- 2 z 52 - < z; 2.s -2. z E I .c 2 ; - .z t- . 2 f\ ,Q N E &tz 2-c uk b >, 2; L4-2




DORY OP 5r(1 i=F





L~c.,u~HIN~ j +.-&AE



i,\ 1) J&J/l

IcigurtbI-1. .St,t,t/fJ//sttf/tl/t.//q/Il /YlJltfl/ ftl fB/ /lrl/ I rllrd rr~rrlrtttlrtltr~ftrtvi trrlll.\ ner would conform you. and When build have frames bent right light detail that in the hull: material. further certain bend the bevel the bending along parts during necessary to have them difficult The

to the hull shape working after

is twisted

in during

the bending In fact it can


Do not let this scare deal of fun.

with relatively in more possible planks, drawing

is not unduly a discussion boats, and

can be mastered wood ends

a few attempts. or boiling will net for a small on lofting, parts. types hull

be a great


will be described as it is entirely of bottom

of framing. construcsuch as the be made are

Bending tion alone, forward limber Figure discussed ings and The everyone designed
ZliC ,

by steaming

is not restricted

to round-bottomed cold hull. must

of v-bottomed

on the boat

for them in detail templates relative

to fit the shape in the chapter for the various of the there boat, that

of the hull. round.bottomed which are Lines drawings of full-size wide, but is the making far and hull craft. hull drawjust about

l-2 is a lines



will admit

will never especially

be a v-bottomed for a sailing

as handsome

as a well-


Figures l-3 and l-4 show the essential differences between the framing of flat, vee, and round-bottomed hulls. Although the lower ends of the frames in the roundboat are shown to install side. butted them against the keel, it is sometimes extending the number from note possible, that depending make up a in one piece, the deck on one side to

bottomed the deck

on the hull shape,

on the other

In contrast,

of pieces

~;lC.2'l~:R.4 :i I.



Y.2VY __ .Figure I-3. I\,/H~YI~(~ttr.\/rr~~/tott

\(vttotr\ ~Irror~glr

ygE 4e--q-y.






for a v-bottomed


On the other



;dre spaced




in a round-bottomed boat, so the frames are fewer in number. Figure l-5 is a section through a rather normal sailboat of the cruising ocean racing type and for the is :ypical boats, amateurs of either very the so-called of shallow attempt at first enough deep draft. and-centerboard-type recommended helped not become (S) curves and there The on a similat in many the latter being

or classic keelhe has he will hull. it can are

keel or combination unless that

This type of boat is not

boatbuilding of construction difficult job than *. and

job or has watched of the trames, to build

of this kind is a tougher


when on his own. work getting material

The framing out the backb,

is more

due to reverse

the planking

on a simpler is such &at

is a lot of heavy with large


time needed

a hull can be reduced wrinkling, The

if the hull shape

be covered

pieces of.flat the rnaterial program.

such as plywood. surfaces, surfaces either

If a shape can be formed There graphically on the drawing conical, or a com-

of a flat sheet without ways of designing board or with

it is said to be developable. are cylindrical,

a hull

with developable

a computer

bination of both, and the designer must be content with the limitations of these curves. Figure l-6 shows the lines for a 52-foot hull that was designed with the aid of a computer. This boat was built of large fiberglass sheets: one for each side. one for each


A.pC 6Orz CgEkiTER63AE~ SAL BOA-l-

ty1 4331> .3;7pz &E -%+-AI s??L --.





hotton~d II ~11s. Right: Figure l-5. -f-hip t1lilfStli~)WCtI'OII O/' (111

~~u.rrli~r~~ ticrrnc ulith sclilhortt rtzvrsC showing curzv. hisnt

c 2 tI 3 $ 2 z h 2 z s 4 . wz = .2 i t 73+ 2 5 2 =: ,< I 2 *. .;: 2 .g 2

l1illJ.j /!I1 ~ I 2 p ; 1 /I11 ( iji 11 I 1-t 4-f / I Ii/ -ptc/I1 I I! / ! t- -11 I P-- / + 11: /4 L I(~ ,--I3/ j 1-q i ----I--cIi----t-t

4 I ii 4 ;j I -3
i! I 4 iI !I

TS . ^ 9 e P-4 E $4 S-G -2 2

$ 2 ft

---- _ k1 t 11
~ i -I j I I!: ; i / ;

-3 iI -1



R. M. %b-A(LD




hm~rl~ fiwP1i~p1 Oh :I 52./oat ,Jih~r,~lu.~~ conttnt~rctu~ Ir\hrrrg bout h 1111

half of the bottom,

one for the transom,


a number

of joined


for the wide

chine surface on each stde. On the other hand. the v-bottomed hull in Figure 1-7 cannot be built in this manner, for there are concave sections in both the sides and bottom. Flat sheets hull cannot successfully be bent in two directions at the same time. Most of the figures principal lines, in th- chapter have been labeled with the names of some of the beginner must become familiar with this nomenclature. while the same the intersection of a hull only but have a designer hulls, resin

and ti

For instance, the top edge of the hull viewed in profile is the sheet-line. line viewed in plan is the deck line. or deck at side. A chine is obviously between draws matters the side and later. the lines bottom of a v.bottomed hull. Other will be exprained For hundreds Since both sides of a boat are usually material the same,

lines in the surface

for one side of a hull. of years, now. wood was the primary As this is written, used for building boats of fiberglass-reinforced

are, different

been manufactured for 30 years, and now fiberglass boats dominate the standardized boat market, with hulls and other parts produced in volume from expensive molds and tooling. However, wood is not dead. States Many pleasure and commercial used boats in hulls are still built in the convenof wood in tht: United and elsewhere. Wood is being

f~l~..~I:R.~~l. 9 tional and manner, cold-molded covered and on the outside saturated with resin and reinforced a relatively with synthetic for building fabrics. hulls

with resin, on. boatbuilding

new scheme employed antiseptic a logical longer, built wood

that will be discussed farther The techniques of wooden tion of tooling plastic hulls demand of some for fiberglass quality and and mica cabins. is small, in ihe better molded fiberglass When the choice the finish achieved fiberglass

are extensively Wood the cold, become

in the construcjoinerwork of the of molded aluminum alloy is for be chosen apj?cyrance

boats finishes such


parts. to avoid have

is used for the interior extension welded is usually tha:



as for yachts steel hull builders.

65 feet and

alloy construction

or a welded of the larger

with superstructure But here again. a feeling

of the light

in the quarters by thr sy Iittlctics. to gain There


it provides

of warmth by purchasing

can never

it is possible a .kit boat.

an introduction are a number

to boatbuilding of kits for vbottomed

and assembling and sailboats,


usually with plywood quire but reasonable available are full-size cd by the builder Hare fiberglass

planking. Most of these are furnished with beveled parts that recare to set up the frames accurately to form the hull. Also paper patterns and templates for parts, with all the wood providlocal stock. mostly Then there for powerboats, are kits that supply fiberglass hulls. are also available. Here is where an

from hulls,

amateur must be careful to be >:tre that guidance is provided or available to locate comptrnents such as engincss and fuel and watcr tanks. lhr weights of such items must be positioned so the boat will trim and run properly and safely. Some of thrsc hulls can should not bite off more than he can chew. IIC cluite largca. and the atnateur Making ;I kit boat does not give the same sense of accomplishment as building a boat. from scratch, 1~111 the scheme dons make sense for those with limitrd spare time ot for those who want a particular model of boar that is available in kit form. Listings of kit boat manufacturers CZuirfc. In addition, Fi.thc~rmcln. See thr are found in boating magazine ads and in the RrW Owner;) Buym in Nationcll a good number Recommended of fiberglass hull builders advertise Reading at the end of this book.


A Set of plans

is needed

for a boarbuilding


unless you have decided

to build

kit boat. Seldom does one want to build just any boat rather there is an urge to own a certain tvpe, either power or sail, and usually there is an idea about the size suitable for the intended spent Knowledge scanning are ample contacted Boutzng mechanic more they use. There of arrangements sections of what some for study for furttlrx offer are several to make feasible is offered sources sure for various boating for plans, the boat lengths and ample your time should requirements. by be small architect particularly drawings can Molar be on the search the design for a design will meet of boats

can be obtained

of the monthly

magazines. magazines,


by the design,

and the naval magazines


Some of the boating of the monthly

& Snifing, and articies that full-size Ruyws


for the home

for sale a choice scale than those

how-to-buiid practical firms Owners also offer of several l&at

over the years. spxialize patterns Guide,

of power and sailboat plans that have been run as The pians they make avaiiable arc to a iarger. articles. The same magazines buildt=r, and carry ads for the backyard in some cases Recommended

in the original in plans for hulls. listed elsewhere

in this book


Reading, lists the names sizes of boats, Another sailboats. Regardless of their

nnd addresses of many naval architects source is the various class associations try to determine whether the plans

who have plans for all for small one-design that interest you are


sufficiently detailed for you to completely understand the vessels construction. It cannot be emphasized too strongly that good plans are well worth their price, because , 7 :r cost is but a fraction .. of the total cost of the boat. The cost of the plans might be considered as insurance that the finished boat wilt be a success. When designers do not draw the profusion of details that the novice builder would like to have, this book should be very helpful in filling in snme of the missing information.





THE a%


RUDDER ~~_~~~~~~LE.~J.E e3.n / /

4 /;/ B : i

\ \,x

Gf\tzA.r.-.:-BE. -PI-7.. I___ .

z VEr.5

.EP.c,T.3 a--

,.! c%.,NO 2 C~Ocl lb=-=-+ hMbER a 0 ii ?i$, P ,;I( \ \)i y,:\ I*\,; a,. 1(: ;,I\ ti: ( ti;; d a/ ! :, , , : II ;,IGn ,: IS* ;j 1 *,.5 l1 3.. I;\ *j i ;, \I_ . I!\! ,/ --~- -~~-~~... 1, /; :-vi i 1 / I,\ .: /
a *
W-Y w. 7 _


ii (1 ;/ .._I / J ;; .,, w >i ,;Is, 9 /6 I ;ic 3, p ;,:I; ___, d /.I 8: r!

/ ,;i

\\ \ II 1 \A \,$ 1,

Rudders Figures 2-1, 2-2, 2-3. ThtJw p/am uvrt drnuw by lhr author as part ofTt.e 1948 ikut~ t$ lhl publicalirm. llou~ fo Build writes nrrd appeartd in rhc Fvhruary Lnrgr-scale blwprit~h uvw off&-ed by The Rudderjor ust ) by h o nl t>b uild t rs. Th e a rc hot ~on;.cd fornl nlnl;cs I i1i.q n rt4atirvly simplr boat lo build. (The Rudder, rt$rinled ztvih pt~mi.~sion, )

*;., -1 . -. ,a /JY A ;,

:r,,;:7-2:;: n-1

_ ---.-r


_/+---: .-.~--~~-p---~~~.I:\, rri / ---___


yrrrrui Dihw.ll,r.q L.rnlY.iL __.... I,.a. L0rn-l P L-L . . ..___I. *. ..I, ET -L .-: 0.I



L~0ldEq +(.L,.~,-. .o. -*ID vus. e-7 rJii&m L( SRV.RD

Nz*wz n.v Rq




I would


you against of major

making weights. changes,

changes reduction

in the hull


heights Consult

of superstrucperthe designer

tures, before

or locations making plans

Such procedures and if he advises

can result against

in unsatisfactory

formance, off using

at least, or even downright any major

of seaworthiness. without departing


you will be better from the drawings.

that will give you what you want


for Boats Carrying


for Hire six or more fare-paying or, most likely, fishing. be aware that, strict, in the inboats is but you

Every year passengers, terest should tion. of

there is a great number of boats built to carry whether it be for sightseeing, dinner and dancing, building construction Guard. without simple such and The a craft, you should safety, the equipment regulations

If you are contemplating regulated The

of passenger-carrying are not unduly approval to consult

by the U. S. Coast not start routine Office construction is fairly

at least obtaining Guard. the route, In general, and

of the hull construcwith the closest Marine is made for the

if you take the time

Inspection inspection ried. tion details

of the U. S. Coast the service, quickly,

an application

of the boat,

the number be submitted. drawings

of passengers otherwise are necessary

to be carif construcand also

If there

is a complete

set of plans, general Guard

it should arrangement

is to be started

of the hull. The Coast

has a book of regulations

that spells out the design

and equipment They no longer ment bookstore

requirements and lists the plans that must be submitted for approval. offer the book for free, but they can tell you the location of a governthat stocks the publication.





-se -/ ) f, .I..- .. L.... -1. ...1m-m..

Vn-lm-U-* m-.-1 n . . . .. e ..*

*-le. .-. <3?

L......ZL..-t9-6OOP TRITOW ~ONSTRU~ION PLAN a,,..,suGii&R pf mol5L4T 6.4 ,TCWbRD



1 --_

j -- /





The selection of tools needed to build a boat depends being undertaken, It is best to start with a small craft

upon the type of project that is to get the feel of the work-- the

difference between bqatbuilding and common carpentry. The construction of a simple plywood-planked boat, either as a kit or one started from scratch, calls for a minimum of tools. mer, sufficient. For such saws, One hand a boat, planes, the usual assortment chisels, screwdrivers, may of home workshop a brace and bits, starting tools such as a hama hand drill, etc., is a boat is a number of


the amateur

not have when

clamps, either the C or bar type. It seems as though one never has enough of these; they really :,re indispensable. The one power tool that is well worth the money in labor saving, even for the simplest of boats, is a % R electric drill. Other hand tools, such as a drawknife, spokeshave. bullnose plane, rabbet plane, and round-bottom plane are out of the ordinary but very handy in the building of some boats. If not on hand, these can be added as the need develops. Essential framing tools for layout a level. tape, work, and useful and not from start to finish, pencil tape that are a 24 carpenters Also essential is a stretches. For making square, dividers, a carpenters be a cloth compass.

rule or measuring

but it should

your own long bolts from rod stock, a few thread-cutting needed. Another handy tool, one that a boatbuilder

dies and a die holder will be cannot do without, is an ad-

justable sliding bevel such as Stanley Tools No. 25 or No. 18. Thi: is used for transferring bevels from drawings to the lumber and picking up bevels in many ways, as you will learn. Needless to say, both is the Stanley holders a short, in a curve, with carpenters is often that curved Surform, two file-like and machinists useful featuring holders, blade. The vises will be used. throwaway wood planes, is round, for curved rasp-like one of and also blades are

A relatively blade. which There

new kind

of tool that

for some of the little jobs that come a unique

up in boatbuilding

are two blade holder

can be used like regular holders

holds the blade

one of which

a scraper-like



A 0.











;I tc,rcl bout t~ctilriirrg

tool.5 ltlrlt

(lrv lrol cllzc~crqs /iJiltld

iI1 ttrc tlomiJ


particularly such as lead.


in boat work.




cut wood,


and soft metals

It takes a lot of fastenings twist drills. latter kind hardwood useless. Thehc even or metal though heats

to make

a boat sound; carbon and

so for the electric

drill you will need

come in two kinds, they are more the drills boats there

steel and high speed. Be sure to get the because drilling a series of holes in expensive, the carbon steel bits will burn and become These

In all but car1 be bored

the smaller

will be some



for long bolts.

with and without center lead screws. The latare preferred because they make it ter, called barefoot augers by boatbuilders. If auger holes are made with power, a heavy duty, easier to keep a hole on course. slow-turning technique long enough, motor chuck. that a great all be sunk many into wood screws are used in modern drilled drilling holes to enable operations, them there the wood from splitting boat construction. into hardmust to be driven electric drill is a must. them than Some rather builders than and you must develop your own are not like to use a twist drill you must extend smaller an auger. a rod onto If the standard drills

with ship augers


by welding

it up, with the extension You will learn The screws To reduce

the drill diameter,

the drill shank and trueing if necessary, to fit in the drill

woods or. with softwoods, the number and counterbores

to prevent

as the screws are driven. are patented countersinks

of separate

on the market.

Both of these tools first drill a hole for the body of the

TOOLS screw; screw, gadgets eliminating of available There more sheet shank, some name they the countersink while both have much an then follows drills up by shaping a straight-sided for depth changing in the chapter as might tools drilling drills of hole the hole hole and to take are the head plug.


of the These twice

the counterbore baclr-and-forth are shown similar

for a wooden valuable


time-savers: the range that do

of drills and the necessity on fastenings. be desired. of more expensive

of working

on every hole. These

Unfortunately, construction

sizes is not as extensive are also some These

or less the same job. to the profile makes have and one about for these and are cheap drills lengths and equal

look as though two diameters, of the drill pilot can These twist drills completely tear bits, and

they were stamped one for clearance depth drilling

out of a steel of the screw and One but on

of a screw and have a stop on the shank screw They

to the diameter

of the screw at the root of the threads, to control they when of the hole. hardwoods, in the rhapter similar are sold

is wood thus

in sizes for various

diameters fastenings. Old-hand especially nail

of screws.

be burned

expendable. often grind point

bits are also shown to a tapered through the wood point

boatbuilders when The tapered

to a gimlet,

a hole is to be made

the wood

for a rivet or clout goes through. like a usuof a


does not

as the drill

One of the traditional tools of the boatbuildpr is the adze. Ihis tool is shaped hoe and is still in use in yards that build vessels with heavy timbers. Boatbuilders ally use the lipped of the blade. skilled learn under The workman, adze, which is a smooth-cutting across tool for working when in the hands the guidance that made workshop anyway, type with curled the grain heavy and, pieces who when adze is used diagonally is a wonderful to the limbs under in the hands

edges at the ends The adze can so it is best to of adze time

of wood. has plenty

also be dangerous his belt.

of the inexperienced,

how to use one

of someone some hand of most because is already

As we progress. foregoing, chances not, but are good and

it will be apparerlt mention that start has your been boat your home

tools have been that you will equipped these hand

omitted need,

from the and really the If exof them.


with many tools arent

go ahead

pensive and can be bought Power tools in the home one of the most useful size. For straight in a small circular cutting lumber than drill, brand, ference quantities One the hull shop.

as you go along. workshop are more rircular while for a table It can and table


now than which arbor

ever before.

By far

for boatbuilding jointer,

is the bandsaw, not essential,


be 12 or 14 in will do most jobs A portable for out of in depth electric in a good the difof a luxwhen prevent

cuts an 8-inch A 4.inch

saw with tilting

can be a labor-saver. curved

saw is a poor substitute up plywood if the planking panels.

saw but does have some use, particularly for cutting for cutouts planking the saw is set to cut out little more As in the case of the %-inch Stick to a good grade lines and better Somewhat labor-saver it helps lines.

also be used

is not too thick in plywood saber makers

the plank and because being

thickness. hatch

A saber saw is invaluable decks.

such as for pqrtlights


do not buy the cheapest even repuLable in bearings boats mozt

saw you can find. have competitive and

and power, but small

thus in life expectancy. but it is a tremendous tools is the sander,

ury for small of the

is an electric labor-saving

screwdriver. screws power

of anything

are to be driven. and

boredom, planking whether Another labor-saver plane, This familiarity



disc sander

is good and

for such


as cutting sander


the seams


and for sanding Again, during been

fiberglass. quality

For finishing, the belt sander

the orbital

is about

the best,

for wood or fiberglass, power tool that might

is used by the pros for smoothing so dont than skimp. is an enormous is an electric by Skil. This but which plane

up joinerwork.

is important of boats

in sanders, longer ballast

be considered one such up lead

a luxury, as the S-inch

the construction is a lightweight used for smoothing will be said about ability

25 feet long, made

All you need is all that and

tool has even

keels. in the introduction, assumed.

tools because,

as mentioned tools has been

a certain

with woodworking


for Tools are mentioned below and that are known for stocking a good selection of is, is

.4 few places tools, both

for woodworking


One of the largest

and best known

of course, Sears, revised annually. Brookstone Craftsman Garrett

but not everyone knows that they put out a fine tool catalog that order: Here are some others know]! to me, listed in alphabetical I27 Vose Farm Inc., Road, Peterborough, New Hampshire

Company, Wood Wade Co.,



Co., 2727 South Mary Strcc:, Chicago, Illinois 60608. 302 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10001. (This

ca:alog is so beautifully illustrated it should bc a collertors item.) W.1,. Fuller Inc., P.0. Bax 8767, Warwick, R.I. 02888. (They sell the barefoot wood auger hits shown in Figure :I- 1 .) Wetzler Clamp Co., Inc.. 43-15 11th Street. Long island City, New York 11101. (A manufacturer of clamps only and will sell direct IO boatbuildcrs.) 313 Montvalc Avenue, Woburn, Massachusetts 01801. Woodcraft Supply Corp., (Another house with a nicely Supply, X71 12. illustrated P.O. catalog Box that lowers ones resistance 11200 Menaul NE, to purchasAlbuquerque, ing.) Woodworkrrs New Mexico




Wood rtlmain:;

is ow of the c,asit>st materials a favoritt* of many Not ail woods nrr sui~nblr

out of which

the amateur

can build

a boat.

and ir




for bonthuiiding.

tht* grc-at growth in synthctit howcvcr. so as we go along. onr of I he most of and

1tit-rt- will I)t%commtn~s OII IIKW kill& tl~a~ have (ltXir;ll)lt qualities sought anal have I he necessary It is beyond our discussions wc~ocl, even when iimite(1 I0 rhe trees found numher

provtn rlutahit* st rengr h the surface States

the scope of this hook 10 morth rhan scrarch in rhe llnited 10 the small 01 commonly

on rhts subjrcr woods


so I will limit



how the lumber is manufactusrri rain woods from boatbuilding dccavq availabltordinary that and shortness

lrom logs. A few reasons for the elimination of cerare brittleness. softness. weakness. susceptibility to of growth. On the orher hand there are rime-tested woods qualities. aimosi but rhese rypes can seldom be found in an every area where boats are built has a yard and the amateur lumber of good needed material quatiry. is advisrd to seek of grade trouble for long hull life. is of little conse-

that have lhe net.essary iurnber~ard. Fortunately

fully untlers:ands

the nec~ls of the hoathuiider. to obtain the high in the matter

rile aid of such a supplier lherc should Ihe builder TV. is consideI~ecl.

ht. no compromise

of lumber

for when the labor

the t-xtra ~0sI and

Sawing Grain tation been

of Lumber is formed has much felled and by the angle depends of the annual upon rings with the face of a hoard of the lumber for use in boats. to run is GUI from and its orienThe grains a saw

to do with the suitability trimmed.


in boards

how rhe lumber

logs. After a tree has the log through

it is easy for the lumberman


PLAIN 4- 1.





and cut it into boards

as shown

in A of Figure

4- 1. -!-his is called



and all

but one or two of the boards sawn from the log in this manner are called slash grain or tlat grain. A more expensive and more wasteful method of cutting up the log. B in and the rrsultinp; boards are known as rift, verFigure 4- I 1 is ralicd quarter sawing. tical. or edge-grain boards. It can be seen from Figure 4-2 that a few boards from the nlidtilc clt it plain-sawn iog have rift grain just like quarter-sawn lumber, but the ma,joritv 01 tllr~ I)l;tin sawn boartls arta not tlf3ir;tblr for I~OilI~~llildil~g, as will h showl~.

Seasoning Wood content or more sorption wood for ,tlmost prewnt ,~ny purpose at a11 must be tlricd time or scbasoned to reduce the content wood contains thr moisture as half abthe moisture, When

when thr tree is cut , at which of the log. Ihere and absorption into

may be as much themselves.

the weight

are two ways that

by the ceil walls has taken

the cell cavities

on as much

as the cells will hold,

the wood is said to be at the fiber








saturation percent, process

point. ot reducing

In this condition the moisture shrinks

the moisture content


of the wood averages is reduced. After an acceptable it seasons



and no shrinkage material, wood

takes placc un:il and this is when further

this percentage to about


is the level for

15 percent,

hoatbuilding level is wanted,

the wood shrinks. moisture

to whatever

if more

is removed

and swells if more

moisture is taken on. Shrinking or swelling is greatest in a direction parallel to the annual rings, thus slash-grain boards cup more than rift-sawn ones and appear as shown in Figure reducing 4-YA dfter thickness seasoning. width, Shrinkage producing of rift-sawn boards lumber tends more t.oward stability for than with grrater dimensional

tlian flat-grain ones (Figure 4 :!H), and t<br 1hia rcasrjn planking. tlccking. and other boar parts.

rift -bdwn lumber

is desirable

Thrrt* are two methods used for seasoning wood. and the mention of the merits of one versus the other just might start an argument in the local t)oat shop. There are those wood done who will accept upon I hr only air-dried of the and lumber, pieces. hand. place-d depending right thickrl:*ss a process It is


can take several years, accepted that air-dried 1 hate cannot seen this being wait too long of days.

is tht- best for boatbuilding. in boatyards. so ;he lumber is often

on nutnerous modern

occasionh production

On the other

for material,

in a kiln to be dried

in a number

mus: be done with care. because the normal prodcontent a:;,low as eight percent, v herc,s time has the moisture content (if boat material shown 111th drying mctl~od. with many accepting 15 percent as ideal. sliould he between 12 and 16 ptarccnt, of the lumber .v,,ight when Moisture c~ontent, incidentally, is expressed as ;: pt-rcentage
llldl Itgitl-dlt?iS Of

Drying boat lumber by this nlethod uct of thr kiln wilt have a moisture

cwen dry. Drying surface cessively and in a kiln spcbc-ds up thr t-vaporation of m,)isture, causing fast drying on the slow drving inside, and is said to affect both the strength and elasticity of Lumber during for boats must period. not be too green types of planking the moisture The boat or it will shrink the latter content and check could and PXbe they is to of knots the building nyr must it be too dry or it will absorb condition of wood. moisture


the wood.

swell unduly.

In the case of some made

very serious. There are meters must. leave and be used properly These decay. the selection checks,

for determining results. that

for correct people

best procedure who understand lumber should

for the amateur the requirements not have large

of the wood or nondurable

to the experts sapwood.


also know

Kinds of Wood In the northeastern this other areas typical other east, choice ings. As a guide, approxitnate moisture 1 give here a list of good weights content. per board woods, together with principal by one inch thick) properties and foot (one foot square at 12 percent country parts was long established part of the United born, the practice ago. and time woods, frames members cedar makes States, where many tike to think available lands, being boatbuilding woods lumber added in certain As a and the in was from to

of using

certain from


has proven

its worth. of local with pine

Through foreign products woods

the years,

of the country,

as well as material with substitutions experience be yellow would might

has been made

the list of suitable as a result example, backbone or Alaska of wood

of satisfactory


for boatbuilding. but keel, deadwood,

be of oak in most fir on the West but a boat rot in a short

localities. Coast. involves

in the South,

white oak in the Northtoo much work to gamble fasten-

or Douglas little that mav

As tong as it is proven. or not hold


with untried



.rr be brittle

White Weight


al.2 l~Oll~~llS






holds fastenings

excrp. the oak such as

tionally well. Easily steam-bent, should be green. not seasoned. ktbcl, stem, dradwood,
(11. ~hd

thus excellent for frames, but for this purpose Also used extensivrlv for all !rackbonr members

oak grows








that the most dtrrablc oak ib from trees felled during the winter when the sit11 is not flowing. (Set- Winter Cutting vs. Summer Cutting following the description of Alaska cedar.) oak. when 11 should it is at be noted here to tind there and white is a much less durable oak. greater than supply white 01 red oak than white lhe red varietv is weaker oak and is to br avoided

aii possible

Douglas Weight utmost and plywood

Fir about ) ,.!I




and straighl-graincd. for Sitka sfrruce


for stringers, is not of

c~fitmfrs. scrmctimes importance. panels. California.

for spars as it substitute and

when light weight

planking whtn rift sitwtr. Grows it; Oregon, Washington. from which veneer is peeled for manufacture into Logs dre IiligC. Douglas fir is often called Oregon pine. Green fir is often found in IO house builders and this should not be used without further

lumber vards scasoiling.


Yellow Weight white

Pine about oak

(Longleaf! 3.4 pounds clamps, deadwood, (heavy). etc. Strong, May very durable, and straight-grained. also as a substitute long lengths Used for in some

for stringers,

and for planking

if weight

is not a factor, in good


be available

localities. this.

Has been


as not durable States

in fresh water. and Gulf


I cannot



in Southern


in Atlantic


-White Pine Weight of which decks because struction. about were in yacht 2.1 pounds used building. clear durability (tight). Genuine seen varieties northern of sailing nowadays. make makes white ships White pine. pine material enormous ago and quantities for laid here

in the construceion is seldom boards of many available joinerwork.



is mentioned

the wide, except

it a tempting

for the amateur, for boat con-

but the dubious

this wood undesirable

for inlerior



Weight about 1.9 pounds (tight). Atlantic white cedar, which grows near the Atlantic roast from Maine IO northern Florida and westward along the Gulf coast to L,ouisiana. is also known strong. moisturetight as juniper. southern white crdar, swamp cedar, and boat cedar. for planking. are especially It is not Soaks up good for 1,111its uniformity r;nt)idty. I;lt)str;lk(* t~lank4 and resistance 10 rot make it excellenr is tow. ho[h of which qualities in and

bum shrinkage

I)oals [11;1[ art* atrt~rnal4y

taycsr is usually wit II or wilhout trunk

thin. Atmosr always suppliett as flirches. I)arti on I ht. r~tgc*s. I Iic*sc* boat hoards tat)c*r in width sanx- as the tree

OUI of the water. Sapwood lhal is. plain-sawn boards

;~ntl I.;II~ IN* art~~al~t,I~:c~clusly usect for Ilull t)Iankinj=.

Port Orford


clear. and srraight-grained. Weight ah0ul Z.-l puntis (iigilr ). Moderarely strong, 1 Irartwcxxi VVI-;C ~c*sis[ant iti rot I!4 for planking and bright finisht*tt decks. Grows in sout I)(,111Orc*gon ;11i(t nor-rllc~ri CI,llifornia anti IS d material familiar to thcb tavman been made. as tht* woo(1 lrtrm wl1ic.h \;ISI rlurnlwr~ 4 vene!ian b!ind s!a!s have ttisrinc~li~~t~ st1ic.v o(t01 thih wood wah scarcch in the tare 1!)7Os. Has a

Wcstcrn Wt.ight and rnal~riai

Red Cedar ahout 1 .!I f)ounAs (lighl). Ilighly rvsisldnl howt ver. 10 rol and is soft and availahltweak. in good widths thus not the htst

twgr hs for planking. ior (his purpose.

1lli.s wood.

Cypress Modvralcly slrcmg. (rncdiuni~. Mcighl at)out 2.X founds rot. Llscd for f)ianking wlww wc,ight is not ;I f;l<.tor hrcausc cxttnl. making for a h<nil\v boar aflt,r a short heartwood very rtxistanr to low

it steaks up water

IO a great

rime in [ht. ivattr.

Grows in southern


of the United this.


If you wani

to use cypress

in a boat.

fmd a supplier

who understands

Sitka Weight

Spruce about strip 2.4 pounds from because under northern believe (tight). lengths spars Moderate make shrinkage, it ideal to Alaska. have proper there are Not care. high strength for its weight, Coast in 10 rot, resistant

and availability a narrow craft wooden

in long, clear

for spars.

Grows on Pacific

California it or not,

particularly Stilt available plenty

but this is not detrimental quality. aircraft

when construction.

in 1980 in airof amateur-built




White) High strength for weight. not very resistant to rot. where weight-saving is the primary consideration.

Weight about 2.4 pounds (tight). Used for deck and hull framing Grows in New England.

Philippine Weight trim

Mahogany 3.0 pounds (medium). This Islands is the market that name material difficult Holds for woods known as and and is it is true and is the


laucl~l and


in the Philippine It is decay.resistant of builders sides and and trim.

are exlcnsively When srtrc~ed

used for planking ior planking 10 finish fastenings than well importer. prefer for color and grain

in this country. for cabin

and an excellent Somewhat more According

used by the finest attractive mahoganies. relatively besr grade expensive,

for this purpose. color vary

Hardness inexpens,vt is known darker

considerably. and the better

considering as firsts red variety.

iis qualiiies.

io one iarge boatbuilders

and seconds

the more

Other Weight They quality

Mahoganies varies from medium used for planking. than more and expensive. finish to heavy. exterior Honduras material. Honduras, finish, Mexican, and interior mahoganies, to and African joinerwork are better Abeking and mahoganies of flile yachts. looking, Rasmussen easier firstnf

have all been 10 finish, and

are heavier planking

the so-catl?d


or Mexican According


is a favored

Lemwerder, Germany, builders African mahoganies are Khava nyankom,

of some of the finest yachts in the world, suitable iz~orcnsis. Sipo utile, Sapeli aboudikro and Niangon they should be acceptable to anyone. In the that there are other kinds of African mahoganies it is a case of dealing with a reliable supplier of

and if this firm uses these kinds

past Abeking and Rasmussen stated that arc riot suitable, so here again woods.

WOOD Teak Weight durable. The States equal. wood dulls White Weight durable. desirabtp. for sailboat about 3.5 kind pounds is grown (heavy). Not as strong moisture or Thailand trim. finish Teak that, as people and thus decks think. but extremely shrinkage.


Has a natural that

oil that


has minimum are noe coated


in Burma

and is so expensive in the opinion

in the United as a rule; has no of many,

its use is reserved periodically teak trim paint adding

for decks and to a whitish the bottom is rubbed somewhat

they are scrubbed Varnished

has a rich appearance. off. Teak


are not fond of teak, so this in case some of the toxic a gritty it. substance that

is often used to sheath bottom tools quickly, Ash about Used 3.4 pounds for deck and

of a keel as protection also contains lo the cost of working


(heavy). beatns

Straight-grained. and

strong boat

for its weight. reduction frames;


very is

as a substitute for oars.

for oak where

in weight also a favorite

Suitable tillers

for s:tAam-bending an old standby

used for small

Hackmarack Weight durable. about Only 3.1 the pounds roots, (medium), from which also natural called larch arc or tamarack. are Tough used and



for boat-

huitding. Slems hancl. Ahrking (twtlind African

for small boats and knees are cut from rhc-se crooks. On rhe other and R;~sI~~ss~~~ once told nit that larch was tht-ir sc:ctmtt choice mahogany) fclr planking.

Alaska Weight very used

Cedar ahout 2.6 pounds to decay. is bright (medium). Minimum where Straight-grainrd. shrinkage usually moderately strong. heartwood


for keels in areas

it is grown, sapwood

when seasoned. Good for planking and southeastern Alaska to southern Oregon. narrow.





vs. Winter about white

Cutting oak it was noted the most that in the opinion wood comes Material, winier-cut of most. from if not all, of in the in Navy paragraphs

In the remarks the old hands winter: Wood: Bureau An than therefore

in boatbuilding, it was something 1957. still given lumber.


trees felled

of a jolt to come

across the following

.-I Manual of Ships, old belief summer-cut

For Its I/w As .4 Shipbuilding wide currency The belief is that

Colurn~ I, U.S. lumber is more

durable that in

is based

on the erroneous




winter, tually, The

the sap is down, while tests have demonstratt-d as in summer. sound by insects felling, objection and and only

in the summer. conclusively to summer-cut fungi. piling that

the sap is up, in the living standtng trees contain is that precautions, methods, about



as much likely checking prompt of to

sap in winter deteriorate and such attack after damage sawing

lumber temperatures

logs are more particularly remove

if left exposed

to high summer decay good and

t;lat may accelerate

Reasonable seasoning

the danger

to summer-cut


Strength Because below

vs. Weight a comparison of strengtlis with is of interLast, the woods mentioned the weight pound3 per board foot again above are listed

in order

of strength,

shown. pOU&S

White White Yellow Ih~~glas ltbak

ash oak pint fir

3 .-I 4.2 3.4 2 9 3 .!I 3.1 2.9 :3. 0

Cypress Sitka Port White White Western spruce white c-<hda~ cedar pine red ct*dar about wood acquire spruce Orford cedar Northern Alaska

2.8 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.6 1.9 2.1 1.9 the CVood listed

liackmatack llondur-as mahog;~*ly Philippint


it is recommrndcd Iltrrrtlhook under Recommendc,d

that those who want IO learn Laboratory, in this book. Reading


of the Forcast Products



of Agriculture.



Stresses for Wood of a few c:f the foregoing the American counterpart woods are listed in the Huks /or LSuilding and of the American of Shipping. Bureau ABS specifies

lhe strength of Shipping,

t.lns.\l~g Kt~lrrfi)rwtl

Iicls~tr~ ~P.uv/.\, a new ( 1978) publication of L!oyds Register

that the wood be of best quality, well seasoned, clear, free of defects adversely affecting its strength. and with grain suitable for the purpose intended, and lists allowable tlt-.~grr .\[rc\.st~J pounds in per square inch as follows:
Est ronl(J

Comprt~ssion Parallel to Grain 1466 1066 1466

Ash, whit< Cedar, Alaska Fir ~ Douglas

FiSer in Rrn ding 1866 1466 2000

lIOO1) Extwvrv Fiht,r 111 I.cll,lf,rr~.ssiorl Ihrtlllt~l If) Gruin


&~I! tir t1.g

Mahogany Oak, Pine, Spruce, Teak

* 35 punf1.t per ~01~ /ool mini~num uvrght

2330 1866 yellow 2000 1466 l!JOO

1333 1333 1466 1066 1200

white longleaf Sitka

Plvwood Panels items awaited composed that werr of layers of wood veneers to be protected and from glued together but wet-e used for man): years for their use for marine adhesives. manufacturers There supc~rstructure5 This purposes touched gone for inbut mostlv have

the weather, Plywood

the ctcvelopment of plvwood on a one-off

use of completely because the

waterproof stock boat hulls. and

off a boom by amateurs almost plywootl produc:ion

hull building. basis.

is sti!l ttsed for this purpose

tc)tally to production in the marinr fibtsrglass boats,

line building

c~f fibrrglass as decks

is still a place bulkheads plywood and

fit-ld for suc.h parts

for limited-

and it is extensively

used for structural t(r tBa(.l1 other.

tcsrior joinrrwork in hulls of all construc.tion types. Being made of thirl layers of wood srrurcly bonded are stiffer panels, than boartls of equal thickness even for solne parts weight and sailb;,;?ts lot of time. Although plvwood tion. of boats made a matter can br savc~i and working


dntl have advantages over regular lumber, rompletelv of wood. Due to t hc* st iftness of plywood that can be of importance* of a number in both powerboats pieces can save a a hull with instead of small

with panels

thrrc* art exceptions. unless that in Chapter it has been

it is not theoretically


to plank


As nit-ntioned above.

t ht. designtar llas speciallv 2, plywood CdnnOt curvature. that found the bottom this.

shaped the hull for such construcbe bent in two direc:ions at once to in reft~renctI:) the exceptions arc-bottomed (~l,tmp5 and fastrnand get the notion pl;rnking

fit on a surface mentioned ings. Only

has compound


of certain

hulls can br niatlt~ of plywood expr.rieric.t% can happen If you should

wilh thca use of stratt$cally

help vou with

to have a set of plans

for the boat you want

that it should be planked with plywood. wise, check with him first to see whether major heartbreak. Plywood each other, alwavs plywood,

cven though the designer has specified otherit is feasible. This procedure may save you a

is made by laying up thin layers of wood with tile grain at right angles to and the number of layers is always cldri so that the <grain of the face plies is The number might of plies have and their thickness are important. thicker Cheap inner k ply. for instanct-. two thin faces ant I a relatively


MOOD a better weak grade when will have five plies of wood, with right angle kind bent parallel to the grain paneis. e,ch of about the is made fogs are ply. of Douglas placed thickness; difficult a paint fir.To oband suffiis at its is used in a lathe to tame finish equal thickness. panel It

whereas can relatively tain turned ciently hairline


be seen


construction, of plywood the


will be

of the inner

The most common the fir veneer against a knife

and inexpensive for making edge that called paini become finish. greater is exposed plywood wild grain,

peels the veneer Fir also checks in number to the elements.

at its desired badly as time sn that

thus most of develops

the grain

is flat g-ain, cracks that

and in fir it is indeed

for a smooth

goes on. This situation

worst whe;l

tht plywood

but even when the plywood

in interior joinerwork, checking Such checking can be alleviated ing, turers. using ;I f,lywood sealer Fir f,lywootl is acceptable

can make somewhat for interior

it difficult by coating work that

to achieve a first-class paint job. the fir with a sealer before paintpaint or plywood laminates manufacone such as is to be covered plastic with either


by one of the marine

of the modern

vinvl wall coverings

or with one of the durable

Formica. It can also be used for planking and decking that thetic cloth. such as fiberglass and resin. Plvwood for any purpose in a f)oar, whether for planking should f)e of nlarine grade. This guarantees that fjroof adhesive, that a minitnum number voids in thrs inner f,lir3 are minitnal. of patches

is to be covered or for interior are bonded

with a synjoinerwork, with water-

the veneers

are used in thr, face plies, and that

Plywood Previous

Grading ctlitions of this book carried data furnished Champion rrsuftcd before. by a large Building This marine Products. plywood Asking

tnanufa(.turt~r. complete the times.

I1.S. Plvwood ilkformation there

Corp., than

now called for boatbuilders wds available

for an updatcb on what is availaf)lc gr-ading becausx

in the receipt quality.

of eben more

has got to be a sign of

is a for of plywood


of horrible

Mat-inc.-gratis plvwood panels art laminated with waterproof phenol-formaldehyde or rc*sorc.incll glut>. anrf th:, fac(* f)lics are all grade A veneers. while there is a choice grade A or gracfr H backs. B. detail, although there is little you can do ;tf,out what is produced including ~lhertb is also a choice of either Douglas fir or fauan ior(*s. tlot h gratltb todav.

of for

Cfertb is ;I I)it morr masinlum 4 x 8 pantbl. suf~erimf)ost~d. Marine A-A and plywood A-2. (An

Kf*f);tir5 in ;I gratlc* A ~;I(x, art limitt~cl IO ninc* in ;I -I x K-foot panel. 01six vtbnecr f)*s. Intchrs 11~ panel cores art of grade it: a ~gratle I3 back are limited B I~ougfas fir or fauan.

a in a than

to eighteen

with no more

four (ori* gaf)s in any ply. with (ore gaps not to exceed panels rotary art offered grades means the back Durapfy in the following

$ , and with none of t hesr gaps types: marine fir. grades A-A

and A-B: rnaritle


A-A panel

A-A and A-2; and marinr ribbon fauan. grades both sides are of the same grade of the same plv is of B or ;I? grade of the same species.) panel with a paper like resin-impregnated This panel is good for bulkheads and partitions

species; A-R ot- A-2 indicates Champion has a marine CrrZon overlay

on the face and back.



[flat arp to br painlcd. Duraply ribbon is also made fauan hefortb.

lhr fat-? VCntcrs untft-r- the trvt-rlay arc* pdich-frcc as Lgratfr GIS.



f)ac k. Optionally.

wiLlI a C:rvZon fact, (II? qratft* B fir and C1 rofarv or thv ventbcr ulltivr I~W C:rc%c,n <an I)c f)ouFlas fir, f,ur of the fir tan usuaffy fly dtzrcclrtf rflrough a paint

as mrntionvcf

rhr wild grain

fini5fl. .fhr m:lrlrlcs ttbak f>an(*fs matfv teak grain vrnrer) variarions fjfain-slicvcl wilh snlalf lcbak

f)\. C~hnmf~ion X cxmiparcd othrrwist.

al-v f;l<cyf witfl I0 lotarv grade

1,,,I (rflib is [flick for a

f)urf and knot


cut niatchcd for color and afic,:>rctf. <;r;l(fy A-.,j is used when ,A- 2 is availahfv witi) a choice of

horh sidvs of tflc- pancf

will f)c visif)lr.

grad? B backs. Cflampion is a company f)uiftiing


witfl a hi:;t!jry of making

t~ltv sUp])lV rtrail

fflcir f,ro(lucts vard ourftqs

wtaif known br.atttqxyi

as float.





i,, rlol the



concxr11 tflal

for \va~c~rf,roof marinr-gratfc carcvcyf I0 f)o;iIf)uif~f~*rs ov(*r tfjcs yy;irh is -ffltb kfarBaf~inlc)l-t~ , Marvlanti 2 1230. lrv Harbor forot!lcrwisr. .ff~cv usually carrv il Dutch-made th.~l is superbfv nla(fr, aff)eit ;1 flit t)rl the heavy



her SillC~~comparlv.

l-101 Kuswff Strt-t-r, lvak. an(f Bruvn;rwl

~11 spccim of fmnt~fs fir, mafrcjgany-like: ~la11c.l ~all~i 4th.. Plywood Panel Sizes

fflf- lolfowinq ih 01 f)fvM.()o~f f)CIntf sin-s tiic,;llc-ti II? *) ;Intf Ifarf)or Salt3 (intfic~arcd fq
il rill)lC

in illt.ht3


Iron1 (:h;imf)itrn


i ).

.\I(Irlrrf I*/1 , (3.f,lV) 4x s !hi 4 10* + 14-f*

Iy (.r,-pi) 48 s !)li+ f !o* t

ItiX* I!)P* .I()*


? (:PpIy) (i-f+)

48 s !W I0 4 I.14 + 4H s 96 4~ 121) + 11 I I0 + 144 + l-1-f +

, (7 p!y) 48 s !?(i* -

I (i-ply) 4H s 96 + I0 * I Iq (!I-f,lY) 4x s 9ri 1 I.> ( 11 .ffV) -fH s 9ti*

Murlrrf~ I~fll~lrp l.tll/illl

( (?I plv) .lH s !)(i (.:,.plv) IL(5.plv) ,lH s !Mi I 4x s 96 t

I0 I.14 I0 + 1.14* 4 I0 4 l,fd + I0 i f-14

,( (7.f,fY) 48 s wi*
,Varirrc I,, (3.[IV) Kihtwll l.nucltr

4x x Lx*

,Zln rlti f* 1)~ rajdy

, (5.]I?) , (5.fjly)

-18 Y 96 48 x 96 * 120* i-f-f* 16x* 192* !216* L-10


II 001)

Special Both

Sizes of Plywood (Ihampjon

10 Ml,


iiar bar

Salts\ 0ftc.r 10



in sites




Champion. ,~ss;iulf h),irs s(i feet.) imum I hI( kwss width

mentions for instance. and ll*ngths ot Sti whmt* topsiti~* l,lanking r,l H,

of $,,. panels fr-on! b !o I IL thick in increments (A friend of mine built several hundred hard-chine t on4stc .a ti! ;i single C1 otfcrs with panels width, pant.1


side of about with a maxof H1/2. Panel

l+;trt)or start5

5alt.h. on tilt- ot ht.1 h,lnJ. or i)allc-l5 ill an! at % .

in any length. length

a maximum



Plvwood me. have SIICc~ssfully usrd exterior grade plywood instead of

1\23Ilv 1)uiltlt-1.5. ills lucling rllar-intgrath~.

hut L huffi< icllt nurnhc*l c~f failures. I rt-c~orclt~d. Bwaus~ of this. the use ot c,xrt-r.ior grade

sue_h as delamination, is not recommended

have been unless one is

~lh\ol~/(,l~ c,t,rfo/n that the panels ar,- made with truly waterproof glue, that all voids arc pluggc~l hv the- bui!dcr IO prevent the entrance of water, and that the weaker conSIIEC tion iniltbrc.llt III I hc lesser number of plies is suitable for the job. All in all, con>,idc-ring rho tr~~mt~ndous amount ot troub!e that could be caused by failure of this ~I~~JVO()(~ lnatc~rial. thta hc,.~thuiltlt~r is ativisc:l against gambling his labor against the \,l\in,g iI1 lllq\t( ~051 ,gainerl i)v 1tI(. us( ot f.xtcricn gra(lt-

IhIt. IO

[Iit* rtiili 4;lwtYl \t-ntt-t\ th,l: Ilidkt

utl .I


~~lvwo~~tl rt-ntl5 to 5)llinter

011 its undcrlumber

hitIt* w ht.11


ti1 i\ 0111 01 ~IIc*WI~I~I itI ttii\

it3l)t*(t. :I 1)iec.e of solid





c!amped always there panels held Lightweight

on the be made

underside circular fine

of the panel crosscut made than

will eliminate when sharp

this much

splintering. plywood The


should up. and

by a fine-toothed with teeth

saw with the face-side this purpose. block to it. plane

of the plywood is to be cut. edges


saws are handy for just

are blades at an angle

of plywood

are best smoothed

with a low angle, rather

set for a fine cut and

to the edge




Plywood can be bent to curvature either dry or after it has been steamed. If the latter method is used, the panel must be dried before another part can be laminated IO it. Sometimes it is advantageous to dry-bend two panels eat-h of half the desired finished a dry thickness. The following chart panel wi!l take. Pant-l thickness is a guide (not the gospel) to how much and bending radii are in inches.
,J cr0.n Cirnitr
I ,,I 2 I I, I!


P~~mllt~l to
60 72

24 4 3fi


!Jfi 144 I92 40

1: , II

7 Wi 144

Laminating <;lut~cl parts hc-cause Lamination

Wood of laminated often solid wood parts or plywood adhesives to be made


he used cure

in hoat at room

construction temperature. and

of the availability

of watt-t-proof


allows curved

with minimum

waste of material

means that large parts ha~ltlI(*d. Ct)llI-rnol~lin~

can be made of small pieces of wood readily obtained and easiiv antI str,il) l)lanking as tit*sc~riI)t~(l latc*r art- t)ottl form5 01 \v(N,;I

parts laminating and so arc ho;low spars. Laminated thtb time that must be taken to prt*pare the form and strong, particularly beams. are tnuch laminating laminated that solid sue-h as deck Laminations although an assembly would have

trot necfxsarily material,


tluc to are


hut the parts

wood asst~mblies of parallel grain construi~tion. ross grain in them if sawn from solid stock. and split than of the non-laminated

ICS:; likely

to check

parts. the strength


does not increase

the strength manner. become

itself. than

of ot

such as the stem showr, in A of Figure

4-4 is greater quite ingenious

if it were made

solid pieces jointed in the conventic,nal Builders with an interest in laminating for laminating to a lamination, parts that otherwise either strengthwise

at conr,oc.ting


would be tedious to make or from the standpoint

or that wouid of durability.

be inferior

3 9 . L


Fi,gure series

4-4B shows the lamination one piece of wood. is fastened in place is shown

of a tiller. to secure in C. and

A part

like this would to which

have cross grain and a will be solid as

if sawn from of cleats clamped. Another ably from

The shape

is laid out on a hoard the form it can quite

or on the floor, the lamination either

type of form Harbor

he used for laminating ftom Champion to laminate sharply

stock or plywood.

Fir plywood

$, thick,


is available

and probsuch parts

if you ask for it, can he bent

deckhouse roof corners. rockpit coaming corners. and the like. D is a sketch of a form used to ,gluc up right- and left-hand parts with twist, such as the bulwark rails at the bow of a boat No matter in all forms: glued Ihrrt~ have how the form the form must being is constructed. be covered there is one thing paper that must be remembered it from that becoming be with waxed to prevent

10 tlte part

laminated. of the lamination easily. prior strips except they must thin, shape If they are not sufficiently to clamping. you will

is no rule for the thickness to take the required time holding them

thirt encrugh a hard

in place

Scarphing Wttt-tt Icngtl1s rig just



and Plywood in long enough llat -scarphs Iry hand lengths for the jot; at hand, shorter


is nc)t ol~tainal~lt~

IN* jcbinc*tl with gluecl

with a ratio of Ic~t1gth-t(~~thickt~c~ss of 8 or Ilowevet in Figure 4-h. and a similar . scarl)t1ing a wide plyput out by the boat L&1!; City. alike. Michigan in the As shown

IO to I Bciat-cls can be tapered wood f~ant~l this way taktx


with a rig as shown with a routet-. espec-ially 706 and slartin a toot caiteci Inc.,

tbc*cfc~\,&t~ct cl0 t tits plaiting to 01 two sc,trf)tis. firm is incleed Consc~quentlv Brothers.

a lot of f)atience.

if you tta.le to set up the rig for Street,

the Scarffer profession,tl

buitcling 4X706, photograph.

of ltlt~ saw.

of Gclugecul 01 interest Figure

to the amateur

Llsc-ci with a saw blade

-4 1;. the Scarffer of good quality.

is an attachment for a portable circular saw. it is said to cut a clean sc-arph with a single pass


for Roatbuilding the


Lumber of finding good I~oatlmilding catering wood has been reduced

I~ortun;1tc~lv. son1cwI1;tt magarines has been Uestcrn York. Lumt:rr aware




of supplirrs


1s i2c~JtlcQrt Rf>cit,


to b0irtlruilderS and others. One Plains. there before

in boating of these sup10603,

ltlic*rs. M. 1.. as uutvrproof


258 Ferris


White (long

New York

advertising red cedar.

for as long as I c-an remember l-hey Hart-a white oak. teak. and cypress,

was such a thing Sitka spruce, supplier New Logan Another

plywood!). is John

have always had a stock of fir. mahogany. as well as plywood. Company. mail Tampa. cnder. Florida 39 West 33601. \Vctod & Supply ad mentions C.;cnuc. Rome

in the Northeast New York Companv.

19th Street,

1001 I. Harras 301 North of hr?at builders.

In the Snutheast,

has alwhys been

of the needs



Figure Huilhs 1att.r) Wettbrn nit-ranti.

4-5. WINI wish to l)uil(t rt4 c.rclar. iI colti-molded for Douglas Lompnv. woodcn fir. hull (mart* grain ;tt,out this method vertical spruct~. Ort-gon grain or red in good

art fortunatt~

to havt~ a supplier vtBrric;il grain t)y Iht~ Dr;In to Ihili;~pine

In vtnrer vt=rtical


eirhtbr Silka

whit~h is similar


.Ihis marcrial

is scockrd

witlrh~ and Irnghs

P.O. .Box -126. Grt*shatn.

out jiirm, joints by



Scarljfer, cu/ting sheets.

put scarph

Gougc~or~ Brothers

vs~mplifie.~ in plywood




of Wood Decay of decay that is to select woods that have proven durable in to be of

The first step in the prevention boats, and it should is caused moisture rot, Decay present by fungi certain content

be remembered

that the heartwood feed on the cellulose of moisture, Wood that be on the order is continuously

of a log is the most resistant between temperature, and air must

the cell walls of wood. the temperature there is no

For the fungi . The 75-90 degrees air present. There cabin.

to grow,

conditions must

of 25-30 percent, is always

F., and the air stagnant. a,-td wood that later


dry does not rot because

the lack of moisture, will be more where watet to grow. to the

wet does not rot because of building just waiting of some to avoid

the importance and he trapped, resistance

leaks in deck and temperature precautions are toxic to and they then apand of

can enter natural

for the right woods easy and the

for the fungi In addition against fungi reduce I;or and


decay These

leaks that marine the chances

can he taken borers. of drcav.

bv the builder, preparations in preventing mot-t various

chemicals are decay

can be used that IO apply,


vears dn old standby along,anci

was copper


l~~~t~tit~~t~loro~~ht~t~~~lame c art* rc~aclilv dvailaltlcof these

Icht }),IIK-~!.

ftt~,rted, All 01 I hesc art* ~tld under It-oni sulrlrliers. the experience

recently IBIO (trihutyl tin oxide) names bv marine paint manufacturers

I am ~rluCl;inl


to recommend with and

any one photos

as the best, 1 hdrc against smallerdipped in

of boatbuildt~rs portit up TBIC) bv brushing

I have talked fungi.

c ehdtirittt-d borers

as the most effeclivr or dipping. short the larger

preservative parts being

for fnotection brusheci like,


dnd wood-tit~stroyitig

lhesc~ preset-vatives being

are easy to apply pieces.


such container

as planking butt blocks, of the preparation.

deck beams,

and the

Scantling The ciimensions itibtanct. thickness, beams dimension, a list keel of the hull of scantlings depth and dimensions timbers width, in wooden the stem width. boatbuilding sire and and are called scantlings. For



sizes of clamps,

of frames, planking stringers, deck generally the smaller

etc. lhe actual

may be given

as the siding,

and the molding. usually a vertical dimension. As an example of this, referring to Figure 12-l A, a deckbeam would be sided I t, and molded 2 th , while a clamp would he sided 1 t*j and molded 4 . The dimensions of frames are an exception to the above. ship dimension the builder quickly because becomes the fore-and-aft size. The adjusted dimension terminology to its usage. is the siding, is peculiar and the athwartand is the molded to boatbuilding.

It has been noted that quite a few designers, apparently tiring over the years of hand lettering the words sided and molded* on their drawings. simply abbreviate these words to S and M. This could be very confusing to the first-tirr,er. but now you know.



has bt-cn tht- traditional ease with which

material it can

for boatbuilding tht-rt* are other


it remains However,

so because depending


the- relative

be worked

by the beginmar.

upon the skill and ingenuity somel imt-s in combination

of the builtlrr. with wood,


to be considered,

Wood When covering should planking, changes, quite leaks worms covering


Fiberglass hull resin Normal construction and fiberglass carve1 type, is suitable, or other there such is much cloth. doub!e and there The to rt=commend hull with planking diagonal moisture is made

the type of wood the wood preferably or with

be of a stable

such as strip planking, planking to crack. to the hull. adds strength, and hulls swells However,

or triple



and this might and weight

cause the covering fastened absorption by itself

are those who do

not hesitate thick and When

to cover old carvel-planked is mt*chanically gain The from latter

with fiberglass,

but the covering prevents against

the hull is suitable. and borers.

t hp use of covering is a great weight

rot, minimizes the attack of the worries of the for

of water,


advantage, of the boat,

for it reduces cleaning.

that can be brought in the design, of the covering. anyway. The fabric The resin can

on by delays in hauling to the overall structures

out for bottom

l-he weight

does not add much the wooden In anything is usually be either

and when it is planned

can be reduced

in size to compensate weight

for the weight

but very fast boats the added cloth. but

does not count for much and Dyne1 are also used. expensive and more

fiberglass polyester

polypropylene The latter

or epoxy.

is more


3G E-IHER~~l.ASS ND OlIlk:R lI1 I.I. .21.4 A 7k.RI:II..5 time-consuming wood is superior. Covering covering when sanded Huils is also recommended in cabin work edges covered sides. for plywood etc., decks. cabin tops, and the like, and the to the builder joints can be of strain of joints to feather are oitcn to prevent is to be painted rather and made invisible boats. wtth %O-ounce leaks is a genuine boon than varnished. Taped d paint cloth. cloth per square polyester want finish. doubled is often Lil areas used to cover verby one layer of cloth and be to use, due to slower cure at room temperatures, but its adhesion to

the joined

under fiberglass Ten-ounce

such as at the chines tit-al cabin such covering, Anyone there stance, stripped, stronglv New because
ho011 attc*r to

of v-bottomed a minimum with boats that

sides of plywood. figurr

To give you an idea of the weight of 2.25 ounces will sooner must be taken be dry. must cioth. both including

added resin.

foot for IO-ounce to cover old wood, All old finish hull, cover,

and doul~k t tlis for 20.ounce who clabbles are certain the boat prt-cautions must

or later

for I dood job. and put under



off the wood. and the wood be hauled

In the case of a plywood weeks before be used ovet covering. the heads and smoothing

for in-

out of the water

the old finish Epoxy resin is of fastenings, gouges use

and the wood allowed to dry for several 1-t-commrnded for old wood.

OI old, oil IJZW fillers ,turomot~ile body

must putlv.


they will he sottent~d by the resin. or makts ;I mixture produce lhe consistency

For filling which



(41 her il polyester tionetl huildt~r olht-r

is very fast drying .L material IO the

Kt*Vlilr. 11twIs

and can be sanded like Cabosil propor. boat and

of t*l)oxy resin
of putty.

For many and

years I~rlentler

lntiusrries. selt*c.tion


has catered

of the home fiberglass

they carry a large

ot p0)vestc.t

.~nd c-poxy resins,

bvnt ht*tic. fahric,s.

s11c.h as ~J(~lv~)ro~)vl~~rit~ ;lIlII for (.ovt-ring New \Iork I OH01

(~iltalo~ alho Itas instruc~tions St I-WI , New Kochelle.

lhe address

ilIlt glassing IOOIS. lllr ot lIefender is 255 Main




.lhtb shiny,








a female

lhis rc-quit-es that a wooden male IJuiltIing iI wooctI~11 hull, using stripplanking hull shape. When lht- plug is tlwn covered for every blemish is finished glass cloth and as desired.

plug 1)~ made, just as though you were or l~lywood. whichever is suitable for thtand when resin and is worked the female so that mold the female to a very is made. will not until a

with glass cloth a release

snloot II IiIlish. t IIt- plug


will IJC reproducx~tl mat and polyesret-

is applied resin


it. Ihen

at-y laid up successively

rigid molt1 has been made. Rather than hold the molds shape, the shell is rt-inforr-ed 011 wood anti sometimes vertically, steel. If a particular is made hull withdrawn the mold to split

relv entirelv upon shell thickness to the outside with a nerwork of rough shape is such that it cannot be on the centerline.

Some builders decrease the time needed to build stiffness into the mold by using sandwic h construct ion. After 1.I or so of fibrIglab% hd> brrn laid up against the plug, they use a core materiai such as end-grain balsa, followed by more fiberglass. The mold stiffness is thus increased e-reatlv bv soreadine the rrlass skins aoart. the core

FIBERG1..-1SS.-I IV-II OTHER Hl1.1. M.-ITERIA LS material flanges. When plug, beam than acting in much mold the same manner as the web of an I-beam of a hull or steel, When has been larger that separates removed from than

37 the the the

the female

for the production and any blemishes disc of wood near and makes a partial

it is polished of the boat, dinghy

and waxed is added laying

are repaired.

IL is then ready in diameter is anything spend

for Iayfrom larger actually

ing up a hull.


to the mold

each end so the mold resin. the hull of time the builders the work mostly by hand

can be rolled must

side to side while working that

up the fiberglass laying up and resin

size, this minimizes

the amount

in the hull while

downhand. and applying

The more presumes the resin

you can stay out of the sticky the hull will be made

the less disiasieful up the laminates

the job will he. This

by laying

with roller and brush. When hulls are produced glass fibers can br applied with specialized spray strong The as those laminated high g!oss finish of fiberglass on the outside cloth. of molded

in large quantity. resin and chopped equipment, but these hulls are not as hulls or other simiiariy cortttructed

parts of the boat results from first spraying a gel coat of resin on the surface of the mold. The gel coat can be of any color desired. and contrasting stripes at the waterline and other accent stripes can be sprayed as well when you know what it is all about. After the gel coat has been wovtw roving and choppt*d llow ble, does one make Watching not available? thrrc has been applied, the hull is laid up with fiberglass fabrics known as strand mat until the nectassary thickness hrl+ been reached. and lay up a fiberglass do these boat things industry hull if detailed instructions are is the best way, but if this is not possiOne book, iLfnr/rrc* Dc~.\/~I~Mnuul,

a mold others

ale htroks that the bible

spell out the techniques.

for many I years. and now there are other hooks on tIrt* market writrcbn with the bt*ginntt. in mind. lh~ laminate (It*t;tilitlg the* c.omposit ion of rho tiberglass hull laminate. such sc~hcvllll~* int;)rmation as thcb wc$$ir lined anal tvpe of glass reinforcement, of the boar. laminatc~s. .Is experience l)ut guiclancth nunlbcr is Rained. of lavers, etc. in rhr Plans the builder should be out mav develop his

of the tiberglass

own ith*as about bc~athuiltling.

is nt~eded for rht, first artcmpt at [his type of




It was inevitable tiberglass mold. hull Setkmann

that without Plastics,

huildt-rs having Inc.,

would tn spend P. 0.

come the and

along time

and and

figure money C-Flex


a way to build a female 70185, which

a not

to construct L,ouisiana planking.

Box 13704,

NVW Orleans.

only devised

a method

but also invented



sists of parallel rods made of fiberglass-reinforced polyester continuous roving, with each plank being held together of Itghtweight, The molds the hull open-weave method stiffener! upside sag between fiberglass is fairly down. cloth. simple. The A hull strips must form construction and sometimes must be built will not

alternating with bundles of by a webbing of two layers is framed with sectional Obviously the C-Flex of the

with longitudinal molds the thetn.

let into be spaced

the molds. so that with




the weight





:I roll
ill plw

cl/ (:-It1 11 / )r~itrg :










hy I(.( ptlk\I

(iT( cYrrc~/rlIIy


C-Flex. The C-FIvu. molrts and c,c,nforms rountl-l)nttomett c-ach aclditional v-bottom~~tl sheer and,

which bends lon<gitudinally and sideways, is then laid over :he On the framework for a IO the hull shape with little itting. hull tI 1 planking is usually; shape<- *<)the sheerline and secured: then 5-1). For a plank is simply butted to the .djac ent width (Figure is applied to the chine and the covering the frame is continued has been to the to the centerline. When completely

hu11, the C-Flex on the hottom.

covered with the C-Flex planking it is wet out with resin, either polyester or epoxy, and t htsti l~ttIlill;ltiOt~ is contiriut4 with c~onventional fitWrgliIss miltc~rials until the desired t hic.kness has been reach~-d. the C-Flex is very strong in the direction of the foot, is 12 wide, and Like any similar conto have a fair layinformation condetailed known 13~ the nature of its cwttstruction,

rods. It is made in two wc+ghts. 0.33 and 0.5 pounds per square conits in lerigtlis of 100 and 250 rolls. or any length to order. struction, up and about One-nff the amount the C-Flex degree fiberglass of finishing of smoothness to anyone hoarbuilders time depends desired. upon Seemann furnishes interested in the method. use a technique

the care taken



as sandwich

struction, where thr laminate consists of a core between fiberglass skins. This type of construction has several advantages over single-skin construction. Probably the biggest

l.III~;KI;I..JS.;S!i OIttER ill 1.1 .lI.-fTERI.-lI.S 39 advantage

stifter than

is its favorable a single or foam,

stiffness/weight the weight


A sandwich

laminate and

is significantly greater than the

skin of the same


of laminations,

with a lightweight with options: single-skin hull and weight skin; stiffness. additional is hulls con. of or he

core such as balsa

of the sandwich

is not much

single skin. Ihis fact offers the designer who uses sandwich construction he calI krzp thy same thickness and weight lanlinate as for a similar and can

up wtth a thicket-, latninate

muc-h stiffer laminate designed ligllt


he can reduce save weight

the thickness and increase

the glass skins and use a sandwic.h than Other benefits. minimized

have a cored and sweating

with strength to both sandwich single-skin hull. Noise sometimes between


to the single offers hulls



construction fiberglass and vibration

Ihc interior

for which framing


are notorious are also reduced, fiberglass

or non-rxistcmt

in a sandwich

arid thtb .tI) of thtb transvetscgivt-5 11101 u.,;Ibitt :2n11r trrar


used in single-skin single-skin

hull. bc- made and sandwich




is wltat

tht. w,lt~:rlinc~

e:~nt that the hull is punctured, particularly under Iti s1tc.h (.ir~utnst;Itl(.tl;. the single-skin hull will admit water, but this is

in thr

not so of a sandwic.h hull unless both skins and the core are punctured-something that ad~oc.;itrs of san(lwic.h construction feel is unlikely during the normal life of a boat. ,ig;tiilzt It totlrn\s. ot t.ourbc. that

if a c~)rrd laminate is no worse than is often

should made is

be completely hull. than thicker


punctured skin, for a

the rt*sult of strc-tl XII .tccitlt~nt irnp;l( I, I hts otttcr

01 lx.1 111111) ;I t.ttio

for a single-skin laminate damaged, more

As a safeguard the inner than

of it sanctwich 01 $3sanclwicll has been

.I%(- tcpit


singIt* \kitl.

1111lt~ t ht. core material

in which

case a piccc of the way it was con. with with

(on will ric~~l to 1)~. irisc~rtc*~l it the hull

is to be repaired

in the same

~ttu~:tc~~l. OIlit-IMGW-. rhc- (l;ltn;tg~~i section of thr outer skin is ground away ~i1)1-St4i\,t. tic-rcbrl ilit0 t IIt* acliacc-tit unilatn;igc~l skin, and I he void is filled Iil)c%rgl,las .ln(l tt4tl thts S,I~H~ as for single-skin hull, a framework tibrt-glass repair. molds .II~ I)uil(l ;I 5atldivic.h of transverse section

and longitudinal

strips (usunllv ( allc :! r-ibbands (jr Ijattens) is needed to define the shape of the hull. and it tn;lkt*s st& to build upside down. Figure 5-2 shows the forward end of a male mold for an X6-foot powtarboai hull. I Ising loam (or-t- as a:~ c~x;tnipIr. foam sheets are fitted against the mold (using a the foam pliable where necessary or using contoured core heat lamp to makt matc~rial instt-atI) atltl held in place with nails driven through plywood scrap washers until

tht. foan~ (at1 t)t- held in place into thta foam outsi& skin (Figurts is t-equired

wit11 screws 5-a). to ensure


the ribbands

from rnsldr>the thickness

(l;igurcb 5 3). Ihcs foam

is then cc~vrred wit)1 the specified

of the fibt*rglass Careful material sandwich weaken reason

and whm

workmanshi~~ the

the glass skins. lamination

Interruptions is loaded When of the laminate

a complete bond between the core in the bond will hasten delamination of the to deflect there strength investigate between bond fails upon supports between and this will is a good the skins and for that

the affected that laminate

part of the hull.

the core. some of thcb burden

the core itself. For this core materials impact and upon

clesi,gner must carefully that

the available

use in boat Ilulls. Obviously. a material does not absorb water is desirable.

resists crumbling





Xht, tnult ~101rf for on

X6jiwt*lv pouw~rhoclt. .spncd thrb rib-

Airex-corrd, h(l trtl.5 (1 r(.

FOAM\ //

I ( i i t I i : ? / h i







o! the most (closed-cell by lclrin,


cores are: and

C,~n;td;r Klegrcell Court,

100 perrcnt polyvinyl chloride loam), marketed in the U.S. Inc., 12.5 Sht2ridan Icrracr, Ridgewood, New .Jrrsey 07450. cell foam, partly %oley polyvinyl St.. wood), chloride), Texas manufactured 7605 1. Corp., by Baltek Grapevine. manufactured 07647.

hlrgt~c~~ll (closed

by American 10 Fairway

Corp. I 204 NoJ:~. (end-gr; Box 195. North :ale.

in balsa

New Jersey

I cannot still upside while construction,

go into all the construction details, but suffice it to say that while the hull is down the nutside fiberglass skin should be smoothed to the extent desired to work downhand, manufacturers hull can is a trying skin is added If you wish more supply procedure because information the shell to complete on sandwich is quite limber the, core a cored you with it. the sandwich.

it is still possible

C)verturning before the inner


to the laminate

One method used by several builders of hulls 5-5. This involves the use of a holding cradle the hull as it is overturned is completed. Although be produced the aforesaid hulls. before is a one-off It is a matter mold fiberglass changed and which

with Airex foam cores is shown in Figure fitted to the upside-down hull to support of the boat

the hull sits in while the construction method of hull construction, to calculate molds that Female

the mold can be how many have been hulls can built for a sandwich

used for additional

of economics

a female

is justified.

the production of single-skin hull. Thr laminate is simply

hulls can also be used for molding to include a core.


I~IHER(~I.:I!iS .dhl) 07111:R 1111.1. .11.-l 71.111:1 1.S









Steel When pensive worked you stop to think when rornl~ar~*d to almost about with it, steel is a remarkable other desired. metals, and with ease Ihe relative material. proper it is strong, equipment, pieces very inrxit can be by electric

any shape

of joining

welding makes it a suitabltx material fashioned riveted construction. One rosion protect advantage by sea water. steel against Fortunately. corrosion, hut (and

for small craft with a saving in weight over olddisadvantage of steel is its low resistanre to corhave brought must construction about improved coatings to An botthe coatings aluminum be tcrnstantly maintained.

the years

of steel construction

as well) is that inner

tom integral fuc*l and water tanks ran be built in, using larger capacities to be carried than in wooden hulls. Steel is not a material for too long for the average beginner 1 can remember two good-sized auxiliary

the hull for one side, enabling but without of steel built reflecting by people

by any means. sailboats

who had not built a boat before. However, the necessary equipment. The worst fault the hull plating, did it again and both builders would the hulls

they did have metalworking experience and of these boats was the humps and hollows in they had gained experience so that if they

said that

not be so rough.

Rough plating of steel hulls is often disguised by skillful application of trowel cement, probably because it is cheaper to do this than to expend the labor needed to smooth the plating by heating and quenching. The roughness of the plating is caused

l~~lHt:K~~I..-l.sS .l.VI) 1)771t~;KII1 1.1. .ll:I 7l~:HI:~l.S -IS by stresses ser up when sequence of higtler of welding strength Even though welding the plating to the frames research can be built and one plate 10 another. have invented today rhan The

is of importance so that steel hulls

in this respect. technicians lighter new alloys ever before.

steel is an old material,



A few of the many satisfacror-y resistance yacht oftshore


alloys, These

for- boalhuilding.

notably alloy 5086 in rhe United States. are alloys are relatively high in strcngl h and corrosion A fair amount supply of rhis meral the increasingly vessels. weight weight. cannot over rhar of steel. or the possilasts well but speak aluminum in speed. is consumed by large fleet of

and can be satisfactorilv oil field crew transports of more

welded. and


but bv far rhe most of it is used IO build platform reduce terms. alloys of aluminum speed

In general .ihis permits bililv long;

construt.tion or an increase Besides ils light aluminum

the carrying


of achieving Iht* fittr (haI huitttt7h

with less horsepower. operators boats either

commercial Iongeviry. of pleasure

are using Ijuilti

for irs anlicif)at-d Several ;rluniinuni

only in dluminum Small of craft sheets


or have a line of 5ut.h as dinghies over malts molds I0 Orht-rwise. regular

i1S in

t~1a~5 in atltlition

IO Ihost- 01 otht-1 nlart-ria1.s. bv stretch-ft.rming p&t*

of 01it-

and runabouts of aluminum are made I)rotluct- 2 large part or ;1n enrirt- hdlf 1~-;111svirst~ tongil utlinal or ~rrircrio~i. Atulliinulil Lramiiig t~c~nstrut~tion


is used

ant1 c.ovt*red wirh than


sleel COIIalso in-

is nio~t- t,sl)t*nsivt-

steel t~~ns~~ut~~ion. for no1

onlv tlot~s IlIt* atunlinunl ilst4t CXN more pt.r INNI~~I than ~~t.t~l, rl~e ,tt.(u;tl welding IO~I~ IIIOII-. ihis mortb than m,lkt-s up for the fact rhar rhe wt+.$lt of aluminum volved in a particular project will always be less than the weight

of the steel required.

Manv builders of steel boars have converted 10 aluminum construction with little need to change cquipmenr rsce11~ for welding, but like steel. it is not a nlaterial for the bt*ginnt~r. 011~ very imptlfi~~rtn~ problem area encc,un~rrtd with aluminum construction is galvanit found when be t,c)rl.osion. Ihis octurs as sea cocks, hull is exposed the methods for the boat. manufacturers hetwern the aluminum shafts, hull rutitlcrs, currcrfts and etc.. dissimilar metals in sut.11 fitrings the aluminum and prt)pt-llers, anti also occurs in anchorages. This can the marine departments

to stray electrical


for doing

so are preferably for help.

all spt~lleti OUI in the plans

and specitit.ations of the aluminum

If you lack this information, be consulred

Welding ant1 the preparation of the finished surface are also areas that require care. Welding aluminum is quite different than welding steel. It is imperative that weld areas be absolutely clean if good welds are to be made. If you are in need of information about welding. comes IO painting coating aluminum hull rakes aluminum should the aluminum manufacturers can provide assistance. When it the surface, rhe marine paint makers have special systems for and instructions for cleaning it before coating. The highest quality

a lot of labor: a really smooth yacht finish on the topsiJes of a welded yacht hull requires fairing of the surface with fairing compounds. which for quite a while.

stay in place

J-1 t~Il~t*~t~(~I.-Iss .-I,YI) C)7/lt-X III .1.1. N.-t 71:K1.41..~ Ferrocement Every now and ment. terlaced embedded taken struction Essentially. with wirr, then there with is a wave of enthusiasm consists cement applied abdL-t cl=nstructing of concrete the steelwork that great heavy weight hulls of ferrocereinforcing rod inis completely care must be of the con-

the system

of a framework

to it so that

and not exposed makes it impractical 1967-68 turning

to the atmosphere. and that under for hulls

It is understood the basically magazine there that rage. 30 feet in length.

to eliminate

voids in the cement, hardly under out plans

In the years actively earlier rngaged

an issue of a boating construction, and

did not carry some menof designers does A decade later there

tion of ferrocement not ,.lppear


were a number

for the then current

to be any mention

at all, an indication

the method

is not as easy as the


had broadcast.



Materials a number than of matt+als and developed recently that have higher strengths

Tht-re have been and this lower arts weights is bound fishing


to continup. five times

fiberglass-reinforced in fiber Graphite,

plastic, and development in form, has been used in super-

liglttw4ght strong

rods and in highly stiffer E: glass from

timc*s stronger


strtmssc4 areas of racing sailboat hulls. It is three S glass, which is twice as than stt-cl. I.ike~visr. wltirh the standard boatbuilding glass fabrics Kevlar fabric, material. are made tllan is steel. high.strrngth

as the common

matlt-. is muctl stronger and tram I)upont aramid tihers. F2sotic, materials as compared Now, plywood tion of rc~lat~vc*ly stiff marine to the bulkheads as a bulkhead

i.. stiffer for its weight is another lightwri<ght their plywood made material bulkheads of vertical has been

havca also found

way into bulkheads. was a giant wood

Years ago, the in:roducstep forward by at least in strength panels. two other or decorative



tnatt-rials that art stiffer and much lighter. Panels fil~t~rglass skins, and thry are used in large transport grain balsa and the other is a honeycomb which is used in helicopter bladrs. Although c.onsidrration. t ht4r high builder cost. such exotic there are other spccializrd factors made

of both these materials come with aircraft. One type of core is endmaterial where Another called Nomex, is a these is

of a DuPont

matet ials can work out well, esperially to consider. and techniques knowledge.

light weight consideration

If they arr to be used properly,

I~latt~riiIlS rquirc-

For example, S glass is twice as expensive as E glass. As for Kevlar, a of high-speed powerboats who uses this material once told me that, pound for was as much as seven times more expensive combination. Since these exotic materials for strength-contributing about the cost of building comment hulls than are using

pound, a Kevlar.,resin combination the standard mat woven rovingresin not used throughout material, it is hard exotic fibers. then, is that When a hull, to make a general

but only as a substitute


for laminate designs differ from boat to boat. About all that can i,i! said, the use of such exotic materials will certainly lead to an increase in cost. that the powerboat manufacturer referred to earlier was able to

one considers

I;IRk.XG L.:1.S.S ND 0 7-tIl~.ii1I1!l.!. ,21.-I 4 7EKI.J1.s effect a weight saving of only 5 to 7 percent, changing, those the extra however, cost is, in most will cases,

45 not be

warranted. The state of the art is constantly developed, and there are always so new materials them to who will try to apply

Chapter ___-

&mpared modern holding tight, located carefully the with

with craft parts



constructed assume extra and


can be considered together boat. All

to be lightly should

boats of the old days, built. Thus the innumerable as a primary according should holding Ihcy bc sized maximum to their always power.

almost all fastenings to a and in task

importance builder.

contribution be driven

seaworthy drilled



by the designer

holes of proper

size to ensure

Galvanized The builder iron

Iron of a wooden hull boat can save a considerable Old timers hand, have passed there and indeed amount down of money that by using galgalvanizedthat seem beached the

vanized fastened to prove


the word shrimp


will last a lifetime, On the other

are hulls here and there a wrecked boat,

this point.

I examined

about 10 years after it was built. that Although the above would appear clurability simply used of galvanized iron. fastenings, fastenings whereas are not the galvanized galvanized

proved just the opposite. to offer contradictory evidence it doesnt. The available galvanized today of yesterday. In the first place, are most


fastenings likely

of today of mild

the old timers

the fastenings

steel. When bared of their protective nearly as much resistance to corrosion and trners that teners Here rods cannot have were always coated today are zinc coated be compared no place Independent

coatings, fastenings of mild steel do not have as do iron ones. Second, the old-time iron nails in molten which zinc. Many galvanized zinc-plated nails, fasfashas results in a relatively thin coating

by hot dipping by electroplating,

to coating Nail,

by hot dipping. Inc., a manufacturer

In fact these

in a boat. of special-purpose of fasteners:

is what

to say about

the zinc coating

I..-I 7E.lIh .;.s s * Galvanized best hot-tumbler, has turned out each to bc generally refer a poorly understood adjective.



type is a hot-dip,

whose surface with iron right

hot-galvanized produce nails

is, for practical to a tumbler

purposes, pure zinc. Tumbler, process from which the coating Electra and mechanical for appearance often the nails metal. of such nail been goes used galvanizmore than

may be contaminated ing e,tch generally for performance. Galvanized planking without frames separate throughout going and boat

on the surface. zinc coatings wood

very thin and galvanized should frame.

serving have


to fasten in it the will

to frames.

A frame the

be at least With inside. started

1 t/2 thick frames, poor the bare

if a nail is to be buried through the zinc are used, nails and


lighter When

is clinched because sign with

over on the it is bent, corrosion that

from the nail where the length

exposing Renailing

Many boats have had progressed with. are the the job, and the necessity to start the threads they tear fastenings,

to be refastened to do so is a good frequently wood clogged

at the end were inferior galvanized

of the fastening.

is an expensive

the fastenings hot-dipped they holding

or inadequate wood screws, when driven,

In the case of the smaller-sized zinc when reducing around the hole.

are dipped, power.


Even if he has had sotne good experiences

in the past with galvanized

builder is advised to be sure of his fastenings by using a better metal for fastenings that are to be constantly in water. Although more expensive initially, the best fastenings are cheap in the end.

Brass If a decision alternative water cannot is made would against against using galvanized fastenings it might seem that a good to salt and in

be brass fastenings.

but the use of brass for fastenings Brass as furnished perhaps as much


be advised

too strongly.

for the manufacture as 30 percent,

of screws and bolts an electrolyte copper zincifiration so reduced and

is very high in zinc content, in strength There

sucl~ as sea water,

the zinc ieaves the alloy. that the fastening is practically when a copper disadvantages, of interior parts

What remains is a spongy useless. This is called dezinc in exzinc into brass hard too. The being high driven

can he expected strong:

alloy is used that contains off screws

cess 01 16 percent. woods. should

are mechanical

alloys are not particularly Brass is all right be taken

it is easy to break hull.

for the fastening

such as joinerwork,

but care

not to use it in thr

Silicon For

Bronze structural called wrung fastening Everdur. off when in a boat being it is hard to beat and a copper is so strong silicon that alloy fasten-


sometimes resistant A point

It is about

96 percent driven, The


ings are seldom with the brasses

to corrosion

from sea water.

and of major importance, it is highly use of this metal removes the risks involved and is well worth value the difference in cost. boat. of a bronze-fastened

and galvanized

steel fastenings resale

to be remembered

is the higher


F.4s TENINGS L nickel copper but alloy It can ranks be used above and silicon made bronze from with in silicon Monel strength bronze IS often propellers saving and too high without corrosion for most fear of

Monel This people much tact. nails, driving struction


the cost of screws action between shaft struts and stiffness fastening (See Threaded will be mentioned


it is much

to afford. galvanic propeller

in conjunction Monel purposes Monel shafts make

the metals. and of Monel Nails.) further.

For instance,

used for fastenin direct it offers conboat over con-

ing bronze

have bronze

The strength a popular screws. and

it very satisfactory of the labor has many as a metal

for Anchorfast uses in boat

for some


Copper Copper has excellent corrosion resistance, but because of its scftness it is suitable

mostly for fastenings in the form of flat-head nails that are used as rivets or for clout nails sometimes, used in hulls with light lapstrake planking.

Stainless Ihere merals vast galvanic assutanct~, the bt-st aluminum stainless arc

Steel many alloys and with for under satisfactory other 1his common proof heading. unless used alloy It IS recommended by someone and boat. freedom Without water. stanchions, resistance in the deck same hardware. to applications that these from such It is and

not he considered cxpt-rirnce action metal ste&.

for hull fastenings materials being

you are guided

who has

of corrosion be limit,4 corrosion

thtn USC stainless of fasrening alloy window

steel should aluminum



for it avoids

of the alloy parts.

Of the many

salt atmosphere, of thr high-qualitv yacht builders , S~IVLYS stcurC%stainless sterl half-oval to Il~ads. If you can find one of these material. hardware. parts. fittings such fasrt-tiings. Othc*r than as a fastener
hll ps,

the OIW known as Typo but finding fastenings

316 seems to be the most corrosion-resistant in a of this alloy may take some doing. One or two have, in the past, special ordered Type 316 wood rub strips to minimize be happy bleeding to reduce of the screw his stock of more for and be builders, stainless sailhoat and on spars. proven. he might

steel is being specialty shafting. to others.

used more hardware, Stainless materials using


tlotahly engine cxhausr


stanchions that might




is also used for only when

wire ropts rigging used in a boat. vou know Mixture thr

and rigging

As with many

it is brst to Iravtb experimentation application has been

it yourself

of Metals used term electrolysis of metals of metals is blamed is applied on electrolysis, by the average boatman to the corrosion usually the of the other

The loosely and erosion destruction

by electrolysis,


or galvanic


due to lack of knowledge

.F.4.SlEILINC;S 49 causes. Except for discussing is an electrolyte in contact :he anode gradually of the attack series and galvanic that action will between an fastenings, electric the subject to flow is beyond between

the scope dissimilar currtznt sion. metals The

of :his work. cause current metals when and or close proximity to each other. to the cathode, that is. the anndic destroyed will vary also upon by what is properly to the areas according the relative When this occurs, fitting or fastening galvanic positions corroof the

Sea water

will flow from intensity

will be attacked The

termed relative

in the galvanic posi:ions

or masses of the metals. follow:

in the galvanic


in sea water

of some


Anodic Zinc

or Least Noble steel or galvanized alloy alloy alloy alloy 5456 5086 5052 356, 6061 wrought iron

Galvanized Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum

Mild steel Wrought iron Cast iron 1% H Stainless 18-H Stainltsss Lead Iin MangantbscNaval
I ncm1~4

steel Iypc 304 (active) sttst-I Iypt* 316. 3!{, molybdenum (active

hronzt~ (60+{, coppt*r, (65% bronze IS?:, zinc) copper, 39:, rinc) 35% Lint)

brass brass

(act ivr )



Red brass (H5S;, copper, Copper Silicon hronrr (904h (704, Cupro-nickttl Cupro-nickel Coml)osition Composition Incclnel Mont.1 IX-R Stainless 18-H Stainless Titanium Cathodic or Most Nobte

copper, copper. (#?A (885;

10% 30%

nickel) nickel) 2,/0 zinc, SU, zinc, 10% tin) 61~24, silicon. I I/? ?A Icad)

G bronzts M bronze

copper, copper,

(passive) steel Type steel Type 304 (passive) 316, SS, molybdenum (passive)

It might he possible to use only one metal, fastenings in a wooden hull, but where a mixture

notably silicon bronze for all of the is the most practical, the metals used


FASTENINGS be ones that bronze, and are reasonably Monet. close together in the galvanic scale. such as copper, fasteners positions. to hasten has been resistance of one As I the finis

should silicon

Ail of these metals

are used to manufacture in two different treatmen: working and

sort or another. Note that stainless understand formation ished, surface severely and of oxide. after is more reduced,

steels are shown This can be donr to corrosion.

in the series above after ail machining cleaned

it, the surface

of the steel is passivated thoroughly Without

by chemical and

the steel has been resistant


The passivated


the corrosion

and it is best to avoid the use of these metals for underwater fastenbut the treatment has been destroyed or altered, ings. If the surface has been treated, it is best tc treat such metals as if the metals corrosion resistance will be uncertain; they were not passivated. l know of a case wh: re a bronze iron tag screws a perfect example metals were in contact in sea water; stern bearing casting was fastened with galvanized maivanic corrosion. The dissimilar of setting up o first the zinc disap;,eared, and then the iron was

attacked until the bearing finally came loose. Many boats withbronze hull fastenings have been built with cast iron ballast keels. but in this case I he comparatively huge mass of anodic material. the iron keel, would show the keel cdn be of hot-dipped signs of attack slowly due to its bulk. The bolts securing galvanized vinyl-lvpc wrought iron or Monrl. paint The outside of the iron should have several coats of a to act as a nonmetailic barricsr to galvanic action. N~~t-;ih~ss to say, only the Icast cxpc*nsive ritrt~i fastcsners should be used in the construction of molds, jigs, plugs for fiberglass parts, bracing, etc., that will never be part of a boat, hoatyarti It may sc-em ridi?ulous enipioyec3 use bronze for stcsrI nails


to even mention something like this, but I have seen Monet fasteners in throw-away work rathrr than and screws.

visit tht* stockroom Erlww ____.. Belts These


are ordinary


al-r made

in silicon bronze, a nut as a head by t breading a pirre of rod on both ends. screwing and pruning over the end of the rod to prevent the head nut from turning. the same material are used under the head and nut. Drilled holes should tliamt~ter as the bolt, Screw hoits are used tor fastening bolts of being able the advantage over drift

bolts with square or hexagonal heads and nuts, and they Monet. and galvanized iron. Longer bolts can be homeon one end, Washers of be the same

Welt-equipped professional huiiders have a die. usually for a flat head. and

many backbone parts and have to be tightener, s.4 -**hen the wood shrinks. .. head their own tong bolts. They sometimes the end of the rod is heated and forged to



be very long and a through-bolt is not practical or necessary, a drift They are made from a piece of rod and driven like a large nail. The the other has a washer or clinch ring under one end is pointed slightly by hammering,

When bolts must bolt can be used.





lIrij/ hoit.\ (IIV tlrlz~rl (11 (III (III~IP /IIorrlvr- 10 lock /ilc, /)nrt.c~o,q,rc~t/t~~r.

a driving diameters

head shorter

formed than

by riveting

the end

of the rod. and should



is made



the bolt to be driven the diameter

have smooth

sides. The size of fit. Be careful

the hole must

be less than

of the bolt for a tight.


not to henci the bolt above the timber when driving it. When a pair or a series of drift bolts is caiiecl for, it is best to drive them at an angle (Figure 6- 1) which locks the parts together vanizeii Carriage Thesr and it on, Bolts bolts with a round button head and a square neck on the shank just enables thrtn to resist strains. Drift bolts are made of bronze or gai-

are screw

under the head that keeps the bolt from turning in tnany jrarts of the structure such as to fasten dnd frames and iron, deck and beams stainless to (lamps steel. galvanized Bolt

in the wood. Carriage bolts are used frames to floors, stringers to clamps, and are made in si!teon b:onze.

or she!ves.

Threads are used to hold parts together in their and keep them today because The from threads moving: formed shank therefore, by roiling of these bolts possibly they rolled inis be

Fastenings tnust stead smatter tight but used.

be tight of cutting

i~oirs. .Il\is is not possible to manufacture.

if the bolts have what are catted unthreaded

thrtwds. Bolts of this type are common are cheaper than in diameter in the hole. this is sridc~m the outside

of the threads, when structure,

so the shargk cannot the fastening

Bolts of this type are ail right the case in the hull

is in tension bolts should

only, not be

so roiled-thread

Wood Screws Fiat-head screws are used extensively in wooden boatbuilding and decking and many other parts. They are available from iron, brass, silicon bronze, and are also produced of Monel for fastening planking stock made of galvanized and stainless steel.




I $fc.lo.

W-8 9

. IG3 * 176 hd p. 37 %s

743 I, I

13/4 I2 hlo.

.2lG7 ,242

do. 30
%A do. 25


do. I4

2 & do. I&

I Y4




70 I

2 $f do. 10 3 tJo.zo


9/s %L

/-lo. 13 Jo. 4

s/a 3/dIt


-12 FOR Figure Tests powc.





6-2. that screws with sharp, thin threads develop the greatest holding is

have shown in tension.




of screws used as plank


theoretically the planks neighbors working primary that bears stead that that

not too critical; from sprtngtng in a for!.-and-aft of leaking

the most important otf. but to pre~en: direction seams when

function of fastenings is not to keep ,.&\a.. L.X,.l, l*rnrL;n- h *h-m ~nm past :hei: driven planked through boat.) seas. (Such Indeed, the

the hull is being in place.

is the cause against

in a conventionally

job of hu!i fastenings the fastenings than stresses than

is to hold the parts is very important; one. This because a thin

Here the area of the wood puts more for using wood to screws in-

a thick fastening argument length, Figure

work resisting of nails is thicker

is a strong for a given table.

as planking a nail.

fastenings, The

a screw can be used and if you compare


6-2, shows the screw sizes

have been accepted screw thickness but that

over the years for planking

and decking,

the gauge greater planking is meant tion built The preciable Anchorfast

of any one of the screws nails and Stronghoid fastenings, for hulls

with an ordinary boat Unlike common wilt be obvious. bronze nails are available must bc made they usually

nail of the same length, the boat nails, however, Monet in heavy gauges suitable for

to order. such as ocean be guided holding crttising. The

Some wilt consider sizes may be reduced for sheltered sizes specified.

the screw sizes in Figure wilt be subiect waters. hole When by a gauge

6-2 to be on the heavy side, but the table service, plans. and other boats of tight construcby the fastening power to an ap-

to rigorous building affects

or so for powerboats from

size of a drilled extent.

for a screw rule

the screws

A general

to follow for determining

the lead hole size is 90 per-


(SEE TEwl-)


F 1








of the diameter the threaded

at the root of the screw part of a screw the table used


in hardwoods planking


70 percent into

in the

softwoods. because frame,

The lead hole drill sizes in the table

are a guide for fastening

for hardwood,

such as oak, of the

is sunk in samples

but it is best to check Most builders

sizes by driving

a few screws

wood to be used.

use just one drill for screws in mahogany

or white cedar

planking and oak frames and rhib is satisfactory if the plank does not split in way of the unthreaded screw shank. If splitting does occur, you should drill through the plank with a body drill that is slightly under the actual screw diameter. The sizes for these are also shown in Figure 6-2. It is recommended that either laundry soap or beeswax be rubbed a lubricant and plugged of screws putty pliers press The thickness. recommended with mer. the grain over to make in the threads and rt-duces of screws, especially the driving labor. and over are counterbored while the heads the heads Wood cutter puttied lead or supyears white Dough hardware with wood as the planking, the surface. hull. For many Marine a plug when driving into hardwood. This acts as

In thr best yacht (Figure in thinner

practice planks

the screw holes in 5/Hplanking are set slightly invisible but modern teak, scraps for the in thick or oak, plugs below

6-3) with plugs of the same

the fasicnings polyester your

on the finished material compounds

was used for this purpose, sell plugs and make depth of mahogany, own from are dipped that to that

like Duratite is better. buy

one of the many

auto body putty

or you can should

for a drill

of wood. be about one-third of the plank (the latter holes breaking with a hampaint, waterproof finish), and lightly glue. tapped or varnish home

of counter-bore for wood parallel

The plugs

is to have a natural of the planking,

set in the counterbored possibly

If hit too hard,

the plug may be crushed

and it may swell later,


F:l S7I*:l~VIN(;.s



the paint harden.

film or at least then cut

presenting flush

an unsightly with the surface Rather,

look. with


the bond chisel.

a day or so to Do not try to run of and have

the plugs

a sharp

flush off the plug with one cut of the chisel.

take light cuts to determine of the plank

the grain: then you will not chip off the plug to start all ovtr again. Holes tot- screws are started the lend hole. lhesr operations lhtw for the screw hint- lht~ opt7ations. lrv the c~outttcrsink by counterboring

below the surface

for the plug with a bit and then boring with separate that patented bits or with bits that comdrill the lead hole followed that drill the lead it is par-

be done and

arc patented head



followed by the hole for the plug. (See Figure 6-3.) Ihe latter is used most tm-ause unnttwwry to c.ountcrsink for a flat-head screw that is to have a plug over it. Plugs ticularlv either reducing can near sorncrimcs the strakrs become ends. crowded where the holes where planking wid:h strakes are narrow, will permit the plank enough is least.

This can be overcome it or by size.

hy carefully the gauge


if the width

of the frame

of the screw just

to use a plug

of the next smaller

Hardware stores stock several types of wood screw pilot bits made for use in $!t 0 electric hand drills and made for screws up to about 2 Number 12. The two shown in Figure 6-4 are suitable for drilling part and countersinking then should for flat-head below Warwick, screws, the surface Rhode drilling finishing of the Island first a lead hole for the threaded with a countersink. For

of the screw,

a hole for the shank,

In most cases

the screw Inc.,

be driven Street,

wootl~ so the lrit shown years

on the left is best. Fuller, 7 Cypress countersinks, counterbores. plug cutters, and taper-point industry. Ordinarily these items are difficult to find locally. round-head for securing where screws are used in boats, rigging fastenings tangs must to such to wooden hole. a countersunk things but, masts, for exsince fastening


02HHH. has been supplying drills to the hoarbuilding lhcre ample, screws panels and use. Stainless they are the logical of which are only used that items

arc only a few places where

the thin metal

a tang is made from behind so that time

will not permit for access

Oval-head gear

in light joinerwork joinerwork. the screw

show and for securing as steering screws are used repeated con-

are removed located washers

to time


In these places holes do not become


with finishing

too worn from

steel screws labelled

18-8 have become

easily available

in the standard

ia t~.-lS7F.~I.v~;S 5.5


of flat,

round, silicon

and oval head bronze screws;

wood screws.

It is possible

that until

these will be for fastenThese they than 1 have greater

sold for less than ing joinerwork, experience are basically are threaded for bearing


they should type screws

be considered

but I am reluctant Stainless sheet-metal for the entire loads. fasteners length

to use them steel tapping but can of the shank,

below the waterline

with them.

are also easy to find. parts. Normally rather

be used in fiberglass

so they are best in tension


Screws sometimes in with callecl lag bolts. a wrench. through-bolts until the holding are large wood screws with a square tightening of a lag screw is gradually shank screw. or practical. wood power of the screw head that the screws, can threads diarnt~tcr

nlatlt* in

be turned


can wear

in the wood

lost, therefore and the hole are

lags are only used where for the thread should

are not possible

A hole of the same Lag screws

as the lag screw is bored

~galvariiztd it-on, brass.

for the length

and silicon

of the unthreaded

be sized the same

as for a regular


Rolts having the upper for fastening or head propeller end of the shank shaft stuffing threatled for a nut. bear.

Ihese are ldg screws Ihev art used


boxes and stern

ings and for holding tlown engines to beds. Bv bat king off the hanger holt nut, these fat- repair or rt~plactmenr without disturbing the screw in the parts mav ire rtmoved wood. ma& IIanger of brass lrolts are turned anti silicon in witlt a wrench applied either to a nut run down They to the end of the threads or to two nuts bronrc*. lot krd together on the threads. are usually

Copper Copper used both planking

Wire nails

Nails are made exclusively and in the form as rivets frames of common wire frames nails and with flat heads. stringers planking They are


for fastening

to floors,

to frames, where be drilled

laps to one another

in lapstrake are light

construction, in size. The

to frames

the planking

hole for the nail shouid

as small as possible it is being dt-iven. head must

without it being so small that the parts split or the nail bends while Drive the nail all the way in to draw the parts together; then the up with an iron while a copper burr is driven over the point of fit over the The burr is

be backed

the nail. A burr is simply a washer and it is important that it be a driving ,iail or else it will dance all over the place when the rivet is being formed. driven up against the wood with a set. which is nothing but a length

of steel rod with a

hole in the end slightly larger than the diameter of the nail. With nippers, cut off the point of the nail so that a length equal to one to one and a half times the diameter of the nail is left for riveting. the riveting with many Again with the head of the nail backed up with the iron, hammer. do light blows with the peen end of a machinists Heavy

I, 56


1 r\lO@-FERFZous

bi ,4 IL ~IZTE~

. roq . 134




blows will bend resulting together.

the nail inside

the wood.

A bent blows

rivet form


to straighten and

under draw


in a weak,

loose fastening.


the head

the wood

Copper rivets are excellent for fastening planking when sunk. Wood Nails are also thinner See Figure Screws.

for light work but are rather soft. Screws should be used the size of the frame will permit them to be completely than screws for the same wire job, nails. a point discussed under

6-5 for sizes of copper

u Al


tztf2zY ?.I0 Poltrr -2






Fi.gure 6-6.

Galvanized As mentioned prcred shank pointed and nail clinch used from


Nails rhesc nails are cheap are forged, point. fastenings have project and not too much button life can be exchiselthe will are

before, rhcm. Thr

a peculiar about


rectangular the frames quality nails

and cithrr are clinched is driven without in heavier with

a blunt against cracking frames

or a chisel the frame edge either and

In frames

up to about

1 t/i R thick,

nails are driven

so that the points across

/j H to :!i through splitting of acceptable Blunt-pointed frame. be made

with the grain. the grain. entirely

To prevent A nail the must

the frame,

the chisel

the nail are buried

or the zinc coating. within of either

Whether be driven

or not below cut-

the holes are countcrbored the surface ting of the planking the coating

for plugs,

the heads

type nail must

with a nail set and an attempt a set shaped

to prevent

of zinc by using

to fit over the entire

head of the natl.

Threaded A relatively wedges

Nails new type of fastening the grooves the shank for a boat is a nail with a unique shape the wood fibers (See Figure 6-6.) annular thread. that


the nail is driven, that grip

on the shank

into countless It is claimed


to resist withdrawal.

takes 65 percent more force to pull this threaded nail than an unclinched boat nail, 31 percent more than a clinched boat nail, and 3 percent more

galvanized than a wood

screw. As these nails are avail ble in non-ferrous material, the objection to nails because of corrosion has been overcome. Some boatbuilders have used these nails for their one planking, quarter. and figures show that some yards have reduced their planking labor by



Figure There abroad. rolled tional chorfast drpendent

6-i. are quite Tests a few kinds by the people of threzded that make The when nails on the market, form nails, nails including and Independent is owned are made on the head to those making by the some made Nail Inc., AnIn-

have shown Massachusetts Co. and can

the importance 02324.

of the thread Anchorfast name Anchorfast stamped

one of the best is Interna-

on the nail Nickel nails


is used only nails of other that are stiffer

the threaded

of Monel. of the nail. made them

be identified

by an anchor materials second than

also makes The Monel

and calls them Stronghold, choice be limited bronze,

but if Monel of silicon more resis-

is not used bronze. tant

it is recommended nails when driven.

the silicon

to bending

For fastening planking, nails should be the same diameter as the screws they replace, or else more of them should be used. Pilot holes a!. recommended by the manufacturer should be drilled for all but the smallest sizes. The pilot hole size recommended is 50-70 percent of the nail diameter, depending upon the hardness of the wood, and about 80 percent of the nail length.





In Figure nails usually

6-5 are shown found

the sizes of Monel

Anchorfast Figure

and Stronghold S-7 is a comparison


bronze and in These to every

in the stocks of distributors.

of standard

nail and screw gauges as a guide Figure 6-8 nail sizes for various sizes, of course. case. must

for those wishing types of planking

to substitute nails for screws, and decking are tabulated. apply

be used with discretion,

as they do not necessarily



Figure Unusual Otller unusual than nails Nail Fasteners


CIt~rr~~Irirrg 11 c t~f)/o~r clr~trt IIC,II

the copper nails that

wire nails have

ust (1 ds rivers. clour

as mentioned nail. lhcst*




are two

othtxr copper

a pIact coppt.1

in boatbui!cting.

lhe most common of thcsc used in light con-

is rlie squart-cuI planking planking di.tgonal


struction for fastening ing the laps of clinker the layers nails iron erly, work

lo thin, flat frames such as seen in canoes, for fastenup to about 1, in thit.kness. and for quilt fastening planking between frames. are glued When rogether and the ttr-ive the nails against the iron a heavy the layers of planking by a helper. and

of double

In the case of the latter. are used only held against the point to know liails ensure [he inside


a good bond. of the planking turns 90 degrees nail

some builders

is held propIt takes teamis established, are used as a wire

of the nail where

is flush wirh the wood. but once the routine when


the next

will be driven. back into

art c~lf:;ichetl at a fast rate. of rhe nail without than is turned adhesives. a clcnc-hrd through, rhe wood but clout nails fasreners lhis works all right in the laps of softwood nail. earlier is about for riveting to enter copper is turned thpractice be compared point over by holding driving arl iron against the wood the the how the nail until to determine process plank-

lhe point primary ing and rivet nails. iron head much

with softwoocl rcliahlr

franles first drill it into

like those of canoes.

used with hardwoods,

is more

For clench-nailing, the point and forming

a snug hole as described the point When the man all takes a hook.

AS rhe nail is driven is held against is flush longer

the hook and This



with the wood. the length together. Figure

and some trials of the clenching

of the trail should

to rhe thickness

of the parts beand the

ing fastened

6-Y shows the elements

F,4 .S7f-;/YlNGS s-k?xr2 LorcrG 2,2-4, llq) Lot-lb


3/4% (by


ml* thick

/4 -KJ 3v
(by I49



C-10. 7rtrfilt~orrfrl


\hi;trk Ooml rrtlr%S








21 Kl;I) boat than

Massat~husc~~~s 0257 1 antI 1)uck ~lrap Woodworking. colnvillt~. Maim- 04X49. Irtmonr is also a tiistril)utor for ~rirditi0Ilal square sllaf>t* and tlishetl power of a square roves which have the same CUI copper nail is a great deal more

Elm Street. ::P, Cannan

Wareham, Road. LinI head holding but the

nails with a distinctive as our burrs. a round The wirr nail,


traditional use of square nails i\ as rivets. As with copper wire nail rivets. a snug hole should be drilled and ht~ading should he done with light blows of the peen hammer. for when the dished side is toward the wood, ir serves 10 tenIhe di:hetl rove is unique. sion 111~rivt.1. lhc heads planking. ~hrrefore of nails shown iron in Figure must 6- 10 should shaped. hc countt~rsunk into the 111~ hutking be suitably


Fasteners tyl)es ot fasrencrs that have some uses in hoat construction when materials. Machine screws are bolts and are non-corrosive for light work. Usual sizes arr from Numbt-r 6 (a fat 5/n) up 6- 11 is a rahle showing when vou will find and in brass. hole sizes for clearance this very handy. chrome-plated guns, Machine brass, and for screws bronze,

Thert~ are 1 few other I hey useful


made of prol)t-r as through-fastt,ners 1 1 in diametrr. t-tc.; then, round,

through tap drills.


will he times

are made with flat. and stainless sterl. Staples, pieces pensive for many applied other of wood when

and oval heads. elecrri,.

with hand, 1aminatir.g. bronze

or air-operated fiberglass be used.

can he used IO hold thin woven materials, staple that and I have later. ultimate they can he of inex-

positioning or Monel musl

or other The

such jobs.

If the staples

are to be removed

steel, otherwise




$ -I-A9

-M?EAD~ pf3z INCH 72

4 @oLTS

SIZE tb. 6


b40. 30

do- 20


t&u2 14 5hkl if

1 .a6

20 10

I &I. i3 I
Jo. F


0 u yzff


%3 I 11 I2
Figure G-1 1.


16 13

QR 5/1df 23/64 3/g,

seen is a rather with staples an air have


long Monel

wire staple

with coated

legs that

defy withdrawal.



ttlc staple head will sink below used to fasten plywood decking otht1-r similar plywood parts.

the surface of fir plywood. These that is glued to beams and around

Stapling is the fastest method of securing parts and is quite satisfactory when used in conjunction with an adhesive. For many years rivc.ting remained a method of fastening used only by professional

the edges













HtAC) 04? WAE.Uf3-E




Figure 6-12. 111 Iv usd 011



corn-6ouI -


Figure 6-13. lht~ fmrut~ o/ II /into nusiliu,y Iiorltd iI1 Ilrts tvxt. metalworking shops.

yclt~ht, illu.,trctlirg /At*u.w.~o/ bolts mtn-

but due to the invention

of pop



riveting rivets

jobs can handfor any A rivet alloy the

now be done by opc.rated riveters. serted back-up. typical holding

Most hardware stores carry these amatfaur. .Ihis kind of fastening is a one-man job, because hole and srcur-cd from the samt d~~ck tha: The latter side without fiberglass is usually employed a molded and rub rail. allov. parts, in production


pop rivets are intht- need boatbuilding.

unto ;I drilletl application together

fop rivets arc- estensivcly is in securing the deck, hull.

fi:s <iier the hull.

an aluminum

extrusion and the rivets are of a 4milar water, and generally for fastening thin

Their use should be limited to above the say an assemblv having a total thickness

such as aluminum of no greater than h . Those who make their own metal enclosures, alloy C;ISYSfor clcctrical switc.hhoards, will find that pop rivets make the job go a lot easier and faster. Metal galvanic Fittings corrosion. fasten

Fastening 10 avoid bearings, deck. silicon fittings Although grt it.

untlc7water shaft

f)arts such struts with

as shaft silicon

logs, stern bronze. On






stainless steel trim and hardware with stainless steel, bronztb fittings with fittings with hot -dipped galvanized fastenings, Marinium bronze. galvanized with stainless steel or Monel. and aluminum alloy fittings with stainless steel when steel. it is not easy to find. you should use Type 316 stainless you can

Adhesives Adhesives. used either alonr or in conjunction it must with mechanic-al that fasteners. are some of

the best fasteners.


be remembered

an adhesive

is not a cure-all

64 and ture

l.~:~.SlE:NIN(;.S that for it to provide the adhesive period. II there were only from


it must

be used temperature

as directed, and

with attention working time, rather and

to mixclamping

(when and

is two-part),

pressure, Until

curing War fact This

World ones. up with

adhesives of hollow

than booms

&laterwere to

notwithstanding, protected in boat construction

thousands moisture for interior

masts or paint.

glued wetting which proof

it, being

by varnish


glue still has a place and that consists types, fitted. breakthrough as Elmers by Borden as Elmers has


that is not subject

is prote-*-:- - - finish coating. CLCUwit11 The modern counterpart is marketed Plastic Resin Glue (formerly Cascomite). This urea resin glue, that is mixed time, with water, and provides is less expensive a joint that than the waterwhen the good wnrking from is colorless canoe with

of a powder

properly The

water-resistant resin glue, Glue

to waterproof which (formerly Cascophen).


development consumers

of a resorcinol

is also marketed

by Borden It is packaged

for small in two


parts, a dark purple resin and a light-colored powder, and is best mixed by weight as instructed. It will produce a joint strnnger than the surrounding wood, but the joints should cinol he well fitted glue and pressure must be applied until curing has taken should place. Resorcarethe time hulls. glue of is a two-part sets up quickly Rcsorcinol glue in hot climates is often and , so the instructions too much planking Glue be studied

fully to avoid available. Described great benefit

excess rest hrought as a ltrea-formaltirhytic to boatbuilders

on by mixing resin,

glut* for use during of cold-molded is another waterproof Aerolite

used IO secure Aerolite to aircraft


as well.

adhesive, very easy to mix and apply. One part is a powder that is mixed with water to the consistency of an easy spreading paste. The powder has a shelf life of two years; the pastes shelf life is one to three which other adhesive has an unlimited surface is wetted down is strong, shelf with months. life. the The second The part two is a water-like on one surface, surfaces are then liquid and catalyst, then the This Ihe paste catalvst. heat. is spread


e\cll without to 60F.

heavy clamping, without

it is gap-filling.

and it can be used in


Some of tl~r epoxy resins are among the best adhesives for use in building wooden boats and parts. .Ihcy can even be used for joining wood and polyester fiberglass parts to polyester achieve than various ditives epoxies Tech simpler fiberglass. bond, Epoxy and is extremely pressure and the makers strong, if used thick to ensure hulls with multiple epoxy 105 epoxy it does enough

require SC)that



a good

it is gap-filling

it does not run is easier There to prevent to use are it

out of the joints. resorcinol additivrs that

Not needing for laminations that can For instance.

a strong

joint ( epoxy planking r&n viscosity


be used

to thicken

to proper

from running. available

of West

have several

such adare other E-154 are

thev will he glad pastes epoxy suited adhesive and epoxy

to tell you about. or diagonally mixtuie

that are thick enough for strip that is a 1: 1 ratio compound

On the other hand, there for use as is. Arcon E- 152 and Arcon planked hulls or any other down glue. of resin-to-hardener epoxy

spreadable T-88

use. Chem not be Another

that could to 35F.

to put together 1: 1 ratio

can be used in temp:>ratures is IJnipoxy




Caution So much principaily especically

to Epoxy is written

Users about epoxy that resins and the material be remiss Avoid is so valuable not to warn contact to boatbuilders, that epoxy resins, skin

as an adhesive, must hardeners,

it would

be used with caution.

with unprotected

and breathing manufacturers I have Sources

the fumes released by epoxies as they cure. These words are to reinforce directions that are often taken lightly. I have never had a problem, but who were unhappy, so beware!

seen others

for Adhesives and marine Glue laminatts hardware stores carry The Elmers of contact Elmers Plastic cement glues Street, Resin Glue and Elmers Formicalarger than Maryland Spruce and in the Woburn, the epoxies Park. Ohio City,

Most general Waterproof type plastic quarts 21230. Acrolire Specialty (astern

as well as the various by Harbor Sales

brands Co.,

for sticking Baltimore.

to wood and metal.

in quantities

are handled

1401 Russell

is a (:iba-Geigy CI,., L1.S. P.0. from


distributrci Supply Corp..

in the> lJ.S. 92632. 313

by Aircraft and Ave.,

Box 424. Woodcraft



is available

Montvalr firms

Massac~huscc IS 0 I HOI Following


arc* the* names



of thy Corp., I~ancl~r Inc..


iont~tl: Resin Nj9 Wcymouth Road, Industrial Falls, Bay

Arcon I+ I52 and Arcon E-15-1. Allied East W~~ymouth. M;tssachust*tts 02 189. (:he~rn-Tech 44U22. Wrsr Michigan 33561, Ilnipoxv I05 -18706.

1-H8, Chem-Tech atlhcsivc, glue.



Chagrin Strecr.

Brothers. Kraft, Inc..


Martin Street,


900 Fourth




10 properly must countless

build how

a boat full sire.


l)lans, but

the hull lines has been the job


part of the construction to thr point of monotony IO the successful

in com-

be (11awn

lhis fact articles.


IO build

is so important

pit-tic)11 of a boat that instructions drscription of thr work involved. sional boatbuilders. but otIlcrs find once the paratively

in boatbuilding would br incomplete without a Thp job is distasteful to some, even among profes. it IO be fascinating work. Either way, it is true that be assured that the combuilding is time well spent and templates from the same conform

plans are on hand one becomes impatient, but few hours used to properly prepare for the actual

and will never be rqretted. The full-size drawings from which molds are made are especially valuable when more than one boat is to be built plans, or for the construction close dimensional trace thr history on the trrold loft always consisted down, or templates of a one-design tolerances. of shipbuilding to discover why tht- full-size board. hence class boat where to reasonably OIW must laitl loft, ctown

the hull must

hull lines are in a

floor-. Iht- full-si?tof a floor above off the full-size to obstruct

drawing drawings,

so to speak, the terms

shipyard lofting. trussed.

almost laying

a workshop

of some sort, thus it was a moldon all and shoes. edge that thr mold loft was preferably

wtrc taken and taking

off. Ihr roof above the work,

so t herr were no columnss

and there were windows floor was level of hard-soled straight

sides and o\~tAratl smooth. sufficiently The floor was painted as a baseline. Lines work of enlarging of the floor there served Hull The

to provide maximum light. The wooden sacred so somt~ vards prohibited the wraring flat white or light gray, fixed batten sometimes having

dull black, an absolute

and on one edge

was a permanently

the plans


the scale of the blueprints

to full size is termed


:IND L-I k.I.VIi 110 Wh


mold lines

lofting, that

for it is from other parts.


drawings lines

that plan Some

molds should

are made

for the shape and

of the

hull and various beginner reading under edge above these from. define Figure construction of deck

Of course, prepared. of yachting in boatyards that really the side,

to make

the job more of the lines and


the different to aid the from hulls or ends and a hull points to because around

constitute the desibm

the architects sections or stored from

be understood, are obvious, prowling from

7-1 has been

magazines characterize

most of you are familiar a hull. (the outline These

with the first three are the sheerline and is viewed),

lines drawn

by the designer as seen

the profile

of the bottom

the waterline lines

as seen from the side at the same time the sheerline they are not sufficient between these lines, establish for the builder the three lines. simply

the deck line,

a gulls eye view of the outline the shape of the boat between

of the hull as seen from above. to construct To provide planes


are important,

He also needs the hull shape that buttocks.

the architect

cuts the hull into pieces These are called

on planes waterlines,



for dimensions.

and diagonals.

If a hull could be lifted straight up out of the water without the resulting hole filling in with water, the shape of the edge of the hole would be the same as the shape of the boat at the surface architect convenient want then of the water. the depth On the boat, lines drawn this line is called dnd beiow the load waterline subdivision the load waterline and the into for the to the to the called planes. it is one of the most important divides spaces, by the designer. For further

of the huil above

of something

and draws the edges of additional better, are also called waterlines there and the they are vertical conveniently of inclined diagonal planes spaced called

horizontal planes which, because they are parallel buttocks, outboard drawn horizontal as many are located and and signifirant parallel these are to each

load waterline. centerline centerline. diagonals, points although having vertical outlines tical, established the many shape lhese planes,


of the boat Finally, because

evenly to the

side of thr


planes to provide

are drawn


like the others,

for the boatbuilder it has been points planes and

are located as is possible. above

dimensioned of the hull, and of until The verhull is of

All of the aforesaid

lines are fore-and-aft mentioned that of the hull,

lines running these lines no usable to intersect planes

the length are drawn points

for the purpose are established lines. the horizontal, on the

on the surface formed

actually drawn

CI(~OSS the hull have been by vertical fore-and-aft a section planes intersects

the fore-and-aft A point lines,

or shapes diagonal


intersecting sections.

are called

wherever points

one of the fore-and-aft for the builder

and by means

of intersection

it is possible

to make molds

for the exact

of the hull

as the architect

has it designed.

Sections may be compared to slices of bread. Just as is the case with the sections on a shapely boat, the slices through an old-fashioned rye loaf are all different, for the . . shape is ever-changing from end to end. A vessels shapr. :hen, LQIl be transm:tted c-:nto three-dimensional form by making full-size templates of the sections. When these are set up at each sections respective station the same as called for in the lines drawing, vessels shape in skeletal form has been established. The vessels shape is represented this manner just as a loaf of bread would be if every other slice was removed, buttock, diagonal, keeping the spacing of the remaining slices Figure 7-1 has been included to pictorially the same. show waterline. a in

while and

Y x : 2 2P 4, i cl 1 n i I7

Iy / 3 I ?,J I F 9

)I: /I t ;i


\ \ 1

II/ ;! I: j~
!! k i : 3 6 i ;i A --- i

.;:-q> ,T i l .x. 7 \ 7. ...J \-,. \ 1 \ \;\ \--\

I 1 7r 1

i+; b i,, J_L 1: : 3

; i/l iJ-


\ > \

,A v A, , -Jx.. \ -- \\ . X!

I I (J z n i

.+=-y _ 7 ! . Lo.-\L :a _ 7 r
--y ,I /),. -5 i Ll 0 F i

i :: C

LINES AND L.-IYING DOWN sectional the various body plan diagonal, Figure necessary from planes as though be seen a solid block how a point half model of a hull were sawn into pieces areas, wherever plane. in Figure together worked to build

69 on

planes. it may

The shapes

of the planes

are shown

by the shaded is created sectional hull shown foregoing have

and on the a buttock, 7-1, and with the a boat out for are inangle of curved in sec-

on the hull

or waterline are shown

is intersected all the lines

by an athwartship for the same in the and (Incidentally, of waterlines, of the stem, their For laying location of a hull mentioned

7-2 is the architects dimensions purpose.) and

lines drawing them. spacing

on this plan

to reproduce Note a table that

do not attempt not been buttocks,

these lines,

as they are purely

for illustration

any specific dicated, the stern lines. tion, that

and stations for the profile

as well as offsets for the profile board, Because of the nature it is possible of diagonals, plan. to define


of dimensions

out all the fore-and-aft can only be indicated without

is, on the body


the shape

the use of diagonals,

such as in Figure l-7. In the case of a really simple hull with straight-line sections (see Figure 7-3), the sheer, deck line, chine, and/or profile provide a sufficient number of points lines, from which and to make the frames or molds. This eliminates further the need on. ior waterbuttocks. diagonals, as will be explained a little

Abbreviations Before reader we go any furtlirr, it should for words with them. C.L. W.L. Butt. or buttk Diag. B.L. Sta. Fr. Dk. over all of load waterline L.O.A. L.W.L. Sect. Displ. fl center of buoyancy C.B. C.G. or L.C.B. bc pointed out that many sets of lines plans for

hulls have abbreviations to be familiar

used thus far in this chapter,

and it is a help for the

Centerline Waterline Buttock Diagonal Baseline Station Frame


Length Length Section

Displacement Pounds Longitudinal Center

of gravity

Offsets An offset is simply straight another name for a dimension, Dimensions and they are always drawing taken from a

line of reference

such as a baseline view of the lines.

for the elevation

or the centerline because it is obvi-

in the case of the plan

are tabulated

.. .* .?I.; :-I z <.I 17 5 Hi ;E \,,gi, 13 Iju

;i I f

,L.5 i-j- . j- 3-s j & f !Y-.. r7 G, -0 .*2 .#*.I ! 1*/ 3,; & -\_ / 1!I ---t \< \! ;i ;\ 66 *_: I\ :I :i \k iYl 4 I.4 U .! t! -2;\Ci 2: ~ 0 F dlY -. . . 5 .APA _ 7 , 1 is
- + / ~0 ?i j, ,;,, / a / i 3
1; 4 5

i@ :i /I$ t

/ ?1 /: j> /:A I4

a 2

a ? 61 :


2i 81 5 01 -


(,: t &. i 0: ,I:/

i ,; , 8 1 i . fj-

I, i ,

Q j

ii i


or PC 9: :u 0 L:tI

~ I

$i L-----j-~-.--I .%A .L
i j b -1 0 ;/I i I \I\ !. I I j I * I, \h I , 1

ns i !J / 1 I, I ii7 J. ?+a n 3 I . L I\ 4. *4, b








Figure ously impossible To eliminate

7-3. Slrai~tll-sectrhncd

boats ham> simple


to write them all on a lines plan and not have them become confused. of fractional dimensions, of inches. it has been made general practice 2-5-3 means two feet, of their or For example,

a multitude

to write offsets in feet-inches-eighths five and three-eighths inches.

(You will find that you will read them automatically pride themselves to one-sixteenth on the accuracy of an inch; this is shown in thus we get 2-5-3+

once you have tried a few.) Some architects lines and offsets and read some dimensions 2-5-31/j.

the offset table by a plus sign or lV$after the eighth numeral. gling with feet, inches, and all those 64 fractions of an inch.

One of these days metric offset tables will make life a lot simpler than strugfurther along, but at this time it would of the wood or

The use of the offset table will be explained surface of the ht.&. Consequently skin, or aluminum

be well to note that the lines for a vessels hull are almost always drawn to the outside when molds are made, the thickness fiberglass or steel p!ating or planking must be deducted in order from the molds edges. sawn frames are drawn loftsman from shaped of all of which must be

The lines for metal ships or large wooden vessels with built-up to the inside of the plating deducting before The the thickness

to save the mold

from the full-size drawing of every frame,

drawn when sawn or metal frames are employed, installation. hull lines discussed buttocks,

for each frame is individually boat,

above are for a round-bottomed involved depending upon

the number


and diagonals

the size of the boat.

Other hull types have fewer lines. Figure 7-Y shows an ordinary flat-bottomed rowboat having but four fore-and-aft lines, namely, the deck and sheer, and two views of the


LJNES A ND LA YING DOWN which is the corner at the intersection profile. of the side and bottom. Also shown are lines. If they


the lines for a v-bottomed of a bottom were curved. established

boat having lines similar

to a flattie except for the addition boat consist of straight and these would be

The sections of this particular buttocks, and diagonals.

other points would be needed to draw the sections, by waterlines,

The Mold Loft

Although we have said that the builders first step is lofting the hull, in reality the first the space should be at least four while in the other it must be equal around the drawing. Well-

thing is to find a place to do the job. to the dist-rnce from the baseline there is one, equipped plus some space boatyards

At a minimum,

or more feet longer than the boat in one direction,

to the highest point of the sheer, or top of cabin if for just this purpose that is It is too much to ask that

on all sides for working

use a level wooden floor maintained

sanded smooth and coated with flat light gray or white paint. an amateur level space,

have such facilities at his disposal, so the next best alternative would be a such as a floor or platform, where paper or plywood may be used to lay

down the lines. A few years PRO while visiting boatyards I noticed lofting being done on a very heavy, light bplge paper that was also being used for patterns for one-off parts. This material was 200.pound Alexandritr template paper, 12 square feet per pound. In each case it was purchased from a paper goods supply house in a nearby city. The in. formation about the paper is given here, but the amateur builder will probably not be able to cope with the cost of this 72 wide material. Each roll is said to weigh between 500 and 6Otl pounds -- a lifetime supply indeed. The drawing supply people make a buff detail paper of acceptable quality, available up to 48 and 54 in width, in rolls of 10. 20. and 50 yards and priced reasonably. Some of the paper-faced building panels are also all right, and SO is plywood, as mentioned above, in standard-size panels that may be arranged edge to if several pieces are used to edge to make any size desired. Whatever the material, make up the required size, the pieces must be secured against movement.


To draw sharp lines, flat carpenters to make it easier to distinguish pencils between but an or-

The tools for lofting are few and simple. are used, sharpened Colored different

to a chisel point so a thin line may be drawn for a long distance. a steel tape is ideal for long lengths,

pencils may also be used to advantage types of lines. For measuring,

dinary folding six-foot rule will do, and the rule can also be used to lay off many short dimensions. A large carpenters square, either as manufactured or homemade out of :/Hor % wood, is needed for drawing lines perpendicular to other lines, such as for station lines in relation with a regular to the base and waterlines. You may also erect perpendiculars or improvised beam compass, as will be shown later. The adjustable as will a straightedge six or eight feet the really

bevel shown in Figure 3-1 will be found handy,

long, which you can make yourself from a piece of thin wood. For marking

LINES AND LA YING DOWN long, straight line stretched intervals base and waterlines, tightly between


you should use either a masons chalk line, pencilof light, strong fishing under the cord at marking in points directly

ing the line on the floor before the chalk rubs off, or a length two nails, of about three feet, to be connected

later with a straightedge.

Fair curves have no bumps and are pleasing set of battens, which are nothing more white pine or other such wood. These than the line to be drawn. making a tapered to the eye. To draw them, you must have a square-edged pieces of clear

than straight,

should be at least two feet longer at each end stock isnt long enough for the job, batin the middle, where the curve is least, by Or the line itself may be all the points on the

When the available

tens can be made up of two pieces connected glue splice of about

18 to 2 in length.

pieced if you make sure there is a fair overlap For best results, you should use as stiff a batten

over the length of a couple of stations. as will go through

curve, for a stiff batten will tend to fair itself unless unduly forced, whereas a supple batten can be passed through all the points and not lie fair. It is difficult to say just what size battens should be used, as the correct size depends so much on the length of for the lint and the character of the curve. A batten 14 to $1 thick by 1 th to 2 wide used on the flat is suggested relatively easy curves like the sheerline. For certain the battens at the ends somewhat,

curves it may be necessary to taper

with ail the taper cut on one edge. For curves in the

plan view, also known as the half-breadth tried. Like a lot of boatbuilding of batten

plan, something like I$$ x 1 Mor th x 1 t,4 used on the flat, possibly tapered at the ends, or :?t square and untapered might be operations, accumulated experience will aid in the Curves sizes. If you have a table saw, start by making the strips narrower the battens on the as needed.


heavy side until you get the hang of it, ripping

such as sections. the stem profile. and similar shapes will be drawn with shorter battens, probably j/H and 14 square, and inasmuch as these curves sometimes have harder bends in the middle than at the ends, such as around the turn of the bilge, they may have to be tapered points. A batten is held in place wiih finishing it. Not necessary contrast by any means, nails driven on both sides of it, not through from the standpoint of readily but very desirable in the middle in order to make a fair curve that touches all the

sighting the shape of a batten when sprung to a curve, is a coat of flat black paint. The of the dark batten against the light-colored floor or paper will help detect a line that is not fair.

The Grid
By examining waterlines, the straight the table of offsets, diagonals, Figure 7-2. it will be seen that dimensions and out from the centerline. for the it is



and profile curves are laid out on the station Therefore, This group of lines, called

lines and are measured

above the baseline

lines that must be laid down in the beginning.

the grid, is shown in Figure 7-4. You will note in Figure 7-5 that the grid is set up in a




Pear J-r5 CURL7

11ol-n srR.ocl5


T 4 T y



-DRAV/ltdG D a, m .-,



-BEAM I K-f-l


I t a e 1

*Al-&~ .

jZIXj ;I \


i ,,/,,I[;; ,,,,,, ,j I \
1, \
. \ al ( I ._ t . BA5E BA7-t-d (OPTlOtiAL) +

;i L,F
0 .


Figure 7-4. The grid for full-sized out on a suita ble.floor.

hull lines is comprised

of straight lines and is laid


met6.w mctt





AtiD 5HOWd




Figure 7-5. The lofied hull lines are arranged d$ferently,from plan in order to save space on the mold lqft floor.

those on an architect Ys


LINES AND LA YING DOWN form relative to the paper plans: the half-breadth plan is superimposed save themselves from on low The


over the profile drawing to save space and to minimize crawling around the loft floor by building Thus the grid is started

the distances one must crawl on

hands and knees when laying the lines down. (Some professionals swivel casters.) the baseline dicular to it. may be drawn either example by drawing a straight

a dolly of padded plywood mounted for the half-breadth

line that doubles both as plan.

for the profile

view and the centerline

spacing of the stations is laid off along this line and the stations are drawn in perpenThe perpendiculars beam compass, with a set of trammel points, a regular 2

or an improvised

one, and is done as follows. Mark a point A (Station in Figure 7-4); to each side of point A. Lengthen C draw a straight

has been used as a practical

then using the compass with A as the arm of the arcs above strike two intersecting

a center., strike an arc B equidistant the baseline. From the intersection

compass and, using each of the points B as a center,

line through A on the base. The

line CA is perpendicular to the base. This method can be used at each station, or it can be used at only one, with the resulting right angle used to build a large square for drawing in the remainder of the stations waterlines perpendicular in profile to the base. lines With the exception of the load view of the spacing on The spacing waterline waterline, of the straight is taken from the architects to draw the profile mark off the waterline

plan and they are drawn in parallel for reference,

to the baseline.

it is not usually necessary

except at the ends of the boat. Therefore, and again one or two stations

the two end stations with a straightedge.

from the ends and draw them in

As mentioned above, the offsets for the curves are dimensioned as heights above the baseline or distances out from the centerline as the case may be. Some of the dimensions will be long enough that you will not be able to tell readily whether the end of your rule is exactly on the line or not. To be sure of this and to save time, some builders nail a batten against the under side of the baseline as shown in Figure 7-4. The end of the rule can then be butted against it when making measurements. lnstead of a batten, a nail may be driven at each intersection of a station with the base. You will find either way to be very helpful and, to say the least, easier on the knees.


and Deck line

or the deck line will be the first curved line to be drawn and faired. we will select the sheerline, above the baseline. Starting which the table of offsets, Figure at the bow, Station 0, the table

Either the sheerline

For the sake of argument 7-2, shows is dimensioned

reads 2-11-O for the height of the sheer:

so with the rule against the nail or batten

measure up two feet, eleven inches above the base on Station 0 and make a mark. Move the rule over to Station 1. read 2-7-2 from the table and make a mark 27% above the base. The process is repeated similarly at all of the stations. With all the points marked, it is time to select a batten with which to draw the sheerline, placing it so that it extends beyond the length of the boat at each end. With amidships, Station 3 of the drive nails to hold the batten in place. 4, alternating Now fasten one edge of the batten against the sheer point on a station boat we are using as an example, the batten at Station 2, then at Station

towards the ends of the boat un-

LINES AND LA YING DOWN til the batten is sprung to and fastened ject beyond the boat, After the batten to the unfairness should be sprung at all the points. The battens to extend length,


ends, which pro-

the curve fairly and then nailed. sight along it to see whether there moves very far from one of the giv-

is secured for the entire and note the result.

are any unfair or lumpy spots in the curve.

If so, pull the nails at the stations adjacent

If the batten

points and still does not appear to be fair. pull other nails and make adjustments, ing here and taking there until the resulting points to be out of line occasionally scale compared However, to obtain measured it must be remembered because to the full-size job; the architect

line is pleasing to the eye. You may expect has drawn the lines to a small to creep into the work. as little as possible are bound

thus errors

that the batten should be shifted hard spots.

a sweet and true curve without out from the centerline.

The deck line is faired

in the same manner

after it has been laid down from offsets


and Rabbet

After the deck line has been drawn in and faired, you can continue working on the profile plan, drawing and fairing the profile (bottom of keel), the stem, and the rabbet. The rabbet line is normally found in traditional wooden construction, although it may or may not exist in other types of wooden hull construction, or in fiberglass or metal hulls. For these latter hulls, a similar line may be referred to by some other name. In any rasc, the lines plan will make all this clear. The profile and rabbet must be faired in so that they will meet the relatively curves of the stem and stem rabbet. profile forward beyond way 1.0 ensure that the two sets of curves will meet fairly is to extend the point of tangency 7-5. note that this has been done in Figure the rabbet

INith these bow curves not yet drawn in, the best and with the stem and its rabbet. You will

The stem profile and the stem rabbet are drawn with a thin batten, as mentioned previously. When points for the stem curves have been marked in from the dimensions on the lines plans, a nail is driven at each spot, the batten is bent against the nails, and other nails are driven on the opposite side of the batten If your particular plans give a half-siding next before going on to the body plan. to hold it in place. this should be drawn in for the rabbet,

Body Plan Sections

It is strongly recommended that the body plan be drawn on a separate portable board.

Such a board is easy to move around to suit making molds, and it avoids confusion of lines on the floor. Referring to the body plan for the lines in Figure 7.2, you can see that the board or paper used for the sections must be somewhat wider than the boat and at least as high as the distance from the baseline to the sheer at Station 0, the bow. Begin by drawing the baseline; then draw the centerline perpendicular to the base. The waterlines are drawn in parallel to the base, the buttocks parallel to the centerline and the diagonals exactly as dimensioned on the lines plan. Needless to say, trouble


LINES AND LA YING DOWN and the buttocks of the body plan are not spaced exactly the and profile plans. from /,bto /Bthick for use in and the sheer and rabbet heights carefully identifying each one 7-5. wood anywhere

will result if the waterlines

same as they were laid out on the half-breadth Cut some narrow strips of straight transferring and mark or battens

to the body plan the deck half-breadths the half-breadths

from the already faired lines on the floor. Butt the end of a strip against the baseline and heights on the stick, These measuring up position with a symbol and the station number. sticks are called pick-up sticks at Station 4 in Figure

and one is shown in the picking on the centerline. stick against to each station.

With the end of the pick-up stick at the baseline of the sheer and rabbet and with the pick-up width corresponding points; point and draw in the width of the rabbet.

of your body plan, mark the heights lines at each rabbet mark the deck lines at each sheer height of sheer and deck draw a of the rabbet

Draw short horizontal Draw horizontal

the centerline number.

of the body plan,

At each intersection

small cross and label it with the station the sheer height/deck

Each section now has two definite and the intersection Nail a batten

width intersection,

height and width. Now to fill in some of the points in between. centerline the centerline centerline batten,

against one side of the with its end against from the offset put a little circle 1; then mark I with the 2A to the right of the

on the body plan and with the rule laid on a waterline mark points for all the waterline lay the rule on waterline


table and label each one. For instance,

and from the offset table under Station

1 mark off l-l-2,

around it with a 1 next to it to show it is a point on the section at Station 1.9- 1 for Statinn With the waterlines Follow with Buttock again Move the batten and diagonal done, go on to the buttocks. II. Then

2, and so on. Do the same with the offsets for the other waterlines. Place the rule on Buttock I from the offset table. with the end of the rule lines. buttock,

end of the rule at the base and mark all the heights for Buttock lay the rule along the diagonal at the centerline and lay off all the diagonal

offsets along the diagonal

to the left side of the centerline

and lay out all the waterline,

offsets for the sections

in the stern half of the boat. Needless to say, all

the layout and transfer of measurements should be done with utmost care and accuracy. In the end, the time spent to this end will speed the job to completion faster than if the work is done in a slipshod manner.




Nails are driven around the sheer point

at all the reference and beyond

marks on each



a batten

is bent 7-6.

the nails of each section,

using a batten

long enough to extend 6 or so above as shown in Figure

the rabbet

at the centerline,

Holding the sheer and rabbet points as definitely fixed by the previous fairing of these lines, examine the batten carefully and shift it, if necessary, to get a smooth, true curve. Before doing any shifting, remember that points established by lines crossing other lines at right angles, precisely architect, tersections. or nearly so, are more accurate than those established by crossings at acute angles. When two lines intersect working from his small-scale (See Figure 7-7.) drawing, at an acute angle it is difficult consequently to tell

at which spot on a line the crossing occurs; With this fact in mind,

it is possible for the

to misread offsets taken from such init is readily seen that for the flat




Figure 7-6. Tfz~ body P/UHis best drawn on a portable lCrct>called a .\criuc board.

part of the bottom


the best points are given by the buttocks.

The waterlines but on the other

give the most unreliable in the architects diagonal, may be ignored, scaling

points for the same parts of the sections, technique.

hand, they are the best for the topside sections. may appear

Points may also be out due to mistakes In such a situation these points

As a result, all the points on one line, such as a held if they give a fair section or line.

to be out by the same amount.

the other points being


first, because they are laid out to cross the majority of the sections at

Fair the diagonals

a good angle. Lay a pick-up batten along a diagonal in the body plan, mark and identify all the points where it crosses the sections; then move the batten to the halfbreadth plan and mark each diagonal half-breadth on its proper station. The

Figure 7-7.



2 ?I *,uec -3, lBE.& p13, b.4 2* / ,~ 7+J! PJL +. I._;i \= z \ pq&f +-if+ -- I ,xkh~~ _ / 4 % b--% x 5: + Ka i 1.. ~_ t

t S,.=g5-/---f _---/! ii
kc* ..; 11 f \ Pa UCc.x1PCD FrzDV 1 1 bL;i> oinr, ~~ - --..__?Li+--~-~ @PpDoJcc5rp~I , 73 c _ CF ..rcI~~ ____ ?.bD 3 ;. ; / -p&cd ~~ yl - A vrl ?,I ~. ..* _ ,*

--$-Q+ / 0 --<;2w:,,//

- 4. - _u_ ; .AzyLL&+ 9+x:.z :

--. &.e ,I,,,, ILTeeSC:l~O*i OF c,se X A..C cl!.Jv3? * UC 10 Lx- dl er U~.5d?C3 =erJv em7 P-.-.I

1 :;;zY

y$&,:- i

3,.aciO~... *a CL


Figure 7-8. Four steps in finding o/the? stern.

the correct ending


diagonal that crosses the face

diagonai is then faired, again proceeding as described for the sheerline. If the batten will not go through all the points and at the same time produce a fair line, the usual adjustments must be made. Bearing in mind not to make more changes than are necessary, the sections on the body plan are then corrected accordingly.

Long When


Endings the long fore-and-aft of waterline endings lines, it is necessary is fairly simple. to terminate them correctly. of


The location the profile


the bow in Figure 7-5, Each intersection

of the stem has been faired and drawn permanently. with one of the waterlines is a definite

the stem profile

point in the profile plan, and

the corresponding point in the half-breadth plan is found simply by projecting the intersection in the profile down to the line ~spresenting the half siding of the stem face in the half-breadth this particular other waterlines Buttock tersection plan as shown in A in Figure 7-5. The aft endings are done exactly at B in the stern end of the same figure. It is obvious that in ends within the boat at the stern, because the 6. is drawn in plan is projected to the sheer. The inA short length of a buttock at Station design only the L.W.L. cross the section the same way, as indicated

endings are also quite simple.

to cross the deck line, and then the point of crossing with the sheer is the ending of the buttock wherever a waterline of the L.W.L. point on the L.W.L. in Figure 7-5. When drawing the waterlines those on stations are established 7-5 illustrates Buttock how the crossing II in plan gives another

in the profile view as shown at C fairing points in addition to II in profile projected to and a buttock cross. D in Figure in plan.

and buttocks,

and Buttock

The determination of a diagonal ending at the stem is somewhat more difficult to understand; therefore the steps taken are shown in Figure 7-8, which should be selfexplanatory.



The preceding explanation of lofting a round-bottomed boat is modified for other types such as v- and arc-bottomed hulls; generally speaking, the latter types are easier to loft. However, in common, all boats except double-enders have one additional lofting problem and that is the development of the transom or stern board.

Projected Transom
After the sections have been faired satisfactorily, plumb verticai, in which case the section More often, in the body plan. although it is time to consider the development the transom is the and station is actually to the builder

of the true shape of the transom or stern board of the boat. Sometimes, drawn at the transom is raked, shape of the transom. shape does not appear need not be reproduced view of the transom, the transom

with the result that its true

This view is meaningless

full size on the mold loft floor. The same is true of the plan it may be useful for obtaining transom

The only way that a true view, and thus a pattern, of a raked transom can be gotten is if its shape is projected square off its centerline in the profi!e view.

Flat Transom
Development of the simplest

of the shape of thr transom type, and its transom lines plan. is sometimes puzzling to the builder, but

there is nothing

really mysterious about the work. The 12 rowboat shapts development For

has a flat transom

is shown in Figure 7-9. The drawn from dimensions the centerline for the .,

rake of the transom developed transom

in profile has, of course,

been previously of illustration,

given on the architects is not necessary

has bren drawn at the stern end of the lines in Figure 7-9, but this
on a separate

and it may be located

board or piece of paper.

The transom is just thr same as any section, except that it is located at an angle with the baseline instead of perperldicular to it. Points on the transom are taken from the waterlines and buttocks the same as ordinary sections: it is merely a matter of picking up the waterline half-breadths and buttock heights at the right places and transferring at the end of your lines, as shown in in the diagram. However, if you there is one important point to thcqm to the development If you have space Figurr drawing. drawing is exactly as indicated plan elsewhere.

for the transom

7-9, thr dcvelopmrnt throughout

must locate the grid for the transom remember will not fit as it should. apart above the L. W.L.. tween the waterlines Therefore,

the development,

or you may end up with a stern board that are spaced 5 be5.

On the profile drawing of the lines the waterlines but due to the profile angle of the transom, the transom

the distance greater than

drawn across

is obviously

when laying out the grid, the spacing must be carefully of the transom. for the transom and tt,en the intersections with the transoms of waterlines togetht.

measured along

In Figure 7-9 the centerline of the transom, in profile are projected and rabbet intersecti(Jns for this rowboat,

grid has been drawn parallel with projections

to the rake

and the sheer with the transom of the buttock as in the design

across the centerline

face. With a flat transom,

you can lay off the spacing of rhe buttocks

the same as they are on the



Figure 7-9. Ikwloprnent

body and the half-breadth rcnterline. plans,

o/ a Jlat transom. to the transom where the butLay off d, the proa, b,

and draw them in the grid parallel on the transom point, R. and buttocks development in profile. from the buttocks

Two points, P, are established to locate another

tocks thus drawn cross the lines projected width of the rabbet, Now project the intersections

of the waterlines

with the transom half-breadths

file down to the centerline

of the half-breadth

plan. The waterline

and c are picked up with a batten and laid off as points A, B. and C on the corresponding lines in the grid. With all the points spotted, draw in the transom with a batten the same as you did the regular sections. If you must draw the transom on a separate sheet, very carefully pick up the spacing of the intersections along the profile of the transom on a batten, as shown in Figure . 7-9, and complete Curved Transom location of points as described above.

Development on either a sailboat finished appearance necessary or powerboat is considered. is very handsome, From the aesthetic and although viewpoint, a

A curved transom the development curved transom when the transoms

is more involved than for the flat type, the extra work is worthwhile is not generally on small craft up to 20 or 25 feet overall, but for good looks is an absolute type is the most difficult to sltirn. This

above this range the curved transom must on a hut1 with an overhanging develop, transom due to the combination in profile.

becomes a necessity, counter

of the radius to which it is built and the angle of the such a transom are bent to the arc of a circle as seen in profile. A pat-

The planks forming

with a radius perpendicular

to the after side of the transom


- --





I cut and rolled out flat. A transom the waterlines, proportioned as shown in Figure

Li tern for the shape must be made, and this is accomplished

2% AND L.-l YING DO Wh as thougtl G rvlinder principally



7-10 is developed

with butwith but-

tocks, because they cross the edges of the transom and thus are the most accurate. are an infinite tocks and must realize that those on the architects possible to have on a hull. There clo-Fly as needed 7-10 has been curately, between purposely to hc!c, you make proper extra buttocks is attempted, station

more nearly at right angles than do lines plan are not the only ones it is number, and they may be spaced as The stern in Figure the transom acmust be added faired full size, to develrp of the tramt.m for parts

By this time you are familiar

templates buttocks

drawn with enough

but ordinarily,

for development

those shown on the lines plan. the hull lines have been completely at the extreme beyord the transom. To be sure of the shape of his hull, the arstern and then cuts it off at the above.

Before the transom usually to a staticn chitect desired

designs to a vertical angle in profile

and in a radius in the plan view as mentioned

There are undoubtedly many methods of transom development in use and sworn to by their advocates. However, the system illustrated here will at least help the reader understand smalier the principle. the stern in Figure to another. the profile and half-breadth plans of 7-1C have been drawn separated and the transom radius made Dashed lines show the projection of the flat transom of one view the development in Figure 7-9. the use To avoid confusion,

than usual to clarify the drawing. After following

of the buttocks in Figure 7-10 is obvious, with the exception for the expansion.

of their spacing in the grid Figure swing

Extend the after side of the transom in profile up clear of other drawings, 7-lOA, and draw a centerline perpendicular to it. Tangent to the intersection, will be bent when it is built. same as in the half-breadth the expanded measured measurements transom, Draw the buttocks plan. Project buttocks parallel to the centerline,

an arc of radius as shown on the plans. This is the curve to which the transom planking spaced the the intersections the buttocks the buttocks of the burtocks with the arc out from the centerline plan. when the cylindrical as

down to cross the corresponding around

in the profile view. Now prepare the grid for These tran-

Figure 7-lOB,

spacing between

the arc instead

of as laid out in the half-breadth

give the true distances

som is rolled out flat. Project

the buttocks

in profile to the grid to obtain points on the

edge of the transom as was done in the flat transom, Figure 7-9. For clarity only one buttock, Buttock II, has been used as an example in Figure 7-10. In order to find the point where the transom line is drawn in the auxiliary in this view, select convenient above the centerline the half-breadth the auxiliary breadth ferred the points of intersectior? projection, projection terminates at the sheerline. centerline; the deck shown in Figure 7-10A. To draw the deck line square them and then square

points (P) along the projections to the stations

and also down to cross the sheer on the profile: with the sheer parallel and a batten

to cross the deck line in

plan. The widths of the deck at these points are lifted, transf+=rr?d tn is run rhrough them. The corner of the transom the arc of the transom. around The halfthe arc and duly transwhere the deck line intersects from the centerline

at the deck is located to the grid.

of the point is measured

RADl U5 OF TRA?450M -




,L E!%PANoeo

Figure 7-10. Steps in the development

of a curved transom.


.J?.D L.4 S1.1;G Ml IZN



7-l 1. The complete


of the curved transom started in Figure 7- 10.

Powerboat Sailboat

Transoms transoms often have considerable rake, as shown in Figures 7-10 and 7-11,

but there is usually little angle to those on modem power cruisers. A small amount of rake may be neglected in the development of the transom, and the radius can be drawn directly on the half-breadth plan, as will be explained. The powerboat stem shown in Figure 7-12 is not typical of many present day boats in that the topside sections do not tumble home. This avoids having waterlines that pile up on top of one another and makes the transom development easier to understand. Draw the profile profile Holding jected angle of the transom or buttock radius constant and project every intersection of it with the plan. view of a waterline the specified up to the centeriine throughout, in the half-breadth

swing an arc from each of tht proto the line in profile. ProyWc: lines in that the

points on the centeriine intersections

(using the C.L.

as center for the radius) until th: arc

crosses the 1;~~ on the half-breadth the half-breadth profile buttocks

plan corresponding 7-12A.

with the arcs back down to the corresponding Of course it is important the arc, Figure 7-12B. around

and then across to the grid, Figure on the grid are spaced as measured

/ IHj : i$j 01 1; 1 : i 3 ; i i j 1 li /, l-J1 *; ;

Ii, / / ; :. vt: -1 I/ Al/ A 3i 3, ,1 1 ; I :

2 CL F -4-~~ 3 CL 2 I ---

I ! i

i j 3 A-43 !/ /I ! I +I ,

I IL !B ys (I /j +t-




+ SE -&&


nH 3 0 ii

i:j j/ y -2 i p F -2 .2 e b3 .= % P G P% C @ E z k;;I F: hz E -I k1 P 3,1 9 i2 t / SOa c >z 0: 5 :4 WB $. tIL , t 00 -7 2111 c 20 3 St ., 26 2 b sl d A 2 EL .r( Fr



1 1 YING



The development is the shape of the outside edge of the transom planking, but allowance must be made for the bevel on the edges, which causes the transom to be

on the inside than on the outside face. thickness must be deducted before

When making the allowance

the transom




for beveling

can be made.


Lines Fairing
in this chapter the offsets, is to correct errors in the a small-scale

The purpose of much of the work described architects drawing, manship. hull lines drawing. due to mistakes made in reading

Errors creep in due to the necessity of making and because to depart from the time-tested

of sloppy draftsmethods of lofting

It may not pay an amateur

ani, mold-making, resulting

but the professional should certainly investigate services that fair Such computers fair the lines from the table of offsets. lines by computer. in corrected rule.) offsets reading to one-sixteenth extension of an inch or one hundredth with an ordinary lines fairing of a surveyors sixis the full size

foot. (It is easy to lay out offsets in feet and decimals foot folding A logica!

of computer-aided

drawing of the body plan, and this is discussed in the next chapter. I have used firms supplying computer-guided lofting for hulls up to 78 feet in length. 25 Hallett Hill Road, Weston, Such lofting is available from Justin E. Ketwin, Massachusetts Street, Bristol, 02193; Rhode Bristolcomp, Island 02809; 13027. c/o Halsey C. Herreshoff, Inc., Inc., 18 Burnside Drive, RD and Hullforms, 3667 Woodland

#3, Baldwinsville,

New York



Upon completion round-bottomed

of the full size drawings of the lines for the hull. the builder is at last boat or for molds for a wooden hull. they are hull or a male plug for a fiberglass or cold-molded

ready to start cutting wood, be it for frames for a sawn-frame Molds are made from the body plan, and because made from lower grade lumber

they are only temporary,

than that used for the boat parts. Any lumber except

hardwood is suitable, the thickness of the molds varying with the size of the boat. A rough guide is XV for boats to 16 , % for 16 to 24 , and 1 rror 1 igNfor Z&footers. As you will see further cept that ribbands along, the molds are set up on the backbone are bent around There or keel of the boat, exboat and strips of wood called ribbands the molds similar to planking,

have spaces between them. The frames for a round-bottomed

are bent to shape against the ribbands. experience advantageous is gained that setting

are two schools of thought as to whether but it will be observed as when the for the boat is simplified

the frames should be bent inside or outside of the ribbands, up the frame frames are bent inside the ribbands. to make a permanent for further and the mold is removed the outside of planking the frames the thickness When a number

of boats are to be built alike it is

mold, in which case the frames are bent outside use when the hull has been planked. For setups where for v-bottomed

The lines for the 12-footer

in Figure 7.2, like those for all small boats, are drawn to the molds for the sections are made only after Similarly, frames

and the full-size lines are lofted accordingly. has been deducted.

are bent inside the ribbands, of the planking

boats are made only after the thickness of planking has been deducted. It should be obvious after you have studied construction that to make a mold for a round-bottomed bined thickness boat with the frames bent on the outside of the ribbands, of planking, framing, and ribbands must be deducted the comfrom the sec-

tions that are drawn to the outside of the planking. For methods

other than conventional

wooden construction,

the ways of getting the






-BOD)/ PLANFigure 8-l. Plajrking thickucss can 6~ deducted by sin~ply drawing a parullel wction insido the IWP sections by thr amou,tt o/ planking thickncss. Howtqler, this is not a zltq accurate method.



upon the peculiarities or covering

of each construction

type. To make a male

plug that will be used to form a female mold for a fiberglass the plug planking jigin the chapter thickness. need be deducted. one-off call it what you will) for a so-called on Fiberglass skin thickness fiberglass

hull, only the thickness of sandwich thickness hull as described must be equal to plus the ribband must be equal or

To make a male mold (or plug or the deduction

and Other Hull Materials,

the outer fiberglass to the total thickness ribbands.

plus the core material

To make a male mold for a cold-molded of the hull planking

hull, the deduction

plus the thickness

of the mold planking

Countless boats have been built from molds where planking thickness was deducted by simply drawing lines inside the sections by the amount of the planking thickness. However, this method is only acceptable when the planking is thin. Let me try to simplify planking this. If a hole was drilled was measured through the planking, and the thickness correctly of the in the hole, the planking wouid measure only q the



Figure 8-2.





4-n L

same token, such a h,ole would only represent deductions proximately would be fairly accurate parallel

hole were at right angles (n,. -TmaI) to the surface o/the it&i. (See Figure 8-2.) By the a truly accurate deduction when the hole itselj lies in the same athwartships plane as the stations. Thus, in a shapely hull, the
amidships, where the
pian view waterlines run ap-

to the hulls centerline,

but as the waterlines

break away


toward the centerline as one progresses become increasingly inaccurate. IJnless the planking deduct planking correct, absolutely diagonals parallel thickness

to the ends of the hull, the deductions


is thin, it is best to take a little more time and make an effort to snore accurately. To make the thickness deduction even to the extent almost of adding

it should be done on the diagonals,

in addition

to those shown on the lines plan, but this chore is not necessary in at each station layoff the planking thickness (See in the p!an view of the lines, then pick up this thickness along take a batten and draw through

most cases. Rather than use this procedure, to the waterlines

the station line and transfer it to the body plan, laying it off normal to the section. Figure 8-3.) When this has been done at each waterline,

all the points to get tire inside of planking. Once you have done this for a few points the work will go quite rapidly. When all the sections have been redrawn to the inside of planking, the molds for a round-bottomed boat can be made. Figure 8-4 shows typical mold construction and Figure 8-l shows how the shape of the section is transferred to the mold stock by pressing the lumber down against closely spaced tacks with their heads laid on the line to be reproduced. Turn the wood over, use a batten to connect the marks made by the tack heads, then work the board to the line. Do this for each station. It is not practical to use boards wide enough to get out an entire half mold all in one piece. Therefore, the mold is made in asmany parts asnecessary, and laidout in anyconvenient manner to suit the lumber stock. Just remember that the mold must not be too flimsy. Normally the mold should be extended a half foot or so above the sheerline, but if it is planned to build the boat upside down-a logical method for small craft-the molds should be extended to a straight baseline above the sheer that represents planked the building floor. Depending on the size of the boat, the inverted baseline is made parailel to the waterline and at a height so the greater part of the hull may be fastening them

from a normal standing position. Lay the mold parts on the sections of the body plan while carefully

!vlOl. DS, 7~.~:clPI..~l7i-.~~:.i.-illif R.-lCKi~O.lE .-l.VI)





A *

-I *
<TI. h


1 IT,.I 0 L&WcTFF PLaNa. TntCuiNtSs 2 Pmc* UP o,CT.*.s n-n. 0 -rPa.+.(~5L l-0 9cJoy
fLAti (WC@)

Figure 8-3. 7his rtto~hod ojdPducting shown in Figure 8- 1.


thic knvss is ntow ncrurn~c~ than that

01 AOOhlnL LAccclRFZ




l?$T.RND bI3o+lD




SWttR, L.W.L.

4 c.L. Od MoLD 7

\I I \\







ARR&<~Mt A0Ovk



Figure 8-4. Tvt)icnl mold ronstrurtion. lain their shape when set up.

Molds must bc wll~fastened

und braced to re-


MOLDS, TEMPLATES. AND THf BACKBONE with screws and butt blocks. rsefore the half mold is lifted from the plan, while setting up and building. Turn


mark it at the deck line and L.W.L. to match

fcr reference

the first half of the mold over so thar. the butt blocks are down and make a second half it. When the mold is aswmbled, the butt blocks will then all be on the same side. Connect the two halves at the bottom with a block, which should be notched if reand fasten a crosepiece, called a spall, at or near the at the same or base, the molds will be easier to align when set up on the

quired by the keel construction, height above the waterline keel or floor.

deck line. Spalls on all molds should be level, and if they all are located

Stem and Rabbet

The stem assembly struction In boatbuilding the thickness is drawn on the full-size lines, either as dimensioned on the conplan. whereas

plan or, lacking dimensions, language of the material

from widths scaled from the construction Ideally,

the widths of the stem are the molded dimensions, for the stem is the sided dimension.

a stem for a

small craft like a dinghy should be made from a natural hackmatack or oak crook as they were some years ago. A template of the stem would be taken to the dealer in this material builders, to select a crook with a shape similar nobody seems to bother to the stem, but except for the island with this any more.

Most often the stem is too large to get out of a natural crook, so an assembly of wood will be made up as illustrated in Figure 8-5 or the stem assembly will be laminated. For the amateur, out. When an assembly of parts is used, templates transferred with tacks as explained of the parts are made, the lines being for the molds in Figure 8.1. Templates are usually Besides !/i r, or y8 thick or of plywood or hardboard. for who does not usually count labor. a lamination is often the easiest way

made of easily worked softwood representing the shapes of the parts, the templates must also provide guidelines rabbeting the stem assembly to receive the planking. The profile struction and fairness. of the rabbet line may or may not be dimensioned of the rabbet a constant

on the lines or conthe same as the the length of the

plan, and even though it is shown, it should be checked full size for accuracy The width or half-breadth retains line is generally width throughout

siding of the stem and either

boat or swells in width toward amidships It was mentioned before that countless not deducting more precise the thickness) each waterline rabbet 8-5. the thickness of planking method that consumes the stem rabbet.

and then narrows again toward the stern. boats have been built from molds made by method, and so it is with how to lay out the rabbet by a

by the most accurate

I will discuss this first and then explain

but little more time. of the stem (the half siding or one-half of planking has been drawn to get the back is 4A in the profile, from the waterlines with a batten. Figure in the

Note in Figure S-5 that the half-breadth half-breadth the thickness

has been drawn as well as the half siding of the face of the stem, and on lines to which the material must be cut. The nomenclature

and bearding

shown on the section through Points half-breadth

the stem drawn on waterline in profile and connected

to plot these lines on the profile are projected plan to the waterlines

The lines

Figure 8-5.

for the rabbet and the outline of stem parts are all transferred at the same time. The templates

to the template


are laid out on the stem material and arranged so that there will be a minimum of cross grain in the finished part. Cut and plane the parts to shape (if too heavy for your equipment have a mill do this for you) and lay them out on the full-size lines to check the alignment line, all the waterlines, put the stem together pound between Whether precaution of the joints in the assembled position. Mark the sheerof the bolts; then bore the bolt holes and with thick white lead, t hiokol, or sc rne other good bedding com(the surfaces that touch each other) of the joints. and plugged, you should take an extra This is a ptece of and the centerlines

the faying surfaces

or not the bolt heads are countersunk to make the bolt holes watertight long enough

by using a grommet.

cotton wicking caulking bedding generously before centerline centerline. Referring of the rabbet material the bolt is driven

to go around the bolt a couple of times. Apply After assembly of the stem, mark the

to the wicking and wind it around the bolt just under the head just all the way home.

of the boat on the stem and the width of the stem face on each side of the to the half-breadth at the waterlines, the templated plan in the figure, make a tc.mplate of stiff cardboard Use the temp!ates the rabbet The to cut a short length by working away the may be cut wrth and then complete

or thin wood for the rabbet between

at each waterline.

cuts on the waterlines.











Figure 8-6.
rc~nficienc~ fessionals the time perience it more if the full-six drawing IS accrlrc!ta and complete. However, even some pro-

leave the rabbet ,just a little shallow and complete it when fitting ribbands at the boat is set up. In many cases this is because they have learned from exthat their rabhet is not as accurate 7 it was stated as it might that be. Here is how you can make sections are drawn at intcrbe acctrate. of Chapter r!re length vertical of the boat to define the shape of the hull, but it should

In the beginning vals throughout

realized that sections can be drawn through the hull at any angle, not only at the verthe horizontal planes of the waterlines, or the tical planes of the stations and buttocks, often does this while drawing the construction plan to diagonal planes. The designer get the true, drawn normal are the most accurate sizes of parts such as the stem assured. it certainly to the part out-of-normal is full accuracy at the bow, assembly: only when a section is Since the waterlines and buttocks pays to draw auxiliary sections at

right angles through the strm of the boat in order to more accurately cut the rabbet. The less dubbing that the amateur must face after he sets up the boat, the better off he will be. For the same face, or nearly reason so. bevels should be taken off lines that are normal to the hull sur-

Figure 8-6 has been prepared to show how easy it is to draw sections through the stem. The sections should be spaced at intervals close enough so that there is no question about having enough of the plotted points for the rabbet, bearding fines (see Figure 8-5) to ensure a fair line. To save time tions should than be drawn right on the lines profile, for clarity as in Section A-A. separately as was done in Section back rabbet, and and effort, the sec8-6, rather

B-B of Figure




W.L. n


C&SnP @lr -j-HE C.L. OF THE. 5=3-lO~. LAY OFF ON -rwz QERPEwIcuLALJ -WE HALF ~%EAD*!: 3~ me ku~-rERLlrJEr t: WnocrCC cZ$O5<-. EFAMPLE: BUTT. 1 AVOVE-

OF BuTrocK

C.!m. 9,




8-7. !G~lt~~~ 111 1 . 1~ grid for dmwing

stern sections

in p/arc

on /he prqfi[~

First enough draw waterlines waterline lustration place,

a centerline buttocks a fair and section.

is drawn For


to the


of the stem,



to cross

and waterlines a huttork. Then


to give a number of points so a batten can be set up to the centerline for Section A-A intersects two perpendiculars and can TO this centerline in the stem off when be laid are drawn assembly. at the in at the joints (For an ilis drawn are picked

and buttock of how these see Figure

intersections perpendiculars

the section of intersection

8-7.) Next

the half-breadths

at these points

up as in the plan view and laid off on the perpendiculars 10 establish the points for the section to the outside of planking. After the section line has been drawn, the thickness of planking is set off, and bearding line. Instead method profile of making shown by Figure this sets up the points for the them 8-6. rabbet for the rabbet, from the back rabbet, plan drawn and the in the on the

templates by Figure

half-breadth sections

8-5, make

for the more


as illustrated









DE& rT===+











-_ .i-u



Figure 8-8.


4 (~~%ING AFT)

Softwood dowels into called stopwaters are fitted the joints. that they in joints in the backbone of stopwaters wherever to prevent is important crosses water fcr a

from leaking

the hull along it is imperative

The location be placed

full effectiveness:

the rabbet

joint in the backbone. Any durable softwood such as white pine or cedar there are so few of them that they can be whittled out of scrap.

will do, and

Temporary bottomed nent Figure part

molds are not necessary plan Typical 1, but 8-8 and for v- and the construction of v-bottomed that become frames the entire that hull against and arcin of

hulls. l-3 and


the body

is used to make arc-bottomed will bear 8-10.) these sectional


a permathe botis not the

of the structure. l-4 in Chapter

are shown thickness

views do not reveal In many

tom and side pieces the frames. .

are beveled

so the planking Figure

(See A of Figure

cases the bevel








at the sheer hulls.

as it is at the chine. At Section



for more


but this is the nature etc., determines

of boat

The character, of bevel. parallel f-fowever, boat

or curvature,

of the deck line and chine,

the amount approximately bevel needed. and

B-B in Figure 8-8, where the deck line and chine are it can be seen that there is practically no to the centerline, as the deck and chine curve in toward the centerline, forward must be beveled. sections frames like that shown bevels in Figure 8-8. the bevels can in the half-breadth The bevels above are at deck and chine chine

aft of B-B, the frames as indicatedline between have some

For a simple be measured plan and

with straight

the side frame

those for the bottom curve,

at chine

and keel in the profile. and between points as described

cut in a straight If the frames the same, from points Bevels similarly frames

deck and chine the bevels

and keel respectively. are just

at major plan, are chines,

but those for the side frames in the chine when bevel with half-breadth and the later in and bevels

at points

the waterlines between or cut are run for the notches

between the deck and chine are taken. dnd those for the bottom frames at from the buttocks in the profile. off the to and clamps At that time, by planing (and are fitted are taken battens for fairing the frames. this is very important should be thickness

the keel the keel,


in which

the boat more

is set up.


are made

To determine time saving measured previously



in the larger hulls with a good number of frames) the bevels much like the deduction for planking normal to the surface, discussed. This can be done by the method shown in Figure

8-9. The square






Id ,,irrd







.4 ND




\I j I



/ -2% L

Figure 8-9(a)

can be made ten, then the bevels marked

up by the builder should be marked on the actual

and applied right frame material

as shown so that

to measure plan it can

the bevels. to shape

Once gotand with the

on the body

in degrees be sawn

for reference

proper bevel. The bevels should be taken along mal as possible to all the frames crossed.


laid out to be as close to nor-

Bevel Board
Instead yourself bevel read of using a simple and a protractor bevel board mark off angles to measure as shown from a bevel each 8-9(a). time you take Slide one off, make about and the adjustable

in Figure until

Use a piece of plyood

3 I,$ rr wide along it off.

zero to about board

30 degrees.

the left edge of the bevel

it lines up with one of the angles

as When a bevel is marked on a piece of stock t o be sawn, it must be designated either under or standing, marking the piece UB or SB. This is most important, and after you have ruined a few pieces, you will understand the principle.








Fairing which defining otherwise. are

by Computer
hull lines with dealt the shape Earlier to make the aid of a computer of the hull, was mentioned whether in the previous metal, frames Here chapter, or for

with enlarging

to full size the designers it was explained on which on which justifies

scale drawing it be wood, to shape the

of the set of lines fiberglass, and that hulls molds is where fairing plotter at any but the you

of the outside in this chapter a male

that for round-bottomed to build the boat. equally


framework project

v-bottomed by computer 1oc::tion bevels must bevels tion

hulls frames sections complete

are needed through is used,

pays off if your

the expense. either from

A computer-guided or unequally) is avoided, of the hull. to you. Therefore, you understand drawings. as many too many spacing

can draw full-size desired, If lofting order given

the hull (spaced most

with deductions or frames

the outside

by computer bevels from

of the lofting Be certain

in the yard that

for the edges of the molds by the computer along just Theres spacing

will not be available to the section times but better

the computer should

people. be applied that

how the

An explanabevels as you bevels than

will be furnished,

with probably

two or three compurer. hulls

really need. too few! The hulls partitions mold

no stopping

for round-bottomed intervals. the cabin

and the frame the location etc.,

for v-bottomed bulkheads, those in the same place

is usually

at uniform


of joiner



arc not located

as molds or frames. If full-size plied by the computer service, Many of the larger skin or shell plating service material, shell can supply plating. boats

bulkhead drawings are desired, these, too, can be supand once again you should ask for the edge bevels. of welded from steel or aluminum alloy framing, to shape with a from flat For this type of construction which to cut the frames with the deduction the computer of the

are built drawings should

of the same marerial. full-size be ordered

so the drawings

for the thickness


and Transom

molds, the stem, and the transom explained You also need are needed before

As will bc seen later, ment of the transom

the station shape

the boat can be set up. The molds

and the stem have been illustrated.

and the develop-

has been

the bevels on the tran-

som edges. Remember that the developed shape of the transom is to the outside of the planking, and depending upon the type of construction, it may or may not represent the actual size of the finished transom. The simplest method is to let the side planking overlap the transom and to then cut it flush with the after side. In this case the plank thickness is subtracted from the edges of the transom. The best practice, however, is to make the transom to the outside of planking and rabbet the edge thaii f-rr the planking. the outside, except Both methods are shown in Figure 8-10. Figure 8-10A shows that the inside of the transom at the top edge where the shape depends upon boat narrows from amidships to the transom. v-bottomed boat, the edges of the transom must

is larger

the construction Consequently, be beveled

detnirr; because the like the frames of a the planks to lie

to allow







NC BE .E (ILcoeeECT:

RE .ELE3 -i%.ri70K A.



Figure i3-10.

flat. The bevels waterlines profile curate Small doweled planks marine Larger drawing.

are taken


the full-size plan and it should in Figure

lines as shown be remembered it has not been 8-9.

- those for the sides from the from the buttocks in the of that this is not the most acdone normal to the surface

in the half-breadth But once again shown

those for the bottom

way to take the beve!s off, because boat transoms and waterproof can be properly plywood, transoms, are generally glued. The fastened

the hull by the method

of wide boards whose edges are splined or should be sufficiently thick so that the hull can also be made of to the edge. Such transoms

made boards

with cheek pieces around the edges to take the plank fastenings. like that shown in Figure 8-lOC, are made the same thickness as the and have a frame or cheek pieces on the inside edges to take a is usually a vertical member on the centerline, the transom to the keel or horn timber. For the planks Wide are not caulked. transoms If single planked, also have a series of vertical

hull planking

or thicker

share of the p!~k fastenings. There where a wood or metal knee connects sake of appearance, the seams are usually the seams backed

of transom

with battens.

FLAT TeAd5OM ________ I___ L-





i rtiee~s~~





5-rTtM -4







8 ,




Figure 8-l 1. Tyjical




stiffeners outboard engine stringers. Most transoms cold. In transoms wet rags or steamed

of the centerline. do not have enough that so they will bend

These radius

are sometimes to prevent

spaced the planks

to take the ends of from being bent

do not have a lot of radius, to the transom

the planks frame.

can be soaked

with hot,

Keel and Deadwood

There The and are quite a number of keel construction and sometimes for methods, varying with the type of boat, of a particular locality.

the preference 8-12.

of the architect, to say.

with the custom

types most likely Needless

to be encountered

by the amateur are illustrated in Figures 8-l 1 only sound timber should go into the longevity,




dMCI % I lk y*;-+ *g;::; ..qj r BeaLL ~cI%cP L Fe*=- -ctf r- ~. - ~.&z~&LL,, ._-pig=,. -;_ +. - --------&, , ? - 4OPC~~CLL ,)*AFT ,TCV 4 . .-~ -.-_ $ .~~~~.~~~~~_~~=lb~=f -4 -_-_ --.--





c.c- LAP

Lo \ --~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.~ -...-._... t\--~- ~ _. #\ ---A

I(*lec .--k- __-L-.-y+- Eau.C,T <ccl. L

Figure 8-12. A.few qflhc

ccnti .~ailboats.












backbone members, building used,

members. but other the boat

White wood


is the

usual shown

material in Figure

for keel 8-11A



backbone When are the up the As for

can be used the forms

as dictated are notched

by local

practice. is very common. then the bottom twin keelsons fastening made

The flat-bottomed is cross planked

skiff construction upside down,

for the keelson; Sometimes stems

and the keel fitted side instead

on top of the planking. aft. Straight

one on each

of a single rabbeting.

one on the centerline. The side planks to the inner, construction should to make them


keel, cut a slot for the skeg on the centerline of two pieces, inner two. The rabbeted was done templates keel in Figure stem, as shown, then to avoid and the outer

are frequently with sealant

are cut off flush with the between boats.

stem is fastened 8- 11 B is typical 8-5.

for a great be cut a continuous to form


for the stem and then The

in Figure

the rabbet the stations it easier

at each

station fair rabbet


cut away between amateur will find over the molds

the planking. should water. Figure strongly thr frame board

to make

the two-piece between a rabbet, plank be taken the floor and keel.

keel if he fastens the rabbet. There to exclude shown in

the pieces together


first beveling composition

be thick white lead or other such All backbone joints are so treated. sailboats but B-11C. This is all right, If the frames because

the pieces like that to attach timbers

A few of the one-design

use a keel without the garboard

(the one next

to the

keel on each side) is not fastened to the keel. halves must

to the keel, care should butt at the centerline, to the frames

the frames connecting through

be well fastened

In way of the ccnter-

slot in the kzcl. thr bed logs should

be thick to make

for good fastening

rhe keel.

Powerboat The

Keels shown in Figure 8-12A is typical of many modern powerboats. The

keel structure

keel is usually the same thickness throughout and is cut to shape from a template made from the full-size profile. A batten bent into place on top forms a back rabbet for the planking. timber tightness continued Although worthy amateur worked plane. through against piece because mercially add stopwaters The where rabbet is cut the same A bronze shaft as for the little log with The bottom boat in Figure gland B-11B. The horn aft is rabbctcd. the shaft fittrd aft and of mention. to make out and lhe purpose do, and the splines the bolts log is bored a jig must made and than packing is installed for water-

leaves the hull. as formerly,

of the keel may be cut away or of the rudder. log in Figure this is easier 8-12B is for the a plow that to cut swell shaft section: table pine. l.ight. The

with a skeg to support log is shown piece, can

the bottom in the

not scen

as much A two-piece

the wooden because

a log in a single for splines

the shaft

hole in each half can be saw or with It is all right The splines shaft


be cut on a small such as white holes are not cut.

of the splines they are made with with bolts function

is to swell and prevent of softwood so long as the bolt may

leaks in the same manner

just to align

as well as when and length. the hole.

hole in a onefinding that a comand the shaft

an auger

be troublesome The chances

for the inexperienced, are against cut the shank

be devised

auger length

of sufficient by welding

Therefore, of rod.

have someone

the needed

in a piece

It is very important







hole be lined around and stuffing

with box.

a light



or lead are flanged


to exclude



the wood bearing

the hole.

The ends of the tube


the bases of the stern

Fin-keel 8-12C. enough

sailboats up to about even larger steaming 30 feet may have bent have had the keel to shape. the keel being over. of the bolting from between in order frames. to properly fasten is extend the casting through the deadwood, The deadwood bent keels like that shown in Figure a

Indeed to need after

boats to bend down,

this type of construction, Probably down

with keels thick and the fin

the easiest way to build over the molds

boat of this type is upside keel added Attention the fin. The carefully must ballast be given although as called

the hull is turned keel bolts usually sometimes

to the sequence

keel, and floors, shaped

they terminate

for by the lines,

and although

it requires

hard work by hand,

a lot of effort should be put into the deadwood to make it smooth and fair, not only for the sake of appearance but also to offer a minimum of resistance as the boat moves through and can paint the water. The aft edge of the sternpost forward edge of the rudder. swinging is sheathed it hard is gouged While over out to take the rudder side, sheet it is impossible of marine brought growth, around on stock to the rounded be painted the concave the forward to each copper accumulation edge of the rudder

by alternately

edge of the sternpost. for it to be fastened

To prevent with light with tacks.

the after

side of the sternpost enough

the sides just

Large Sailboat
The backbone

in Figure sailboats of the 8-12D same is typical thickness of most from keel sailboats end to end, as shown or combination but varying keel

and centerboard is a thick throughout tical position the heights is drawn plank


of 20 feet on the waterline. for the planking is drawn

The keel in such boats in width The verthen secup than in the section.

the length.

It is rabbeted

of the keel in the hull structure of the keel at the stations the half-widths profile

in on the full-size


it crosses are transferred

to the corresponding spacing is picked

tions in the body plan to obtain on the piece of lumber the full-size the baseline the outline draw along Draw and laid off from the spacing half-breadths keel stock. shape aligns The with outline

of the keel at the stations. spacing up from a batten. along

A centerline

to be used for the keel, the station (the station because the keel is at an angle After

the keel is greater with the base), the keel is sawn

and the to the sure it

of the top of the keel are picked of the keel with a centerline and similarly

the sections

and laid off on the

of the top edge,

on the underside changing ternplated

of the keel, making bevel to which as a guide

the one on top, of the bottom before.

lay off the half-breadths is then

of the keel bottom. to cut the as for cutting,

will give the constantly at each section

sides of the keel. The rabbet mentioned





Gripe and Horn Timber

The gripe gripe fasten tion and is the piece horn horn timber timber clear that connects the keel to the stem, in some types to a stem. the sections to each sections other. The a;rd the horn and plan. rabbet timber connects Both the

the keel or sternpost horizontal

to the transom is taken from

of power

sailboats. Knees plans.

are very similar members

for the comparatively are used to construc-

in the body Much

the various work is made


of the backbone

by construction

on the architects


members are shaped, the investment but prior to fastening them These together, it is

all the backbone that

recommended are inexpensive quid should Through-bolts as shown sequence (Figures being that

they be given two coats of a wood preservative. for their rot preventive

preparations The li-

and well worth


also be poured down the and drift bolts, described plan will go together be driven must are not made have thick

bolt holes before the fastenings are driven. at length in Chapter 6, are made and fitted and the fastenings because must be studied for that properly. fitted It will be seen as you go along they pass through until in and are finally at marine composition bolts in the structure or to collect the bolts in balls later. possibly driven suppliers

on the construction so the assembly 8-12A, C) that

for the boat, at this time and white

some of the bolts cannot bolted together Under

floor timbers All parts so to a start in the joints to wind home. or at and earlier

lead or other and drift before available wicking.

no crevices

are left for water the washers soaked wicking

to seep through of through in paint cotton lamp bolted.

rot the timbers. few turns Very often least

it is advisable

of cotton

this treatment Wicking the parts

will prevent is stringy woven have been

leaks that otherwise


be troublesome mentioned

annoying. after

does not resemble are fitted

the familiar

The stopwaters

Scarphs It is not always bilge stringers, possible clamps, to obtain and pieces of wood long enough sufficient for the keel, deadwood, lengths may be found for



keels more often than for theother parts, even though an extensive search is required. The backbone requires enough work of the builder without his having to splice the keel, long glued, Bolts noted strain. Figure that particularly members the joint are the type shown out in wood be made thickness three to prevent The hooked in Figure by means are often up with types 8-12D. When it cannot joints for good white lead be avoided, called measure. or heavy and the If not paint. be used pieced of through-bolted waterproof-glued the usual permits. commonly slipping plain scarph in use, that it should when from by the other employed under thick scarphs.


these joints should

are staggered all have and

when nibs

of lumber of scarphs one part scarph.

8-13 illustrates The joint shown clamps.

in A is the very common

is extensively

for stringers

B, is sometimes

in backbone







4 ND







A. PLA\h)










~~OUIUIOII scarphs

JOT ,jtuGu,y lorlg

rnCnl hers suck

us ktds,

r.lnnlj!~s, clrld striuprs.

members. Just simply a plain durable made foot. The drawings the timber, experienced keel, scarphs most scarphed wood

as effective, and easier to make, is the key scarph scarph mortised to take a tightly fitted rectangular like white driven oak or black from both locust. In large timbers of about planned length sides at the same with a taper are carefully

shown in C. This is key, preferably of the key is sometimes one-half and inch shown to the on the of If the infor the of

of two wedges

time and cut off flush with the

sides of the timbers.

Such wedges and their A rough

are made fastenings are made boatbuilder


by the architect. while builder suitable should

rule for the scarph to locate a piece should

is six times

the depth

the keys and nibs or a competent for use with

up to one-fourth

of the depth.

not be able

of wood large enough be consulted

the designer

for the layout

the available






A ND 1.1IE R.~lI:KHo:vE


Tenons The mortise-and-tenon perpendicular S-12D joint is sometimes When the case. called The joints upon to lock adjoining the vertical members sternposts when havand the

ing grain blind, parts and

to each other. are typical. way across Whatever white


the keel in Figure are fitted put together

the wood is not too thin, and therefore must parts. the joint be made

the tenon

is made

that is, only part together. with

the pieces,

it is not visible

as snug as possible

lead on the mating











is ready

to set




preparatory to framing the hull. Just as much care and accuracy work of setting up as went into the mold loft work and construction Continued later. hull, much The but merit. attrntion method in general, to detail of setting most at this stage of the game up depends small craft upon are best built the size, type. upside

should go into the of the backbone. in time saved of the that has

will pay dividends down,

and construction a method

Upside Down or Right Side Up?

Although boat hull the majority of boats, excluding small stock boats produced the bottom on a mass basis, in building a planks with the

are constructrd

right side up, it would skiff when

be impractical

to copy this routine

like a flat.bottomcd

it is so easy to fasten

inverted. By the same reasoning, flat-sectioned boats like v- and arc-bottomed boats hulls are also set up and built upside down. The same is true of small lapstrake that are planked over molds. In this case, the fitting of the lapped plank scams is very hulls, on which the much simplified with the hull upside down. Smail. strip-planked planking is started at the keel and worked toward the sheer, are best built right side up, because it is much easier to nail downhand. and if it has been decided to bend the frames of a round-bottomed boat on the inside of the ribbands as mentioned under Molds in Chapter 8, the boat should be built right side up in order to readily bend the frames. Any other method will be too heavy or bulky upright. would be impractical. In other instances the finished hull for the amateur to turn over and should therefore be built




Considering during cover rafters. hand builders somewhat provides

Under Cover
that weather spare means construction from and difficult A building can be a drawback time also permits of overhead is ideal whether site can experience, weather can work bracing be made although bring if it should your to be done of molds to serve the task be cold hull and evenings and windy be built under or rainy under and lights



for boatbuilding,


if possible. convenient an. outdoor have more

backbone smooth. as many

to the roof On the other amateur frame is the

A good solid floor found

or not it is level and


of bracing

work to a halt

for weeks at a time.


Upside Down
upside down, The a grid must following be established and the framework positioned


on top of it accordingly. in Figure 9-1 might

is a description of how the 12.foot skiff shown A centerline is first drawn in on the be set up in such a manner. off are of for

floor, the station spacing laid off along the centerline. and the station lines squared from the centerline. As previously described, the molds for upside down building extended the boat convenient beyond working the sheer above height. to ~II a~ bitrary the highest The molds inverted baseline parailel to the baseline calculated and located point forward of the sheer by an amount of amidships

are set up on the aft side side of the station are applied. If the will be forced Figure centerline them out of 9-2. on the securely

of the station lines, and those aft of amidships on the forward lines. The reason for this system will be obvious when the ribbands molds their floor, and-aft against 8 that molds: and are set on the wrong proper position line to align Fasten be helpful sides of the station the centerline lines, the ribbands as shown the upper due to the shape of the hull,

in the sketch, part and

Use a plumb direction.

of a mold

with the boat

and also rse the plumb fore-and-aft it would it is now that movement.

line or a level to align to the floor cross spalls where care You will remember

of a mold in a forebrace out in Chapter level on all level, the the floor

the molds

with blocks were fitted

that it was pointed

if the mold

at the same

this fact is realized. to bring that them

If the building to the proper should

floor is not perfectly between height. be taken to align

line of the spalls can be used to determine the ends of the molds be emphasized It must the utmost

shims must be fitted

the backbone

and molds properly. ribbands are fitted, will not be the centerline

An extra hour or two spent on this job will be appreciated when frames are bent, and planking is shaped and fastened. The boat on both sides if the setting up is not done accurately. lines, The waterlines and station lines are all straight and as such,


and baseline,

enable the builder to erect the backbone and molds with the use of vertical and horizontal lines just as the designer laid out his lines plan and construction drawings. Shores structure and braces of sufficient The number braces must may be fitted to prevent lumber movement of the in any direction. be of low-quality of any kind.

To continue setting up, drop the keel, with stem, transom, and knee attached, into position over the molds and screw the assembly to blocks on each mold. Secure the

-7 I





Figure 9-1. The typical

shown before

setup,for building a small the installation q/the ribbands.

hull upside


head of the stem to the building som after making sure it is raked

floor with blocks to the correct

to hold it in position. angle and square

Brace the tranthe boat. If


everything has been done accurately, the station lines marked cide with the molds. If not, the frame is not properly alignzd One test of fairness bet, around the sheer. The ribbands If not, is to bend The test and adjust a long batten until batten, should until with its forward test fair when touches the molds the molds. should tried

on the n.eel should coinand must be corrected. end laid in the stem rabanywhere aligned from keel to forcing.

the batten

all the molds without have been

not be installed

to your com-

plete satisfaction.

When probably substantial

boats outdoors, longer than there are many down These arrangements building should that are workable, to the ground but on


the most timbers


for upside the boat.

is to use as a base a pair of be secured on the molds are fastened

both sides of the centerline

and made

level. The cross spalls

to the parallr1 timbers. Crosspieces are fastened between the timbers to take the stem head and the transom braces. For building right side up outdoors, timbers are placed on the ground athwartships at stations and staked solidly against movement. Keel sup-


M~LW~ej LyM

Figure 9-2.






F em
&EL 5 ;, ,

2 c,-Trce \yb /

Figure 9-3.
ports mold are built laterally. up with blocks to the proper height, and shores are used to brace the

(SW Figure



Right Side Up
manner as described that are for building erected upside right down, a centerline narrow The and station keels, like bc posts must

In the same those

lines are drawn

for boats

are to be built

side up. Relatively at each station.

for motorboats,

set on posts

securely nailed IO the floor and braced against movement, as shown in Figures 9-3 and 9-4. The heights of the posts arc- carefully measured from the full-size profile and

Figure 9-4. Cow WO?I jbrms

of ktd





Figure g-5. The backbone q/a Rhodcs.designed ketch. Note the husky blocks under the deadwood, the shores to prevent side movement of the backbone, and the transonl bracing to overhead.

checked turnbuckles Such

with the keel template. set up between prevents the

Quite hull

frequently, being

keels are held down on such posts by floor near each end of the keel. planking is lift the hull Sailboats added raised off the posts when as this action tends to both but only to shore

eye bolts

in the keel and



forced into any place with shores upward and tilt it to one side. Posts are also used in sailboat are often built on their flat keels,

and wedges, construction, with

the stems. and deadwood

the ballast

keel casting

after the hull is planked up. Or the complete backbone may be finished before setting up, as in the auxiliary in Figure 9-5, which shows husky keel blocks being used to preSuch keel blocks must be large enough to take subvent shifting of the structure. stantial fastenings to the floor and to take the considerable weight of a boat of this

After the backbone under and Molds all molds to hold in Chapter have been set up accurately in position. it was pointed and properly Ribbands out that they braced, are long

the ribbands mentioned

are applied

the parts


were briefly

8, where

3, / ,~






Figure 9-6. The tvcur,from the stern qu.arter qf a double-ended auxiliary after.frantes have been bent inside the ribbarldb. Note the excellent bracing qf molds and sternpost. The a~~~emnre of the ribbauds i.r pleasing as well as practical. aud the third and fourth ri0tmnd.v nbozw the keel are correctly spliced. (Rosenfeld)

strips of wood bent the frames made not frames cluttered to shape clear perfectly

around between

the molds the molds.

in order Figure they

to provide

a form



to bend be it is the wood,

The function

of molds pressure

and ribbands is needed hard

should because

by the photograph, scaffolding. it is best that

9-6. which

is a rare treat

up with

As considerable

to clamp

to the ribbands,

be of moderately

and strong

such as fir or yellow size of the ribbands. bent against them,

pine. Boats vary to such an extent that there They must be stiff to retain the hull shape but not so heavy that they are hard to bend

is no general rule for when the frames are and hold in place or

that they force the molds of the hull, the ribbands generally bent

out of alignment. As a safeguard against distorting the shape are applied alternately port and starboard. Ribbands are like 1% n x 1% , and spaced about 10 rr apart, or

on the flat from stock

Figure 9-7. Above: ?irv mm ut right arc fitting riblmndJ prior tojiwmirl.g (1 raciq O?IIO/I of Ihc .sloop, Note n;i>ld brarcjs to thcJ mftcsrs ofthc buildi?zg nlld the strongbd (Roscw/dd). Below. Figure 9-8. Thh nlold cross s/~uIls on t bra cent c~rliw q f the hr. molds aw stackrd h nlold i.s /wing sat up cind rclwfilllv chrckcd itlig nl(rlt. 0th ,fk thr backgrou~ld.







Figure 9-9. A v-bottomed hull completeiy set up with snwn~fram~ and ready for double-dia~gonul planking. (Courtesy of Hz&ins Yacht Corp.) -



UP about a foot apart. out the stock in ribband framed; A sample should hull definitely be tried around the

1% x 2 spaced molds The 9-6 and before differences


for all the ribbands. various types can be seen in Figures heavy cruising sloop. auxiliary that A comparison sloop will otherfor a moderately

sizes between

9-7. Figure been

9-6 shows the hull Figure

has already of the ribband

9-7 shows the setup in the two pictures should

for a racing indicates

sizes for the boats light frames.

that the racing lengths

have relatively wise they should eliminate unfair spots,

The ribbands

be in single

if possible,

be spliced as shown in Figures 9-3 and 9-6. This type of splice tends to flat spots in the ribbands, but as a further precaution against hard should be located where bends in the ribbands toward securing are easiest. Put them on by to each to the ribbands the ribbands and close spacing first and, washers will contribute toward The their heads. a fair boat.

the splices ribbands

Husky fastening

the middle easily

working under

the ends,

mold with screws having be removed

Screws will permit

top ribbands should go on first. fitted parallel to the sheer and a few inches above it. The rest of them should be run in fair lines similar to strakes of planking and as illustrated in Figure 9-6. The ribbands are spaced frames closer where the frames flat. will be bent to the sharpest curves than where the will be fairly

as the planking

is fitted.

Careful mold loft work and setting up will make running ribbands an easy job and will eliminate the task of trimming and shimming molds to get the ribbands co touch all molds bands, Running dition the shape and still remain of the ribbands is the cause fair. If considerable to see if it touches of excited anticipation trouble is encountered while bent fairing the ribit will pay to check the ribbands usually the sections by bending framing a batten is started, on the part into position like a frame

on the inside

all of them

in a fair curve. for now

is the last job before

and the hull in this conof the builder,

of the hull may be appreciated.

V-Bottomed It should

Hulls be understood without mention that hulls other Than the round-bottomed

type must be set up, aligned, and made rigid with the same care. There is no point in doing an accurate job of laying down and mold making unless the setting up and the following work follow the same standard.














longitudinal. such frames wooden hulls sawn hulls is

Transverse framing is the most common and being have become known as ribs. Transverse frames are either pieces from usually bent from one piece, as in Figures sawn from although bent on top of each other, boards have and made the bent such frames frames, natural

oriented athwartships. for round-bottomed l-5, crooks where laminated of wood, Small material

l-4 and

from two or more or double to moderate for bent

up of two layers

with staggered in places the frames



non-existent, 10-l.) Sawn

as islands to both

in the Bahamas, and

are sawn from crooks or douof crooks. and bent (See Figure l-3 for frames hulls are shown in Figures

ble sawn according

the size of the boat

and the supply

for v-bottomed and builders framing farther


and l-4. Some designers their v-bottomed hulls. For the longitudinal the quite hull, but are longitudinals spaced

use a combination in general, than

of sawn

system apart

transverse framing


are used to shape Fore-and-aft can get boats of welded for the size of frames. Before be should This system

in the transverse strength.


are used to build for construction

up the necessary in wood,


but is well suited

for metal suitable

construction. In this book discussion craft certain likely to be built a craft before starting undertaking

is limited kinds

to the two types of framing bent of more frames complex framing,

by the amateurwith other that he is aware

and sawn v-bottom

the builder

of what

is involved.

V-Bottom The lofting

Frames and construction to Figures l-3 and of frames l-4 and for a v-bottomed the explanation boat should be understood 8. The frames if are 117

you refer

in Chapter



-(A&XT 50%


Figure 10-l. Sawn and double-sawer round-bottomed are not easy fir the amateur lo construct. .
made bear from the full-size The sections and must be beveled


on the edges so the planking in preceding




of picking

up bevels

is explained


Bent Frames
The peace dispel small bending of mind this fear. boat having of frames for a round-bottomed the construction it is recommended in order to gain boat seems of such that experience to disturb a hull, start the amateurs should with a fairly the mental

as he contemplates For this reason, light frames

but a trial

the novice

and overcome

block that is the principal obstacle to frame bending. We all know that any piece of dry wood may be picked from the lumber pile and sprung to a curve of large radius, but for bending the tight curves found in frames, the wood must be both wet and hot. The material most commonly used for bent frames in the United States is white oak, because abroad. that heats quired The achieved of its durability Although and strength, agencies wood, heat while elm is used that extensively properly, in Canada and responsible is suitable needs should a plank only use unseasoned and stock have proven because oak with a moisture free from surface content checks, re-

as low as 12 percent the amateur rapidly, frame

for bending to bend

if handled rather than

it is recommended of moisture

it is usually

the addition and

by dry wood. be as straight-grained with the grain and then as possible sawing this is sometimes parallel to by splitting out the frames

the split edges. The stock should be about a foot or so longer than the finished length of the frame. It is best to bend the framing stock on the flat of the grain (Figures 6-3 and when boats when Then turned lo-2), plank for not only will it bend fastenings of theory, to bend are driven a frame dimension the frame, crossways size such easier this way but it is then strength great. the woods tendency Speciftcations However, to split for some from the through minimized.

call for a flat frame its athwartships it is just as strong on its other edge

as 1 R x 1% rr bent

on the flat.

standpoint be impossible

is a transverse is relatively

member and thus does its job best If this were carried too far it would is to make the frame square. it may be quickly first attempted.

so a good compromise as it is fore and bend

aft and in practice in the direction

if it does not readily

/ I

, 4)






10-2. Frames


be bent

on the J2at o/ the



You may have seen the steam box at a local boatyard in action. However, the source of steam does not have to be elaborate when only one boat is to be built. It may be generated rigged of water the water necessary, possible in an old hot water must be ample boiler from a house, a large kettle, piped to work. or any similar Watch device for if so a wood fire may be built goes fast. box is wooden. large enough the garboard made and as steam tight as possible frames and planks by caulking some room will need with cotton to spare. to bend and that for a half dozen It is under it and the steam of time you plan to the box. The supply this point,

for the period

The steam

one or two other


them in place, so make the box large enough for this job. There must be a door at one end, opposite to the end with the steam supply pipe, and the cracks are packed with rags to prevent steam from leaking out. Needless to say, the box should be located close to the boat, because bending calls for fast work before the frames become too cool. Handle the frames with cot ton work gloves. A rough rule for steaming is one hour A few trials will have to be made to get the hang of it. per inch of frame thickness. Light length end. unduly steaming improvised frames are sometimes made supple in boiling water by placing under there is little the steam. them danger them may Typical be in a of out, of pipe set at an angle This scheme drying works the frames. with the ground, should with a fire built in the pipe, the pipes lower

well because, Strings are shown

with water be stuffed

be tied to the frames 10-3. Others

for pulling

and the upper

end of the pipe should

with rags to retain


in Figure

on the same order

by the builder.

Frames frames should

the Frames
may either for your be bent to shape in the boat heavy agains: the ribbands method, or bent shapely, plan, on forms the this system first mark

and then fitted

to the boat cold. The former boat are relatively Guided by the frame

is by far the easier layout

and unless

or the hull is extremely on the construction

be followed.

the frame positions on all the ribbands and at the keel, marking both edges with a thin batten the same width as a frame and making sure the marks are made at right angles




. .j ,:

,.,:... ,: .,.. ..


Figure 10-3. Steaming


to the centerline.





the bends progresses Take

are likely to be easy. This toward the ends where box

allows your experience sharp bends are likely The Then frame bend actual start bending and as rapidly

to accumulate as the work to be encountered. procedure by pulling against and goes as follows. inboard cut the heel of the frame the ribbands it then

a frame

out of the steam

as possible

to fit the keel and nail of the frame inboard,

it in place. the will

the bending against enough, A gadget

on the head with hands

as you progresthe frame

sively force the frame to lie flat more than

or feet, all the while twisting the head and forced into position

the ribbands. like that shown

By pulling can be flattened in Figure

against to aid in 1s you on the it to You

the ribbands.


may be employed to the ribbands

twisting in the bevel If plenty of hands bend it, otherwise

should it be troublesome. are available, the frame it at the topmost

can be clamped



give it a downward


head to make sure that it touches all the ribbands, and then temporarily toenail the ribbands so that your clamps will be ready for further duty on the next frame. will soon moved third tends learn that the bending box. must from the steam If possible, the boat be done quickly two men should

once the frame has been rework on the bending while a in one piece from sheer to

the box. When

is designed

with frames

sheer, there must absolutely be two men bending, one on a side, each working from the keel toward the sheer, in order that the frame can be completely bent before it cools. In many in full-bowed sketch angles against frames ender . in a short boats all the frames and those Because S-12 are often may be bent along the horn troublesome as described timber above. However, of twisting from These bending the frames in hulls like in a bevel at right cant hulls length. aft of the waterline to depart to allow is true keel to sheer.

D of Figure

due to the necessity

of this,

it is permissible bow and from The same forward

to the centerline the planking and are shown

in the extreme so they slope in Figure lo-4B.

the frames of stern

to lie naturally are called in a double-



as the type of stern in Figure and hollows are to be avoided. 8-12D is called, should be In the interest of fair lines,

Framing the counter stern, done very carefully if bumps







Figure 10-4.

the frames later, inner frames The straightened stringers

for such sterns frame to the proper and clamps

dre either


over a mold outside

of the boat,

as described

or oversized edge is finally are similar

stock is overbent on the ribbands. after which it is removed, the ribbands. The curve, and then beveled to lie against to correspond later to that on the outside These frame of the frame cold-fitted, by padding in Figure so that beveled 10-l. the ribwill fit properly.


to be installed first bent into

in cross-section

to the double-sawn the frame




is accomplished

bands with short lengths of wood in way of the frame location. Curvature out of a frame after it has cooled and set, but none may be added. If the use of cold-fitted similar quired to Figure lo-5A for the forms, bend frames cannot be avoided, the frames. you must make over which to bend

can be taken

one or two forms rethe ribbands

To get an idea of the curves

a piece of soft iron

rod or lead wire against

and use it as a guide to build a form. The frames must always be bent to more curve than necessary, and the form can be padded to vary the shape. When ready to bend, the end of the frame is slipped under the pipe shown in the figure and wedged; then Leave the frames on the form at least overthe bending is done with a steady pressure. night so they will cool and set properly and not lose too much shape when removed.




Figure When 10-5. thrre is too much


Figure lo-6 on a bench on thr form by bending

thr frames can be straightened with a device like of the shop building. Reverse curves can be made at a time, allowing the first bend to set weil, and then nailing braces across the curve to hold the shape while the reverse is being bent. Due to tensile stress, the outer fibers of a frame will tend to split when the curve is or a corner one curve found long ago that but someone is a very successful way to combat of the simple when bending similar to that need the turn scheme a metal strap bent along the outside of the this breakage. The strap shown in Figure and is very handy. The tendency to split

sharp, frame

10 5~ is typical is also present curves, a strap CaSes the strap such as around


sharp curves against ribbands. If you find some bad illustrated may be devised to do the same job. In most somewhat more than the length After of the hard bend, of a motorboat. some practice you will be

only extend

of the bilge

able to judge which bends may Rive trouble, counter of boats like Figure 8-12D, in which

like those in the S frames forward of the case the frame stock may be split with a






fine saw cut as shown of fact this is easier ribbands. possible. When use. If splitting

in Figure than using

10-6 to permit a strap when

the bend the frames

to be made are bent


As a matter the

in the hull inside

the frames is resorted

are bent outside of the ribbands, a strap is not difficult to to, the frame should be fastened in way of the cut as soon as

Floor Timbers
One of the most These important members of the hull material, Without along placed floors, frame is the so-called would floor or floor connection on probbe imposed

timber. between

pieces of f!at-grained and backbone. and their Floors planks tight.


oak, are the strength severe strains and

the frames

the garboard ably not remain each frame

fastenings are generally

the rabbet.

the hull would

is securely


to the backbone,

alongside every frame but there are certain

to ensure that exceptions to

this rule. You will see plans for some powerboats and light centerboard sailboats with floors located at only every other frame, but in the interest of safety, most boats of the cruiser type, whether sail or power, do not omit any of them. Floors are set on edge on top of the backbone structure and drift or through-bolted to frames are either bolts to it, depending upon their location in the boat. Fastenings or copper backbone ly visible bolting rivets. permits, in Figures of frames be noted There are always two bolts practice through to the keel where or four fastenings the width of the on and good calls for three to the frame

each side. Floors are shnwn

in Figures l-3. 1-4, 1-5, 6-1, 8-8, and 8-12D and areclearwell illustrates the b- ! 1, 9-5, 9-8 and 10-8. The latter picture in Figure 9-8 that floors have already been fitted to the pracwith

to tl-,e floors.

It should

backbone, although the boat has not yet been framed. This method is common but would be recommended to the amateur tice for the professional builder, reluctance, point. each bolted With frame, because and this system, the mold loft work involved might try his patience each floor must be preshaped from a full-size must be cut on three edges before hulls, floors must also be preshaped, the shape is obtained hulls. on the plans hulls most and is usually of the floors simultaneously to make, are not so many of them

to the breaking section drawn at the floor can be being an essenwith that so the lofting of is

in position.

correct bevels In v-bottomed However, and

tial part of each frame. each frame being built, not as much The of a chore in v-bottomed thickness


as it is with bent-frame be as specified In bent-frame boats.

of floors should

the same as are the same

the frames

thickness or shghtly less than the thickness of the frame. Those under the mast steps and engine beds in both type boats are made heavier to take the extra strains found in those areas and to accept the fastenings that run through the adjoining parts at these the keel casting and points. Floors in way of ballast keels arc Jored for bolts through of the bolts. are of a siding equal to the ordinary flour: nlus the diameter , that floors be carefully fitted. Like all joints in a well-built boat., it is impt.,--ltive They ends are made of the boat to have full contact the floors with the frames, and where the frames twist in the A-A in are beveled off to fit tightly as shown in Section


BAT7-d (OR USE RlBbV%?)






The beveling

and .fastening

of floors

are important.

Figure ships, placed

10-7. Due to the hull curving the twist from in the frames amidships or another on the forward

in toward

the centerline the ends; of amidships

forward consequently

and aft of amidthe floors are

will bc toward

side of the frames to the stern. at the option


and on the aft side of otherwise

the frames

An occasional of the designer.

floor may be located

for one reason

The bottom edge of a floor is beveled fessionals prefer to notch them a half movement of the parts when installation the hull edges of floors before (Figure

to fit the member it rests upon, and many proinch or so over the keel to aid in preventing is stressed. Limber holes are cut on the bottom or bilge water will drain to the 10~7A) so rain

low point of the bilge for removal by pumping. beveled so the planking will bear against them. band in the vicinity, the same purpose. or a short batten

The outboard edges of the floors are This bevel may be obtained from a ribaround the adjacent frames for

may be sprung

Although hull planks because


stringers planked, on the and they or not inside clamps may of the may not be fastened part is decked. They in place of the and the before clatnps hull the are con-

fore-and-aft they on

is all or partially edge fitted

be considered frames.



arc used whether

the boat

Stringers strengthen

siderahly and to be most effective they should fit snugly They a .e made of hard pine or Douglas fir and sometimes jectionable. other about shown than To save weight the smallest the width and make are installation of the boat. in Figure easier, from hulls, tapered in width

and be carefully oak where weight the clamps a maximum and clamps

fastened. is not obin to to

and stringers, amidships


at the ends of the workboat


are clearly as described

in the photograph

10-8. If material

is not available

install these pieces in single in Chapter 8 and as shown

lengths, they may be pieced in Figure 8-13.

out with scarphs



Figure 10-8. (Roscwfihi)

T1zi.r photo~gru#


why bent jLarnes nw often



Bilgr stringers powerboats v-bottomed run aground there boats

are used in all round-bottomed may because be severai :rn each side of the clrne. Stringers

boats except of the hull. give valuable

the smallest They support

ones, and in found in

are not

if a boat should tightly together. wood screws, exand lower infor as for as closely in place

and lay over on her side. There

is usually

one stringer

on each side made

_ up of one or more The bilge stringer cept bored board possible and fastening. and plugged corners

strakes, and when multiple, the strakes are wedged is fastened to each frame with staggered flat-head where bolts are used. In some boais and where they will be visible are sometimes builders. The on the drawings, thickness in quarters, chamfered stringers

in heavy construction,

the screws are counterthe upper be located or shored on a machine

of the stringers by professional shown

or beaded

appearance depending

should sprung

to the position upon

run as far fore and

aft as is practical,

the relative

of the piece,











The Figure

sheer clamp is located on the inside of the frames as shown in Figure 10-9. r;atl 4 a:~n to show :hat in decked boats the upper edge of !O- !(! has been espe-.-..y ,r is set down of the deck beams. This means installing interfering that the from the sheer line a distance equal to the thickness of decking It is important to keep this point in mind or else the height. clamps, with The clamps should the bolts are bolted go ahead have would to the frames to extend for maxiplank the if the amateur the plank and completely through

the clamp sheerline mum the hull planking,

plus the depth strength. before

will not be at the right

fastenings. I am a little ahead of myself, There are two ways of gerting around this, although One way is to fasten the upper two since planking will be discussed in the next chapter. planks and in place temporarily and until fastened to adjacent planking for good. frames, is completed. After the molds are taken out of the hull, then heights from the two planks replaced the molds are taken off to enable the fitting and bolting of the clamps


The other method is to transfer the sheer then cut away enough of the molds to in-






Figure sheer.





the top edge of the clamp

is placed

below the




t..iGEk5 ObEQ

hOTbtE_7 8 =L~OZZ%






\ -4%



ii. J



11 ,i..~il~_ii~~,l.-~i~~

~~ml~e_IT;~m ~~~s~.~~~~~~r~~~1;

z iI:::-T~~3?.. _ _--._ ll-~$g!===-~----- -. - -~~:~~~-l~~~_a_-al


~~.~2z:~~~~71~_ -7, . se: e0.rr .~ -YY J ~~~~~~~I:~~~~~~ai~~~~.

_._------<G&E E\GUE

Figure 10-11. Engine


and beds in a powerboat




Figure 10-12. Auxiliary



bed installation.

stall the clamps during this work. rebuilding.




uppermost cannot Except (Figure the transom


hold the frames

in position some faces are

The molds,

of course,

be used for another

boat without

The clamps

are run from

to the stem and the outside in straight-sided boats, 10-10). Like the bilge or beaded for looks.

planed to fit snugly against the frames. necessary if the clamp has much depth lower inside corners are sometimes

this is always stringers, the


Clamps in v-bottomed hulls are installed and fastened when the frames are set up, and with the chines, are used to hold the frames in alignment. Because of the depth of v-bottom frames, the clamps are more often screwed than bolted.

Engine Stringers
In order vibration, to distribute engine the weight of the engine, and also to aid in elimination de+ed motorboats. of hull


are found

in all properly


of oak, but more often of such woods as fir or yellow pine, the stringers are run as far fore and aft as possible. To accomplish this, they are occasionally pulled toward the centerline board straight desirable the joints bolted frames. drawings forward to permit This applies them to extend stringers further and still be securely boat for twin-engine They fastened and on top of the floors. stringers tions are usually to both craft. in a single-engine stringers to the ininstallaare run It is

in a twin-rngine

The outboard members

too far out to catch

the floors and are set on the frames. due to the curving lengths, but if necessary fastenings. frames, shaft side,

and cannot being

be as long as the inner in single to avoid conflicting

hull shape.

to have the stringers planned are notched Outboard

they may be scarphed, and through or drift to the the being

The stringers

/R to % n over the floors and U stringers not resting equally centerline spaced of the propeller

to the floors. (Sep Figure and

on floors are through-bolted to each the distance

10-l 1.) The stringers

is laid out from

the engine

figured from the horizontal bolts, with allowances made

center-to-center for the thickness

distance of the engine holding-down of the engine bed material.





the engine beds are bolted to the engine stringers, Figure 10-11, and

In motorboats

may or may not be notched engine thrust to the stringers, the engine stringers, (See Figure sulted centerline Anywhere hardwood is fitted in an auxiliary 10-12.) of the from

over the floors. If enough notches are not necessary.

bolts are used to transfer the The present custom of having itself to the installation boited must of to them. be conto the beds. of

as far aft as possible the installation position in order between is aligned

does not lend diagram to determine

and in this case the beds are notched In all boats the vertical propeller shaft

over the floors and drift for the engine the top shaft,

to determine

of the bottom

of the bolt lugs in relation edge of the

V4to 14 is allowed the engine that

the lugs and the beds for the insertion with the propeller unless

shims when with mounts

the engine

have a vertical






a hull

is often

the most aspects and



of boatbuilding seams,

for the amateur has trouble the expert and while

and laying does

always one of the simplest out the width not learn seem teaching. The of the planks it much stumbling to give

for the professional. the run of the planking due

The beginner experience because in words.


to accumulated is understandable, the subject

first-hand sug-

of an amateur

it is not easy to It is strongly


from a book or even

to explain

gested that he study the planking Through the ages a good many

on boats in yards, especially of the type he will build. methods of planking have been devised, but only the and for appearance and swelling, should tight. they should be nicely ap-

most common ones will be discussed here. The individual planks are called strakes, proportioned, tion. Seams pearance, will become shaped open especially unsightly and shut a little

so the lines of the seams are pleasing due to shrinking the strakes to keep on the topsides,

to the eye from every direcand for well-kept not be too wide or the seams

as well as difficult

Carve1 Planking
It will be well to discuss most common, and smooth planking is said at first (Figure about tight carve1 11-l). planking as this method is the


of what

a round-bottomed on the outside bevel on the on the be

boat will apply also to other methods. Carve1 planking is made with the seams to receive seams outside

on the inside

and open The



which (Figure

makes 11 -lA)

the planking and should The thickness.

watertight. be made planking

is called is about


so the opening material

x6 per inch

of plank




de. Ihe edge ma, be 5w3=, 3 the nc,e 3- *ne 3--er

Figure 1 l-l.
ordered and 1 I -1B). somewhat thicker than planking


planking. dimension than to allow for planing on sharp turns (Figure !/Afor finishing, will determine to build, as choose

the specified

finished more


also for hollowing may require having more.

the inside

face of planks

Most of the hull Figure a boat

will not need

an extra

but that on the turns the amount, his first boat,

A straightedge that is less than

held on a frame r& thick.

1 l- 1C. It is not recommended planking

that an amateur

Butts in Planking
Some small boats can be planked with full-length strakes. but inasmuch as the usual of two feet, From the be laid Rather a

available lengths of planking material are from 12 to 20 feet in intervals the strakes will ordinarily consist of two or three pieces hutted end-to-end. standpoint out before than rough of strength, the location taking the butts of butts is important, of the boat, and a plan the work is started, as a guide. a satisfactory way of laying space three without and out the butts, without frame three spaces and into consideration the material it is much

should at hand.

try to visualize diagram 11-2 shows strakes block

on the frame


to make that and Butts

Figure adjacent are made mahogany blocks snugly drain

you will note between, them.

no two of them should should midway

be in the same frame not have butts a pair as the frame and might requires should shorter lead, of frames,

strakes between

between as thick

the joint wider than the frames, their

being backed by an oak or the strake of planking. Butt planed on the outside corners Using used chamfered a butt for the normal marine to fit to block

should against water

be sawn that the

to length

to fit between have be trapped

the planking, otherwise frame

outboard than those

on top of the block.

thinner than planking. Set the butt sealers,

fastenings find


in white

if you can

it, or one of the modern 11-2.

but dont

clog the drains


in Figure





ComerS TIT dnr wa-2r

- FF?A WE-5 i ? * I + + , I i I : L iI

--~----- ~~ t P-F-T=

+ ,


2= PLAti!vi.hiG 3dT-r5
for thm5 diagram)

Figure 1 l-2.


sco e ne~esor\l


carve1 planking strake first, a simple 7. The then round-bottomed normal planking and boat like the 12.footer for the amateur broad strakes, one plank used is

Let us consider to illustrate to fashion and strake under

loft work in Chapter the sheer planking about

sequence to then

the garboard. of the bilge,

the two adjoining with the shutter,

the bottom coming

to the turn midway


the sheer strake

and one on the bottom,

as the last plank

is called.

Figure 1 l-l.) fairly straight, The widths

b-+- -12 n the bottom planking and the sheer. (See Because it is difficult to clamp the shutter, it should be a plank that is without twist, and . hat does not require steaming. is the tot:J the turn number The of strakes garboard to be used, will determined by the and the at the longest toward frame. be the widest, strakes

first consideration amidships

widths will decrease

of the bilge,

with the topside

the narrowest the rest of the you: in-

and all about the s&me width. The sheer strake can be a little wider than topside planks because of the rub rail often used. As to exactly how wide to make the planks on a given boat, spection of other boats can help. The following is offered as a general tion: 6 to 8 for the garboard, diminishing to 4th * for the topsides the sheer for good Naturally, boat are pearance, Bend strake. These sizes are not hard and fast, but it should appearance,

this is where

guide to proporand 5 to 6 for that

be remembered

the topside strakes should not be over 4 th m wide amidships. these widths apply only at amidships, as the frame girths at the snds of the less, and the planks must taper in width toward the ends. Again for apthe taper a thin batten should around be uniform. the midship frame, mark the length from the keel rab-

PLANKING bet to the sheer, sheer for tapered pearance strake the purpose a little and lay out the plank frame and and widths. run and edge the Then lay off the width batten plank. must The be fair. desired plank When

133 for the be ap-

on the midship of obtaining at the bow

a full-length of the batten


the frames should the

the bottom stern mark

of the line is satisfactory, and remove is the sheerline,

the edge of the plank Of course, the thickness and must

at the boats ends and that the top edge if any, must be

on all the frames, of the plank deducted. With must the shape

the batten. from which strake

it is understood of the decking, marked into

of the sheer to a plank

determined This (springing

out on the frames, accurately, place). so the plank The procedure


be transferred

for cutting.

be done

will fit properly for doing


cdgesetting as spiling.


this is known

The shape is obtained longer Several batten for its entire than with the aid of a spiting strakc, should be on hand, to the franles; to be made. edge. from batten, because make edgewise. This which is a piece of softwood

somewhat thickness. use. The frames a little sprung

any individual or tacked


4 to 6 wide, sure

such battens is clamped width

and Y/1,, less in or they will be mutilated with it lies flat against edge should that whole the be Its upper

and that it is not sprung to the plank made

below the top edge of the plank will be parallel and batten is to place between lie more on edge. the plank

does not mean

the edge been idea of the d[p

of the batten the spiling accuracy batten

If it is. the batten to he made and

has probably

the spiling

will not fit. The

it like the plank a batten

so determine

,~;VIJI~CPin shape should

the edge of the batten than a couple of inches

and thr edge of the plank. with a curved from pencil edge should marks. the plank compass

For greater if the

on hulls with a lot of sheer,

be made

To USC the spiling batten, a gap about 4.1 more than plank marks on the frames. point 11-S.) frame lettrrcd on the batten Repeat numbers circle and square at every frame

take your carpenters

and set the legs with and the make a with or on.

the greatest space between the edge of the batten With one leg of the compass on the plank mark, down from the line of the top edge of the plank. and at the ends confused of the plank, with points labeling plank for other all points for the particular

(See Figure

the points planks later


with a numbered

so they will not become

Do not change the opening of the compass while spiling the plank. Mark cuts across the batten for the butt, the stern ending, or the stem rabbet, as the case may be. Now take the batten l l-3B). Before the points then tack off the boat Still making and lay it on the board the compass on a point test with marks, that is to be used for the plank reverse the procedure, mark and in order points and on the (Figure this time, board. until width: not changing any actual against opening,

with one leg of the compass

on the batten, the compass as possible

shift the batten to not waste

will be as close to the edge of the plank the batten movement.

Mark all the points and the endings of the plank. Remove the spiling batten and run a fairing batten through all the points and draw the edge of the plank with a pencil. Do not worry if the shape of the line is peculiar. If the spiling has been done correctly,




tiotc opcnsnq of compllss me same durvnq +ransfcras

to 17

i .L



t3oordin Denbf .-I:;, c * \ I

wmdhen sP~h?q
S,& e&cd

mm .

Figure 1 l-3.

the plank

will fit in place




the frames.

Now at each


on the

boat, pick off the width of the sheer strake that and marked on the frames. At the corresponding the plank the plank. the deck, widths then and run a batten saw out the plank. through them If the boat is decked,

was previously laid out with a batten frame marks on the board, lay out to draw a line for the lower edge of edge for the crown of on the upper

allow a little extra

Plane the upper edge for the crown and the lower edge square and clamp the plank in place. Unless there is something obviously wrong it can be used as a pattern for the same plank scarring plank that from rdge. on the othrr Incidentally. pressure side of thr boat. always After that, it can be fastened for caulking, the plank in place. Bear so in tnind the butt end of a plank will not occur. has to have outgauge just as with a and a clamp

use a block of wood between

Garboard The fitted

Strake plank is likely to be the most will scrm is determined troublesome plank of all, but once sets this strake it is apart

garboard in place

the remainder

all the easier

to fit. What

from the rest is that its shape rolr as a starting edge from which wider

by the contour

of the rabbet

and also by its fair upper might be the plank is

point for the rest of the planking. In order to have a nice, to start the tapering of the remaining planks, the garboard end than at amidships. This is net unusual, because and if it were to be tapered dip down. This is the general form.

at its forward

twisted into place at its forward end, than amidships the upper edge might application depends entirely To get out the garboard. a spiting scribed previously, with the exception close to being an actual pattern

narrower forward rule, although its

on the hull

is taken for the lower edge by the method dethat the spiting batten should be cut so that it is This is especially true at the stem, where

for the plank.

the end of the garboard will be well rounded to fit in the rabbet. The spiling marks must be close together where the curve is pronounced, and they are made plumb vertical from the rabaet. When transferring the spiting to the board for the plank, draw an

PLANKING arc with the compass (Figure 1 l-3C) instead ofjust plank, run a batten so it is tangent to the arcs. Lay out the width bottom board. such should little placed less than and plane receive The take be fairly The that width of the garboard edge of the sheer strake, at the ends curvature or there As stated when strakes. forward any excessive straight run a batten of the garboard is removed. being a point, frame and to draw and,


the edge of the

at the midship and so that

like you did for the strakes should be will

on the frames

for the top edge of the garof the strakes

the two broad the remainder This curve

they are flat before before,

bent. upward

straightening, at the forward the batten

however, ends of you have

not be overdone. wider)

will be too much but skiff, the

the remaining

the garboard pleasing the width

will probably in appearance at the transom

be as wide (or a from wherever will be a little the batten, square, and to it is

as it is amidships,

test is to sight

and see that the line it makes at amidships. a spiting against As before, the rabbet

is fair and

you look at it. In the case of the 12.foot mark of the edge. Saw out

the edge on all the frames, the plank, a little plane


the top edge

the edge caulking. forward

so it is open will probably

on the outside

for the seam

end of the garboard

need steaming

to get it in place;

possible that this will be the only plank on the boat that will need such treatment. While the plank is steaming, assemble at hand plenty of clamps, wedges, and material for shores and clamp to the floor. When ready, fit the forward bend with shores end of the plank in the rabbet first it, then as quickly flat against as possible the plank in place while it is still limber. a little short,

Gttt the plank

the frames

to the floor.

Cut a shore

toe nail it to the floor, and drive a wedge between the top of the shore and the plank. If the bottom edge does not tic properly in the rabhet. clamp a piece of oak to the frames above crushed. lucky, the plank Fasten and drive a wedge wedges directly in place when ateaming against against a block on the plank edge there to move is nothing If you are for in a even cost you it sideways. Never drive the edge of a plank, and or the edge will be

the plank more

if it fits satisfactorily. it can be removed for replacement.

If it doesnt,

to do except normal boat some wasted

to let it cool,

the fit corrected. it may

it will not need

Dont be discouraged,

the garboard is the most difficult material before you produce one

plank to fit, and that is right.

Broad Strakes
The spiting next plank to go on is the one above of the edge edge, and that you have to decide easy to make. plank on your edge and frames, midship Start the garboard, called the first broad, Before running so the remaining by counting and at every and a batten planks beor so At and at when a

is taken

will lie against

the garboard. the plank is done batten, between

for the upper wit1 be straight tween frame, board of strakes and

how to taper by tapering This layout

it in proportion

to the space third

the garboard shown called

the sheer strake. planking dividing

the number

the spiting

the distance

the top edge of the garnumber will want of strakes. to be wider Now run the batten appearance

the bottom

of the sheer strake of the first broad

by the planned on the frames. the plank

this time mark the forward

only the width

look at the line from

all directions. to straighten

It may be that

end in order

it or give it a more




PLANKING E%cample: A~ume Greakst Least

6straKe5 remaining. girth divided b\/&3= 4k 'I @w 3" 15 04 lr/?= 12 eighths



Divide space between girth nvlrKs on scale batten into IZqual part5

Scak applied to any frame will give

plank width at that frame.

Figure 1 I-4.

viewed satisfies.

from mark


If so, make remove

it a little the batten,


but dont


it. When

the line and saw

the frames,

take a spiting

for the top edge,

and plane the plank to shape. system so that when the turn tween there and the sheer

The next two or three planks are lined out with the same of the bilge is reached, the remainder of the planks bemay ail be of uniform width and taper.


Width Scale for Remaining

The planks between

planks and the sheer strake may be lined

the last of the bottom

out by dividing the unpianked girth at each spiting frame into equal spaces. However, the work can be made easier if you use a planking scale made with a batten about /R x U I . Mark I,!!ddie of on the batten the boat, divide with the greatest and also the girth girth space still to be planked, space, by the number the which it will be near may be. the shortest distance and, wherever Then

aritilmeticaiiy Do the same responding between between

the greatest the shortest marks

of strakes

still to go on. the corare S. of

Let us say the answer mark 3 and

is 4 I,$ ; therefore

call the corresponding assuming

mark on the scale 4!$ . answer is 3, call the space of an inch there

on the scale 3 . Now find the number on the scale, 12 equal spaces 12 in this case. and label when at that 41$$ into

of eighths Divide them

the two girth 11-4.) takes note

on the scale girth

so each one represents to the unpianked

(See Figure any frame, It only along and

You will see that time

the scale, to make on as many

applied frame.

will give the width a few minutes the plank

of the strake

a planking


and with it you can go as you like for reference


of the frames



when tens, coming

making although

the remainder each plank

of the strakes. must be spiled. again. it is best to run once


now on, it is unnecessary if you find to straighten an interference planks for words, make a mate In other that things

to run batare not then out and

However, a batten

the seams

out as they should, the remaining ribbands than

redivide The boat


are only removed becoming As you on opposite other.

as they become distorted, fit a plank,

to making

a plank. side,

To keep the hull from on the that remembering for instance, pared

do not put more opposite.

on one side of the the opposite and may due to hollowing, be com-

the pl.anks are not truly

the planks of shoes.

sides are not exact


to a pair

Hollowing bottom.

and Rounding
of planks, Figure 1 l- 1 B, is best done with a wooden plane having mark a rounded the finished


a plank

is hollowed

to fit the curve

of the frames,

thickness nn the edges with a marking before fastening it into position. This

gauge and roughly round will save work later.

the face of the plank

Stealer Planks
The frame start a hull planks typical auxiliary sailboat hull, requires with and planks the greatest planks end at varying necessary photograph, turned in preceding 1 l-5 after girth known to be planked as stealers. of the hull. to straighten Figlut over, clearly forward located at a

well aft of amidships, at the rabbct will show as the turn along upon that mold,




in the sternpost the number these short


of the sternthe remaining

post, depending

of stealers The

and the shape are

A study of such

of the bilge is reached. in the process the keel. (Referring that

I t-5, of a hull built shows the shape of

over a permanent the stealers and their board lustrated urged ballast to avoid

of being to remarks

chap: ers, the deadwood it is right side up.) Often, stealers are nibbed into there is no garto have one as iland it is strongly on a boat similar

keel will be fitted ends (SW Figure for the length I I-6B. beginning built

to the hull in Figure l l -6A.)


are too pointed

to take a fastening,

neighbors. running

In this particular

type of planking variations, up.

of the keel rabbet There are numerous a study pointers the job,

, but it still is possible possible can of the planking

in Figure that before

be made

to the one being

for whatever

be picked

Plank Fastenings
The width type of fastening planking of the plank will be as specified with three will permit, on the plans fastenings or according and to your own choice. frame where the wo at each frame


is secured

per plaL~k at each the bottom.

such as throughout

in the narrow topside width of the frames, driven into the floor.

strakes. The fastenings are staggered to the extent allowed by the and planks that cross floors have an additional fastening or two The butts are fastened with five in each plank end as shown in



Figure 1 l-5. Stealer planks are used to straighten

turn of the bilge is reached.

the remainingstmkes

as the

Figure ings and

11-Z. Butts plugging

in larger

size auxiliaries in Chapter

are frequently 6.



for fasten-

are discussed

After planking, the hull is ready jack plane and using long strokes plane eye. you are liable to plane hollow down with palm and finger

for preliminary smoothing, to smooth off high areas. areas in the planking. high spots that

done by planing with a With a shorter smooth Rubbing the hull up and seen with the

tips will reveal

are not readily

Before tight.

Carve1 Planking
the hull further, the plank seams are caulked to make them waterto

smoothing This

is a verv critical

step in hull building.

By caulking

too hard

it is possible

pull the plank lightly driven, Just the right

fastenings and force a plank away from the frames; if the caulking is too it will he forced out of the seam by the swelling of the planks when wet. amount of caulking adds considerable stiffness to the planking.

The entire job of correct caulking is a skilled art, and if the amateur plans to employ professional help with his boat at any stage of construction, here is a good place to do so. Dont When rolled Thicker marine a clean strands. into let this discourage the plank planking supply floor They unfold break thickness must have the seams you from tackling the job, however. wicking making obtainable strands. separate may be iron. at On the is /8H or under, regular a strand or two of cotton with a thin-edged in the seams, then

with a caulking

wheel or driven caulking made length cotton packages

stores in one-pound the bundle easily, Also make

up of folds of multiple of the strands;

to the full them a couple

so handle

with care.

Now take two strands single strands

at a time

and roll them

in a hall.

of balls from

for use in nar-

row seams and plank butts or for adding a piece to a double strand for use where the seam is wide. Keep the cotton clean, or else you will have to pick wood chips and pieces of trash Start a little off the strands sticking as you use them. and into tuck an end of the cotton strand in the seam, then gather leaving the cotthe seam at the end of the plank: at one end of a seam out to drive



A 0
Figure 11-6. Two methods
of using stealer planks.

ton in a small Normally seams hulk hack

loop with the caulking another


you will use one with a blade iron about The madr drive for the width uniform. the seam. is correct and that

you may need of the cotton

and drive it in the seam with a making iron. /,6 thick at the working edge, but for wider 7, rr thick. Next to the first loop drive a second, the size of the loop just right so that the and this will necessarily to make vary if go for room you have driven is being enough fitting done a few feet of loops, by the caulker of the seam, After This in the seam

and so on down the seams the seam

trick is to make

have not been composition

to the beginning

the cotton

far enough

is put in later.

in Figure drive a will reduce When

11-7, If at any point

the seam should

not he open Careful

to take the caulking, of the planking

dumb iron into the seam to spread it wider. the work with a dumb iron to a minimum. The finished cotton being should driven, not be driven all the it shoulrl

way to the bottom

of the seam. formed

be in the middle

of the seam depth,

in a tight

rope-shaped strand which should Heavier blows with the caulking mahogany. amount the right 1 l-8. Thus, of mallet depth. good caulking not only by the thickness pressure Dont

make a slight depression mallet will he needed calls for the right the strand force amount

for itself in the plank edges. in hardwood planking like of cotton hulk, determined and the right edges at in Figure

of the strand to make forget to caulk

hut also by the size of the loops, a depression tools the butts. Caulking

in the plank are shown

After caulking, paint Wipe the seams with thickish that paint, gets using a narrow seam brush made while

for the purpose.

off any paint

on the outside

of the planking

doing the seams. When the seams are dry, smooth the hull again with a plane, set for a firer cut this time to get the remainder of the high spots. All the while, rub the palm of your smoothed and then hand diagonally across the planking to find the bumps and hollows. If not perfectly at this time, the unfair portions will show up when paint is applied, the hull must be left as is or else a part of the job must be done over. Sand-



Figure 1 l-7. Caulking is looped just muck caulking can harm planking.


to property

/ill tile seam.


paper the hull after planing, gradually using finer grit until it is as smooth as you want it. Garnet paper is better than sandpaper; although more expensive, it cuts faster and lasts longer. seam A tinr~ finish made can be obtained for this purpose. with a diagonal and carefully scraper if you are skilled with this tool. Give the hull the first coat of paint composition fill the seams with hull

More About Caulking

The today pound hands caulking procedure described above materials caulking is the old standby permit tightens the method. clean, bare caulking method and is as good filling So many and comold in-

as it ever was, for the seams have sworn boats

but modern the cotton I would that

the use of a different to be omitted. that, These wood the whole

and even permit

the cotton


hull structure, for that reason new compounds with cotton.

deed caulked the matter pensive, and

have been so satisfactory stay with absolutely

for so long, is partly

and also are exfor

of expense,

less of it will be needed

if the seam


It is my understanding proper adhesion certainly would seam sides are Douglas fir, and

in the seam is required

of the modern compound- 3. This is no problem with a new hull, but it take a lot of work to prepare the seams of an old boat. The cotton and not painted in the yellow old-fashioned have way, but woods such as teak and and perhaps pine, an oil that impairs adhesion conse-


14 1

P // 7 .c d

i :/.


Figure 11-8. Sca~n caulking

whrel when planking

pools. Cot&m is Y8 thick or ltm.

is rollcgd into seams

with the

quently sulfide priming.

need coating with compounds. Check The polysulfide

a special primer made by the manufacturers of the polythe makers recommendations carefully in regard to seam compounds are a two-part mix; the silicones are not.


while Good the boat is bring about pin; work. paints is cheap paint finished. insurance, job from the hull can br given Take paint start systems, so use only marine to finish, and a priming paints coat will

For preservation of paint. not do for boats. and beautify that

A few remarks your hard

are in order.

my word that house paints firms have descriptive all of them

to protect booklets and

Most of the marine are different

tell you how to do a good There

it is recommended good nowadays,

that you stick to the rules. instructions

f~urd iI1

should be followed carefully. The only suggestion I have that may not be d paint company bookiet is to cover the entire inside of the framework and (except where visible in quarters) to paint later, with two coats of a wood the preservative preservative and else. If you do want acts as a primer.

planking nothing

Lapstrake Planking
Sometimes planking. plank start completed. order. The each plank called over clinker planking, because lapstrake planking bent is very different of the planking in place strake when without from carve1 to is in

In the first Secondly,


of the stiffness being plank

it is possible the p!anking any change the planking


the molds, inasmuch and

the frames as one upward

laps over the next, efficient smoothing but a light final


at the garboard


to the sheer

nature of the planking prevents is planed before final installation, and before painting. are lined out and spiled be taken into account

after completion, so sanding may be done but the width Lap-

after planking The strakes

the same when

as for carve1 planking. out the widths

of the laps must


of the planks.



A 0





11-9. I.npmlrc



strake material utilized

planking can

is used principally be turd, fishing resulting skiffs and

for small in a saving sport



light weight
edam --b-v

is preferred, the method

for is and

lI,:- .I.L,..U L.L.0 -othnJ

nf y. . . . . ..b ..I -~PPI~ rtiff. . riarn tn &.. a the ic .L., I nl-nL;nm ., . . u..- . f-actpninm .-*-

of the laps,

aned th_innpr

of weight. that

For this reason, are hoisted

for boats

like yacht


and lifeboats cruisers.

out of the water

for high-speed

The section in Figure 11-9 shows how the upper edge of each plank is beveled so the next one will fit tight against it for the width of the lap. The bevel varies from one end of the plank bevel specific little to scratch may wider width to the other be gauged due to the shape of the sections. or mold. As a guide is about Figure Your when l l-9A plans as thin beveling, shows how the call for a it i., helpful of an of as t/t 0 and a with a rule thickness frame. cuts at any frame is increased. should

of lap, but the minimum on the plank becomes

W on planking gauge

as the plank the lap width or spiling

with a marking

or mark

it with a pencil. length

At each mold the plank,

the correct bench as guides.

bevel is cut on the plank

for the length

inch or so. The job then using the short

work to cut the bevel for the entire

The planks must be flush where they fit in the stem rabbet or against This is done, beginning about two feet from the plank end, by changing beveled builders rabbet rabbet prefer plane (Figure l l-9B) in order joint, This l l-9C. to avoid finishing a feather a tapering lap like Figure with its gauge half-lap off at the very ends quickly and neatly lap. Naturally

the transom. the bevel to a Some of the planks by a Stanley all beveling of

edge on the outside.

with an equal

can be done

set for the width

of the plank

PLANKING laps must this part that while be carefully the shape done or leaky seams once will result, but it is surprising gained. and Always sides of the hull, left-hand. spacing riveted is marked between 6-6.) planking screws


how rapidly remember the bevels off the After are are

of the work goes along

experience is the same are made

has been on both right-

of any one plank

In other words, the planks are opposite. If the lapstrake boat is being planked on the keel and on each frame positions riveted and as each completion are then discussed planks, bet, the of planking. in Chapter the ends white plank plank is made at each

over molds. The placed using (Rivet

the frame

as it is fitted. and lap. are bent,

laps are copper in position. the marks about and fasteners At the stem of cotton marine

(See Figure for guides. 1 Id rr apart transom,

the frames 6.) The

The planks in Yl -inch

to the frames

for lapstrake

lap rivets should planks. Before lay

be spaced fastening

up to about experts

3 in %-inch of the planks. generally or one lead.

used to fasten bedded eliminate bet without capable

the plank

ends in the stem rabin the (but tightly builder rabbet. to not glue) unless

lapstrake in thick caulking. outgauge. throat of the neat

a length the plank The

wicking sealers

of the modern

Unlike This depth

carve1 planking. required. shown

ends are fitted

in the rabhe is seam. the laps, planked

is not recommended of ordinary C clamps

for the amateur alternative 11.9D. does not permit If the boat

workmanship the clamp

is to use a caulked it to clamp is lapstrake A half dozen

The shallow so builders needed

have devised

in Figure are riveted. the planks

or so will be

to hold the planks

while the edges manner,

over frames in the conventional smooth planking. Double The Planking of double and because a sleek planking finish

are clamped

to the frame* just like


is twofold. is relatively job is really and easier

It insures done

watertightness Double

without planking

periodic is ex-

recaulking, pensive, of pianking

easy to maintain. to apply.

the planking than

twice, notwithstanding The total

that each layer planking

is thilmer



is the same as single planking. but weight can be saved over a single-plarlked mahogany job by planking the inner layer with a good, lightweight wood, such as white or Port Orford cedar. On the other hand, some of the weight saving is offset by the additional frames. The garboard plank is usually made single so that it can be replaced easily if necessary; the sheer strake and the first broad are also single thickness but are rabbeted for the outer layer as shown in Figure 11-10. The seams of the inner layer are arranged layers. inner fitted, outer pound. necessary. Between frames the layers of planking screws along the edges of the inner strakes are fastened together from the inside with and also along each side of the middle of the to come at the middle Of course, the fastenings strake is fastened, are All seams the width of the outer of the outer strakes. strakes The planking no difference screws, is the primary and when with as for single is lined out and spiled except that there are two consideration. the outer strakes Before planking planking. a double The are each comis the same as for a carve] job, sit akes ate fastened for there is actually with small quantity of metal used to fasten the two layers together between the


to the frames fitted tightly

are the same together

it is first coated

on the inside without


as no caulking




1 l-10. IhuI~l~ pltr~~kiu~ rklnils.

inner strakcs to fasten the edgrs headed screws with washers under two layers enough would of I I. are so complctrly the screws layer tied from against to takr

of the outer strakes. These fastenings the hrads. The whole job is very strong together. l!n inner Naturally An example planking, the outer making layer the inside. of layer thickness a finished

are roundbecause the be thick thickness proportion


be a 7; outer

Batten Seam Planking

This planking system owes its name to the fact that its seams are backed on the inside

by battens Although plication has been

to which the planks are fastened along it is possible to plank round-bottomed is for v-bottomed used seam popular hulls. batten construction because

the edges, as shown in Figure 11-11. boats in this manner, the best aplargest many producers years, edges of v-bottomed and the method simple. by the to is fairly

One of this countrys for many, lining

stock cruisers

with amateurs,

out the plank

The frames may be spaced relatively wider because battens. Figure 11-12 shows a well-built frame ready Marine eliminate batten caulking seam glue is applied the seams, although as usual. it remains and fastened to the battens the seam glue

the planking for planking. just before

is stiffened


the planks plank because, chines

between is not

the garboard well named

and the unlike and

keel is caulked ordinary glue, To clamps build fitted

The batten seam pliable indefinitely. in place.

a boat

by this method,

the v-bottomed The seam battens


is set up with

are then clamped

to the frames,





A Ilull framed for G. Hobbs Yacht Sales)

batten seam planking.





PLANKING been than located with by dividing carve1 planking, and when edges the battens each frame into a number material. adjusted, of equal parts, The the spacing may be are they and in the be battens so that stem,

having greater sighted


on the width for appearance, frame. with with With

of the available


The plank if necessary, is notched The lines battens


say an average they have been are marked removed, screws. a batten, Thus and

of 6 amidships.

look fair, transom each

the top and bottom the inside

where when

they cross the frames,

the framework fitted. pencil so half

so the battens are fastened along must

will be flush notch A plank width

of the planking

one or two flat-head so it overlaps is to the middle to) each against from the inside.

is clamped

are drawn but remember width spacing

edges of the batten of the plank from deducted and there ing batten the battens

the shape

is obtained,

the net

of the batten, edge of the plank.

the batten

(or added

If the frame

is very wide 11-l 1. a fairand to from

is no clamp may sprung along

the planking by spiling

at the sheer, the top edge

as in the boat in Figure of the sheer strake to the frames

the sheerline

be preserved around the edges.

the frames.

Screw fasten

the planking

Strip Blanking
Strip planking enjoyed popularity planking a hull with narrow areas edge-fastened years, and strips of solid lumber-has the interest has become

in certain

for many

greater with the use of fiberglass or other synthetic fabrics and resin to cover the outside of these hulls. The edge-fastening consists of an adhesive plus nails to hold the strips together during the curing perfect cycle of the adhesive. adhesives, as possible.) stable materials. or v-bottomed hulls, and I have I have seen a number of 65-foot 1 was told by the owner lsland area of North wooden canoes were of one 1 be just strip Carolina. The structure skin that (Strip planking from was also pracof plankedgewith modern ticed before ing had fastening fiberglass the era of waterproof a dimensionally such synthetic but the fits between resulting lends the strakes

to be as near produce4 or other

itself to sheathing

Strip planking can be used to build either round even seen strip-planked trunk cabin sides. In Florida passenger-carrying guess one rould skilled boats with strip-planked was common old-fashioned building. easy for the amateur, the length say that in canoe hulls, that this type of planking planked. in the Harkers


canvas-covered precise

but this lightweight is reasonably throughout. is usually LOanother

type of boat requires


and should

left to those how many any means), parallel-sided vary, thick,

Strip planking sheer are the same

the shape girths

of the hull dictating of the hull from

complications there strip

will be encountered.


keel to

of the hull (and


they will not be by

more to strip planking a hull just like it. It is easy to understand to compensate dimension for this, just of design. in width

than just nailing one that when the girths at least l/z M

something and


be done

as with carve1 planking. of one and one-

The dimensions anvwhere half times

of the ztrips are a matter from the same There

but they are usually up to a width

is an advantage to using square strips, and that is it expansion and contraction gives the chance to select the best grain. Due LO the natural of wood, the strips are best laid with the grain running in the direction shown in Figure

the thickness.



Fi.gure 11-13. Strik plcmkin~ ridails

1 l- 13C. lhickness hull without stiff enough Sections vature Note

is governed

by the shape

of the hull---the




on the be

coming close to breaking. At the other end of the scale, to remain fair when sprung to the shapr of the hull. through strip planking the turn are drawn in Figure as can I 1.13. The the amount around of beveling curvature to eliminate they must should or the cutting required, be seen with.

the strips must amount

of cur1 l-13A. hollow box


in Figure strips. builders

the open seams the greater and round

of the bilge on the unbeveled to be reckoned beveling. can be scarphed. be done be about (See Figure

The smaller

the boat. one edge

the relative the other


ll-13B.) a miter saw or with a thickness. of the

If the strips are not long enough, of sorts for doing radial Scarphs The strips. not mon choice. ing and saw. Thr should length lhc this by hand, length be glued of thi either nails Moncl down

You can make on a bench the strip

of the scarph sltould

five times

on the workbench. be about for the nails Anchorfast to pennies, be just they are buried should

not on the boat. two and one-quarter times bronze the width nails to water. tightly a matter silicon of economics. If cost does are the first comin place The spac-


of metal

is largely it is all right

matter. When

or Stronghold in the wood, sufficient


to use hot-dipped not exposed to clamp the strips


wire nails, number

because of nails

while the adhesive cures. Nail heads are set slightly below the surface of the wood with a nail set. Some like to drive the nails at an angle to the strip for a locking action. If the hull should mold contains bulkheads to such or other permanent with a nail framing, or screw. glue was used between the edges of however, it needs pressure during every other strip or so be fastened a member

Before epoxy resins became available, resorcinol strip planking. Resorcinol is a very good adhesive;



PLANKING time and is not noted for its ability to fill gaps. but fastenings, much pressure, run out In strip planking the fits between and to which there is suffithe adjacent Now be a filler can


cient pressure possible from the strakes of planking must be pretty there are epoxies, added, thickening perfect. There be needed the frames are options normally might when it comes for the same be omitted which do not the adhesive

nail close or the resorcinol need so it wont to setting thickness altogether,

will run out of the seam.

of the joint over which

if the fit is less than to build of frames over a hull with that would reduced. temporary Or

up a mold

strip planking.

The edge-fastened

skin is so stiff that with

the number hull

carve1 planking the

is drastically planked

transverse molds of suitable number to shape the hull. Bulkheads and a few frames, if needed, can be added to the structure later, or bulkheads can be part of the setup and left in the hull. enough The hull is best built with plenty that there right side up, unless clearance of working it is to be quite in a stooped large, position. and is best set up in a building off the floor of overhead so that the keel can be high

is a minimum

Some of the best strip planking workmanship ever turned out was done by Ralph Wiley in his yard on the eastern shore of Maryland. A few of his strip-planked deepkeel sailboats parallel-sided where Wiley perfect advance would much simple eliminates glue take that I saw were planked with mahogany strips about 1% 0 square. The strips extended from the sheer and ran to well below the waterline, then tapered the strakes suitably and worked the edges to bevels for fits. The over. planking where was, of course, the tapering beveled strip started stop planking at the keel and was planned and the parallel-sided than thicker /R is just in too would strips

to determine of a job form

In my opinion, frightens by Fred Referring unduly. Bates,

for the first attempt used

by the amateur. let us look at a layout designer-builder II- 14. planking for strip planking hulls of that at of Damariscotta, Maine,


tapering tapering.

10 A in Figure

strips are laid starting

Figure 11-14.

PLANKING the keel and are temporarily equal a tine carefully manently parallel-sided Fred makes from a dozen scrap to a number is drawn marked replaced strips of strip for exact on the strips held in place, widths by springing location, then not permanently a batten removed through and fastened. the points. Then The and


a distance and are with He than strips

is laid off from

the sheer at each


or mold,

cut to the tine,

are per-

with glue and fastenings. to the sheer. for keeping varying

The remainder of planking

of the hull is planked aligned while nailing. These more

has a good scheme :d N plywood,

the strips clamps

or so of the horseshoe


in Figure


are cut

the depth

L, with a slot width were built There

of slightly

the strip parallel Still strips pearance

thickness. of Rhodes-designed and sailboats edges. that by a Great Lakes yard using of the strips; II-14B. where hull apstrips another with rounded at the keel and version hollowed planking This strake into the hull. was no tapering in Figure seen was a method

A good number they started

ran out at the sheer,

as indicated resulted

of strip down

I have

were laid on diagonally. as one looked


in a herringbone

The with tions

does not automatically without distortion hulls designed construction mean that it can be planked in mind. The sec-

fact that a hull is v-bottomed plywood: of vessels plywood design.!d can for only be used to plank

be bent plywood

in only one axis at a time and generally consist of developable

thus should

with its limitations

curves that consist of portions of cylinders and cones. It should not go uncurves noted that experienced builders have succeeded where theory dictates the impossible. However. that plywood the methods panels. therefore, planking thickness planking. Also an advantage can be less than it would be is its ability to cover large used just about defy written description. before Suffice deciding it to say then, to plank it with you should review the plans of your boat carefully

Plywood is a stiff material: with conventional wooden

areas quickly. Often, standard plywood panels wit! be too short for you to plank in one panel from bow to stern. If so, either special panels must be ordered or else the regular panels and must be butted made fitied, end to end. with good-size wiih screws the plywood apply because These joints, butt blocks. which should be detailed on the plans. glued are generally White it in place. specifications frames, Working there can for screws Some planked etc., being The joints should be waterproof

well fastened When

or rivets. should either be fastened marine with just enough and then, glue screws to hold on the rabbet, of which drilling so they remove on again, of the glue, slightly the panel again drive below putty. lumber for the inner They layer of a doubtein curvature. apply the plywood depending to chines, screws, the ends, of the panel

the tit is satisfactory, the plywood Work with

for the boat, and bend many.

or waterproof with just

a few screws toward

to hold it.

as fast as possible and countersinking invisible builders hull, use plywood

the remaining the surface

are a great be made

from the middle the heads surfacing of solid

of the panel

marine instead

even when


is considerable



pieces as large planking

as will bend

on the hull and in this way save labor over the usual



Cold-molding A cold-molded boats) skin. or strips Generally, hull consists bonded of multiple other of strips layers of thin with a waterproof layer upon veneers (as thin at about as x6 for small a stiff, strong to the at somethickness. which are the the third 45 degrees

to each


to form to the first.

the first layer etc.

is laid up diagonally the

centerline 90 degrees times White modern

of the mo!d or frame, to the second, as five layers after glues

the second Depending strakes sets up.

at 90 degrees architects


as many

of thin

are used to build with staples, --set down, As noted epoxies upside

up the desired nails or screws,

the glue is curing, removed waterproof

the strakes the glue

are secured


in the section

on adhesives, temperatures,

thus the reason Although methods. framework, which build are The

resorcinots and for the term cold-molding. hulls consists frames) mold. are built used and ribbands. by most and which

up at room

all cold-molded method which bulkheads spaced usually

they can be built a skin transverse Another over forms

by various a skeletal (some of is to a

amateurs longitudinal

is to laminate stringers.

of some sort of backbone, may be either off the form,


up a hull

on a male the finished

a strip-planked structure and structural

plug or a form does not become membc~rs, over and such

with closely

In this case, the supporting shell is lifted

part of the hull:

as bulkheads and transverse frames, are installed combines thcsc two: the first layer of planking framework Each and method then successive layers of planking has definite advantages

as necessary.

Stilt another

method a skeletal there arc

is strip-planked applications,

are laid on diagonally. of planking layers. and the The designer draws up his and its purpose of much in scienthat who built

for particular

variations within each method as to skin thickness, number number and weight of internal strengthening members. construction mind. tific research to specify specifications with the intended the cold-molding srantlings The end result In the last decade, hull construction process

vessels size, its shape, has been

has been the subject that desi,gners ratios of Gougcon System. attractions.

and developmem.

have been able Brothers. A hull the hull work

with strength-to-wright


of aluminum. The leader in this field has been the firm devclopc~tt the WEST (Wood Epoxy Saturation Technique) Whatever planking, desired needed materials. the epoxies. that Thus, heightened the method or if desired. rhickness. to construct for many Tied Either chosen. cold-molding can has several be built with a cold-motded skin can be built way, the hull very tight because hull construction is easier

of the stiffness by laminating entails method. lighter Tht

of the laminated up to a that has been with light particularly means than

a very stiff hull

a wooden because

by the traditional


high quality

to achieve of the superb

when working adhesives, planking


to this is the availability the dimensional to build

To cap it all off, of cold-molded been beyond

stability a tough.

of laminated for protection tong-lived

the outside have

hulls can be fiberglassed his ability with other

from abrasion. hull that might

it is possible

for the amateur

strong, methods.


>,*, @ *

4 .


15 1


t l-15.







11 /irlnrcwork t~rrz:u~fdl.)




ccrrrl .strrugf*r.s.

(I~~lf~lf~ f~orcrtf~sy o/,/ohli



strips tht:rr great against molded meaning prove

is childs

might play compared and


SWIII to the amateur that laminating up a hull of thin to bending frames and spiting and cutting out planks, The tines must stilt There to butt is stilt a tightly mold must be constructed. the planks

is no substitute lofted, amount boar,

for skill and care in any facet of boatbuilding. a [rue and sturdy to bc done Indeed, must upon to get the joints between

be accurately

of spiling a huitdcr depending to build:

one another.

some professionals have opined go through a complete planking not just once. the number curves but at least three of layers. In addition,

that, to build a cotdroutine for each layer, and perhaps as many some hI1tt shaprs can amount not Reading Yacht of trouble, by be attempted that

that thy hull is ptankrd tricky

as five times.

hulls with reverse

seem to give a great hulls should

and onr professional builder has stated anyone less than a realty skilled, patient There by John learned by those are two excellent at considerable and Guzzwrtt about books listed length. Gougcon of experience cold-molding

that such craftsman. under

Recommended are Moduw on Boat these

deal with can be



Construction Much


Brothers from wirh

Construclion. which

the details

of cold-molding


have been written

with a great

this type of construction.



Figure 11-16.

Although similar done, is that mostly counters fastened the planking

it predates cold-molding In fact, instrad of fabric by quite as it is practiced soaked than some time, using What and thickness, in shape hulls. clamps, diagonal agent makes planking is very

to cold-molding. layers it can bc considered it employs strakes of planking. is much



glue between as was formerly it a bit different consists each of only is used en(or

in a waterproofing veneers strake

to br a form of cold-molding. that are thicker Because of the greater where

that it often that

two layers

this method

on v-bottomed to a framework a fever

powerboats, than consisting number

the change

strake frames

less severe

on round-bottomed of keel, chines, frames

The planking and transverse together

is generally with longitu-

in some cases, dinals). The scheme similar angle to that to 4 wide,

of transverse planking The with must

or bulkheads 11-16, is made or nails

of diagonal upon

is shown planking glue and

in Figure material screws

and can be seen to be of uniform to frames, glued width, 2

of cold-molding. is secured

depending clamp, tends Tapering

the size of the hull.

The first layer is laid up at a 45-degree

to the keel and

chine, and

keel or sheer Toward thr topsides amidships. critical, The tween clout tenings puttying planking

with the edges the angle

of the strakes be tapered. back of the planks frames.

also being too much

to one another. of the bottom with those

the bow, the planks IO change brings is glued as the planks layer

as the convergence

out of parallel into line;

the planks

approximately is also edge-glued

the angle is not in place beThe

as long second frames, nails between

cross several to the first and clamps. When can of the inner

and fastened clamping are clout the inside

with screws

to the keel, chines, the intersections the framing are then countersunk.

and frames. and planking

To provide outer strakes from

pressure nailed.

strakes driven After

are 5/H thick or more, * the adhesive

the fasthe

be wood screws of the hull.

to eliminate

over the heads is smoothed

on the outside

has cured,

by sanding.




The tant


of a boat

is laid on transverse to be decked,



not only provide The latter The many



the deck but also help to hold the sides of the hull together. in all boats designed especially in sailboats. powerboats and sailboats that are strength to do without the stiffening hulls the thwarts do double duty


is impor.

types of small

not decked must be designed to have enough that the deck structure provides. In many such stiffening.

as hull

Clamps and Shelves

The deck beams must be of good size and strongly required (Figure a shelf. of them. In small is fitted and connected to the hull if they are to to the clamp stifthe The shelf through are in size, an additional on the flat against are fastened

contribute fening clamp

the strength heads callrd

boats they are fastened

and the frame member provides is generally it instead In small always whereas used.

12-1A and B). As hulls increase or deck shelf, as the clamp,

on each side of the boat. its position ends, which

of the same a greater screws of the clamp. craft,

material landing

area for the beam

are used as fastenings, advantage beams are not accessible (See Figure

but in larger of being

vessels through-bolts

Bolts have the extra of fastenings between when frames. necessary,

able to be tightened beams, shelves

if necessary, To lessen the are fastened on edge to in

screws through

once the boat is decked. are sprung

concentration the clamps single located edges with lengths, toward should a pitch

in the vicinity

of the deck 12- 1.) They pieces

in place

or, in several The inner against


by scarphs, The shelves so that

with the joints but the outer must be fitted will


the ends of the boat. be planed corresponding to fit snugly

edges may be left square, the clamps. beams

to the camber

of the deck

the beams






2---EebA-r 2 ---EebA-r V-A-F- BEAL4 BEAL4 ca.4EcTlahj~ ca.4EcTlahj~




ROLTS sceEv.5,+.J lee CDL*5-e.C~Od) CDL*5-e. C~cd) 4 SHELF DECK BEAll KiTi KIT+


Figure 12-l.
bear on the shelves few deck beams every station. The Figure 12-2A.) When member found should the clamp great having entire edges and width. The best way to get the bevel may can be measured then together, be planed they every is to temporarily few feet, angle. set a (See

in place

so the bevels of the shelves shelf are and

or at least at

to the proper form a single

bolted stiffness.

angle-shaped are, of course, the twosides with The a to them. through-bolted For a flat at the In this as well.


Such structural

members out of them, and bolted and

on both sides of a vessel, and to get every bit of benefit be fastened which sawn together at the ends wood laid of the boat. between crook, plate either is a knee of sorts fitted out of a natural is a piece assemblies of oak the shelves

At the bow this is done

of oak or hackmatack.

breasthook, hook is often good (Figure transom, and bolted underside Unless

Just as

a connection 12-3A).

on top of the shelves used the same knees, which at the stern

A piece of plywood

or metal

way is also suitable. are sawn from crooks cross framing curve

The shelf/clamp in place must

join one another

via the transom.

this connection of the deck.

takes the form With mold a curved loftsman

of quarter and against camber

on top of the shelves have the proper

the transom and

transom, deck

the connection

is more difficult.

case the knees

fit the transom

you are a skilled

who can work out the intersection

of the deck











l3Eb~L Old OUrEi2 OF SHELF


Figure 12-2.

-v;-- -y -: 1.. c-5 * 1; :v- :j$ ; I d+J * ,a : --- 7~.-*+& .;*:=-*-q : =-----~-~:- .-m--3 : z _~ - .,p- ~~ - -__I 9 ..~ r.-:.zsm?--- - < : i++:, *..w-:-1:
-7, /F: 1+-x~: Sws~ ,J, !: ::I #===qr ;: ,, :,j;; ; 4 j

::, .T:: ?$yp$ 1. Lb, :.-.r-.~~~ci~ at ?y ...= p . ..z-




5ET II410CL~ OF c&.K~~Z-,

I. D,,,de AB A:( c 17 r-o A~J*Ico~~s. STEP Z cl, ,i Al, C-D c-c mo*e *se 35 sbwr and dmr. ~ornkr wr,e yr(+r 0 m*+en.

Figure 12-4.

and boat.

transom The

on the floor, view shape shape

it is best to make of the knees



by the cut-and-try on the boat. at intervals

method. plan for the the or its aft of the the Install of three

The plan deck beams four inches batten each

is easy to obtain,

as it is shown

on the deck framing and

of the top edge

is best obtained a batten

for thr* five or six feet ahead on each time side of the centerline, the inside the batten of the transom. is clamped;

of the transom clamp

on top of the beams, at the underside will represent the marks

edge just touching

Mark the transom a line through

underside of the decking as well as the top curve of the quarter knees. The battens can also be used to measure the bevel needed for the aft edges of the knees. Shaped as they are in every dimension, these pieces are really quite a job for the amateur.

Deck The bility beam cessive, curved

Beams deck beams should be made of oak or ash where where comes When lightness aboard. there be cambered, Where an especially is severe maximum strength There and should durabe a exwith in

are desired, at each

and of spruce that

is a consideration. both the camber good camber, method


and they should

for strength

and so the deck when boards

will quickly grains

shed any water are obtainable.

is not unusually found

the beams

can be sawn to shape,

such as is often




cabin bent

tops, the beams to approximate merit because

can either form and

be steam-bent strength

to shape, to shape.

or over-width Another

stock can be one that the

then sawn exactly


has much

of the resulting

of the deck beams,

is to laminate

glue. Beam construction beams of three or more pieces over a form, using waterproof is shown in Figure 12-4A. Most of the beams will have the same siding, but at hatches, mast partners, than and the ends of cabin the t,egular beams. trunks, the beams 12-3.) should be heavier by about 75 percent (See Figure

Although it is customary to represent the beams and frames on the plans in the manner shown in Figure 12-3, Figure 12-3E shows that the beams must be beveled to fit against planking, combination must This the frame which heads. This is because the centerline and flaring 12-3F. the frames toward are twisted the ends the inboard to lie flat against of the boat. corner instead the curves toward Due to a of a point.

of deck camber in Figure

hull sections, will land

of the clamp

sometimes is sketched

be cut away so the beams

on a flat surface

Deck Beam Camber

The depth beam. Figure method and should method, length amount of camber a beam is given pattern, 12.4C. on the plans for a given or a beam may or in the specifications and is stated as a using the length of the longest length, mold shown beam board, length as it is called, with in Figure 12-48 the thr procrdure mechanical in bc laid out easily is needed,

of curve To make shown you run three and one

of so many


12-4B is followed, in Figure when into nails battens,

or the camber

The method curve top where of the

is self-explanatory and very useful camber. end of thr Then arc. In this beam two are

is suitable

only one camber a cabin are driven center each

but C is faster has a different one beam at each


in the pattern beam than

at the

at the top of the



the required

by at least two feet,

placed snugly against the nails the angle between the battens. batten always assembly holding from the battens

as shown and tacked together rigidly enough to hold The camber curve can then be drawn by sliding the to one with end of the beam and then to the other, the nails at the ends.

the centerline in contact

Half Beams and Headers

At the sides of deck beams. Figure practice shown space The opening headers The fore-and-aft openings is bounded into which old-timers today, The the beams are short (Figure 12-3) and and beams, are termed and half the in this of

by the strong the half beams always dovetailed the connection



previously fastened and

are notched the half

as shown although


is still followed in the sketches. between

is more often made be elevated to coincide molds, of beam from

by the easier method with the camber clamp them in the (See half

headers beams,

must then pull

the beams,

and the procedure the strong

is to make

a couple

the header

up to the mold. the centerline side decks,

all the while

springing the header Figure 12-2B.) In powerboats and

to its planned small sailboats

dimensions with very

of the boat. the normal





beams heads.

are sometimes a filler on which

replaced piece

by a shelf fitted as thick or a covering the usual

on top of the clamp. beams, board. clamp notched fitted

The shelf in this around the frame only

case is simply for the length (See Figure

as the deck

is laid the decking

This kind of shelf extends being

of the narrow 12-3D.)

side deck,

from bow to stern.

Deck Tie Rods and Lodging

When framing headers between masts. the decking is stiffened (Figure header These and consists with half

rather than between large pieces of plywood, or clamps may the deck and the

of planks tie rods beams. fastenings For


frame stiffening

heads there openings

12-3C). frame


also take some of the load off the connections additional be lodging on top to at ends of large or oak crooks or riveted in the deck or at and shelf or

knees in the derk knees

to provide

strength hackmatack They

are sawn from

and are planed to the beams

conform with the deck camber. clamp. (SPP Figure 12-3.)

are bolted

Deck Blocking
Wherever blocks wood there are fittings on deck such as cleats and and tackle blocks, The there should be in



the beams to bear

to take through-fastenings. against, they distribute




for the fastenings

the load to the beams

I he case of shearing forces, and over a greater area of decking when upward encountered. The blocks can be of oak. mahogany, or plywood and should on top to conform possible Blocks to the deck are camber best framing. and sawn Figure to a tight 12-3. fit between Whenever bolts. the blocks if through-fastened to the beams

strains are be planed beams. with long

arp shown

in the deck

Mast Partners
The deck the cabin beams. framing trunk, These blocks plan in Figure 12-3 is for a sloop has large made blocks as the depth of hardwood having mast and its mast stepped partners fitted between whether or lodging is laid. through between which located knees, This The sup.

the top of which are always and they are always


as thick

of the deck beams mast partners, as blocking

they are fitted,


plcmentary sketrh, Figure 12-3G, shows a set of typical in thr trunk top or the main deck. All comparatively should be coated serves to keep large with thick deck white frame lead there surfaces. or other such bedding

as the decking

out water


be a leak in the vicinity.


on a boat by seas and by masts in sailboats work to collapse to the way that a packing box from which the ends have a hull in been re-

The forces exerted a manner similar







Figure 12-5.

movt-d at thr

collapses deck

when and

a man


on it. These


try to hinge

the hull structure sized and located


are only one of the


why properly

fastenings are important if long hull life is to be expected. Brackets called hanging knees are fitted for resisting such sideways strains. Like lodging knees, they are made of natural Metal, kners knees crook oak or hackmatack plates, and plates are and through-fastened angles, or castings, at the ends knees trunk. insofar as possible. used for of in the form are grnrrally of flanged is often

and has the advantage Figure

of not splitting 12 5 shows typical stepped

with age as wood is liable and singly wooden hanging

to do. Hanging and midlength at the mast part-

used in pairs at the masts its mast

long deck openings.

ners of a sloop having


the cabin

Modern Construction
The quarter knees, price 04622.) hackmatack. plates. lodging The for them. It should craft Knees knees, problem (According be realized and hanging knees described magazine, earlier them are used in

traditional a reasonable field, niques flanged Maine


with such knees is to find to Woodr~z~onf that there

and then to pay a longtime Morse, suptechof Cherryand

plier of hackmatack available metal

knees was still in business

in late 1979. He is Frank are modern the need for traditional of wood or plywood


for small

that can eliminate can be laminated

crook knees or be made stiffening

of oak and

Or. knees need

not be used at all due to the enormous

provided by modern materials: of lodging knees, and properly the place of hanging knees.

a well-fitted and secure plywood secured plywood interior joiner

deck can do the work bulkheads often take



In any details


be guided

by the


for your when


The- designer


provide and as is

of the structure

in way of masts of bulkheads cruisers of plywood a minimum where


material joiner head framingthe can

is used for weight partitions enclosures, just span in


labor savings. If there are a number common consisting heads beams areas. and or in many partitions longitudinals power of two layers

and full-height full of cabins, together deck of other glued




a deck

be supported


by these bulka few transverse of unsupported

it is necessary

to reduce


In general, first, whirh it watertight


are really

only two basic


of decking

for a wooden



can be the lightest, and minimize

consists of a wooden rot. Where the materials

deck covered are available.

with fabric it is logical

to make to make

such a deck of waterproof plywood and cover ing, one still used in areas like the Caribbean type boards, deck. enough The sometimes other covered with canvas, is the so-called And type of deck

it with fiberglass cloth. A cheaper dcckislands, is made of tongur-and-groovrsometimes then there not: the latter of narrow is a short-lived strakes sandwich thick deck either waterof both types. laid deck made

to be caulked

for watcartightness.

are variations

(The builder of a boat with a fiberglass hull might opt for a lightweight having fiberglass skins over an end-grain balsa or foam core.) Depending economic smallest tightness. tion boats upon your viewpoint, serves each type purpose of deck chosen, the latter has an or aesthetic. the deck Regardless of the decking the double to safety, remember to comfort

advantage. strength and

that in all but the and rot preven-

of providing

Both these aspects


as well.

Tongue-and-Groove Tongue-and-groove material, anywhere

Deck boards from make an inexpensive deck because the width of the

4to 6, permits

the deck to be quickly


with the boards

parallel to the centerline of the boat as in Figure IS-IA. Very often these decks are made of non-durable material, unseasoned in the first place, and quick to rot if the deck groove covering tends leaks. to warp The straight-run deck is not (Figure as strong that as other types and the for a


construction between

has the disadvantage the fastenings

the thin


edge of the

13- 1 B). The

only covering



rEC& *i 3CCu.

9EA.4, kc%

TOriGjE ~__




C>ECh *.PltJL 5-3 \+.. .VCP SrEieP-p,f~L ml!,P7 h, . --11\ -~ ...BLOC* \,-neo *3-, .
deck of wide boards canvas duck. life is shortened that will come and go easily with the moisture shows through the ridges. and the to the canvas along The groove by wearing warping

tongut~-and-grnovc~ as ridges and

in the air is old-fashioned the canvas

Unless the boards are laid in single lengths, these should be scattered as much as possible. butt beam. planking age, leak. drive. cost. these ends must Instead, butt have be well fastened, the ends blocks. decks are fastened upward and better nails. and are fastened between

there must be joints in the decking, For strength and to prevent curling, to make beams such a butt to blocks nails, the deck similar

it is not practical

on a deck

Most tongue-and-groove Calvanizcd Better and

with common poking and holes


and with making it to low

a way of working

in the canvas,

wood screws are much threaded deck really

are inexpcnaivr, to recommend

but cost more it except

still are bronze even

A tongue-and-groove in time

cloes not have much

this is doubtful.

Strip-Built The strip-built

Deck type of decking shown in Figure 13.IC is strong, rather quickly laid,

and suitable perhaps just sprung

when the deck is *c, thick or better. The strakes are usually square, or a little wider than their thickness, and for maximum rigidity they are of the deck edge. It is best to cut any laid decking from rift-sawn

to the curve



boards shrinking finishing bronze The beams surface edge


lay it with and swelling

the edge-grain across and


for this way there of the deck. (See because

will be a minimum Figure 4-3.) Galvanized they are hidden nonferrous and toenailed slightly when Monel

of and or

the width

nails nails strakes as shown

are used for fastening at many times

are satisfactory of course, eliminate between practice deck

not exposed

to sea water.

The fastidious, the cost and to each 13-1D.

can substitute all misgivings. the beams

are fastened in Figure Around strake deck


to the the to the hull

It is good The

to set the nails off smooth

below finished.

of the wood. of the sheer

the edge of the deck, with waterproof-glued

the outermost is planed seams

strip is fastened like a strip-planked

of planking. is built

If a strip-built

(Chapter ll), it will be enormously strong if the seams are fitted reasonably tight. After being planed smooth and sanded, such a deck can either be painted or covered with light fiberglass cloth and then painted.

A main rangement strength openings panels under tioned.

deck or cabin for the deck in the deck top of marine of plywood and plywood must cockpit, at masts is strong, light, and quickly to provide into with taking laid. The armaximum consideration the size of the of lodging racking knees was mcn-

of the pieces

be planned waste and cabin,

with care together

for minimum chapter,

of material,

for hatches, and

available. Following

In the previous the same

the function to minimize

in construction horizontal

the deck at openings


the plywood should be cut so scams do not come The butts should the beams whrrr Joint locabeams, beams the putty, with Monet oak. due

at the ends of large openings in the drck as shown in Figure 13-2. overlap as shown in thP skctrh. and joints should be located bctwern the panel tions because The with ends can this adds deck rlosrly panels spaced br sccurety scirw if thr considerably should flat-head fastened to a butt is waterproof strength. the edges and along nails. block are not as important plywood glued


to the deck the deck Countersink

to the horizontal be fastened screws around or annularly


fastening heads slightly below the surface non-oil base if the deck is to be covered A well-fitted non-ferrous staples driven plywood staples. deck properly up to Plywood

and cover them over with a surfacing with fiberglass cloth and resin. to the deck framing can be fastened The coating staplers. can be fastened with coated increases


I,$ thick

by compressed-air-powered

the staples

holding power so it is just about impossible to withdraw these staples from whitr When a plywood deck is specified to be :?$ R in thickness or more, the curvature to camber ficult and sheer might make laying the deck in a single that thickness either or even impossible. which As soon as it is obvious be done should by using be waterproof the flat panels thickness, together

very difof

will not conform the most

to the surface,

the job must

a double glued

such as two layers to provide

% or x plywood, st rengt 4.

Canvas Covering
Plywood and laid economics--

with fiberglass, covered with of decks but inasmuch is still worthy as I recently of mention. saw both plywood of

is best covered decks being canvas


in the Caribbean-~




_I\I in- -I-








r eATTeN 1.,.,-Ccl -,_ /___C4NdA5 JR




.\ * COPAMOk, At&
I I _____ t


~.-~ V4PNGED)






4 GE% -5. t3EaMr -l-o OF DECICZ -I







- Seun-

THE ,,ECk< -r\6U\E bltaY WAtiE E,TnBa T,.E pL.--. .--cm -

kc,ITlri OVTrr KIT* iLnrE:Y , 4iED 5rEtr.S RLOCL TO DECV.IUG IbTr.2E.d RE4W ECr. CTFl?Oh\ pL,bQ,-..o iAriELS ,h




Canvas piece suitable together

for covering width so that cannot there

should be had,

be bought width

wide enough to turn down or other

to go over the entire canvas fold. worker Seams boats

deck in one If a to

if possible,



over the edge of the deck. of the boat. When unable

get a sailmaker

to sew two strips are shown to lothere and in the even which

will be a seam down

the centerline with a double 8-ounce that

use sewn canvas, tack it on the centerline skctrhcs in Figure 13.2B. The 12-ounce cements weight of the that canvas varies from for decks are liable

for small wear. you use plain

to get considerable


are canvas

on the market,

it is recommended



should bc applied to the deck immediately paint is smooth so there will be no lumps reason, be sure the canvas moist the is clean. that Select risk of applying loose covering. First stretch stretched canvas

before you lay the canvas. to show under the canvas.

Make sure the For the same

a dry day for the laying, or else you run the in a will stretch later, when it dries out, resulting aft this along the centerline. a two-man The job. canvas should be ac-


fore and and

as tight

as possible,

is at least

It is better



complished worked edges should spaced After the boat the edges.

by rolling and

the ends secure

of the canvas

around which

sticks so that


area can be down over the Tacks

on than be copper in order and

can be handled or Mone!, for them

by just your two hands. it with tacks, steel or even galvanized, the pressure. working until amidships, the canvas for cabin

Pull the canvas and should pulling from

of the boat

will be hidden

by moldings.

never to hold start

be very closely opposite fastened sides of around 4 in-

the ends are fastened, tacking Where the canvas stretch has been Believe before deck

as you go along it tightly, structures completely

is completely and hatches,

covers openings later

cut it about to the boat.

side of the openings, will be turned When coat further paint flat paint an effort canvas the canvas shrink

and temporarily fastened, painting.

tack it to headers it is a good idea

and beams; it the first to and in

up inside

as they are added

to apply

of flat paint. the surface

it or not,

one of the best methods is dry. At any time it will start later,

is to wet the canvas brush is applied

and stretch

it just before the canvas then

Do this with a scrubbing If too much paint

one or two more coats of and will also cause the

can be added,

a final coat of deck paint.

to get a slick, glossy surface, to crack.

to crack early

1 am going such disagreement

Surfaces with Fiberglass Cloth

to touch about only on covering panels or diagonally covering the most dimensionally planked should hulls stable wooden structures. is often

as plywood


11). There

t hcsr surfaces:

the cloth be laid on bare wood and

then saturated with resin, or should the bare wood be coated with resin. and the glass cloth laid in the tacky resin, smoothed. and immediately saturated with another coat of resin? applied There adherence Ask an experienced covering that supplier of these materials from or someone you know who has has not delaminated the wood.

seems to be no disagreement over the fact that epoxy resin has the best to wood nr over the fact that the wood surface must be clenrr. Any oil-based of fastenings or in cracks must be removed to bare wood and material. A materials supplier can sell you powders to mix with it for use as a putty. can be mixed with like plywood surface For instance, the resin. with a single sanded. smooth, a fiberglass primer bright, etc., being the layer with of cloth, with corstrips. The boat, reinforced doubling for an epoxy putty, a white

putty over the heads replaced with another the resin Stable ners, such adhesion to thicken called Cabosil surfaces powder

can be coveted is improved after items being as hatch the

as thr chines of the wood decks

of a v-bottomed

if rough sanded

Fiberglass used first. If the cabin decks should everything the fabric tapering The

are painted such

sides and be covered

coamings of feather These

are to be finished the deck the cabin, job. strips that


installation method


When and turn by for

is to be painted, up against are and it with the sander

the watertight

is to build

it for an inch also available

or two and in tape form.

the edge narrow joints

of the covering are great

so it is not visible watertight exterior

in the finished woodwork




v~ill be painted.





Planksheer old-fashioned deck edge is sawn bounded to shape and marking of the deck, is obtained variation as illustrated from by laying the edge unless of the completely or contrasting by Figure and the canvas-covered colored This segments covering piece, are joined 13-2C. deck called is a a

A very attractive, fabric-covered around scarphs. lines parallel the planksheer,

by a varnished

board with a and

-wide boards a board

Its shape

on the deck

as shown

by the dotted Then case it is

in the figure line is drawn

of the planking it is a tapered needed,

on the underside. planksheer, them in which

for the width,

best to cut the outer

edge on all the pieces


on the deck, otherwise

draw in the tapered width with When the deck is sufficiently screw fastened the planksheer stopped planksheer can from is fairly narrow,

a batten. heavy, the joints block it is steamed 13-2D), and

are edge-bolted; the deck. to shape run bent

they are is

the top to a butt of the planksheer (Figure


In some cases where The fabric edge inner of the and

on edge. The

at the edge

in either

of two ways.

be rabbeted

the fabric


into the groove

tacked, and the groove filled with a tightly fittt=d batten of wood planksheer. Another way is to employ a toe rail set al the inner edge of as shown in Figure 13-2E. The fabric is tacked along the edge and the 13-2F shows the tened over the fabric with plugged screws. Figure mc~thod of finishing oak molding. the edgr of a fabric-covered deck with a half-round

to match the the planksheer toe rail is fasmost common mahogany or

The outermost strakc of a stx-ip-built deck is edge fastened to the planksheer for support, but the outer cdgcx of a tongue-and-groove deck would bc sprung downward if stepped canvas splitting on brt ween fiberglass the edge when, beams covering where unsupported, To prevent this, there perhaps to the extent of tearing the a tongue-and-groove deck is not recommended-and and also to support the ends of the must be blocks fitted between the

of the decking.

deck planks deck beams.

rhey run out at the edges,

Caulked There wherr

Decks are IWO types of caulked difference, deck weight is important, decks. In larger yachts, where weight does not make is laid. In smaller boats, 1 thick and upward is laid over a sub-deck of marine plywood. the conbefore;

too much

planking thinner


A tyllical laid and caulked deck is drawn in Figure 13-3 for a sailboat and The planksheer is fitted first as described struction also applies to powerboats. thtsn thy narrow strakes are sprung parallel to the edge of the planksheer. for the narrow strakes are twofold: the narrow material will not shrink must be clear and should

The reasons

they may bc sprung without too much trouble, and and swell much or check. The wood for a laid deck Any joints are located so they are quite far

be in long lengths.

apart in adjacent strakes. The wood must be rift sawn so the grain can be laid on edge, because flat grain will eventually lift and splintera condition that is both unsightly and hard cedar, and on bare Burma feet. Suitable teak. The woods last named are good white pine, Douglas fir, Port Orford by far is the best and, like most good things,

Raft - awn,ckr drcwiog I-?

PLbtiB3HCLR ac









---_ .--, ._- CA0lhi SIDE J

bAiCpE d-IV SCAMS Ruti




-. CL. (sac

Figure 13-3.



the most expensive. does not have bleach equal Teak trim there to teak. decks

It has a natural

oil that seems to make Scrubbing with together

the deck everlasting, salt water

and it

to be varnished

or painted.

in the sun will

it out to a whitish

color so that, and

with its long life, there is no deck quite but since so much antiseptic put on the market. standard watertight, practice teak Most was

do get dirty used a flood

do not look well if neglected, boats to offset their otherwise systems and treatment

is being has been

on fiberglass job and


of teak cleaners got busy making

of them Until

do a good the chemists

are easy to use. up new seam compounds, for caulking 13-3. seam to make them The seams were glue, a preparation thiokol-based tape. The seam as shown

to bevel the edges by the enlarged paying simple, secured, regular keeping

of the deck strakes sections in Figure was called

space was left for what the seams. square seams the glue hardened. the open

caulked heated sealers

with cotton, and to make it run for away after in and is laid that can be run applied

The seams were over-filled Now there seams are available with like the one shown are masked

and the excess was scraped After filler the decking is then

in the figure.

with a

household-type caulking gun. Care must be taken to avoid air bubbles by the tip of the cartridge at the root of the seam so it is filled from the bottom a very sharp chisel is

up. The seams are over-filled and the excess filler is cut off with after the thiokol has completely cured a few days after paying. A 1 /R or 114 0 thick * deck will have strakes about 1 W II wide, about right as the thickness of the decking becomes greater that will specify what your architect wants. It is suggested listed in the table, Figure 6-2. The screws will be countersunk

and this proportion

in larger boats. Your plans you use flat-head screws as and plugged with bungs

of the same wood as the decking, and due to the size of the plug, there will be room for just one fastening at each deck beam. Note in Figure 6-2 that the screw gauge may be reduced for decking, in Figure deck resulting or nibbed in a smaller into a king bung plank at times. at the centerline way there must opening parallel like be is as drawn. Either next It is noted the strip-built blocks under seams made wider, 1.3-3 that the strakes may be herringboned

the deck at the centerline cabin as drawn sides, Quite in Figure

to take fastenings. this, the strake into

It is not desirable to the cabin strakes

to let deck

run under

sides, and to avoid the ends

13-3. Sometimes to be nibbed is needed,

the decking

are run

to the cabin king plank. very long. bing sides, both


the planksheer straight the cabin under

as well as the aft, nibthe cabin 13-3 is sanded a

a lot of fitting

as the taper plank that

on some of the nib ends will be fore and (unless

Still another into run and

way of decking and and fastening is pleasing then the

is to run the planks around ends the plank

the planksheer

a margin

too, are straight) but

to blocks planking

the deck where the seams and

the lengths are caulked smooth. Planking conventional directly an example

out at the sides. payed;

You will find entire

the method of the plywood deck

used in Figure is complete4, is planed

not only common

to the eye. When surface of marine that

a laid deck over a sub-deck laid deck, with the beams. The decking

is similar

to constructing being fastened


the strakes

are not

to deck

of proportions,

should be thicker than the plywood sub-deck; as would be covered with a 5/gn a 3/gti fir plywood sub-deck

,pc~ !




teak overlay.

Plugging should there


holes can be avoided Pains fiberglass on plywood messy must

if desired

by back-screwing rotting of In fact, some

the teak to the plywood the sub-decking builders (without cient As an alternate, allowing



be taken before with

to prevent strakes. laying job. thiokol

be a leak in the seams of the teak cloth be laid covered but effective

cover the plywood ttle teak it to cure, and

with lo-ounce can of course)-a plugging

the teak deck. compound is suffi-

If the teak strakes for counterboring

are not back-screwed, screw

the /eWthickness


above manner.

holes in the conventional



The boats have built

amount likr


character cabin

of deck joinerwork cockpit neatly trunk, hatches, and visitor

will vary with the type of boat. coamings. while larger yachts

Open might

daysailers be done hull.

will havcb simple carefully

a deckhouse. your

watertight because.

work should

cockpit, and bulwark rail. This regardless of how well you have

the occasional

will make

on thr appearancr* of the deck structures. nothing looks wet-se than bare and stained dirty paint. Even though it is said that

a snap appraisal of your boat based too, is necessary, for Pr0pf.r maintenant-c*. woodwork. peeling varnish, or scarred and btb judged by its cover. my ad-

a book cannot

\ice is to take a great deal of care when finishing parts that meet the eye and to keep them shipshape. A discussion about finishing follows, because the builder must keep thinking joinerwork. about the ultimate appearance while doing ever); hit of the exposed deck

Finishing Traditionally, mahogany.


Varnish the finest yachts had vast areas of varnished reasons, any large areas deck joinerwork of varnished fine of teak or woods are


for various

most likely to he faces of plywood rather than solid lumber, and hopefully the faces are of veneers thick enough to survive a few refinishings to bare wood. Nowadays, varnished Teak wood and (brightwork) mahogany is limited to trim hard initially moldings and resistant used to accent fore-and-aft but either of lines such as the sheer of the hull. are moderately Their to scarring, though, natural appearance, finish. has appeal to many,

them can be dented and such a finish open grain 170 that must

by abuse.

takes work to produce

he ftlled for a smooth

and to maintain. Clear, natural

These woods have an filler is used for teak,






filler stains consistency, practice.

of desired smooth is spread

color are applied finish before on and allowed

to the mahoganies. filling: then

The wood must thinned to at which

be sanded brushing after When or more work

to a perfectly

i 2 filler, appearance,

to dry to a dull

time the excess is wiped a little and

off across the grain with clean cotton waste or rags. This is easy After a day of drying, the first coat of varnish can be applied. be sanded a finish and with a fine-grade while what abrasive. Repeat for six coats that you will be proud varnishing. opinionated of varnish used, people who freely hand brand, or a mixcoats to kill kind to use. As you become of varnishing to show off. The work and

this is dry, it should you will have be clean amount area must

free of dust about

The waterfront out an enormous more ture remain of brands. the same:

and boatyards

are full of highly

of advice

and more experienced, But regardless cleanliness,

you, too, may also swear by a particular of the kind absence of varnish of moisture, and sanding

the essentials in between

the gloss.

There th-:. pine wood. nished. because well.

with Paint

Jy. in Chapter 16. but 1 merely want to point out here abr..* painting ...aurni you may he painting wood deck joinerwork, such as Philipinstead of varn:- fir or Duraply plywood, or fiberglass-covered mahogany (solid fJr plywood), is a section For the finest With This appearance, finish, below grade out and indeed an all-paint finish can be very attractive as if it were to be varneed not be plugged, putty will do as glazing is thin. apply a second undercoater, the wood must be just as smooth the heads of screw fastenings the surface working paint. and covering with sand material smooth, Start that apply

as well as easy to maintain, a paint countersinking a good

with a polyester

is an advantage to smooth if necessary, lightly again in mid-1979, yachts were


Use only compound glaze coat. craft marine hren If you superior again Sand and

of marine

with an undercoater,


and sand lightly and carefully before painting the first finish to kill the gloss, then apply a second coat of finish. the highly marketed previous reasonably touted 10 years form the affluent, applicator two-part polyurethane coatings used on airin brushable form by several or so, this high-gloss, firms catering to the durable coating had application. can not result in a truly proper)


trade. available finish

For the and that proud.

only in a sprayahle will leave

not at all adaptable (painter

for amateur is really

are brave

use of the polyurethanes


Cabin Trunk
The plans


Cockpit Coaming
boat will show you the kind of cabin and coamings (along with

of your

heights and half-breadths), type of toe or bulwark rail, size and location and other related information: the best 1 can do is discuss joinerwork general. depending tion The largest side, structure you will tackle is the to make cabin both trunk, coaming upon the design. If the curve of the cockpit coaming

of hatches, details in

or deckhouse, and cabin side

on deck is a continua-

of the cabin

it will he best and easiest









out of one available

long for this,


as in Figure



wide longer

mahogany than


are usually with these panels,

but if not, the width

can be made

up by edge joining standard

the board

glued splines. can be made The shape overlap drrk where The and opening

If the cabin side is to be of plywood up in the same way. of the bottom and scribed down be planed work screws. edge of the cabin side, with a template to the shape. from the plans. the corners that was truly to the camber of thin Remember

whether wood

it is to rest on the deck or held in place extra at the from the mold a little loft floor, on the top exacting practice them and with after toward for

it, is best obtained it was laid old-timers


The top edge is taken to leave top. -~ almost of the trunk of the trunk a sight rabheted the corner

edge so it can


unbelievably whtle general


to behold--

nowadays the rahhet

is to fit the ends into suitably (See Figure deeper by /,,,I or so than

posts and to fasten making cabin corner sides, of the

glue and plugged

14-1B and C.) When thickness to a perfect fit. being vertical, should from appearing inboard are often headers to lean more

posts, make

assembly, work off the radius corner The sides of the cabin, rather than fhc ccn(erlr~c~ slightly aesthetic the cabin joint bright, the cabin cabin 14-2C. up against reasons sides for the amateur is difficult making to keep them the cabin builder. inside

be sloped outboard. pleasing.



sides are sloped but the results beam

considerably. than in Figure

This can be a chore It is easy to fit but such turned a 14.2B,

the deck

as shown

to keep watertight turned-up fabric


the deck is fiberglassed of inches. If the cabin care must great

and the fabric be taken Thus,

the cabin sides against deck

side for a couple

sides are to be finished to fit and bed With a laid it is best to set the in Figure


the deck edge to ensure only when

watertightness. covered

sides as shown This

the deck is canvas

or fiberglassed. as sketched

and caulked

the best way is to make

a rabbeted

sill piece

job is a real challenge,

to say the least.




/ N eoaer

-FA~~E~~~~GsTKz,P BE2..NS K!-Ed

Fe cafqr:

SlmE l-rritd 15



Figure 14-2.
When fastened trunk sides of solid lumber Drilling must are specified beam to be as thick header, done as 1 /I , they should to ruin the lumber. be in-

with bolts through

the deck and

with the bolts countersunk so as not

to the top edge.

be very carefully

When the cockpit coaming is thinner than the cabin side, make it out of a separate piece and let it into the trunk dt the after end as shown in Figure 14-1D. When the cabin and the coaming are not in a continuous to the cabin sides through a rabbcted block. Strangely built through counting enough, 1 have seen only one the samr top, the cabin labor. sides, nailed the trunk amateur and glued curve, the coaming Figure i4-1E. trunk of this type. With is usually that fastened had stripdiswas


for a sailboat

as planking

thr mast stepped

has to be strong athwartships:

and this is one way to do it easily, forms and the trunk

In the one case that

I saw, female

were set up, against

which the strips were clamped very strong. Sometimes curve whether bend solution the intersection like that edges, plank

the work went quickly roof and sides is desi,gned 14-3. or even more it might in plan be impossible

of the cabin shown especially or double

with considerable upon to give a quick

at the edges. to the plywood is to strip

in Figure planked.

so. Depending

the roof is single

in view of the curve

view. In this case a

the edge as shown.

4 &LuED ;l-RIPS

Figure 14-3.

:<: \,

( I-







Toe Rail
Small foothold sailboats when are fitted with toe rails on deck and from The (Figure 14-4A) that inboard are used as a

the boat

is heeled,

long use, have come set slightly

to be looked

on as be-

ing decorative are fastened scarphed. sheer thickness being so that

as well as practical. with plugged

rails are either

of the deck

edge or at the inboard The under rainwater

edge of the covering board, as mentioned in Chapter 13, and the butting pieces are screws. Where jcints are necessary, cut at and near The the low point face. of the toe and spray will drain often from they overboard. are tapered rails may be of the same Small they taper, the heights

edge of the rails has scuppers but more height plan.


on the inside

rails may be of constant shown on the lines

end to end,

but frequently


.-. .-



Figure 14-4.

Larger tapered

have what is called a bulwark rail. always 14-4B. tapered Bulwark in height strake. and usually by


in thickness.

Details every

are shown IS through

in Figure

rails are secured

drift bolts run about with a neatly for economy. is scuppered pers (pipes

the deck into the sheer

and are topped

shaped cap, screw fastened and plugged. The cap is sometimes omitted Joints in both rail and cap are always scarphrd and the bottom of the rail to drain that drain water that otherwise from the would deck be trapped on deck. through the If no deck scuphull near the water overboard

waterline) are fitted, then the bottom of the rail scuppers must be at the deck level to drain rainwater. When there are deck scuppers, the bottom of the cuts in the rail are placed scuppers about tm above the deck so that ordinary rainwater and across will not run the transom through into as shown the the in to streak the topsides with dirt. The forward end of the rail is fitted

stem rabbet, and Figure 14-4B.

the cap is shaped

at the stem




Installation builder. tom edge in place mind not that installed

of the



will call wood, Then



ingenuity and




of the



be of thin


in place,

shaped to hold that

on the botare laid out the template Bear in is. the rail is

to fit the edge of the deck. and the magnitude vertically on

the rail heights will vary

at the stations

and a batten

is run to fair the top of the rail. of the problem a normal sides and boat; the outside face of the rail conforms

It will be a problem

with the type of boat.

to the hull sections,


Jigs from

the cabin

thus the bottom edge bevel constantly coamings and across the fore and after decks

must be devised to hold the template in place, and then the rail while fastening. It is very likely that at least the forward section of the rail will need steaming to get it in place, joints and much care must be taken to fair the rail sections into each other at the so they will be smooth.

Bulwarks for the larger boats can indeed try the patience of the inexperienced builder. In certain cases, laminating can eliminate some of the heavy work. However, laminating laminate requires bulwarks a jig. which when more takes some planning than one boat and time to construct: (See Figure it is best to 4-4D.) is to be built.

Powerboats handy chocks

are dressed and up with dock lines. a short monkey rail forward, in a heavy Figure can 14-4C. This is

as a foothold for anchor



an anchor

sea and

be fitted


A sliding The

hatch must is necessary be rugged to give headroom enough over companion of a man better ladders sitting and elsewhere. or standing on like the deck.


to take the weight but looks much

it. The

cover may be flat across,

when cambered

It can be of plywood, either one or two layers, but is usually made of solid lumber, as shown in Figure 14-5. The cover is made on a pair of beams sawn to the camber, using edges grooved for soft white material /; thick and about 3 wide, with the butting pine splines, glued The which tongues tected The that and which stiffen the top piecrs to make ends the hatch are fastened than others. as well as prevent to the beams A common while leaks. The joints with plugged in Figure in sketch are waterproof 14-5, some of A with brass with screws.

logs may be constructed are easier with on the beam

in a variety

of styles as shown slide is shown

to slide in grooves brass tubing, with the split tubing

in the logs. The edge of the cover is prothe tops of the logs are sheathed to keep spray out of the hatch opening.

a piece of split that interlock

brass strips

arrangement in sketch B is similar in operation, having a rabbeted beam header slides in the log groove. The top of the log may be sheathed if desired, and the

molding on the edge of the cover makes it adaptable to canvas covering. The logs shown in sketches C and D do not have grooves, for the covers slide directly on the logs, making friction project it necessary is minimized slightly, to sheathe by having them to prevent between wear of the surface.

In C the sliding contact is at one shown and it should

an angle

the brass strips, the log. The

edge only.

In D there is a piece of brass let into the cover at the ends only, so the wooden cover will not touch






Figure 14-5.
in the sketches steel, but brass length Beyond An elevation 14.5. The opening. by the distance are typical is quite and others easy to work. of a sliding hatch hatch beyond cover beam with plugged is illustrated by sketch E, Figure the companionway to the forward screws. is determined end of the hatch Fasten water. sliding edges of the can be devised. The metal parts can be stainless

at the centerline from the aftermost and

of the logs as they extend the required length, headers

the logs are finished

with an ogee curve. The bottom to drain trapped alloy and Lexan

the logs to the deck beams

logs just forward of the apron must have scuppers cut in them In the end, it can sometimes be less costly to buy aluminum companionway Charlestown. hatches made hatches, such New Hampshire by Bomar and as those made by 03603. The sliding others. Bomar, hatches

Inc., South West Street, match in styling the deck

The simplest take a brass

the opening as shown screwed The in the aft end of the trunk to the bottom of the hatch is to fit drop cover beam, boards or a

way of closing guides, be fitted. running locking air through from substituted tongue

that slide between cabinet lock may

in Figure

14-5. A slot can be cut in the top slide to also have ventilation up. A shaped deck into the cabin. holes or louvers on the deck doors Double

top slide should it is locked panels.

to circulate are sometimes

the boat when for the drop

sill is fitted

to keep water

off the slides or main

Openings At sea, in the deck are covered particularly, hatches with hatches that leak are made an to be watertight or reasonably making so. for












-I I

D 0

CRUDE b-l L ryPf!z

HUSlc\/ HAl-Ctl

BROhlzE HlblGE




bWl72? WA-I- TYPE l%uSH HAl-lW




discomfort splined half sketch consider


the watch


so every effort The companion again,


be exerted frame

to construct around


so they fit well and function as described lapped at the corners

satisfactorily. (here,

pieces forming hatch. The

the cover are preferably the cover is which so that all I in used from apart. dovetails that shown In other

for the sliding

the old professionals

to be too difficult A of Figure

for the amateur),

and it is very important that joint is parallel piece

that the detail

14-6 be followed.

if the half lap is reversed the corner

the end screws in the top pieces are in the side frame the swelling screws across of the top in width the width will force of the top must

to the top pieces, words,

be in the same

of frame.

The hatch coamings either through-bolted corners as shown In fact, Use either Sketch although modified of the hatch in sketch bedding

vary in detail according to preference or practice, but all are or fastened from the bottom with long, husky screws. The coamings are dovetai!ed together or rabbeted bedding under and screw fastened on the deck. fitted on deck. 14-6, and set in marine is used to keep out water bedding sealant compound eveything

G, Figure compound marine

a time-tested B illustrates frames like into something

such as 3M Number

5200 or a thiokol-

base compound. a crude workboat-type C are used, they are like D, which hatch not very suitable for a yacht, and too light to be any good and should be and is fairly watertight when

will stay together








2. , 4. J6. 7. 8.

*(a. I AL41 $,: , ; RF?..-r PEec f> 777 . bSE. **l ICC.. -re r ?Y z j*. 1. UA435 I2 .,A.,> C.rT c AC. 4 Ig ..A..--k>W


-----I SECTlOPJ T-KU *AT=* CCAWhs * CdEq



dogged gasket. hatches



type shown

in sketch

E has


coaming shown

grooved in Figure to make

for a rubber 14-7, which the parts is of

A refinement too light. take.

of this is the hatch n3t too difficult hatches and hatch

construction to build. hardware

the best of the lot and Flimsy they must

It is a mistake

just do not stand

up to the abuse

The hinges shown are made by a couple of the marine satisfactory. Through-bolt the hinges wherever possible. 14-7 is shown like the galley. hatch jump with with a plastic Unless top. This material is optional, a strong such as Lexan deck of a sailboat force. If a light

hardware firms and are quite Note that the hatch in Figure a lot of light a crewman in a wooden to spaces is liable main to is used, where it is a bit risky to use a deck in the marine at both the The tight good The side. down

but it admits

a plastic

top on the main with considerable

on the hatch

is wanted frame. a

hatch, it is safer to use a round hatch section in Figure 14-6. When plywoodforward individual covers the deck joinerwork if fir-is fiberglassed pins

one with a bronze is to is effected with cast be all

like the one shown hatch cover of



Some both hooks

like to hinge hinges and

the hatches

and after sides, which with a removable from below fastener must hatches, are locked located builder priced

by fitting brass

two sets of hinges

and replacing

rod to engage in sketch

on the desired from marine

eyes, or dogged

with a bronze concerns) where The lowest a gasket

of the type shown opposite down. be pulled some

F (available


at the corners

the hinges.

Such fasteners instead

are especially them.

no-w has the option

of buying

hatches value,

of making mostly

of which

are good

are made

of molded

p!Lstic. Hatches :,f cast aluminum alloy frames with strong lights of polycarbonate sheet such as Lexa;l are considerablv more expensive. Some of these hatches are designed with sailboats in mind and have a minimum number of protrusions so that sails can be hurriedly passed through the hatch without Some complain that the plastic-topped hatches sweat, catching on anything. and this is also true of metal





hatches. tirely


of the metal granulated hatch



he considerably Of course, materials

reduced - wood.

or stopped


by applying

cork to the underside. out of one of the older

it is possible

tc make

minimum-sweating Flush Cockpits washdown This usual sha!low enough at least. Hatches usually water method gutters

have from



over engines. H, Figure


and storage


and often spray, and on the way.

are constructed

as shown

in sketch

14-6, in an effort and dripping

to keep rain.

running dirt metal

into the bilges poor because gutters

on equipment

is pretty sheet under

or much

it does not take much water to overflow the A better method is to use a system of to clog the drain. attached and having to the hatch opening overboard framing, wide a good-sized line, say 1%U

channel-shaped to project

the opening,

A watertight with scuppers of the cockpit teak. The boat

cockpit to drain can plans

in sailboats whether is simply plywood, a well sunk preferably below made main non-skid, and whether <eck level or bare or not

as fitted water,

it bf: from

rain or heavy spray

and seas. The sole

be fiberglass-covered should provide details

ifor the cockpit


they should be crossed, that is, whether the port scupper discharges through the hull on the starboarrt side and vice versa. There arc various ways to fit scuppers flush with the cockpit marine cockpit sole; probably outfits. drain the easiest Above rapidly is to buy ta.:sh-fitting should aboitrd. scuppers from one of the sized so that the hardware well would all, the scuppers be generously

shoul1.l a sea break

lhe cockpit sole is laid on beams that may extend to the hull sides, or it may be supported by beam headers, which in turn are suspended from the main deck headers by long rods with threaded ends for nuts. (See Figure 14-&I.) Two types of water tables around the edges of the sole are shown, either of which may be used with a caulked sole. The cockpit access Many feeling seats beams main to storage prefer of security ceiling spaces cockpit may be permanently not occupied seats lowered If the boat in order if sloped by fuel below instaiied and water the main or fitted tanks, with hinged exhaust doors for piping, must They etc. plan The require the with

deck level (Figure doghouse,

14-8B) for Ihe

it gives.

has a raised and fitted

the architect lazyback. Figure

the lowered and

seats wilh care headers

not to restrict

the visibility are secured lines, water,

of the helmsman. to blocks under

are most comfortable deck beams

with a slanted (See dotted

for support,

the latter tubing

of which to drain

at the ends of the cockpit.

1478B.) Sloped

seats must be scuppered with copper hinged sections over storage spaces.

and may be arranged

Seats Hinged This

and Locker Lids

seats and in both locker lids on deck are prone to warp due to changes in moisture. a


solid lumber

and plywood.

One way to minimize

this is to make




r7fl-lobJAL: f$T.Ed=?D

RCA -I?2 H






0 0


&GPCE \ i i-E 3 t..,c .w crrr ilr -..-i.EC LIP

I sau -_rl -_ ;.ir5 _


63 ll

Figure 14-9.

series of cuts parallel done Figure on a table 14-9.

to the long


and on the underside circular saw. Cleats

of :he piece. are fitted


is in

saw or with

a portable

as shown

Sheer Guards
The hull guard half round hulls. The latter at the sheer of the boa?, for smaller type can be difficult if it is deslgneA U L- une, cxn vary from a simple zvl boats to a izirly heavy, built-up guard for larger to make and install, considering the shape of the

GY rectangle




deck in plan and the changing

bevel of the sections of the boat from bow to stern. The having a full deck line for they to the shape of the dec : line and

most difficult job is to install a guard at the bow of a powerboat forward and a lot of flare: a guard must be laminated are there for the purpose of protecting upon to do some work. Lower guards to protect securely fastened. which,

sawn to the bevel of the sections. The fastenlng of guards is very important,

the hull and must not come loose when called home (hull wider

hulls at the stern where there is tumble upon the construction are preferably

below the sheer than at the sheer) take some hard knocks at times and also must be Depending guards, of the hull and deck at the sheer, the sheer guard sometimes for heavy-duty needs blocking between the frames to take the fastenings, through-bolts.





From the beginning reasonably ects. With desired, joinerwork

of this manual

it has been assumed


the builder

is familiar


skilled with woodworking this experience, the cabin of the boat.

tools, having undertaken joinerwork should prove

basic household projto be the easiest task in or as fancy show details as of

the construction The boat

commensurate designers construction

The joints and finish can with the ability of the builder. of sections but rhrough methods, in case these

be as plain should


the interior are lacking

or sparse,

I will show

some typical structural details to be planned, time around. few bulkheads and fronts, finished and lockers,

methods. In a small craft there are not too many different although there might seem to be a multitude of them the first to sleep four or more joinerwork work top, and parts and persons consisting by neat-fitting sandpaper there are only a tops Any and pays the rest of the interior the galley of cabinet of berth ice box. joints really

Even in a hull large enough doors, drawers,

the all-important pushing


in the nature

work is enhanced

a smooth finish, so the time spent in fitting off iiith the satisfaction of a job well done. Waterproof this material than fabricated plywood makes interior saves labor by permitting from narrow boards. made of plyivobd

work much easier than in years past because parts to be quick!y cut from large sheets rather Bulkheads --- an-d-large p+tions are a good exam- . -.-. in a fraction of the time formerly needed to make material, and plywood is by all means basic types. a

ple, as these catibe them either more The Assuming attractive that than

of paneling

or of tongue-and-groove the latter. will be used, is a real the finish wood


Can be of any of several This can be achieved

most, attractive

of these


by using

plywood faced panels, stained down


with mahogany, or natural, and sandpaper

teak, or other such veneers finished with multiple coats wool between coats.

available in waterproof of varnish, each rubbed Natural wood can also be

with fine

or bronze





finished afterward. wool and ings,

with wax-based by hand surface until be made The must to match to make choice wood

material, should


oil, or tung rag or a brush,

oil varnish. the excess then for trim species

The being


oil liquids off soon openface with with bronze

can be applied

with a soaked the luster of solid


be allowed lumber

to dry for a day, Moldings of the same shelves, and

buffed around

recoated Flats such

is pleasing.



as the plywood

selected. Formica pensive patience Another with and

as table the natural perfect-fitting trim,

tops, exposed wood finish. jomts

the like are best covered who has the time. or a combination finish,

In such cases, the plywood

can be of less exskill, and of paint

fir. The natural

wood decor

is for the perfectionist throughout. painted finish

is to go with a completely such as mahogany. is recommended, of the wood. the galley counter


For a painted

the use of faced will be painted, hard wear with


like Duraply to cover

because Even though and

it will save one or more coats t,f paint most of the surfaces flats that receive other

helps kiil the grain

it is practical Formica.

A third choice is to cover most of the vertical washable vinyl wall coverings and to paint the parts a harmonizing Formir,a be natural vertical covered wood surfaces, color. Again, the horizontal The trim can surfaces or painted. finish. finish either is to use Formica in colors as much grains. or wood

surfaces with one of the tough, that are not practical to cover with that take wear to match and tear should be or contrast, or it can

be painted

Still another

as practical The reader

on both horizontal and should realize that the

word Formica is a trade name for but one of a number of brands of phenolic finishing materials available. It is a little tricky IO work with until you get used to it, but an attractive and unusually contact durable cement, finish which results. The panels are adhered to clean plywood to set up with so-called is applied to both surfaces and allowed

dry to the touch, before the surfaces are joined. Once the two cement-coated surfaces contact each other. they are stuck for good. so they must be carefully positioned. One method of preventing of brown premature paper contact is to use what is known part as a slip sheet, to be cemented. made The of a piece the same size as the Formica

cement-coated surfaces ate allowed to set up dry to finger touch, the slip sheet is laid on the wood while the Formica is lined up perfectly, and then while holding the parts aligned, joined. Plywood specify
l,,, ( & :t:,

the slip sheet helps reduce

is pulled




the surfaces there

so the parts



the weight that hulls;

of joinerwork;

is no sense in installing The plans a general guide

weight is

in the fortn of furniture the thickness U in the larger t/s in any boat

is needlessly dresser weight upon tops, saving

over strength. counters, and

for the boat should for bulkheads need not be

of the plywood, where

but if they dont,




can be k or t,$ depending

is desired. Shelves in lockers and elsewhere sense, because with the area. Be guided by common

glued and screwed parts, high strength can be achieved with plywood structures. Sometimes in sailboats the mast is stepped on deck and somehow the thrust must be carried to the hull. In some cases the bulkheads in the immediate vicinity of the mast are used for this purpose: When bulkheads the pieces must be joined. thus they may are larger The simplest be heavier than than normal. one plywood panel, and strip of plywood glued or partitions can be cut from

way is to use a butt





I I \\ r
Figure 15-l.

lJ 0 .li \ F

screwed to the buikhead pieces, but this does not look good unless it can be concealed from view. The neatest butt is made with a splint as shown in section A of Figure 15-l. using a glued panels plywood accurately circular spline, or have them but you must a mill together, have cutting This the woodworking Still another in Figure the scarph is shown machinery to cut two for the rabbets plywood a portable Sections bulkheads, space shown good have Another rails that cleaned should portable do it for you. way to join 4-6.

is to scarph

with an attachment

saw called

a Scarffer.

B through E in Figure 15-l show different while F is a vertical section through a galley at the base of the counter detail been to incorporate brought down or even is well worth in sketch is shown to counter higher when

ways of building corners for or bathroom counter. The toe it takes to construct. 15-l. This shows sea dirt to be and like a tg enable G of Figure ends

the trouble

level at their you want

out of corners. be about radio.

Sea rails are used to keep things

from falling to retain

off counters something

1 high,

Where berth against the hull, ing planking. templates. athwartships must carpenters horizontal

platforms, shelves, and the edges of bulkheads and partitions lie their edges are curved and must be fitted by a process similar to spilThis requires the accurate be held use of heavy part, results, normal cardboard the template while Similarly, or light board wood must for making be held of dividers points level or a for a

In the case of a horizontal for the most compass must to the centerline scribing

the template


for a bulkhead

be held normal

of the hull. the shape

the points

to the centerline

when scribing

part + and level when

for a bulkhead.

If these procedures

are not followed, the parts will not be correctly shaped, and further fitting will. be required. The bevels for the parts can be taken off at intervals and marked on the template (See Figure Bulkheads bulkhead board. 15-2.) are often located on one side or another of a frame. Fastening a to a frame The template board is cut to the scribed line and used as a pattern.

is simple . lun!ess the flame is not plumb vertical, is often the case -when the frames are bent rather than sawn. In such cases, the frame must be shimmed to true up the bulkhead. Thus, when framing a boat, it pays to be particu-




t4017MAL C.L.

To OF BOA-l--

















B 0
For bulkheads ones, located can a strip for



larly careful between be fastened can be bent made wont pliable

to have the bulkhead a strip similar IO the inside steam to the hull. cold either

frames to a frame

be as true as possible. must be installed but where saw a frame edge. and a strip using from


so that there

the bulkhead shape

In v-bottomed bend

hulls and in some

round-bottomed to shape,

of the planking, the wood, and error, lumber, them

is too much or bend 15-3A.)

this, you must

in a strip where it

by numerous

saw cuts on its inside by trial

(See Figure

The spacing

of the cuts is determined be visible are have 15-X Drawers They must best made

like this is best placed

in the cabin. of solid to prevent detail steel woodwork with 191 for the fronts, opening t,$ sides, and for a bottom a device of t/t plywood section nails or hardboard through they Masonite. at sea. (See Figure 15-3B.) a berth. Where nails are used, In are hot-dipped by the trim. 6r concealed Plugs varnish. pulls, or lock sets, to be brass or should galvanized. In varnished by matching in varnished such as tempered

backs rabbeted Figure never trim, putty

shows a typical falsely many holes

Fastenings plywood the

in interior

are screws for the most part. unless can and Glue be hidden plugged or spar

economize joinerwork fastening

of the fastenings are counterbored set below Plastic hardware, Although Resin

if the fastenings

are nails Elmers

the surface

of the wood.

work are set in either Do not expect survive for long bronze. e;Ler

plated-steel in a boat.


or chrome-plated

such as hinges, drawer expensive, the hardware or stainless steel.





Meta I qril Ia

JXXX &tXlfsAT~Oti

Figure 15-4 I

Proper while ventilation keeping fresh that of the hull is one of the most important boat. Passage of air must the boat devices water the boat Other from entering may be kept than developed patented in Chapter and lockers, items that will conribute for at all times, trapped. (It must etc., to be the a be

the long lift of a wooden remembered protected most baffle side, openings practical against

be provided and becoming made

all the

for most of its life at a mooring of molded mounted will bring

or a slip, un-

by a roof.) ventilator water,


is the cowl ventilator IG. This after the boat

on a box having in air from There must

as illustrated (the hull lining)

the out-

but air must in ceilings

be able to flow through

it gets inside. bulkheads

and where

are watertight,

each compartment Doors to lockers tom, will have a chance

must be provided with a source of air for ventilation. and cupboards should have vents for passage of air at top and botof the hull, they but also so clothes and other stowed gear door to difto dry out before mildew. A few suggestions for locker

not only for the preservation

ventilation and typical door frame Ventilation is also of importance minimize ficult the chance of mildew to remove.

and stop details in boats built odors,

are shown in Figure 15-4. of materials other than wood are sometimes extremely

and musty






1 .~-s,c-Jr-cl c S z--e.! ce, cgp




r- r c--r


Figure 15-5.

Ceiling is a lining on the inside of the hull that is used to conceal to protect stowed gear from sloshing bilge water. or to strengthen ter purpose, planking. wedged tightly in larger It is spiled together bevelrd yachts to shape before so that the ceiling when fastening. is usually 40 percent the hull f... ~VZ? requires structural the hull. members, For the latof the are

of the thickness it. and edges

the strakes

For appearance,

the inner

of the ceilfastening, in the of air. In the finest

ing are lightly the outside yachts quarters. two brlow In snlall pearance prevents the

the seams form a vee on the inside. or treated upward bored and plugged from where

and before

of each strake This

is painted extends the space

with a wood preservative. they would at least the cabin

I he fastenings the sheer boats, and may

are counter clamp, be slatted

be visible

type of ceiling light ceiling

sole, to an inch or

at the top being At the outboard against

left for the circulation side of a bunk, body, but one

/:1 to 4 thick if desired. pressing

is sometimes your

used for the sake of apthe ceiling of the best


of frames

reasons for ceiling m small boats is to protect tom of lockers from being wetted by sloshing in a lump and-groove strength, fastened into place, perforated In boats In boats of a sea. For this purpose can with be used. Small and excessive nails where This with thickness boat ceiling

gear stowed under berths and in the botbilge water when the boat is heeled down seams should cedar in Figure must be tight, light, and thin tonguelittle be kept 15-5. it, a sheet-type the latter than being ceiling either is bent plain or in for it adds

the ceiling

is useless. Ceiling plywood


or pine is suitable

and may be

or screws. the shape

is shown

of the topsides

will permit

can be of light many the small ceiling

or hardboard. rather

holes such as pegboard. is decorative structuralparticularly


motorboats-light plywood lining used to hide structures can be painted or covered with vinyl fabric or Formica-type material. The inside of fiberglass hulls, particularly can be covered with carpeting stuck to the forward where hull curvature is greatest, hull with an adhesive, or there are hull backing. liners now made for this purpose. These materials are vinyl with a foam

Cabin Sole
Cabin hatches sole is the proper to enable ready name access for the flooring to the bilge, or decking piping, inside valves, the hull. It must have tanks, etc. In small boats a

,qy%yg~*p g&~~&;~


-719 -

<-,- ; r-%


4, <,~>~,f~,L :/. :x, ii ,~, I:





removable sure of this, leaking large hatch


on the centerline is nothing

is usually more

sufficient than

to serve all purposes, not being labor finish, able and in an emergency. can or covered

but make Plywood

for there material


to get at, say, a

sea cock: lack of access can be downright for the sole because can be painted pieces. either bindings The plywood


is an excellent flooring

It savrrc much There a hatch A bare

be fitted in
with vinyl steel for

for the simplest

in one piece or laid in squares. for use with the vinyl coverings. will swell just it is practical It is not pretty, and enough to make to make

are aluminum bind. ty adding

and stainless too tight,

Do not make

the hatches a compound

the plywood In a sailboat coat of paint. In cabins is warm properly carpet, popular The

a sole nonskid stains.

to the final however, A carpet to be it

but it is practical. grease

teak sole is nonskid: only one coat of paint. cleaning hatchways.

is very expensive where

it will hold

a carpet and

will be used, the sole needs morning, not but it requires be used near should

on the feet on a chilly shipshape,

with a vacuum



made of synthetic fibers with boatmen. It is light sole is the first of the

that will not absorb moisture, has become very enough to be taken up and cleaned on the dock. joinerwork to go in the hull. locations. In addition, and it must be it must be ade-


carefully planned quately supported

ahead to establish the hatch by beams and headers.

Headlining like homes pose, and hardboards vinyl - unheard of until people starred making than boats -- is a covering for the underside headlini *.g material is a vinyl fabric the insides of boats look more of deck beams and cabin tops. material made just for that purmaterials are plywood with

The most popular

the best ones have an anti-mildew treatment. Other headliner having decorative finishes, acoustical tileboard, and light covering.

or Formica-type



Inexpensive, lightweight fiberglass insulation on the underside of decks and cabin tops adds to comfort both summer and winter and whether or not air conditioning is installed in the boat. The easiest kind to use is a type having a thin face of white plastic material on what is meant to be the down side, away from the deck above. It can be cut to fit between cent, though, deck beams and stapled in place. The only way to make it look deis to cover it over with headlining.

The much about icebox, which looks so simple when used, is very time consuming boxes suit your and boat, difficult to


For this reason,

if any of the ready-made

you will be

better off buying one. 4.5 cubic feet, which

There are several makes on the market with a capacity of amounts to abont 50 pounds of ice. They are all plastic








-rkieu %7X

Figure 15-6.

ICE --

and have polyurethane if space chargers, refrigerators, When remember. preservative area allotted form. again permits, also made as electric generators, because Space building that

insulation. can refrigerators,

They but

are built I am

for under-counter or stacked. to get not going

installation, These into the the boxes smallest points


two of them

be placed


are of to


and shore lines that are needed for even the service conditions can vary so widely. into a wooden that boat there be left between is always the outboard the hull and the box structure will be hidden in a boat, side should should and be shaped limited to make

an icebox should

are some important be treated somewhat

for the circulawith a wood to the hull the most of the

tion of air, and

part of the hull Space

or paint.

to the icebox,

The section in Figure 15-G is typical of the situation in many boats, and here plywood simplifies the job. Basically the box consists of an inner and outer shell, in between passage and of air, a watertight liner inside. it to the hull, making sure box first, leaving on bottom the top off, and brace

with insulation not to obstruct

Make the outside termediate stiffeners

as noted above. Add posts in the corners and inand sides to support the inner shell and to take its

fastenings. Then coat the inside of the outer box with bitumastic paint and while it is still wet, line the box with tar felt paper laid with overlapping joints. This is a vapor barrier. The insulation the corner ~- I suggest posts and polyurethane the stiffeners. foam available in planks-is then cut Next make the inner plywood box. As for the drain, it must lead either overboard or, if the bottom of the box is below the waterline, to a sump tank. It is an invitation to rot to drain fresh water into the bilges of a wooden hull. The sump tank can be removable for dumping overboard or piped with a two-way valve to the bilge pump. Of course the drain should be at the low point of the bottom Before stead, with soidercd, to make of the box. the box top, joints smoothing easy. the liner is ideal, the corners must be fitted. The A liner plywood of stainless steel sheet inbe smooth watertight but the inner is tedious. can be fiberglassed making to fit between

even though cleaning

final finish should





Whenever when pour The fiberglass Finish tions

possible, and weight

a top opening Sometimes of a built-in

is best for the icebox, a front door when rolling omit

because at sea.

less cold air is lost but the cold air will of the box to box and parti-

the box is opened. out quickly, finished right

is unavoidable, Limit

so will the contents to 3/g. In fact, wooden ice.

box is significant. you might

the outside

I,$ U thickness,

the inside

the inside and


on the insulation. light from gratings in the bottom, fit adjustable food

the box with

to separate

Ready-made If you want ready-made fornia racks; tillers. that grab

Woodwork to save time parts makes, made among as your boatbuilding up by a mail other things, boxes; order paneled project supply and nears completion, There doors; Inc., magazine, you can use in Caliand book and

house. louvered

is an outfit

a complete for a Florida

line of dish,

rails and


and gratings

I have seen a set of doors made

boat manufacturer

and they were

first class. The name of the firm is H & L Marine Street, Compton, California 90221.


2965 East Harcourt







to be optional

ways, some

of them





for doing

everya to any

thing. Just remember seaworthy boat. The inspect coupled job. boats with opinions

that there is no compromise in quality reader is again urged to take advantage to study the details of the cxpcrienced. will soon reveal

if one is to produce of every opportunity Such observation,

of all types and

of construction.

the best way to handle

Patterns for Castiqs

While a great many fittings for boats may be purchased from the stocks of marine

hardware amateur To came jibstay gudgeons under peller

manufacturers, can save money fitting, and permanent pintles, floor.

there are always by making patterns that backstay are fitting, light

a few items that are special. Here the and having a foundry pour the castings. special propeller for the sailboat, aprrturr floors when tanks there is the rudder casting,

a few of the fittings


and sometimes struts

cast bronze

are located

the cabin shaft


Parts usually made of cast material it is seldom that off-the-shelf

for powerboats include prostruts fit properlyrudders, can be homemade, nf manganese from about inch. Above is important. too, bronze, 40,000 water, Some

and transom platform brackets. Some of the standard fittings but this does not always pay unless you have time to burn. Cast parts, and there especially for use underwater, different alloys. ranging are usually in tensile made are several


pounds per square inch to upwards of 100,000 pounds per square aluminum alloy castings are sometimes used where saving weight of these alloys are not very resistant put out by some of the marine

to salt water, makers should

and protective be used.


for aluminum also offers good



MI.SC~~l.I.,-l.~~O~~S IET.-IILS 193

sprrre / w;4





protection for sand The kind lines molten shrinkage work ple with

if applicable castings wood

to the alloy of your Almag 35. processes experience and casting


One of the best aluminum outlined, them as many already. finish,

alloys peoAny

is Alcoa and

pattern-making of wood for

will be but briefly wilt know it is given is drawn than is made rather


all about

may hc used hrcausr will shrink The rules

for patterns


a smooth a pencil). ovcrsizr and

but soft using fine the of of in

pine is prcfrrred accuracy metal

it is easy to work. during cooling, shrinkage he obtained

The fitting the pattern rule should at good

on the wood,

(pattern-makers shrinkage can

use a knife of bronze


by the amount if any amount to make and are made

expected. Such

is Y{h per foot, n be purchased hardware

work is to be done, easier. shrinkages will actually Inside of molding.

a two-foot

the layout


of $, J,,, etc., meaTtire Large, corners on patterns thin

per foot of length.

A two-foot strength other

rule made

for Y,,,fl shrinkage and for ease larger

249,, . have fillets to provide at an angle in the castings sections to each have proportionately

fillets than thicker-walled a pattern-makers supply fillet into tool as shown, the corners, rubbed For a small

sections. (See Figure 16-1A.) Fillets may be purchased from house in wax strips, which are stuck in place with a heated be made and of leather wax. with smooth to smooth you should and fastened Knead a fillet rod. tool, in place which with glue. is simply pattern a slight This is a with paraffin the soft wax and work it Give the finished

or they may

job you can get along making it uniform

steel ball on a handle, several sand. taper, better Also, when

or with a dowel, or varnish is made,

or with a metal

coats of shellac the pattern

it so it will not stick in the molding give the sides of the pattern the mold called by the molder. a molding

called draft, so it may be easily removed from understood by referring to B of Figure 16- 1. work, such as boat fittings, a small

For smali









lhv /)cl/lrr,r, con, nnd mold Ibr u .5inl~~l~~ hollouf rrtsling.

be usrd. and on it will be placed a box without ends to retain mold. The finished the drag, and togrther the assembly

the sand used for the

mold consists of two boxes one upon the other, called the cope and is called a flask. Dowel pins on the cope fit into The pattern is placed in the drag that when packed hard it will stick together: the two surfaces will part. metal, and some small is removed from

sockets on the drag and keep the two in alignment. and covered with sand of such a nature the drag is then turnrd

over. With the pattern still in the mold, the surface of the sand

is coated with a powder so that when more sand is added,

Then the rope is added, tilled with sand, and rammed solid. The cope is lifted off and turned over, and the sprite, a passage for pouring the molten the drag, leaving A flat pattern unless the pattern cope is replaced The molding with a complicated a space to be filled with metal. as shown in Figure shape, is more 16-1 is easy to remove, difficult but a deeper one, or one breaking the sand to take uut without vent holes to carry off gases arc cut with molders tools. The pattern

sides have proper draft. for the simple

The casting is ready to be poured when the casting by the foundry. 16-1B is easy, but a block pattern in Figure

on the drag. The sprue is cut off the finished procedure

study of the mold shown in Figure 16-2 will indicate that to produce a casting shaped like the pattern, the pattern would have to be split along the centerline. Further. if the cpsting is to have a hollow portion, is made by ramming the hollow area must be kept free of molten metal; box until full and then baking the sand to this is done with a core of sand shaped like the desired hollow. A simple core as shown sand into an open-top

MISCEI-L.A.VECLS !?ET.d!LS make regular tended it hard and strong beyond the length enough to withstand the pouring of the lead.


Cores of irthe core is exin the

shape are molded in a split box with dowel pins. In the pattern, of the casting so the imprint

of the core extension

mold will support the core. This is shown in the figure. The core print, as it is called, is painted black so the molder will understand the core. When the casting has cooled and been taken from the mold, the core is easily broken out.

Ballast The

Keel keel casting for sailboats will be of cast iron or lead and will be bolted


either through the keel or through both the keel and floors, as preferred by the architect. Bolts will be shown on the plans and are the largest -diameter fastenings used in the construction consisting of the boat. They are made of rods threaded on both ends for nuts, bronze or Everdur iron or Monei bolts and on the inside of the boat are set up on heavy washers under which are grommets of a few turns of cotton wicking soaked in red lead. Tobin wrought bolts are used to hold lead keels, while good galvanized are used when the keel is cast iron. Because designer made shrinkage of the weight of the metals --~ 450 pounds per cubic of the ballast and just as carefully rule. Shrinkage reproduced by the builder. foot for cast iron and figured by the for the keel are is made with a 710 for lead -~ the size and location must be carefully Templates the keel pattern is VH per foot.

from the mold loft lines and, as noted earlier, of lead and iron castings

The boatbuilder can make the pattern for a cast iron ballast keel. but the casting must be done by an iron foundry becauve of the high temperatures required. On the other hand, for a lead keel, the amateur or professional boatbuilder can make the mold clrttl pour the casting.

Cast Iron When (Figure pattern familiar thickness together.

Keel the pattern is made of soft pine, and for a rectangular be constantly checked for accuracy keel as the Those

the keel is iron,

16-t3A) the job is quite simple. For a more shapely keel the pattern nears the finished shape. The pattern

entails more

work, and in either case the sections should

for a shaped keel is made of layers of method of construcfastening them

pine anywhere from 1 to 2 thick that are screw fastened and glued together. with model building can see that the bread and butter through tion may be used here by drawing waterlines

the keel, spaced the same as the

of wood used, and sawing each layer roughly to shape bcforc an iron keel are cored, in diameter

The holes for bolts through the cores in relation

and care must be taken to locate into account. lhe to take the nut, allowing enough

to the bolt spacing,

always taking shrinkage

core in the bottom of the keel is enlarged

depth to cement over the nut to close the hole in the casting. A core box is made only for the longest core needed, as the molder can break cores off to proper length for the shorter ones. When required, a centerboard slot is also cored. The iron casting should, if possible, be given a coat or two of red lead before it starts






_5ECT:Sh; -I-HRL OWhi w5 VOLT ~A-3E -EL EL

l-H 4 c2A-r mbn5rEE


..:,?lf _ i, .5--e ker v13c~

-SE',-:?I,-b b


T--!=Ft? *EEL E+,-fj\ES-,FJP Ah ATEJrZ

-LEADkiEiz ----.-__while a had keel

Figure 16-3. AH irm kvcl must h sand-cast in aloundry, cnn hc ccrst I)) N mold nt /kc Suilding site. to rust. L.atrr on it can be finished smooth.

by applying coats of trowel cement

and sanding it


Keel distance. boatbuilders sometimes make

When a willing foundry is within a reasonable a male pattern for a sand-cast

lead keel and let the foundry make the mold and pour

the casting. Making the pattern is a relatively easy job as compared to making the sand mold at the boat shop. One firm named Keel Makers solicits this business, either for one-off or production castings. Keel Makers can be contacted at 101 New Bern Street,

MISCELLANEOUS Charlotte, 11746. Accuracy 0.26 North Carolina 28203, or at 43 Old Brook when making Road,



Dix Hills, New York for lead castings. Each

Of course,

if you have a local foundry important

that will do the job you are in luck. patterns As a comparison, to make (Figure cast iron weighs about 16-3B), as it can be that

is particularly inch.

cubic inch of lead weighs about 0.41 pound. pound per cubic A rectangular necessary.

lead keel mold is quite simple with either wood or plaster

made with planks,

fillets used to shape the corners when and this requires

It must be remembered

that the keel will be heavy,

the mold be strong so that it will not break apart when the lead is poured and that the mold be supported dry before starting, may be burned. Making the mold for a shaped lead keel (Figure reason to have the keel sand-cast in a foundry. 16-3C) is quite a task and is a good As shown in the section, forms are by husky braces and shores. as the lead will spatter The inside of the mold is given a thin coat of plaster to prevent it from burning. The plaster and the mold must be perfectly if poured into a wet mold and workmen

made to the outside of the keel, plus the thickness of the mold, at stations and half stations. They are then set up rigidly (Figure 16-3D) and the mold is strip-built inside of the forms. As the strips are fitted they are edge nailed to each other and to the forms. The inside is finished to a set of templates representing the finished keel plus an allowance for shrinkage. Gouges and round-bottomed planes are used for this work. The casting will reflect Lead, fortunately, iron melting the degree of smoothness point, by bricks so a roaring of your mold. wood or charcoal fire can be built has a low melting but at the least, you will need a large

pot, supported

under it, and several ;ron ladles. Better still is a melting pot with a pouring spigot or pipe leading over the mold and a metal trough to distribute the molten metal over the length of the keel. The top of the open mold must be level. A centerboard taken care of by a plank of proper thickness must be on hand to allow for discrepancies, mold before pouring. to act as a core. because slot can be More than enough lead the pouring must be car-

and some of the pigs may be placed in the

Several hands will be needed,

ried on to completion before the top of the lead already in the mold starts to solidify. Start to pour when the lead in the pot is hot, distribute it in the mold, skim the slag from the top, and puddle the molten lead to prevent the formation of air pockets. Add pigs to the pot as you pour, and they will quickly melt in the hot lead if the fire is kept blazing. Allow at least a day for the casting to cool before removing the mold. The top surface of the lead casting can be smoothed with a woodworking wood auger hand plane. The holes for the keel bolts are drilled with a barefoot or with a twist drill

lengthened by welding a rod to the end, preferably used in an electric drill of ample capacity. Eirhk r drill must be frequently withdrawn to clear the lead shavings, and kerosene is used as a lubricant. Where necessary, the outside of the keel is smoothed with coats of trowel cement, and the cement is then sanded. The keel casting is liberally coated with thick white or red lead where it fits against keel and deadwood.



Chainplates they are kept straight and prevented The mast loads are transmitted to the

Unless masts are designed to be free-standing, from breaking by wire rope standing rigging.



DETAILS The chainplates must be designed plan locations

hull by straps called chainplates. and the designer chainplates

should show on the construction to calculate

and details


to the task, of the

along with the size and number

of fastenings.

It is a simple matter

the strength of the metal parts, but their fastenings of the shroud. Sometimes However, the chainplates are bolted

to the hull can be insufficient. through the planking frames

The area of the wood in the hull against which the bolts and are located either on the outside of the plankit is better to bolt them to backing the clamp. frames (See Figure 16-4A.) which with fastenings,

bear must be equal to the strength and a frame

ing or between the planking and a frame. blocks between Blocks of this type eliminate weakens the hull somewhat Inside chainplates let flush into the planking,

that are cut to bear against the necessity at that point. of cutting

are to be preferred, metals

as on the outside they will show unless neatly such

and the metal may bleed and discolor the topside paint. due to corrosion, to various

is best to use corrosion-resistant chainplates

steel for both plates and bolts, because types of small boat chainplates





or Type 316 stainless are several

there have been many cases of and these are shown in

torn out under stress. This may result in a broken mast. There peculiar classes,

detail on the plans for the boats. Referring to chainplates in general, the end of the lug extending above deck should have only slightly rounded edges so as not to reduce strength unnecessarily. To stop leaks, the hole through collar the deck should be filled with length upwards of 28 fret compound or fitted with a metal set in compound. type with a waterline

Sailing yachts of the more expensive are fitted with a rectangular bronze which lugs for the shroud turnbuckles trnding keel. This sheerline notched arrangement. of old wooden

plate between the frames and the planking to are bolted or riveted. Diagonal metal straps ex16-4B, distributes rather than the rigging loads over a often noticed in the is carefully the frames

to the keel are riveted to the plate and screwed to each frame crossed and the shown in Figure boats. of the hull. called hogging,

large area and prevents the distortion

The planking for the straps as each strake is fitted.


Spars sailboats have spars that are hollow, and there has been a definite alloy extrusions. There are several manufacturers in the boat. trend of

Most modern toward aluminum Wooden

the use of aluminum

spars that make them up ready for installation used for hollow spars. made of mast-grade spars are preferably

Despite this, it is a

wood is still extensively

clear Sitka spruce because

light, strong wood. Clear fir and pine run rather far behind as second choice. Inasmuch as a mast is a column, the maximum sectional area is required at midlength of the longest unsupported panel, so to further save weight aloft, the mast is tapered from the point of greatest cross-sectional area to the head and sometimes to the heel as well. The edges on which sails are set, the top of the boom and the aft side of the mast, are made straight so the sails will set as they should. When using modern waterproof glue, fastenings in spars are not required or even desirable, as they add weight up high where it is detrimental to the stability of the

LUG5 eeur 7-C AbdiLE OF 5i+F2ouD

PLATE FOR5hl,ALi3\3AT5 __. --



I~- 1i I hl&T ~ $ --=Y ,, ------=i=i=j+J\LN__ 1,,,lPA, .+7. 1,+ : A&z _ __f-i--, /*ji& 6.8_1 w

_r ,_, _._ ._--CHAlhi FL


I;igu rc 164. hoat. As a matter glue was known. varnish to protect long lengths, scarphed fitting



of fact, hollow glued spars were in use years before truly watrrproof water-resistant the joints casein glue being relied upon together Sitka spruce, is required. fortunately. of amateur-built When joining with coats of is available in from moisture.

and the majority lengths. patience joint

boats will have spars that fall within the individual pieces are 10 times the thickness of to make a perfectly is as strong or

the range of available the piece. Considerable feather-edged

on the flat, the length of the joint being made about of this type. Theoretically

as well as sharp tools are needed

a glued joint





L.&x OR 0CWt-4 SECT!,?klS I soL~ca=2 O.A.d AST





5%7A-i ~~O!vlS





mEct& BOLT EP!=?Z SF

ROUT-R 5,+ii



16-S. to each other, but inasmuch

stronger than the wood, so that splices could be adjacent

as a glued joint will be locally stiffer than the adjoining unjointed pieces, it is best to stagger the scarphs as much as possible. Figure 16-5 shows a scarph and typical hollow spar sections forta.antl-aft in use today. mast IO make is a hollow, rectangular rabhetrd. is prcfcrrcd box spar. This section, with the pircrs by some builders because it is easier to conThe simplest

1101 skidding of the glued surtaces. The section next in simplicity is the round spar made of hollowed-out halves. The larger spars, both the oval section and ,he round srction made of staves, are the most difficult to make and would be quite a job for the amateur. Of the two, the oval is the easier in the smaller sizes, as it consists of two round halves and two tapered side pieces. The wall thickness of oval and round spars is always tapered in the interest of weight saving. classes use a solid mast with a groove routed out for the This groove can be made by first making a saw cut Some of the sailboat

boltrope on the luft ot the mainsail.

with a circular saw and then routing out the groove in the saw cut, using a very highspetbd cutter with a shank narrower than the saw cut. (Sue Figure 16-5.) To make a boltrope lhc tangular groove in a hollow spar made up of two rounded routed on each half before the sections sailboats. which T-boom booms. is used on smaller halves, the groove is hand are glued together. have solid recgouged or machine

also sometimes

Hollow Probably machine


Spars to make a box spar. unless he has extensive dressed four sides to the dimensions to add a slight thickness, say With such material with the architects at the for at hand detail &,

the easiest way for an amateur tools, is to order the spar material section of the spar.


It is desirable

dressing up and finishing there is nothing spar, fairing the lines. The

after the spar has been glued. the pieces in accordance

to do but taper

plans. This is done by laying off the width at the spacing the shape with a long batten, width layout for the forward

shown on the plan for the the edges to

and then sawing and planing

and aft pieces is done from a centerline

MISCELLANEOUS because joint both edges are shaped. surface Duplicate contact sides may be temporarily be made. a makeshift 16-6A.)



nailed together

and made at the same time. with 100 percent

Be sure to keep the edges square, cannot

or else a perfect glued

When only one or two spars are to be made, by nailing a series of short boards horizontally ground to support the outer ends. (See Figure at the same height, or the top edges shimmed side of the spar that is to be straight, the boom. Shellac pieces

spar bench may be devised with legs down to the

to a wall or fence,

All supports should be level and

to be so, as upon them will be placed the

that is, the aft side of the mast or the top side of that will be glued.

the inside of spars, taking care not to coat the surfaces gauge to scribe between the lines. The filler

Use a marking elsewhere

the width of the side pieces on the forward and aft pieces at the ends of the spar and is also omitted in way of and shellac

and shellac as called

for by the plans are fitted

these. Because solid filler blocks have been known to swell and either split the spar or cause poorly glued joints to open up, some prefer the pad-type fillers glued to the inside before assembly as shown in sketch B, Figure 16-6. A long solid filler fitted at the heel of the mast is bound to locally stiffen the mast due to the sudden increase in sectional area. The late Phil Rhodes, one of the great yacht designers, insisted upon a block cut as shown in Figure 16-6C to avoid this situation and also advised running saw cuts longitudinally on the block to allow for expansion. Provide drain holes in all solid fillers cxcrpt the one at the masthead, so moisture will not collect and start rot. When everything paying partirular is ready. mix the glue strictly to those regarding spread it quickly in accordance and thoroughly. with the instructions, Before gluing make as there attention temperature and working life after mix-

ing. Once the glue is mixed, sure there are enough clamps

at hand: it is surprising

how many are needed,

should bc one every few inches or so to apply the pressure required for the glue, particularly resorcinol. Although Figure 16-6a shows a boom that is larger than any that the average amateur would attempt. it is a good illustratiorr of the number of clamps used bv a builder to ensure a perfect job. Ail kinds of clamps may be utilized if their openings clamp joined 16-6D.) The clamps should not be removed for at least 24 hours to allow the glue to develop full strength. corners, paper. finished coats. Finish the spar by scraping finish is wanted the excess glue from the seams, gradually working has a beautiful round the when and then sand all sides smooth, If a varnish down to fine abrasive appearance insufficient, are sufficiently wide to clamp the spar plus pieces of scrap used under the If the number of your clamps is sketch, Figure spar clamps of two husky pieces of oak or ash 92 n diameter. (Set pads to distribute together pressure and prevent scars.

you can make satisfactory

at the ends with bolts of at least

Sitka spruce

clear - apply at least four or five coats, carefully

sanding off the gloss between

Round Even (Figure

Hollow though

Spars may have a rectangular mast and boom, halves around the spinnaker a centerline. pole First,

a boat

16-6G) will be round,

made in symmetrical





16-6a. together and equal to the surfaces of the Make

get out two pieces of stock that will be square when clamped diameter material; of the pole in the middle. Figure 16-6E, Mark centerlines

on the mating

then lay out the inside of the pole, that is. the part to be hollowed. control

hollowing templates,

for points every two feet or so apart and constantly the wall thickness of

use them to check as the wood is cut away. The templates

the finished spar and guard against ending up with walls that are too thin or not uniform in thickness. The hollow portion is ended in a quick taper, as shown on the sketch, so that pole end fittings will be attached assembly is tapered. to solid wood. all When the halves have been glued together, and then the square the spar must be laid out on the outside,

The walls will then be of equal thickness

along the spars centerline. The next step is to cut the corners off the square and make it eight-sided. This is done by drawing guide lines as done in Figure 16-6F. The following description is an example of how the guide lines might be laid out. At any point along the length of the tapered assembly, the end of a rule is placed even with one cor-

ner, and the rule is pivoted until the 12 mark lines up with the opposite corner. Points are made on the wood at the 3t$$ 0 and 8rh H marks on the rule. This is repeated at every foot and a batten is run through the points to draw a line. These figures should of the spar, because for ease of layout, the he varied to suit differences in the diameter

rule should be almost square across the spar. The ratio of 12-814-3% can be reduced or enlarged to suit any size of spar. For smaller spars of, say, 5 d diameter, the figures can be halved. Therefore, the end of the rule is held on one corner of the spar, and the 6 mark on the other, with points made at the 1% Nand 4 !LaII marks. When guide lines have been drawn on all four sides, it is a simple matter to make the spar eight-sided with a drawknife and plane and to then round it off to be finished by sanding.

-----_____ I --------____ ----------






% ~ __ em+ Of Ak.JO -IDIdhSl-5 ARE W?ZAGHr3



LdE5 MA-We\ SICSC, XAWicl 0t.l AL -V CUT rwh ROUND -!-AWLCC I,- e @MT-

Chamfer ~orndr5 droc moisture

&qOhl THRO

LL *T k!EcJwIM-







DETAILS sail will be straight on the aft side but the method of

A round mast for a marconi making it is the same.



for Wooden


Not too many years ago almost all masts were round and the upper ends of the standing rigging location the marconi manufacturers struction. logical therefore were spliced in a loop, dropped down over the masthead to the desired of of a and held in position by shoulder cleats on the mast. With the introduction a rope consisting

rig and the systems of stays for supporting

it came taller masts, and the

of wire rope started to make what is called strand,

single wire core with eighteen It has more strength not suitable rigging

wires twisted around it. This is known as 1 to 19 conthan any other rope of the same diameter It is very stiff and difficult a mast, particularly spliced rigging and is the to splice and is disappeared which are

to use to reduce windage. for looping around Consequently, section.

one with an elongated

oval or rectangular

has practically

and the ends of the wire rope are fitted with swaged stainless steel terminals,

attached to the mast by means of tangs. Most tangs are made of strong sheet metal, like Everdur, Monel, or stainless steel, and are held to the mast by one bdt and a number of wood screws calculated to take the outward and downward stress components of the stay. It is the job of the naval architect light and strong, and each tang is usually carefully to design tangs that arc both for the job to be done.


The tangs can be made by a machine shop or a rigging specialist, or the enterprising amateur can tackle the sheet metal work by fitting his bandsaw with a metal cutting blade. Besides making the tangs exactly according to plan, the builder must drill the holes for the tang fastenings with care. Loose holes will permit the tangs to slip, possibly overloading a few of the fastenings instead of letting all of the fastenings do their share of the job. and mizzen masts Figure 16-7 shows tangs for double These particular tangs lower shrouds on the main simple, and well the mast with clips for the of a ketch. are strong,

made, with tube bolts used to save weight. Straps encircling heels of the spreaders Fore-and-aft

are found a few inches above the tang bolts.

bolts for tangs have nuts on the aft side of the mast that would interthat has been glued to the mast and cut away for desirable on booms to prevent sail slides from points of extra strain, of the mainsail such

fere with the sail track if it were laid directly on the masts aft face. To get around this, the sail track can be laid on a batten the nuts. Battens through the batten as at the extreme through-fastenings are also sometimes binding due to contact

with the boom at their edges. The screws for the sail track go headboard,

and imo the wall of the spar. At certain ends of a track and at reefed positions rather than screws should be used.

Mast Step The compressive load from the mast is taken by the mast step, which is of some hardthe load

wood like oak. The step is given a length of several frame spaces to distribute

over the hull, and in boats of any size it is placed in notches in the floors after first having been notched itself. When carefully done, the resulting joint at each floor will pre-






vent movement floors, drain Figure

of the step in any direction, 16.4C. The mortise ltj-4B.

and in addition,

it is drift bolted to the and rot the step. A there are other

in the step to take the mast tenon should have a but like many other boat details,

hole drilled

at the low point so that water will not collect

typical step is shown in Figure

types of steps, particularly in small craft, and details will be found on the plans. Masts are sometimes stepped on deck or on the cabin roof. The thrust load is then carried ample down to the hull by a stanchion strength. or by strategically located joiner bulkheads of




The plans for the boat you are building will probably call out the specifications for the parts if the spars are to be made of aluminum alloy. There is now a large choice of sizes of extruded sections for masts, booms, spinnaker poles, and the like. and also a large choice of fittings to complete the rig and make it work. Sailboat rigging is a business of its own and is best left to the experts if you do not have the details of what you need. There are ads in the sailing magazines Marine, for many spar suppliers and sailmakers to use aluminum Street, Guilford. Connecticut ready to 06437; help with your problems known firms are Kenyon if you have decided spars. Among the best-

New Whitfield




Figure Schaefer Spars, Inc., Industrial

16-8. Massachusetts for a mast. 02745; Florida and Mack-Shaw 33315.

Park, New Bedford, an extrusion


100 S. W. 15th Street,

Fort Lauderdale, of the sail similar

Figure 16-8 is a section through in Figure Vertical 16-5. Tie Rod

In this design there is a slot to the wooden mast section

for the sail and a groove for the boltrope

The forces from the thrust of the mast and the upward pull of the rigging tend to collapse the hull, so that in moderate-size step and mast partner boats it is well to fit a tie rod between the mast 16.4B. The rod is threaded on both ends for them, as shown in Figure

nuts which are set up over washers. Just take up the nuts snugly when installing as there is no need to try to putt the deck and step together.


of Rudders consists rudders, of a wood or metal it is attached blade and a stock through which force is

A rudder transmitted powerboat waterline, balanced,

to the blade and around

which it pivots. meaning


for common

types of

to the hull by hangers on the transom.

called gudgeons and pintles. the rudder is either un-

The location

of the rudder is eithtir inboard,

forward of the after end of the or it is partly bal-

or it is hung outboard


with all the blade area abaft to turn the rudder

the stock or pivot point,

anced, with a percentage force required

of the area forward of the stock. is reduced.

In the case of the latter the

Powerboat Modern

Rudders powerboat rudders are now almost invariably The made of metal, although type has a

formerly they were often of wood. They are sometimes into a split stock through blade of cast manganese which the blade is riveted.

of galvanized

sheet steel, fitting

most common

bronze bossed for a rolled bronze or None1 stock that is inThis is a more durable blade than a steel one. Figure

serted in the head of the rudder.

MISCELLANEOIJS C-i? 3?=\ZE 23 ;-A-5 572, j j I 5 .d:;:t ; -p< 1 v( I* -5xEj i




I I i

0 A

I\ . \ ;cyy:gL,l - f3ne ., LsEetEr F-ZCK c -v , +=l \ 4 yt;r-,yfga 0 I\L,: e,rtEEL

16-9A shows this type of rudder supported a hole in a metal skeg. A spade-type the same underwater the bottom sketched manner.



at the top by the rudder port, a stuffing box in Figure 16-9B and is made in liable to catch

to prevent leaks where the stock enters the hull, and at the bottom by a pintle riding in rudder is sketched but is not supported by cutting at the bottom and is more

lobster pot buoys and the like. It is a clean design and results from an effort to reduce resistance away the deadwood, steering of sizes. so there is no way of supporting rudder is used behind The two types of rudders of the rudder. On twin screw boats a spade-type qualities. in 4 number

each of the propellers

and gives excellent

may be purchased



Rudders sailboats have an outboard rudder as shown in Figure 16-10A. upon available material, warping, The and

Small centerboard

blade may be of one or more pieces, depending case it should be doweled with galvanized the grain direction reason. dicated The blade area below the surface

but in any

iron or brass rod to prevent of the water is streamlined thickness catalog

of the wood should be alternated

from piece to piece for the same in shape, as inbeing about 25 peris used, the rudder

on the sections in the sketch, with the maximum and pintles as seen in any marine disengaged

cent of the blade width aft of the leading edge of the rudder. ety of gudgeons hardware may float up and become

When the common vari-

from the boat, leaving the skipper with a tiller in this, the rudder may be weighted with

hand but no control over rhe boat. To prevent

an insert of lead heavy enough to offset the buoyancy of the blade, or the upper pintle can be drilled for a cotter pin just below the gudgeon. The tiller is fixed, or preferably made to hinge so it can be raised when tacking. In shoal water localities the small boat outboard rudder is often made with a








7lLLClC FlrnuG


A t=Ed 5TAtJDAc2C ,P~vioTit.lG b3JDDER



16-10. Small sailboat rudders

and fittings.

pivoting blade so that it may be raised to clear obstructions. (See Figure 16.10B.) This is done by pivoting the blade between long cheek pieces riveted securely to a filler of the same thickness buoyancy while sailing as the blade. A lead insert is needed to prevent it from rising due to of the boat. A light line is used to raise the rudder or the forward motion over shoal areas.

Some of the standard fittings available from marine stores are sketched in Figure 16- 1OC. Besides these, several of the marine hardware manufacturers make sets of fittings for small outboard rudders that prevent the rudder from coming off, yet leave the rudder readily removable from the transom. Rudder fittings should be bolted rather than screwed to the transom.



Rudders shows the rudder for a keel sailboat in which the stock is run down far from pressure of water against and and

Figure 16-11A enough

to take a few bolts through when the rudder

the piece of blade next to it. A strap is fitted as

shown at the end of the stock to prevent it from bending the blade gudgeon are fitted for support.

is turned. At the bottom of the rudder a pintle Unfortunately, the variety of rudder shapes

thicknesses is so great that stock fittings are not available and patterns must be made for castings. These fittings are usually detailed by the architect with enough dimensions so that, nonferrous tough, together metals with templates fittings. made on the hull and rudder, It is inadvisable One of the best materials shafting, the necessary patto use anything but for rudder stocks is pounds per terns can be turned out for the use of the foundry. for rudder strong Tobin bronze or Everdur

while the cast parts should be of a of not less than 60,000 because the rudder is important.

good grade manganese square inch.

bronze with tensile strength

Do not skimp on the quality of fittings,




Figure Larger indicated 16-11. rudders mus! be made of pieces that are doweled or drift bolted together in diameter near the trailing by the fastenings. bc joined together, their coming as




by the plans. The size of dowels and bolts should be shown by the designer edge, where the blade is thinner, Dowel holes must be parallel and all fastenings to must be kept in and when and then a to make a

and may be decreased one another the middle

so the wood will not be weakened or the pieces cannot of the blade to prevent


when the blade is tapered. to each other,

Drift bolts used in heavier rudders do nut have to be parallel driven at varying angles, piece of wood is inserted how the blade is tapered. If the builder tapering alternated they lock the pieces together. to fill the slot. The enlarged edge have a slot cut far enough

Drifts driven from the trailing section in Figure 16-11A shows

in from the edge so the head will be hidden,

It may be seen that the amount of work required enough piece to have a thickness planer,

rudder should not be underestimated. is fortunate each some hand labor can edge. Otherwise all be saved by planing in adjacent to its thickness at the forward warping,

is done with plane and spokeshave.

The sketch also shows how the grain is and how the after edge onto the rudder

pieces to prevent or minimize As mentioned

of the sternpost with a minimum is sheathed painting, sheathing

is hollowed out so water will flow past the deadwood of disturbance. about in Chapter

8, the edge of the sternpost

1/? thick for protection from worms and to eliminate which is practically impossible without unshipping the rudder. The is carried around the sides by an inch or so and secured with copper tacks. edge of the rudder blade begins aft of the center of the stock so that the

with copper

The forward

rudder can be turned hard over without fouling the sternpost. With the rudder arranged as shown in Figure 16-11 A, water is kept out of the hull by screwing a threaded brass or bronze pipe into a hole drilled in the horn timber. The hole must be just the right amount smaller than the pipe so the threads will take hold, and it must be drilled at the correct angle. The best way to start the hole is to cut through a block (shown dotted in the figure) having its face at right angles fcJ the center of the stock. This can be laid out from your mold loft drawings and a drilling that the hole is drilled at the proper angle. guide can be devised to ensure





B;*zEym iv)& -42 BeorJZE





,=?I?.\ m.




CPA\\ ---.IUEf ._.. ----






for Auxiliary

Sailboats and the shaft is on the centerline, there must can turn

When a sailboat (Figure

is fitted with an engine cut in the deadwood

be a hole or aperture

and rudder in which the propeller when revolving.

16- 11 B). The aperture

should not be larger than necessary,

but its size must be The edge of disc of a

such that the propeller the aperture the same diameter

blades will not strike the rudder on the propeller

can be checked on the mold loft floor by setting up a semicircular as the propeller centerline, on the centerline of the rudder.

and then hinging

piece of thin plywood or heavy cardboard

The aper-

ture is cut away by trial until the rudder can bc swung 40 degrees off center and still clear the propeller blades. (See sketch, Figure 16-12.) It is not sufficient to end the rudder stock at the top of the aperture: it must either partly surround the opening as shown in Figure 16-11B. or completely encircle it as shown in Figure complete machining long pattern 16.1lC. Sometimes the casting to finish the latter method is carried to make, out by casting and quite the stock in one piece from upper end to the pintle is needed, is required is not the easiest A shorter the job. casting below the aperture, around but a a lot of as

the aperture,

shown, is hard to beat for strength, and except for filing rough spots from the casting, the only machinin, = needed is to taper, bore, and keyway the upper end for the stock, drill holes in the blade straps, and turn a pintle or b arc for an inserted pintle on the lower end. The blade straps shown are cut from flat bronze and secured with counter-

! /fl b >; :





16-13. tapered and keyed to

sunk rivets. The stock, of course, is made from bronze shafting, match the apertuie casting,

and is secured with a pinned nut on the lower end. A ruda cleep hole by ;akto box is shown on the fittings be and the stock and lifting A stuffing the rurder enough

der made like this may be removed from the hull without digging ing off the two-piece disengage adapted, steerer. the bottom horn timber. split gudgeon pintle from the heel gudgeon.

This will very likely be a special job,

as seldom can star.dard or in larger

due to the angle between stock and horn timber. tiller fitting,

The upper end of the stock boats for a wheel

of any rudder has a keyway for a standard manufacturers. An expensive and by no means necessary the trailing Thk sheathing edge as illustrated by templating is made the shape

There are several varieties of each of these items made by the marine hardware refinement to a rudder is to bronze sheath Figure 16-13. bandsawing the edge and

in Figure 16-12B

and in the photograph,

of the trailing

The edges of the curved strips are filed smooth

bet that is cut so the sheathing

from a sheet of bronze about &, V to X2 Minch thick. and there is much waste. and laid on the rudder to mark a rabwiil be flush with the surface of the blade. Fastening and the trailing the rudder I;harp. Sometimes is of countersunk head rivets as shown, edges are brazed on a new boat will

by means together,

then ground


vibrate so that it chatters considerably, a condition remedied by sharpening the trailing edge somewhat, but the sheathed rudder is perfect from the start and is usually fitted on cruisers and racers of the finest quality.

Steering There

Controls directional forces to the rudder, starting with

are various means of transmitting

the simple tiller for an outboard

rudder shown in Figure 16-10A.

When the rudder is



DETAILS methods must be used. Some sailboats attached to the upper fastened and securely have an Edson-type stock. Other

inboard, steerer These sailboats

more complicated

with the wheel and gearing gears must be carefully have the wheel farther over sheaves. 02745,

end of the rudder to the structure.


away from the rudder and use a pedestal steerer con-

nected to a quadrant rope running ford, Massachusetts and issues a catalog

on the rudder stock with a length of sprocket and chain and wire The Edson Corp., 471 Industrial Park Road, New Bedis one of the worlds largest producers of sailboat steerers a design handbook. from a pedestal A recent Edson innovation conin lieu of cable-over-pulley

that is practically cable steering

utilizes husky push-pull

nections to the rudder tiller. This greatly simplifies the installation. There are several types of steerers for powerboats. One method gear steerer steerer. at the wheel a.nd chain use a gearbox sizes of boats, and wire rope similar Others at the wheel or elsewhere

uses a reduction pedestal to for

to the sailboat

in the system and connect type of steerer, suitable

the rudder arm with shafts, solid or pipe. A more modern small to medium pull cable from the rack to an arm at the rudder.

uses a rack and pinion at the wheel and a heavy pushThis is by far the simplest type of

steerer and is seen in many boats because it is the least expensive to install. The fortunate builder has good detail of the steering system on his plans: otherwise he has been left on his own to work it out. The steering much of the interior gear parts be securely wire rope nonferrous sheaves. whenever joinerwork fastened latter The has been built. should to prevent movement should be installed before too It is most important that all steering be carefully

of units such as the steerer and and should

be through-bolted

aligned to reduce friction and eliminate possible. manual Due to the high cost of labor, dard with the stock powerboat

wear on the wire rope. All parts should aiso be hydraulic steering has almost become cylinder, stan-


This type of steering consists essentially and a reservoir,

of a pump that is turned by the steering

wheel, a hydraulic

all connected by three tubes or hoses of small diameter. There cpn be two or more steering stations-it makes little difference as long as there are no leaks in the piping-so the more the number of stations of design, the more advantageous the system. One drawback, and this is a matter by introducing Florida 33559. is the great zumber of steering wheel turns In the larger boats, the number of turns pump instead of a manually steering components operated Inc., is Hynautic,

from hard over to hard over of the rudder. can be reduced Box 668, one. One of the largest suppliers Osprey,

a power-driven of hydraulic

Fuel Tanks Due to the danger of explosion and fire, the construction particularly struction Guard. gasoline tanks, should not be taken lightly. are well covered by standards with long experience, 17 and Recommended specify the all-important The standards and installation of fuel tanks, and conCoast

Both installation (1977)

set by the American and most recently Reading.) matter

Boat and Yacht Council, by the U.S. with them, so heed them Monel Alloy 400

written by people well. (See Chapter The standards

are only as good as your compliance

of tank materials.

MISCELLANEOUS remains for probably the finest metal from which to make tanks, but must not have of fuel tanks. a coating either

DETAILS for gasoline

213 or A

diesel fuel, but it is extremely diesel fuel tanks breakthrough aluminum

high in cost. Steel remains the most inexpensive of this book is the approval of certain

material alloys of

of any sort on the inside.

since the last edition

for the construction

Now tanks can be welded of alloys 5052, as called for

5083, or 5086. When buying a fuel tank, be sure it bears the label of the manufacturer by the standards nection One caution be galvanically and that it shows it was tested. system of the boat. tanks concerns the connection about aluminum compatible to the bonding

Also, be sure that it has a tab for conof metal fittings, such is to the

as metal tubing and metal ends of fuel hoses, to the tank, because with the aluminum pipe coupling threads weld half of an aluminum size of the opening;

the metal may not

alloy. One way to avoid trouble half. The bushing reduces

to the tank and then screw a stainless steel that is a size or two of hose, and these

pipe bushing into the female therefore

of the coupling

you must start out with a coupling to the tank are normally unthreaded to aluminum including

larger than usual. Fill and vent connections can be slipped over and clamped All valves in the fuel piping, engine (and fuel return And one final anywhere except word: which do not leak at the stems. openings

nipples welded to the tank. packless type,

those at the tank for the fuel suction to the must be of the approved for any purpose

line in diesel systems),

in the tank

are not permitted

on the top surface of the tank.

A tank manufacturer that has made hundreds of aluminum alloy fuel tanks for stock and custom boatbuilders as well as for the one-off people is Florida Marine Tanks, Inc., 16480 N. W. 48th Avenue, Hialeah, Florida 33014.

Tank Figure


Calculation used in boats and how to calculate their in If

16-14 shows tank shapes commonly by figuring Boatbuilders


the volume in cubic inches and dividing by 231 to find contents seem to always work the capacities is multiplied from inch dimensions.

U.S. gallons. dimensions gallons.

are taken in feet, the cubic capacity

by 7.48 for the answer in

The cylindrical and rectangular tanks A and B are straightforward to figure. Shape C is typical of a tank installed under the cockpit of a sailboat. The sides are parallel but the top and bottom Shape D is often are not, due to hull shape. The cross-sectional under the floor of a cabin, area W times H of the tank. the and again is the average of the area of the ends, or the same as the area at midlength used for tanks located of the ends.

volume is the length times the average of the area of the ends. The W measurements are taken at midheight

Propeller Propeller



Bearings non-corrosive material. At this writing two have

shafts must be made from strong,

of the best metals,

Monel Alloy 400 and the higher strength

Monel Alloy K-500



1b-i (J-s(DlMEdSlo~5


A 0

e Q

/ ;.

6 ALJ. =



LXH%W 231 -

0 0



MISCELLANEOUS just about priced themselves content, bronze, ing materials, metal, Council tioned and this is probably afford them. A somewhat a used Tobin shaft) out of the pleasure boat market. standard by various These



are high in nickel cannot of findshafting

the reason why little people,

unlike governments,

weaker metal, although and been replaced

for many years, is Tobin stainless steel

but this seems to have disappeared notably Armcos Aquamet

(but dont overlook the possibility

17, 18, and 22. If the shaft is going to be turning boat use, then Aquamet Aquamet diameter, 17 is a strong, suitable choice. and Yacht menBoat 22 is a better American

most of the time, like in commercial but in typical intermittent standard

yacht service

If your boat plans do not specify the shaft P-6 has charts for selecting spacing. above and also for bearing while the outboard

the sizes of shafts for the materials


shafts have a keyway machined for the propeller

on one end for the propeller locking nuts. The tapering

shaft coupling the propeller who is set up

to the engine,

end has a taper with keyway to match

hub bore and threads done so the propeller

must be carefully

will fit properly and is best left to a shaft supplier

for this work. Dimensions for machining the shaft end and propeller hub have long been standardized, at least in the U.S., and the SAE data for this is usually tabulated and illustrated in the catalogs of the propeller makers. When setting up the length of your shaft, allow one shaft diameters clearance between the propeller hub and the strut. Figure motorboat. batten shaft around 16-15A shows a longitudinal section at the shaft centerline arrangement of a twin screw with a keel The same section applies to a common to prevent single screw motorboat water from leaking additional

and cutaway skeg. It shows the usual modern log with a stuffing box inboard

of a rubber-necked into the boat struts Intermediate support. by a short due to vibration

the shaft, and a strut to support the shaft at the propeller. long to require The

are used when the shaft is sufficiently length minor proven of rubber hose secured

The stuffing box and the shaft log are both of bronze and are connected by clamps. hose helps to reduce misalignment of the shaft. Shaft logs are made in the several of boats,

angles that have

the most useful for the majority

but they may have to be shimmed

with a wedge of wood in your boat to get the correct alignment. The base flange of the shaft log must be made watertight by bedding the flange with a generous amount of bedding Wherever otherwise *a The because therefore compound, possible, such as Dolfinite, or with one of the thiokol-base with silicon with polyester be used. or epoxy resin, in place and is indeed. later with the shaft materials. bolts; the base should be through-fastened the wood should be treated to clean and paint This precaution bronze

wood screws of the same metal should the hole is difficult susreptible

shaft hole through

to worm damage.

is very important

Some shaft logs are designed

with a tube integral

with the base. The tube is a lining

for the shaft hole and is cut off flush with the outside of the hull. This type of shaft log is rather special and is not used as frequently as the kind that terminates at the base. Another type of special shaft log is sometimes used in moderate to large size boats where the shaft is quite long in proportion bearing between the first intermediate to the diameter and it is desirable to have a s shaft strut and the engine. The bearing In this case shaft

logs are made that have a short length of bearing.

is housed so the for-





uSHAFT -n-i~u B~iiC\xoc~D COMMOU

,?-. -1 I 1-k\ 5-e..--&&E iP.4 $, <Y-e. I)&,EE 7 \ \ II/ \\ I/ ICC \ J/ cr,,m..E7 ,\ -1.



LdL,3 -



Y~-\FT .---.I



~-HZ. ~~DZ;~ 11 7-v PE FEPLz,rJlj

l?Z.3 -

F u- ~.





MISCELLANEOLS ward end is not exposed cooling water tapped to a flow of water; water lubrication of the bearing. The



is provided

by engine

into the log forward

water used is part of is not detrimenThis type of shaft log item is the propeller to find a that

that usually piped into the exhaust line for cooling,

but the diversion

tal, because only a small amount is sent to the shaft log bearing. is specially made up and not found in marine supply catalogs. A part of the propulsion setup that is almost always a special shaft strut. As specified

by the plans, these are either the single amI or the v type, and are, however, enough some adjustable dimensions struts on the market

due to the angle of the shaft and the shape of the hull it is nearly impossible stock strut that will fit. There might just do the job. 16-15A umbian struts, or a mock-up Bronze pair to fit the boat. Otherwise, on a sketch

as shown in Figure

must be sent to a strut manufacturer I am not advertising Freeport, patterns New York 11520

so he can make up one or a but over the years Colthousands of special alterations.

anybody in particular, has made


so they have many

that may be adapted bronze.

with moderate

Most struts are made of cast manganese Struts are fastened or manganese should These through the planking

and the inside blocking

with silicon bronze and

bronze bolts. The heads of the bolts should be oval and countersunk slot to keep the bolt from turning from the strut manufacturer, specifying

have a screwdriver

while it is tightened. the length

bolts are best oldered

needed. You might as well have the strut maker install the bearing beat the Goodrich of bearing Cutless-type bearing, shell of bronze or, if the hull is aluminum, has grooves that channel and sand, thus minimizing the strut and secured diameter to an optional

in the strut. It is hard to bonded to an outer shell. This type

which is made of rubber


in water for lubrication

and for washing out silt is lightly pressed into are four times the shaft to can be cut to make two

shaft wear. The shell of the bearing bearing,

with one or two set screws. The bearings struts, so that one standard bearing

in length when used as the aftermost

and they are often reduced

half length in intermediate

intermediate ones. Figure 16-15A also shows a typical arrangement boat goes through outside. casting The latter for bearing the deadwood. lubrication. The stuffing bearing The stuffing has a Cutless-type

when the shaft of a single-engine

box is inside the hull, the stern bearing and a water scoop on each side of the box can be had rubber Both stuffing necked, with a box assembly and

piece of hose between the stuffing box and the casting. the stern bearing Water hull through joints are stock items of marine in the deadwood hardware

and are readily available. from leaking into the

will fill the hole for the shaft and must be prevented structure.

This is done by fitting a tube between

the stuffing box and stern bearing castings, either a lead sleeve as shown in A of the figure (the lead is easily flanged by hammering) or a bronze tube special ordered from a supplier bolts. The like Columbiar. pipe. Bronze. The pilots of the castings should be fastened waxed leaking. can be tapped for the ends of a threaded stuffing box The castings to the wood with hanger braided rings, flax or Teflon-

packing braid,

is square, and is installed




as individual

with the joints stag-

gered so they are not all in line, thus preventing



$?IGHT A$-+-EC?t.l




Direction Screw astern,

of Propeller

Rotation either right-hand requires rotation or left-hand. a r$ht-hand Looking propeller forward from in


are made

a shaft that turns clockwise

and a shaft that

turns counterclockwise 16-1G.

takes a left-hand


It is customary

for the propellers

twin screw boats to be of opposite

and to turn outboard

as shown in Figure



Shaft Couplings between vibration the engine and propeller shaft couplings there will first and the stern of a feeler

If there is misalignment not only be unnecessary to the rear bearing the engine mated

when the engine is running bearings

but also possible damage for the shaft, neck. Lacking

and seal of the reverse gear. The shaft should be installed to it. If there are only two support and a rubber-necked between the coupling

bearing or strut bearing geuge, test for alignment

shaft log, block up the shaft inboard at the rubber halves by inserting

the shaft log to prevent the shaft from sagging

four strips of paper

as shown in Figure 16.17. You can tell by gently pulling on the strips whether the pressure, and thus the gap, is the same for all pieces. Hardwood and thin brass shims are used under the engine mounts until the alignment is as perfect as possible. The final test is to tighten down the engine and still have good alignment of the couplings.

Many engines are equipped with adjustable mounts that need but a wrench to lift or lower them a few thousands of an inch, and some of the larger engines have jacking screws built into the mounts for the same purpose. If aligning of the engine is done with the boat out of water, it must be tested again



when the vessel is launched throwing Pulley out the alignment Drives is often



hulls change


when water-borne,

that was done while hauled out.

lhc boatbuilder

faced with figuring

out a v-belt

pulley ratio when a bilge pulley on an engine. or spcrd in RPM.

pump or rxtra generator

is to br driven from a power take-off pulley diameter

lhe fortnulitt~ below art handy for finding Driven pulley: RPM -_ diameter

x RPM of drivel of driven of driver

diamctcr diameter




of driven


pullry: Diameter = diameter x RPM of driven of driver RPM diameter


x RPM of driven of driver




The engine is almost always located some distance away from the steering station of the boat, so remote controls must be installed for operating the throttle, the reverse gear, and an emergency shutdown in the case of some two-cycle diesel engines. This used to be done with complicated linkages of rods, pipes, and bell cranks and was a job One of the greatest boons was the advent of the hydraulic of major proportions.



DETAILS but fingertip effort on a small lever on the gear instead of the to operate the old manual clutch. This led to the reduced the that drastically

reverse gear,

many foot-pounds

of effort needed

push-pull cable controls now seen in most boats, a method time and cost of installation. the engine, The engine control set of levers at the steering station brand of engine Control Controls, for connecting and two push-pull

system now consists of an attractive cables running from the levers to maker usually has kits for each to the gear and throttle. Morse heads is an out-

one each for gear and throttle. brackets Hudson,

The control

the engine end of the cables for each job.

The5.e save hou1.z of making 21 Clinton Street,

heads of high quality can be furnished Ohio 44236. firsthand Canada 4806 N. E. 12th Avenue, is Kobelt

by one of the oldest makers, Another pioneer in control Florida 33308, A newcomer Co., Ltd.,

Panish Transdyne, market Avenue,

Fort Lauderdale, experience. V5T lH2. Inc., Manufacturing

fit that can give advice from much with a first class product Vancouver, British for push-pull

in the U.S. 235 East 5th Lewis Road,

Columbia, cables,

The first two mentioned 640 North

are also sources

as is Teleflex.

Limerick, Pennsylvania 19468. The length of cables between control but they should be installed

levers and the engine can be almost unlimited, number of bends, and the minimum Contrary to the opiA litof the incables. They should

with a minimum

bend radii for the size of cable being used must not be exceeded. nions of some, it is a mistake to restrict only be secured sufficiently tle time spent planning bends. The control stallation. A variation of a control head with two levers per engine the cable the movement of push-pull to keep them from interfering furnish

with other equipment. for making

runs will show which way has the least number really good instructions


is the single lever control so the installation long runs of

favored by many operators.

Two cables per rngine are still required,

is planned the same as when there are two levers. When two or rnc*e control stations are planned

and would require

cables with many bends, consideration should be given to hydraulic controls for the Inc., mentioned earlier in this chapter under Steering throttle and gears. Hynautic. Controls, has a system that may do the job for you.




fuel, and electrical


to an engine should always have slack so vibra-

tion cannot cause premature failure of the lines. Cooling water lines to the engine should be hose, double clamped at each end with stainless steel hose clamps whenever possible. On the other hand, fuel lines should be hose of approved type with threaded ends and rtezler clamped. The reader should heed the relatively new regulations described in the following chapter. A good number of boats have sunk because exhaust clamped to the adjoining widths and hose overlap permitted on this subject. See the following by the American chapter hoses have been inadequately clamp

rigid pipes or tubes. Figure 16-18 shows the minimum for additional reference

Boat and Yacht Council standard to the ABYC.







of ~%cI=! r 12

Mlfd. WIOfH

Figure Electrical



Here is a part of modern boatbuilding that can get a builder into a lot of trouble. If he is lucky, there will be only one voltage on board, such as 12 volts direct current. However, more often these days there will also be 115 volts of alternating a shoreline perhaps not running, AC-powered connection to operate a charger to keep the batteries while dockside. also operate the AC side of a dual voltage refrigerator air conditioning heating current from topped off and to further, an

when the engines are Progressing such as an

and to operate generator range, cooking

AC independent

on board can be used to provide conveniences or air conditioning, in USC aboard, television,

etc. And farther

along the line there can be ~UWAC voltages yachts

and also IWO DC voltages, in some of the larger and there are of overload proto cope with the by the length of should be must be by due

such as 12 and 24 or 12 and 32. The complications American Boat and Yacht Council standards the standards

are endless:

thrrc seems to be no end at all. But this has been recognized, that alfe~tpl are a guide to the all-important matter

to keep things manageable.


tection to avoid fire and to the type of insulated conductors necessary various environments aboard a boat. The conductor size is governed thr wire and the ampere stranded approved crimped load to be carried, failure rather than solid to minimize terminals from vibration.

and the wires of the conductors Connections as well. be soldered

and should preferably

The I1.S. Coast Guard IO tragic cxprriences Guard guideline standardized

also has something

to say about electrical in boats with gasoline by the appearance standards. circuit has been a small breakers


in the past, particularly

engines. The Coast on the market of

to safe electrical

system installation recognized

is listed in the following chapter. For years, the only hardfor circuit pro-

Life is being made easier for the boatbuilder switchboards switchboard meeting availahle ware store-type tection. to boatmen

12-volt DC panel

having six to a dozen toggle switches and automotive Now, there There are DC panels and combination circuit breakers selection is a sufficient sizes, all having approved of batteries. the circuits utilize Marinetics

DC and AC panels of various to take care of of having to in this field is

and meters to show loads and the condition of panels and load capacities eliminates the necessity 92663. One of the pioneers California

used in many boats, designed P.O. Corp., Box 2676,

and this often Newport


and built switchboards.







Boxes in a lead-arid to overturn: storage battery is very destructive whether there to wood and certain

The clrctrolyte unsecured multiple

metals, so it is important battery units, must

to prevent spillage. therefore For small

The worst thing that can happen is for an it consists of a single or coveted In craft are on the market batteries

the battery,

bc secured.

molded plastic cases, with straps and hold-down to eight ships service Onr of the simplest resistant by carefully batteries. containers

fittings to keep the thing in place.

larger boats there might be a bank of two engine starting is made of plywood,

and a bank of two made acid-

for which custom boxes must be built. with its interior lining the box with fiberglass. The inside dimen-

and completely

sions of the box should be about 3i Wlarger all around than the battery to provide space for spilled water, which can be removed by suction with an oven baster. A couple of expendable the clearance. wooden blocks can be used to keep the battery like Masonite from shifting despite so that exThe top should be of a material and ventilated

plosive hydrogen generated when the battery top also guards against the possibly dangerous tool be accidentally Figure dropped 16-19 is a suggested battery box.

is being charged will not be trapped. A sparking that would take place should a terminals.

across the battery



Tanks built, tested, and installed as fuel tanks. the

Fresh water tanks should be just as carefully One difference is that there should outlet. This is used to drain the tank weather. Suitable water tank materials and cost, stainless vided the interior is treated to remove

be an opening

in the bottom

of the tank-

when a boat is unused or stored in freezing include Monet Alloy 400. superior in quality and fiberglass, protaste and odor.

steel (Type 316 is the best in salt atmosphere),

MISCELLANEOUS Plumbing Copper water, marine (PVC) used to be the ultimate but it has had drawbacks, for piping, either



salt water or hot and cold fresh to develop necessary pinholes. Now it is to hook it up. The polyvinyl chloride a fast to concooling

such as a tendency

costly not only as piping but in thz price of the fittings supply stores have good quality pipe, some of which is suitable tubing suitable fittings. for hot water,

hose of other materials:

and one of the latest (1979),


for cold and hot water that is exceptionally

nect with the available Where pipes pierce water intakes, etc. -up

the hull for any reason whatsoever-toilet to about a foot above the normal waterline, connected


the through-hull be genuine, to sink if Boat and on the

fittings should be directly alloy that could deterioration

to sea cocks. These should preferably and possibly allow

approved full-flow sea cocks rather than valves or other devices made of brass or similar be corroded by sea water the boat remained undetected until too late. Here again the American

Yacht Council standards should be used for guidance. Intakes for engine cooling, etc., must have scoop strainers outside of the hull and also good quality intake strainers the water. tween the sea cock and the device pumping

over the opening

on the inside of the hull be-

Water There


Vent of fresh air through a boat even when it is otherwise at sea some years as it permits ventilation as desired for best

should be a circulation popular

closed up. The vent shown in Figure 16-20 was developed for sailboats ago and remains while excluding and practical for any type of boat, The rain and flying spray. cowl can be turned








2500zoooIs*o,o*o300MOTOO 630z 5007 400 r?

z cl !.a,/-3 -i


LBS.l?S.I. 4




5 4+ 4 3g 3



--- --



: : 50a--

3 z z I

: 2 al*-w - a

Ii la

1 30


Figure results. pliable

16-21. The removable screen should opening or copper. not be used unless there are insects, because

screens reduce the effective rubbery can be plastic, athwartships. aluminum,

by about 25 percent.

The cowl can be one of the either fore and aft or

plastic kind that bends when a rope crosses it. The tube into the boat The box can be installed

Davits Davits are used for handling poses on commercial against corrosion, anchors and dinghies material aboard yachts and for other purif possible for protection

boats. Aluminum

alloy pipe, anodized

has become a popular

for davits because of its light weight. steel

This is good when, for one reason or another, and stowed and thus needs manhandling. pipe or tube or of ordinary

a davit must be removed from its socket Davits can aiso be made of stainless hot galvanized after shap-

steel pipe, the latter preferably

Level shpiyhfedge 4 kuli




16-22. fittings are needed on the davit. I worked up the accompa16-21, some years ago when scores of small craft going to

ing and welding whatever nying chart, labeled Figure war were clamoring

for davits for all sorts of uses. If you know the load and the reach

(dimension A), the chart will give a pretty good idea of the pipe size needed. The chart has a built-in safety factor of four using ordinary steel pipe. A davit is basically a cantilevered beam, so if a load swung outboard will heel the boat much, as noted on the chart. or if rolling seas are expected, the reach should be increased then probably be indicated. A larger pipe size will

Anodized aluminum alloy davits of various capacities, ranging from 150 pounds for anchors and up to 1500 pounds for small boats, are made as stock items and can be had with a tackle arrangement, in various voltages. The reach, with a hand-operated winch, or with an electric winch dimension A in Figure 16-21. is usually limited to six

feet. Principal makers of the aluminum davits are Mar-Quipt. Inc., 231 S. W. 5th Street, Pompano Beach, Florida 33060, and Pipe Welders, Inc., 413 S. W. 3rd Avenue, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33315.

Painting The boatbuilder today has a choice of the finest exterior finishes imaginable, both for

protection and appearance, from one-part enamels to the very expensive, long-lasting two-part high gloss polyurethane coatings. There is also a wide choice of varnishes and synthetics to protect and bring out the best natural wood trim. Underwater there is also a wide variety of antifouling paints, usually priced according to life expectancy. Here you must be guided by the length of your season and which paint has proven effective in the areas to be frequented. The same makers of the fine marine exterior coatings (perhaps paint is becoming extinct?) have material for the interior as well, and there is nothing wrong with the high-grade latex-base paints, which make cleanup so easy with water.





Nothing looks worse to yachtsmen tom paints. waterline way to mark outboard Figure Assuming

than a ragged division between the topside and bothas had the foresight during construction, waterline to mark the designed just about the easiest at frequent intervals

that the buiider

at the stem and stern for reference

the boot top is to first plot the straight Level straightedges

along the hull and then lay off heights profile. 16-22,

to the boot top as scaled from the plan of the are set up at the ends of the boat as shown in tightly between the there.

and then a length of thin, strong cord is stretched alternately

edges and moved inboard on the waterline

until it barely touches the hull and a point is marked as often as desired.

By moving the cord in and out on the straightedges may be marked if it is allowed to sag, the waterline line. The

at opposite ends, points If the boat is level fore and offsets

Be sure to keep the cord tight, for

will not come out straight. curved (sheered)

and aft and there is room to work, a builders boot top or stripe is usually

level or transit may be used to run in the for appearance,

above the waterline can be taken from the plans and plotted as shown in the figure. A batten is nailed on the hull to fair the points and mark the line, which is done by scribing with the broken end of a hacksaw wood. blade or similar device or with a so-called race knife made for scribing




A sound hull is only the beginning

of a safe hoat. unless it is the simplest of craft like

one made to be paddled or rowed. As soon as holes are made in the hull underbody for through-hull fittings or machinery and electrical installations are made, precautions must be taken building learned number to prevent leaking, sinking, fire, or explosion. available Newcomers to boatare fortunate the bard way in having information to keep them out of trouble.

Not too many years ago this knowledge water through-hull

was not so easy to come by. Many lessons were

sinking caused by a rotted hose attached to a valveless underfitting, loss of fire control from the wrong kind or an inadequate fire and/or explosion because a fuel line to an engine

of fire extinguishers,

was installed without slack and broke from vibration, loss of life because passengers aboard a sinking boat could not find the life preservers. These occurrences and others were and are preventable. The very nnturc of boats calls for deck levels of varying heights steps and ladders. hand Risk of injury can be reduced that are securely important fastened rails and grabs in place to be accessible number by of by having an adequate

with through-fastenings

whenever possible. Similarly rails and lifelines around

are the adequate

height and fasteningofsafety to those aboard.

the edges of all decks accessible


Boat and Yacht council

Council of the boating industry conhours in

This non-profit cerned

was formed in 1954 by members

with safety.

Over the years dozens of members

have served countless

the preparation of standards for safe practices in the general areas of hull, equipment, machinery, electrical, and engineering standards. Ample time has been given for comment and criticism of the standards one-sided before they have been approved: therefore the standards do not represent opinions. 227



STANDARDS standards in each of the divisions mentioned the Secretary, American above and all are

There available P.O.

are numerous individually

or as a complete contact

book called Safety Standards for Small Craft. Boat and Yacht Council, as issued Membership is open to all, in which case

For a list of these standards Box 806, Amityville, the complete set of standards

New York 11701. is included,

as well as copies of new standards

and revisions to those existing.


Safe Boating

Regulations and equipment systems installations that resulted in explosions, engines, prepared safe com-

Poor design, gasoline loading Boat pliance


file, and loss of life have inevitably fuel systems, electrical and safe powering, Council, builder, guidelines

led to the enactment in boats

of laws in the U.S. governing The American

with gasoline-fueled Coast Guard, whether

and level flotation under contract to determine required

in case of swamping.

and Yacht

to the U.S.

to ease the burden of the boatbuilder. whether his product

he be a manufacrecomCoast Safety,

turer or backyard In my opinion, mended

will meet the regulations.

the standards

by law are the same as the practices from your nearest of U.S.

by the ABYC. booklets from may be obtained I1.S. Coast Guard, Office Boating

Copies of the following Guard District Office or Washington, D.C. 20590:

Electrical System Compliance Guideline applies to all inboard or inboard/outboard gasoline-powered boats and boats that have gasoline auxiliary engines such as generators. Fuel engines System (except Compliance outboard boats. Compliance Guide--applies canoes, to monohull boats less than 20 feet in boats. Boat Builders, In addition, is a kayaks, or inflatable Guideline applies to all boats powered with gasoline engines), all boats with gasoline auxiliary engines, such as tanks that are permanently installed in inboard and


and to gasoline~fuel

inboard/outboard Level Flotation length.

It does not apply to sailboats, CG-466,

Coast Guard publication calculations

Safety Standards for Backyard

boon to the home builder and includes directions how to go about and how to obtain Hopefully careful attaching a capacity label

as to how to work up the safe loading it tells label to the hull, backyard is good. builder: a

for boats under 20 feet long to which the law applies. and a certification for your boat. a would-be a hull identification things number

all these

will not discourage

study of the safety regulations regulations

will show that their intent

Many government

seem to consist of endless pages of solid text, making

them boring to read, to say the least, but not so the guidelines put out by the Coast Guard. These clearly illustrate with simple line drawings what is acceptable and what is prohibited,

,,:,s,y (3

* ,

SAFETY Product Testing



A step for safety beyond mere words has also been taken. Manufacturers their products the testing tested for compliance section with American of the well-known Boat and and Yacht respected Safety dards and so labeled when the product meets the requirements. is the marine (UL), Laboratories the material located which succeeded the pioneering Yacht

can now have Council stan-

The agency that does Underwriters that Bureau. Laboratories, Inc. is

The UL label on hardware at 1647 Jeffords

and other items of equipment Clearwater, Florida 33516.

assures the purchaser

has been tested and found suitable. Street,





Cl~ssrc S~lnll


by John

Gardner, Brought boats.

International together



Co., 2 1 Elm Street, tions for building Bouthuildi:rg Co., construction also contains Colvin

Camden, a number

Maine 04843.

in one book are instruc-

of classic wooden by Gilbert

with Stwl, Camden,

C. Klingel. Written



Publishing This volume Colvin. about boat-type

21 Elm Street,

Maine 04843. covering Boatbuilding

by an advocate

of welded steel

for pleasure a chapter


the steps from start to finish. with Aluminum. alloy construction


by Thomas as is Klingrl

is just as enthusiastic

about aluminum

steel. Both writers explain construction. Roat building Marine Designs,

how to do quality work as opposed to commercial

with Plywoori 9152 Rosecrans,

and How to Fibq1a.u Bellflower. California materials, boatbuilding

Boats. 90706.



Glen -L


plywood is

still one of the most inexpensive for handling and fiberglass

the instructions

in these book3


plywood are useful. Gougeon Brothers, Inc.. 706 Martin of building

Thr GOU.,~PON Brothcars on Boat Construction, Street. authors. Bay City, Michigan 48iO6. This volume cold-molded

is a complete


wooden boats. with emphasis given to the WEST

system developed by the



RE.4 DING Simmons. Camden, 04849.) Originally Maine published by International (Reprint published by in the art of

Laprake Marine building Walter J,

Boatbuilding, by Walter J. Co., 21 Elm Street, Lincolnville, Simmons,




A book specializing

wooden boats with clinker

planking. Cold-Molding, Co., 21 Joinrry, Elm Fitting Out, by John Camden, Maine with in depth.

Modr~rrr Woode~r Yacht Construction: Guzzwell, 04843. International Marine

Publishing The technique Boat


One of the best books on boatbuilding

from start to finish. Well illustrated of cold-molding U.S. Coast is described Guard

photocgraphs and line drawings. Sq@ty CC-466, booklet Federal Standards availahle foreword: recreational safety for This individual

Backyard pamphlet builder. which

Builders, District

Publication by the of is to

from nearest




Best described

. . . (CC-466) requirements have been

is a simplified and is intended


boat construction hazards

for the use of the of boating

non-professional avoid certain accidents.

Che primary objective found

of these requirements

to be the cause

.Sa/;sty Standards 806. Amityvillc. stallation on electrical Sharpllin,q tions, Station

/i)r Small Crafi,



and Yacht

Council, especially



New York 11701.



for boat construction

and the inthe parts

of equipment.

This is of great value to the boatbuilder, protcbrtion. Argus Books, Ltd.,

wiring and circuit Small Road,

Tools, by Ian Bradley. Kings Langley, Herts, to the enjoyment

and Allied


sharp is vc*ry important how IO do it.

England. of boatbuilding.

Keeping woodworking tools This little British book tells

Shrj) and .-!ircrali Fairin,q and Dvzr~lopmcwt, by S.S. Rabl, Cornell Maritime Press, Cc~ntrc*viIIc~.Maryland 21Gli. A good old book with clearly illusrrated details of some Iofring rrchniqut~s. Wood: A Manualfor Its Use as a Shipbuilding Material. Department of Ships, building, 1957-1962. moisture (Reprint: content, Teaparty including structural No. Books, Kingston, superb source of information, specifications of the Navy, Bureau 1983.) etc. Departabout A


and storage of wood for boatwooden boat repairs, Laboratory, U.S.

design of parts, i2), Forest

Wood Ilandbook ment of Agriculture. Printing Office, woods of interest

(Ilandhook Available

Products much

from Superintendent D. C. 20402. Contains

of Documents,

U.S. Government


basic information

to the boatbuilder. Camden, Maine 04843. A monthly newspaper

National Fisherman, 21 Elm Street, loaded with news, pictures, WoodenBoat, WoodenBoat a

and plans of commercial magazine for

fishing boats. boat lovers and builders.

bi-monthly Inc.,

wooden Maine


Box 78, Brooklin,




Linear 1 in. = 25.4 mm 1 in. 1 ft. 6 ft. 0.083 ft. = 12 in.

= 2.54


1 mm 1 cm

= 0.03937 = 0.3937 in.

in. in. = 3.2809 m ft. mile = 6080 statute ft.

= 30.48 = 5280 = 1.6093

cm ft. km

1 m = 39.37 1 fathom 1 nautical

= 1 fathom mile

= 1.8288 mile

1 ';tat.ute mile

1 statute

1 km = 0.6214

Area 1 sq. in. 1 sq. ft. 1 sq. ft. = 6.4516 = 0.0929 sq. cm sq. m 1 sq. cm = 0.1550 sq. ft. sq. ft. sq. ft.

= 144 sq. in.

1 sq. cm = 0.00108 1 sq. m = 10.764

Volume 1 cu. in. = 16.39 cu. cm 1 cu. cm = 0.061 cu. in. 1 gal. =231 cu. in. 1 1. = 0.03531 cu. ft. cu. m = 28.32 1. 1 1. = 2.113 1 I. = 1.057 = 3.785 1. and 1 pt. = & gal.; 1 qt. = % gal. 233 = U.S. gal., pts. qts.

1 cu. ft. = 1728 cu. in. 1 1. = 61.017 cu. in. 1 cu. ft. = 7.481 gal. 1 pt. = 0.4732 I. 1 qt. = 0.9464 1. 1 gal. Note: = 7.481 cu. ft. The gal. above = 0.0283



Weight 1 oz. = 28.35 1 oz. = 0.02835 1 lb. 1 lb. = 16 oz. = 453.6 gr. = 0.4536 kg g-r kg 1 g-r = 0.03537 1 kg = 35.274 1 oz. = 0.0625 1 kg = 2.2046 oz. oz. lb. lb.

Pressure 1 lb. per sq. in. 1 kg per sq. cm Miscellaneous 1 Imp. gal. = 1.2 U.S. gal. = 0.0703 = 14.223 kg per sq. cm lb. peh- sq. in.

1 ft. high column of water = 0.434 lb. per sq. in. 1000 warts = 1 kilowatt = 1.34 hnrsepower 1 horsepower 1 long ton = 746 watts = 35 cu. ft. of sea water lb. = 1.85318 km per hr. = 62.5 = 64 lb. mile per hour = 2240 lb.

1 cu. ft. fresh water 1 cu. ft. sea water 1 knot 1: 1 nautical






,! ji

EQUIVALENTS -Fraction ~ ~ I %eths

/ Decimal ---____

Fraction __---.

,&.dhs ___


Mllhms*ars ,approx.,

1 Milhmeters Capprox.) -~

I/ ---

%i '42

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a 9

.015625 .03125 m6875 .0625 .07al25 ! .09375 .109375 ,125 .I40625 .15625 .17la75 I .la75 .203125 .21875 .234375 .250 ! .265625 .28125 .296875 .3125 .328125 .34375 .359375 ,375 .390625 .40625 .421875 .4375 .453125 .46875 .484375 .5oo j I

0.397 0.794 1.191 1.588 1.984 2.381 2.778 3.175 3.572 3.969 4.366 4.763 5.159 5.556 5.953 6.350 6.747 7.144 7.541 7.938



._._ "A ii

33 34 35 36

.515625 53125 546875 .5625 -578125 -59375 .609375 .625 MO625 A5625 .671875 .6875

: j I ' I 1 : I i

13.097 13.494 13.891 14.288 14.684 15.081 15.478 15.875 16.272 16.669 17.066 17.463 17.859 18.256 18.653 19.050 19.447 19.a44 20.241 20.638 21.034 21.431 21.828 22.225 22.622 23.019 23.416 23.813 24.209 24.606 25.003 25.400

J&i ?4

;9/6 w _._. %i .. .. "X6 .._. as .. .. % ____ '% i&6

zt 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

ii .. .. %i .. . '4 . M _... gh . . %I .. .. '% .. .. % ._.. 'xi .. .. '/is ._._ 15h __._ M I

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 '20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

.703125 .71875 .734375 , .750 ' .765625 .78125 .796875 A125 .a28125 .a4375 .a59375

a.731 9.128 9.525

a7A ___. T-6 'I / ._._ agA ;5& _.._ % /i 'I 1"" '


9.922 10.319 10.716 11.113 11.509 11.906 12.303 12.700

.a90625 SO625 .921875 .9375 .953125 .96875 1 .984375 , l.OOO ;


Abcking & Rasmussen, 24 Abbreviations, lines plans, 69 ABYC standards: for electrical installa. tions, 221; for exhaust hoses, 220; for fuel tanks, 212-213; for sea cocks, 223; for propeller shafts, 213-217 Additives, epoxy rrsin, 36, 64. 165 Adhesives, 64-65: sources for, 65; waterproof, 64. SW also Epoxy resins, Glue Aerolite glue, 64, 65 Aircraft Spruce and Specialty Co.. 65 Airex foam core, 41 Allied Resin Corp., 65 Aluminum construction: davits. 224.225: fuel tanks, 212-213: hulls, 9. 43; spars, 205-206. American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC). 227-228. SW n&o ABYC standards American Dureau of Shipping (ABS). 26 American Klegecell Corp., 41 Anchorfast nails, 48. 52, 58-59 Anti-fouling paints, 225 Arc-bottomed hulls. 2; frames for. 96; setting up, 108 Arcon epoxies, 64 Ash. white, 25 Augers, 16 Backbone assembly, 105

Backbone structures. 101-105 Ballast keel, 195 Bahek Corp., 41 Batrs. Fred. 148 Battens: for fairing cutves, 73, 76-77, 78-79. 97. 110. 116; as pick-up sticks, 78, 79-80: in planking, 144.146: for planking scale, 136-137: for spiling. 133-134 Batten seam planking, 144-146 Battery storage boxes. 222 Bearings, propeller shaft assembly. 213-217 Berths, 184 Bevel board, 98 Bevels. 94. 96-98: by computer, 99. of floor timbers, 124; of lapstrake planks, 142-143, of transom assembly, 99-100 Bilge stringers, 125 nont ou~rffrs nuycr.5 ChidfJ, 9. 10 Body plan. 77-78 Bolts: carriage, 51; drift. 50-51. 105. 198, 209; hanger, 55; lag. 55: screw. 50 Boot top (waterline), 226 Breast hook, 154 Bruynreel plywood. 29 Bulkheads, 159. 183-186 Bulwark rail. 174-175 Butt blocks, 92. 131. 149

Buttocks, 67, 80, 83 Butts, plywood, 184 Cabin trunk, 171-173 Cabosil, 36, 165 Camber, deck beam, 153. 156-157 Cant frames, 120 Canvas deck covering, 163-165 Canvas duck, 162 Carve1 planking, 35, 130-131, 138-139 Cast fittings, 192-195: rudder stock, 210-211 Cast iron keel, 195-96 Caulking, 93, 138-140, 166-169 Cedar: Ala ka. 25: Port Orford. 23: western rt 1, 23; white. 23 Ceiling, 188 C-Flex plankir :. 37-38 Chainplates. 19; 198 Champion Buildil T Products, 28. 29. 30 Chrm-Tech epoxy, h 1, 65 Chrm-Irrh. Inc., 65 Chine. 7 ClilmpS. 124, 153-156. 2t.l Clench-nailing, 60.61 Clinker planking, 14 1 Coamings: cockpit. 173: hatch. 177-178 Cockpit roaming. 173 Cockpit, self-bailing. 179 Cockpit sole. 179 Cold-molded hulls. 32-33. 89. 150-151,


Deckhouse, 17 1 - 173 Deck line, 76, 83 Decks: caulked, 166-169: plywood, 163; strip-built, 162-163; teak, 166-169; tongue-and-groove, 161-162 Deck shelf, 153 Defender Industries, Inc., 36 Developable-surface hull, 5, 149 Diagonal planking, 152 Diagonals, 67. 69. 78-80 Double planking. 143-144 Dowels, 96. 209 Drawers, 186 Drills, 16-17 Duck Trap Woodworking, 61 Duraply. 28-29. 183 Dynel. 35 Edson Corp.. The. 212 Electrical systems, 221 Electrolysis, 48-49 Elmers glues, 64, 65. 186 Engine: bed, 129; connections, controls. 219-220; stringers, vibration, 218 Epoxy resins, 36, 64. 147-148. Evrrdur. 47

220: 128: 165

Computers: for fairing lines, 87; [or lofting. 99 Condon. M.L., Company, 32 Contourkore bals;l core. 41 Corrosion, galvanic. 43, 48-50. 63 Cotton caulking, 138-140 Cotton wicking. 143 Countcrborcs. 16.17, 53 Countrrsinks. 16-17. 54 Counter stern. ! YO-I21 Couplings, propeller shaft. 218-219 Cowl ventilator, 223-224 Cradles, 41 Cross spalls. 92. 109 Cypress. 23 Davits. 224-225 Deadwood. 104 Dean Company, Thr. 33 Deck beams, 156-157 Deck coverings: canvas, 163-165: fiberglass cloth, 165

Fairing: of diagonals. 79-80: of lines. 76-77; computer-aided. 87. 99. .%Y nlso Battens Fastening materials: brass. 47: bronzr. 47; copper. 48; galvanized iron, 46-47: stainless steel, 48 Fastenings: in double planking, 143. 144: drilling for, 52-54: interior, 186: plank, 137-138 Frrrocement hulls, 44 Fiberglass cloth, 37, 165 Fiberglass hulls. 9. 36-37, 39-41. 89 Fiberglass insulation. I89 Fiberglass sheathing, 35-36 Fillers. 36. 168 Fin keels, 104 Fir, Douglas, 22 Fir plywood, 28 Flat-bottomed hulls. 2-3. 71. 103. 108 Floor timbers, 123-124 Florida Marine Tanks. Inc.. 213 Foam core, 39 Formica, 28, 183 Frames. 88: bending. 119-123: coldfitted. 120-123: steaming, 119: transvrrse. 117. v-bottomed 96-97 Framing. 3-5


Keel Makers, 196- 197 Keels: cast iron, 195-196; fin, 104; lead, 195. 196-197; powerboat, 103-104: rabbeted, IO3 Kenyon Marine, 205 Krvlar, 36, 44 Kit boats. 9 Klegecel foam core, 41 Knees, 105; hanging, 158-159; lodging, 158: quarter, 154-156 Kobelt Manufacturing Co., Ltd., 220 Kristal Kraft. Inc., 65 Laminated beams, 157 Laminated planking, 150-151. 152 Lamination: of fiberglass hull. 37; of stem assembly, 92; of wood, 31-32 Lapstrake planking, 108, 141-143 Larch, 25 Lauan. 24 Lead keels. 195, 196-197 Letcher. John, 87 Lexan, I78 Lines, hull (terminology), 66-69 Lodging knees, 158 Lofting: computer-aided, 99: of body plan. 77-79; of half-breadth plan, 76-77: of long lines of profile, 76-77: of transoms. 81-87, preparations for, 72-74; tools for, 72-73 Logan Lumber Company, 32 Lumber: drying, 21: sawing, 17-18. 21; seasoning, 18-Z 1; shrinkage, 2I: sources, 32-33 Mack-Shaw Sailmakers, Inc., 206 Mahogany: African, 24; Honduras, Mexican, 24; Philippine, 24 Marconi rig. 204

Fuel hose lines, 220 Fuel tanks, 212-213 Fuller, W.L.. Inc., 54 Galvanic corrosion, 43. 48-50. 63 Galvanic series, 49 Carboard, 134- I35 Gel coat, 37 Glue: batten seam, 144; Elmers 64. 65, 186: resorcinol, 64. 147-148 Gluing: plywood planking. 149: spars, 201-202. See also Laminatton Cougeon Brothers, Inc., 32, 65, 150





151 Graphite fibers. 44 Grids: for inverted hull construction, 109: for offsets, 73-74: for transom plan, 81 Gripe, 105 Guzzwell. John, 151 Hackmatack, 25 Half beams. 157-158 Half-breadth plan, 93-95 Half-model, 69 Hanging knees, 158-159 Ilarbor Sales Company, 29. 30, 65 Harra. John, Wood & Supply ComIIilIlyq 32 Hatches: cabin sole, 188.189: [let-k, 176-179: flush, 179: sliding, 175.176 Headers, I57 Headliners, 189 Herreshoff & Kerwin. Inc.. 87 Horn timber, 105 Hull design, 2-5 Hull lines (terminology), 7. 66-69 Hull painting, 141 Hull repairs, 39 IHydraulic engine controls, 220 Hydraulic steering, 212 I-lynautic, Inc., 212, 220 Icebox, 189-191 Independent Nail Insulation. 189


Mnrirw Iksign

Mtrnunl. 37

Mar-Quipt, Inc., 225 Masonite, 186 Mast partners, I58 Mast step, 204-205

Inc., 46, 58




Joinerwork: deck, 170- 181: interior. 182-191 Joints: mortise-.,nd-tenon, 107; 32, 105-106 scarphed. Juniper. 23 Keel blocks, I12

151 Mold construction 88-92 Mold loft, 72 Molds: for cast fittings, 193-194; for fiberglass hulls, 36-37; for keels, 195-197; for strip-planked hulls, 148 Monel fastenings, 48. 50, 58, 62 Monel tanks, 212 Monkey rail, 175

Morse controls, 220 10 Rabbet, 77, 78. 92. 103 Refrigerator. SIT Icebox Resorcinol glue, 64. 147-148 Reverse curves. 122. 151 Rhodes, Philip, 149. 201 Ribbands. 88. 109. 1 IO. 112-l I6 Ribs, 117 Riveting, 62-63 Rivets: copper. 55-56, 143: pop. 62-63 Rot prevention, 33-34 Round-bottomed hulls, 2-3; bilge stringers. 125: frames, 88. 118; lines, 71; planking, 38 Rudder fittings. 208 Rudders: outboard. 207-208; powerboat, 206-207: sheathed. 211 Quarter knees. 154-156


Motor Boating B Sailing,

Nails: copper, 55-56. 60; galvanized, 47, 57: threaded, 57-59



9. 32

Nomex honeycomb, Non-skid sole, 189 Oak: red, 22; white, Offsets, 69-72. 78


Painting: of deck joinerwork. 171: of hull, 141 Paints: anti-fouling. 225; Pxterior. 225; interior, I83 Panish Transdyne. 220 Patterns, casting: for fittings, 192-195, for keels, 195-197 Pick-up sticks, 78 Pinr: longleaf. 22-23; Oregon, 22; white, 23; yellow, 22-23 Pipe Wcldcrs. Inc.. 225 Planking: batten scam, 144. 146; carvel. 130-140; double. 143-144; laminated, 150-152: lapstrakc*, 111-1-13: plywood, 149-150; strip, 146-149: transom, 100-101 Planking dimensions. 132: thickness drducrion. #Y-Y0 Planking scale. 136. I37 Planksherr. I66 Plugs. wood. 53-5-l Plumbing, 223 Plywood: bending, 30-31; cutting. :iO: grading, 28-29: laminating, 31-32; panel sizes, 29 Plywood decks, I63 Plywood interior structures, 182-183 Plywood planking, 149-150 Polybutylenr tubing, 223 Polypropylrnr cloth, 35, 36 Polyurethane coatii:g, 17 I Polyvinyl chlnricle (PVC) pipes, 223 Powerboat construction: clamp, 158: rngine beds. 129: keels, 103-104: rudders. 206-207: shelf, 158; transom. 85-87: twin-screw, 218 Preservatives, wood, 34. 141 Profile plans. 77. 92 Propeller shafts, 213-219 Pulley drives, calculating, 21Y Push-pull cables, 220 PVC pipes, 223

Rules for Building und Clossiq forced Plastic Ccss&. 26


Safety: davit design for, 225: features, 227; product testing for. 229: regulations, 228

Sn fbt,y Starndri rds /or lkck yn rd Bon t Buildm. 228 Safety Stnndarrls for Snr~ll Crcr/t. 228
Sail track, 204 Sandwich (fiberglass hull) construction. 36. 38.39 Scantlings (trrminolcqy). 34 Scarphs. 105.106. 147. 184. 199 Schaefer Spars, 206 Srrews. 16-17, 51-55: galvanized, 47: lag, 55; machine, 61: stainless sreel. 54-55 Scribing of waterline, 226 Scuppers. 174, 176. 179 Sea cocks, 223 Sealers, 28, 168 Sea rails, 184 Scats. cockpit. 179-l HO Sections: bocly plan, 67. 77-78: slrm. 94 Seemann Plastics, Inc.. 37 Self-bailing cockpits, 179 Shaft logs, 103-104. 215 Sheathing: copper. 104; fibc=rglass. 35-36 Sheer clamp, 126-128 Sheer guards, 180- 182 Sheerline. 76-77 Shelves. 153-156 Sole: cabin. 188-189: cockpit, 179


Torin, 41 Transom. connections to, 154-156 Transom, construction of. 99-101 Transom, lofting of: curved, 82-83: flat, 81-82: powerboat, 85-87; raked, 81 Tremont Nail Co.. 61 Tributyl tin oxide (TBTO). 34 Twin keelsons. 103 Underwriters LaGoratories (UL). 229 Unipoxy glue. 65 U.S. Coast Guard regulations: for passenger-carrying boats. 14; safety, 228 U.S. Coast Guard standards: for electrical installations. 221: tanks, 212 Varnishing, 170-171. 182. 201 V-bottomed hulls. 2-3: clamps, 128: floors, 123; frames, 88. 96. 117-118; lines, 72; planking, 38: seam batten construction. 144; setting up, 108 Veneers, 28 Ventilation, 187- 188. 223-224 Watrrlines. 67. 76. 80. 225-226 Water trap box, 223 WEST System (Wood Epoxy Saturation Technique), 150 Wheel, steering, 2 12 Wicking, 105. 138 Wiley. Ralph, 148 Wire rigging, 204 Wood: A Manual FOT Its list ds A

Spars, aluminum, 205-206 Spars, wooden, 198-204; hollow rectangular, 200-201, hollow round, 201-202 Spiling. 133-13 Spiling frames, 135 Spinnaker poles, 20 l-202 Splines. 103 Spruce: northern white, 24; Sitka, 24, 198. 199 Stanley tools, 15-16 Star class sloop, 2 Stations, 78, 83 Stealer planks, 137 Steam box, 119-120 Steel hull construction, 9. 42-43 Steering controls, 211-212 Stem assembly, 92-95 Sternpost, 104 Stopwaters, 96, 105 Stringers, 124-128 Strip-planked hulls, setting up, 108 Strip planking, 146-149 Stronghold nails, 52, 58-59 Stuffing box, 211, 215, 217 Synthetic fabrics, 35-36 Table of offsets. 73 Tamarack. 25 Tangile. 24 Tangs, 204 Tank rapacity, calculating. 213 Tanks, fresh water. 222 Tanks, fuel, 212-213 Teak, 25, 168-169 Teleflex, Inc.. 220 Templates, 67; for bulkheads, 185; for stem assembly, 92-95; for spinnaker pole, 202 Tenons, 107 Thiokol sealers. 168. I69 Tie rods. 158. 206 Tillers, 2 I 1 Toe rails, 166, 174 Tools: caulking, 139: hand, 15-17: lofting, 72-73; power, 17-18; sourres. 18




Wood: comparative strengths, 26; design stresses, 26-27; species for boatbuilding. 22-25 Woodcraft Supply Corp., 65

Wood Wood finishes, screws,

interior. 182.813 51-55

Wood Ilnndh~ol~.


16.17. 46-47

Zinc plating.