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REVISTA DE PEDAGOGIE NR.

58 (2) 2010

CUPRINS
ABORDRI TEORETICE

CERCETRI, MODELE DE INTERVENIE, BUNE PRACTICI

Gheorghe Toma Consilierea ca profesie i profesionalizarea practicii consilierii .............................................................................................. 7 Carmen Iosifescu Comunitile de practic un posibil instrument de dezvoltare profesional a consilierilor colari .................................................. 15 Ramona-Elena Stemate Metode i tehnici utile n consilierea adolescenilor cu agresivitate ridicat ............................................................. 23 Andrea Laudadio, Giuliana Franciosa, Lavinia Mazzocchetti, Antonietta Maiorano, Francisco Javier Fiz Prez Relaia ciudat ntre persoanele de gen masculin i putere: analiza relaiei ntre valori i starea de bine n adolescen ........................................................................................... Sperana ibu Serviciile de orientare i consilierea carierei din nvmntul superior european analiz comparativ .................................. Lus Sobrado Fernndez, Elena Fernndez Rey, Cristina Ceinos Sanz, Rebeca Garca Murias, Ana Couce Santalla Acreditarea profesionitilor n consiliere n context internaional: analiz comparativ ......................................... Geanina Surdu, Iulian Petre Integrarea socio-profesional a persoanelor seropozitive .................................................................................... Ilkay Savci Deschiderea unor noi arii n construirea carierei pentru copiii strzii din Turcia: tiin, tehnologie i inovaie ...................................... Alina Gravili, Mihai Iacob Conectarea serviciilor de consiliere Modelul GIANT ............................................................................ Luminia Tsica W-Education Ap pentru via educaie pentru ap curat ....................................................................................................... Delia Goia PRESTO Instrumente de susinere a educaiei ntre egali .... Mihai Iacob NCP-VET-CO ........................................................................... Alina Gavrili Tranziia de la coal la piaa muncii ................................... Mihai Iacob Orientarea virtual ...................................................................

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AGENDA EDUCAIEI

87 89 93 95 99

CONTENTS

THEORETICAL APPROACHES

Gheorghe Toma Counselling as a Profession and the Professionalization of the Counselling Practice ................................................ 7 Carmen Iosifescu Communities of practice: a Possible Tool of Professional Development for School Counsellors ......................................... 15 Ramona-Elena Stemate Useful Methods and Techniques in Counselling Adolescents with High Levels of Aggressiveness ........................ 23 Andrea Laudadio, Giuliana Franciosa, Lavinia Mazzocchetti, Antonietta Maiorano, Francisco Javier Fiz Prez The Strange Relation Between Males And Power: Analyzing The Relationship Between Values and Well-Being in Adolescents .................................................................................. Sperana ibu Guidance and Career Counselling Services in European Higher Education Comparative Analysis ...................................... Lus Sobrado Fernndez, Elena Fernndez Rey, Cristina Ceinos Sanz, Rebeca Garca Murias, Ana Couce Santalla Guidance Professionals Accreditation in the International Context: Comparative Analysis ............................ Geanina Surdu, Iulian Petre Social and Professional Insertion of HIV Positive Individuals ...................................................................................... Ilkay Savci Opening a New Career Areas for Street Children in Turkey: Science, Technology, Innovation ........................................................ Alina Gravili, Mihai Iacob Connecting Counselling Services: the GIANT Model ...................................................................................................

STUDIES, INTERVENTION MODELS, GOOD PRACTICES

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EDUCATION'S AGENDA

Luminia Tsica W-Education Water for Life Education for Water ..... Delia Goia PRESTO Peer Related Education Supporting Tools ............ Mihai Iacob NCP-VET-CO ........................................................................... Alina Gavrili School and the World of Work ............................................ Mihai Iacob Virtual Guidance .....................................................................

TEORIE I PRACTIC
CONSILIEREA CA PROFESIE I PROFESIONALIZAREA PRACTICII CONSILIERII
Prof. univ. dr. Gheorghe Toma Universitatea din Bucureti gheorghetomsa@yahoo.com

Rezumat Acest studiu se axeaz pe modalitatea n care s-a dezvoltat profesia de consiliere de la nceputul secolului XX pn n prezent. Activitatea de consiliere s-a conturat ca profesie prin dezvoltarea i maturizarea domeniilor sale de practic specializat cum ar fi: consilierea profesional, consilierea colar, consilierea recuperatorie i consilierea n sntatea mintal. Specificul dezvoltrii profesiei de consiliere const n faptul c, n loc s se dezvolte mai nti profesia de consiliere, dup care s urmeze n mod logic specializarea practicii, aa cum s-a ntmplat n alte domenii (medical, juridic etc.), n consiliere au aprut la nceput domeniile de specialitate, ca rspuns la diversele nevoi umane i abia mai trziu ele au fost conceptualizate ca aparinnd bazei comune a profesiei de consiliere. Condiiile pe care trebuie s le ndeplineasc o activitate social pentru a deveni profesie sunt considerate urmtoarele: a) un corp de cunotine specializate i cercetri bazate pe o teorie; b) o societate sau o asociaie profesional, care s defineasc pregtirea profesionitilor; c) standarde profesionale pentru programele de pregtire; d) un cod etic; e) standarde de admitere pentru practicieni. Majoritatea specialitilor consider c activitatea de consiliere ndeplinete, n totalitate, condiiile enumerate mai sus, fapt pentru care ea poate fi considerat o profesie distinct. n Romnia, condiiile respective sunt ndeplinite doar parial. Mai trebuie elaborate i implementate standarde profesionale pentru programele de pregtire i standarde de admitere pentru practicieni. Cuvinte cheie: consiliere, profesie, condiiile definirii unei profesii, standarde de pregtire, standarde de calitate. Abstract This study focuses on the development of the counselling profession from the beginning of the 20th century up to present. Counselling emerged as a profession as a result of the development and use on a large scale of his practical fields such as: professional counselling, school counselling, recovery counselling and metal health counselling. What makes the profession of counselling different from other professions is that, it did not emerged first as a profession and subsequently developed its practical fields, but it was quite the opposite. Thus, in contrast with other professions (medicine, law etc.) in counselling, the practical specializations emerged first as a result of human needs and demands and only later they were conceptualized into the counselling profession. For a social activity to become a profession it should meet certain conditions: a) specialized systematic information and research based on a theory: b) a professional association that should define the required training of the professionals: c) professional standards for the training programs; d) an ethical code; e) admittance standards for the practitioners. In the opinion of the majority of specialists, the activity of counselling fully meets the above mentioned conditions. Therefore it may be considered as a distinct profession.

Revista de Pedagogie nr. 58 (2) 2010

However, in our country, these conditions are only partly met. We still need to elaborate and implement the professional standards for the training programs and the admittance for practitioners. Key words: counselling, profession, the conditions for defining a profession, standards of training, standards of quality.

1. nceputurile consilierii i specificul dezvoltrii ei ca profesie

Dei termenul de consiliere a aprut n literatura scris abia n anul 1931, practicarea acestei activiti sau relaii de sprijin dateaz din timpuri strvechi. Spre exemplu, vindecarea de tip psihologic era folosit cu mii de ani n urm, n Grecia i Roma antic, iar dup apariia cretinismului o gsim utilizat n taina spovedaniei. n zilele noastre, consilierea a devenit o profesie conturat n domeniul psihologiei i tiinelor educaiei, ea fiind practicat conform standardelor de certificare i avnd organizaii profesionale proprii, o filosofie, principii, standarde profesionale i coduri etice de conduit proprii. Ca disciplin profesional, consilierea se afl n plin dezvoltare, ea fiind predat la nivel universitar i postuniversitar, n majoritatea rilor lumii contemporane. Istoria consilierii este un proces evolutiv fascinant i, n acelai timp, interesant mai ales n privina modului n care s-a dezvoltat profesia de consiliere i a rapiditii trecerii ei prin procesul de profesionalizare n ultima jumtate a secolului XX. De reinut faptul c, activitatea de consiliere s-a dezvoltat ca profesie, n primul rnd, prin dezvoltarea i maturizarea domeniilor sale de practic specializat, cum ar fi: consilierea colar, consilierea recuperatorie, consilierea profesional i consilierea n sntatea mintal. Aceste domenii de practic specializat au mprtit un corp comun de competene profesionale i de concepte fundamentale. n general, tendinele istorice, filosofice i sociale, precum i politicile publice au contribuit toate mpreun la dezvoltarea diverselor specializri ale consilierii. Prin urmare, n loc s se dezvolte mai nti profesia de consiliere, dup care s urmeze n mod logic specializarea practicii, aa cum s-a ntmplat, spre exemplu, n profesiile medicale i juridice, n consiliere au aprut primele, domeniile de specialitate, ca rspuns la diversele nevoi umane i abia mai trziu ele au fost conceptualizate ca aparinnd bazei comune a profesiei de consiliere. Aceast succesiune invers a dezvoltrii profesiei de consiliere a avut un impact direct asupra instituiilor profesionale care reprezint profesia i domeniile sale de practic specializat. Dup opinia unor specialiti n domeniu (Myers, 1995; Herr, 1999), specializrile n profesia de consiliere s-au bazat pe locurile de munc exclusive, pe clientela deservit i pe tehnicile utilizate sau pe un amestec ntre cunotinele necesare i populaiile de clieni. Pornind de la teza axiomatic, dup care domeniile specializate ale consilierii au aprut naintea profesiei de consiliere, din necesitatea de a satisface anumite nevoi specifice ale omului, s urmrim n continuare dezvoltarea consilierii n epoca modern.

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2. Dezvoltarea consilierii n secolul XX

n accepiune modern, originile consilierii se afl n Statele Unite ale Americii. nceputurile acestei activiti de sprijin le gsim n opera i activitatea lui Frank Parsons, printele micrii de orientare i selecie profesional, care n anul 1909 a nfiinat la Boston primul centru oficial de consiliere a carierei. n primele decenii ale secolului XX, n Statele Unite ale Americii s-au produs o serie de evenimente care au impulsionat dezvoltarea orientrii profesionale. Este vorba de industrializare, de migraia n mas dinspre Europa ctre America, de colarizarea obligatorie, apariia psihometriei etc. La aceste evenimente, mai trebuie adugate reformele lui Jesse Davis, care a introdus orientarea profesional n educaia public american i cele ale lui Clifford Beers, care s-a ocupat de instituiile de sntate mintal. Pe ansamblu, aceste reforme au introdus orientarea elevilor n coli i au determinat disponibilizarea de fonduri pentru dezvoltarea educaiei profesionale n colile publice. O alt serie de evenimente, importante pentru dezvoltarea consilierii, au fost urmtoarele: a) adoptarea n anul 1918 a legii privind recuperarea soldailor din primul Rzboi Mondial; b) adoptarea n anul 1920 a legii care decreta drept obligatorii serviciile de consiliere pentru persoanele cu dizabiliti, legate de efectuarea serviciului militar; c) nfiinarea primului centru de consiliere a familiei n anul 1929 la New York i altele. Prin urmare, n societatea timpurie a secolului XX, a aprut o micare ce a nceput s recunoasc nevoia profesiei de consiliere, ca rspuns la evenimentele sociale, politice i economice de la nceputul anilor 1900. La nceputurile consilierii ca profesie s-a pus accentul, cu precdere, pe orientarea profesional, care a fost introdus n experiena educaional a elevilor. Pe msur ce orientarea profesional a fost acceptat n instituiile colare, psihologii au promovat micarea pentru sntate mintal i cercetarea modurilor de sprijinire a oamenilor cu probleme emoionale i comportamentale. De asemenea, influenele celor dou rzboaie mondiale, condiiile economice i criza din anii 1929 1930 au continuat s mping consilierea profesional i a carierei n domeniul vieii cotidiene. Aceleai circumstane au determinat folosirea testrii psihologice n instituiile militare, educaionale i clinice, iar specialitii din psihologie i tiinele educaiei au nceput s recunoasc nevoia de consiliere n multe domenii ale vieii socio-profesionale. Treptat s-a produs o deplasare a ateniei ctre starea personal i de bine a oamenilor, fapt care a jucat un rol important n dezvoltarea unei micri generale pentru sntatea mental i n dezvoltarea profesiei de consiliere. Dezvoltarea consilierii ca profesie s-a desfurat cu mare intensitate pe parcursul primei jumti din secolul XX. Aceast activitate de sprijin a dobndit autonomie i individualitate profesional prin activitatea lui Carl Rogers, care prin cartea sa Consiliere i psihoterapie, publicat n 1942, a revoluionat profesia de consiliere. Abordarea centrat pe persoan, elaborat i ntemeiat de Rogers pe principiile filosofiei umaniste, a devenit a treia for n psihologie i consiliere, dup psihanaliz i behaviorism. Dup 1950, au aprut i alte orientri i concepii care au oferit practicii consilierii o puternic baz teoretic i
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metodologic. n acest fel, s-au creat condiiile necesare pentru transformarea consilierii ntr-o profesie unic i distinct. 3. Condiiile definirii profesiei de consiliere Condiiile pe care trebuie s le ndeplineasc o activitate social pentru a fi considerat profesie au fost descrise de diveri specialiti, printre care Klatt (1967) i Glasoff (2005) (D. Capuzzi & D. R. Gross, 2005, p. 3-5). Aceste condiii fundamentale sunt considerate urmtoarele: a) un corp de cunotine specializat i cercetri bazate pe teorie; b) o societate sau asociaie profesional, care s defineasc pregtirea profesionitilor; c) standarde profesionale pentru programele de pregtire; d) un cod de etic; e) standarde de admitere pentru practicieni. Majoritatea autorilor consider c profesia de consilier a ndeplinit, n totalitate, condiiile necesare pentru ca ea s fie recunoscut drept o profesie unic i distinct. n primul rnd, corpul de cunotine specific profesiei de consiliere implic aplicarea principiilor sntii mintale, psihologice i pe cele ale dezvoltrii umane, prin intermediul strategiilor cognitive, afective i comportamentale. Dezvoltarea acestei profesii poate fi i este influenat de surse multiple, cum ar fi: supervizori, profesori, mentori, terapeui, experi i ceilali consilieri. Un al doilea pas n dezvoltarea profesiei de consiliere l-a constituit nfiinarea unei organizaii sau asociaii profesionale care s creeze condiiile necesare pentru promovarea soluiilor la problemele legate de orientare, consiliere i personalul specializat n acest domeniu. Cel de-al treilea pas n dezvoltarea profesiei de consiliere l-a constituit elaborarea standardelor profesionale pentru programele de pregtire i instruire a consilierilor profesioniti. Acreditarea programelor de instruire a consilierilor a reprezentat un element important pentru identitatea profesional a consilierilor, ntruct n acest fel s-a definit corpul specializat de cunotine i pregtirea necesar pentru consilieri. Astfel, dup anii 1980 s-a nfiinat n Statele Unite ale Americii Consiliul de Acreditare a Programelor de Instruire n Consiliere i Domenii Asociate (CACREP), organism care a nceput evaluarea i acreditarea programelor de instruire n consiliere. Cel de-al patrulea pas n dezvoltarea profesiei de consiliere l-a reprezentat adoptarea unui cod de etic pentru practicieni. Primul cod de etic n Statele Unite a fost elaborat n anul 1963, iar n anul 2005 a fost adoptat un nou cod de etic, care reflect schimbrile actuale din societate i profesie. Scopurile Codului de etic al Asociaiei Consilierilor Americani (ACA) sunt urmtoarele: a) permite asociaiei s clarifice natura responsabilitilor avute n comun de ctre membrii si; b) stabilete principiile care definesc comportamentul etic i bunele practici ale membrilor asociaiei; c) reprezint un ghid etic destinat s-i ajute pe membri ca s-i construiasc un curs de
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aciune profesional, care s serveasc cel mai bine celor ce utilizeaz serviciile de consiliere i care s promoveze cel mai bine valorile profesiei de consiliere; d) servete ca baz pentru rezolvarea plngerilor etice i a investigaiilor ntreprinse mpotriva membrilor asociaiei. Dup nfiinarea Colegiului Naional al Consilierilor Certificai (NBCC), n Statele Unite ale Americii a fost elaborat un cod etic, care este completat i revizuit cu regularitate. Codul de etic al NBCC International ofer un standard minim pentru comportamentul profesional al tuturor consilierilor certificai naional. Acest cod produce ateptri i d asigurri, n privina practicii etice, publicului larg care beneficiaz de serviciile consilierii. Ultimul pas n definirea profesiei de consiliere l constituie standardele de pregtire i formare ale consilierului. Remarcm faptul c, de peste 25 de ani, Consiliul de Acreditare a Programelor de Instruire n Consiliere i Domeniile Asociate din Statele Unite (CACREP) a meninut standarde ridicate n pregtirea consilierilor i a practicienilor asociai, prin intermediul acreditrii programelor de formare a consilierilor. Dei acreditarea CACREP este axat pe programele de specialitate, s-a ajuns la concluzia c urmtoarele opt domenii eseniale trebuie nvate prin intermediul experienelor clinice i al demonstraiilor i anume: identitatea profesional; diversitatea social i cultural; dezvoltarea i maturizarea uman; dezvoltarea carierei; relaiile de sprijin; activitatea de grup; evaluarea; evaluarea cercetrii i a programului. Standardele de pregtire i formare a consilierilor includ cele opt domenii eseniale comune, dar ele se axeaz i pe specializrile din domeniul consilierii, cum ar fi: consilierea carierei, consilierea universitar, consilierea comunitii, consilierea geriatric, consilierea marital i de familie, consilierea n sntate mintal, consilierea colar, consilierea de recuperare etc. 4. Stadiul profesionalizrii consilierii n Romnia

n prezent, n ara noastr funcioneaz aproximativ 1800 de consilieri n cabinetele colare i n CJAPP-uri (centre judeene). Formarea lor profesional este eterogen, conform Legii nvmntului nr. 84/1995 i Ordinului ministrului nvmntului din 1998. Este vorba de absolvenii de psihologie, pedagogie, psihopedagogie special, sociologie i asisten social. 4.1. Formarea profesional i modul de angajare a consilierilor colari Consilierii colari, numii i profesori consilieri, au o pregtire n studii socio-umane psihologie, pedagogie, psihopedagogie special, sociologie i asisten social. n general,
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n nvmntul universitar de stat, Facultile de Psihologie i tiinele Educaiei, precum i cele de Sociologie i Asisten Social au introdus n curriculumul de licen cursuri de consiliere educaional i de orientare n carier. Pregtirea de specialitate n domeniul consilierii colare se realizeaz prin programe de master cu durata de 2 ani, organizate de ctre facultile de profil de la universitile de stat din Bucureti, Cluj Napoca, Iai i Ploieti. De asemenea, programe de master n domeniul consilierii colare gsim i n nvmntul particular la Universitatea Titu Maiorescu i Spiru Haret din Bucureti. ncepnd cu anul universitar 2008/2009, cnd am avut primele promoii de studeni din cadrul Procesului Bologna, s-a trecut i la organizarea unor programe de master pentru pregtirea consilierilor i consultanilor n carier. Asemenea programe de master au fost nfiinate i acreditate, deocamdat, la Universitatea din Bucureti i Universitatea Petrol Gaze din Ploieti. n serviciul public de ocupare a forei de munc, practicienii n domeniul consilierii au, de regul, o alt pregtire dect cei din domeniul educaiei. Ei funcioneaz ntr-o reea de centre, creat printr-un Proiect al Bncii Mondiale n anul 2000 i asigur servicii de informare i consiliere pentru studeni, tineri i persoane aflate n cutarea unui loc de munc. Pe ansamblu, formarea continu a consilierilor colari se realizeaz prin programe de training i cursuri organizate de Casele Corpului Didactic din judee, de diverse asociaii i fundaii, precum i prin participarea la simpozioane sau conferine locale, teritoriale i naionale. Formarea continu a consilierilor din serviciile publice de ocupare a forei de munc se face la locul de munc, n vederea abilitrii lor pentru folosirea documentelor i instrumentelor standardizate. Obiectivele prioritare ale acestei categorii de consilieri sunt reducerea omajului, limitarea fenomenului de derut profesional, precum i asigurarea forei de munc potrivit nevoilor i criteriilor angajatorilor (www.mevoc.net/RO/htm aushildung_maiv). Ct privete angajarea consilierilor colari n Romnia, precizm c aceasta se realizeaz prin concursuri anuale, organizate pe baza unei programe unice, intitulat ,,Consilierea psiho-pedagogic. Temele de concurs sunt elaborate de comisii de specialiti la nivelul Ministerului Educaiei, iar corectarea lucrtorilor este realizat pe centre teritoriale. 4.2. Perspectivele profesionalizrii consilierii colare n Romnia n ce privete condiiile fundamentale pe care trebuie s le ndeplineasc activitatea de consiliere din ara noastr pentru a fi considerat profesie, avem n vedere doar dou dintre ele i anume: a) existena unui corp specializat de cunotine i cercetri ntreprinse i b) existena unui cod etic. Corpul de cunotine a fost realizat prin traduceri i lucrri proprii elaborate de specialiti de la universitile de stat din Bucureti, Iai, Cluj-Napoca, Timioara i Ploieti, iar un prim Cod etic este cel elaborat de specialitii de la Institutul de tiine ale Educaiei din Bucureti. Pregtirea iniial a consilierilor colari se realizeaz prin cursuri de licen la Facultile de Psihologie i tiinele Educaiei i prin cursuri specializate de master.
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n etapa actual, serviciile de consiliere colar din Romnia se afl n plin proces de dezvoltare i perfecionare. Programele de formare, iniial i continu se mbuntesc treptat, iar reeaua instituional a consilierii colare se extinde ntr-un numr din ce n ce mai mare de coli i grdinie. Precizm ns c nu exist nc standarde de calitate pentru consilierea colar i profesional. Menionm totui c Romnia a participat n perioada 2003 2006 la Proiectul MEVOC adic Manualul Calitii n Consilierea colar i Profesional, alturi de alte opt ri europene. Scopul acestui proiect a fost dezvoltarea unui manual interactiv, orientat spre practic i menit s-i ajute pe consilierii colari i profesionali n identificarea serviciilor de consiliere de calitate (www.mevoc.net/RO/proj_info.htm) Fcnd o analiz comparativ a situaiei consilierii colare i profesionale din cele 9 ri participante la Proiectul MEVOC (Anglia, Austria, Germania, Italia, Olanda, Polonia, Romnia, Suedia i Ungaria), am constatat c doar Anglia dispune de un sistem eficient de instituii independente n domeniul consilierii pentru grupa de vrst de 16 -19 ani, unde serviciile de consiliere sunt oferite de specialiti calificai. Celelalte ri participante, inclusiv Romnia, recunosc necesitatea introducerii sistematice a standardelor de calitate n domeniul consilierii colare i profesionale.(Toma, 2008, p. 73) n condiiile integrrii treptate a Romniei n structurile europene i a aderrii la Procesul Bologna de restructurare a nvmntului universitar, se ntrevd anse sporite pentru atingerea, n viitorul apropiat, a standardelor de calitate n domeniul consilierii colare i profesionale. Primii pai au fost fcui deja att n plan teoretic, ct i n plan practic instituional i organizaional. Amintim, n acest sens, elaborarea unor lucrri teoretice valoroase de Institutul de tiine ale Educaiei din Bucureti, universitile de stat din Bucureti, Cluj Napoca, Iai i Timioara; extinderea i dezvoltarea reelei instituionale a consilierii n unitile colare i grdinie; preocuparea autoritilor colare centrale pentru reducerea numrului de elevi din nvmntul primar i special i a copiilor din nvmntul precolar de la 800 la 400 pentru un consilier etc. Considerm c asemenea msuri ameliorative n domeniul consilierii colare i profesionale vor putea fi puse n practic ncepnd cu anii colari urmtori, odat cu votarea legilor nvmntului de ctre Parlamentul Romniei. Un pas important se va face, desigur, prin Asociaia Consilierilor Romni, care a fost nfiinat recent. Aceast asociaie profesional i va reprezenta i i va apra pe consilierii colari i consultanii n carier pe care i avem n prezent i pe care i formm n continuare. Pentru dezvoltarea ei, noi avem ca model Asociaia Consilierilor Americani, care are n prezent, peste 40.000 de membri i circa 20 de departamente. Dup acest model va trebui s dezvoltm i noi, departamente de consiliere colar, consiliere n carier, consiliere recuperatorie, consiliere n sntate mintal, consiliere marital i de familie, consilierea dependenei de droguri i alte substane, consiliere comunitar, consiliere gerontologic etc.
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De asemenea, va trebui s ne gndim i la elaborarea unei reviste a asociaiei, la problemele legate de certificarea i licenierea consilierilor, la problema standardelor profesionale privind programele de pregtire, de recrutare i de supervizare a consilierilor pe diverse domenii de specialitate.

BIBLIOGRAFIE
Bradley, L. Counseling: Evolution of the profession. n: D. Locke, J. Myers, E. Rerr (eds.), The Handbook of counseling, Thousand Oakes, CA: Sage, 2001. Capuzzi, D. & Gross, D.R. Introduction to the counseling profession. Boston, MA: Pearson Educational, Inc., 2005. Capuzzi, D. & Stauffer, M.D. Foundations of addictions counseling. Boston: Pearson Education Inc., 2008. Foster, L. Professional Credentialing and Program Accreditation. n: The Professional Counselor: Research and Practice, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2009. Gladding, S.T. Counseling, a comprehensive profession. New York, NY: McMillan Publishing Co., 1992. M.E.N. Ordinul nr. 4683, 28 septembrie 1998. National Board for Certified Counselors. Your guide to National Board for Certified Counselors Credentials (Brochure). Greensborough, NC: Author, 2007. Toma, Gh. School counseling in Romania. Realities and further prospects. n: Buletinul Universitii Petrol-Gaze Ploieti, vol. 24, No. 1C / 2008. *** www.mevoc.net/RO/htm ausbildung_marin_ro2.htm accesat la 15 aprilie 2010. *** www.mevoc.net/RO/htm/proj_info.htm accesat la 15 aprilie 2010.

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COMUNITILE DE PRACTIC UN POSIBIL INSTRUMENT DE DEZVOLTAREA PROFESIONAL A CONSILIERILOR COLARI


Drd. Carmen Iosifescu, profesor consilier Centrul Judeean de Resurse i Asisten Educaional Buzu iosifescu.carmen@yahoo.com
Rezumat Tot mai muli cercettori n domeniu consider astzi c dezvoltarea profesional a cadrelor didactice este alimentat nu numai prin formarea iniial i continu ci i prin interaciunea cu colegii i prin reflexivitatea personal n diverse situaii, profesionale sau private Prea puin prezente n snul organizaiilor colare din Romnia, comunitile de practic reprezint o form de organizare a muncii ce faciliteaz gestionarea cunotinelor, a schimburilor, a nvrii. Articolul aduce n discuie oportunitatea de dezvoltare profesional a consilierilor colari prin intermediul acesei structuri asociative. Cuvinte cheie: comunitate de practic, dezvoltare profesional, nvare colectiv, competene. Abstract An increasing number of researchers in the field believe that the professional development of teachers is fueled not only by the initial and continuing training, but also through interaction with colleagues and personal reflection in various situations, professional or private. Too little present among school organizations in Romania, communities of practice are a form of work organization that facilitate the management of knowledge, exchange, learning. The article brings into question the opportunity for professional development of school counselors through this type of associative structure. Key words: communities of practice, professional development, collective learning, competences.

Tot mai muli cercettori n domeniu consider astzi c dezvoltarea profesional a cadrelor didactice este alimentat nu numai prin formarea iniial i continu, ci i prin interaciunea cu colegii i prin reflexivitatea personal n diverse situaii, profesionale sau private (Day, 1999). Cu alte cuvinte, cadrul didactic se profesionalizeaz n aproape toate circumstanele vieii, fie ntr-un mod formal sau informal, singur sau n interaciune, n interiorul sau n exteriorul contextului colar. Pe de alt parte, n lista de activiti susceptibile s conduc spre dezvoltare profesional, Lieberman (1996, citat de Day, 1999) menioneaz situaii foarte variate cum ar fi, de exemplu, implicarea n deciziile privind managementul colii, participarea la diverse reele profesionale sau discutarea practicilor profesionale cu colegii. Lieberman precizeaz c aceste situaii de dezvoltare profesional pot exista att n coal ct i n afara ei (grupuri de lucru privind reformele n educaie, parteneriate cu o universitate sau cu alte coli, s.a.) Aceast recunoatere a nvrii realizat n situaii informale de ctre cadrele didactice (ca parte a dezvoltrii lor profesionale) constituie o schimbare de perspectiv i atrage atenia, pe de alt parte, asupra conceperii i punerii n aplicare a procesului de formare continu formal a cadrelor didactice. Acelai autor critic formrile
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continue actuale care, dup prerea lui, se centreaz mai mult pe coninuturi, dect pe cadrele didactice n calitate de profesioniti ce evolueaz ntr-un context particular. Aceste formri nu iau in considerare identitatea profesional a cadrului didactic i nu ating dect cteva aspecte ale dezvoltrii lui profesionale. E. Pun (1999, p.163) subliniaz existena mai multor tipuri de abordri ale problematicii formrii continue a cadrelor didactice. Una dintre acestea este abordarea contrastiv, deoarece, arat autorul introduce dou perspective diferite, dar complementare, asupra formrii continue perspectiva de tip cretere i cea de tip defect. Prima consider c coala nu este un mediu suficient de stimulativ pentru dezvoltarea profesional a cadrelor didactice i de aceea, este necesar apelul la sprijinul unor factori externi. Cea de-a doua perspectiv consider c formarea iniial a cadrelor didactice este limitat i depit de evoluiile actuale. Ineficiena este dat nu att de nivelul de cunotine profesionale ct de competenele pedagogice inadecvate. Pentru Donnay i Charlier (2006) dezvoltarea profesional a unui cadru didactic i implicit a unui consilier colar, este un proces: orientat (spre un scop, un proiect, un progres, fie el personal (propriile practici) sau legat de un proiect mai larg (cum ar fi cel al colii de exemplu); contextualizat (situat ntr-un mediu particular compus din situaii de munc, din relaiile cu colegii sau cu ali actori ai vieii colare; acest aspect este, de asemenea, ntr-o anumit msur implicit, comunitatea profesional a cadrelor didactice creeaz standarde de gndire i de comportamente care sunt mprtite de ctre cadrelele didactice); parial planificabil (dezvoltarea profesional este relativ imprevizibil cci cadrul didactic muncete ntr-un mediu n care el este solicitat din toate prile; el poate la fel de bine s nvee observndu-i elevii/clienii dar i participnd la o formare continu sau discutnd cu colegii); dinamic i continuu (dezvoltarea profesional se produce continuu sub forma unei spirale; achiziiile realizate sunt reinvestite n situaii profesionale cotidiene i mbogesc strategiile pedagogice de nvmnt); susinut printr-o etic profesional (dezvoltarea profesional a unui cadru didactic are ca finalitate schimbri n comportamentul elevilor); presupune responsabilitate partajat (cadrul didactic este responsabil de dezvoltarea sa profesional, ydar aceasta se va realiza cu att mai bine cu ct el se situeaz ntr-un mediu favorabil; coala este o organizaie care trebuie s favorizeze reflecia i inovaia, deci s susin dezvoltarea profesional a cadrelor didactice). Aceiai autori descriu i patru dimensiuni ale dezvoltrii profesionale: practicile cadrelor didactice sunt deseori punctul de plecare i de sosire a dezvoltrii profesionale care acioneaz pentru a le ameliora; dezvoltarea profesional are tendina de a se nrdcina, uneori chiar a se confunda cu dezvoltarea personal; dezvoltarea profesional se alimenteaz din interaciuni cu alteritatea: confruntare, dezbatere, schimburi; dezvoltarea profesional este legat de construirea i clarificarea identitii profesionale. Prin toate aceste caracteristici i dimensiuni se subliniaz valoarea colaborrii i participarea la o comunitate de munc pentru dezvoltarea profesional a cadrelor didactice. Citm aici
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o parte din definiia dezvoltrii profesionale propus de Day: Este procesul prin care, singure sau mpreun cu alii, cadrele didactice reconsider, rennoiesc i sporesc angajamentul lor n calitate de ageni de schimbare []. Acest extras din definiia lui Day poate fi i mai mult operaionalizat: ce semnific concret reconsider sau rennoiete practica sa? Ce situaii precise de nvare acoper exact expresia singur sau cu alii? n 1994, Ph. Perrenoud atrgea atenia c profesia didactic se gsete n faa a dou situaii: cadrele didactice sunt, de fapt, deposedate de profesia lor, sunt nite executani pentru cei care concep i realizeaz programele, demersurile didactice, mijloacele de nvmnt i de evaluare. Acetia pretind c ofer cadrelor didactice modele eficiente de nvare. Autorul amintit numete aceast situaie o form de proletarizare. cadrele didactice devin adevrai profesioniti, orientai ctre identificarea i rezolvarea problemelor, autonomi cnd concep i aleg strategiile didactice, capabili s lucreze n comun n cadrul instituiei i s colaboreze n interiorul unor echipe pedagogice. Ei sunt organizai pentru a-i administra formarea lor continu. Aceasta este calea profesionalizrii. Prea puin prezente n snul organizaiilor colare din Romnia, comunitile de practic reprezint o nou form de organizare a muncii ce faciliteaz gestionarea cunotinelor, a schimburilor, a nvrii. n acest context n care informaia devine atu strategic, organizaiile caut mijloace de valorizare a capitalului lor imaterial, reprezentat mai ales prin competenele i cunotinele lor. Acest context incit cercettorii i practicienii s se intereseze, de un deceniu i jumtate, de aceast form particular de organizare. Mai multe expresii graviteaz n jurul conceptului de comunitate, dintre care reinem patru: comunitate de practic, comunitate de interese, comunitate n reea (sau virtual), comunitate de nvare. Dei ansamblul acestor expresii nu a avut nc o accepiune univoc, recunoscut sau general acceptat, ele posed, fr ndoial, contururi destul de vizibile i suficient de clare pentru a putea sintetiza principalele trsturi ale fiecreia dintre ele. Literatura academic i cea managerial au fost repede cucerite, n jurul anilor 90 de conceptul de comuniti de practic, mult mai apropiat de realitatea colar. Dimensiunea comunitar este cea care confer noiunii un interes analitic major, conducnd la ideea de partajare, de identitate comun, de depire a individualismului. Comunitile de practic i gsesc originile n constructivism unde relaia pedagogic trece de la o centrare pe formator la o centrare pe cel ce nva. Constructivismul rspunde unor probleme cum ar fi: 1) nvarea ntr-un context psihic i social plecnd de la probleme concrete care implic activiti de colaborare. Acest tip de probleme este des realizat n echip, membrii punnd n joc diferite competene, cunotine i experiene pentru a ajuta la rezolvarea lor; 2) obiectivele partajate fac obiectul unei negocieri ntre formatori i cei care nva i ntre cei din urm; probleme prost structurate. Sunt probleme complexe pe care cei ce nva le ntlnesc n activitile lor profesionale; instrumentele cognitive permit celor ce nva s i organizeze cunotinele plecnd de la metode de categorizare i planificare; 3) rolul formatorului este de facilitator (coach). Problemele prost structurate
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reclam competene care merg mai departe de competenele unui singur membru al grupului; 4) cunotinele colective. Gestiunea cunotinelor colective are nevoie s fie recunoscut ca o competen. Totui, nu cunotina nsi are nevoie s fie valorizat ci competena membrilor unei organizaii sau a unei echipe de a produce noi cunotine i de a inova utiliznd cunotinele i competenele fiecruia. Conceptul de facilitator mprumutat de la constructivism se aplic foarte bine comunitilor de practic. n acest context, formatorul sau liderul unui grup trebuie s acioneze ca un facilitator nsrcinat s orienteze discuiile i colaborarea ntr-o bun direcie. Rolul de facilitator al formatorului este mai important dect coninutul sau sursele de informaii puse la dispoziia celor care nva. n ultimii ani, conceptul de comunitate i-a gsit o nou aplicare o dat cu dezvoltarea internetului. Introdus de ctre Licklider i Taylor, conceptul de comunitai de interes online (sau comuniti virtuale) rspunde nu numai unei localizri comune, ci i unui interes comun. O comunitate de practic este o comunitate n care: indivizii mpart informaiile, punctele de vedere, sfaturile; discut diverse situaii trite, aspiraiile, nevoile; creeaz instrumente, standarde, concepii-tip, manuale sau documente; acumuleaz cunotine care i leag ntr-o manier informal prin nvarea lor colectiv; interesul lor merge mai departe dect simpla aplicare a acestora n munca lor profesional; indivizii stabilesc ntre ei relaii care pot conduce la un sens de apartenen colectiv. O comunitate de practici este un grup de indivizi ce mpart acelai interes, un ansamblu de probleme, o pasiune pentru un subiect dat i care i aprofundeaz cunotinele n acest cmp al expertizei, acionnd unii asupra celorlai pe o baz continu (cf. Wenger). Acest grup informal se reunete, intenionat sau spontan, pentru a gsi soluii care permit organizaiilor s fie mai performante. Obiectivul, tacit sau explicit, al acestor ntlniri este de a rezolva probleme i de a primi feed back din partea colegilor asupra propunerilor. Trei dimensiuni permit, dup Wenger (1998) s caracterizm tipul de relaie care face ca o practic s constituie sursa de coren a unui grup de indivizi: angajamentul reciproc, un repertoriu partajat, o negociere comun. Angajamentul reciproc. Wenger definete apartenena la o comunitate de practici ca fiind rezultatul angajamentului indivizilor n aciunile desfurate. El se bazeaz pe complementaritatea competenelor i pe capacitatea indivizilor de a-i conecta eficient cunotinele i competenele cu cele ale celorlali. Negocierea comun. Organizarea comun este rezultatul unui proces colectiv permanent de negociere care reflect complexitatea i dinamica angajrii reciproce. Negocierea aciunilor comune creeaz relaii de responsabilitate reciproc ntre persoanele implicate. Un repertoriu partajat. Acesta este alctuit din resursele comunitii care include suporturi precum prototipuri, rutine, cuvinte, instrumente, proceduri, istorii, gesturi, simboluri, concepte,
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pe care comunitatea le-a creat sau le-a adoptat n cursul existenei sale i care au devenit puin cte puin parte integrant a practicii sale. O comunitate de practici este o metod de partajare a cunotinelor. Ea permite transmiterea att a cunotinelor tacite, bazate pe experien, ct i a cunotinelor explicite, achiziionate prin formare. Circulaia acestei informaii creaz o cunoatere colectiv, care poate servi ca baz perfecionrii profesionale i rezolvrii de probleme. Un bogat ansamblu de resurse, centrat pe cel ce nva, completeaz resursele pedagogice. O comunitate de practic nu se construiete precum o echip de munc sau de proiect, reunind resurse umane, instrumente i fixnd obiective: nu putem dect ncuraja, favoriza dezvoltarea proceselor i schimburile ntre actorii voluntari. Analiza celor trei elemente componente (domeniu, comunitate, practic) ne conduce la formularea unei alte probleme: prin ce se difereniaz comunitile de practic de alte structuri de organizare? Tabelul 1. ofer o imagine comparativ ntre mai multe tipuri de structuri asociative, acestea fiind departajate n funcie de anumite criterii. Comunitile de practic difer de alte structuri de organizare (echipe de proiect, comuniti de interese, reele informale, echipe operaionale) prin obiective (crearea, dezvoltarea i schimbul de cunotine, dezvoltarea competenelor individuale), durat (evolutiv, ncetnd ntr-un mod organic), participani (autoselecia bazat pe cunotine specializate sau pasiunea pentru o tem anume), claritatea limitelor (vagi) (apud Chanal, 2000). Teoria comunitilor de practic formulat de Wenger contribuie la rennoirea nelegerii noastre asupra nvrii organizaionale i ne provoac s o utilizm ca un excelent instrument de formare continu, inclusiv pentru consilierii colari, a cror munc reclam, nainte de orice, competene de cooperare cu diveri factori. Aceast focalizare asupra comunitilor de practic prezint, ntre altele, interesul de a propune cercettorilor un obiect de studiu mai uor observabil dect cunoaterea individual sau a organizaiei colare n ansamblul ei. Lund noiunea de practic social ca punct de intrare n teoria sa despre nvare, el deschide noi perspective asupra relaiei ntre cunotinele organizaionale i aciunea colectiv. Comunitatea de practic constituie un suport pentru memoria colectiv a organizaiei colare deoarece ea permite indivizilor s efectueze n mod corect munca lor fr a fi nevoii s stpneasc toate aspectele. Comunitatea de practici contribuie la crearea de cadre de interpretare necesare rezolvrii sarcinilor i transform climatul de munc monoton, dezvoltnd o atmosfer agreabil format din ritualuri, obinuine, istorii partajate. Dac aceast form asociativ este att de popular este pentru c ea aduce un rspuns credibil la una din principalele chestiuni ridicate de organizaia axat pe nvare: cum s promovm dezvoltarea i partajarea cunotinelor ntr-un mediu ierarhizat i individualist? n afara beneficiilor directe, n literatur au fost indicate i contribuii indirecte, ns eseniale ale comunitilor de practici asupra procesului inovrii. Comunitile pot influena cultura, pot stimula conversaiile productive, pot ajuta la pstrarea unor talente n procesul inovrii.
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Ele au i contribuii n inovarea radical: prin intermediul forumurilor deschise, prin excelena operaional a expertizei pe care o vizeaz, modificarea modelelor mentale existente. ns asocierea liber, auto-organizat, combinarea talentelor i partajarea experienelor de nvare n scopul realizrii de proiecte comune, reprezint cea mai radical msur pentru stimularea inovrii de la inventarea diviziunii muncii. n literatura de specialitate sunt evideniate i anumite probleme legate de comunitile de practic: problema major o reprezinta natura lor organic i informal, care le face foarte rezistente la supravegherea i amestecul conducerii n activitile lor (managementul nu are un rol definit n cadrul acestora). Mai mult chiar, n cazul amestecului conducerii, comunitatea se desfiineaz. Totui, n mod paradoxal, asemenea grupuri necesit exact implicarea conducerii, care s le sprijine pentru a-i atinge potenialul maxim; motivarea participrii: oamenii nu vor participa doar pentru c e bine s partajeze ceva, le trebuie un motiv (organizaiile pot gndi planuri de recompensare a salariailor n functie de rolul lor n procesul de creare a cunotinelor, de participare ntr-o comunitate i de modul de folosire a cunotintelor; alte asemenea planuri pot prevedea faptul ca recompensa s fie acordarea posibilitii de a face ceva nou cu ajutorul cunotinelor dobndite; dificultile ntmpinate n gsirea unor noi modaliti de a permite indivizilor s stabileasc legturi; oferirea de timp pentru stabilirea unor relaii ntre indivizi; gsirea unei modaliti de stimulare a comunicrii normelor, culturii i limbajului comunitii i organizaiei. Cercettorii arat faptul c cea mai mare influen asupra performanei membrilor comunitii l au identitatea comunitii, activitatea desfurat i motivarea membrilor. Pn acum civa ani, vorbeam mai ales de reea de competene, reeaua desemnnd caracterul social i instrumentul de comunicare utilizat. Acest concept de reea s-a mbogit cu cel de comunitate de practic care este supus la diverse teoretizri. Ceea ce este interesant n aceste teorii este faptul c ele postuleaz faptul c aceast comunitate este un loc ce favorizeaz nvarea, construirea cunotinelor noi i deci, care susine procesul de dezvoltare profesional. Contrar formrilor continue formale, care se centreaz n mod general pe coninuturi decontextualizate, comunitatea permite fiecrui cadru didactic s se situeze i s interacioneze n calitate de profesionist care evolueaz ntr-un context particular. Ceea ce este nou este aceast recunoatere pentru dezvoltarea profesional. Comunitatea de practic este o veritabil structur social n serviciul organizaiei colare. Este o structur social ideal pentru a face fa complexitii crescnde i permite gsirea unui echilibru operaional capabil s ntrein procesul de nvare adecvat. Comunitile de practic nu sunt un panaceu universal care ar trebui s nlocuiasc toate celelalte forme de organizare din cadrul colii. Ele permit, ns, construirea unui capital social cu un cost semnificativ mai mic comparabil cu tehnicile utilizate precedent i cu o eficacitate incomparabil, cci sunt direct construite pe relaii umane puternice, se focalizeaz pe obiective concrete i imediate, direct legate de obiectivele strategice ale organizaiei.
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Aceste forme asociative propun un spaiu de stabilitate ntr-o lume n care efemerul pare s domine i n care individualismul pare preponderent. n colectivele create, actorii contribuie la transferul cunotinelor i al bunelor practici reperate i construite de ctre comunitate i validate de ctre instituie. n acelai timp, ei sunt purttori n aceste colective de o cultur a partajrii, prima caracteristic a unei comuniti de practic. Aceast cultur a schimbului, a confruntrii de idei, de mbogire reciproc constituie bazele co-nvrii, permind construirea colectiv a cunotinelor. Actorii pot contribui la difuzarea acestei culturi i favoriza dezvoltarea competenelor individuale i colective.

BIBLIOGRAFIE
Chanal, V. Communauts de pratique et management par projet, n Management, vol 3, nr.1, Universite de Savoie, 2000. Donnay J. & Charlier, E. Apprendre par analyse des pratiques. Initiation au compagnonnage reflexif, Presses Universitaires de Namur, 2006. Draelants, H. Entre le pair et lexpert, trouver la distance qui convient. Une question de lgitimation pour le conseiller pdagogique, Recherches sociologiques & anthropologiques, vol. 38 (1), pp. 163-182, 2007. Pun, E. Profesionalizarea activitii didactice, n Gliga, L. (coord), Standarde profesionale pentru profesia didactic, Bucureti, MEC, 2002. Pun, E. & Potolea, D. (coord.), Pedagogie. Fundamentri teoretice i demersuri aplicative, Ed. Polirom, Iai, 2002. Perrenou, Ph., Competences, habitus et savoir professionnels, n European Journal of Teacher education, vol. 17, nr. 1/2, 1994. Wenger, E. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Accesibil la www.ewenger.com/theory/index.htm, accesat la 15 aprilie 2010.

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Tabel 1. Analiz comparativ a diferitelor structuri asociative ce pot exista la nivelul organizaiei colare
Claritatea Elemente comune Durat limitelor Crearea, Autoselecia bazat Vagi Pasiune, angajament, Evolueaz i Comunitate dezvoltarea i pe cunotine identificarea cu grupul se termin de practic schimbul de specializate sau i cu competenele ntr-un mod competene pasiunea pentru o acestuia organic individuale tem particular Informarea Cine este interesat Vagi Accesul la informaie Evolueaz i Comunitate membrilor i sentimentul se termin de interes similaritii ideilor ntr-un mod organic Primirea i Prieteni, colegi de Nedefinite O nevoie reciproc, Nu au Reele transmiterea munc relaii realmente un informale informaiilor, debut i nici cunoaterea un punct responsabilitilor terminus. Nu fiecrui membru exist dect atta timp ct persoanele sunt n contact sau i amintesc unele de altele Realizarea unei Persoane care Clare Obiectivul proiectului Final Echipe de sarcini specifice ndeplinesc un rol i etapele cheie predefinit proiect direct n realizarea (cnd sarcinilor proiectul se va termina) nsrcinarea cu Membrii desemnai Clare Responsabilitate Sunt Echipe de direciune partajat pentru constrnse s operaionale operaii i procese cu o durat operaii fie determinat permanente (dar dureaz atta timp ct necesit operaia) Oferirea unui Responsabilul Clare Cerinele postului i Sunt Departamente serviciu sau a unui grupului scopurile comune constrnse s formale produs desemneaz fie permanente (dar dureaz pn la urmtoarea reorganizare) Obiectiv Participani

Sursa: Wenger, E.: (1998), Communities of practice: learning, meaning and identitiy, Cambridge University Press, New York (traducere liber).

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METODE I TEHNICI UTILE N CONSILIEREA ADOLESCENILOR CU AGRESIVITATE RIDICAT


Dr. Psih. Ramona-Elena Stemate, consilier colar Grup colar Industrial Mecanic Fin Bucureti ramona_stemate@yahoo.com
Rezumat Agresivitatea este o reacie frecvent a copiilor i tinerilor atunci cnd se confrunt cu situaii frustrante, indiferent dac aceasta este manifestat sau nu n exterior. Consilierea adolescenilor n vederea optimizrii abilitilor lor de gestionare eficient a acestei pulsiuni reprezint un aspect necesar, n special pentru cazurile celor cu dificulti de relaionare sau de comportament. Dezvoltarea abilitilor de gestionare a propriei viei emoionale i reacionale n vederea eficientizrii raportrii la sine i la grupul social este ns necesar majoritii persoanelor aflate la aceast vrst a transformrilor. n articolul de fa ne propunem o trecere n revist unor tehnici eficiente n procesul de consiliere psihologic a adolescenilor ce se confrunt cu dificulti de gestionare a agresivitii personale sau din exterioare. Cuvinte cheie: agresivitate, adolesceni, tehnici, consiliere psihologic. Abstract Aggressiveness is a frequent reaction of the youngsters when they are confronted with frustrating situations, whether it is externalized or not. Counselling teenagers in order to develop their abilities to efficiently manage this impulse is necessary, especially in the cases of those with relation or behavioural difficulties. The development of the teenagers abilities to manage their emotional life in order to improve their relation with themselves and with their social group is necessary to most of the individuals at this age. In this paper we intend to review techniques useful in the psychological counselling process of the teenagers that have difficulties in managing their own aggressiveness or that of the others. Key words: aggressiveness, teenagers, techniques, psychological counselling.

Consilierii colari contemporani se confrunt cu un numr n cretere de cazuri n care adolescenii manifest dificulti de a face fa propriei agresiviti sau a celor din jur. Agresivitatea este o reacie natural n faa obstacolelor frustrante, ns modalitile de manifestare a ei sunt normate social prin reguli de comportament i prin lege. Consilierul colar este una dintre persoanele ce pot interveni psihologic i educativ n vederea dezvoltrii capacitii adolescenilor de a face fa eficient agresivitii n particular i emoiilor n general. Fie c agresivitatea este manifestat n exces sau reprimat, gestionarea deficitar a acesteia are consecine asupra multor aspecte ale vieii adolescentului, de la tipul de relaii de prietenie pe care le construiete pn la confortul su emoional, de la stima sa de sine pn chiar la sntatea sa fizic. Chiar dac uneori dificultatea de gestionare a agresivitii nu este identificat drept problem major sau prioritar a adolescentului, practica ne-a
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evideniat faptul c aceasta este de foarte multe ori un substrat al dezechilibrului emoional sau comportamental al acestuia. Schimbrile multiple din viaa de adolescent de statut, de imagine de sine, de schem corporal, de raportare la sine i la lume, etc. sunt surse de frustrare care genereaz att dificulti de recunoatere i control al emoiilor ct i conflicte cu cei din jur. De aceea, este foarte important ca, n procesul de consiliere, adolescentul s aib posibilitatea s-i contientizeze strile emoionale, s-i clarifice situaiile generatoare i s identifice modaliti eficiente i adaptative de rezolvare a situaiilor frustrante sau conflictuale. Obiectivele lucrului terapeutic cu agresivitatea sunt extrem de strns legate de obiectivele generale i specifice ale procesului de consiliere n ansamblul su. Agresivitatea este integrat realitii adolescentului i nu poate fi separat de aspectele emoionale, comportamentale sau relaionale ale acesteia. Putem diferenia i o serie de obiective terapeutice specifice necesar a fi abordate pentru a se asigura succesul n lucrul cu agresivitatea, i anume: contientizarea emoiilor, nevoilor i ateptrilor, clarificarea relaiilor, ntrirea Eului i optimizarea imaginii de sine, dezvoltarea empatiei i a toleranei, dezvoltarea abilitilor de comunicare, creterea spontaneitii i a autenticitii, dezvoltarea creativitii i a abilitii de a lua decizii, construirea de comportamente adaptative autentice. Lucrul cu agresivitatea poate constitui un obiectiv principal, n cazul n care acesta este motivul sau natura tulburrilor disfuncionale ale adolescentului, sau poate fi abordat ca un obiectiv intermediar, integrat clarificrii relaiilor sau dezvoltrii abilitilor de comunicare i de raportare la sine i la ceilali. n cele ce urmeaz prezentm succint cteva metode i tehnici de intervenie n lucrul cu agresivitatea caracteristice principalelor orientri i coli terapeutice. Abordri psihodinamice Orientarea psihanalitic clasic concepe agresivitatea ca fiind un instinct nnscut, cu substrat pulsional, asupra creia factorii educaionali, de mediu, au o mic influen. Perspectiva freudian terapeutic asupra agresivitii implic necesitatea manifestrii, descrcrii acestei pulsiuni, n vederea perpeturii vieii (Freud, 1909, 1930, apud Kerestegian, 1997). Este vorba de o necesitate de manifestare imperioas i lipsit de discriminare sau posibilitate de control. n acest sens, agresivitatea este conceput ca funcionnd dup principiile sistemului hidraulic. Astfel, impulsul agresiv se acumuleaz n timp, descrcndu-se prin supapele unor activiti de sublimare i n final eliberndu-se prin manifestri agresive deschise. n acest fel are loc scderea tensiunii agresive. Tehnica terapeutic a psihanalizei clasice are drept obiectiv principal aducerea n sfera contiinei a acelor coninuturi incontiente, a emoiilor, pulsiunilor, dorinelor i experienelor reprimate de cenzura Eului. n privina agresivitii, se urmrete realizarea unui catharsis profund al tuturor gndurilor i sentimentelor agresive n vederea scderii tensiunii psihice. ns, n timp ce ncurajarea agresivitii deschise poate fi eficace n terapia unor persoane ce i inhib sau reprim aceste coninuturi psihice, aceast tehnic nu este eficient pentru cei ce se confrunt cu o exacerbare a manifestrilor agresivitii.
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Abordri psihodinamice postfreudiene

Agresivitatea a fost semnificativ diferit conceput de ctre psihanalitii postfreudieni, astfel nct i metodele terapeutice utilizate s-au modificat. Adler (1996) a considerat agresivitatea ca o aspiraie general uman, un factor indispensabil vieii, o pulsiune care urmrete depirea sentimentului de inferioritate i exprim dorina de putere (Punescu, 1994, p.28). Winnicott (1958) afirma c la origine, agresivitatea este aproape sinonim cu activitatea (apud. Storr, 1971, p. 41), iar dac societatea este n pericol, nu este din cauza agresivitii omului ci din cauza reprimrii agresivitii personale (idem, p. 44). Concepiile postfreudiene nu mai accentueaz att de mult rolul distructiv al agresivitii n raport cu individul i societatea, militnd spre utilizarea ei i mai ales evitarea frustrrii sau obstrucionrii acestei energii. Abordri cognitiv-comportamentale

Abordarea terapeutic a agresivitii se realizeaz pornind de la principiul c aceasta este un comportament nvat prin observaie, imitaie, modelare i ntrire social (Bandura, 1973). Obiectivul terapiilor cognitiv-comportamentale este reducerea gndurilor i comportamentelor negative i dezadaptative i construirea unor modele de comportament i de reacie emoional i cognitiv care s permit adaptarea eficient a individului la realitatea cotidian. n acest sens, terapia agresivitii urmrete reducerea strilor de mnie, furie, a gndurilor i comportamentelor agresive prin ntrirea i deprinderea unor gnduri i comportamente pozitive, dezirabile, neagresive. n literatura de specialitate se regsesc o multitudine de tehnici i modele de intervenie terapeutic cognitiv-comportamental aplicate att pentru reducerea comportamentelor agresive ct i pentru reducerea i controlul strilor emoionale de mnie i furie i a gndurilor i atitudinilor agresive. n acest sens, amintim modelul de intervenie al lui Wells i Miller (1993) compus din patru etape: 1. Prevenirea i evitarea agresivitii i a stimulilor generatori implic tehnici de dezvoltare a cunoaterii sociale, generarea de alternative eficiente pentru rezolvarea problemelor sociale, dezvoltarea reaciilor asertive n locul celor agresive, nelegerea ateptrilor n legtur cu rezultatele pozitive ale reaciilor asertive i contientizarea erorilor de atribuire ce intervin n interpretarea indiciilor sociali; 2. Recunoaterea strii de enervare i furie absolut necesar controlului, realizabil prin intermediul programelor de gestionare a furiei, de restructurare cognitiv sau prin exerciii de relaxare; 3. Gestionarea de sine i strategii de a face fa agresivitii implicnd repetiia comportamentelor neagresive, raionarea moral i gndirea n perspectiv; 4. Rentrirea unor nivele acceptabile de agresivitate i nelegere a funciei ei. Goldstein i Glick (1994) au elaborat, aplicat i validat un model de antrenare a nlocuirii
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agresivitii (Aggression Replacement Training) destinat modificrii comportamentale a tinerilor cu agresivitate cronic. Acest antrenament presupune formarea unor aptitudini i abiliti de comportament prosocial, de control al furiei, de gndire moral i precum i motivarea participanilor spre aplicarea deprinderilor formate n viaa de zi cu zi. Evaluarea modelului de intervenie cognitiv-comportamental s-a realizat utiliznd o serie de criterii obiective i subiective precum frecvena izbucnirilor agresive, a comportamentelor anti i prosociale, nivelul de control asupra furiei. Participanii, adolesceni i tineri agresivi, i nsuesc o serie bogat de comportamente prosociale ntr-un mod sistematic, n grupuri reduse de 6-8 persoane. Procedura de baz a educrii acestor comportamente const din patru etape: a) demonstrarea experi exemplific detaliat un anumit comportament prosocial specific; b) jocul de rol adolescenii punnd n practic ceea ce au nvat i repetnd comportamentul n mai multe situaii; c) feedback n legtur cu modul n care au ndeplinit comportamentul, eventual critici, laude sau o redemonstrare; d) antrenarea comportamentelor n diverse situaii similare mediului de via, pentru a asigura rezistena temporal i ecologic a aptitudinilor formate. Aptitudinile formate n cadrul acestui program pot fi incluse n ase categorii principale: 1. Aptitudini sociale de iniiere de ex. nceperea unei conversaii, prezentarea de sine; 2. Aptitudini sociale avansate de ex. a cere ajutor, a cere scuze, a oferi instruciuni; 3. Aptitudini de a face fa sentimentelor de ex. raportarea la o persoan furioas, exprimarea afeciunii, reacionarea la fric; 4. Alternative la agresivitate de ex. rspunsuri la jigniri, negociere, ajutorarea celorlali; 5. Aptitudini de a face fa stresului de ex. reacia la abandon, la acuzare, pregtirea pentru o conversaie stresant; 6. Aptitudini de planificare de ex: stabilirea de obiective, luarea de decizii, rezolvarea de probleme. Antrenarea controlului furiei presupune nvarea persoanelor cum s i controleze sentimentele de furie i mnie. Ei sunt rugai s i noteze toate situaiile care le-au provocat sentimente agresive de-a lungul sptmnii, iar n timpul edinelor s se analizeze. Timp de 10 sptmni, ei sunt nvai s reacioneze la ceea ce i nfurie, utiliznd o serie bine stabilit de comportamente: 1. Identificarea stimulilor a evenimentelor externe sau a gndurilor i convingerilor care provoac o reacie de furie; 2. Identificarea indiciilor acele evenimente fizice individuale precum tensiunea muscular sau ncletarea pumnilor; 3. Utilizarea unor expresii de aducere aminte precum fii calm, relaxeaz-te sau explicarea comportamentului celorlali ntr-o manier neagresiv; 4. Utilizarea unor metode de reducere a furiei respiraia adnc, numratul, imaginarea unui scenariu linititor sau imaginarea consecinelor pe termen lung ale propriului comportament; 5. Utilizarea autoevalurii asupra gradului de ndeplinire a pailor anteriori.
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Autorii acestui program de reducere a agresivitii att sub form emoional ct i comportamental au considerat c adolescenii agresivi participani au toate informaiile i deprinderile necesare pentru a ti cum s reacioneze ntr-o manier neagresiv. Educaia moral este a treia parte a programului construit de Goldstein i Glick (1994) i aceasta are scopul de a asigura punerea n practic a aptitudinilor prosociale i de gestionare a agresivitii nvate. Adolescenilor le este ridicat nivelul de cinste, justiie i preocupare pentru nevoile i drepturile celor din jur prin implicarea n rezolvarea unor dileme morale i conflicte cognitive. n literatura de specialitate se mai regsesc modaliti de reducere a agresivitii prin rescrierea scenariilor de via i a celor de reacie la anumite situaii provocative sau care prezint dificulti pentru subieci. Metode eficiente sunt cele din hipnoterapie i programarea neurolingvistic, precum nlocuirea semnificaiilor anumitor experiene, utilizarea metaforelor, schimbarea submodalitilor critice, ancorarea unor reacii adaptative sau neagresive. Tehnicile de relaxare sunt absolut necesare n majoritatea proceselor terapeutice ce implic agresivitatea, indiferent de orientarea teoretic a terapeutului. Un alt model de intervenie ce a demonstrat o eficien foarte ridicat n dezvoltarea capacitii de gestionare a agresivitii se centreaz pe dezvoltarea capacitii de rezolvare de probleme, adaptat la situaiile de via concrete ale subiecilor. Amintim cu aceast ocazie modelul de grup psihoeducaional pentru victime i agresori centrat pe rezolvarea problemelor construit i validat de Kimberly Hall (2006) precum i grupurile terapeutice orientate pe soluie construite de Linton, Bischof i McDonnell (2005). Este vorba de abordri cognitiv-comportamentale recente care pornesc de la ipoteza principal c agresivitatea este generat de cele mai multe ori de frustrarea resimit de acele persoane care nu au soluii la anumite probleme de relaionare. Autorii au construit programe terapeutice prin care ofer posibilitatea agresivilor s nvee cum s reacioneze eficient i adaptat n acele situaii de via concrete n care ei resimt dificulti i care le declaneaz agresivitatea. Eficiena acestor programe s-a dovedit a fi foarte ridicat mai ales datorit alegerii populaiei int pe care au fost validate, i anume agresori i victime aflate ntr-o form de tratament n sistemul legal i social. Dezvoltarea aptitudinilor de rezolvare de probleme, de analiz a implicaiilor, de anticipare a consecinelor, de stabilire a obiectivelor i de planificare a aciunilor, de luare a deciziei i de asumare a responsabilitii s-a dovedit a fi foarte necesar pentru mbuntirea calitii generale a vieii persoanelor i nu numai n ceea ce privete gestionarea agresivitii. Am prezentat aceste modele terapeutice pentru c sintetizeaz majoritatea tehnicilor cognitivcomportamentale utilizate n cadrul interveniilor asupra agresivitii. Este vorba n principal de restructurarea cognitiv, identificarea i combaterea gndurilor negative i distorsiunilor cognitive, relaxarea, stingerea comportamentelor nedorite, autoevaluarea i automonitorizarea, antrenamentul asertiv, rezolvarea de probleme i dezvoltarea capacitii de a lua decizii.

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Abordri umanist - experieniale

Experienialismul integreaz mai multe coli terapeutice ce au la baz principiile psihologiei umaniste i gndirea existenialist i fenomenologic (Mitrofan, 2000). Prof. Iolanda Mitrofan consider c agresivitatea ar putea fi privit nu neaprat ca un defect sau o slbiciune, ci mai curnd drept o energie de rezerv, o resurs stocat de autoaprare i supravieuire al crei potenial de reconversie n capacitate adaptativ creatoare este semnificativ, adic energia comportamentului agresiv poate fi transformat n putere, efort, curaj i fermitate (Mitrofan, 2004, p.140). Consilierea agresivitii se realizeaz adaptat la coninuturile experieniale, emoionale, atitudinale i comportamentale ale adolescentului, fiind un proces integrat celui de autodezvoltare n toate domeniile existenei. n cele ce urmeaz intenionm s enumerm tehnicile de orientare experienialist ce pot fi utilizate cu succes n acest scop. Psihoterapia gestaltist Obiectivul declarat al terapiei gestaltiste este provocarea i extinderea contientizrii, ca modalitate de cretere i autonomie personal (Mitrofan, 2000, p.83). n ce privete agresivitatea, Perls nainteaz ideea permiterii realizrii sarcinii ei biologice, adic utilizrii n separarea elementelor din mediu i analiza lor n vederea adaptrii. Dac acest lucru nu este posibil, el recomand sublimarea ei, avertiznd mpotriva refulrii i exagerrii (Mitrofan, 2008, pp 132-123). Psihoterapia gestaltist este un proces de autocunoatere i schimbare realizat prin tehnici de focalizare perceptual, aici i acum, prin exerciii de contientizare corporal, afectiv i relaional. Prin intermediul exerciiilor precum scaunul gol, scenarizarea, rmnerea n stare, amplificarea sau diminuarea, fantezia ghidat (Mitrofan, 2008), adolescentul se confrunt cu afacerile nerezolvate - poate cu agresivitatea neexprimat i proiectat -, iar prin contientizarea emoiilor autentice i prin clarificarea relaiilor acesta se dezvolt, integrndu-i prile respinse, restructurndu-se i unificndu-se. Psihodrama clasic Punerea n scen a vieii interioare a adolescentului, ntlnirea cu anumite pri sau conflicte personale permite o nou reacie la experienele trecute, un rspuns spontan, autentic i adaptativ. Psihodrama permite explorarea corporal, emoional i acional a experienelor trecute, utiliznd scenarii prestabilite care se dezvolt prin aportul i improvizaia participanilor. n cadrul acestor puneri n scen, una dintre tematicile contientizate i exprimate poate fi agresivitatea resimit n situaie, n anumite relaii. Protagonistul poate identifica anumite sentimente reprimate sau i poate clarifica reaciile celor din jur, psihodrama oferind ocazia acionrii n vederea transformrii efective a scenariului i implicit a felului de a experimenta situaia. n grupul psihodramatic un adolescent cu exprimri puternice de agresivitate i poate
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antrena alternativele de reacie i i poate clarifica proieciile i interpretrile ce i genereaz reacia agresiv. De asemenea, pot fi puse n scen evenimente traumatizante care n majoritatea cazurilor se asociaz i cu o tulburare de agresivitate, pentru a fi reconstituite i confruntate ntr-un mediu securizant. Analiza bioenergetic Terapie orientat corporal, analiza bioenergetic pune accentul pe lucrul cu corpul n vederea eliberrii tensiunilor musculare i deblocarea fluxului energetic. Dificultile de gestionare a agresivitii se asociaz frecvent cu simptome corporale precum creterea tensiunii arteriale, nroire, transpiraii, ncletarea pumnilor, a flcilor i chiar mpietrire. Cnd exprimarea de sine este blocat de fore interne (inhibiii, complexe, tensiuni musculare cronice, etc.), automat este redus i capacitatea pentru plcere, dar i aportul de energie. Bioenergetica lucreaz simultan cu cele dou pri ale ecuaiei ncrcare descrcare pentru a ridica nivelul energie persoanei, a deschide exprimarea i de a restaura fluxul de sentimente i senzaii n corp (Dinioae, 2000, pp. 156-157). Agresivitatea ridicat presupune blocarea n anumite patern-uri de reacie i de simire ce se reflect i n dezechilibrul energetic, avnd consecine n reducerea adaptrii la mediu. Tehnicile bioenergetice lucreaz la nivel corporal pentru a favoriza exprimarea de sine i spontaneitatea. Programarea neurolingvistic NLP ofer modele de nelegere i intervenie pentru obinerea eficienei i pentru optimizarea comportamentului (Nedelcea, 2000, p. 224). Abordare experienialist postmodern, poate fi utilizat cu succes n terapia tulburrilor de stres, n corectarea unor comportamente nedorite sau n modificarea montajului psihic al pacienilor somatici (idem). Toate aceste utilizri o recomand i pentru abordarea agresivitii, n cazul n care aceasta este una din temele adolescentului. Tehnicile specifice programrii neurolingvistice, de stabilire a relaiei terapeutice, de accesare a resurselor sau de fixare a comportamentului dorit sunt de un real ajutor ntr-un proces terapeutic cu o persoan cu dificulti de gestionare a agresivitii. Prin Pacing consilierul se poate armoniza cu starea adolescentului, rezonnd cu acesta, nelegnd mult mai bine tensiunea i modalitatea de resimire a agresivitii, iar prin Leading l poate direciona ctre modaliti alternative de expresie i experimentare a acestei emoii. Modificarea submodalitilor critice ale unei experiene conduce la schimbarea semnificaiilor acesteia, realizndu-se restructurri la nivelul reprezentrilor despre coninuturi dezadaptative. Tehnicile de ancorare sunt foarte utile n fixarea anumitor resurse necesare creterii stabilitii transformrilor realizate de adolescent. n cazul agresivitii, poate fi vorba de ancorarea anumitor stri afective i atitudinale care s echilibreze tensiunea n situaiile frustrante sau provocative. De asemenea, n lucrul cu agresivitatea este necesar fixarea anumitor comportamente i a unor ateptrii fa de propriile reacii n viitor. Este vorba de tehnica conectrii cu viitorul, prin care adolescentul are posibilitatea s experimenteze n avans unele situaii viitoare dificile, pentru a se obinui i a-i fixa noile modaliti activate de reacie emoional i comportamental.
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Scenariile metaforice sunt modaliti de intervenie i transformare a coninuturilor i structurilor incontiente fr a fi abordat direct problematica n cauz. Metaforele complexe sunt povestiri cu multiple nivele semantice. A spune o poveste este un mod elegant de a distrage contientul i de a activa cutarea incontient de nelesuri i resurse (idem, p. 250). Prin construirea de ctre consilier a unor poveti cu tem semnificativ pentru adolescent pot fi abordate tematici inaccesibile contientului acestuia, cum sunt traumele puternice frecvent generatoare de comportamente agresive inadecvate, adolescentul putnd fi ghidat spre rezolvarea problemei sale. Utilizarea terapeutic a limbajului, modelul Milton de inducere a transei faciliteaz accesul mult mai rapid la instanele incontiente ale psihicului adolescentului, fiind o cale important de modificare a comportamentului i de restructurare a dinamicii psihice. Principiile utilizrii limbajului sunt necesare i pentru realizarea tehnicilor de relaxare foarte importante n consilierea agresivitii, deoarece favorizeaz eliberarea tensiunilor puternice fizice i emoionale acumulate. Aceste tehnici pot fi deprinse i de adolescent pentru a le utiliza n situaiile din afara cabinetului. Psihoterapia experienial a unificrii Terapia unificrii este elaborat, dezvoltat i implementat de Prof. Iolanda Mitrofan, fiind validat permanent i de ctre practicanii din cadrul Societii de Psihoterapie Experienial Romn. Este o abordare holist care respect principalele atribute funcionale ale dezvoltrii umane din perspectiva psihologiei umaniste. Obiectivul principal este unificarea intern a fiinei umane, integrarea prilor respinse, reprimate, astfel eliberndu-se energiile blocate i stimulndu-se potenialul creator, vindector, adaptativ. Agresivitatea, orientat ctre sine sau ctre ceilali, este abordat ca o energie cu mare potenial distructiv dar i constructiv, ce se impune a fi explorat, analizat, resemnificat i integrat n vederea unificrii personalitii. Ea este o polaritate care este frecvent reprimat, respins, neintegrat, de unde i dificultile frecvente ale oamenilor de a face fa propriei agresiviti sau a celor din jur. Prin tehnicile de explorare, analiz i contientizare a prilor respinse n vederea resemnificrii i integrrii lor, a unificrii personalitii, se poate interveni cu succes asupra agresivitii. Tehnicile i metodele utilizate n psihoterapia experienial a unificrii sunt foarte variate, unele fiind integrate i adaptate din terapiile gestalt-creative i somato-analitice, altele fiind inedite i proprii. Desenul, colajul i modelajul sunt tehnici foarte utile pentru exprimarea unor coninuturi incontiente i pot avea un rol activ n transformarea experienei adolescentului. Prin aceste tehnici expresiv-creative sunt expuse vizual i tactil anumite coninuturi ale experienei interne a adolescentului, favoriznd autoexplorarea i autotransformarea. Nu produsul final este semnificativ, ci ntregul proces al conturrii desenului, colajului i formei de plastilin sau de lut, relaia pe care el o are cu obiectul, semnificaia personal i autenticitatea mesajului comunicat. Pe lng marele potenial vindector i transformativ, tehnicile expresivcreative sunt n mod special eficiente n lucrul cu agresivitatea deoarece favorizeaz i o descrcare fizic a tensiunii, prin contactul corporal cu obiectele. Agresivitatea este exprimat
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prin gradul de apsare al creionului pe hrtie, prin formele desenate i culorile utilizate, prin mesajul i impresia lsat de desen, prin modul de manipulare a materialelor pentru colaj, prin felul n care hrtiile sau materialele sunt rupte, tiate sau manevrate. Modelajul e o metod preferenial de exprimare a agresivitii, fiind foarte cunoscut faptul c efortul de prelucrare a pastei pune persoana n contact cu emoiile agresive, asigurnd n acelai timp un sentiment de control asupra acestora. Terapia prin dans i micare este, de asemenea, frecvent utilizat pentru explorarea i transformarea modului de gestionare a agresivitii. Blocajele de la nivel afectiv sunt transpuse la nivel corporal i de multe ori ele pot fi iniial accesate prin exerciii corporale, de dezvoltare a spontaneitii i libertii de micare. S-a observat c simpla micare este suficient pentru a reduce nivelul de emoie agresiv resimit de o persoan. Micarea transform dinamica intrapsihic iar simbolistica dansului face contactul cu dimensiuni primare ale fiinei, dificil de verbalizat. Terapia prin dans este curativ i la nivel relaional, favoriznd comunicarea corporal, raportarea i adaptarea la cellalt. Alte metode expresiv-artistice ce pot fi utilizate n lucrul cu agresivitatea adolescentului sunt crearea de poveti, de filme. Aceste tehnici reprezint tot metode prin care anumite coninuturi respinse pot iei la lumin pentru a fi analizate i resemnificate. Firul povetii, caracterizarea personajelor i ntmplrile prin care ele trec pot dezvlui, pe lng altele, i ostilitatea, reprimat sau nu. Art-terapia influeneaz i indirect agresivitatea adolescentului prin creterea stimei de sine, a autodezvluirii i a creativitii, toate acestea conducnd ctre o reducere a tulburrilor dezadaptative. Bineneles c tehnicile menionate mai sus pot fi combinate, corelate spre obinerea rezultatului dorit. Dramaterapia i scenariul metaforic, prin rolurile special create, faciliteaz dezvoltarea ntregii personaliti, provocnd adolescentul s experimenteze aici i acum situaii cu potenial transformativ. Prin dramaterapie de depesc limite, se confrunt fricile, se nva noi comportamente. O persoan ce i reprim agresivitatea poate gsi cadrul securizant i suportiv pentru a o exprima, iar cei ce resimt un nivel mare de agresivitate o pot exprima fr a face ru celor din jur. De asemenea, aceast tehnic permite jocul rolului opus dect cel de zi cu zi. Agresorul poate contientiza experiena victimei, n timp ce victima poate cunoate motivaia i starea agresorului. n acelai timp, inversarea rolurilor permite observarea de sine din afar, dezvoltnd concepia de sine. Dramatizarea este o cale de mbogire a experienei, de vindecare afectiv, cognitiv i comportamental. n cadrul Psihoterapiei Experieniale a Unificrii, autoarea, I. Mitrofan, a iniiat o metod dramaterapeutic - Dramaterapia Centrat pe Unificare. Aceasta se instituie ca o meditaie dinamic unificatoare a raporturilor intrapsihice dintre multiplele faete (roluri) polare ale Egoului, n scopul integrrii i transcenderii lor, pe de o parte, precum i a reconectrii i reintegrrii Egoului cu Sinele conintor al tuturor resurselor creatoare, vindectoare, armonizatoare i autotransformative pe de alt parte (2004, p. 82). Prim improvizaia dramatic, prin alegerea i punerea n scen a rolului se exprim coninuturi psihice reprimate, respinse sau ignorate, a cror contientizare i resemnificare apropie persoana de unificarea interioar. Fiind elaborate pe principiul polaritilor Egoului i al reconversiei
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lor creatoare prin unificare, integrare i transcendere, scenariile dramaterapeutice pot aborda i agresivitatea dac aceasta este o tem de lucru a adolescenilor. Dintre acestea, menionm scenariul metaforic Zidul, relevant pentru contientizarea de ctre adolescent a strategiilor pe care el le utilizeaz n anumite situaii de via limitative, frustrante sau incerte. Tehnica se bazeaz pe vizualizare n imaginar i aciune corporal mimicopantomimic, prin care adolescentul contientizeaz propria strategie rezolutiv i capacitatea lui de mobilizare n vederea depirii unui obstacol. Cteva concluzii n primul rnd, este important de subliniat faptul c abordarea agresivitii se realizeaz integrat prin inserarea n procesul de consiliere particular, pornind de la evaluarea dinamicii psihoafective a adolescentului, n funcie de obiectivele stabilite i adaptat coninutului specific, contextului i realitii acestuia. De cele mai multe ori, utilizarea tehnicilor specifice pentru optimizarea capacitii adolescentului de gestionare a agresivitii reprezint doar o mic parte a procesului de consiliere, fiind strns intercorelat cu lucrul temelor principale. Ct privete utilizarea specific a anumitor tehnici i metode de intervenie psihologic i psihoterapeutic, suntem de prere c este necesar ca un consilier s le utilizeze pe acelea care se potrivesc cel mai bine specificului psihosocial i cultural al adolescentului, astfel nct s se asigure atingerea eficient a obiectivelor procesului de consiliere. Se ntrevede astfel necesitatea unei formri specializate n mai multe tipuri de metode de intervenie psihologic, avnd n vedere faptul c arsenalul competenelor profesionale ale consilierului este bine s fie adaptat diversitii foarte mari a cazuisticii ntlnite.

BIBLIOGRAFIE
Adler, A. Cunoaterea omului, Editura Trei, Bucureti, 1996. Bandura, A. Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis, Englewood Cliffs NJ, Prentice Hall, Erlbaum, 1973. Dinioaie, A. M. Analiza Bioenergetic Incursiune n universul psiho-corporal, n Mitrofan, I. (Coord.) Orientarea experienial n psihoterapie: dezvoltare personal, interpersonal, transpersonal, Editura SPER, Bucureti, 2000. Freud, S. Civilization and its Discontents, WW Norton & Company, 1961. Goldstein, A. P. & Glick, B. Aggression Replacement Training: Curriculum and Evaluation, Sage Publications, Vol. 25, Nr. 1, 9-26, 1994. Hall, K. R. Solving problems Toghether: A Psychoeducational Group Model for Victims of Bullies, The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, Vol. 31, Nr. 3, 201-217, 2006. Kerestegian, A. Eseu despre agresivitate, Editura Crater, 1997. Linton, J. M. et al. Solution-Oriented Treatment Groups for Assaultive Behavior, The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, Vol. 30, Nr. 1, 5-21, 2005. Mitrofan, I. Orientarea experienial n psihoterapie: dezvoltare personal, interpersonal, transpersonal, Ed. SPER, Bucureti, 2000. Mitrofan, I. Cursa cu obstacole a dezvoltrii umane: psihologie, psihopatologie, psihodiagnoz, psihoterapie centrat pe copil si familie, Polirom, Iai, 2003. Mitrofan, I. Terapia unificrii - Abordare holistic a dezvoltrii i a transformrii umane, Ed. SPER, Bucureti, 2004. 32 ABORDRI TEORETICE

Mitrofan, I. Psihoterapie - Repere teoretice, metodologice i aplicative, Ed. SPER, Bucureti, 2008. Nedelcea, C. Programarea neuro-lingvistic psihoterapia eficienei personale, n Mitrofan, I. (Coord) Orientarea experienial n psihoterapie: dezvoltare personal, interpersonal, transpersonal, Ed. SPER, Bucureti, 2000. Punescu, C. Agresivitatea i condiia uman, Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1994. Perls, F. S. Eul, foamea i agresivitatea, Editura Trei, Bucureti, 2008. Storr, A. Human Aggression, Allen Lane The Penguin Press, London, 1971. Wells, D. & Miller, M. J. Adolescent affective aggression: An intervention model, Adolescence, Vol. 28, Nr. 112, 781-791, 1993. Winnicott, D. W. Aggression in Relation to Emotional Development, n Collected Papers, London, Tavistock, 1958.

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THE STRANGE RELATION BETWEEN MALES AND POWER: ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VALUES AND WELL-BEING IN ADOLESCENTS
Andrea Laudadio, Research & Development Director, e-LABORANDO SpA, Rome,Italy Giuliana Franciosa, Head of Euroguidance Italy Lavinia Mazzocchetti, Consultant, e-LABORANDO SpA Antonietta Maiorano, Researcher Euroguidance Italy Francisco Javier Fiz Prez, Professor of Bioethics European University of Rome a.laudadio@gruppoe-laborando.it
Rezumat Scopul acestui studiu este de a verifica existena unei relaii ntre starea de bine perceput subiectiv i valorile adolescenilor.n plus, cercetarea exploreaz influena sistemului de valori asupra strii de bine, relevnd posibile diferene de gen. Ca instrumente ale cercetrii au fost folosite dou chestionare: Chestionar de valori (Schwartz, Melech, Lehmann, Burgess & Harris, 2001; Capanna, Vecchione & Schwartz, 2005) i Scala satisfaciei n via (Pavot & Diener, 1993). Rezultatele indic corelaii importante ntre cele dou constructe i diferene semnificative ntre brbai i femei. Cuvinte cheie: valori; starea de bine; adolesceni; diferene de gen. Abstract The purpose of this study is to verify the existence of a relationship between subjective wellbeing and values in adolescents. In addition, this research explores the influence of the value system on subjective well-being, showing possible gender differences. Two questionnaires were used as research instruments: the Portrait Values Questionnaire (Schwartz, Melech, Lehmann, Burgess & Harris, 2001; Capanna, Vecchione & Schwartz, 2005) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Pavot & Diener, 1993). Results showed significant correlations between the two constructs and important differences between males and females. Key words: values; well-being; adolescents; gender differences.

Introduction IFSW, the International Federation of Social Workers (2000) provides a widely accepted definition (Tunney & Kulys, 2004) according to which social work can be defined as a profession aimed at promoting social change, problem solving in human relationships as well as individual emancipation with the aim of promoting subjective well-being, which is an internal phenomenon connected to individual experiences (Diener, 1984) and refers to the way people perceive and assess their life (Zani & Cicognani, 1999). Starting from this perspective, counselling acquires a key role within social professions due to its ability to: support the self-assessment of ones life and promote the development of
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ones resources (Laudadio, Colasante, DAlessio, 2010), i.e. overcoming past difficulties, strengthening ones expectations and ambitions, as well as using skills and knowledge belonging to the individual, to the family, to the group and to the community (see Saleebey, 2001 as reference). As a consequence, there is a shift from theoretical models focusing on pathology to new models based on the promotion of well-being. Therefore, new questions and new research perspectives arise (Laudadio, DAlessio, 2009). In particular, analyzing the direct (or indirect) relationship between well-being and other deep dimensions, like values for example, becomes extremely interesting. Values are defined as desirable goals with varying levels of importance, which act as guiding principles in ones life (Rokeack, 1973; Schwartz, Melech, Lehmann, Burgess & Harris, 2001). Schwartz (1992) developed a theoretical approach (which is widely accepted in the literature) where ten types of universal values are identified. These values are organized on the basis of a circular model: values related to Self-transcendence (Universalism and Benevolence) which are opposed to the values related to Self-enhancement (Power and Success); values related to change (Self-direction, Stimulation, Hedonism) which are opposed to values related to continuity (Conformism, Safety, Tradition). Each individual has his/her own scale of values, at the top of which there are the values that he/she rates as the most important. According to Sagiv and Schwartz (2000), the dominant value type directly affects the perception of subjective well-being: there are values corresponding to the basic needs of the individuals which would allow to increase the perception of well-being, if pursued. Within the theoretical model of Self-determination, Kasser and Ryan (1996) classify values in two categories: intrinsic values (able to meet basic needs, which are internal to the individual) and extrinsic values (related to external satisfaction). According to the authors, subjective well-being is negatively correlated to life goals related to extrinsic values, and positively correlated to goals related to intrinsic values. There are many studies in the literature supporting this theory. The majority of them examined the relationship between materialistic (extrinsic) values and subjective well-being in adults and University students (La Barbera & Grhan, 1997; Chan & Joseph, 2000; Kasser & Ahuvia, 2002). Moreover, studies carried out on adolescents confirm the results from the studies carried out on adults (Cohen & Cohen, 1996; Keng, Jung, Jiuan & Wirtz, 2000; Brown & Kasser, 2005). In disagreement with these results, Sagiv and Schwartz (2000), on the basis of the value classification proposed by Schwartz (1992), did not detect any significant relation between Power, Universalism, Benevolence and subjective well-being.
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According to Kasser and Ahuvia (2002), these results are determined by a different definition of materialistic values provided by the Authors: Power is not alone on the scale of values that fall under the definition of materialistic values. Moreover, according to the Authors, the items included in the scale are not sufficient to provide an appropriate assessment of these values. Purpose and hypothesis The main aim of this study is to replicate the one by Sagiv and Schwartz (2000), keeping an hypothesis system which is consistent with what has been detected in the literature and deepening the results on the basis of the gender differences. The main hypothesis is that a direct relationship between values and well-being can be detected also among adolescents, similarly to what was detected among adults. Our hypothesis is consistent with the data from the literature, i.e. values related to Selftranscendence (Universalism and Benevolence) are positively correlated with well-being, while values connected to Self-enhancement (Power and Success) are indirectly related to well-being. This hypothesis can be divided into three specific hypothesis: The existence of a relationship between values and well-being; The existence of a positive relationship between Self-transcendence and well-being vs. a negative relationship between Self-enhancement and well-being; The possibility to make a distinction between individuals with a high and with a low level of well-being in relation to specific value dimensions, such as Universalism and Benevolence (higher for individuals with high well-being) and Power (lower for individuals with high well-being). The presence of gender differences will also be explored. Method and Techniques Participants Participants were selected by means of random sampling on a first-responses basis. 800 subjects aged between 16 and 21 years took part in the study (Average = 17 years and 2 months; SD= 1 year and 4 months); the group was equally divided between males and females. With reference to the type of school attended, 52,25% comes from a technical school, 24,13% from the Scientific Lyce, 6,75% from a vocational training school, 6,25% from a Linguistic Lyce, 4,63% from a Classical Lyce, 4,13% from an Artistic Lyce and 1,88% from other types of school. Participants were recruited during guidance activities carried out in the year 2006. Tools In addition to the personal and social particulars form, the following tools were administered: the Portrait Values Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2001; Capanna, Vecchione & Schwartz, 2005) made up of 40 items, classified on the six point Likert scale (ranging from 1= Not at all like me to 6= Exactly like me). Each item provides a short description (portrait) of a
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typical person and his/her goals, aspirations or desires, on the basis of ten values described by Schwartz. The Satisfaction with Life Scale (Pavot & Diener, 1993) is made up of 5 items, classified on a seven point Likert scale (ranging from 1= Completely disagree to 7 = Completely agree), aiming at assessing satisfaction of ones life. Procedure Two questionnaires were administered, to which participants responded anonymously. During an external interview, subjects were provided with standard information about the questions. Data analysis Internal consistency was evaluated with Cronbachs alpha of reliability. For the Portrait Values Questionnaire, the reliability index was calculated for each sub-scale. Average, standard deviation, asymmetry and kurtosis coefficients were calculated for the reference group in order to provide preliminary quantitative information about the trend of the different variables and establish whether they match with a normal distribution. Correlation analysis (Pearsons r coefficient) was performed to analyze the relationship between values and well-being; correlation analysis was carried out both on total scores and on gender-based scores. Moreover, the linear regression analysis was performed to assess the influence of values on perceived well-being. The Satisfaction with Life Scale was used as an independent variable and the Portrait Values Questionnaire subscales as a dependent variable. In order to deeply analyze the relationship between values and subjective well-being, the method of opposed groups was used. From the total sample, two subgroups were selected: a) subjects with a high level of well-being and b) subjects with a low level of well-being. In order to check if there was any difference between the two groups with comparison to the dimensions measured with the tools, a multivariate variance analysis with independent subjects (MANOVA) was performed. Univariate effects were broken down by means of the ANOVA test. Results Descriptive statistics First and foremost, the prerequisites necessary to carry out further analysis were identified: normal distribution and reliability. As far as the Portrait Values Questionnaire subscales have a different number of items, scores were weighted on the number of items constituting the scale in order to compare averages. The same procedure was adopted for the Satisfaction with Life Scale.

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Table 1 Descriptive analysis


Average Power Success Hedonism Stimulation Self-direction Universalism Benevolence Tradition Conformism Safety Well-being 2,65 3,68 4,39 4,39 4,47 5,49 4,48 3,59 3,92 3,96 4,96 S.D. 1,25 0,95 0,97 1,05 0,86 1,14 0,84 0,92 0,84 0,90 1,02 Statistic 0,650 -0,183 -0,258 -0,307 -0,533 -0,435 -0,404 -0,239 -0,194 -0,190 -0,680 Asymmetry Std. Error 0,086 0,086 0,086 0,086 0,086 0,086 0,086 0,086 0,086 0,086 0,086 Statistic -0,143 -0,322 -0,536 -0,424 0,683 -0,336 -0,236 -0,271 -0,165 -0,126 0,463 Kurtosis Std. Error 0,173 0,173 0,173 0,173 0,173 0,173 0,173 0,173 0,173 0,173 0,173

The analysis of score distribution shows a complete match with the Gaussian distribution. Asymmetry and kurtosis indexes, indeed, are comprised between 1 and -1. Table 2 Reliability
Power Success Hedonism Stimulation Self-direction Universalism Alpha .654 .676 .691 .632 .576 .721 Benevolence Tradition Conformism Safety Well-being Alpha .654 .555 .681 .621 .761

With reference to the ten scales of the Portrait Values Questionnaire, reliability indexes are comprised between .555 and .721. Satisfaction with Life Scale has a good reliability level, equal to .761. Correlational analysis The following table shows the correlations between the 4 value macro-areas and wellbeing. Table 3 Value macro-areas and Satisfaction with Life Scale
Self-enhancement Conservatism Openness to change Self-transcendence Satisfaction with Life Scale Total Males -0,018 0,082 0,327** 0,354** 0,036 0,098 0,269** 0,314** Females -0,149** 0,326** -0,012 0,288**

Significant correlations with * p<0.05, ** p<0.01 (two-tailed)

Significant correlations seem to exist between well-being and some value meta-dimensions. For both genders, Self-transcendence and Conservatism have a positive relationship with well-being, while only females have an inverse relationship between well-being and Selftranscendence. With reference to the correlations between the ten value dimensions and well-being, Universalism, Benevolence, Tradition, Conformism and Safety have a positive relationship
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with well-being for both genders. Moreover, Self-direction has a positive relationship with well-being for males, while Power has an inverse relationship with well-being for females. Analysis of multiple regression Being the four value meta-dimensions and the ten value scales related among each other (Capanna et al., 2005), the correlation analysis may hide the role of each value in the explanation of the heterogeneous scores in satisfaction with life. In order to explain the role of each dimension, a multiple regression analysis with the standard method was carried out; value dimensions were used as predictors and satisfaction with life as a criterion variable. With relation to the value meta-dimensions, the multiple regression coefficient is significant both for males [F(4,399)= 18,03, p<0,001] and females [F(4,399)= 19,58, p<0,001]. For both genders, Conservatism and Self-transcendence contribute to the explanation of well-being. For females, Self-enhancement has an inverse relationship. If we analyze each single value, the multiple regression coefficient is significant for males [F(10,399)= 8,39, p<0,001]; Benevolence, Tradition and inversely Hedonism, contribute to the explanation of well-being. Multiple regression coefficient is significant also for females [F(10,399)= 8,51, p<0,001]; Safety, Tradition, Universalism and inversely Success and Power, contribute to the explanation of well-being. Group differences: High well-being vs. Low well-being From the total sample, two subgroups were selected: a) subjects with a high level of wellbeing, whose total scores were higher than standard deviation with comparison to the sample average; and b) subjects with a low level of well-being, whose scores were lower than standard deviation with comparison to the sample average. The two samples selected are made up of 148 and 132 subjects, respectively. The Chi2 test shows a significant gender difference (Chi2=5,143; DOF=1; p<0.05). In order to take into account gender differences, the mixed model MANOVA was performed with two independent factors (gender groups) and the ten value dimensions as dependent factors. MANOVA showed the interaction effect between the two factors for the value dimensions (F(10,267)=2,99; p<.005). The breakdown of univariate effects through single-factorial ANOVAs with two independent factors (gender groups) and each value dimension as a dependent factor showed a significant interaction for Power only (F(1,276)=7,98; p<.01). The post-hoc test showed that the score of females with a high level of well-being was different from the one of the other three subgroups. As a matter of fact, females with a high level of well-being have a significantly low average in Power. Consistently with the research hypothesis, variance was broken down by means
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of single univariate tests (ANOVA) in relation to value dimensions. The following Table shows the averages and ANOVA results. Table 4 Group differences
Dimension Power Success Hedonism Stimulation Self-direction Universalism Benevolence Tradition Conformism Safety Group of well-being low high low high low high low high low high low high low high low high low high low high Average 0,116 -0,003 0,130 -0,047 0,078 -0,094 0,018 -0,019 -0,098 -0,016 -0,302 -0,044 -0,360 0,036 0,151 -0,370 -0,030 -0,374 0,016 -0,341 S.D. 0,973 0,961 1,055 1,063 1,085 0,855 1,032 0,888 1,102 0,970 1,203 0,973 1,071 1,002 0,940 0,913 1,115 1,065 1,004 0,897 ANOVA F(1, 278)= 1,7207, p=,19068 F(1, 278)=,54086, p=,46270 F(1, 278)= 1,9903, p=,15943 F(1, 278)=,04139, p=,83893 F(1, 278)= 3,9755, p=,04714 F(1, 278)= 36,578, p=,00000 F(1, 278)= 23,518, p=,00000 F(1, 278)= 65,381, p=,00000 F(1, 278)= 30,877, p=,00000 F(1, 278)= 39,159; p=,00000

Differences among Universalism, Benevolence, Tradition, Conformism and Safety (all of which refer to Self-transcendence and Conservatism) are statistically significant. Discussion With relation to the first hypothesis, the existence of a relationship between values and well-being is confirmed. In particular, the regression analysis showed that the value system is able to explain a share of variance equal to approximately 15% of the total variance. With relation to the second hypothesis, this is only partially confirmed. The regression analysis showed the presence of gender differences. While Self-transcendence is a positive predictive factor of well-being for both genders, Self-enhancement is a negative predictive factor of well-being for females only. This data was confirmed by the analysis of each value dimension. Power and Success, indeed, are negative predictors of well-being for females only. Moreover, with reference to Self-transcendence, if we break it down into the different value dimensions constituting it, a deep gender difference is detected. Benevolence is a predictive factor of well-being for males, while for females it is Universalism. It is interesting to note that Tradition plays a key role for well-being in both genders, while Hedonism is an inverse predictive factor of well-being for males. With relation to the third research hypothesis, also in this case the hypothesis is only partially confirmed. As a matter of fact, while Benevolence and Universalism are higher for subjects with a high level of well-being, Power has an inverse relationship with well-being for females only (also in this case).

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Conclusions, weaknesses and developments The apparent contradiction of results in relation to research hypotheses and among the different results does not allow us to draw specific conclusions on the relationship between values and well-being, but rather to outline new research hypothesis and developments. The most interesting aspects of research refer to gender differences; the inverse relationship between Power and well-being, often recalled in the literature, seems to be confirmed for females only. With reference to this, we might hypothesize that female adolescents have a greater maturity in terms of values and are more similar to adults in comparison to male adolescents. Another hypothesis is that there might be cultural differences between Italian and foreign subjects able to explain the significant difference detected. If this hypothesis is true, we may assume that due to the Italian culture females with Power-oriented values experience a low level of well-being because of the cultural pressure to which they are exposed. In other words, within a culture where female power is not accepted, these subjects experience a lower level of well-being. We shall not rule out the hypothesis according to which the relationship between values and well-being is mediated by a spurious relationship with other variables which escaped the attention of researchers. Some important relationships, such as ones socio-economic status might mediate this relationship, or well-being might be affected by other dimensions playing a central role during adolescence (e.g. satisfaction in sentimental life). Within the framework, the willingness to take a stance within these hypothesis leads us to opt for the second explanation, i.e. that a cultural context exists where a girl with a high desire for Power is not easily accepted. This might lead girls to have a submissive attitude towards Power in comparison to males. If further studies confirm this hypothesis, it might explain several aspects that characterize the female labour market. Of course, before analyzing these hypotheses, it is necessary to replicate the experiment on adults, in order to assess if this situation is typical of the adolescence or of the whole Italian culture. This research is characterized by the weaknesses typical of a correlational study on a random sample. The main weakness is connected to MANOVA, due to its high collinearity among the different value dimensions. Moreover, the interpretation of results would have been more clear if another instrument for value analysis had been used together with the other two tools. We shall not forget that social desiderability of some value dimensions might contribute to hide or magnify some relationships between values and well-being. Within this perspective, the development of research will be two-fold: on the one side, the study will have to be repeated using at least two tools (in addition to the Portrait Values Questionnaire) for value analysis. On the other, the relationship between value dimensions of the Portrait Values Questionnaire and social desiderability will have to be explored.

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REFERENCES
Brown, K.W. & Kasser, T. Are psychological and ecological well-being compatible? The role of values, mindfulness and lifestyle, Social Indicators Research, 74, 349-368, 2005. Capanna, C. et al. La misura dei valori. Un contributo alla validazione del Portrait Values Questionnaire su un campione italiano, Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 246, 29-41, 2005. Chan, R. & Joseph, S. Dimension of personality, domains of aspiration, and subjective wellbeing, Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 347-354, 2000. Cohen, P. & Cohen, J. Life values and adolescent mental health. Research monographs in adolescence. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996. Deci, E.L. & Ryan, R.M. A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality. In R.A. Dienstbier, Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1990: Perspectives on motivation. Current theory and research in motivation (pp. 237-288), Lincoln, NE, US: University of Nebraska Press, 1991. Diener, E. Subjective Well-Being, Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542-575, 1984. Diener, E. et al. Subjective Well-Being: Three Decades of Progress, Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276-302, 1999. International Federation of Social Workers. Definition of Social Work. 2000. Available at: http: //www.ifsw.org /Publications/4.6e.pub.html. Kasser, T. & Ahuvia, A. Materialistic values and well-being in business students. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 137-146, 2002. Kasser, T. & Ryan, R.M. Further examining the American dream: Differential correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 22, 280287, 1996. Keng, K.A. et al. The influence of materialistic inclination on values, life satisfaction and aspirations: An empirical analysis, Social Indicators Research, 49(3), pp. 317-333, 2000. La Barbera, P.A. & Grhan, Z. The role of materialism, religiosity, and demographics in subjective well-being, Psychology & Marketing. Vol. 14(1), pp. 71-97, 1997. Laudadio, A. et al. La resilienza: analisi dei modelli e degli strumenti di misurazione, GIPO Giornale Italiano di Psicologia dellOrientamento, 10(3), pp. 321, 2009. Laudadio, A. & DAlessio, M. Adolescenti e stress. Quali differenze di genere?, Counseling 2(3), 2009. Pavot, W.G. & Diener, E. Review of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Psychological Assessment, 5(2), 164-172, 1993. Rokeack, M. The nature of human values. New York: Free press, 1973. Sagiv, L. & Schwartz, S.H. Values priorities and subjective well-being: direct relations and congruity effects, European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 177-198, 2000. Saleebey, D. The diagnostic strengths manual? Social Work, New York: Apr 2001. Vol. 46, Iss. 2; pg. 183, 5 pgs. 2001. Schwartz, S.H. Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries, in M. P. ZANNA (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 165). New York: Academic Press, 1992. Schwartz, S.H. et al. Extending the cross-cultural validity of the theory of basic human values with a different method of measurement, Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 32, 519 542, 2001. Tunney, K. & Kulys, R. Social Work Field Education as Social Development: A Lithuanian Case Study, Social Work in Mental Health. Vol. 2(23), pp. 5975, 2004. Zani, B. & Cicognani, E. Le vie del benessere. Eventi di vita e strategie di coping. Roma: Carocci, 1999. Revista de Pedagogie nr. 58 (2) 2010 43

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SERVICIILE DE ORIENTARE I CONSILIEREA CARIEREI DIN NVMNTUL SUPERIOR EUROPEAN ANALIZ COMPARATIV

Drd. Sperana Lavinia ibu, cercettor tiinific Institutul de tiine ale Educaiei, Bucureti c_speranta@ise.ro

Rezumat Lucrarea prezint principalele caracteristici ale serviciilor de consilierea carierei din nvmntul superior din ase ri europene. Analiza comparativ este structurate pe 3 criterii principale i 8 criterii secundare de analiz i are drept scop evidenierea similitudinilor i diferenelor ntre diferitele sisteme de consilierea carierei precum i identificarea unor direcii de dezvoltare pentru serviciile din Romnia. Cuvinte cheie: consiliere permanent, consilierea carierei, (serviciile de) consilierea carierei n nvmntul superior, tranziia de la coal la piaa muncii. Abstract The thesis presents the main characteristics of the higher education guidance and counselling services in six European countries. The comparative analysis is structured on 3 main criteria and 8 secondary criteria and it focuses on pointing out the similarities and the differences among the chosen career counselling systems and at the same time identifying some directions of development for the Romanian services. Key words: lifelong counselling, career counselling, (services for) career counselling in higher education, the transition from school to the world of work.

Introducere Intenia noastr este de a prezenta caracteristicile sistemelor de consilierea carierei din nvmntul superior din ase ri europene, scopul fiind, dincolo de abordarea comparativ, de a nva din experiena altor ri. Teoria macroeconomic a convergenei ne arat c naiunile care nva de la alte naiuni se dezvolt, pe cnd cele care nu nva, nu se dezvolt. nvarea din experiena altora are la baz perspectiva diferenial: a fi capabil de a vedea lucrurile i dintr-un alt unghi. Cnd o naiune observ cum alte naiuni abordeaz probleme similare, utiliznd resurse economice, politice, lingvistice i culturale specifice, soluia se ntrezrete prin noi lentile, ceea ce conduce, inevitabil, la noi modaliti de configurare a propriilor soluii (Adelman, 2009). Prezenta lucrare prezint rezultatele unui studiu comparativ realizat n contextul cercetrii doctorale Rolul consilierii carierei n asigurarea calitii n nvmntul superior. Scopul studiului comparativ este de a evidenia, pe baza unor criterii comune, similitudini i diferene ntre diferitele sisteme de consilierea carierei din Europa, de a oferi o imagine
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de ansamblu asupra dezvoltrii i tendinelor n domeniu, precum i de a include Romnia n circuitul european, prin poziionarea obiectiv a serviciile romneti comparativ cu dezvoltrile din alte state, att prin raportare la criterii europene, ct i innd cont de specificul naional. Aspecte metodologice rile pe care le-am inclus n analiz sunt: Frana, Germania, Marea Britanie, Spania, Cehia i Romnia. Primele patru ri au fost selecionate pentru tradiia bogat i experiena n domeniul consilierii carierei. Cea de-a cincea ar reprezint experiena rilor estice din fostul bloc comunist, cu o istorie mai recent a consilierii. Pentru primele 5 ri metodologia a avut la baz: 1. analiza secundar a rapoartelor naionale incluse n studiul european FEDORA asupra sistemelor generale de consiliere din nvmntul superior din care am realizat un decupaj pe aria consilierea carierei; 2. analiza sistemelor de consiliere aa cum sunt descrise n bazele de date Eurybase i Euroguidance. Pentru Romnia, am avut n vedere: 1. studiul documentelor de specialitate (studiile i cercetrile Institutului de tiine ale Educaiei 2004-2008); 2. descrierea sistemului de consiliere din bazele de date Eurybase i Euroguidance; 3. chestionarele i interviurile aprofundate realizate cu Centrele de consiliere din nvmntul superior. Perioada de referin pentru analiza datelor este 2005-2008, n funcie de informaiile disponibile pentru fiecare ar n parte. Criteriile de analiz (3 criterii generale i 6 criterii specifice) au fost adaptate pe baza a trei cercetri anterioare n domeniul consilierii: Serviciile de consiliere din nvmntul superior - FEDORA 2008; Activitatea Centrelor de Asisten Psihopedagogic din Romnia - Maria Liana Stnescu 2000; Modele i programe de consiliere colar - Angela Musc 2006. Rezultatele analizei se concretizeaz n 6 studii de caz (din raiuni de spaiu acestea nu vor fi anexate prezentului articol), un tabel sintetic comparativ organizat pe baza criteriilor de analiz (Anexa 1), precum i recomandri privind dezvoltarea serviciilor de consilierea carierei din Romnia. Din raiuni de claritate i sintez, nu am menionat de fiecare dat n corpul lucrrii sau n anex sursele de unde au fost extrase datele statistice. Documentele de politici, studiile comparative i rapoartele de sintez privind educaia n general i nvmntul superior la nivel european, precum i rapoartele privind starea nvmntului din Romnia sunt menionate n finalul lucrrii, seciunea Bibliografie. De asemenea, din aceleai raiuni, am utilizat abrevierile internaional acceptate pentru denumirea rilor cuprinse n analiz: FranaFR, Germania-DE, Marea Britanie-UK, Spania-ES, Cehia-CZ, Romnia-RO. Caracteristici ale serviciilor de consilierea carierei din nvmntul teriar european Sistemele de nvmnt superior din Europa se caracterizeaz prin tendina de cretere a numrului de studeni, a procentului studenilor care studiaz n strintate, a studenilor n vrst i a celor part-time. Finalizarea studiilor superioare asigur o mai bun inserie pe
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piaa muncii pentru tineri i o rat mai mare de angajabilitate dect pentru cei cu studii medii, ns n majoritatea rilor absolvenii de nvmnt superior accept roluri profesionale pentru care sunt supra-calificai (Key Data on Education, 2009). Se estimeaz c pn n 2015, aproximativ 30% din locurile de munc vor solicita studii superioare (Raport asupra strii sistemului naional de nvmnt, 2008). Pentru a se putea adresa nevoilor studenilor n termeni de mobilitate i de cretere a adaptabilitii la piaa muncii, sistemele de nvmnt superior au neles rolul important pe care l are consilierea carierei. Astfel, rezultatele studiului comparativ evideniaz faptul c, la nivelul nvmntului teriar, consilierea carierei reprezint o arie bine dezvoltat, serviciile fiind prezente n toate instituiile de nvmnt superior (FR, UK), n peste 50% dintre acestea (DE, ES, CZ) sau n aproape 50% (RO). Dei n toate statele legea prevede nfiinarea unor astfel de servicii (exceptnd CZ), organizarea acestora depinde de fiecare universitate n parte. Cel mai obinuit pattern de funcionare este cel al departamentelor/ centrelor n cadrul universitii, fie ca serviciu unic ce ofer mai multe tipuri de consiliere i orientare, fie ca centre distincte de consilierea carierei. Exemplul fericit este cel al rilor vestice (FR, ES, DE, UK) care dispun att de servicii unice (ofer integrat mai multe tipuri de consiliere), ct i de servicii speciale de consilierea carierei. Serviciilor unice au ca sarcina principal consilierea carierei, secondat de consilierea educaional. UK, DE se remarc prin reeaua bine dezvoltat de servicii distincte de consilierea carierei cu atribuii clare n acest domeniu. n CZ patternul pare a fi cel al serviciului unic ce ofer att consilierea carierei, ct i consiliere educaional i psihologic. Pentru RO, pare a nu exista un singur pattern de funcionare. Astfel, unele universiti au centre care funcioneaz ca i servicii distincte de consilierea carierei, n timp ce n alte universiti au fost dezvoltate centre care ofer servicii integrate de consilierea carierei, consiliere educaional i/ sau psihologic. Dei nu n toate universitile din rile analizate exist un centru/ serviciu de consiliere, trebuie s avem n vedere faptul c de multe ori consilierea este asumat ca parte a procesului de predare sau a devenit, prin tradiie, o atribuie a personalului din cadrul altor departamente de sprijin pentru studeni. n CZ, n cazul universitilor mari, exist mai multe centre de consilierea carierei la nivelul aceleiai universiti. n ES Ageniile de ocupare finaneaz un al treilea tip de servicii de consilierea carierei pentru studeni (axat pe plasare i antreprenoriat). n FR absolvenii de doctorat beneficiaz de serviciile de plasare profesional oferite de un ONG. Unele dintre servicii au fost nfiinate mai recent (RO, ES, CZ) sau putem vorbi de o tradiie de aproape 40 de ani de funcionare (FR). n majoritatea cazurilor, centrele/ serviciile au fost nfiinate prin lege (excepie CZ). Colaborarea n reea este specific centrelor din UK (AGCAS), FR (SCUIO), DE (CSND), ES (SIOUS), n timp ce n RO, CZ centrele funcioneaza separat, fr colaborare, sprijin pentru dezvoltare i coordonare n reea. Tendina este de mrire a numrului de centre (CZ), de preocupare continu pentru calitatea serviciilor oferite (UK) sau de reducere a personalului ceea ce a determinat creterea ponderii serviciilor oferite la distan (DE). UK i DE au evideniat ngrijorarea cu privire la variaia de personal i resursele alocate acestor servicii.
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Principalii beneficiari ai serviciilor sunt, n majoritatea rilor, studenii. Alte tipuri de beneficiari sunt potenialii studeni i publicul larg. Serviciile se adreseaz i absolvenilor (FR), profesorilor (CZ, RO), angajatorilor (UK, ES; DE i RO - unele universiti), sau, n cazuri foarte rare, consilierilor din nvmntul obligatoriu. Informarea studenilor ocup un loc central n sarcinile i responsabilitile centrelor n toate rile: informare cu privire la cursurile oferite de universiti i posibilitile ulterioare de angajare, informare cu privire la piaa muncii, locuri de munc specifice i profesii. O alt responsabilitate a serviciilor n toate rile analizate este dezvoltarea abilitilor de marketing personal (scrierea unui CV, prezentarea la interviul de angajare). n unele ri, tranziia de la nvmntul obligatori la nvmntul superior reprezint un obiectiv important al serviciilor. Astfel, viitori studeni sunt abordai pro-activ prin ceea ce se numete active guidance n FR, sau widening participation n UK, serviciile din cele dou ri colabornd n mod regulat cu liceele pentru sprijinirea elevilor n alegerea viitoarelor rute educaionale. Serviciile din RO, DE prefer organizarea unor ample evenimente de popularizare a ofertei nvmntului teriar. Diferenele se manifest i n ceea ce privete sprijinirea studenilor pentru tranziia spre piaa muncii: majoritatea centrelor deruleaz programe i activiti de internship i voluntariat (excepie CZ), ns FR, UK, ES ofer n mod regulat i n toate centrele sprijin pentru inserie pe piaa muncii prin plasare i mediere, n timp ce DE i RO realizeaz acest lucru doar n unele centre, iar n CZ nu intr n atribuiile centrelor acest aspect. Dintre tipurile de activiti derulate de centre, consilierea ocup o pondere mai mare la rile din Europa de est: procesul de consiliere se realizeaz preponderent individual i are n vedere testarea aptitudinilor i intereselor (RO, CZ, dar i n UK), dezvoltarea carierei, planificarea carierei i luarea unei decizii (ES). Unele centre realizeaz formarea studenilor pentru dezvoltarea competenelor transferabile (DE, CZ, RO). n ES se pune accent deosebit pe dezvoltarea abilitilor de antreprenoriat. n contextul Bologna, numai serviciile din FR i-au diversificat atribuiile (n special legate de validarea abilitilor profesionale), iar cele din DE au devenit mai focalizate pe sprijinirea tranziiei spre piaa muncii i sporirea anselor de angajabilitate a studenilor. Unele centre din RO deruleaz studii privind opiunile educaionale sau inseria absolvenilor pe piaa muncii, n timp ce n alte ri exist instituii specializate n a cror responsabilitate intr cercetarea acestor aspecte (UK-Higher Education Statistics Agency - HESA). Numrul mediu al angajailor unui centru/ serviciu de consilierea carierei variaz de la 10 (UK) la 7-8 (ES) sau la 2-6 (CZ, RO). n FR i RO tendina este de cretere a numrului angajailor. Calificrile personalului par a nu fi reglementate legal n nicio ar din cele analizate. De obicei, practicienii au o formare iniial variat (psihologie, filologie, economie, tiine tehnice, drept, etc.), iar n unele ri absolvenii de psihologie sunt majoritari (FR, ES, RO). Personalul centrului deine uneori experien de predare (CZ) i/ sau ndeplinete i alte funcii la nivel de universitate (ES, pentru coordonatorii serviciilor). n anumite cazuri, profesorii (FR) sau
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studenii voluntari se implic n susinerea activitilor centrului de consiliere (RO). n FR toi angajaii centrelor SCUIOP sunt funcionari publici. De obicei, coordonatorul centrului deine o vechime mai mare (RO). Consilierii sunt angajai permanent cu norm ntreag (RO, FR), cu jumtate de norm (DE) sau uneori ca i colaboratori (FR). n UK angajarea se realizeaz n mai multe modaliti (permanent, contract pe durat determinat, cu norm ntreag sau parial). Nu exist un registru al consilierilor i nici cerine stricte privind formarea continu. De obicei, consilierii au urmat un master i cursuri de formare n diferitetipuri de consiliere (n funcie i de atribuiile pe care le ndeplinesc n cadrul centrului). Acolo unde exist asociaii profesionale puternice, acestea au impus practica acreditrii pentru personalul din centre (UK). Alte servicii de consiliere disponibile pentru studeni. Serviciile de consiliere psihologic par a fi bine dezvoltate n majoritatea statelor europene analizate. FR dispune de trei tipuri de servicii externalizate, finanate n general de Ministerul Sntii prin diferite fundaii, cu o lung tradiie (unele funcioneaz din 1925). n DE consilierea psihologic este oferit att de Asociaiile studeneti, ct i prin alte dou modaliti: consiliere psihologic i terapie individual sau de ctre Central Student Counselling and Advisory Service. n UK, toate universitile (cu excepia a dou) i toate colegiile ofereau servicii de consiliere psihologic, cu o medie de 5,6 consilieri/ centru. n ES, numai 10 universiti au servicii separate pentru acest tip de consiliere, n timp ce n CZ consilierea psihologic este oferit n 44 de centre din 19 universiti, fiind inclus n atribuiile centrelor de consilierea carierei. n RO, serviciile de consiliere psihologic sunt oferite fie de ctre centre/ departamente separate, specializate, cu finanare proprie, fie sunt incluse n atribuiile CIOCP. Personalul din aceste servicii este foarte specializat (psihologi, psihiatrii i asisteni sociali) n toate rile analizate. Tendina n ultimii ani a fost de dezvoltare continu (inclusiv creterea finanrii) pentru acest tip de serviciu n UK. Tendina opus (de scdere a numrului personalului din aceste structuri) o ntlnim n DE. Consilierea educaional este sarcina unei reele distincte n ES (Serviciile de Orientare educaional i academic). n FR, RO i CZ este o atribuie a reelelor de consilierea carierei (n CZ este oferit i de ctre departamentele pentru admiterea la studii). n UK acest tip de consiliere se realizeaz n principal prin birourile Widening participation (se urmrete recrutarea studenilor din medii ct mai diverse i acordarea unei atenii sporite, studenilor part-time sau studenilor care muncesc), precum i prin sistemul de tutoriat. n DE, consilierea de acest tip reprezint o sarcin asumat de ctre fiecare profesor n parte sau se realizeaz prin sistemul mentoratului (fiecare student din anul I e sprijinit individual de ctre un profesor din facultate i de ctre biroul pentru studeni). Exist de asemenea i call centers n care persoane special formate rspund la telefon ntrebrilor, dar i direct, personalul de consiliere i orientare i cel al departamentelor administrative lucrnd ca back office. Consilierea pentru persoane cu dizabiliti intr de foarte puine ori n atribuiile centrelor de consilierea carierei din universiti (FR). n majoritatea rilor aceste servicii nu sunt foarte bine reglementate, ns exist cel puin o persoan desemnat pentru a oferi un astfel de suport (FR, DE, UK - n universitile mari). Uneori este oferit de Asociaiile studeneti
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(DE). n ES, CZ i RO serviciile sunt inexistente sau slab dezvoltate. Tendina opus - de dezvoltare a serviciilor de acest tip - o regsim n DE. Centrele Euroguidance sunt reprezentate la nivelul fiecrei ri analizate, cu unul (UK, ES, DE, RO, CZ) sau mai multe centre (6 centre FR). Colaborarea cu acestea se realizeaz, n principal, prin participarea consilierilor din nvmntul teriar la reuniuni profesionale (conferine, seminarii) sau mobiliti organizate de Euroguidance. La nivel european, funcioneaz din 1998 European Forum for Student Guidance FEDORA (http://www.fedora.eu.org) o asociaie a crei misiune este sprijinirea celor care realizeaz activiti de consiliere i orientare n instituiile de nvmnt superior din Europa. FEDORA a realizat raportul Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education in European Union, publicat n 2008, raport care constituie o important colecie de informaii dedicat n exclusivitate serviciilor de consiliere din nvmntul teriar din rile Uniunii Europene. Concluzii i recomandri Serviciile de consilierea carierei din rile europene analizate se gsesc pe diferite paliere de dezvoltare. n RO, dei au fost realizate progrese notabile n funcionarea acestor servicii, se impune un angajament ferm de continuare a eforturilor n vederea construirii unor sisteme accesibile care s accompanieze n mod real studenii n procesul de tranziie i adaptare la piaa muncii. Consecveni principiului nvrii consemnat la nceput i utiliznd informaiile culese pe baza exerciiului comparativ, putem formula cteva recomandri (direcii de dezvoltare) pentru centrele din Romnia: 1. Legislaia favorabil permite nfiinarea unor servicii de consilierea carierei n toate instituiile de nvmnt superior; n universitile mari, se pot dezvolta mai multe centre, cu sprijinul profesorilor sau al studenilor voluntari. 2. Operarea de modificri n cadrul legislativ existent prin specificarea clar a atribuiilor i responsabilitilor consilierilor carierei, astfel nct s se limiteze suprapunerile cu alte servicii/ departamente din cadrul universitii. 3. Valorificarea potenialului tuturor actorilor (profesori, studeni, absolveni) n derularea activitilor centrului (atragerea acestora n activiti de colaborare i/ sau voluntariat). 4. Asigurarea n cadrul centrelor a personalului calificat. 5. Suplimentarea numrului de consilieri sau nfiinarea unor noi posturi care s preia sarcinile administrative cronofage realizate n prezent de practicieni. 6. Intensificarea preocuprilor pentru formarea continu a personalului din centre. 7. Organizarea centrelor n reea i constituirea unui for reprezentativ/ asociaie profesional care s reprezinte interesele centrelor n faa decidenilor politici. 8. Crearea unui registru unic al centrelor de consiliere cu datele de contact ale tuturor serviciilor din ar. 9. Creterea vizibilitii centrelor la nivel naional prin: activarea unei pagini web a reelei de consiliere, crearea unor materiale publicitare comune (poster, pliant al reelei), crearea de linkuri pe/ cu paginile diferitelor companii/ servicii interesate. 10. Extinderea serviciilor de sprijinire a tranziiei de la nvmntul obligatoriu la nvmntul superior i intensificarea relaiilor directe cu liceele (utilizarea consilierilor colari ca i persoane resurs).
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11. ncheierea conveniilor de colaborare cu diferite instituii de pe piaa muncii sau Agenii de ocupare pentru derularea consecvent, n comun, a unor programe de sprijinire a tranziiei spre piaa muncii pentru studeni i/ sau obinerea de finanri pentru diverse activiti ale centrului. 12. Focalizarea echidistant pe informare, consiliere i formare, combinarea abordrii psihoterapeutice (remediere) cu cea proactiv (prevenire). 13. Creterea ponderii alocate serviciilor de consiliere i informare prin TIC i dotarea centrelor cu resurse informatice corespunztoare. 14. Dezvoltarea unor sisteme de monitorizare a evoluiei ulterioare a studenilor (opiuni educaionale, inserie pe piaa muncii) prin colaborare cu institutele de cercetare specializate. 15. Sensibilizarea managenetului universitar pentru susinerea financiar a centrelor i identificarea unor noi modaliti de finanare a activitii centrelor (fonduri europene, colaborri cu companii etc.) 16. Promovarea muncii n echip cu alte tipuri de servicii de consiliere din interiorul i exteriorul universitii i instituirea sitemului de referine pentru problemele care depesc competena practicienilor din centre. 17. Extinderea programelor de schimburi n rndul consilierilor i intensificarea colaborrii cu centre sau servcii similare naionale sau europene. 18. Trecerea de la rapoartele cantitative asupra activitii centrelor la cele calitativ-cantitative.

BIBLIOGRAFIE
Adelman, C. The Bologna Process for U.S. Eyes: Re-learning Higher Education in the Age of Convergence. Washington, DC: Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2009. Dima, A. Rolul Centrelor de Consiliere i Orientare Profesional n Dimensiunea Social a Procesului Bologna. Institutul de tiine ale Educaiei, Bucureti: 2008. *** Focus in Higher Education in Europe. The Impact of the Bologna Process. Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, 2010. *** Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education in European Union. FEDORA and Counselling and Support Centre, University of Aarhus, Danemarca, 2008. *** Key Data on Higher Education in Europe. European Commission, ECSC-EC-EAEC, Brussels. Luxembourg, 2007. *** Key Data on Education in Europe. European Commission, Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, 2009. *** Raport asupra strii sistemului naional de nvmnt. Ministerul Educaiei, Cercetrii i Tineretului, 2008. *** Students and Higher Education Reform. Flash Eurobarometer 260 The Gallup Organization, 2009. *** The Bologna Process in Higher Education in Europe. Key indicators on the social dimension and mobility. Eurostat, 2009. *** http://www.euroguidance.net/GuidanceSystems.htm - site-ul web al reelei europene Euroguidance. Conine descrieri ale sistemelor de consiliere i orientare (general) Accesat 15 aprilie 2010. *** http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/eurybase_en.php - baza de date Eurybase. Conine descrieri ale sistemelor de educaie din 31 ri europene, inclusiv descrieri succinte ale sistemelor de consiliere din nvmntul superior. Accesat 15 aprilie 2010.

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52
FRANA GERMANIA MAREA BRITANIE SPANIA CEHIA
2.160.300 2.330.457 2.247.441 1.839.903 318.858 685.618

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1. Indicatori nvmnt superior 2,0 1,9 0,6 1,2 1,8 2,4

Numr studeni 2003/ 2004

Procentul studenilor care au studiat n strintate 2003/ 2004 Anii `90: servicii de consilierea carierei pentru studeni sunt organizate de Ageniile de ocupare Dup 1998: nfiinarea reelei CSND Reeaua Career Services funcioneaz n toate universitile 1968: necesitatea consilierii i orientrii n universiti 1973: primul departament de consiliere i orientare din universiti 1986: sunt nfiinate SCUIOP 1910 a fost nfiinat primul Centru de angajare al tinerilor Toate universitile trebuie s dispun de servicii de orientare Serviciile nu sunt reglementate legal, organizarea lor depinde de fiecare universitate n parte

2. Servicii de Consilierea Carierei Pentru studeni

Statut i legislaie

1998: Departamente de consultan pentru alegerea rutei profesionale i plasamentul pe piaa muncii 2005: Toate universitile trebuie s nfiineze centre de consiliere i orientare n carier Servicii de consilierea carierei 20 din cele 27 universiti publice i de stat, declar c au servicii de consiliere (2005). 2005: 53 de centre (la nivelul unei universiti pot exista mai multe centre) 2008: Aproape 50% dintre instituiile de nvmnt superior din Romnia aveau centre de consiliere n carier

Reele Services Communs Universitaires d`Information, d`Orientation et d`Insertion Profesionelle SCUIOP prezente n toate universitile (2006)

Reeaua Serviciilor pentru Carier CSND (2006: 50 de universiti ofereau astfel de servicii)

Career Services n toate universitile (2006)

Serviciului unic de consiliere i orientare educaional i pentru carier - Information, Guidance and Emploiment Centres COIEs - organizate n reeaua SIOUS prezente n 57 universiti (2006) 34 universiti au servicii separate de consiliere (2006)

CERCETRI, MODELE DE INTERVENIE, BUNE PRACTICI


Active guidance: - introducerea n tipurile de cursuri oferite de universitate i asupra posibilitilor de angajare ulterioar pe piaa muncii - informaii despre piaa muncii, locuri de munc specifice i profesii - informarea i orientare n carier - aplicarea pentru un loc de munc - pregtirea pentru un interviu - formare pentru dezvoltarea competenelor transferabile i a celor de management al timpului - plasare (n unele universiti). - viitorii studeni i absolvenii sunt prioriti ale serviciilor (cei ce doresc s devin studeni, studenii n primul ani i studenii n anul terminal care caut ajutor pentru viitorii pai). - legturile cu angajatorii la nivel local, naional i internaional, sunt un aspect cheie - informare despre tendin ele pieei muncii i asupra op iunilor diferite de studiu - informare despre ofertele de munc - informaii despre piaa muncii - orientare i formare pentru angajare i antreprenoriat - informare despre alegerea carierei i a cursurilor de formare, angajare - evaluarea aptitudinilor personale, intereselor - consiliere pentru adaptarea la un anumit loc de munc - consiliere pentru dobndirea abilitilor lifelong learning

Responsabiliti

- informare cu privire la admiterea n faculti - testarea intereselor i aptitudinilor - utilizarea profilelor ocupaionale - marketing personal (scrierea unui CV/ scrisoare de motivaie, cum m prezint la un interviu) - trguri ale educaiei

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- sprijin pentru integrarea pe piaa muncii (modaliti de cutarea a unui loc de munc, scrierea unui CV/ scrisoare de intenie, simularea participrii la interviu). Noi atribuii Bologna: - informaii despre coninuturile cursurilor/ specializrilor - validarea abilitilor profesionale Funcionari publici (directori i consilieri). Tendina este de mrire a personalului 146 consilieri psihologi 2007: 1600 practicieni Numrul mediu de practicieni/ serviciu: 10 Director i 2-4 membri 2006: Numrul total al angajailor serviciilor de consiliere educaional, psihologic i a carierei din nvmntul superior: 625 Numr mediu/ centru: 78 persoane care lucreaz n servicii de consiliere Coordonatorii serviciilor sunt i profesori la universitate. Formare iniial variat, 33% dintre practicieni nu au o formare specific n consiliere i orientare. 35% au o diplom de masterat n psihologie i 25% dein doctoratul. Euroguidance UK - 1 centru Orientation for Employment and Selfemployment OPEA Euroguidance ES - 1 centru 2006: Numrul mediu al angajailor cu norm ntreag este de 3-6 la sediul central i 1-2 n centrele mici - dezvoltarea carierei, planificarea carierei i luarea unei decizii - interviuri personale - ateliere de grup - serviciile de consilierea carierei dein propria baz de date cu CV-uri i oferte de munc - plasament - job matching - sprijinirea profesorilor pentru dezvoltarea abilitilor de comunicare, management, organizatorice - ajutor pentru a obine informaii despre cursurile pe care le pot urma dup absolvire i a avea contacte cu angajatori.

ROMNIA
- evenimente n parteneriat cu instituii i companii de pe piaa muncii - mediere, plasare i recrutare de personal pentru companii (unele centre) - programe de intrenship i voluntariat - studii/ anchete cu privire la opiunile educaionale i gardul de inserie al absolvenilor pe piaa muncii (unele centre) 2008: numrul mediu consilieri/ centru este 3

Responsabiliti

Resursa uman

Roluri i calificri

Formare iniial variat (psihologie preponderent), cursuri de formare continu n consilierea carierei

Formare iniial variat, cursuri de formare continu n consilierea carierei

Formare iniial variat, cursuri de formare continu n consilierea carierei, necesitatea acreditrii

Formare iniial n psihologie (preponderent)

Formare iniial variat, cursuri de formare continu n consilierea carierei, diplom de master

Alte servicii de consilierea carierei pentru studeni Association Berbard Gregory (ABG) 110 birouri ABG n 2006 Euroguidance FR- 6 centre

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Serviciile de consilierea carierei din universiti Euroguidance DE- 1 centru

Euroguidance CZ - 1 centru

Euroguidance RO - 1 centru

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Consiliere educaional (tutori, birouri Widening participation) Consilierea pentru persoane cu dizabiliti se realizeaz n universitile mari 2006: 20 de universiti au servicii special dedicate persoanelor cu nevoi speciale

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2007: 84 % dintre Asociaiile studeneti ofereau consiliere psihologic, iar 69% consiliere pentru studeni cu dizabiliti. Consiliere i orientare educaional (mentorat, call centres) Consilieri pentru persoane cu dizabiliti (2007: 107 universiti) Servicii de consiliere psihologic (consiliere psihologic i terapie individual, Central Student Counselling and Advisory Service). Tendina este de scdere a numrului personalului din aceste structuri 2006: 32 de universiti ofer Orientare educaional i academic

ROMNIA

3. Alte servicii de consiliere pentru studeni

2006: Consilierea psihologic este oferit n 44 de centre din 19 universiti 2006: 33 centre de consiliere i orientare ofer consiliere educaional 2006: 12 centre ofer consiliere pentru persoane cu dizabiliti

Consilierea educaional intr de multe ori n atribuiile CIOCP Serviciile de consiliere psihologic oferite de centre distincte sau intr n atribuia CIOCP

Serviciile de consiliere psihologic: Bureau for university psichological support BAPU (2006: 16 BAPU) University- Secondary School Student Relay Units REL (2006: dou structuri REL) Medico-pedagogical university clinics Consiliere educaional n atribuiile SCUIOP Serviciile de consiliere pentru persoane cu dizabiliti - 37 universiti 2002: toate universitile (cu excepia a dou) i toate colegiile ofereau servicii de consiliere psihologic. Raportul student/ consilier psihologic n universiti era de 3500:1 (20032004) cu o medie de 5,6 consilieri/ centru. Tendina n ultimii ani a fost de dezvoltare continu (inclusiv creterea finanrii) pentru acest tip de serviciu 2006: numai 10 universiti au servicii separate de consiliere psihologic, iar nc 4 includ acest tip de serviciu n cadrul serviciilor generale oferite

CERCETRI, MODELE DE INTERVENIE, BUNE PRACTICI

Consilierea pentru persoane cu dizabiliti este realizat n cadrul serviciilor mai generale, de sprijin pentru studeni

GUIDANCE PROFESSIONALS ACCREDITATION IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS


Dr. Lus Sobrado Fernndez, Principal Professor Dra. Elena Fernndez Rey, Titular Professor Dra. Cristina Ceinos Sanz, Titular Professor Rebeca Garca Murias, Research Technique Ana Couce Santalla, Assistant Professor University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain luismartin.sobrado@usc.es
Rezumat Procesul de acreditare a competenelor consilierilor n carier implic acordarea unei valori normative cunotinelor, aptitudinilor i atitudinilor persoanelor care desfoar o serie de activiti. Acreditarea profesional reprezint modul de identificare a subiecilor ntr-un cadru social i al forei de munc i are trei moduri principale, care includ nregistrarea, certificarea i acordarea licenei. Exist dou sisteme principale de acreditare n cadrul internaional al consilierilor n carier: POEV (Professional of Vocational and Educational Guidance) i EAS (European Accreditation Scheme). POEV a fost dezvoltat de IAEVG (Asociaia Internaional pentru Educaie i Orientare Profesional), pentru Centrul de Acreditare i Educaie din Statele Unite ale Americii. Aceste modele le permit practicanilor care au experien profesional s aplice pentru a le fi recunoscute competenele i s solicite acreditarea de noi domenii de expertiz, bazate pe formarea i experiena profesional recunoscute. Cuvinte cheie: acreditare, consilier, competen/aptitudine, credit, certificat, licen, evaluare. Abstract The process of skills accreditation of Guidance professionals involves the grant of a normative value to knowledge, skills and attitudes of people to carry out a series of activities. The professional credential is the mode of identification of subjects in a social and labour framework and has three main modes that include registration, certification and licensing. There are two dominant systems of accreditation into the international framework of Guidance Counsellors who are POEV (Professional of Vocational and Educational Guidance) and the EAS (European Accreditation Scheme). The POEV was developed by IAEVG (International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance), concerning to the Centre of Credentials and Educational from the United States of America. These models make it possible for practitioners who have professional experience to apply and to have their competences recognized and to seek the accreditation of new areas of expertise based on training and professional experience recognized. Key words: accreditation, counsellor, competence/ skill, credential, certificate, license, assessment.

Introduction The Guidance Counsellors professional profile has evolved as it was responding to the social, educational and employment situation of each historical period and this reality has
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created a professional profile and a set of guidance roles and functions different and frequently, overlapping and matching with the other professionals who develop similar activities. In the current context, is very important that practitioners are able to design the scope of the service that they provide and the skills needed to ensure effective service to their users. These skills are what the guidance counsellors will exercise in their daily activities and therefore, they should be included in their training curriculum and in accreditation and certification systems (Reid & Ford, 2008). For over a century, the Guidance Counsellors profile was written in response to numerous changes in contemporary society in its social, cultural, family, educational, professional areas, and, especially, in the last decade, by technological advances and information systems, to arrive at the dawn of the knowledge society that were trying to attain. The professionals accreditation refers to the process by which a company, agency or institution grants a recognition granted to an institution or training program that meets certain established qualifications and develops periodic evaluations through a set of evaluative criteria and indicators. Through the professional skills accreditation process, grants a formal value the knowledge, attitudes and skills of people to perform a series of tasks regardless of work setting that are made (OCDE, 2004). The competencies certification represents to grant a diploma that means the ability to perform a specific profession. The credential is the system by which a professional is recognized as such by having a domain at a certain level and area of expertise. The accreditation is the process by which an association or public or private entity recognizes that a training program or institution meets certain standards of professional training or qualifications set by an agency. This is not identified with the standardization of professional and training curriculum, but it means knowledge, attitudes and skills that should be included in the process of obtaining academic qualifications (Hiebert, 2009). The professional credential is the persons identification in a labour group through three procedures that are registration, certification and licensing. The registration is a voluntary list of subjects who own and use a title and provide similar service but there is not control over their professional work. The economic cost of the inclusion is relatively small and the renovation, usually, is automatic and upon an existing quota payment. This is the most flexible system for granting the credential and occupies an important place yet in various countries.
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The professional certification can be performed on persons or services. About people is the process of testing the job skills and represents, generally, a demonstration of a set of competencies established by the Administration or Professional Associations. The services certification is the verification that these have the minimum requirements of effectiveness and quality guaranteed. The granting of the license is the credential model most demanding established by law and issued by a Certification Administration and Agency. It serves to delimit the profession title and employment practice. 1. Objectives of the study The goals of this study are as given below: 1st. Delimit the conception of term accreditation in connection with other peers. 2nd. Display different accreditations models from Guidance professionals. 3rd. Analyze the similarities and differences between different accreditation models in the international area. 4th. Identify the skills recognition process. These aims seek the explicit definition of accreditation term and distinguish it from other closely related as are the credential and certification, which are very similar, nut there are also differences to be taken into account. 2. International accreditation systems of Counsellors In the international framework there are different accreditations models of Guidance professionals who highlight the EAS (European Accreditation Scheme) and the POEV, that is an application package called: The Educational and Vocational Guidance Professional, developed by the IAEVG (International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance and the CCE (Center for Credentialing and Education) from United States of America, under the NBCC-I. The European accreditation scheme for Career Guidance (EAS) was developed by several research and training institutions of various European countries (UK, Italy, Spain and Slovenia) to accredit persons who exercise career guidance in Europe. The development was done through a Leonardo da Vinci project of the European Commission (available at www.corep.it /eas/ home.htm and visited 14th of April 2009). The main activities undertaken by the EAS model are: 1st. Provide information related to career guidance as a separate function; 2nd. Perform guidance interviews for career; 3rd. Effect education tasks for career with small groups of users. Each counsellor who practices career guidance, whatever their official title or professional role is, may request the accreditation of one or more major specialization areas.

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The accreditation in the EAS model is grounded on competency-based, not necessarily conditioned to formal education acquired, although this in the career guidance area provides accreditation. Also, there is a mandatory minimum experience of thousand hours in each main activity for which requesting the accreditation and must be recent (not older than two years). Once achieved the length of it, is two years. In each European country the assessment should be conducted by the Guidance Counsellors Association existing therein for each major activity, as accreditation is requested by the applicant, he must provide evidence of compliance with specific elements to evaluate in common to it. The application package called: The Vocational and Educational Guidance Professional is administered by the Credentials and Education Center for IAEVG (International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance). Its origin dates back to 2002 where the IAEVG and American NBBC-I created a joint team to develop a process for the purpose of developing an international credential in the Educational and Vocational Guidance practice expressing the competences taken by the IAEVG. The guidance professionals competences approved by the IAEVG in 2003 consist of a group of basic and central character manifested in knowledge, attitudes and skills necessary for Guidance professionals. Also there is a set of specialized skills for guidance agents based on the activities type that they perform. 3. Methodology and accreditation processes in the EAS and IAEVG models The methodology has a descriptive and comparative nature in terms of common criteria and indicators to accreditation models of Educational and Vocational Guidance Professionals. In the EAS model, there are two essential requirements in the accreditation process, which are the main activities and elements for achieving the appropriate accreditation. The main activity is each identifiable task in its own right and can make guidance professional for career. It is understood as a main activity when you can: a) Identify as such; b) It has a specific function; c) It is outstanding; d) Requires knowledge and skills to be relevant and differentiated.
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The elements to evaluate common to each activity and conditions for obtaining accreditation of EAS are: 1. Compliance with the respective ethic code; 2. Establish and maintain effective communication and empathy with customers to optimize the interactions guide quality; 3. Commitment to professional development and continuous improvement of own competences and guidance services; 4 . Perform appropriate professional relationships with all personnel involved into internal and external guiding process to the organization; 5. Using Information Technologies and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the guidance context; 6 . Domain information competences related to the career guidance. The specific elements to value of each main activity when applying for this special accreditation are: a) Selection, organization, production and dissemination of information, related to the guidances career; b) Provide face-to-face or distance information connections to the career guidance; c) Conduct guidance interviews; d) Diagnose the recipients needs; e) Select and use assessment tools of career when necessary; f) Help users to determine and implement an action plan; g) Managing the information and emotional burden associated with personal and individualized communication with the customer; h) Conduct training and guidance activities to small groups career; i) To assist users in small groups in their job search strategies and job placement. Concerning the application for accreditation at the European model of EAS, one must provide the following documentation be sent by email and scanned the certificates and other official documents: 1. Application Form; 2. Curriculum Vitae in the European format; 3. Personal statement on the practice in Career Guidance; 4. Experience statement in targeting the current or last employer if you were not working lately. If the current work experience in each major activity for which accreditation is sought is less than a thousand hours, the application must be accompanied by statements from former employers to achieve the total of this amount; 5. Evidence portfolio which should include, for example: a) Academic and professional certifications. b) Licenses for the Guideline exercise. c) Membership to professional associations of career guidance. d) Conduct code or ethical practice. e) Participation in career guidance congress, conferences and other events. f) Subscriptions to scientific Guidance journals. g) Publications (books, articles) written by the candidate on Career Guidance.
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h) Certifications of practices in guidance services. i) Other certificates relating to professional development. j) Any other evidence to support the candidate. There are standard models of all these requirements and can be supplemented and completed electronically. In the event that accreditation is not granted the agency responsible for EAS will inform the applicant of the grounds. There is no appeal procedure and in any event, the candidate can re-apply after one year. The requirements to be recognized as Educational and Vocational Guidance Professional in the POEV model (Educational and Vocational Guidance Professional) of IAEVG and the Center for Credentialing and Education (CEE), from USA are of a training and professional experience. In Training and Experience, the academia qualifications and experience hours required are:
Training 1. Secondary Education Title or equivalent. 2. Short-cycle University Degree (2 years) in Guidance or analogue. 3. Advanced University Degree in Counselling or equivalent (4 years). 4. Graduate Degree in Guidance or equivalent (one year). Experience 4000 hours (4 years) 3000 hours (3 years) 2000 hours (2 years) 1000 hours (1 year)

The documented training would be in basic skills in one or more of the expertise of the IAEVG / IAEVG (www. iaevg.org). The documentation to be submitted will be through educational certificates of the relevant official institution. The applicants that wish to obtain accreditation for working as an Educational and Vocational Counsellor must submit its request to the Credentials and Education Center (CEC) with evidence portfolio that possesses the following contributions: 1st. A candidate statement; 2nd. Copy of title or certificate of higher academic level has been obtained; 3rd. Professional experience certification; 4th. Competences self-assessment; 5th. Tests or evidence applied to each of the core competencies and specializations that they wish to evaluate; 6. Other merits.

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Applications for accreditation by the POEV system are available in four languages recognized by the IAEVG (English, French, German and Spanish). The validity of the certification of POEV system is three years. 4. Conclusions There are two basic models of international accreditation from skills of Career Guidance Professional that are the POEV (Vocational and Educational Guidance) and the EAS (European Accreditation Scheme). The POEV was developed by IAEVG / IAEVG (International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance) in collaboration with the Credentials and Educational Center from United States of America. Both models are based on common criteria such as the need to possess academic qualifications related to Guidance and professional experience in a number of hours to be accredited as Educational and Vocational Guidance Counsellors. In the application is necessary to attend an evidence portfolio which the licenses provide for academic courses related to the Guidance and professional practice, in addition to the ethical commitment and documented contribution from others in the training of Guidance practitioners who adopted a system of accreditation of these based on a competencies model. The IAEVG / IAEVG implemented the Educational and Vocational Guidance Professional credential (POEV) in 2007 and the European Union through the EAS (European Accreditation Scheme) devised a similar system in 2008, its implementation still pending effective in various European countries. Both models provide the opportunity for those Counsellors who provide or have provided professional services for which their skills are recognized and to apply for accreditation of new specialization areas in terms of training and professional experience adequately carried out and certified. It is in any event to promote continuous professional development of Guidance Counsellors and enabling the gradual increase in the quality and effectiveness of guidance services.

REFERENCES
Bowers, J. & Hatch, T. A framework for school counseling programs. In the ASCA National Model. Alexandria, VA.: American School Counseling Association, 2005. Collinson, B. Professional, associations, standards and credentials in counseling. In D. Locke and al. The Handbook of Counseling. Thousand Oaks; Cal.: Stage, 2001. Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. Accreditation standars and procedures manual. Alexandria, VA.: 1994. Descy, P. & Tessaring, M. Training and learning for competence. Second report on vocational training research in Europe: Synthesis report. Luxemburgo: Office for official Publications of the European Communities, 2002. Revista de Pedagogie nr. 58 (2) 2010 61

Hiebert, B. & Borgen, W. Technical and Vocational Education and Training in 21st century; Pars: United Nations Education. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2002. Hiebert, B. International competencies for educational and vocational guidance practitioners, The Career Counsellor, 17, 11-12, 2005. Hiebert, B. International competencies for educational and vocational guidance practitioners: Implications for professional practice. International Journal Educational Vocational Guidance. Vol. 9, 2009. IAEVG. International Competences for Educational and Vocational Guidance. Accessible on www.iaevg.org, 2003. OCDE. Career Guidance and public policy: Bridging the gap. Pars: Author.; 2004. Repetto, E. International competencies for educational and vocational guidance practitioners: an IAEVG transnational study. International Journal Educational Vocational Guidance. Vol. 9, 2009. Sobrado, L. & Corts, P.A. Orientacin Profesional: Nuevos escenarios y perspectivas. Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, 2009.

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INTEGRAREA SOCIO-PROFESIONAL A PERSOANELOR SEROPOZITIVE


Geanina Surdu, coordonator proiecte Iulian Petre, director executiv Federaia UNOPA Bucureti geanina.surdu@unopa.ro

Rezumat Studiu ncearc s identifice problemele cu care se confrunta persoanele seropozitive n procesul de integrare socio-profesional. La cercetare au participat un numr de 164 angajatori din domenii diferite i 236 tineri seropozitivi care provin din medii sociale diferite, cu niveluri de educaie i colarizare diferite. Studiul s-a concentrat pe identificarea barierelor pe care persoanele seropozitive le ntmpin n gsirea unui loc de munc, cercetnd pe de o parte nivelul de informare i de acceptare al angajatorilor, iar pe de alt parte nivelul de informare i de resurse pe care persoanele seropozitive le au i pe care le pot folosi n cutarea unui loc de munc. Cuvinte cheie: HIV, SIDA, integrare, consiliere, PLWHA (persoane care traiesc cu HIV/SIDA). Abstract The study tries to identify the problems faced by HIV positive persons in the socio-professional integration process. 164 employers from different activity areas and 236 HIV-positive people from different social backgrounds, with different levels of education, have taken part in our research. The study was focused on identifying the barriers that HIV positive people face in finding a job, investigating first the level of information and acceptance of the employers and second the level of information and resources that the HIV positive persons have, that they can use in search of a job. Key words:HIV, AIDS, integration, counselling, PLWHA (people living with HIV/AIDS).

Introducere Perspectiva rentoarcerii la munc dup o perioad mare de lips de activitate ca urmare a infeciei cu HIV este o nou problem care nu putea fi imaginat nainte de apariia unor tratamente mai avansate pentru aceast infecie (Brooks & Klosinki, 1999). Dei multe studii arat c persoanele seropozitive consider c ntoarcerea la munc le-ar mbunti starea de sntate sunt de asemenea i multe probleme legate de sntatea la locul de munc, care acioneaz ca bariere n procesul de rentoarecere n cmpul muncii. Cercetrile au artat c o mare preocupare n ceea ce privete ntoarcerea la munc a persoanelor seropozitive a fost aceea c sntatea lor tinde s fie instabil i necesit mult atenie. Cauza nu este dat doar de varietatea de efecte secundare generate de tratamentul ARV, ca de exemplu, dureri de cap, insomnii, pietre la rinichi, greaa, care ar putea afecta performana i capacitatea de munc, ci i de natura bolii care determin fluctuaii n starea
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sntaii, perioade de bine alternate cu episoade n care se simte ru. (Trujillo, 2010). Consilierii observ o cretere a numrului de persoane care traiesc cu HIV/SIDA (PLWHA) care sunt n cutare de serviciu, pentru c nivelul de trai al acestora a crescut, iar stilul de via s-a mbuntit ca urmare a noilor tramente mbuntite (Trujillo, 2010). Cele mai mari probleme identificate de persoanele seropozitive n ceea ce privete rentoarcerea la munc se mpart in 4 categorii: probleme medicale i de sntate, impactul ocuprii unui loc de munc asupra serviciilor sociale pe care le primete, probleme legate de gsirea unui loc de munc i probleme legate de dezvluirea diagnosticului i posibilitatea de a fi discriminat la locul de munc (Brooks & Klosinki, 1999). Trei tipuri de servicii distincte dar care se ntreptrund au fost identificate ca fiind necesare n rentorcerea la munc a persoanelor seropozitive. Primul face referire la servicii primare, practice de ocupre a forei de munc ca de exemplu recomandarea anumitor locuri de munc, furnizarea de liste cu locuri de munc vacante i dezvoltarea abilitilor de prezentare la interviu. Cel de-al doilea se refer la consiliere, creterea stimei de sine i consiliere pentru dezvoltarea motivaiei. Al treilea include workshop-uri, seminarii i activiti educaionale suplimentare. (Brooks & Klosinki, 1999). Familiile afectate de HIV/SIDA duc o povar imens (Frain et al., 2008). Familia furnizez dou treimi din totalul de asisten necesar pentru activitile de suport ca de exemplu transportul, sarcinile administrative, ngrijirile medicale de acas, chiar i n cazul familiilor ai cror membri cu HIV/SIDA sunt considerai sntoi(Ravie & Siegel,1990). Teama poate s fie o surs de discriminare pentru angajatori. Muli dintre acetia se tem c angajaii seropozitivi vor fi mai puin productivi pe msur ce boala avanseaz, boala va interfera cu afacerile angajatorului (clienii vor merge n alt parte sau colegii ar putea s refuze s lucreze cu persoane seropozitive), sau costurile legate de asigurrile de sntate vor creste (Glenn et al., 2003). Discriminarea bazat pe team nu este legal (Bogart. et al., 2000). Mai mult dect teama, stigma i credinele influeneaz caracterul moral al deciziilor angajatorilor atunci cnd sunt legate de angajarea unei persoane seropozitive (Glenn et al., 2003). Dac persoanele seropozitive s-ar simi n control i c au nu numai sprijinul consilierului dar i al comunitii, ar fi mult mai posibil s nfrunte barierele legate de discriminare dect s ntorc spatele dorintelor pe care le au legate de ocuparea unui loc de munc. (Trujillo, 2010). Studiul de fa ncearc s identifice problemele cu care se confrunta persoanele seropozitive din Romnia n demersul lor de a se integrarea socio-profesional. Prin integrare socioprofesional facem referire la asimilarea unei persoane n mediul profesional i adaptarea ei la cerinele grupului din care face parte. Contextul studiului: Studiul de fa a fost realizat de ctre Federaia UNOPA n 17 judee i Municipiul Bucureti prin intermediul a 20 de organizaii colaboratoare. Studiul a cuprins 2 etape: o cercetare
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realizat la nivelul angajatorilor din Romania si o cercetare realizat la nivelul persoanelor seropozitive. La acest studiu au participat un numr de 164 angajatori din domenii diferite i cu un numr diferit de angajai i 236 tineri seropozitivi care provin din medii sociale diferite, cu niveluir de educaie i colarizare diferite. n Romnia, conform statisticilor Compartimentului pentru Monitorizarea i Evaluarea Infeciei HIV/SIDA n Romnia de la nivelul Institutului Prof. Dr. Matei Bal de la sfritul anului 2008, numrul de persoane seropozitve aflate n evidena activ era de 9300 de persoane. Dintre acestea aproximativ 2/3 o reprezint tinerii cu vrste cuprinse intre 15 24 ani, generaia de copii infectai pe cale nozocomial n perioada 1985 -1991 care au ajuns acum la stadiul de aduli. Populaia La cercetare au participat 164 de angajatori: 47% dintre acetia au sub 50 de angajai, 32% au ntre 50 i 300 de angajai, 9% au ntre 300 i 500 de angajai, 5% au ntre 500 i 100 de angajai, iar procentul angajatorilor chestionai care au peste 1000 de angajai este de 7%. 236 de tineri seropozitivi cu vrste cuprinse ntre 15 i 30 de ani: 11.86 % tineri cu vrste cuprinse ntre 15 -18 ani, 81.78 % tineri cu vrste cuprinse ntre 19 - 25 ani, 6.36% sunt tineri cu vrste cuprinse ntre 26-30 ani. Din totalul de 236 de tineri seropozitivi participani la cercetare 39.83% sunt persoane de gen masculin i persoane 60.17% de gen feminin. Metoda n ambele etape ale studiului metoda folosit a fost chestionarul. Chestionarele au fost completate n momentul aplicrii acestora de ctre angajatori/ persoanele seropozitive sau de ctre operatorul de interviu n situaia n care persoanele seropozitive erau analfabete sau semi-analfabete. Ulterior rspunsurile la ntrebri au fost verificate de operatorul de interviu si validate. La finalul aplicrii chestionarelor si verificrii lor au fost validate: 164 chestionare completate de angajatori; 236 de chestionare completate de persoane seropozitive. n cercetare a fost folosit metoda sondajului cantitativ, de aceea chestionarul a fost elaborat, n ambele situaii, n proporie de 70 % cu ntrebri nchise i rspuns predefinit. Chestionarul a cuprins ntrebri nchise i ntrebri deschise cu scopul de a identifica: nivelul de informare al angajatorilor cu privire la problematica HIV/SIDA; nivelul de informare al angajatorilor cu privire la legislaia n vigoare referitoare la drepturile i obligaiile angajatorilor; nivelul de acceptare a angajatorilor cu privire la persoanele cu handicap si mai specific cu privire la persoanele seropozitive; diferite aspecte legate situaia persoanelor seropozitive;
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dificultile pe care le ntmpin n integrarea pe piaa muncii, n relaia cu instituiile spitaliceti sau cu Serviciul de Evaluare Complex precum i nevoile pe care acestea le au.

Rezultate Angajatori Persoanele seropozitive pot s munceasc Din datele colectate n cercetare 51% din angajatorii chestionai consider c persoanele seropozitive pot lucra la fel de bine ca un om sntos, 25% consider c pot lucra dar cu sprijinul firmei, 13% nu tiu dac persoanele seropozitive pot s munceasc, 8% din angajatorii chestionai consider c persoanele seropozitive pot s munceasc dar au un randament mai sczut dect ceilali angajati, iar 3% dintre angajatorii chestionai consider c nu este indicat ca persoanele seropozitive s munceasc. Clasamentul bolilor care prezint un risc mai mare pentru angajaii firmei Angajatorii chestionai au fost rugai s fac un clasament al bolilor care prezint un risc mai mare pentru angajaii firmei pe care o reprezint. Boala care este considerat cu risc crescut este TBC-ul, urmat de hepatita viral, HIV/SIDA, iar pe ultimul loc, boala considerat cu risc sczut pentru angajai este BTS. Confidenialitatea la locul de munc n ceea ce privete confidenialitatea statutului de seropozitiv 58% sunt de acord cu faptul c acesta este confidenial, 29% susin c statutul de persoan seropozitiv nu este confidenial, iar 13% nu tiu dac statutul este confidenial sau nu. 64% dintre angajatorii chestionai afirm c n situaia n care unul dintre angajai este seropozitiv, ceilali colegi ar fi mai n siguran dac ar ti acest lucru. Integrarea n colectivitate Angajaii seropozitivi nu ar trebui s lucreze ntr-o secie special susin 114 angajatori chestionai, n timp ce 10 susin c angajaii seropozitivi ar trebui s lucreze ntr-o secie special, protejndu-se astfel pe ei i pe cei din jur, 9 susin c ar fi mai bine pentru persoanele seropozitive s lucreze ntr-o secie special, 3 angajatori susin c ar fi mai bine pentru ceilali angajai ca persoanele seropozitive s lucreze ntr-o secie special, iar 28 de angajatori nu tiu dac ar fi indicat ca persoanele seropozitive s lucreze ntr-o secie special. Angajaii seropozitivi nu ar trebui s folosesc un alt grup sanitar susin 96 angajatori, n timp ce ali 96 de angajatori susin c ar fi bine pentru persoanele seropozitive s folosesc un alt grup sanitar, 27 de angajatori susin c ar fi mai bine i pentru persoanele seropozitive i pentru ceilali angajai s folosesc un alt grup sanitar, 11 spun c ar fi mai bine pentru ceilali angajai ca persoanele seropozitive s folosesc un alt grup sanitar, iar 25 nu tiu dac ar fi indicat ca persoanele seropozitive s folosesc alt grup sanitar.
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n ceea ce privete testarea HIV la angajare 41% dintre angajatorii chestionati nu tiu dac un angajator poate solicit testarea HIV, n timp ce 32% susin c un angajator poate solicita testarea HIV a angajailor si. Persoane seropozitive Nivelul de educaie Forma de nvmnt absolvit sau n curs pentru persoanele seropozitive intervievate este reprezentat n principal de: coala de arte i meserii (45 persoane), liceul (43 persoane), iar 29 de persoane seropozitive participante la studiu sunt absolvenii de studii superioare. ngrijoratoare este ns cifra celor care nu urmeaz nici o form de nvmnt i nici nu au finalizat una: 52 persoane din totalul de 236 de persoane chestionate. Accesul peroanelor seropozitive la educaie Punctul de vedere al persoanelor chestionate cu privire la accesul la educaie ne-a relevat faptul c 76.27% consider c accesul lor nu a fost/nu este ngrdit n nici un fel, 22.88% consider c accesul lor a fost ngrdit, iar 0.85% nu au raspuns la acesta ntrebare. Rezult de aici un procent de aproximativ 23% de persoane seropozitive care au abandonat coala sau sunt n risc de abandon din motive independente de voina lor. Importana finalizrii studiilor pentru beneficiari Este foarte important s i finalizeze studiile pentru 129 persoane seropozitive din totalul de 236 de persoane chestionate, destul de important pentru 39 persoane, important pentru 28 persoane puin important pentru 20 de persoane i fr importan pentru 20 de persoane. ncadrarea n munc Din totalul de 236 de tineri seropozitivi participani la cercetare procentul celor care au un loc de munc este 9.75%, n timp ce procentul celor care nu au un loc de munc este semnificativ mai mare (90.25%). Participarea la interviuri de angajare Doar 4% dintre persoannele seopozitive implicate n cercetare au participat la mai mult de 4 inteviuri n vederea angajrii, iar 8.90% au participat la 2-4 interviuri. Un procent de 11.86% din respondenti a participat la un singur interviu de angajare. Proporia celor care nu au participat la nici un interviu n vederea angajrii este de 75%. Bariere n ocuparea unui loc de munc Starea de sntate (48 persoane) i statutul de seropozitiv (28 persoane) au reprezentat bariere n procesul de angajare pentru o parte din tinerii seropozitivi. Dar n ncercarea de a-i gsi un loc de munc tinerii seropozitivi s-au lovit de alte bariere ca discriminare/ marginalizare (27 persoane), de proasta informare a angajatorilor (17 persoane) sau de teama acestora faa de testarea HIV la angajare (15 persoane).

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Servicii de consiliere Conform rspunsurilor tinerilor chestionai 54.66% (din totalul de 236 persoane chestionate) beneficiaz sau au beneficiat de astfel de servicii de consiliere, orientare colar i profesional. Concluzii Din datele colectate rezult c, teoretic, angajatorii au o imagine pozitiv fa de persoana serpozitiv n detrimentul altor persoane cu handicap dei n realitate, din practica curent tim c atunci cnd sunt pui n situaia de a angaja o persoan serpozitiv, ea nu este acceptat de cea mai mare parte a angajatorilor, iar dintre cei care accept persoanele cu handicap n general, alte categorii cu handicap sunt preferate naintea persoanelor seropozitive. Rezultatele obinute arat c angajatorii plaseaz n mod surprinztor bolile cu transmitere sexual (BTS) ca avnd riscuri mai mici dect HIV/SIDA la locul de munca. Acest lucru poate fi explicat fie de necunoaterea modului de transmitere i manifestare a BTS-urilor, fie de necunoaterea caracteristicilor i modalitilor de transmitere a HIV/SIDA. Angajatorii nu cunosc faptul c nu se justific n nici un mod solicitarea de a dezvlui informaii personale legate de serostatutul HIV al persoanelor care aplic sau ocup deja un loc de munc. Colegii de munc nu pot fi obligai s dezvluie astfel de informaii personale despre colegii lor. Accesul la datele personale legate de serostatusul HIV al unei persoane trebuie s se supun regulilor de confidenialitate, n conformitate cu Codul de practic al OIM privind protecia datelor personale ale lucrtorilor. n concluzie nivelul de informare al angajatorilor fa de problematica HIV/SIDA este destul de sczut, ceea ce duce la rezerve n ceea ce privete angajarea unei persoane seropozitive, iar n situaia n care ar avea un angajat seropozitiv la poteniale situaii de discriminare a unui angajat seropozitiv, precum solicitarea testului HIV la angajare, folosirea unui grup sanitar separat, dezvalurea diagnosticului, etc. Avnd n vedere situaia descris putem concluziona c n Romnia campaniile de informare pe problematica HIV/SIDA n coli, n instituii i n comunitate n general, sunt nc necesare, mentalitile schimbndu-se foarte greu. Forma de nvmnt absolvit sau n curs pentru persoanele seropozitive intervievate este reprezentat n principal de coala de arte i meserii i liceul. Nivelul celor care au absolvit o facultate este destul de sczut, dar ngrijortoare este cifra celor care nu urmeaz nici o form de nvmnt i nici nu au finalizat una. n ceea ce privete importana studiilor pentru persoanele seropozitive chestionate, cea mai mare parte a acestora consider coala ca fiind foarte important. Starea de sntate i statutul de persoan seropozitiv au reprezentat bariere n procesul de angajare pentru o parte din tinerii seropozitivi. Dar n ncercarea de a-i gsi un loc de munc tinerii seropozitivi s-au lovit de alte bariere ca discriminare/marginalizare, de proasta
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informare a angajatorilor sau de teama acestora fa de virusul HIV. Mai mult de jumtate din tinerii participani la cercetare beneficiaz de servicii de consiliere, orientare colar i profesional. Comparnd acest procent cu cel al tinerilor seropozitivi care nu urmeaz nici o form de nvmnt (52 respondeni) i nu au un loc de munc (90,25%) putem spera c n urmtorii ani procentul tinerilor care vor avea un loc de munc sau vor urma o form de nvmnt ar putea s creasc. Reflectarea concluziilor acestui studiu n practica Federaiei UNOPA se regsete n cursurile de formare profesional pe care le ofer persoanelor seropozitive, sprijinul metodologic i informaional acordat asociaiilor membre i prin intermediul cursurilor de formare pentru practicienii n consiliere care lucreaz cu beneficiari seropozitivi.

BIBLIOGRAFIE
Brooks, R. A. & Klosinski, L. E. Assisting persons living with HIV/AIDS to return to work: Programmatic steps for AIDS service organizations, AIDS Education and Prevention, 11, 3, Jun 1999. Frain, M. P. et al., Family Resiliency, Uncertainty, Optimism, and the Quality of Life of Individuals with HIV/AIDS, Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 52, 1, Oct. 2008. Glenn, M. K. et al., Employment issues as related by individuals living with HIV or AIDS, Journal of Rehabilitation, 69, 1 Jan-Mar 2003. Trujillo, M. Persons Living with HIV/AIDS Contemplating a Return to Work: A Social Cognitive Career Theory and Constructivist Theory Perspective; Journal of Rehabilitation; 76, 1, Jan-Mar 2010.

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OPENING A NEW CAREER AREAS FOR STREET CHILDREN IN TURKEY: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION*
Ilkay Savci, Associated Professor Ankara University, Turkey savci@politics.ankara.edu.tr
Rezumat Lucrarea de fa subliniaz dimensiunile principale i activitile din cadrul proiectului Career Guidance of Street Children to the Areas of Science, Technology and Innovation, implementat n Turcia. Au fost stabilite patru grupuri int care au fcut obiectul activitilor: copiii strzii, prinii lor, formatorii din cadrul centrului pentru protecia copiilor strzii i factori-cheie care ofer servicii pentru aceti copii. Proiectul a vizat, n primul rnd, prevenirea muncii forate a copiilor strzii, prin contientizarea lor cu privire la carier, stima de sine i prin direcionarea lor ctre domeniile de carier potrivite. n al doilea rnd, prinii acestor copii au fost informai despre riscurile vieii pe strad i despre orientarea copiilor lor pentru viitor. n al treilea rnd, personalul din cadrul centrului pentru protecia copiilor strzii, a fost format n activiti de consiliere i orientare a carierei. Nu n ultimul rnd, factorii-cheie care ofer servicii copiilor strzii, au colaborat la formarea acestor copii. Cuvinte cheie: copiii strzii, consiliere i orientarea carierei, formare, tehnologie i inovaie. Abstract The present paper points out the main dimensions and activities of Career Guidance of Street Children to the Areas of Science, Technology and Innovation project implemented in Turkey. Four target groups as street children, their parents, trainers of street children protection centre and stakeholders providing services for street children have been determined and all project activities were implemented targeting these groups. Firstly the project aimed at preventing street children from forced labour, creating their career awareness and self esteem and directing them to the right career areas. Secondly their parents were informed about risks of the street life and future orientation of their children. Thirdly the staff from the street children protection centre was trained about career guidance services. Lastly, stakeholders providing services to the street children collaborated in street childrens training. Key words: street children, career guidance, training, technology and innovation.

Street children Street children as the main resource of forced child labor are under risk at global level. ILO (2008) puts the details of the problem clearly. Reasons of living in the streets for the children are emphasized as poverty, unemployment, migration, war/civil war, family breakdown, abuse, violence and hard work at home, school dropout, neglect etc. Generally, it is implied that these reasons are valid all over the world (UN Report, 2007; Orme and Seigel, 2007; Ferguson, 2006; Mathur, 2009). Especially, the number of the street children is increasing in the big cities of developing and underdeveloped countries. Lusk (1992, 301) categorized street children into four groups: a. Children living with their
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families, attending school in order not to be delinquent, b. Independent street children; family ties are weak and they are under the risk of delinquency, c. Those living together with their families on the streets (children from homeless family), d. Children living on the streets apart from their families. The last two groups are much more under risk of abuse, delinquency, drug and other health issues, than others. It is known that qualifications of street children are quite low. The street children attending school have chances to reach the right targets. These children have also ideals of becoming a doctor or lawyer etc. in the future (Orme and Seipel, 2007). In spite of vicious conditions, studies point out that children expect normal life in future (Nalkur, 2009; Orme and Seipel, 2007; Kar-Der, 2008). Orme and Seipel (2007, p.494) explain that many street children hold a strong belief that their future will be better. As Nalkur (2009, p.1020) implies that street children expect to establish their own family in the future. It can be a hypothetical idea, but it means that they have positive feelings for themselves and strong expectations. However, Xues study (2009, p.406) revealed that 70% of the street children had poor social adaptation skills. Street children are a highly disadvantaged group in reaching basic services in society. In spite of governmental aid and various institutions providing services for street children, the cooperation and coordination of these institutions are not sufficient. The issues concerning street children are not only referring to food and shelter, but also to help shaping their lives for the future. Preventing them from risky life conditions, necessary measures should be taken by authorities. Public and private institutions, municipalities and recently, NGOs have been working actively to provide services for street children. Policies and programmes of these actors should propose some measures, except financial aid. Orme and Seipel (2007, p.498) claim that NGOs should offer direct services to meet the needs of street children and the most important need is counseling and life-saving information. At the debut of these measures, micro-enterprises, vocational cooperatives and technical training can be remarked (Ferguson, 2006, p.705). Micro-credit support for the poor families is proposed as a measure, which is a way to protect children from streets. The children gain new skills through vocational training or enhance the skills they had before. Yet technology and innovation are attractive for children. As children are interested in computers and electronic video games more than elder people, they are eager to learn more about technology and they are also more creative than elder people, too. Children with these traits are potential candidates for technical jobs, electricity, electronics, construction work, mechanical work etc. The literature on street children suggests jobs related to technology, electricity and electronics (Midgley, 1995; Ferguson, 2006; Mathur, 2009). For example, in order to increase human capital of street children, they should be equipped with technical, market based skills such as computer literacy, carpentry etc. (Ferguson, 2006, p.712) Street children in Turkey In Turkey, the number of street children is increasing like in other developing countries and it is difficult to protect them from streets and vicious life conditions. Although authorities try to protect the children, all measures are insufficient. Social Services and Protection of
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Children Institution (SHCEK) is responsible for protecting street children from forced labor and abuse. There were 11,813 children under protection in the dispensaries of the institution, in January 2010. These children are separated into groups according to their ages as 0-7, 7-12 and 13-18. No doubt that these figures dont represent all children who need protection in the country (SHCEK, 2010a). More and more children leave school and home and become street children. Cities with high population like Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir and Adana have been facing with intensive immigration from rural areas and insufficient services provided by municipalities and public authorities, which have created economic and security problems since 1990s. Great number of families has immigrated to the western parts of the country from eastern regions because of high level of unemployment, poverty and terrorism. Hard conditions, unemployment, malnutrition and sheltering problems within the cities, determined families to migrate and this caused adjustment problems. These families have tried to survive in this new environment. As a solution, children work in the streets to contribute to family budget and take care of the economic problems of their families. Moreover, the cultural dissolve of the families during the adjustment period to the city life contributes to increase in the number of street children. As a result, children first leave the school and then are vulnrable to various dangers, such as crime, drug, forced labor etc. These street children constitute a highly disadvantaged group. Even though they receive some services from various institutions about integration into social life, these kinds of services would be insufficient unless they offer solutions which will make life easier for the children in the future. As in many developing counties, in Turkey while the children of parents having high incomes receive career counseling and occupational guidance services, the highly disadvantaged street children lack such services. The experts working in centers dealing with street children do not have the capacity to deliver career guidance services. Therefore, street children can not benefit from any career guidance services. Limited research on street children points out the dimensions of the phenomena in Turkey. Altntas research (2003) is a well known study on street children in Ankara. She examined various aspects of street children and their social-economic environment. She also focused on social policy dimension of the problem. Varcin (2000) emphasized that informal sector has an importance among migrants and poor families in surviving in the big cities of Turkey. Children of these families share a similar experience in earning money. A special study was realized by Kuntay (1993) on street children in Istanbul. Kuntay drew attention to the delinquency and health dimensions of the problem such as drug use, especially gluesniffing. A research on the street children was carried out by SHCEK and findings put the realities of living conditions of children and their families. Social aid programmes are not sufficient to solve the problems. To combat with vicious medium, long term policies and programmes should be developed. One of these programmes is the Service Model for Street Children and Child Labor prepared by SHCEK. The programme is based on the long process and starts with the children on the streets and helps them return to their families, to dispensaries or youth centers. In this process mobilized teams and street offices help to determine the children who are located in (SHCEK, 2010b). Another programme was implemented as a project titled Career Guidance of Street Children to the Areas of Science, Technology; Innovation (2008). In this paper, activities and results of this project are presented.
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Career Guidance of street children to the areas of science, technology, innovation This project was implemented by Career Counseling and Human Resources Development Association (KAR-DER) with its project partner Turkish Labor Unions Confederation (Trk) and its associates Greater Municipality of Ankara Street Children Protection Center (SCPC) and Turkish Employment Organization (KUR). Working Children Office in Trk had extensive experience in preventing forced child labor and this experience guided the project team to implement the project and reach the targets of the project. KUR contributed to the project activities related to career guidance and had participated in career counseling trainings. The staff of KUR Occupational Guidance Department educated the staff of SCPC. Activities implemented by the project were to introduce various occupations and education centers to the children and their parents; to organize study visits in such centers; to inform the parents about interests and capacity of their children, to raise consciousness among them; to guide the children to the right education centers and to provide successful children with scholarships based on their interests and abilities; to train the experts and trainers working at SCPC on career counseling and occupational guidance; to organize awarenessraising, visibility conferences and to create public awareness by means of mass media. Methodology In order to ensure the sustainability of the project, problems of street children were handled multi-dimensionally. For this reason, four target groups were determined: Street children registered at SCPC, their parents, experts and trainers working at SCPC and lastly all public and private agencies providing services for street children including NGOs. In the implementation process, each group was taken alone as a sample, but also related with each other. Two ways were planned to reach the project targets: the first one is gathering data from children and families and activities such as education, training and guiding. The project included different ways to identify characteristics and abilities of street children: one of them was to collect data via inventory study on street childrens and parents profile. Visits and face to face interviews with street children and parents were another way. During this process, observations of the project team contributed to the study positively. What were social and economic circumstances they lived in? What were the strategies they coped with? What were their interests and competencies? What did they think about their future life? No doubt that it was too important to specify the needs of children, parents and agencies provide services to street children. Thus, all project activities aimed to determine the needs of children and their satisfaction. Delivering career guidance services to street children was the main purpose of the project and inventories were developed to deliver such services. The inventories were designed specifically to the needs of street children and aimed at determining the positive and negative feelings of the children towards education and making decisions; individuals affecting the decision making process of the children, their skills, career assets and interest areas. The inventories also included information about the jobs and education opportunities.
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Even though the number the children registered to the Center increased to 1197 (47 girls and 1150 boys) by the start of the project, it was found out that this number did not reflect the actual number of children attending the Center regularly. The center was established in 1993 and did not update its registration records since, which means that the number above includes all children registered since 1993. The actual number of the children visiting the Center regularly (at least 4 days a week) and attending the classes delivered by trainers was approximately 250. The number of children attending the centre was hard to determine even for the center management as the children were free to attend as and when they wish. These children attending at least 4 days a week were determined as the target group by the project team in carrying out inventories, which is mainly because of the fact that the career counseling services need to be delivered continuously. 190 children out of approximately 250 were reached by the end of the project and face to face interviews were carried out with these children. 145 children out of 190 took part in inventory studies. The inventory studies were carried out face to face with children, each one nearly lasted for an hour, which not only revealed the interests, attitudes and skills of the children but also helped to establish a relationship based on trust and affection. It was found out that the target group children mostly attended to the Center at weekends for courses or trainings. Therefore, the inventory studies were carried out at weekends as well. The information gathered from the children was loaded to a database, including the observation notes. Activities of the project Activities implemented with street children The activities including the children were documented in various forms like photos, attendance sheets, etc. However the children were not asked to fill in a form to express their opinions as most of the children had difficulty in writing and reading and some of them were illiterate. When they were asked to write their opinions, they felt uncomfortable and being questioned. The children worked on the street informally. Jobs of the street children registered at SCPC as following: Table 1: Jobs of the street children at SCPC
Type of job Shoe polishing Selling Simit Selling paper tissues Selling band aid Weighting Selling water Other Not working TOTAL
*

Number of the children 156 398 149 21 31 18 356 68 1197

Simit is a kind of Turkish savory roll covered with sesame seed.

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Even though the project was designed to reach both girls and boys at the Center, it did not reach any girls working at the streets during the project. It was coherent with literature (Mathur, 2009; Aransiola et al., 2009; Orme and Seipel, 2007). According to the official records of the Center, there were 47 girls registered to Center by 2008. However, these girls had registered to the Center long time ago and they had not been attending the Center for a long time. To reach the girls working at the streets is even quite challenging for the Center as there are girls working outside and do not attend to the Center for various reasons, such as cultural restrictions. A guide book named Roads to Future: Science, Technology and Innovation (Varcin, et al. 2008) was developed in order to inform the children about the importance of education and making the right decisions about the future. The book was prepared by the training experts and project team, all of whom are academics and expert at career counseling. The book includes 5 chapters: What does career mean? Learn about yourself; Learn about the jobs; Life long learning and the importance of education; Useful Information. Particularly new jobs were introduced in the book by use of colored pictures. Following the inventory studies and face to face interviews, trainings were organized for street children in order to increase their knowledge about jobs and education opportunities. In order to increase the participation of children in the trainings, the trainings were transformed into a quiz show which was called Career Star by project team. The children were informed about the jobs in a playful environment. The group of children was divided into two groups and each group was asked a question related to the nature of jobs and education requirements for jobs in a fun way. It was observed that the children were very happy to have participated in the competition and learned about jobs at the same time. In order to encourage the children to go further with their education, several site visits were organized by the project team to universities, education and training centers and laboratories. The number of children participating in each visit was limited between 10 and 12 to keep all of the children engaged in activities. The project team had prepared t-shirts and hats for children which carried the partners logos and Roads to Future slogan on them to create solidarity among the children attending the visits. The children visited a vocational and technical occupation fair to learn about vocational high schools and education alternatives. Another two visits were organized to Middle East Technical University Science and Technology Museum and Hacettepe University Physics Games Laboratory, both of which are specifically designed to engage children in science and technology in hands-on and fun ways. The scientific facts and experiments were presented in a fun and captivating way in these visits and children actively took part in them. During the inventory studies and face to face interviews, the project observed that the children were also interested in civil engineering and vocational jobs related to construction, mostly because of the fact that they had family members working in construction sites. Therefore, two visits were organized to a leading construction firm and a training center for construction workers, respectively. The children had the chance to learn about civil engineering, technical artist etc., in the construction firm and observed the office and work life of adults, which encouraged them to work in a similar environment. Then the children were taken to the training center for
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construction workers where they had observed the work life a construction worker and the materials they work with. These visits proved to be very effective in encouraging the children to go further with their education. In order to guide the children to technology and innovation in an entertaining way, the project team had applied to The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, which publishes a monthly journal called Science for Children. The Council had provided 10.000 past and present issues of the journal, all of which were delivered to the street children. Another activity was to develop Personal Coaching system for children both to ensure the sustainability of the project and to provide them with role models, which they do not have in their family or environment. Coaching activity aimed at finding a guide for each child, who would be a good example for them and support their education by guiding them. The children surely need material support but what they need more than material support is moral support and guidance. Therefore, M.A. students of Ankara University Human Resources Management and Career Counseling Programme, were contacted to find volunteers who wanted to guide children and be a coach. A meeting was organized with the volunteers to inform them about the project, the coaching system and the delicate situation of the street children. Following the informative meeting with the volunteers, a visit was realized to the Center and the children had the chance to meet with their volunteers. It is known that the best way to help the street children is not to give money to them as the children usually do not use the money for educational purposes but spend it for their and their families basic needs. From this point of view, it was decided to help children by providing scholarships and indirect support such as stationery, food, etc. The indirect support proved to be more useful in guiding the children to education. Even though various companies were contacted to provide scholarships for street children, this activity did not prove to be successful. The companies had been reluctant to provide scholarships for children. However, these companies had agreed to make indirect contributions to the project and provided stationery and school bags for the children. Activities with the parents of the street children To reach the parents of the street children had been the most difficult activity in the project. Their families were from low-income group and lived in suburbs of the city. They consisted of father and/or mother or the close relatives. When they migrated they lived in with close relatives for several months. Parents had low level of education, were unemployed and unskilled. The first step of this activity was determining the method to be used in reaching the parents. Therefore, a workshop called Developing Service Models for Street Children was organized at the SCPC. It was understood that reaching out the parents was a difficult and challenging activity. Most of the families migrated from eastern parts of Turkey and they had trouble in adjusting to the life in Ankara. The families, mostly women, did not leave their districts, which left the project team with the option of visiting the parents in their districts. However,
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the districts where the parents inhabited were dangerous for outsiders. Therefore, a strategy called Leader Parent was developed to reach out the maximum number of parents. The Leader parents, who had influence over the families around it, were determined. This strategy had multiplied the effect of each visit. The visits to the parents were documented by voice records, photos, etc. However as most of the parents are illiterate, it was not possible to take a written feedback from the parents. The parents did not like seeing forms and questionnaires because they felt uneasy and being questioned. So the visits were conducted as friendly visits and easy talk, not as interviews. In order to visit the districts these parents lived, the trainers at the Center attended to the visits, who knew these parents and the districts really well. Two trainers from the Center attended to each visit. 30 leader parents from different districts of the city were reached out. The notes from the site were gathered as observation notes. The attitudes and opinions of the parents towards education were tried to indentify. The site notes were evaluated for each child. Activities with the trainers working at SCPC Career Counseling and Occupational Guidance Training programme was developed specially for the trainers working at SCPC. The aim of this activity was to ensure the sustainability of the project as it would enable the trainers offer these services to the children even after the completion of the project. Before developing the training programme a meeting was organized with the trainers to learn about their needs and opinions about the training programme. In line with their needs and opinions, a 20 day programme was developed. 24 experts participated in the training programme. The courses delivered were: Table 2: Courses taken by trainers at SCPC
COURSES Introduction Labour Market in Information Society Why is Career Planning important? Establishing helping relationship Career Planning Process Setting career goals, decision making Labor market and Schools Job interview Child and Adolescence Development Problem solving skills Team work in career counseling Developing Service Model for Street Children-Workshop Developing self esteem Labor Law Job seeking skills Disadvantageous groups Poverty and street children

The trainings were evaluated with pre and post evaluation tests. Some of the trainers expressed their ideas as follows: I believe that this training program will be very useful for me and my friends. I wish the program would last longer The trainings were really great. I have never received training like this before. I really benefited from the trainings.
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Municipalities, unions, public institutions and NGOs providing services for street children: A workshop was organized to bring all stakeholders providing services for street children together to develop service models for the street children. Representatives from various public and private institutions and NGOs attended to the workshop such as Ministry of Labor and Social Security, Ministry of Education, Social Services and Proctection of Children Institution and Social Assistance and Solidarity Fund, International Labor Organization, UNICEF, Hak-Is Trade Union, Ankara University, Sakarya University and etc. The workshop was held in two groups. The workshop groups had worked to find answers and solutions to the following questions.
WORKSHOP QUESTIONS GROUP A- FAMILIES AND THE CHILDREN 1. As being one of the key actors in preventing the child labor, how should the families be involved in these services? 2. There remain a lot of families and children whom these projects and services cannot reach. Who are these groups and how can we reach them? 3. The street children constitute a heterogeneous group. What kind of solutions should be generated according to different situations and needs? GROUP B- URBAN SERVICES What are the precautions and solutions to increase employment for the immigrants? The common characteristic of the projects implemented so far is that they do not offer permanent solutions. What is the reason behind this? In order to find permanent and sustainable solutions how can we ensure cooperation and joint solutions among organizations?

1. 2.

3.

Conclusion First of all inventories specific to the needs of street children were developed in order to determine the attitudes, personality types and skills of the children. Within the occupational guidance and career counseling activity, 190 children out of 250 children were reached out. Inventory studies were conducted with 145 children out of 190 children. 45 children participated in visits and attended training activities at SCPC. Trainings were organized for street children in order to increase their knowledge about jobs and education opportunities. Trainings were delivered as quiz show to keep the trainings interesting and fun for children. Addition to these activities, a guidebook called Roads to the Future: Science, Technology and Innovation was prepared by experts of the project to inform the children and their parents about the importance of education, education opportunities and jobs. Moreover Personal Coaching system was developed for children both to ensure the sustainability of the project and to provide them with role models, which they do not have in their family or environment. Visits to universities, science and technology centers were organized to guide the children in these areas, by providing hands on experience for them. The project had reached out 30 Leader Parents. The leader family strategy adopted by project team proved to be useful in reaching the families which could not be visited. Career Counseling and Occupational Guidance Training Programme was developed for the experts and trainers working at SCPC. The programme lasted 20 days.
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As a result, in spite of unexpected difficulties the project was successful especially in two aspects: one of them was to reach out the children and determine their needs and expectations. The information gathered from inventories directed project experts to the right activities for children. Awareness of career, information about occupations and jobs were given in fun way to the children. During this training the interest and participation of the children were high. Another was to educate and train the staff working at SCPC. It was really important for the sustainability of the project targets. Trainers and experts will go on their duties for many years and a lot of street children will attend these services. It is expected that they will be successful to direct more and more street children to the right areas.
*

This paper has been prepared based on a Project Report called Career Guidance of Street Children to the Areas of Science, Technology and Innovation implemented by Career Counseling and Human Resources Development Association (KAR-DER) and Turkish Labor Unions Confederation (Trk-I).

REFERENCES
Altintas, B. Mendile Simite, Boyaya, pe. Ankarada alan ocuklar, Ankara, letiim, 2003. Aransiola, J. O. et al. Proliferation of Street Children in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges, Journal of Social Work, 9(4), 371-385, 2009. Ferguson, K. M. Responding to Childrens street Work with Alternative Income-generation Strategies, International Social Work, 49(6), 705-717, 2006. ILO. World Day Against Child Labour 2008, Education:The Right Response to Child Labour, www.vebdev.ilo.org/ipec/Campaignandadvocacy/WDACL/2008/langen/index.htm. last time accessed on March 19, 2010 KAR-DER. Career Guidance of Street Children to the Area of Science, Technology and Innovation, NGO Narrative Report A4-056, CFCU-Turkey, 2008. Kuntay, E. Street Children in Istanbul: In Need of Care and Protection, In Karin Ekberg and Per Egil Mjaavtn (Eds) Children at Risk: Selected Papers, Dragvoll, Norway, 223-231, 1993. Lusk, M. Street Children of Rio de Jeneiro. International Social Work, 35(3), 293-305, 1992. Mathur, M. Socialisation of Street Children in India: A Socio-economic Profile. Psychology & Developing Societies, 21(2), 299-325, 2009. Nalkur, P.G. Achievement Orientations and Strategies: A Cultural Comparison of Tanzanian Street Children, Former Street Children and School-going Children, Journal of CrossCultural Psychology, 40(6), 1012-1027, 2009. Orme, J. & Seipel, M.M.O. Survival Strategies of Street Children in Ghana: A Qualitative Study, International Social Work, 50 (4), 489-499, 2007. Shcek, statistikler, www.shcek.gov.tr/istatistik/2010-Ocak.asp March 13, 2010. Shcek, Sokak ocuklarna Ynelik Hizmet Modeli, www.shcek.gov.tr/hizmetler/Sokakta_Yasayan_Calsan_Cocuklar/Sokaktaki_cocuklara_ yonelikhizmet_modeli.doc last time accessed on March 13, 2010. Xue, Z. Urban Street Children in China: A Social Exclusion Perspective, International Social Work, 52 (3), 401-408, 2009. Varcin, R. Competition in the Informal Sector of the Economy: A Case of Market Traders in Turkey, in John Cross and Steve Balkin (eds) Street Vendors and Urban Policy: New Perspectives, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 20 (3/4), 5-33, 2000. Varcin, R. et al. Gelecege Giden Yollar. Ankara:Kar-Der. 2008. 80 CERCETRI, MODELE DE INTERVENIE, BUNE PRACTICI

CONECTAREA SERVICIILOR DE CONSILIERE MODELUL GIANT


Alina Gavrili, asistent de cercetare Mihai Iacob, asistent de cercetare Institutul de tiine ale Educaiei, Bucureti mihai.iacob@ise.ro

Rezumat Sistemele de consiliere cunosc n acest moment un grad ridicat de fragmentare ntre diferite instituii interesate de anumite aspecte ale procesului formativ. n acest context, apare ca stringent necesitatea conectrii serviciilor de consiliere n vederea implementrii unor politici coerente i unitare care s-i sprijine pe beneficiari pe tot parcursul vieii. Guidance Innovative Actions and New Tools (GIANT) este un proiect de transfer de inovaie Leonardo da Vinci care urmrete s experimenteze un model de conectare a serviciilor de consiliere la nivelul a 4 administraii publice italiene. El pornete de la modelul descris n cadrul proiectului anterior, GIRC i experimenteaz implementarea funciilor identificate de acesta. Sunt discutate implicaiile pentru un posibil transfer al modelului n Romnia. Cuvinte cheie: servicii de consiliere, nvare permanent, transfer de inovaie. Abstract The counselling systems are currently highly fragmented among a number of institutions interested in different aspects of education. In this context, there is an urgent need to connect the counselling services in order to be able to implement coherent and unitary policies in order to support their beneficiaries on a lifelong basis. Guidance Innovative Actions and New Tools (GIANT) is a Leonardo da Vinci transfer of innovation project which aims to pilot a model for connecting counselling services within 4 Italian public administrations. On the basis on the GIRC project in experiments the implementation of the functions it had identified. The implications of a possible transfer of the project in Romania are discussed. Key words: counselling services, lifelong learning, transfer of innovation.

Context Viziunea actual la nivel european tinde s considere procesul de consiliere i orientare ca fiind continuu, pe tot parcursul vieii, ceea ce implic nevoia definirii rolului lor n strategiile i politicile ce in de nvarea permanent i angajare. Exist o nevoie crescnd de a susine experiene de formare eficiente, care s influeneze pozitiv rata celor care abandoneaz prematur parcursul educaional obligatoriu. Scopul final al consilieri i orientrii este de a crea condiii prin care persoana (elev sau cetean) s poat gsi instrumentele necesare pentru atingerea eficienei n parcursul su profesional.

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n acest context, conectarea sub-sistemelor de consiliere i orientare se impune ca o necesitate a eficientizrii serviciilor oferite, precum i pentru facilitarea tranziiei clienilor ntre diferitele etape ale vieii. Studii i analize la nivelul practicilor internaionale (OECD, 2004; Watts & Sultana, 2004; ibu, 2010) au pus n eviden existena la nivelul fiecrei ari, a mai multor sub-sisteme de consiliere, de multe ori fiecare dintre ele avnd o alt raiune de a fi i alte fore care le pun n micare. Cele patru sub-sisteme principale care au fost puse n eviden sunt: serviciile de orientare colar, cele la nivel universitar, cele din ageniile de ocuparea forelor de munc i cele din sfera privat i a voluntariatului. La nivelul relaiilor ntre principalele pri interesate (stakeholders) n domeniul consilierii i orientrii, se constat o anumit stare de competiie ntre profesionitii din consiliere i decidenii care reprezint statul, fiecare considerndu-se ca fiind adevraii reprezentani ai interesului public i ca atare ndreptii s-i promoveze propria viziune (Watts, 2008). Politicile publice n ceea ce privete orientarea n carier i serviciile de consiliere au obinut relativ puin atenie din partea actorilor implicai, fapt evideniat prin numrul redus de studii n acest domeniu (Watts, 2008), dei este o arie prin definiie legat de politicile guvernamentale. Fcnd o paralel ntre serviciile de consiliere i cele de terapie Whiston (1996) propune adoptarea modelului practicianului-cercettor specific sistemului de sntate mental, ca metod de dezvoltare a domeniului consilierii. O alt problem se refer la evaluarea eficienei (Whiston & Buck, 2008; Bernes et al., 2007) i calitii serviciilor de consiliere i orientare. Dincolo de diferenele formale nregistrate ntre sistemele naionale, s-a sugerat c exist o nevoie real de adaptare la contextul cultural al rii (Watts & Sultana, 2004) pentru a obine rezultate de calitate. Nivelul de dezvoltare atins de serviciile de consiliere contemporane nu exclude automat pericolele alunecrii spre practici puin eficiente sau ineficiente. Spre exemplu, a fost pus n eviden o tendin ngrijortoare n creterea folosirii metodelor de auto-ajutorare (self help) i orientrii fr consilier (consellor-free guidance) n ciuda unor cercetri care pun n eviden lipsa de eficien a unor astfel de metode (Whiston et al., 2003). Modelul GIRC Desfurat n perioada 2005-2007, proiectul GIRC (Guidance Innovation Relay Centers) a propus un model care s susin inovaia i calitatea n domeniul consilierii i orientrii prin integrarea i punerea n relaie a sistemelor cu caracteristici complementare: sistemul educaional, piaa muncii i sistemul de formare profesional. Proiectul prevedea modelarea i experimentarea unor dispozitive/ centre de servicii pentru orientare suprateritoriale (spre exemplu, la nivel regional) avnd ca misiune: a) sprijinirea serviciilor de baz pentru dezvoltarea reelelor de servicii create pentru a susine mobilitatea european, i b) dezvoltarea funciilor care s permit sprijinirea evoluiei serviciilor de orientare spre obiective strategice ale politicilor publice, definite la nivel comunitar. Proiectul a dorit s vin n ntmpinarea noilor provocri pentru serviciile de orientare cum ar fi: internaionalizarea parcursurilor de educaie i mobilitate pentru piaa muncii, dezvoltarea resurselor umane, care vor juca un rol important n cadrul abordrii nvrii pe tot parcursul vieii, ameliorarea eficienei sistemului de educaie, care s permit atingerea unor procente
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mai mari ale calificrii i educaiei tinerilor i adulilor, prin promovarea utilizrii contiente a parcursurilor de formare, mai frecvente i individualizate i prin asigurarea oportunitilor de tranziie n sistemul de educaie, ameliorarea interfeei ntre piaa muncii i sistemul de educaie i formare, realizarea obiectivelor care vizeaz echitatea social. Dezvoltarea modelului teoretic GIRC a avut ca scop s prentmpine i s reduc efectele unor probleme cu care se confrunt sistemele de consiliere: fragmentarea competenelor ntre diferite instituii, dificultile de coordonare a politicilor existente, creterea acoperirii serviciilor de consiliere, lipsa standardelor de referin i calitatea redus a serviciilor, diversificarea domeniilor de activitate ale practicienilor, difuzarea informaiei, problema formrii continue a practicienilor, dificulti ridicate de beneficiari provenii din medii sociale diferite, lipsa unor sisteme de evaluare a activitii de consiliere. Ca urmare a chestionrii unui numr de 50 de experi europeni i validrii rezultatelor prin intermediul unei experimentri, s-a ajuns la un set de funcii propuse pentru a fi ndeplinite de centrele de asisten: 1. asisten tehnic 2. suport n formarea profesionitilor 3. promovarea calitii 4. cercetare i dezvoltare Centrele de asisten crora li se adreseaz modelul GIRC pot fi caracterizate ca structuri de nivel secundar, care au drept misiune acordarea de asisten tehnic structurilor de nivel primar, care ofer servicii de orientare (centre de ocupare, centre de informare i orientare, coli i universiti, centre de formare) i ca centre de inovare, n care inovarea este abordat n sensul dezvoltrii dimensiunii europene a orientrii. Se presupune c aceste centre vor lucra n colaborare cu Centrele Reelei Euroguidance. Exist o serie de factori care faciliteaz implementarea modelului GIRC de care, instituiile care doresc s-l aplice, ar trebui s in cont. Un impact puternic l are implicarea anterioar a instituiei coordonatoare n proiecte relevante pentru aceast arie i care s fi pus n eviden nevoile i cerinele serviciilor de consiliere la nivel local. Fondul Social European este un posibil finanator, care n contextul italian s-a implicat n susinerea acestui tip de proiecte. Partenerii implicai n transferul modelului GIRC trebuie s aib o sensibilitate crescut fa de noile direcii de evoluie n consiliere i orientare, fiind totodat contieni c mbuntirea calitii serviciilor oferite este un proces de nvare organizaional. Experimentarea GIANT Principalul obiectiv al proiectului GIANT este transferarea i aplicarea modelului GIRC n conectarea centrelor de consiliere i orientare din patru administraii publice italiene (Provincia Bologna, Provincia Milano, Regiunea Marche i Regiunea Friuli Venezia Giulia). Contextul italian este unul foarte fragmentat i cu un nalt grad de variaie ntre diferite regiuni, fapt care explic dorina administraiilor locale de a participa ntr-un proiect care are ca scop promovarea de practici integrate la nivel de sistem de consiliere.
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Etape de lucru n proiectul GIANT se desfoar dup urmtorul calendar: Octombrie Decembrie 2008: adaptarea modelului GIRC Ianuarie Septembrie 2009: punerea n comun de instrumente de orientare n carier Februarie 2009 mai 2010: a) aplicarea modelului n cele 4 instituii de transfer din Italia; b) elaborarea unui studiu de fezabilitate privind transferul n alte contexte europene Activiti permanente: - Evaluare, - Coordonare - Coordonare - Diseminare Faza preliminar a experimentrii a presupus discuii pentru stabilirea unui parteneriat local n fiecare din cele patru locaii ale transferului. Acest demers a permis participanilor s prevad poteniale nevoi i probleme care ar fi putut s apar (ex. costuri neacoperite de bugetul proiectului. Cele patru obiective principale au fost: 1) crearea unui forum de coordonare; 2) monitorizarea proiectului; 3) experimentarea parial a modelului GIRC; 4) evaluarea proiectului. Proiectul a vizat mai multe niveluri de colarizare, n funcie de context i de rezultatele ateptate. ntlnirile forumurilor de discuii au fost stabilite pe parcursul fazei de implementare, stabilind planul de aciune, mprtindu-i practici i instrumente i crend materialele necesare pentru formri. De asemenea ele au avut sarcina de monitorizare i evaluare a procesului. Formatorii au beneficiat de sesiuni de formare pentru a se familiariza cu scopurile i metodele proiectului, pentru ca apoi s ofere formare la rndul lor elevilor. n ceea ce privete resursele profesionale folosite i tipurile de experi implicai, ele au fost la ndemna administraiilor locale implicate, ceea ce nseamn c acest model este accesibil din aceast perspectiv. Totui, partenerul responsabil cu supervizarea din punct de vedere tiinific a proiectului CeTrans a furnizat experi externi pentru a facilita transferul modelului. Costurile proiectului s-au ncadrat n valorile medii ale proiectelor finanate de Comisia European, dar acestea nu au luat n calcul resursele folosite implicit de partenerii locali. Posibilitatea de transfer n Romnia a modelului GIANT Sistemul de consiliere din Romnia a cunoscut o dezvoltare rapid n ultima decad, dar cu o distribuie inegal n ceea ce privete subcomponentele sale. Dac la nivel preuniversitar i n cazul ageniilor de ocupare a forelor de munc evoluia serviciilor a fost constant i susinut, n cazul centrelor din cadrul universitilor i n mediul privat i al ONG-urilor dezvoltarea poate fi considerat n cel mai bun caz ca fiind lent. Formarea iniial a consilierilor a fcut progrese semnificative prin deschiderea unor programe masterale n mai multe centre universitare, dar n ciuda popularitii n rndul studenilor a acestor cursuri, exist nevoia de a continua dezvoltarea coninuturilor propuse i a posibilitilor de practic oferite studenilor. Potenialii beneficiari ai transferului modelului GIRC, precum Centrele Judeene de Asisten i Resurse Educaionale, Ageniile de Ocuparea a Forelor de Munc, Centrele de Informare
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i Orientare de la nivelul universitilor au acumulat de-a lungul anilor experien n ceea ce privete construirea de parteneriate, att ntre ele ct i cu instituiile care i reprezint pe potenialii beneficiari. Acest fapt faciliteaz implementarea funciilor propuse de GIRC, in special cea referitoare la conectare. Totui, experienele anterioare de cooperare nu au fost ntotdeauna considerate de parteneri ca fiind eficiente, unii dintre acetia simindu-se suprancrai de responsabilitile ce au decurs din implementarea proiectelor. O arie puin explorat n Romnia este cea a cooperrii ntre sectorul public i cel privat. Interesul exist de ambele pri, n condiiile n care expertiza fiecreia i instrumentele folosite sunt complementare. Dac lum n considerare i faptul c sursele de finanare pe care le pot accesa sunt diferite, ceea ce mrete spectrul posibilitilor de realizare a unor proiecte, putem afirma c avem de a face cu un potenial semnificativ de dezvoltare a sistemului de consiliere. Provincia Milano a fost cea care n experimentarea GIANT a luat n calcul acest parteneriat, modelul de cooperare folosit putnd fi luat ca exemplu de bun practic. Posibilele ameninri n implementarea modelului GIRC ne apar ca venind din sfera economic i din cea administrativ. Criza economic prelungit a obligat unele organizaii s-i reduc implicarea n proiecte a cror acoperire financiar nu este complet. Aa cum a artat aplicarea modelului in Italia, dac ne referim la costurile asumate de bugetul proiectului avem de a face cu un anumit raport cost/ rezultate, dar dac lum n considerare costurile reale (costuri suportate de bugetul proiectului + munca neremunerat a participanilor + alte costuri suportate de bugetele instituiilor partenere) raportul se schimb n mod semnificativ. Fondurile Structurale Europene au intrat doar de curnd ca actor semnificativ pe scena finanrii proiectelor legate de consiliere i orientare, astfel ca este greu s estimm impactul lor, dar ne ateptam la unul pozitiv. Chiar dac partenerii din Proiectul GIANT au fost dispui s i pun n comun resursele dincolo de ceea ce era acoperit de bugetul proiectului, aceasta nu poate fi considerat o soluie pe care s se bazeze un transfer. Voluntariatul i are limitele lui, fiind necesar o bun planificare a resurselor anterior demarrii proiectului. n actualul context economic i social, formarea i consilierea profesional sunt chemate s rspund unor provocri crescnde. Dei ne confruntm cu situaii similare la nivelul Uniunii Europene, cazul fiecrei ri rmne unic, iar demersurile de mbuntire a serviciilor de consiliere i orientare trebuie s in cont de realitile de la nivel local. Conectarea serviciilor de consiliere ar fi un pas important n crearea de noi resurse i practici care s vin n sprijinul clienilor care trebuie s fac fa n mod constant la schimbri semnificative n aria profesional.

BIBLIOGRAFIE
Bernes, B. K. et al., Career guidance and counselling efficacy studies: an international research agenda, International Journal of Educational and Vocational Guidance, 7:8196, 2007. ibu, S. L. Serviciile de orientare i consilierea carierei din nvmntul superior european analiz comparativ, Revista de Pedagogie, Nr. (2) 58, Institutul de tiine ale Educaiei, Bucureti, 2010. Revista de Pedagogie nr. 58 (2) 2010 85

Watts, A. G. Career Guidance and Public Policy, n International Handbook of Career Guidance, Springer Netherlands, 2008. Watts, A. G., & SULTANA, R. G. Career guidance in 37 countries: Contrast and common themes, International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 4, 105122, 2004. Whiston, S. C. (1996). Accountability through action research: Research methods for practitioners. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74, 616623. Whiston, S. C et al., Does treatment modality affect career counseling effectiveness. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62, 390410, 2003. Whiston, S. C. & Buck, I. M. Evaluation of career guidance programmes,n International Handbook of Career Guidance, Springer Netherlands, 2008. *** Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (OECD) Career guidance and public policy: Bridging the gap, Paris, 2004.

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AGENDA EDUCAIEI
W-EDUCATION AP PENTRU VIA - EDUCAIE PENTRU AP CURAT
Luminia Tsica, cercettor tiinific III Institutul de tiine ale Educaiei, Bucureti l.tasica@ise.ro
Acronim: W-EDUCATION Numr de identificare: LLP-LdV/PAR/2008/RO/078 Promotor: Universitatea din Maribor, Facultatea de Filosofie, Slovenia ri partenere: Slovenia, Suedia, Letonia, Italia, Spania, Romnia, Austria Durata: 2008 - 2010

Ideea promovat de proiect este aceea de a proteja i menine zonele n care se gsete apa ca resurs, deoarece acestea ofer echilibru ecosistemului i sunt necesare vieii. Ele sunt, de asemenea necesare dezvoltrii economice, n agricultur i industrie. Din aceste motive se impune gsirea unui model activ de integrare a problemelor legate de zonele cu resurse naturale de ap n aria nvmntului vocaional axat pe protecia mediului cu scopul de a susine mai ales dezvoltarea economic. Proiectul i-a propus realizarea unui model n trei faze: 1. studiul zonelor bogate n resurse naturale de ap (fiecare partener alege n ara sa o/ nite zone i realizeaz un studiu privitor la semnificaia acesteia/acestora din punct de vedere natural i cultural precum i a posibilului impact economic); 2. descoperirea surselor de ap i realizarea unei documentri despre aceasta (materiale bibliografice i modaliti de semnalizare a acestor surse naturale); 3. diseminarea i utilizarea rezultatelor, experienei acumulate i a produselor (fiecare partener propune integrarea n aria nvmntului vocaional a studiului surselor naturale de ap i includerea acestuia n LLL). Activitile derulate s-au concretizat n: 1. identificarea i selectarea zonelor de ap (mare, ru, lac, iazuri etc.); 2. elaborarea unui portofoliu de probe ale motenirii naturale, culturale i ale impactului economic al zonelor de ap selectate; 3. elaborarea unei hri a traseului apei cu marcarea unor puncte de informare i instruire; 4. confecionarea unor panouri informative i plasarea lor la punctele de instruire; 5. activiti de diseminare: ghiduri, caiete de exerciii, web-site, seminarii, ateliere, articole i comunicri n media etc; 6. rapoarte intermediare i finale, implementarea rezultatelor, pregtirea unor proiecte viitoare.
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Rezultatele vizate vor fi sub forma unui model comun, propus n cadrul nvmntului vocaional i a unor module de training pe tematica resurselor naturale de ap din perspectiv cultural, economic i a consilierii pentru un stil de via sntos. Exemple de bune practici expuse de parteneri: trasee educaionale n rile partenere, oportuniti de dezvoltare ale zonelor de ap, fauna, flora i condiiile de mediu ale acestor zone.

W-EDUCATION WATER FOR LIFE EDUCATION FOR WATER


Acronym: W-EDUCATION Reference No.: LLP-LdV/PAR/2008/RO/078 Promoter: University of Maribor, Faculty of Philosophy, Slovenia Partner countries: Slovenia, Sweden, Latvia, Italy, Spain, Romania, Austria

Water areas are rich with natural and cultural heritage which should be maintained and sustainable developed. Therefore should be developed a model on how to include water areas more actively into vocational environmental education conformed mainly to economical needs. The project implemented such a model consisting of three phases: studying water areas, preparing educational materials (textbooks, workbooks, educational boards/signs, ematerials) and dissemination of knowledge. The activities will strengthen cooperation between VET institutions, enterprises and social partners on issues of common interest linked to VET. Planned activities: 1. Select and identify water area (river, sea, lake, fishpod etc.); 2. Prepare a portfolio of natural, cultural heritage and economic impacts on selected water area; 3. Prepare a map of educational water trail with indicated learning points on the route; 4. Equipping educational water trails with educational boards/signs; 5. Dissemination activities: textbooks, workbooks, web-site, articles in media, seminars/ workshops etc.; 6. Final Activities: final report, possibilities of further implementation of project results. Expected results: 1. Selection and identification of water areas; 2. Portfolio of natural heritage, cultural heritage and economic impacts on water areas; 3. Plans and maps of educational water trail; 4. Educational boards/signs; 5. Textbooks and workbooks on CD, hard copies and web sites for VET along water trails. Examples of good practice: - Educational trails in partners countries; - Developmental opportunities of the regions; - Environmental conditions of the water areas; - Selected fauna and flora.
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PRESTO - INSTRUMENTE DE SUSINERE A EDUCAIEI NTRE EGALI


Delia Goia, asistent de cercetare, Institutul de tiine ale Educaiei, Bucureti delia.goia@ise.ro CINE? Proiectul este derulat de un consoriu alctuit din universiti, coli i instituii de cercetare i formare implicate n educaie i formarea profesorilor din Italia, Romnia, Marea Britanie, Polonia i Danemarca. Acestea sunt active n diferite reele europene formale i informale din domeniul educaiei i al orientrii n carier i sunt implicate constant n mbuntirea metodelor i materialelor pedagogice. DE CE? Abandonul colar timpuriu este una din principalele probleme n nvmntul secundar European. Proiectul PRESTO Instrumente de Susinere a Educaiei ntre Egali i propune s promoveze competena de a nva s nvei ntre elevii europeni cu vrste de peste 14 ani, folosind metoda educaiei ntre egali. Scopul general al proiectului este s contribuie la reducerea abandonului colar timpuriu i a ratei insuficiente de absolveni n colile din UE. CE? Proiectul a produs: Un ghid despre a nva s nvei, care conine o seciune dedicat metodelor de studiu i este structurat astfel nct s poat fi folosit de ctre elevi pentru a-i putea ajuta pe colegii lor n nvare, de ctre elevi n mod individual i de ctre profesori n activitatea la clas. Un ghid despre modaliti de implementare a proiectelor de educaie ntre egali n coli adresat elevilor care i susin pe colegii lor, directorilor de coli, profesorilor, diferitelor organizaii implicate n educaie. Ghidul conine o seciune despre cum poate fi folosit educaia ntre egali pentru a mbunti metodele de studiu. Pn acum: Partenerii au ncheiat activitile pilot n cte 2 coli din fiecare ar partener, activiti menite a mbunti versiunea iniial a ghidurilor. n Romnia profesorii din 10 coli nou incluse n proiect au participat la un workshop. n Romnia cele 10 coli au realizat formarea elevilor formatori i au nceput activitile la clas, prin care se dezvolt competena de a nva s nvei.
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PENTRU CINE? Proiectul este adresat: cercettorilor i profesorilor din domeniul tiinelor educaiei: Acetia vor putea utiliza produsele i rezultatele proiectului pentru a-i defini mai bine teoriile despre nvare i despre educaia ntre egali i vor putea identifica studii de caz pentru activitatea lor de predare; directorilor de coli i cadrelor didactice: vor putea utiliza produsele proiectului pentru a-i mbunti eficiena metodelor de predare i n general pentru a-i mbunti activitile desfurate n coal; elevilor (att cei care i consiliaz pe egalii lor, ct i cei care sunt consiliai): i vor mbunti competenele de a nva s nvee i competenele sociale, sporindu-i astfel ansele de succes la coal i reducnd riscul abandonului colar; altor factori interesai n domeniul educaiei: funcionari publici din domeniul educaiei, asociaii ale cadrelor didactice, alii. GSETE MAI MULTE INFORMAII LA: www.prestoproject.eu Coordonarea proiectului: Agenzia per lo Sviluppo Empolese Valdelsa ASEV Via delle Fiascaie, 12 50053 Empoli FI www.asev.it t.cini@agenziasviluppo.it Partener n Romnia: Institutul de tiine ale Educaiei str. tirbei Vod, nr. 37 010102 Bucureti www.ise.ro delia.goia@ise.ro

PRESTO - PEER RELATED EDUCATION SUPPORTING TOOLS


WHO? The project is run by a consortium of universities, secondary schools, training and research organizations involved in education and teacher training from Italy, Romania, UK, Poland and Denmark. They are active in several formal and informal European networks devoted to education and career guidance and are constantly working for improving pedagogical methods and developing effective pedagogical materials. WHY? Early school leaving is one of the main problems in EU secondary schools. The Project PRESTO - Peer Related Education Supporting Tools intends to promote the learning to learn competence amongst European students aged 14 years and above using peer education. The Projects overall aim is to contribute to reduce early school living and insufficient school completion in EU schools. Learning to learn is one of the keys to success at school; success is closely related to motivation and reduction of early school leaving.
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WHAT? The Project produced: A guide on how learning to learn, which contains a section on methods of study and will be structured to be used by peers supporters so to help other students in learning, but also by students on their own and by teachers in their classes. A guide on how to implement peer education projects in schools addressed to peers supporters, headteachers, teachers, organizations involved in education. The guide contains a section on how to use peer education to improve methods of study. Until this moment: The partners finalized the pilot activities in 2 schools from each country, which were aimed to improve the initial versions of the guides. In Romania the teachers and counsellors from 10 schools newly involved in the project participated to a workshop. In Romania the 10 schools completed the training of the peer educators and started the classroom activities for developing the learning to learn competence. FOR WHOM? The project is addressed to: researchers and professors in the field of educational sciences. They can use the products and results of the pilot and exploitation so to better define theory about learning and peer education and to find case studies for their teaching. school headteachers and teachers: they can use the products of the project to improve efficacy of teaching methods and wellness in school. students (both peer supporters than peer supported): they may improve their learning to learn and social competences, so improving their success and well-being at school and reducing school leaving. other stakeholders in the educational field: headteachers, public servant in charge of education services, teacher representatives and associations, and so on. FIND YOUR LOCAL PARTNER AND SEARCH FOR MORE INFORMATION AT: www.prestoproject.eu Project coordination: Agenzia per lo Sviluppo Empolese Valdelsa ASEV Via delle Fiascaie, 12 50053 Empoli FI www.asev.it t.cini@agenziasviluppo.it Partner in Romania: Institute of Educational Sciences tirbei Vod, no. 37 010102 Bucharest www.ise.ro delia.goia@ise.ro

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NCP-VET-CO

Mihai Iacob, asistent de cercetare Institutul de tiine ale Educaiei, Bucureti mihai.iacob@ise.ro Despre proiect

Proiect tip Leonardo da Vinci, Subcomponenta LLP - PAR, Aciunea parteneriate Nr. identificare: LdV/PAR/2008/017 Promotor: Estonia Parteneri: Letonia, Finlanda, Cehia, Romnia Durata: 2009 - 2011 Obiectivele parteneriatului Implementarea EQF este una dintre prioritile stabilite de Comisia European. ncredere reciproc ntre rile participante este o cerin esenial pentru procesul de construire a referenialului ntre cadrele naionale (NQF) ale calificrilor i cadrul european (EQF) i implicit pentru viitorul EQF-ului. Recomandarea de a stabili legturi ntre NQF i EQF menioneaz c statele membre trebuie s desemneze centre naionale de coordonare, pentru a susine i, mpreun cu alte autoriti naionale relevante, s ghideze relaia ntre sistemul naional de calificri i cel european, pentru a promova calitatea i transparena relaiei. Deja exist exemple de bune practici la nivelul nvmntului superior. Recunoaterea calificrilor n nvmntul superior s-a dezvoltat prin procesul Bologna, implementare ECTS i a sistemului ERIC/NARIC. Dei procesul de recunoatere a calificrilor obinute n sistemul de formare profesional (VET) a nceput cu procesul Copenhaga i a produs ECVET, exist prea puine bune practici, ncredere reciproc i nelegere n cadrul acestui proces. Scopul final al acestui parteneriat este de a dezvolta o reea eficient ntre Punctele Naionale de Coordonare din rile participante i compilarea unui ghid metodologic de conectarea a calificrilor din sistemul VET cu cadrul european al calificrilor. Parteneriatul va facilita ntlniri ntre parteneri, n cadrul crora vor fi discutate, verificate i comparate provocrile comune n procesul de construire e referenialului ntre nivelurile de calificare. Ca pregtire pentru aceste ntlniri vor fi urmrite i folosite rezultatele altor proiecte Leonardo da Vinci (ex. QF Embodiment, SECCOMPAT, TransEQFrame, EQFRef) care au avut de a face cu probleme similare, precum i nivelul curent de implementare a unor instrumente europene (ex. EQF, ECVET, Europass) n context naional.
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Vor fi mprtite bune practici i vor fi comparate etapele din procesul de construire a referenialului. n acest fel posibilele diferene n determinarea poziiei unei calificri, cum ar fi un nivel prea ridicat sau prea sczut al poziionrii fa de EQF, sau diferene n metodologia utilizat de fiecare ar pot fi discutate, corectate dac este cazul, iar ncrederea reciproc poate fi creat i cultivat. Parteneri Estonia Autoritatea Na1ional Estonian n Calificri www.kutsekoda.ee Finlanda Consiliul Naional Finlandez pentru Educaie www.ophi.fi Letonia Centrul de Informare Academic www.aic.lv Romnia Institute of Educational Sciences www.ise.ro Republica Ceh Institutul Naional pentru nvmntul Profesional i Tehnic, NUOV www.nuov.cz Situl proiectului http://kutsekoda.a2.hz.adm.ee/eng/projects/NCPVETCOproject

NCP-VET-CO
About the project Project type: Leonardo da Vinci, LLP - PAR, Partnerships Identification No.: LdV/PAR/2008/017 Project leader: Estonia Partners: Latvia, Finland, Czech Republic, Romania Timeframe: 2009 - 2011 Objectives of the partnership The implementation of the EQF is one of the priorities set by the European Commission. Mutual trust among countries is an important prerequisite for referencing national qualification levels to the EQF and therefore for the future of the EQF as well. The recommendation to establish links between NQF and EQF also specifies that Member States should designate national coordination points, to support and, in conjunction with other relevant national authorities, to guide the relationship between the national qualifications system and the EQF, in order to promote the quality and transparency of that relationship.
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There have already been good examples and experience in higher education. The recognition of HE qualifications has been developed through Bologna process, ECTS development and its implementation and also ENIC/NARIC system. Although the development of recognition of VET qualifications started with Copenhagen process and has developed through ECVET, there is little good practice, mutual understanding and trust of this process. The overall goal of this partnership project is to develop an effective network of NCPs in these countries and compile a methodical guide for linking VET qualifications to EQF. The partnership will facilitate meetings where common challenges in referencing of qualification levels can be discussed, checked and compared. In the period of preparation for these meetings the result and outcome of other LdV projects (e.g. QF Embodiment, SECCOMPAT, TransEQFrame, EQF-Ref) which dealt or deal with similar issues, as well as current development in the implementation of European tools (i.e. EQF, ECVET, Europass) in the European and national context, can be summarised and made use of. Examples of good practice can be shared and specific steps in the referencing process can be compared. In this way possible differences in referencing specific qualifications (e.g. too high or too low EQF levels for comparable qualifications) or in the methodology of referencing by countries can be discussed, corrected if needed and mutual trust can be established and furthered. Partners Estonia Estonian Qualifications Authority www.kutsekoda.ee Finland The Finnish National Board of Education www.oph.fi Latvia Academic Information Centre www.aic.lv Romania Institute of Educational Sciences www.ise.ro Czech Republik National Institute of Technical and vocational Education, NUOV www.nuov.cz The Projects website http://kutsekoda.a2.hz.adm.ee/eng/projects/NCPVETCOproject

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TRANZIIA DE LA COAL LA PIAA MUNCII


Alina Gavrili, asistent de cercetare Institutul de tiine ale Educaiei, Bucureti alina_gavrilita@ise.ro Despre proiect Proiectul School & World of Work Tranziia de la coal la piaa muncii este un proiect Comenius - Reele, desfurat n cadrul Programului de nvare pe Tot Parcursul Vieii. Proiectul a debutat la 1 octombrie 2007 i se va ncheia la 30 septembrie 2010. Obiectivul proiectului Tranziia de la coal la piaa muncii este acela de a contribui la mbuntirea politicilor, strategiilor, structurilor i proceselor europene de a oferi tuturor tinerilor ansa unei tranziii e succes de la coal la piaa muncii. Instituiile partenere au experien n problematica abordat i sunt din ri precum: Austria, Republica Ceh, Danemarca, Finlanda, Germania, Grecia, Italia, Polonia, Olanda, Romnia, Slovacia i Spania. Obiective Obiectivul propus este parte a politicilor europene pentru strategiile europene pentru educaie, munc, nvare permanent i coeziune social. Principala abordare a reelei vizeaz mbuntirea proceselor de tranziie de la coal la piaa muncii, ca modalitatea de combaterea a omajului n rndul tinerilor. Activiti Dei la nivel european aceste procese s-au dezvoltat i exist o serie de bune practici n acest sens, totui nu exist un model clar al principalelor criterii pentru o tranziie de succes a tinerilor de la coal la viaa activ i a obstacolelor n acest sens. n cadrul reelei sunt obinute, analizate i diseminate informaii despre aspectele ce in de pregtirea, consilierea, orientarea i suportul acordat tinerilor n procesul de tranziie de la coal la traseul de formare i la piaa muncii, activitate realizat n cadrul a trei grupuri de lucru: principii i criterii, coala i tranziia. Principiile, criteriile i metodele utilizate n cadrul proiectului se refer strict la politicile i strategiile europene, schimburi i exemple de bune practici, analiza i descriere unor modele ce vizeaz anumite domenii de interes.
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Situl proiectului: www.school-wow.net

SCHOOL AND THE WORLD OF WORK


About the project The Comenius Network School & World of Work developed under the Lifelong Learning Programme, started at October 1st 2007 and will end September 30th 2010. The central aim of the network School and the world of work is to give contributions for improvement of policies, strategies, structures and processes in Europe, to give all young people a chance for a successful pathway from school education to the world of work and employment. The partner institutions have experience regarding this issue. The countries participating are: Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Netherlands, Romania, Slovakia and Spain. Aims The networks main aim is seen as a part of European strategies for education, for employment, for lifelong learning and for social cohesion. The main approach of the Comenius network School and the World of Work is, that the best way to fight against youth unemployment is to improve proactive processes at all interfaces between school and the World of work that youth unemployment cant emerge at the beginning of career pathways of young people. Activities There exist a lot of experiences, developments and best practices in European countries. The gap is however missing clear pattern of the main criteria for successful transition for young people from school to work and of the most hindering aspects for successful and smooth transition. The network analyzes, documents, disseminates the casual elements of successful preparation, orientation, guidance, counselling and coaching of young people at the process from the initial education to a further pathway in profession and the world of work. This work will be done in 3 working groups: principles and criteria; school and transition. Principle, criteria and methods of the network are: strict reference to European policies and strategies, evidence based exchange of experiences, transfer from best practice examples between the partner countries, analyze and description of special models in fields of special interest. The Projects website: www.school-wow.net
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ORIENTAREA VIRTUAL

Mihai Iacob, asistent de cercetare Institutul de tiine ale Educaiei, Bucureti mihai.iacob@ise.ro Despre proiect

Serviciile de consiliere profesional trec printr-o perioad de inovaie i de schimbare rapid datorit folosirii crescnde a TIC n serviciile de orientare, precum i n alte arii ale vieii oamenilor. TIC a permis indivizilor s aib acces la informaii despre carier, despre alegerea carierei i despre oportunitile de nvare pentru toi. Cu toate acestea, au fost foarte puine cercetri asupra utilizrii TIC n serviciile de orientare din Turcia, motiv pentru care KARDER a dezvoltat Proiectul Orientarea Virtual. El este menit s creasc gradul de utilizare a TIC n rndul consilierilor n oferirea de servicii de orientare, precum i pentru formarea competenelor necesare furnizrii unor astfel de servicii. Proiectul Orientarea Virtual transfer metode i produse ale unui proiect Leonardo da Vinci, Transfer de Inovaie, Competene TIC pentru consilierii de orientare implementat de ASTER (Italia). El a demarat n noiembrie 2009 i va dura 24 de luni. Activitile proiectului Activiti de formarea i de creterea gradului de contientizare asupra TIC n serviciile de orientare i dezvoltarea concomitent a noi metode de furnizare a serviciilor de orientare profesional; Aplicarea online de chestionare i interviuri semistructurate cu consilieri din Turcia i Austria pentru a sesiza opiniile lor privind rolul TIC n munca lor, competenele lor actuale legate de TIC i nevoile percepute de formare; Stabilirea competenelor TIC pe care ar trebui s le aib consilierii de carier i adaptarea Hrii competenelor TIC; Pregtirea unui curriculum i a materialelor de formare, n acord cu nevoile de formare ale consilierilor; Organizarea de formri privind folosirea TIC n orientare pentru practicienii din Turcia i Austria; Lansarea site-ului Proiectului i a unui forum online pentru practicieni;

Rezultate ateptate: 1. Manual de bune practici


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2. 3. 4. 5.

Hart a competenelor TIC Kit de formare TIC cu manual i CD Carte de diseminare Hart a sustenabilitii

Parteneriatul proiectului Career Counseling and Human Resources Development Association-KARDER www.kariyer.org.tr Ankara University Center for the Study of Human Resources Management and Career Counseling-IKDAM www.ikdam.ankara.edu.tr Turkish Employment Organization-ISKUR www.iskur.gov.tr Eduser Consultancy Co. www.eduser.com.tr Dijitek Computer and IT Technology Ltd. Co. www.dijitek.com Hak-Is Trade Union Confederation www.hakis.org.tr Abif - analysis consulting and interdisciplinary research www.abif.at Institutul de tiine ale Educaiei www.ise.ro Situl proiectului http://sanalrehberlik.org/

VIRTUAL GUIDANCE
About the Project Vocational guidance services have been going through an era of innovation and rapid change due to the increasing use of ICT in counselling services as well as other parts of individuals lives. ICT has enabled individuals to access to career information and career choices easily and increased learning opportunities for all. However, there has been little or no research on the use of ICT in guidance services in Turkey, which is why KARDER has developed Virtual Guidance Project. The project aims to increase the counsellors use of
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ICT in guidance services and to equip them with the competencies and skills they need to deliver such services. Virtual Guidance Project has been transferring the methods and products of the former Leonardo da Vinci Pilot Project ICT Skills for Guidance Counsellors implemented by ASTER (Italy). The Project has started in November 2009 and will last for 24 months. Project Activities Training and raising awareness in use of ICT in guidance services and in so doing developing new methods of delivery in vocational guidance services; Conducting online questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with counsellors in Turkey and Austria to detect their opinions on the role of ICT in their work, their current ICT skills and perceived training needs; Determining the ICT competencies career counsellors should have and adapting ICT Skills Map; Preparing training curriculum and training materials in line with the training needs of counsellors; Organizing trainings on use of ICT in guidance services for practitioners in Turkey and Austria: Launching Project web site and e-forum for guidance practitioners.

Expected Results 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Best Practices Book ICT Skills Map ICT Training Kit with books and CDs Dissemination Book Sustainability Map

PROJECT PARTNERS Career Counselling and Human Resources Development Association-KARDER www.kariyer.org.tr Ankara University Centre for the Study of Human Resources Management and Career Counselling-IKDAM www.ikdam.ankara.edu.tr Turkish Employment Organization-ISKUR www.iskur.gov.tr Eduser Consultancy Co. www.eduser.com.tr
Revista de Pedagogie nr. 58 (2) 2010 101

Dijitek Computer and IT Technology Ltd. Co. www.dijitek.com Hak-Is Trade Union Confederation www.hakis.org.tr Abif - analysis consulting and interdisciplinary research www.abif.at Institute of Educational Sciences - IES www.ise.ro The Projects website http://sanalrehberlik.org/

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REVISTA DE PEDAGOGIE
GHIDUL AUTORULUI Teme abordate: politici educaionale, filosofia educaiei, teoria educaiei, curriculum colar, evaluare n educaie, management colar, educaie permanent, consiliere i orientare n carier. Tipuri de articole: - abordri conceptuale i teoretice din domeniul tiinelor educaiei; - rezultate ale cercetrilor educaionale; - studii de caz; - prezentri de proiecte, programe de intervenie n domeniu; - recenzii ale publicaiilor relevante din domeniu; - interviuri cu personaliti n domeniu etc. Limbi de publicare: romn, englez, francez. Periodicitate: trimestrial (25 martie / 25 iunie / 25 septembrie/ 25 decembrie). Articolele pentru Revista de pedagogie nu trebuie s fi fost publicate anterior n alte reviste. 1. Articolele vor fi redactate utiliznd programul MS Word; format pagin A4 ; margini sus, jos, stnga, dreapta 2,5 cm; caractere TimesNewRoman; mrime 12; spaiere 1,5 rnduri. 2. Titlurile i subtitlurile care fac parte din articol trebuie s fie scurte, redactate n format Bold, numerotate consecutiv: - Titlu articol: Bold, size 16, majuscule, centrat; - titluri capitole: numerotare consecutiv (1, 2 etc.), Bold, font 14; - subtitluri: numerotare consecutiv (1.1., 1.2, etc.), Bold, font 12. 3. Lungimea articolele va fi de maxim 7500 cuvinte (18-20 pagini). Recenziile nu trebuie s depeasc 2000 cuvinte (5 pagini). 4. Autorul va elabora o scurt prezentare autobiografic, care va specifica: nume i prenume; funcia; instituia n cadrul creia i desfoar activitatea, localitatea, judeul, ara, date de contact (adres de e-mail). 5. Autorul va elabora o list de 3-5 cuvinte cheie. 6. Nu se vor utiliza note de subsol. Notele de final se vor utiliza numai dac este absolut necesar i vor fi identificate n text prin numerotare consecutiv. 7. Pentru subliniere nu se va folosi funcia Underline. Se vor utiliza funciile Bold (aldine) i Italic (cursive). Enumerrile vor fi fcute n stilul listelor de tip bullet, forma i . Bibliografia va utiliza urmtorul standard: Adler, A. Cunoaterea oamenilor. Bucureti: Editura tiinific, 1991. Rizvi, F. Theorizing the global convergence of educational restructuring. n: Lindblad, S. & Popkewitz, T. (eds.). Educational restructuring. International perspectives on travelling policies. Greenwich: IAP, pp. 73-94, 2004.
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ROMANIAN REVIEW OF PEDAGOGY


AUTHORS GUIDE

Themes: educational policies, theory of education, philosophy of education, school curriculum, assessment in education, school management, lifelong learning, counselling and guidance. Types of articles: - Theoretical approaches to education; - Results of research; - Case studies; - Presentation of projects and programmes; - Reviews; - Interviews with stakeholders and key persons in education. Language of publication: Romanian, English, French. Issues: quarterly (25 March / 25 June / 25 September/ 25 December). Articles must not have been previously published. 1. Articles will be written using MS Word; page format A4; margins top, bottom, left, right 2,5 cm; font TimesNewRoman; size 12; paragraph line spacing 1,5. 2. Titles must be short, must use Bold format, and must use consecutive numbering: - Article title: Bold, size 16, centred; - Chapter titles: consecutive numbering (1, 2 etc.), Bold, font 14; - Sub-titles: consecutive numbering (1.1., 1.2, etc.), Bold, font 12. 3. The length of the article must be a maximum of 7500 words (18-20 pages). Reviews must not be longer than 2000 words (5 pages). 4. The author will provide a short presentation of him-/herself with: name and surname, position, institution, city, country and email. 5. The author will provide a shot abstract (10 lines, max. 200 words). It will be both in Romanian and English or French. The editorial board will provide the Romanian translation for the abstract. 6. The author will provide 3 to 5 key words. 7. Footnotes will not be used. If it should be necessary Endnotes will be used and will be numbered consecutively. 8. The Underline function will not be used for emphasis. Instead, the Bold and Italic functions can be used. Listings will use the following bullet types and . References will use the following standard: Adler, A. Knowing people. Bucharest: Scientific Publishings, 1991. Rizvi, F. Theorizing the global convergence of educational restructuring. In: Lindblad, S. & Popkewitz, T. (eds.). Educational restructuring. International perspectives on travelling policies. Greenwich: IAP, pp. 73-94, 2004.
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