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Joule Equivalent of Electrical Energy

Emily A. Gatlin Partner: Whitney Heaston Date Performed: 18 February 2009 25 February 2009 John Caruth

OOBBJJEECCTTIIVVEE

The primary goal of this experiment is to show how the concept of heat energy relates to electrical

energy. It furthers the understanding of calorimetry through measuring the electrical energy and

calculating the Joule equivalent of electrical energy.

IINNTTRROODDUUCCTTIIOONN

The theory of heat energy measured in quantities separately defined from the laws of mechanics and

electricity and magnetism. Sir James Joule studies of these separate phenomena lead him to the discovery

of the proportionality constant known as the Joule equivalent of heat, denoted by J. The Joule equivalent

of heat is the amount of mechanical or electrical energy within a unit of heat

energy.

  

W

Q

P

W

V

V

(1.1)

Q

t

t

Power is the rate of performing work and electrical power is the amount of electrical

energy expanded over time. Since in an electrical circuit, the energy Electrical and

mechanical energy are measure in units of joules, but heat energy uses the measurement units of

P

V

I

 

  

W

P

t

kilocalories.

(1.2)

   

W

V

I

t

The change in the heat energy of a materialQ is directly proportional to the change in temperature of

the materialQ T , which also depend on the material and its specific heat. The transfer of

electrical energy to heat energy equals

W J Q

if

J Joule equivalent of heat or the machanical energy equivalent of heat

J = 4186 Joule/kilocalorie

(1.3)

If a constant current flows through a resistive heating element, producing a constant maintained potential

drop V across the element. This energy expanded into heat energy will increase its container and its

constituents’ temperature. Thus, the change in heat energy of the container and water will be the sum of

the heat energies of each as shown in the equation below.

Emily Gatlin

Joule Equivalent of Electrical Energy

PPRROOCCEEDDUURREE

(1.4)

 

Q

 

m c

c

c

T

m

c

w w

T

where

m

w

mass of water;

m

c

mass of container

VI  

t

J

 

m c

c

c

T

J

VI

1

m c

c

c

m

c

w w

T

t

m

c

w w

T

APPARATUS

c  m c w w   T  t m c w w 

The apparatus contains a resistive heating-coil, stirrer, and

electrical connector posts, double-wall aluminum calorimeter, low voltage, high current power supply, digital voltmeter and ammeter, electrical leads, digital multimeter, and Pasco® 750 Science Workshop data acquisition

and Pasco® 750 Science Workshop data acquisition system with temperature sensor. D ATA A CQUISITION In

system with temperature sensor.

DATA ACQUISITION

In order to obtain the data, the DataStudio™ software is set up to use the temperature sensor on the apparatus to collect systematically the temperatures at specified time interval of 5-seconds. After the computer is completely set-up, the rest of the apparatus is assembled. Water is added to the calorimeter until it is about 2-inches away from being completely full. In order to lower the temperature of the water, a few ice cubes are added. Once the ice is completely melted, the calorimeter is carefully placed into the apparatus to ensure that they heating-coil and temperature probe do not touch. The voltage is set to a constant amount of approximately 6-volts. The voltmeter is wired directly to the heating coil assembly and is used to gain an accurate measurement of voltage between the two ends of the heating- coil. The computer is now ready to collect the data. While the data is recorded into the computer directly from the temperature probe, the stirrer rod is constantly moved up and down to stir the water as it is heated. This ensures that all the water and its container will come into thermal equilibrium with each other. The data acquisition stops automatically after ten-minutes. The results are graphed in the plot, temperature

Emily Gatlin

Joule Equivalent of Electrical Energy

vs. time. The DataStudio™ software also allows the direct plotting of the temperature vs. time graph and

the calculation of the slope in the form y mx b

J

VI

m c

c

c

m

c

w w

T

t

m

I

t

(1.5)

The entire experiment is repeated using 8-volts from the power source instead of 6-volts.

DDAATTAA && CCAALLCCUULLAATTIIOONNSS

DATA SET #1

Mass of container and Water Mass of Container mcw  278.0grams m w  236.0
Mass of container and Water
Mass of Container
mcw  278.0grams
m w  236.0 grams
mc  42.00 grams
Mass of Water
kcal
c
 1.0
w
Specific Heat of Water
kg o C
kcal
c
 0.21
c
Specific Heat of Aluminum
V  6.1 volts
kg o C
I  4.82 C
Voltage Drop Across Heater Coil
Current Flowing in Heater Coil
T
m 
0.025
6.5
10
5
Slope of Temperature versus Time
t
J
J
  4792.37602853 4817.36134569
Joules Joules kcal kcal
Joule Equivalent of Heat
%Error %Error 14.4858105236% 15.0826886214%
% Error

Using equation (1.5)

J

VI

m c

c

c

m

c

w w

T

t

J  

 

6.1 volts

4.82 C

 

kcal

kg  C
kg
C
  kcal   0.236 kg 1.0    kg   
 
kcal
0.236 kg 1.0
kg
C
29.402 v  C

0.025

 

5

 

0.042 kg 0.21

6.5

10

J

 
 

0.00882

kcal

o

C

0.236 kcal

C

0.024935

o

o C  0.236 kcal   C   0.024935 o C seconds

C seconds

J

29.408

v C

 

J

0.24482

kcal

o

C

29.408 v C

0.024 935

C
C

second

4817.36134569

 0.24482 kcal  o C  29.408 v  C  0.024 935  

Joules

 
 

0.0061045867

kcal second

kcal

J 4817.36134569

Joules
Joules

kcal

 
Theoretical Value  Measured Value % Error = ×100 Theoretical Value Joules Joules 4186 
Theoretical Value
Measured Value
% Error =
×100
Theoretical Value
Joules
Joules
4186
4792.37602852
kcal
kcal
% Error =
 100
Joules
4186
kcal
%Error
 14.4858105236%

Emily Gatlin

Joule Equivalent of Electrical Energy

VI J   T  m c  m c  c c w
VI
J
 T
m c
 m
c
c
c
w w
 t
6.1 volts
 4.82 C
J
 
kcal
kcal
 
5
0.042 kg 0.21
0.236 kg 1.0
0.025
6.5
10
kg
kg
C
C
Theoretical Value
Measured Value
29.402 v  C
% Error =
×100
J 
Theoretical Value
o
o
0.00882
kcal
C
0.236 kcal
C
0.025065
C seconds
Joules
Joules
4186
4817.36134569
kcal
kcal
% Error =
 100
29.408
v  C
Joules kcal
4186
J 
o
C
0.24482
kcal
C
0.025 065
second
%Error
 15.0826886214%
29.408 v  C
Joules
J 
 4792.37602853
kcal
0.0061364133
kcal second

DATA SET #2

Mass of Container and Water mcw  291.0 grams mw  249 grams m 
Mass of Container and Water
mcw  291.0 grams
mw  249 grams
m
 42.0 grams
c
Mass of Container
Mass of Water
c
 1.0 kg kcal
w
Specific Heat of Water
o
C
c
 0.21 kg kcal
c
Specific Heat of Aluminum
V 8.0 volts
o
C
Voltage Drop Across Heater Coil
Current Flowing In Heater Coil
I 6.38 Amps
T
0.0416
1.0
10
4
Slope of Temper
t
J
J
  4759.98014611 4757.69224409
Joules Joules kcal kcal
Joule equivalent of Heat
%Error %Error 13.7119% 13.6572%
% Error

Emily Gatlin

Joule Equivalent of Electrical Energy

VI J   T  m c  m c  c c w
VI
J 
 T
m c
 m
c
c
c
w w
 t
8.0 volts
6.38 Amp
J
 
kcal
kcal
5
0.042 kg 0.21
0.249 kg 1.0
0.0416

1
10
kg
kg
C
C
51.04 v  A
J 
o
o
0.00882
kcal
C
0.249 kcal
C
0.04161
C seconds
Theoretical Value
Measured Value
% Error =
×100
51.04
v  A
J 
Theoretical Value
o
C
0.25782
kcal
C
0.041 61
Joules
Joules
second
4186
4757.69
kcal
kcal
% Error =
 100
Joules
51.04 v  C
4186
Joules
kcal
J 
 4757.69224409
kcal
0.107278902
%Error
 13.6572%
kcal second
VI
J
 T
m c
 m
c
c
c
w w
 t
8.0 volts
6.38 Amp
J
 
kcal
kcal
5
0.042 kg 0.21
0.249 kg 1.0
0.0416

1
10
kg
kg
C
C
Theoretical Value
Measured Value
% Error =
×100
51.04 v  A
Theoretical Value
J
o
o
Joules
Joules
0.00882
kcal
C
0.249 kcal
C
0.04159
4186
4759.98
C seconds
kcal
kcal
% Error =
 100
Joules
4186
51.04
v  A
kcal
J
 13.7119%
0.25782
kcal
o
 C
C
%Error
0.041 59
second
51.04 v  C
Joules
J
 4759.98014611
kcal
0.0109887338
kcal second
Joules
J
 4759.98014611
kcal

The error within the experiment could stem from multiple sources. For example, the minute presence of ice not completely melted might have been present when the experiment begins. This would cause a much cooler temperature than expected at the specified voltages and current readings. Additionally, the mass of the water and container might be skewed due to the presence of ice. Ice is less dense than liquid water and this would cause disparity in the data used to calculate the joule equivalent of electrical energy using equation(1.5). Additionally, the water within the calorimeter might still not possess a uniform temperature due to the stirring, which would also produce error within the data.

Emily Gatlin

Joule Equivalent of Electrical Energy

CCOONNCCLLUUSSIIOONN

This experiment demonstrated the relationship between the equivalence of electrical energy and heat energy using calorimetry to show a method to measure electrical energy. Since the formation of the concept of electrical energy revolved around the principles of mechanical energy, the correlation of electrical energy to these principles remains a crucial relationship to understanding electrical energy. Equation(1.3) shows the direct correlation of these fundamental principles to each other. In this experiment, the joule electrical equivalent of energy is calculated using the slope of the temperature versus time curve. This plot of the temperature versus time curve shows the direct linear relationship associated with the joule electrical equivalent of energy. This correlation is shown in Equation(1.5). Thus, this experiment uses the key concepts behind calorimetry in order to explain its correlation to the joule electrical equivalent of energy as seen in Equation(1.4). The error present in the experiment still demonstrated the concepts effectively and allowed for a calculation of the joule equivalent of electrical energy.