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SPSS Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

SPSS 15.0.1 - November 2006 SPSS 16.0.2 - April 2008 SPSS Statistics 17.0.1 - December 2008 PASW Statistics 17.0.3 - September 2009 PASW Statistics 18.0 - August 2009 PASW Statistics 18.0.1 - December 2009 PASW Statistics 18.0.2 - April 2010 PASW Statistics 18.0.3 - September 2010 IBM SPSS Statistics 19.0 - August 2010

SPSS Windows
Data View
Expune datele Coloanele reprezint variabilele Rndurile reprezint uniti individuale sau

grupuri de uniti

Variable View

Prezint variabilele in dataset TYPE: permite diferite stiluri de prezentare LABEL: permite numirea variabilelor VALUES:permite prezentarea nivelului variabilelor MEASURE:selecteaz scala de msurare

Output View
Prezint rezultatele analizelor

Introducerea datelor
Pentru variabile nominale utilizai valori

numerice VALUES in VARIABLE VIEW Pentru dataset de volum mare utilizai un spreadsheet EXCEL Conferii LABEL la numele variabilelor n VARIABLE VIEW

Pentru a importa un fiier EXCEL , click : FILE OPEN DATA apoi schimbai FILES OF TYPE n EXCEL (.xls) Pentru a importa TEXT sau DATA , click : FILE OPEN DATA apoi schimbai FILES OF TYPE n TEXT (.txt) sau DATA (.dat)

Numeric Data
Dup importarea dataset i atribuirea de

nume variabilelor, click :


ANALYZE DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES Alegei orice variabil pentru analiz i plasai-o n

caseta din dreapta


Mean : y =

y
i =1

Sum : yi
i =1

Std. deviation : S = S.E. Mean : S n

(y
n i =1

n 1

Variance : S 2

General Data
Dup importarea dataset i atribuirea de

nume variabilelor, click :

ANALYZE DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

FREQUENCIES Alegei orice variabil pentru analiz i plasai-o n caseta din dreapta
Optiuni ( Categorical Variables):
Frequency Tables Pie Charts, Bar Charts

Optiuni ( Numeric Variables)


Frequency Tables (Useful for discrete data) Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion, Percentiles Pie Charts, Histograms

Vertical Bar Charts and Pie Charts


Dup importarea dataset i atribuirea

de nume variabilelor, click :


GRAPHS BAR SIMPLE (Summaries for

Groups of Cases) DEFINE Variabila de interes n CATEGORY AXIS

GRAPHS PIE (Summaries for Groups of

Cases) DEFINE Variabila de interes n DEFINE SLICES BY

Exemplu

80

60

40

20

Count

0 1 2 3 4 5

OUTCOME

Histograme
Dup importarea dataset i

atribuirea de nume variabilelor, click :


GRAPHS HISTOGRAM Selectai variabila pentru plotare Click DISPLAY NORMAL CURVE pentru a

suprapune o curb normal

Exemplu
30

20

10

Std. Dev = 20.97 Mean = 32.1 0


0 0.

N = 175.00
0 0. 12 0 0. 11 0 0. 10 .0 90 .0 80 .0 70 .0 60 .0 50 .0 40 .0 30 .0 20 .0 10

MONTHS

Side-by-Side Bar Charts


Dup importarea dataset i

atribuirea de nume variabilelor, click :


GRAPHS BAR Clustered (Summaries for

Groups of Cases) DEFINE Barele reprezint N, numrul de cazuri ( % Cazuri) CATEGORY AXIS: variabilele ce reprezint grupurile comparate (independent variable) DEFINE CLUSTERS BY: variabilele ce reprezint rezultatele , variabile de interes (dependent variable)

Exemplu
30

20

OUTCOME
1 2

10

3 4

Count

5 0 1 2 6

TRT

Scatterplots
Dup importarea dataset i

atribuirea de nume variabilelor, click :


GRAPHS SCATTER SIMPLE DEFINE Pentru Y-AXIS, alegei Dependent (Response)

Variable Pentru X-AXIS, alegei Independent (Explanatory) Variable

Exemplu
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 .5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5

THCLRNCE

DRUG

Dup importarea dataset i

Scatterplots cu dou variabile independente

atribuirea de nume variabilelor, click :


GRAPHS SCATTER SIMPLE DEFINE Pentru Y-AXIS, alegei Dependent Variable Pentru X-AXIS, alegei Independent Variable

cu cele mai multe niveluri Pentru SET MARKERS BY, alegei Independent Variable cu cele mai puine niveluri

Exemplu
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

DRUG
Tagamet Pepcid Placebo

THCLRNCE

SUBJECT

Contingency Tables for Conditional Probabilities


Dup importarea dataset i atribuirea de

nume variabilelor, click :


ANALYZE DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS CROSSTABS Pentru ROWS, selectai variabilele independente Pentru COLUMNS, selectai variabilele dependente Click CELLS Click ROW Percentages

Independent Sample t-Test


Dup importarea dataset i

atribuirea de nume variabilelor, click :


ANALYZE COMPARE MEANS INDEPENDENT

SAMPLES T-TEST Pentru TEST VARIABLE, selectai variabilele dependente Pentru GROUPING VARIABLE, selectai variabilele independente . Definii numele celor dou niveluri de comparat.

Wilcoxon Rank-Sum/Mann-Whitney Tests


Dup importarea dataset i

atribuirea de nume variabilelor, click :


ANALYZE NONPARAMETRIC TESTS 2

INDEPENDENT SAMPLES Pentru TEST VARIABLE, selectai variabila dependent Pentru GROUPING VARIABLE, selectai variabilele independente . Definii numele celor dou niveluri de comparat. Click MANN-WHITNEY U

Paired t-test
Dup importarea dataset i

atribuirea de nume variabilelor, click :


ANALYZE COMPARE MEANS PAIRED

SAMPLES T-TEST Pentru PAIRED VARIABLES, selectai cele dou variabile dependente

Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test


Dup importarea dataset i atribuirea de

nume variabilelor, click :


ANALYZE NONPARAMETRIC TESTS 2 RELATED

SAMPLES Pentru PAIRED VARIABLES, selectai cele dou variabile dependente Click WILCOXON Option

Relative Risks and Odds Ratios


Dup importarea dataset i atribuirea de

nume variabilelor, click :


ANALYZE DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS CROSSTABS Pentru ROWS, selectai Independent Variable Pentru COLUMNS, selectai Dependent Variable La meniul STATISTICS, Click RISK La CELLS, click OBSERVED i ROW PERCENTAGES

Fishers Exact Test


Dup importarea dataset i atribuirea de

nume variabilelor, click :


ANALYZE DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS CROSSTABS Pentru ROWS, selectai Independent Variable Pentru COLUMNS, selectai Dependent Variable La STATISTICS, click CHI-SQUARE La CELLS, click OBSERVED i ROW PERCENTAGES

Chi-Square Test
Dup importarea dataset i atribuirea de

nume variabilelor, click :


ANALYZE DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS CROSSTABS Pentru ROWS, selectai Independent Variable Pentru COLUMNS, selectai Dependent Variable La STATISTICS, click CHI-SQUARE La CELLS, click OBSERVED, EXPECTED, ROW

PERCENTAGES, i ADJUSTED STANDARDIZED RESIDUALS

Kruskal-Wallis Test
Dup importarea dataset i atribuirea de

nume variabilelor, click :


ANALYZE NONPARAMETRIC TESTS k

INDEPENDENT SAMPLES Pentru TEST VARIABLE, selectai Dependent Variable Pentru GROUPING VARIABLE, selectai Independent Variable, apoi definii domeniul nivelului variabilelor (Minimum and Maximum) Click KRUSKAL-WALLIS H

1-Factor ANOVA - Independent Samples (Parallel Groups)


Dup importarea dataset i atribuirea de

nume variabilelor, click :


ANALYZE COMPARE MEANS ONE-WAY ANOVA Pentru DEPENDENT LIST, Click Dependent

Variable Pentru FACTOR, Click Independent Variable Compararea Treatment Means:


Click POST HOC Apoi TUKEY and BONFERRONI

Randomized Block Design - Ftest Dup importarea dataset i atribuirea de


nume variabilelor, click :
ANALYZE GENERAL LINEAR MODEL UNIVARIATE Atribuii DEPENDENT VARIABLE Atribuii variabila TREATMENT ca FIXED FACTOR Atribuii variabila BLOCK ca RANDOM FACTOR Click MODEL, apoi CUSTOM, sub BUILD TERMS

alegei MAIN EFFECTS, mutai ambii factori la lista MODEL Click POST HOC i selectai TREATMENT factor pentru POST HOC TESTS i BONFERRONI i TUKEY Pentru PLOTS, selectai BLOCK factor pentru HORIZONTAL AXIS i TREATMENT factor pentru SEPARATE LINES, click ADD

Regresia liniar
Dup importarea dataset i

atribuirea de nume variabilelor, click :


ANALYZE REGRESSION LINEAR Selectai DEPENDENT VARIABLE Selectai INDEPENDENT VARAIABLE Click STATISTICS, apoi ESTIMATES,

CONFIDENCE INTERVALS, MODEL FIT Pentru histograma residualelor , click PLOTS i HISTOGRAM sub STANDARDIZED RESIDUAL PLOTS

Exemplu
Histogram Dependent Variable: CLGM
6 5 4 3 2

Frequency

1 0 -1.50 -1.00 -.50 0.00 .50 1.00 1.50

Std. Dev = .97 Mean = 0.00 N = 17.00

Regression Standardized Residual

Regression Plots
Scatterplot cu Fitted (Least Squares) Line
GRAPHS INTERACTIVE SCATTERPLOT Selectai DEPENDENT VARIABLE pentru

UP/DOWN AXIS Selectai INDEPENDENT VARIABLE pentru RIGHT/LEFT AXIS Click FIT Tab, apoi REGRESSION pentru METHOD NOTA: asigurai-v c variabilele sunt SCALE in VARIABLE VIEW sub MEASURE

Partial Regression Plots (Multiple

Regression) pentru a observa asocierea fiecrei Independent Variable cu Y


Click PLOTS, apoi PRODUCE ALL PARTIAL

Exemplu

Linear Regression

600

500

clgm

400

300

200

clgm = 460.83 + -3.22 * clcr R-Square = 0.33


20

40

60

clcr

Logistic Regression
Dup importarea dataset i

atribuirea de nume variabilelor, click :


ANALYZE REGRESSION BINARY LOGISTIC Selectai DEPENDENT VARIABLE Selectai INDEPENDENT VARAIABLE(S) ca i

COVARIATES Pentru 95% CI , pentru odds ratio, click OPTIONS, apoi CI pentru exp(B) Declarai orice CATEGORICAL COVARIATES (variabile independente cu niveluri categorice )

Nonlinear Regression
Dup importarea dataset i

atribuirea de nume variabilelor, click :


ANALYZE REGRESSION NONLINEAR Selectai DEPENDENT VARIABLE Definii MODEL EXPRESSION ca o funcie de

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE i parametri necunoscui Definii PARAMETERS i atribuii STARTING VALUES

Exemplu
Nonlinear Regression Summary Statistics Source Regression Residual Uncorrected Total (Corrected Total) DF 3 2 5 4 Sum of Squares 24.97099 .02783 24.99881 10.83973 .99743 Dependent Variable RNACHNG Mean Square 8.32366 .01391

R squared = 1 - Residual SS / Corrected SS = Asymptotic Std. Error

Parameter A B C

Estimate

Asymptotic 95 % Confidence Interval Lower Upper

3.521788512 .121466117 2.999161991 4.044415032 35.598069675 7.532265897 3.189345253 68.006794097 18374.392967 82.899219276 18017.706415 18731.079519

Ax B Model : y = B x +CB

x = AUC06 h

A, B, C Parameters