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PREC,loni

INTRODUCTION
Drive shaft in car OR automobiles are generally made of steel. The reason for searching alternative material to steel are, 1. Reduce the weight of the drive shaft which reduces energy consumption. 2. Should be fatigue resistant and have long life. 3. Non corrosive, less maintenance. 4. Allow single piece manufacturing which reduce manufacturing cost.

LIMITATIONS OF STEEL DRIVE SHAFT


This metallic drive shaft have limitations of weight Low critical speed and vibration characteristics. When length of steel shaft is beyond 1500mm, It is manufactured in two pieces to increase the fundamental natural frequency which is inversely proportional to the square of the length and proportional to square root of the specific modulus.

Because of limitation of steel shaft .


One of the biggest question the automobile industry faces today is what Material to be used to reduces drastically weight of shaft which avoids energy consumption & increases it strength.

Answer is COMPOSITE MATERIAL.

LITERATURE SURVE
Durk Hyun Cho,et.al. has designed and manufactured the one piece hybrid drive shaft composed of carbon fiberepoxy composite and an aluminum tube to reduce the weight and vibration. A.R .Abu Talib et al, has studied and done a finte element analysis of composite drive shaft incorporating carbon and glass fibers within an epoxy matrix. He shows in his result in changing carbon fibers winding angle from 0to90 change in natural frequency Y.A.Khalid et al, performed experiment to study bending fatigue analysis was carried out . Results obtained from his study show that increasing the number of layer of composite would enhance the fatigue strength of aluminum.

ALUMINIUM COMPOSITE DRIVE SHAFT

COMPOSITE MATERIAL
Drive shaft is made up of, Aluminum tube as base material and wounded by E-glass Carbon fiber/epoxy composite with different winding angle.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIS OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL

LAMINATES & STACKING OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL

TORSION TEST OF SPECIMEN

FINITE ELEMENT ANNALYSIS OF SPECIMEN

BOUNDRARY CONDITIONS

Fig.3 Deform shape of the hybrid shaft

FAILURE OF ALUMINUM GLASS EPOXY OF SIX LAYER

FAILURE OF ALUMINUM GLASS EPOXY OF FOUR LAYER

FAILURE OF ALUMINIUM GLASS EPOXY OF TWO LAYER

TEST OF SPECIMENS ON ROTATING BENDING FATIGUE MACHINE

RELATION SHIP BETWEEN APPLIED STRESS & FATIGUE LIFE

LOCATION & STYLE OF FAILURE OF DIFFERENT LAMINATES

CONCLUSION
A composite shaft offers 1.excellent vibration damping . 2.cabin comfort 3. Reduction of wear on drive train components . 4. Increased tire traction. 5. lowered the 50% its weight. 6. use the single torque tubes which reduces assembly time, inventory cost, maintenance, and part complexity. From this advantages it can conclude that carbon/glass fiber-reinforced; epoxy composite drive shaft is best alternative for replacing the steel drive shaft.

REFFERENCES
[1] Robert Ireland, Luciana Arronche, Valeria La Saponara, Investigates galvanic corrosion between aluminum 7075 and glass fiber/epoxy composites modified with carbon nanotubes, Department of mechanical and Aerospace Engineering of california. [2] Dr. jan Gou, ME 582 Advanced materials science, Department of Mechanical Engineering,University of South Albama,AL 36688.

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[3] M.A. Badie, E. Mahdi, A.M.S. Hamouda, An investigation into hybride carbon/glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite automotive drive shaft", Mechanical and industrial Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Qatar University, P.O.Box 2713, Doha,Qatar.

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