P. 1
58661454-Gramatica-limbii-engleze

58661454-Gramatica-limbii-engleze

|Views: 47|Likes:
Published by muresanaurelscribd
English Grammar
English Grammar

More info:

Published by: muresanaurelscribd on Mar 20, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/20/2013

pdf

text

original

ALICE L.

BADESCU

GRAMATICA LIMBII E,NGLEZE

i6fiGil---oe"fnur{
I
I

surtt'or

lr:lrt

I

I

v

. I

t'tt'ot-^

'

nhil'l
/t\

u/
EDITURA 9TIINTIFIc.I. $I ENcIcLoPEDIci
BUCURE$TI, 1984

c Dv I ti T c |lTREc r'r'1'r oF
lonE beensamethingof a baxlefield,. "The tettitoty of En|lisll teachin{ hd,s Anon; tl,r mdnu i!:ut" na,ob.inp toryht oL'ti' thot b.t,\".n trts"fit||\e and d?s..tplire Flrir udes 1o ,r.age.'r anclrcte Cu aceste curinte incepeutn d,inte numeroatele efecluate in altima treme asupra limbii englezeactudle in Anglia. Prima. atitudine,aceea,,pr€scriptil'n", esteautori.tail, natmotird.,ingrddird gamaticii ld,tineale secolnla; ile numeroase reguli, stibuind, tncd tn idealuriLe al XVIIIlea, $i aparlinind azi unc; i.naifili erwl,{te ti rctragrade;(.ead,ea doud, tttitudinea ,,descr'ip1irn".etle modernd,evoluaLi, dirumici, VIE. Limba ln1ti popor eroluedtii fovtE tupid ti &ntrudictariu dacd.na este cantolatd. In Anglia nn a edstat niciodatd o Aeademieasendndtoarc celor d.epe cantinent,"The Royal Aca.lemf" fiind fonddtd in 1f68 d,ercpeLe Gearye !11 III-lea &l At|glici caclusir p.trtu lncurujareaartelorpldsticcprin infiinlerca unei scali de,:L6enti (rearca un.i exla:ilii anuale cu lucrdrile (ilitlilar |lestitieni in oiatd. Incurajarea scriitoritor filrrdsese, tn seamu d,in!rctinri stribcchi, sueeranilor ( juruL garitau p^Irons". Lituba a catc nobiLilor in rlii. reg(rle arlulaa "lhej,|r Si ri d,'st^td o d^,n:t. t;n,t,. F,od.r,'l,;rn,t :i sstlplnunpl, ,tp -r(ipgs l:nettsl,' rat|Qa,,r's I:n4tsl"..inJ 'to ,o.ut2.o ,jun* sd tnan'rp. lintp tl" s".otc. ,,limba e Ek;d, indusirt reguliLe E naticd.lenrecte abliga.tarii". Od,atd insd cu descoperirea Nd,iotel.egruf ici.ti a tcleriziunii ti eu ftspindiree prin intenled,iulacestar culturii in mose subiteti.prestiliaascmassmediA.bah.nlo, putctii s-a tn(lindt sprc an nou nume coresii a|linrleosd nai a noile et'enimente, $i nstfelEnglc.a IIodeLa fast nnnitd "BBC Englisll''. FoI e curindinsd, ptsoane renite d,in lo(tte cnglezc, faplul cd ]a BBC rorbeau,in direrft d.ialecte coLlwile lumii. LimbaengLetd d.lfu.atil la BBC d tncetatde a mai p ea fi consideratd .,madelulunic" ti s-a dd.optdttermenul de "SlandaftI EULish" pentru socatildca rodel. llcest nume lare sd aibi n1o.i saianta li )Lii en1leze nrulle preteazd .lc suprarieluirc, deaarece se Ia conslrut:lii eare reda nusnle Sanse lat gtumatir& poatefi dascripli\A muhiple. atitfaartesubtile.citFi faarte utiLe.Asttcl., snrrp rfr cri tt irar. l/on,?nla, ra r.ccivcd pronunciation f,4.P.r, un tomcn paate a(cptal0le,accepled. archaicsaa la re,l.uracft stard.rd sou subslandard. cepled. rlnrcfe rhle. pfe{eraLlesd l,rtfcn€d, |bdcscert. obsolele,anl,iquuted. sut,errnrualed.suterseded. old-fashioned, outwoln sduj "it r{!1es js out il cf daic";rlc. nd i,firilum. ["1'oulhcr]4. Lx inrcputul tedului 0l Xx-lea. Dani.L Jon.:.\1.\.. hoflssol. Erncritus in Phonoticsil tha Ufivorsity ol London, r.s; incqte s.ria dNfanrirci,"i dic studiul littlbii cngleze. lionare toneticeenlle.etti carc arcau si reroLulione.e
tlntih s .1 dlia. \:i,7i Ililliogalia. p 6!6. :' lll.tl L' -{nglii,, lronul lilrii po{i-a rveni ailt lr.trl,a!')or. .ii li J, mrilor. ln orilinea sur(trIBC, a bl"lia1 ia r unic lni r ndt udiiuz i' Dii hita n n 'e : 'D t i s h B r i d c a s t t l S . /?d,pler "Iour coat dalfs ron ili{rhin cl..l" \au simpl,: "Io(. .oor ./trr.s". ctr o n' brrl" n..drr,l",Ir"+ . \ Liilr , l.i.,ri J.r"^1",. din ili lFr p |, r - , - - . lo o i nr a Pr o.mo osr)

iic

|i-.\r tt,!)\|rh. litrctrctn,:te:.tr,ti nin _. ln p{ala winului sdutii.dionat trr3nounc;ng Dirt;onnr\-'. dtdo ti !.ri!: ..,1;doi :;rid.dar (n n a,r int .lia pranuntiel ori tl,e de a fa.ce 4 ldbi lare pronuntic csrtt:ntt si carc isre -refltnn gtqlfi. ,\capul arcstui d.itlianar estcd...Linrel.ltra. dt trai prc.l] pa..ii:t, ,to unlio tipid. i ieb.inletil in mol ol;snuii in t:anq)rtali,(te dtr. n nnntir considerali.L de persadtre scoltvi:.at.dm swt t \n!ti!.i.''l "Thc booL it n rcca l of t\:rt nat ol thrcr;ts at rcBanat rrli!"n.B to
ot t rt uDt i. r',od o to Ip. : , 1. 1, 4, r apv a- . ,.. tt..rt tt, ,,.., |- t . ^ p.^ ! 1 ^ u t , " . . . . I b , nurt:d t;on .L vp t.1, r y . , 1 t , , \ r , , r . t , t t ; , h. t . t . . . a. ) . t . t t . ! . 4 1 ,r al t.. I.L, j f

Il L , /1 r.a , . . . \ . , ii- r ^, , t,r, 1 .,,F .' j .,. . ,i :.,t,r,,,.t1,! t. \r:l t,,:t.h n d a t' , abr c r : or f . P ,\, | ,,i ,,. , l r, I,p r. \.-.,,i , r-. I d.....t ot,r,r:tn o. : 4, n ,i ru t.4 ,p tt)p ...,..., R . p. {H e-\,j to "r" hr r r t' .,.,r ,r. I P n ,nt t n . r r ia I pphr i -. o J i t:r .p r,,,, c L r t. ,, ( a?casti o&zie s.a canttato,t ii tinbt en:].:n nu tja. te ftl!,t, a sinlurd. limlri, ci clt c:t:isttru .Lottn cario,ntt:: tintba s,:riia larr a li,sr ;r n,: $ritte nt\glish) ti.li.mbu nrbitd (spoli{\r English). lriat dtit.bne nnt;.h .nklti t.a fun|i .t..l t. D rc .l $ t .n u: aJ . : t t ' 4jind t s .;rt,..t p o stL t lic t . s . alt f ir n l rc l rl i 1 t1 na tit. : a) ior m al s pe e ,h (s ti l L 'fa c u m ro n i os, trn\;i ): t 1)) rrn ,ni \I,i1iIg (stiLul ftrnnl s(:tis). ; di:ir sri/'.1 t1\reic?. ,/irilllj le:at. juid,ic t-i. !t.t::tires.: c ) inl. r r r nal s a ' r c o l l 0 q u j rl s p e € rh (s ti l rl infornat t\)' tr\i ti 3 (nrti 1); ^-,tu j /J ./, J l inl" r r r , , t r . ,,r," .1 1 ,,t. .l !' i t\r... ..t1\.): rut,, ' pl ' t' ...r lni r nhnt i" ; ,n i o u s .l 1 " .t /t. t.,t r' tu ' l ,,o, t. ' ,..t.i ,r.:,: _ d,ela puncnl $), ad,iirrsin.t aitftl u stil in ptuN. .lL]i rrunatit:icnl uu iiitrorlus tn .o .r n , 0t |, ot : r td t4 ..p a ;l i ta tp ,,,,1 s ,' :.., , t,.' .," : ptn" at!! !,t. L.,o.tdt u tst, I r ar ed) . Se atrage at.elid. citilotikr c|L,irl lnnl)a u!\e.d. eduraterl ir?^vraliDriic(tiri za i . c ult . iar uned u c a te d :re i c i l a l j z .1 t. (,i l n{j xl i on : i .c u tr. Ii rri i ful tri i : s,colarrz:rfe.ifvntnturii. culiur.l: 1dr cdurrlie lln Lniha. ntl nn) - r\Ntlrpr! (go!d rd bad): "Ar io nnl1nefs. hc hls rorre"r a erlu{ra. a (.rette (un copit) : I l , l s ul: c dur ali o ,rtu r' -i ' . -i ,,' .,rr: L ,,,1' t.nrt:tu uf: ' " ,.,, I l a ln - , , . nt r pn r..J :t:l a . tt i n !ru ,4 tn tt,4 ,t..

Aryuhthl ddoptat in trnns.icre. fonatt:d tr ftrst $i este (d

.t t*olid.liei

Saftina pe cat. rni d.n &tntnat. o a furt r/iof.i - ;t m.rmmoth lrlsti cuilt spur,n:l"'t: ^t:1d rrt^t.. t:r,.o d. ,";n."n.,tLt r..u,,tri oL r.n *.ln. \\/a..,dd u: p.t. a tt..pott " 1r rrt,. l.rtlp. fit,. .,.tqrur.. tn
I Prrrr',!ia d in s , L, l, a \ nqlei x los lil. is i, n !n l e l . d e o t d e i e t . . ', . 1 . a . . i , i . i h r r l si o rll. [ ia] . r . ' Fljr r r c { f r a r Nt , it il d e s . r d e r e r t r ! u l i r . F i t i r t i t f d ! t r S rlfrfarr.n lr! .i | ., t O,' o- . -n . .' \, ,r"! !r , r r,rh_ , ,l t:,:,. ".. i,,, , i t ,i ,u r 'r . r 'u L , r i semlu l nl lll,t r:lf;nc t bs ln I a t r ; ! i t a j t \ . ( 'h t t ij: 3! 1. lr , , iL{ 401. n \ g b ! \ 1 i t j i l . I" t.rk.us. itlll .t... .afc ldmrNfri'' rp dra.ii Lri.hxti d,r si,at .nttczi si ille Dersonatjtiti ina(rmtLr. uhirr sir._rlnLi. .\..sh r.oli ii ufivr$ii:-Lli ;lnt h liiRti si asi..1zi. c,i turut r"oi, or r iilof . |, r \ uiplia ljir . s r lo r d c l . r l n , . f *. a ! . i r g e n i r u . s i i l -slll , Ll . stil .ula^ ial : stll .nfart..ris n . in r.onvqsrtiilor oliiNriif. tamilir|e !..)pfr. . . knU oqti.a l sp t.h/. jrL f of t r as t . l iot r \ f r s it ir t f s ir ! f i s o r i l . i i t . {t c L r ) f o r d d t c . . r.!rtl lir.er

CUIi'NT CATU

CEITOR

ulrfotrnelat t& 4 efa.anstd,efat nqral. dtical fu inccputltLa.est.lti. seeol (inloI uir t a notni aLi.ruluit tt (rcu.st i aul 1 a p r onu tclc p eNnnal e; \\ho i . loc (1,e \\h.)m ; i hf t's ne lcnlrtr it i! l. locu l prcpo.ili ei d ltt n \ eth si u inaintea cwittLt lui ta N.rc se refeft (rvlo is it for? I|'herc ure 11ou cani g holl!l) etc.. ctt., ctt:.)este nnsiderat core(l acum. (Yczi fipitalele @rcs?un.ito\lc /d Indiee.) t! inrclis. tot (e(a G tste &ctlm eore(tgranntlcd .rtl conrld€l4t sloppy. Gaanad,updsinplifftdre, darinla le u tittiga lintp. t:it.mai mu.Utimp. a a(lusti ertindered. lor telor Nntruse. a fispunsuiior tnanatilabirc. a snnctelorinjtrnit IalLIe. S-a a(eptat un aLLoiteriu: ditttlt l me.selt)r (fi the man in lhe slreet, sintboluLt:rtd!?nnului ( tlc: obitnuit). Chiar t-i d. la &tcilrele niwftiture, ptolctotii ro aiscLtrcla.ti Lintbaj surprinzdtor. bc (? intedbd un nai\'. -Nu ttiu !ruflaticii ? - Pentu m stLtdcnlii sainu i. Itutr.e tirept 'old,faegies"( :bd, H?nt!/ Seeel, lta t&ri(i!1 u|, toia ]u sfiltlt L te.alulai pftcetlent (in Ne\! Fl!rglislL Crammar. Logical ard Hisroriral 1392 si 1696), anticlptnd s rile d,c fatt utuale: " t he rul(s af |rumtu dt lolie no tal ue cftept Le state,n.nts of ftl(:I: whateaer is in gen al us. in tl languafe is lor th&t et! ftdsan granl tati@llt eotrc(t." Litnba s. sthb hn r atittl r.lpiditat(. intit striitorii dniltr '50.'60 au deja un it inte.h . Pcnffn strti.ini insai. e&re sint in matea lor tnajoritate cititari. inslt,'i. )a lintiir €n!]..e tu uiutarul unti grdmatici tadilional.e llr? ncapirct nu:csdrai ei.i si.nr putetl , ?entru a li se tontla o ha.i solitli si numai rLupdaeet:a {Ia s&nla. in pradid, da *hi.n xirile prctctie sdlt liitoare di limb& en!le.d..
',,. tclegtwnali.ti.ilui Otto Jftl€'5dz i/r "The Fis!enri.rls .l E!glish Gramln ,', 1938, ture r?d,e en!\e.d: sotncthing Liti.ry antl derclopingund,er .onlinaal "as !r.1nt.1tie& flwluaions. $omcthini that ls founrlcnon the past anrt pr$aris rhc $'atJfor the futnrc, sonethiw that is not eleags rcnsistentar perf.ct. bur ,lallessing anl, pe.fettible in onc pord,, hunlan." 7u ,\,o;;n nr\tyt.. : . j, , . p"' n, , i. , i t on P a t ! . r . 1 l d ,1,tb^tp rl"sfe neri-

( L 1'i,\ t. l), 1tt.TE Crunatiut rl.e[aln tii-ica luuare con.:eputii pe Ld.e tat].ilianat.. ,Si t tratale apnfu ddt taatulJroblet )tt de Erumaticd,p;t ,iulu st dc(nn pa fnontenp.legrunaticalc st.Lifice liniii engtie;i deci trtai ?ulin (t:t:csib;Le (Llriarul\t nmain. f..t t ot;: o tu!, u. t,.,. tu,trti tr !orotiat ,, a tr tnyt,:d s; t,c bozr,tnr "odui,.fu,Llt, ., .tat,.rt.. "n.: tn..t u. ttr.t,tt ,.x"r,.tt"iu;,i ranate de o&menL. J)e Irtt. u s.t urnldti t&ntfarna|&. etaluliu tinl)ii si uanld. S a urmdrit.sd se dd,apuc tenninataSi.li ya !.tlcatti t:it ijdi brit:i ;i. cit n;ai aptapiatd.dc f.nanenul s1ud,;at. rcnsi,t;;i it ,:d sint t)|.'Ltc etenlenre deosebhc tald de gtatnatica lLmbii tot drr,. (:unitt Ii: genvt;rut. ri.itorut lulti t. t!e&t, i,,olut o '[.,t l0 n J ',,,',t.1t,:.,'u p,r[. ..tot,1,.,.4] t,t.,t,.
l4 rt" 4 !t,lot i: t \ ir t $1un : n . . . - t . . p t . . , . : . . . a.., n,t,paptp. - t u, . dt . t df pn\ttlp ".J,rt, tir - : . t s d ; ' , , ' t lot - . . t t . . t n . , I 'i , . , n r , , t . , . . . . ', I , t p lt t I.n tDtnn It1 t t t n dl s lt l. .

t'entru .a .agrc tnta srutli.rul nt&terirlultli. s ao i tradls. ptin un?le emnplitirairi ti notc d,e sulJal, tit mai, trnthc d.jte ttesprccitttLtu ti driti.a.lid, englptd ti despn sTecifitul abi,ceirrilor Lrad,ili)nateenlte:rtti. Latted.are pdragrafe nu tcNn&tu d,ct& inujt tul pind. lo stitlitut ti. p{dra tt s. lutea /.r.e triniteri de la o prubio n Ia altd. ti !.ntru a se ei.ra reperdrite. id.tdt.. i ot i un, i", t,,,,;, i" ,"r,r'.,., ,t.,tr..rtt'tt[0. Lrt . 'hrs,t'tt
L-t .. o\tltt |n.tt , ; i, qut s l po4t d psl, d n .n , tut.. t t t t t . 1; 1 I \ [ nn.

dL la tnrcpur ftnt lu iirttt.
. '1" L

+ tt ,ntelo\pnit. ,rn n t o r t t r 'p .

lt.n un,,ffi t t Toretrei

I t't )o dp [ o, ; . ],. a .t'..t',..,, L.t.... p. a ,Jnft;,t, .,..,!; o 0t laat . , . ^o"o, .,1. t. rn,iInc" t . pt r t lr t at p . t o' . 4t .. t

,t lp.luln;i.n . pnlpi, d,e

Sperin M wrca tlepLisn (utoalcj (u tlsitL;Leasi d.drui& specifice .le cLitrc nu t.LLun..L tarsnte, sd [ie sprc instruiru. intercsul ,\i s.lisfaclia ci.titorutui

E ;)TT{ i R A

TABLA DE }IATORII
Cuvlnt cAtr€ citito! Cuvlnt lnainto .,... 5 8

IIORTOLOGIA . .. . .. .. . .. - .. . ..,. . Sul6tantivut
Adiectiwl

t:t
9l ,2t !,67 229 247 457 489 5lt 520

Numeralu1 ....................
hepotiiia.

r..

snn{xl
8i;u*a prcpozlli"i. .. .. ..
Sintara tlazei. 524 5?3 626 629

BIBLIOGRAFIA INDICE

MO RFOLOGIA lrroRPHoLocY)

SUBSTI.NTIVUi
l

{. tI,

CONSIDDRAT]I G!]NEIIALE
1

p.9: t7 t7 ti Ii ti

CLASIFICARE\ ;SUBSTANTIVELOR SubstMtfo oomue 9i suhtstrtiYo Foprii . srbstantive comune

3 I
. . . ... b17 It8 918 10 t2 13 t4 15 t8 t9 20 t1 22 2X 24 t8 29 30 31 t2 33 3i 38 39 40 4t L2 49

8 b s h a c 1 e . ..... . SdDstMtiYo eoncroto ti s u b 3 t8 n i l l e . Sulstantive abstractel Sulst&ntFo ttrdiYiduslc si slD$iMti{o colcctlve .. Srlstantive iniliYiduale . sulstantive coleotive Nume dc naterii ti de mise conc.e Sobltcntilo rumer8bile li ncnumerrbilo
Nun iab ilitok| . . . Substantiee numtdbite . Substannve cono.ete

'

C ar ac t er is t ic i. .-. . -..... . Calcgorii dc sulstaniive numcrall
Substuntioe nenrmetubite

Car ac t er is t ic i,.-.. .. . Categorii de substartive nc ! , m Pr ibil. , . . . . . Numcle spotu.ilor Nrmele de materii sau de mase Nnme dc mai.edi sau de nase iul .. - . . rabile ln Produselenaturare . A nim t r lele. . . ...... Plantele comesiibile. . . . Numelc de mase :ibslraole.. Nune de masealshacte nenunerabile Catcgoriide srbsianlive (hnel). TII, GENUL SUBSTANT]Y]ILOR. D eliniliel. . . . . . ..... .. G€nurile ln sranlatic{ englczi. . . .

19 7g 19 19 19 t0 20 20 20 2Q 20 20 tt 2t ?1 2X '3 :r4 ,5 25 26 26 t6 26 2tj 21 27 21 3' 33 33 36 37 !7 37 37 37

llasculin ti leninnt . . Genul,subsiantivelo..are n ic{ naliomlitatea sau lrovenienla regionala G enulc om un. .,.. Exprcsid Sranaticaldd €enxlui . {\.. NU]IiNUL SUtsSTANT]VIJ].Oit Col3lilorstll gon$8|e.. Ptu..lul Bulrsti irctor '

-

6t 62 63 87

i lli,;, " ,i-.,ji,,;"0',1 ,;.ror"...''i!ifl,ll"{i'i i";;'i;" rd s,rEUrdr, -2. +h..h-rsnrur'L
.;;,;;;':i; -s. -i.

90 91 92 DerxrtTlrrrr 93 95

: -::::=

t4 Lryq In 't sau'le tc.ninate la singular snbstantive in'q. . . .. . terminate Subslantile ln -th .. . . .. terminate Snbstantilc rrex
n al.

:: ::

P lu. dl6

,;? ;;i ;;;

iiJi,i. i, ,";*i rormr ", 'i.t!ru"rpr"'p ,'iva l i ; i n l rllisu b slin ti Y€lecolectile..-...

ri,iiii,iir'ir*"i'd.r," Plumle strline

:i n ru r "

' dr ' . t lu" dl .

.

ly: l. li .

;;;

33 ie .10

;; i0
il i3

' 'nr aii*it rnt"res ri'l^ i,ji,i:i' '" J";,i1 rormr,-ir-ar.cu ," ." , ,,.,,,1 ." r. L ,o .i ! lu. d" , Pl L rJ" r lin f r r r c lP dp r' 1 r'

D o u l f or m " d" t n. r al u

l s rl i l p ri l

.

';:, 113 :j;
l:9
:11" Ii o

1- e "\p".r:'P . iiJ"] o'i.i;l; i I in," s .r" 'insu .: i'"llr rr" "r'r 'd onarir: 'au Pto!n-n'a fg'onari i' li"i"r ,i,ri,i, "a ', .. . d.i animare Fj'"ii"i a.."-i"it9luralul I'luralnl tl Jra l u l Pl u mhl substaniile)or.conlnse .- . . numelo. })roprn. . .... . . ur n. r lt " t o" . .. u i erc tr.ti ... .. l ,te .. r..tnnm elo.dc " ' . . . .
. .. , . . . . . . . . . , , , . . . . . , , . .

ill ltl i;l
: ;;; ;l; j :' . ::t

:'1 i: i;
re 60 60

. ,

.

.. ,1"r", i'i" '.. "t'"'par li J ' ro rb i " P Pl u i , r l llor 'ul'
L Ll,J.f J ,'rt ,a nti\". ,,

:.. r" r\d..

::;
189 l ;j
198

ii
6? !;
6lt

v.

CAZLL SUTISTANTMLOR co ..;o 4- . , i, :, , no. , "
liomiistiru l ......,._ ..

,,.,,

: :::::

D . riri1 jc....
{u cl i i . . . . . \ominatirnl \ooaur' Ge n l t ' nl . . .

.
.

.

"

:
.... ................. " " " ' ,' :osri l r

l#
;i ;

3B
64

..... .. Deii n i . 1.j.c

... . Fu n 4 i j rra d tr c pr e. . . . . . . . ,. l o rma l , . - . . . . . Cenitirul eran {t. ca.ut Pofsie .

:.

.

;13 3l
i ti :ti t !28

rormi...............

. .

.:

-

{j5 66 66

:: .'.'',' 331 33
1€4 2i a !80

12 '0 i2

.......-..-........

Drl i rd

,....

.

.

,'

283 !85 300 307 3n8

i3 )' 3 1t ia

. ... Irefinil,,e

il:

l';

'i

srrBsTAN:cl!'IJI,.SUMAR

15

_.L 4a
VI. .C.LTE CHESTIUNI REFERITOARE LA SUBSTANTIV ......

Substantiwl adjeotivat Chdinea . r r v inte l o . . - .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. ..:. Func$ile substantiftlui VII, FORMAREA SUBSTANTIVELOR Ds de& . r . . . . . . . ...... Alixatia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P ief k € . . . . . . . . ....... S uf i: €. . . . . . . .. .. .. .. Dpr iv dF a r e8r , 8 i e 6... . .. . . . . . . . . ..... R E duc er ea Atternanl€ lonetice Ab r ev ier ea. . . . . . ... .. SclimDew cslogorlei 8flm3uodo. . . . . . . . CoDpur c r m . . . . . Sui6tertive tele$opate ....... . .....

944 345 347 357 359 360 36t 368 373 a?4 482 383 384 399 40t

7A 7A 19 19 80 80 80 80 a2 a4 84 85 86 88 89

...

S U B S T A N TIVUL
(TIIE NOUNi

0ENnBALE I. CONSID$n-{TII
p s l " p a r" H d " \ orbi r-" rrp doru' l 1F:' o[' i trl al ' ' Dc linilic . Su b ' l s n l i ru l P ' in . obiF cl a ' s ^ i n re l .g . p o p l a n e r" rIIi ' J1. fi i nl P l " pl anl cl " l u" rur' r' e\rcrFnl o pp pl cn' rr rpor: tn .u: ir il. . . " li" ni l a ..l ' ri l a n ^ l i u n i l p . -h s ' a l i i l ' Fl ' i d ml rdl rP ' l r" ' h ' l A, ' ,o s .l i 6l ' I" a'

sr

STA]['I\\-EL OR, II. CLASIFICARE,\ S1]B PROPI\II CON{UNE $I SUBSTANTIVE A. SLTBS'IANTI\iE
comulle (a a t,' tL c ' n \,,, t 1) SubstantiTele ,obiectelor' de acelali fel:
dos b i .d tn !' llolFr / -er!' . l i i ndi . r-d 1' r' rrr^r I oP l e Inmrl y

s3 s4
$t

ptoprii (Prop'I AodnrJ num-s' un. obi.cl( Jeosbin- $ 6 2, Subsraoti\cLc proprrr Subslsalrvele dul de loale cFlelalte ,obiectc'din acceo:icategorrF. (oumrrr. seogralr'e locuri fiintp denumesn sp s.riu .u ioitiald maju."uldr 9i csrp enl ii adjP.li\e). aqlrp $r.gal,a\rr in rcnere),nalionalil6!i (substanliva gen fFmrnrnll (toldeduna dc ur,icalp'. urassre, laifun" elc. sliiDliticp.arlisli e el'.. anumilPlrlulalun ercdrl€rp' istoric", operilrter"r". 'prole.ionalFsi culluraie. lnlrpprjcd'ri m;r' i dF labrirarrc Pr' onorifi.c, lunile anuiui qi zilele sipi5mlnii etc :
c ur J c r i" lno ao n iii-ii T 11 n L c h a F s l B.n N P \i s th p I€ L D i . ' i " L n^nub" :j l erpt T l r;l 8 i n Ro{1nia Romanian Eulole ^-inar l'lie W{ oi lhe Roses B.itish Aeroslace Airdali Group V ot d' ! 4p.l ' 1. 5pn' n l dtron' Rolls Roxce

O bs . r oalLi: p rn p ri i a u d c \" ' i l s ubsrsnl i rc romunF si ca al p sc t J nele " ub. l a n l i !F sr r iu r : r inir ir li m n u s c u l d ' F F r , t l F d i s l i ' g' dF nrrmel " propri i r" sn" l rte: d) obip. l. n u m j te d u p a Io c u l tl e o rrgi nc: cl : \11_J n' rml e of nF nl " o b pdt r nl u a/ ;l d p n .L d n : l l to p ri u : r S !' d '. u nu' \ m hr . r , ' r dt J d a l i p l r,i fl i n /rl r. J .I L o n Jl ' . A ncIT ,t,, a l: nor ieln n < l C l ri n a .," ii" , . t . i" . d. ,i " c o ri rr' / ' o i n I' l ' n u r ' l n ,:r r' ro cul l gF' i l i | d oi r ai l J ri 4 n\;n l e i .l u l , Er" n ;;.; , , ' l " ' . , " " t)imint sccuddl din .\nglia) r' ' -5' 1r" .1' L^i, , u" rro n " ;i ,u " 1 .s L ' s l r' l i i b p s" fl ' r ^r i rri ; tu, t t , , ' lh t ur ' t' ' d rJ ' " . 5 P ,n t ni ni l ni J r' a ^r t , at ih. n -a n .:' o " . 'i ' ' ' i ' r' l 71 ," rl ,1 \y ttrJ . ' ..' r. J p " .r. i nl -l p .Ji ub...ar" rv.on n " ! ln , ! : r rrru l _ s P ,l d u J " ' ' ra nr ' LJr" I rrol ' rr' ri . ] \ s d c o o .rrd.i o n rm ' l r g l a ' th ' n t too\ p6o,' i ,i .J' n . e ic i c : " \ i: j, , " ; ,- s i " ;- i i :..-. L i , . ,-. t,,t.r.t;tai - . i s/. !ric r il, d' lJ ' dp d e rj \a re rb u l r,a ,n /.rr:P nnmele trnor unsaDc de pc coastr Caiiiofri'i '--;lli'i..-et'"..

s7

/:.il'tr, 1: olundilr < Holl|ild 1: Oiurda\ i . - jer s . ul< J er s e r i i i u u l i l i n c rn rl n l l h ,e l i !l -/.f!,y ,,,r,.., ( - m ar oc hinl < Il o o c .o l - \Ia .o l ,r rn ,tt nnn L- .lift\ lcatit.nal). soia. .rd,ipe.l < OLlonnx rt r.o, d,iije,rtr ai rc.hiul[i o rr./s i: prntoli de sport. rxLlii:tnrii < O\lod iorai lnivesillf di,, .\dliil) :r,/,r ( : r n' de X eps r < Xe re si l o ' ra l i i a n ,i rt SD ,tn ia) ,,r ,1..7..i ud I.'l de rfirlesil luri-.si hfrl < Ulsref iprorhiiD id nofddl l.l,rLd.ili ,/ obiec t o um i l .c d u p i i v e ta to ri i . d e scopcri tori i . fabl j canl i i , i nspi r8681 o l n o tsf u1m lr n dLr e,, rr r,.1 rrrc l i i < rl ,o rd l n fo fg h xml i m de sl .all ,.i i .ani c, i \utbrntJ l- Ln I.l !1. sloli inpfimcabilil sfu . hanji din a.csi !rat!ri{l) < Rubory ' rtE irrdelf lal'ricdnLulLril
r r ': i p l l l pl,.l r' l, ' i Io ''d d! - , .1 lL r qi , l' -"' r 'r u i. il . , "t d' l " \ 'n r n 't ,1 bi " ' nd, I "l r't l lln' lri Jo", " ' 1. : t "lp ' r d' , . ' , .' ,. - tI u f.r ' i. r I I.b t lof . . . . ", r f,\., i ' . r' J , d I n r'. J o r 'r L l .'''r ' ; o1r , I l..lrd Ro@ (: atrtoinolll.lr.toneli thvf. lfica a..idrrtall < Lltl in1:.i 0e1l ' -:.-, ., 1,., , I , r , - \ "t - \ l, l .umli.r. os, P ', n , lr o pr: n l" ." , 'u + ,,n aj. . .,. l: un l ilii sl ai, r r c l: l. . laic nnt r r l dt i . \ r nden r r ' d c C i n c m a l o a f d f i er l i r r : j u l'h . i .rir . \ ( t ! ! oul. in iulor i. , i. t i. c r , , . ) < O r i r i L 'i e r , i e l i . i L . L Q ! !.cdiu !.n trd irmP rn ,rn de Arir ii l i. , s e. I ] { i e tuni! t).rtl..d ,os d. 1p.:lrlinle al SU\. r l ( ir io"t r iell. < lh. ot or e i R o . r e r l l l l i.rirt nr.n , \li:jl. r f lr 1.rl d. r jr c ij \r. l\old . , 4' I 'r ', r . ' ' ---J . ' rllr mtr l( lo r-n{lLr l" oli -l \ l . " i r r 'r d , r : ) r , ,ln' lr L' r ' ", ' \ '' t l ' " " 1" 1",' 1 ". r' l.' 1. i l , l: ". ' q- ' i- l" l I r ' j. ., r,l1 1: tr! voll) < lllNs a\ d. ol Volla lf iz i. id ilal i a n , 1 r 1 ; - l 8 l t ) a qdu t:in wrtll < ( J aniNi \ v at t { inginc r ii inlc D t a l o r s c o t i r n , 1 i 3 6 - l 8 1 9 i ; ' ,. ;,ll ., illt r Lrlf,j 'r, I

c, lucrui fi teNoane iumite dupn creaiori de opere de arfi Bau dupd personajedin istorie, legendi. literal,urn. artn etc.:
o a:desa. / un l1.in, ln di.il,a!,ori a Gdin:booush l- trn lal,lotr d. fiainsb.roLLghrl n /udas (:xn trlLdr'tor d'r lrtteni) th. tiadn\s o/ iird,.. l: nia.ii linaiciaril a .th!ll.cl2 l-r^ riimnril rdnilo, a r-eLtt I, n stliuic a z.ilci Ycnusi o ien,fii. caccplional d-A irumoasrl: It wft a -r-dDls../r ol lio nloodhonnds .lnd .r lerlc..

s8

B, SUBST.\\TT\TE ABSTR{CTD CONCRETE $I SIJBSTAI.iTIVI' 1) Sut,staDtiyele cl|, rete (Cant:rett,VolnsJ numesc .obieote'{ mdteriale (persoane. din realianinal'.. plante, lucnrri, fenomene evenimente prin simtotea inconjuritoareetc.) de a ciror er.istenln ne putem da seama

ss

t J-l4na-. (kritl,atouqr. o.lebN lltll-!7331 lrorl.rtisi si pclsagisi enqlez ' ' .// r ok.-p F. ' d ll. d \ idi ,r, .r .' t...,. i r ". , , |. . : . , t . t , . . , ' r.. T 1 .,d,... .. .t,{ t. t... r vP/i 5r l . I tt,un rt ds l. , r { &r l $t c t it lul r i z e r r l t h crgieza Ldianicd l\l:) il' iil:

l0

2) Sulstantircleahsbaotef,{6slrdrt rvod r/ nunesc acliuDj,stdri. sim- S 10 lnsu;iri, relalii etc-rconsiderate ca no.iiuni: ldmintej senza_tii.
l.iour rcst hcalth

N otd Unele substantiv€ absl,racte au si scisu 6chimbat:
' , |

con$ete, uneori cu in!e14

$ 1l

4 r lr ' ur . o/ il 'l . li. , i - i, . r ' , , u b r n ', i d- li. ' ! l- . br r r .. l ) ,. I a' " ! Ii 1- . , . r i, r ' d61. dr n ar ' aL. lt "l ) . I J "r ' P 1 ld, . / o" r . on, r , nr l: ni' , b, . , I ) ,,,.",",""

'u , . , '

I : .ro,,,"t. ri,,, *r

" i "v

r _ .h i r " l r; (.,1 .,ra,,) , i n ,j In " .t..,r .on. I 1 "t

C. SUBST.{NTIIEINDIVIDUALE$I SL;I]STAN'TIVE COLECTIVE

S 1'

pot fi: comune,atit concrete clt si absi,racle, Substantivele cindla singularnumesc un singurobiect: S f3 1) indiridule flndiridadl Norrns)

.--" {i}i'j {ffl,.

,{r'jntx:s,r "0",*.,a: {;'.:'#* {l;i:" {l*r {R'i'""
g 14

J .t,p€r I to $n

J lilr t odk

J sl oon I l ],]' t

2) coleetire (CollectieeNouns), cind la singxlar numesc o pluralitate de ,obiecte' identice sau similare, privite ca un tot unitar:

---k {i:?J

{Veziii 5 3) nume de materii li do mase conorete (Namcs of llatter dnd. Concrete S 15 ,MarsJ qi nume do maso obstra0te (Ntlnca of Abstact,Udssr, clnd numesc mateda, substanla sau mesa unui robiect.': I col otr I mill I dir( rcv-a I sold 1\\inI m"ir 1 sour 1 tubb. | . o. t . , I k noil, dee I t,l-\L:on | ;n.ell:L nr,l t '.",,,., 'e'Im'" 1ir'iroiojrh\ 1mur, "-",1',"" Obseraa!ii a) Un€le nume de n&terii de$€mncazis,;obie.ite corleclionate din mate S l$ riile respeclive5: t€ D.oss aliirnril isurnanli\' colecli\'l 1: al,iDnrie. (: d;1Druri, otJic.t.dc alami, alAol,'{nii,,strurtrrrtp ,nL,zirale dc alrr,-rr D/a-.sds
l rzdic,rd: a u. lit or nl lla nn oor , f r r . et . . r . prbL,l gi,g,,: 's,s1.cn i 'L (1. p,'Lsari. esrldril,'i {1. alniarf. ploal. (t. gl.a41:. sLnl 3 rtrrrl.V, (!on.r.il guoi; (abnrac| l]|{(i'ri. uosLji. iidicnri. rroNfBui 1. '\ ': ' a4 l. - " np tl:a"tu". t r r oa. tof riii. liri l ' 6 Trrd ., "il"r r r i\ ' n, r ' I r ''. ': . r ' r 't l / r . i ', : €nglezeDli resleclire.

.u"'",.," Bill: {$i",i:#{ffi;ii#"'{ilit:itil: { iir: 86)

I auiien,er I ili(hl, t sdl arv 1 p ro l c L a ri a 1

r ltock 1 te,m

20
" ' , . 1, 1" 0, , o J n t: I p r" r' I rrP p n nt:I r1-h" ' 8 l echi , :i i ;", " , ' rti m" { d n tri l o ,r.;\ 1: bani m a ru rro J dnr| ol d e m' .ri p : " r ' i \)l ,i " ri d rl d- ( : t n ! r na., o o e rL n n l ) r/o :* s L: r , anuei os l i n z i , o l h ' l a ri l ifur l: lcrl aL i;n (: rtr\ li.r de celcal) ;n trons (: in lanlu ) (vezi ii S 30) precun 6i Denumirile pro{:luselor naturale, prelucraie sau nu'
/ PI ) i \ ' 1, " b lFr ' o' ' /. /:r' lnr 'o 1' .LiLk. LtrLtt/r. .h"r'sts, , l (lr1 Lh rn, dn ,k, go05e!t nr k er . por llr J , er r '

A lt

din puncr'de veder€srasini dsimiiate, ea alinLent', iri'"l"i.i"te ",'l-ri"r""natical, cr.rnumele de matem:
i, ,.' : '-r.-.'r'tJ,i .dp.'oi. ,.u" ruu-. r'ip" \uod'o'k r' .(' \irl"ru" Ii". ".ln,on

;i ale

s 18 51e

Il. SUtsSTAr'Tl\'ll NUIIERABILII $I SUBSTANTIIII NE\UNIllrtABlLE NUItI]riABILITATII
tCOUXTABII,ITY)

ln qran,atlr" moJ"rna,ir .ritFrr - .irp stau ld bazdimpdrlirii subslaomai su . ' a.ddaug"t ur' ' rrlprru,nou loJrtp^urrr .i'"lor r"r' rr.gor iiJeexpuse ln ,,enltu ur;e.1la-fe riamari';, 'i dF'i qi In 'lru' lura lrmbrr engrFzc: ii)',,.rliiu", d s bsh;t;IPtot (cour10b'tttsal '\atnsJ'

{20

SUBST,UIIIIX NU IjRABTLE (dbrca lNl)
(coulitlBrE oR cogNT NOttNS)

sPr

hoLJ s. ' t" + tJs foni l i es, n I 5ubs ldl li \* 1 , a a : I' ttc t, n b ' rrL ,. [t o' N " " obrF Lpl ' pa carF i c (l a ,t . j. t dpot sF l . .i n l .o r.' i ' l Prr " n d n l td \;1 " JFoJre'' u'm;ra t" *" 'c U" - ; ' f r ;n , ,i J d e nun, es P ou '"* nump' " bi l " tu ,-i l orn' d, de p t* o ' i u b .ra n l i ! ' ' ' d" i nl ucuttorrLecP sl ural " qoY a { 3 du l a tn t,t' n a | n o tL tIn d ' u rtt s;t,3 t ' t ot lr ' *d" ot nurnP rsbrl e ca r" . t er i' . , i' i, " r P ro n ' rl u i r " rb t r J i ri n ' l i ! a r sLD ' l dnti !el or

1) oeracteristiei.

s22

2) Crtegorii ilo substantivo numerabile' qi ,q.iui ini"a, rn genere' majoritaiea substantivelor comunel conorete. d" substantrve msrP dc nunlrJ"stul i,'ai"ia"af.,.i. r" fri'lic d" 'on'lc\l u ' .€rc apsrlin.elorldltF,aregorii rr-zi S i r' l:ll 'rl
d. J

, ; " ) .;

, ti ,r

-a r.,,p" . : . '

ib oF[ "". ]n ,lDj' 16

r hd

k': h'. d :jJk'" d srtrt'r -

r r ' i- bf l

| d ' " ' pi o n 'o u g h 'n ns: ' " : , " j1 ,"i; '." , 'o . )ii$ lll

- 'o u g h ':

h:rd'k ; -

t r*

! v r nt Fr dr a

s2 3 se t

SUBSII\TIIX

NllllullDB"ttsIrn
(UNCOVNIABLtr NOU\S]

f4D4! ATl)

t) Caraoteristioi. lntr-un Lilele numedc materii sau de maseoorcretcpot li rlcnumerabile (s38)' l sd lnlercsurui modiricarea eu i'""i S:ol .""#;i;;;;;il"'r'i "ii"i

!l

de,r+iD,osFbirpl,linr'" d', ' p,clpgorii F - h1rl" 'ub'ilJ 1i d"'iereu oe sr dcp'rroP \^'brrnrulur irrr'n1i Jutr limLr jrl 2.,r,,l .orrp"o ' ". -rLlar/r
d, r, , rt nplt d t r!: 5u b"l ln li\plr n. \ ' 1, ; , ' ; , , 1; n- . n; . li!l,t. lnu :ht.r. l '" o ' 4dt ^t ' s . [ L r ' 1. j' z n '" J 'i n l h o n . 't o r k i o n 'L 'l 'r r r / hoLv' rru"rp_

$25

i tu ; ; ; i r ; ;;;;;;;'"i i "cr F ra r.' "i1 rp d"num'r. r" f ^ r r; n u " " r" ' r : i d e de form; au. in mod obisnuit. lluril '^-' iiu singularul'slnt in se construiesc il" au ieclt lo"ma de singular3, "" s€nerenume de iranimat'e dcci de gen neulru' '"i ' nu au articnbl n€holnrit a/alr.(: olre)' nonilmernbile l,l Sobsturrti.,"t" etc' r [an' oirel':xs poate spune darktL':ss' ** iia"r .i'ii"i"". ,qstlelnu sc ^ ^ ncrrumrrahile 2) Categoriiale substantive d, Numelo sportwilor:
, r. , ui' l o- roo b.,b o rrugg r. . :i. L . .o" nr . , r i . " ldl l"l 'o r'g lob - - a" \ r or 54 l J n '4 rporo r ''q ' 'l i l i 'g r 'h \

s2 6 s2 7 s2 8

Acestea nu au dectt forma de silrgular fi se conslruiesccu singularul llo's $ 2 9 6/ \umclo rlc malcrii 'nrr de a.e rorrlrcl' t ll')1 1 ut ot 'an r I n.umrr JU rl"oi lnttttaL s//r'l s,noAP,t;ot btr un la ol 'r' -\'orr, )c,:.r'or,., qi stni -consideratenenumcrabite deodr€ce obiectele pe ii'"'".'ai. asemenea'ere De "i"n"t,i. rsu*Le numai ci poi li uu-r*t". ;"";;'i";;;;; nehoiirit. nu au nici articol",i
A

intr'un contoxt ii Nume ile rnaterii son ilc m:rsecolrcrcte enumerlrbile ln rltul (Vezi S15) numerabile INN] nunar s3.
rcffe-" " f : catea boabe sru lfionraie (matc.Gl I (,n J te ' i ' ) l: ha! t ur d r = ftrnzele de ceai uscalc {m,rl.cfle) 1 -- biurura (narerie)
I I !uDi( ili llidul) {nL rryi )

S 30

tNt s8. ti Pl. I sE itl , o ('.+' 1 'ur 'af.J Indi\idrrnl

Ieo

sor,.

./,,"r,. {:fl:l:lirX,
I 'e,s,

| i nl. t I ss. | I rl I I sc. I I p1I sq . | I lJl. t

{' o i , . . e l , . o / l e d : i a l '1 " lin ,Flrri, ra_ i o n , {j ' t r t i L m 'r e . i 'l u) teri l / , = L o , P a r cI ' {, o n c . r t , i n d i v i i l u a l l t x i c a 'i . a t e g u d r / 'd \ : t e f i i d, "ri l,ndtqi' ] .ou, : 1,' I rrfurn ' ul strPr Icor' rct, iri,l,lidurl) soa?s: torlii de supir !l $hiskY *f t i s / . r : l u n p i h e 1 . o , "t . i n d i \ i d u d l ) , 'l 6 i , e : ( ', a l L u P ' L l \ h b t . Y ( ,u , r r . t , i n d i l i d u n l ( m i r ' a I

ci rdrio{s 38), """'j;in:,':;l':;"':'ii*iLs'"1.i;']'.';u.","".rie ri raaiorereroDie. ** 1T"i$l caur str,gu,a. sccomro,,A i**i'"':!'" 1s{!5-1e') cnre **"l,Tli#illjtl"l.? ""* -.*, in rrl,rnda.

deii cu torml ilc plurnl. aN"inleles de singulaf qi se 'onlro'te cr al'al'r: "\o

ir suA a,,r,/,e./ i:,t:lli"i'SiJ'liffi;'"".' 'i

2?

tNN]
b/?t

tNl
0.7/s- caresofii de cone de p1. ,.€'cs: \'iie perlN;j in abaiof (indiljdual - matelel

:

ca.nc .a al'm.nt (materi€) dc peqte o.t aliment

{

:.iarne

: ptine . . : piine pr'ljiin

{

a.ars : categorii de can. {niateri.) ss. a /nn-w tetl e {.onc.ct. indirid{al) : /;rn rreFtilconcFl, .ol€'rliv) !1. /isi4 : spacii d-" Iftli lindiaiduall pl. ,re&ls: {Ielud Ct l,iirc) ss. d t asr - un toist (la un bi!! - indiriiltral) {abstract pl- lrsrs : toasrurl sn. 4 cians. - o s.himba.e labsl.a.l, irdividDal) sare h cl i mi c tt sa. a rol :o n,edicin[ l.onoel] rolk : Epsom saltss,snrelling n!. satls. (individual)

i l
(mndiment)

'- mtuunlii, bani nil.unli = sa.c naluau

: gaze naturale (pPntru iluninat, saitit 5i lncelzil) (in SUA) : lenzind pentrtr

"*

(in chidie ii m.di' gi,i,!,:*., (Dasdconcr€tl,indi{idu{t't)
areind.i? : 6bi€0ie de arcint: m;nede de arsini lcol.otir) pte.es ol siit./ = norelc de

(nrteri., nasn .onueta)

pr.

dsint ({€zi S r lt)

s8. a snod (elc.) l@": (mat€de,mrs, cotro..&l pl . (eonc|et.indi{idnal)

qiftt {lo

I : uana dc mr.1 , o n rre l ,1 .i n d i .

tl .

bl ane reni N (onl ..[i i r l r.: a fu. cap.( fb ioet, a fv stolectc. /rl ry: spq rr, .i l i l rl i e]. de bl .i nurii oni r' ti or.t" : a /onrol lurs: Shatl 1 tdke n! f\tsl

; )r",ill .i:; is k t,n,,.t thp,, rn (- re'!.ia loarte ahesitos. dfv.nil'i }NNc .fl0l.,"L sar rol)ula'rl . t l l" r ' r a- n ?i' r . . ' r ir ni r r " t D.-n "l . . lum . . F , p " r l r u ) n ,ll ,q .oltr . . r , r r J , . aniq: 1 t ^ f l 'l p r r i .ra h modi). ..fnr

sat r.reciij J r 'r u l d . . " i a

cu ,.r;1. icinrn,Ll dziiri in -\ng!i{.

: 1t:*.111i'i"H:9) lb:i"$iii.l"1!.ii'fli:'"Xlii".*u,' -*""" ';,jil'iil

'B

l \N l
ai r, r|Dorlf.ar {ixtci .o.rPL:1j \ nr b1 t ^ t. 1 ,. o n t lLP. r ir . . ^ t s. .ft lLe ot - . trt\ln]l |J dif . n , , r i, , nt l !l

i\ l
d t . : r . . . . r s t i f l . : , a a '. o / .'nftt: . r. rc prt \ n ntt, tn Etor d \ i 1 r i F {m '\ 1 a a , l t , 'r . : jndiridLLai , e,,/i kof,.fl.; sln o ta$idi dc lrnal,l:

tn

I;o r rPmcrtrlr.r our JtpAs ,. lr,, ln.kf. mom al school? mtiiare /tix insJ!. rl ,ili niasit ibI ri flrig nrrli iCl," = Q(iXfr i ; ? , t r . r L i l n t r r i {i , a l e g o r i i ! : ;rr r!flin s.ump|l: ,dt,n : cosl.urul unLli joc\eu ( l n r i r ! i i P - p . a ln r r u l d l l l ' s r \ dLLlxi 1.. p!nirr cn.. alea.grl

.,

( 1

mitrs! (dasA couf,eLrl

!!

\.ezi 3i flann.l. li!r'r./ (S 146) pertru direrse nume d' rnaterialebtrcbuin iu (ariic'rl de) illlbrnrinlinte (,i ca sinbol n,i 1^t" I" pi;;;l "".'"*"t 'si "u-ii

- ""li "f"iilliii'i1;**.

. s a rr n u l L t" " . ' 9 t l to' r fot .i tn natl ' ttod ri " " r. "i' . i" i- p, " r , ' " " InrrnJ J-dl er" rrhudar/ n ;tt,, nut ni- ot l t - i n r' l e l F ^ n ' ti ..to o t-ti tl b r' rorr' l rfa ul l rs crF r' u \' " l u ur' l F ri rg ' r]0 tu r' . pr nn -.ru i p f * \\h3l d e ri | |ulu" li r: a/ d/( l !arr a c€ ,ta qF r at or j l, .,.d l e x n r:i d Ir p to d u s -l mor' rron ll0) etc.) have vou todayl" (Vezi 9i S ,r€ab. -,tni-"i"r". '--* L r m at or r " lp a n i mc l " ru L l rp l r n u rn ' . d u bl prp rr' rrFbui ' r11' pdLpl ' ul n sau L o n r . \ lul ip r el" r € l a c l ' ' i l d e l p rn p l a ' p d i n spF' i ' ' ri r rrrcror dnmpi r' ^ la carnea lor ca alimentl: nune de nateri c [\N ] nume de animale [N] (origino fran(ezd) (odgine laxonI)

de materii $ 3 r sint asin'l. cu nunere ,\cestpa

ar

P"nrrirob'"r'.tii g;n"r.l" - '" r'dca $ 158

162 $39

or. .oe (< Ochs,Kuh)
iL/ ; , d lnu me tolPd i\r f olor jt in ' om er l, T.ntihnie ctc < ,s.tr '.tnr

flcsl 1< r&,rn) tNNl

n.ar lo.jgine nr c.td) I\\l

.{dI

anini nul'r'
.

tflth . . , ". t . . \ r o 1r te.L "E.r : "' - r ' .1 , - - or . l , , , t r i. dl . *""t,i.. e.a r",l i r i; r ' . , - n '" 'J l ll\ind vid ldi'|.sli//.ub . ' . 4|' iv . . U"|. I \ \ ' ' ' d' |U. . , ' ,

'

', \ .4 ald

, 'r '" r/ '. l -''''. 1 '- r l " r '

d" m1,d.r. , , d

s/'rIl 10' {' He s'//' llliil-;1" Jilli,|Ji,:'"' ^
,) ;1,;.,s.1- .';'l;;; ,",r' ',

,.,:,:;;, ,:,I ,.;.,..: ,,. ." r, ri ri n .rl,_ fr ",f;l;f ) ,,
.r rdc. ,ir? \ ' ' . ' , , r i \ ' i: i: :. '.i

: lli'"' irj' i i;:frti; li.:';1l ltrld'''llii;ji;*ti'r:;,'":;i:ri
*" ob' 5n, ' ' ,;;;:^ :;.'-. Dr'J , 1[ n' z . \ "1, n, oe,j,,, -, ' ' i r', ' r 1i ", - \ "" ' l- . rdr' ' ir "' . . '' i

r4

nt

i"r r'imild . ) PIuIt.l6.\,nrp.lil'ilo. - i DjrJrrrivelp ' ' ar' l" Llp um"" u sinsuld' pr:i. El' au nur, ,i lurmi d" insulsr' '.on'rruir.n ,, l;;" ' ru rul ";-;l; slu..i .inJ.F rahtri la .p la', r,ci'au pr^lu FlPpr'omF LrDrrp{rrrrprnJ batc ttnmerabLt€ frunze, semin1.,e), e') cereate:baieii. cornl nlaizc. milld, rice. rve $trcat etc'; E c c e p 1i e : ools, umai plural ti acordat cu re$ui la plural: 't u t.',i ai plon! .)r'imo':r":.sra$av. rol"rv. dill. rFnnol r':Jtli'' "t lJur.l..in'p"pp'|mi1|'l,l|.|"\.'\Ub"rb. e") tegutn:tel de s'nEo- s1n\ (numerubilecind ne rclerim ia specia insiii: nu d{!ii lorrrrn Iar '- construit cu singr.rln|ul; ri'nd r r"l-rir', l1 pdrr"J 'r,'"'rrbir" r-'l' i "p rir';' - ii, ii,i.,ii't" .o'rpJ'a umnl rrd-lrntll 'r auo-l lLbor.ulp. lrd.l p'...1laauoInrn aili sinsxlarprF."Ja o" arli.olur n"hu';tr- rr '' plur'l: pl,rrrl ri ,s b\tn ) 'r t rmd d"ir'-'rrlar ir' un'l 'r'r: | ' "p .,6Dng fN\'t Do ron til.r .arlnsP." rh, o b g "rbb'6. lo J{.r' ;LL":",p.1 t\l I ooJ._h' " to .' a b b t p t4
| .' l ;/ / o. ' * \ \ r."d t , 1. , 1; - . p. . s lt l 8 " rt' :l l a ' P' Sh " ,.i rl h s rd l J ' m) t .l ' uE

rtl i fLo-

sh l ' ,J l ou"

ii. lJ,i''"""iilT' ;i,:1.') l,n'il "l;,:il'%i"",'l'Ii;., " ,'*o I i r' 4 mi i " i tI
d d " s rn ;$ _ oul ' l r iii o ,i ont ll " Io u4 _o -'n J l ra \F l o i 6 v ' r ' rmrns S D -n Ju a a anoa, pt . + [ \ l " ,,r,' ^f

i ,\F:r s,:n, lffi.))r l-'iii'L#fi,il.Tl'*.,,, ba,a,

s34

\ \ nn I rn . h J \p ,o " ro :n ]o u t .d l rd' ,,n o@ t \ \ , ;.. , , ; , pi - " t \ l r ;ma ro P \a " F L n e - n g In ' p " i n ;: B t u s ' Ls s t ' t o u ts J re n u md i fo rm a d . p l urhl pcsrd srru' r!: b i m b a .u l o ru l i r' l nl pi ul 1rr d Un" l" . u6" r J n i r" ;1 i | ,,,€/ j\ Nl{ ll j :p frr' T h i . b ro o \o !\.p rL ro omi ' l " pP " " i n,t' ,,,,, l oudonI l '.;;; ; , , . i s r ' d d " i rtu ., I\' Ih ' d rs o " ' u fld " rr' 4s Io" l un" h: bur mdno$ \' cpa!l ' 4 r0 " " 6 rn " o " r y o u to u l"; 'f I :r' ' r . r r i^. J . O bs er v alie Toate substanti!€le de la capitolul c-) pdsircaze lorrra de 'lingular etnd au funclie adjecl,ivah ($ lijtj):

.i r$ii Tlrii*ii"ffi *::rlMu*ql'l-,; ;, j rr!:il ; : .: :l";; :lf Al ;;*r'; ;r
olill:"i " nn.!,. t ra' | "I;:';"' ""'ii,ii,lrli, ,*,;1,'? ' r r d r '" ( l- o r nlb" , , . r ) : r r J aP
' .-.a nl, ip,'-, ! i/r:;qh ct(1 1. sl o 7i ! 5 ,1. ? l..l gr./n -p \ ir , ' i S s ( j\ ' 0 PraTnL . t{d. '

:i:",',,-,1;,""1 i tfli :,r,6; ;

: tAb " tro 1 ll os \" rrsrr l t . \ Lr \ ' 14 d n o \ 4 l ):to tt '' tnri ro' ^n' .tu r' . 1 i t" r4 ttt1 h ts td !, rn , ! n t" l ' ;t l Ltl o' aP fu. paP tt!t' o Dtl n t t . . t r . t r c Lol, e \rl tanattt' $s tan4' kna| t ti to i ;". . t v u' : . s " ; -n ' ,. o \. t)o ' | ' . h ' o | l h l ' a ' rui onnprc j ' . ta tttl tc t' s l ' n " n.rm' rrbi l " 'i r.. p , i" . , " or ' t , .' ' ;ttn ' l oi tr' r dp. inl u rH r.i .-.o n " l ru i F ' ,r,' i ' c u l a ru l. ,t,i tr' t " . ' " turt anti n nt . ti ri ' oroi " t ,rl ri n ra \i n !tu l P ' l g ) 1ot . i. i. in' Etr.ol0. r\sia.Engldd. Iloliand: Boslon'N'q'Tork; ['larc]i, Jtrne. eic n sti i 6 si ' i r" umrrd J u " " rrl a ' r, L tri - t a rr " t, ) | d :' 'u " tr ' p i r,l -.t. rJ r" rom;' ;.sp dr" r:rrbr rr n u m o ro rs p , z u ri l p l l utal dl sp " ' ' . , a" ' ' " , " . i" i rrn rrndu pe a n p l a ; ." " 4 i l dFrt' ' Fa/; g u l o r i n l i mb . , r r . .i ' ,l 're r r aJ ' r . '/ 'r .;tor nea\.iznt. P€ntiu a so da numai citel'a €r'€mple: inslltc - abuse a.Li 4 s fa tl ri alaceri - butrncs aplauze -- aPPtdure ' .'mran1| musaiiri
( o\' i. 01.b,ltl P

s3 5

s3$

t - , , r , ": r ii iniormatii inloF,alii se*ctc .unoitint'" despfc stire friri ljeacuri. litust'r rrogrcle crmli(ri'"uri .hele

no", ^- 1, - infotmd ti'nl - intaUilenu k:dge of -k'ot - Ptust"s bbih --sLalPitl ldughter, Iit.

""

Pluralc cn irr c-templclede lrai jos, intilnitlr lr€crent in traduceri, slnt inad.rnisibilc:
{b,s.s. adripi. ittl ,r,s'r, ir1,rii,{tion.. kno\rle{lg.s p.o3'ess'r. lLome\rorks.slollingJ, I} eic

Nume de mase abstxlcte ucnumenbilc intr-ut contc]lt li ntr eralrilein altul

S 3E

tN \l
nr."r,dily : nbsd.dil.rl!

sg.tL Pl
pl. pl. r" o l r' r.l ttl t to ti !tr .au i l i tmdti F a b .!rd dI 1,oi rcr. i ndi \l n' ,111 : o fruntr'scte (.oncrctl d ,.aur1J Rodrnian PeasantFotner olten arr : f/i'.J o comranie, o so.ictate com,rcialil (con..cL. 0ole.l.iv\ : on.nt e (cotelnill (concrei); : o a miscrau! 2i..1 .l humdnnY bialir eparl unian'i umanisiice d.d fun;,t,i€r : Etiinl,€lc
.ole, iisc lczi ! 10, l:1, 14

tNl

.omld ,, : tu r dr , t ie . . r nl, ni. . 5 0rie tdtP {a |\t . dulli n, us ar r r L I hear r:ou h{d .ampan! yc.'

l;
!l

: vezi S t 1t.

r PentN subsiantrvele abst.aclc. irditidtalc

tli

t NN ]
Mdi, il,, lclrrilir'. lflf ionr.l lh(e lt M, bt.nd'rtst lI ntlb rl lttl

iNl
d {sctlr -r1rn 'rdio i.o nofe1.indiridr.ll tlrrv i neF racro.

(:

rr) th. Tutn on (aff, io(n. HarP ,j.n sot the t'1ktt tlP.s

ir r ' i. dL Ll{ r .,, . sl.rll L. r r /1 ". t uaF lat lie h' t " srr.(fd r / rt t -dp' i: l' . in J n' lli ' 'n ,\, tta .,ri r , r, J n' / , 9' N' f l . n|! l ,in rrn.'r = n 'rrn I lo, r r f l r r r pr c i' r I F labr ' 1z l11l t].t,i!ion li\it ? ' t ' I li: ! il r j isi .'h \tr., L;l ll l'ut t rn ktP"t ra, tt ('! ,'/ h ! 1- \ I n' t iniPht Jl,n ll l. L)itllal s.. ln' tenni.snuchot tPt'rEL'n

aroorn-o

catl e.i

hon.rt. i ndi vnl ual l

{;
r.ieoisn,r fs.rlr : apdr.1 (1" TV i!on"ei,

ili,'ll{'ll
1"

ru' ,r" reresion,onisiir?
,r lel.luion

o,i (oll. do$r, ull

il,,r"ii*: "

indiri I niilri(on'rPt,

lpl

,arrl6- tnrli

!39
,-

CateBorii do iubstarttilc PI9!'l..n.,frl. alrslr'actE

' n. ,iole.t'!e nuN 'ndiridu.ne

indiridrale .ol.cii!e

I
l\l

t\\l

:

.-....1\\l

s .10 s 41
l, DpIi'li!io. 5

tII.

{iB\UL

SUBSTrt\TIYriLOR lG nJ rl ir' :r" r"' t," p":li'l

l\TRODl-j(lliRE

j1";:i'Ll' il\i','lii "1.""'"' : "'",1 l; :li;,ll::;'l;::ll.'.i'-ii,i grflmrtica englezd' Gramaticn eiglezit aro patru gc.urr:
2) {icnu le in niascutin, ferninin, romu!L qr rtelrtru

',u"'-'l-

c4i

,''

.':l:ji,l:i . ';;,i ,r'.1,n .i:i,i:,-:" ,'^::.:': ,.,,"i...:;'1"1,,:'';;, i:. *;,i:.'"":
dprr,l r-l'. ' - tI t h lt d n :lr h to t

r;l t';"lit i'l'"li:':r :iir,:l/. J",.";:: ij ,;'j;:,;il ';l;iJ;1,, I :, -; ll',;i " j'11''"'';' ,;i.;j"i'i,,,;l ^",t:""*'i"l ""

a/ Substantiyelr de len masculin ( llasculir,r: Gnner) numelc fiinle de
r.rla. lrfro Iandlord

S 43

,/

Substnntiv.le ilp !4
gi Ntrcss h. r o' n.

fcminin (frni
laDdhdr"

in. GPNler ) nume"*ctiinte de
Ia.

$ J1

,:1e ../ !.n (onun (Catnnon Gender ) au o singuri for n -<ubllnntir€le trrrrlrtr nnbtlo serie:
..nsii triPd'! f l-rii. c l, ild puPr i t ! ac ! ! ef I upil

$ 45

Srlrttdrti!.lc de:tn n tru ()tut$ '.1./ . , I pc l" jo,r flinrp .'l ?t or
' "\ book s!.'xg

n€insu &ntlcr ) numescohiecLe
oti r,r inl"rFj"a71l

.s 46

"pF. ir r . ol lr de

estcrdlulal. cu alie cuvinte $ 47 [oderniLsenul Eramatical lrr lirolr eneGzd p dupJ .p\ ,,r unFlP et r.trp.ru I. t.,rlir-" li: tlor1n!61-,.,trgorii l,;ulo-i, or.€p1ii care. tccn.i prir {bal€rea lor de la regulii. atrag ateniia asupra prezelrt;i un€i interprctnri sdrtilo. scmnificati!€. in intenria vo.biton ui (ceea re elrcl.rii r., r,., ur.ra\,. t. \,p. pru,FlFU :'at: 'le obi.,; ,iLitotului l" ls o r.clrli obilnuitn np.,\i/J. '.,tr rl r un i'l"r', J .rn,pld .\"1,i"

0'""it;snl

*'ill

",t*t

se e{p,imnprin nijloacel,ri.dl€ saulranaticale.
FJ\PRESI.{ GE\ULUI

s4 8

A. tr\PRgSL\ LNIIC,ILA.{ GENULII ,\rcsl capitol Inprinzind titluri de politele, profesionale. ororilice. nobi ! 49 Ii'|- .,u di.tir.i|l a,"rdrt" p"r',,r rFrir. .t.'p;i ,11c. in 'en.r. supu'P unor u/.r,le i r-!Lli J. "rlolr3li- lrnro ol.rp.p-.rfl'..rlrlur,r d \or rplFrl rru cdluril. r'"nrioi,e . i,i i trP:i ur ii '' r;ilurr:i Pdirori.onla { .l U" '" .implili'At. 0minli'e 7r roela indi'51rrle .l'i"r. r-'p,. cl ii ;-".' - "'l l" ',u l" o b" "rtc -rn ' ' ii i. .. rc"o,i,r".l" . r'inilor:a l. 'pli "'n""r",Ji side . ln co trast cu limba romnnd. u de cele nlai 1l llasoulill si fomirlin. multe'subsl,antn'; au lonne diferite pcnlru a marcn dcosebifea de gen. tn limba €rElezd majoriiatea substantivelor au o singuli formi atit pentrr.r g"n rl r'..i"ulir'. . il :i ppnltu ,.1 h-init ? u rpndinls,jlr^'o I i!Fl'r" in ld\odI'un r i"a t"rrn.l"r d" me. ulin, prphrulF."lor le ,inine Toluir. rr ' zul Lrnui reiat;\' ;c de substan|ivi, Iemininul se dcosebe;t€de nasculin p n: a, uo sulil adiugat la lorma de nasculin ru sau liri altl modilicare l) intrebunrlarea a doui cuvinte diferite; .t .onlnon"i"o cu un cuvint care indicn serul; d, aite'nodali$fi de a se indica genul (gramaticale,prir contert etc)'
L Prin ,,hnba erglezi nrodcmiL" se inlcltge linla enlrl€zade la anul 1500pitri azr' : genrlui .onnm. dcLi -\pa.iiD

$ 50 $ 61

&) Ge aL marc&tPrin s lirc: .Safirul -ess: mascuLin fcni'nin
atb.,
a.lol adlenl!r.. imt' d sa '1.. i' rlhor t)aro' bpnpi{rt.r r,nd!.tn r t,oml, d. rt r .luke t ml €t?r Pn.har tf,r Iound.. siart god leir lannd er./ lion nrLlagt. J nrarquB ,

masculin
msl4r m,'trn' millionaif. ncgr ldtron ! o. t ldcst prince prior Droolet irciriet"" i'.oi""tsheptreFl sonAster steNard

femtnt'n
- misi.ess - malotes litroin's - lorrPis.-lrtewAs - Prtn@ss -- Proptrcrdss -lropriekess* -Protrcclr6's' shelhdil€ls son8stess

albas

arl\ent r r r Ar Jmb 6s ar t $' L rut nor es r - , laronas b 'rieiat Ps s - , d oc l( o) r Ar " duchas rmlr'?er - gtallesr -g oo u4s

-

rrr

- l*"':'
lioD"s nunagerdss m"r.hioness

-sllward.ss ticresr

.i.-"r waiier
ivar(lfr

- tFeount"-; - rart.css
-sddrtrs

li.tiii:'*-,[]"l,lll;iHm:.
-undergriiod4,e,'

- Nlarin(r srltan Jo,' - dond It l hrr sfdi ol F.: dornn, l a rnrnal srgroru sirno/ rliuui itrlicne) ncro P anl -P aul l ue undergrndue/. (glur!rJl

Doui substantrve au mascun ul fofmal' de ]a fcminin:
fhi.le) sroo bride widowa $'doir

S 52

b) Gennl in(licdr prin cuei e diferite: lasculirr

1 dai,r -

l sn,ql e rl j l l

*

,a 'e"ilu'jc'e ,,"'iardloa.' l:liii:i.lii' i":;iil[;:: #,1:.,l]'t..::l;' liTi:ill'irli :1,

!9 ,ro l a s u b s o l' ' l ) 1 o rn ' a d ! c at lc l r J a S 4 n qlc z

'"'j'i.r,l',:;:l',J,ll"H'J:'!r!lr f?,tiltjt-::,:l",l,,1li,t ijjllllll...,ii;',jlf;l.jJ",i,lillilli
..rt|.,nr,.,rr,/,ro.r..

.;'i'i'l:j1,,,1"1";:i::::"i; r'.j;':"r'-",' 1",'t,, L" " rnP t ",.l;;':; lorrn nLav arrL'!I. a t r - d t , , , r o, / i4- J ni
sa,,.a\,.a,in'1 :""::1"1xT'J i'li' ;.Ji,i;1111i;il'"'.ril"l"ii-" tns'mnara o'isine
'"il"Li- ".rlut*ij"lotu'iroare*
J,

x9

Iria.. I

Iinga
lad

llrs

\liss. lI$ 5, l\ladad{e)

Lord + nune Proprn,3 Stu+ nune !.o!ril3

Lady + rume Poprn,s Dame + nume Proprnrs

l;l'i;#. iliil' j",; l l ?:, ". ;l i:t.ll".l ;"i;,# J:9,T,,,i""'i"1 ,,,.,,i';t"0,,,1*L o'":::i,Yir:':":"*)T'3iX
"'

;i;2";}:^-i,::' ,1.'Lii,;':;";:::. i:[1";i";)':; ",,,","u,qi#;o;;:"t; 'd'J;i.iiil"'{i;is'l"l:r"). ,, .",is" n'u'j 0brd\ia" , Lur.d" '',r.
do
l.ebuieuimd '"ln |o'd ;ad n' ' ' 1"J nnI m "! t oPt i' ' ^m i5un. nd. ' ' | l ] , r soLialA in l"|io ar1 a\o .bi| or U|' |' ' I n. onlr 4' ' ' U||m ba. om . na

rrl':l'' s6 3 )i,",:ii";r;::,iii:,!rrt;:l;jr;i[:iri'Tl'u.{'i'"";r on;i::,'
"in, ry L":r

:1i,"nob ,n rmh p r,u pnr'"/rl. o,r, . ,-a n,n,,r

''iill"'i.i.,i"l "iili'"g;"9::'1,"1".";i"': "il"l;; :x,l;I'^x.: '1 li,'i"b"l,?;'Lli i[';ii3":j-I'?{iI;,il:l'iTiTi'i:':"""f;""i.ri"3,,,'i;;iii"';'llli " er". M,'. Choi^i,
-" ; CriA-;i;t;,"," prorrrii. accstesubstaniiv€aLriniliale majlscule: Pdpd, Mnnmd'

: ",:, i# ;n'; ::f'; i:!ii" :'i;t::', r: *t-[i"1{"', ";:'t "'r"r:' ,)l;?;,':.i.'-1ii;,1?,i'ii
';:i"j:1"'#,1'1,, lll:iF':i.f;:,?;" lij#i"Tl,l,1l;"i;"
s6 4 r1,]"r ".;r^:,i"il - b:t rit;. i, ;;, ;,',*.,,; :y:r ,l?t,*[l'1"ili, i.""11,S
bF ilU md'.inn ,'1p dp ldm 1|ip( naiobi' n' ||nn: |d! nr |' ' |' n' . indicet r e aDa rd.|n |im|ld|. ] ' 1lioda|i, ns J d.(nLn"pd. |J m ' |t s n n 9 . . j p ir O li\ i"' l. t/dy . So l i i l u Olr' rkr. ma i d -s 5;" Lo upt u", n' . iodr lr im ee r ( ' r 5 d u r r l n 'r F " I edv dlivie !. L dlu $ rp or "liiJ r ' ld p 7n ;4i" , . \ ' . / i li Lo' d 1 1t jn urui raror,r "o u deordlc cu o .h.I to td, ' o[ t h' B' it t h Lr pi ) \ n r "t m a r l n 'r ] r a d ro14,ntoodla

' - ' ' , " ! :';") :;"

ol'"i,i.l';"""",.,i

",i d.oori, " , p , r' r, / d , r' n s o , i, b n d n , n r

+#',ij:it;ii;.ii", ]':.';*ik"'r" il;#dfli'["flflH,i r::i:"",'ri,.r

30

$56
Mdsculin

Gen comun

I illJ

{5 6

.) G.nut m.,rc.lt pri.ntr)tn cdfint cdfe Lnd;cd se$ul
FcmLnin
rnd.groorr bo)'' ls a u n'anl run
gifl siud.ni shopgirl

r;;,. iil;i;; ;: ",-';* :rr,x;1"i:,-ilr-"r i,;{.1i, .,,,l'i'ii'l:

ii''i#Ii['i'1'i'* iifri;i"",r iti ," i,';',":i,
,f i, 1i; " 0 i
lin lr\it IrrLFrl.r' r i, i i ''l

:; 1',: 1, illt,:;;;;, ,11;'1,,;1,',
,,:l- ":;: ,'l;
lr l

u ,n ,,ir

3! llasc lin Fcminin

Gen comun

rilisleornc/pl ) shopkce!$l ai rarl nsiro.rut. splce i.lrveller
An i m a l e bull calf

d.c

buUdog ]re bi.d billy-goat

Inll biich

d.) Alte nodalttdli d,e ind.icarea genalui t(mtunr Odat5 cu emancipareafemeilor qi cu lncadrarea lor pe scari lot nrai largd ln diferitele sectoareale vietii €cononioe ti socialerezeryatepiri relatir recent bdrbatilor. nxmeroasenume de profesii. funclii sau demnitdli, precum ti mulie substaniile care 6ratd apartenenla ]a o orgflnizalie politicn, sociald, sportivE etc.. au inceput, sA fie folosiie !i la f€minin. de cele mai multe o tntr o formi identicd cu aceeaa masculinului. ali,eori cu anumite modiliciri. ca, de pilda, adeugareauDui sufi! sau a unui culint (fcmale, girl,ladE, naiLl. aoman) care se indice sexul: player, Aicountant. clerk.d.octor, (bus .)drieer.engiteer.farmer. mechanic, sritet, authorl paet, lead.er, secretar!,teacher, M.P. (Llenber af Parlianent), prime Minister, captain. Lajor, sergean\ comnunist, socialis!, acc. .hantian elc. sint denumiri adoptate fltlt de bdrbati, cit !i de femei. ltuthores\ atialrh sau arialr?ss. cond)tctress, Ambassadrcss, d,octrest, ed;tress,inspectorcss, mayorcssjpoctess,girl studefi, girl tgp4t, Iadll cashier, laiLA san teoman doctar, Ladg report$, Lady tApist-seffetarA, femaLeeditor, female san watnan naaeList,eaman artist. aoman aeiator, wom&n cLerk, eoman councillar. wonan ruslonler, waman jodrnalisl, eaman Membcr of Parliament, aoman eriter etc. slnt substantive de genul femjnin, dar rar intr€buinlate ln engleza actuali-

s5 7

s5 8 s 61)

,2 Pentru desemnareagenutui len1irii Ia numele dc prof€sii etc., subsian_ ca ln-paragrafrrl din doud cuvinte scriseseparat.. tivele de gen feminin com-pus€ precedent, fdrd cratine, sint inlocuite in mod cureni prin substantivele de ren ma"tulin corFsDUnrbrosra - mri preris spus d" gen .omun taF rdiugar"r cuvint,rlui.Jrc in.li"a epnul hmirin ,^c*la est" adiugsl, num&i aiunci cind nu se inlelega din conte\t .; esie vorba d€spre o lemere: Gemrl teminin indicat prin pronume:
ir P | : . , - , i _ll. ' \ eJ n , ir..S n r Ctnit gennl feninh a D :.t, ' 1 " r -. t r--i \' . 1 ..' -i 1 ,. m\ d' { \ \" .i bl uP )-

5 60

reies.. din c.)ntext. cneintul carc indicd genul este

dactar'a gil tllpist, elc TlcY wrnted to halo a @oDaD \ t tt s ;' l [' i P4 J r" \ rJ n j ' " I n A nE lja ex i s ti o b i c e i u l c a p ri rn a s c .i sorre tri rni sa de o f" mei c une unosn u . ." a i b n m ;n l i o n 0 j n prrsnl eze. dupi sFmndtu16. I'r'n . , r p n- bi

5 - 61

rurss sau llrr"s,spre e\ernplL: ,.7.G. Patker (Miss)' Ilditar", o practicx foarte utila Dcntru FIiiara- -r^;ilnr u cdrp.rrpa 1..punsului,rn "pe iel rn rozurile 1n "siF 1'n1r.i', re ind,'"rd prinrF,,' .ub.l;nrir J^ "n .run "' d''ol. cd.itu, la$!.r, Iibrarian elc. csrc iBalici nalionalitotea sRu provcnienla regio2) Gcnul substantiYelor nali. - Substantivele compuse cu termina,tia - man! lorlneazii femininul prin adnugareacuvintului wrman sau girl.' lll ascnlin
an Dngiish''a'/4 isatr snt.) a D u i c h (,ord' (satr s,rl ./

Toate c€lelalte substantive care indici nalionalitatoa sau provenienta regionald a unei persoaneau o singur{ forme penhr ambele genufi ,siapa4in aladar gcuurur comun:
lias)0 Eriton Dritisher Bulgar

cantahigians

Uneori. p€ntru a se e)tprima in rnod special genul feminin. dacl aceste nu reiesedrn contert, se adaugi tromdn sa\rgil 18.adjectivul corespunziiior:
r P o m i a r l /rronr" san gtrl r .l i p a i e s e /@ ,r,i san gtfl l I a Spanish faDmaD sau 1 a T d rk i s h fs,ona, sau sif, st.l ,

I G.P.: Cctoat Ptactiti.ner I ntrdni care p.aotioil medicina geteralil. sin t ac r lpat i c d ld S i0b 'n\L fpliil, I Esn, lFlp rat ar t ! J lm ent e t u\ r nt ' r lr i I i, r i a D,",oDtaz : din Der.nsnife. r r r , r b; ": o i1 t..|in\,. "fa a@tr;e;o n - dp la Lan, l, r , t gr 6 Or.nio r -. d " t j n\ h", 1 od, r "4. r . 11 t. , L J I

B:I 3) Ccnul comu . - liriemple de substantivc de gen cornun:
, 'l'rll etistr, artistel rilerk .odrnunGi. .odsh , ook (Iclist orphan pcsidcni eDemy gucst pupil lcotuler render .clalivc mol.orisl ( Vez i f i $ a: - 19. 6ll lrnjrr socialisl, slcakr. traleller lypisl: ris'lo.

S 62

Notd Unele subslaDlive de gen masoulin sau feminin pot fi intrebuirlate ea sJL.lanlived" gcn,nrnun da"5 din .onLe\r .p In'"lFgF,l1r.r ". p rorbr dp h-,ini'r. Din r"ar. i un -ubqtrntr\ .1"gen, nn,unSi nu dc unul '.lo ulin -r,r catrgoh€ fac parte:
pis lor duck goose, etc,

B. XXITiXSIA GRAIIATIC-ILi A GXNTIUI l) E{presia grarnaticali a genului consti din: p' onurr"l l.-,nr'dl cor".,./ to.i brli.sl-d ir'l^ ,ri'ii .ubstantivulLi1'rirr .i drldr. rrds ulrr .du lFt]rnir: l, r' -1.r. lr nFr.osrs " :: d
TIrc do.rof Las come. but s/,e is ht.. is out : , . i€ii u, hour r so . ]Iy.o , it /

ss3
s$4

,) acoldul substantirului cu adjectivul posesiv respectiv sau posibili tnlocuirii lui prin pronumele pos€siv corcspuiziior. la le|Soara a :l a t.ti :irqular. masculin sau feminin: u'$ :r'onr.rtld w.dins ,ts red tie?
'Uie s/;rel had done l./ iesL lo. thc w.ll Enzetle. 'fh. @.&cr took hoDN lhc pap.N l,hat $c.D niJ. (li!. r.rd.tuf l,hes. notes: Uify re l4-s. The.d, is caling oui or that boirl n-"canseit is rts own.

!6;

c.) acordul cu pronumelerellexiv sau cu pronumelc dc irtiirirc respectiv, h persoiinaa 3 a sirgular, masculin sau femrmn:
vpr, u .ou, l , , h: n+ lf | , l i: | - r . I r J is ,d b y . h , o . ' ' : . r' a.;.0 hq' . . ". b . . , jor ing n, ; 4/ nn "p$as pmb '; a so..o lan 1: l$ionai d. lolrall ntns.Jf and .nplaincd Thf led,f./ the collesc tcam. I was lokl the laael had d.signcd l,Lc.osl,rmcs narll.

s66

2) Crtzuri specitLlc infort $i .7/ird,,;nJ r'-.J Jrn un,.i rn."1rx:r.i ,/ :uh. dnri\Fle baL,J. .. t.rl n r.-J sr-L dF obi.Fi n-u r". m€i al-s ir li'rbr \orbil..: t t' , .h brb! .romis i i5 ,rJ:r3. ts hrnch. Calltlul, clitd and sive it'or:
"lhis liflte c,t4, lad tited ni Dr arms a gaod Irfft ol trs sdrall lilc; oltcn I could sel i, io lausli Nlien ttu rnothoi couldn't. "x{v mother dandlcd ae and sms, 'll;w roung i, is, how young'."'

s6 7

r dttisl a:\ artiste slnt sulstantive de g€n comnn, dcci antlele lnlrcbuinlnte {til . , " . , mei,"r,,: p.D ru iJ r b. f : o{ ; . ' I o: t J p. I . r gd In l . . t . . u r 9.. r.t dF..ffrrsf., ' r. ,-, di.,.,o1 ldlFrlal', , . r "m r ahDldl- s , "r , u gusl u l i . . l , '. , , " r , " p a r , . t : i . d- . h[ o: l' I o.,,,pi lo rira. u np ori..r Llp' oi. . . ". ulpo"ir J .",. ' I . i , ,,,i .r tr.I_. ..d n rpald' . . . d , n" . 1 , ". ' F o"i" a l ', 4 r r o ' lor ". *, unlsr uLre dr r.!rcz4 t djii o, t , , bl, rll T\rain. ,1 caiLe.ticut Iont.c ,t tintg Lflhut's L.ttt. I \\:.ts. r*cats. Th. Pldy.r Qtt.:.t. j - Granatis limul engreze

34

ir

insn r.este subsl.antil e sirt considcrate mascutine sau tcmnrine. In funclic de serul copiilor r.spectivi: ^d€seori
I gar c hly h .r n j l l l : ..n . \6 i rn g rv . '1hat d'ild lL{sr'L ral.n /.ts loridgci fu Nill he &,oldrd aglin.

s 68
$69

D_/PronurnLtr: ne;; s/rc indicii in general diferenla de Fex. Une.rri inlo(uieso tns d nc ulr ul, r a i n c a z u l p ro n u m e l o r n e h o tdri l e: Il ]on aslt a,rrdy iD lhrt sti! t. ne Njll shoiy Iou $h.rc st,etiv.s. rftt. S 114d1 . J S , 11, . , r ti \p l p .r' . a ri m u l c ti n, tu.r, p-.rri . pnc i ci i n.p. rr) ' 1 , -rn p -. ri nl ' - r p . l, s p n p rr" r.a /r' ..l ,r,r,t' rn ' i , r;.n..1i \:' .r-.un,ff' r' : ' ,Js" \ul Thc rrll hid liurl t/s lis. ;\.,//' Nas scnrlnrqout ts r.nrnrthatri coclia doodle,doo. Se atrihuic inBir adeseori arestor subsi,antivo gcnul mascutin, indiferent \\ .. .t -t n t /." a J t,fl r' ,r,r. t," ous t. | ,.. h L Ud ".:u ,t,,... on,.ri \..Lr ..1' Th. r.ii.l. d rhr storl Nas "The Cat lhar I'alks br ]tnn!.tf'.|lool I i i t,

\ \ i , . , e l 1 i , , i , l i i r ,,""in

, \ nior iiele. i n s p F c i a l{ i c h d o m e s tj c e .s i nt i nsI desemrare ti pri l ] t)roD ul nc d e g. nl c , ) r esp u n z n to rs o ru l u j l o r. rn a i a l cs atul r.i ci nd ti sc n,er;ri t,D rnzd n u niele s au c ind i n l ff\,i c o n .q i d c rrn tcd e ordi n ai ecti r: Th. ,.d. lrld /r. cnlJs la,l leit l trail. ' ilf . ! \ ir . l o o l i h g a i a i c r i n l l ,./ c h i dons.
'l l r: , , .,

t . l \" . I l, ir nii s c ri i n rI d .! l o r !o n i f l i d i $ l rr i s l i e Ii ,l i i g? ,c .l rrrl . i.' r, In F" ^:.ra.r ' ,n, S . . r if " , r , t s s t x rJ , u rrl i l r,u ;: l a lL 'r, r at l, . . . " l) o ro n tL i n k n /..1 s ," C|i1d. " \ \ . 1 1 . I l i i p i o l l ,i D k r. n o ,i ..s "

-,r

',r.

u:1. r' ,l . rr

Cind ur arinlal €ire pl'rsorilicat. pronumclc corcsprnu itor vr li i. sau sia. dupS ser. in cazul pirsonificdliloi tn ca"t, nu irtereseazn r:onsirleratiite d e s ex . s ubs t a n ri v e l c c a i e d e s e m n e a z n a n;nal e narj sau puterni ce /rri dr. .]|?hant. Lion, nnk.g. tigcr, do!, donket|, horse. pig etc.), [i citova in af;r, de a|csLea (cdnortl, flu etc.), sint de obicei rnasculine, pe cind ce.lecare desennc{zii animale ])iici sau slabe (rlrari.sr. rut, hdre. 'N]:'.]e pisii . tarr"rl erc., ins.cte €1c,.) sint, feminine. Fa terja hotirnlte lnsii in najoritatea cazuiilor: T lic dr nli. " , o N trl l i rfd to l i r n a s te r o l th. trfal cnt rrc had recei * d. T lif , n r r e l i rrg l d l i l a .l n r s l a mc . ''Ilrt the ,{rr.D sii,Linslonelr otr l|ai rlacid busl,sooke orlr Tli.l o,,e wonl, as il l,ts soul n, ih{t ore s.rd /E did ouipdur.,'?

s7 0
$?1

m' d nhi. nlr il / ,,h i :, p 1 r' ,r/a { n u l na:" 4n " a,r /,r?;,;, di n l i -bi cn c lr / a \ p, hp , ,tu n " : , rrr.l rrn l i u n i l - rF s p p .ti \p .rnt tor.ori l i " d Sint. in genere, masculire substantivele care denumesc: ?ariunile intense : ,:i acliunile oiolenLc anger ,r ul, l c a r. te rro r,1 o \.. ,l i ro rl . d e s l ai r;.rj mc, rnddc., $ar. ct.:
Iii|li.g. Jr."r v .l;or;,.i. 'll. z l.:.\. I'or. t he l|at.h.

perso li(iri. - In stilul poetic sau retorio,un numir mare de /l -q.lto substantive -- nrrrnede objecieDeanimate sall de abstraclii.considerate in

denente (ale naturii)j fenancnele naturalc .\i a.spectele aLin naturii imPrestnilnte, pnturnlcc eLc.: storo, thund.r. wirdr snn, mounlain. ocenn, river. sfreimi summer, anhrmnj *n,tcr, iime. drl, sleet, ileaUr.tl,c grave (- moa.l.cal,etc.: tr !,11111 3i: d{nger, las'. etc.

!73

ru,r.le dc flnlii, rirri:
i i.te de mrnti :
]ltn

lr,c Danubc,thc Thanrcs, the Iihirc, cl,
Neris, the Cheviots, Scai!]l, Skiddas,, cl..;

s 7r
$7

Sint fcmininc substantirele care sugereazi o &raLtnittit:ai frmini. d s^n ,,r rnracter m|n. bLind,dr ce, a/er,arsr prcrum ti cclc care .ntlicn fertiLitate.L: illi'ite sentitnente ei insusiri: ', io". r'\o .on. I r' I |o l, n, ,nl |, . .1,.' Lrt| Lum'l.tr
o.l" . . mp t.u,.u h .Jrh . up. , ju5r h. . r . . . . . "i . t . ; , . i , ", ,,.t,,, "...

s7 5 s? 6

r.:(1e triLedluridc cdructer \atire $. consecinlele lor: urlition, ir.rice, enrX.lolly. j'ialous"1', ranilr, !ice, el..i lfidc, r\.0ngc. Lr.ason. Atftft obiecteL, d.in naturil.: fenome elefi aspectel.e
' ' "| | ' ' noo n'n '|dI''5 "'.\\o ||d: ' ' |. . p|: ' g'

s7 8
n....5i v. p' a-.. f."1r\.

rit.r:r

nume de abstraclii:
I b, { ' J .

" , . \ er. r\. eto rn ry. er |p"i"r ' . r ^m 4. . nr ' u- . p,n" p,.i y, lrulh . vi, o". \ . . n . "ir n. , .

s7 9

nunlc comune4i proprli terinrial-ad.ministratioe (numelede tnri. provincii. tiiuturi. localiti,ti etc.);
.otrDtry. 1and. fathe and. nor.herland.etc. llre SocialjstRepublic ol Rotnania, G.eaLtsrildn. the Soviet Lrnion, !'raice, 4to. Scotlind. Delon, Lanci6hire, cte. Rooliarest,London, Mosoow,etc.

s 8{)

O situatieaDarte o uu numclcilc tiri: geografic, d'-l p ;ite iin punct de vedere' sinl de gen n.xiru: ace"qtca
Crer r'iratn is an island. th capital is London. lD 1!61,i, liad51,40t.023 inhabitants. poliiici, d'l privitc din punctul de vedere al wielii care le animn ermonic{, literari, muzicali etc. mai ales inpliclnd Ei lcgrituri rfective, nunele de.tnri sint adesea l'e,,tntz€:
71" . S a:.li t n "p tbl( al F nnn: n hd ' . r iJ . r b\ ' d"\-, / d, . ar,{.- n -5 ;o t o ,lv m oult n: n. : s L? l, { ' : 11. , . Ione $as ih€n in the days ot ler 8lory. oppl /,.Indp.

$8r

d'"_./ in limbaj spo.tir', eohipelecare iau parte lfl o competirie internalionali poarti numele ldrii pe care o reprezinti, nume care, tn gramatici. este considerai ca substantiv peffonal colectiv, acordal c\\ thelj, their |i eho:
nopon:o \n 'l /n,i" lrJ J l $innins lr p D, d: , Cr p. t ; ] at Btitr.^ ,' .rorp lo $inning hd 4\ \ or ld ChJ n p i o r :p .

d"") numele tlrii este dat, ti sul'eranului ei, in special in literatura mai \ ffl)e (vezi Shakespea.e, picseleisto ce, 'King Lear", etc.), precum ;i nurnele de regiuni legate de titlurile nobiliare puri,ale de personajelerespectiv€:
.t n o, -t . o\.rr-., A '. a . ".sl, - e- el" ll, nr ' ". , 1 . - r "t.o"\toll, , \ n. . r t' . .t tttonJ e .. t-iI.. 1." l'.t1,.,. t -'.". i. , . . 11. 1, L, r al llt r J n ,, '. l.r' sOnslc"irt"Iilnsl-c{f". dar . a' s r { f Dilif , , lLLiii\ or ilit ir o|j s . j n i r .

86M N, r m ^1. ilF /r;/,r" r,/,,/; .i n l to l tp m i n i n p: Cambittge ULi'ersitlJ, Ox[ad] (jLire.sitlt, late UaieqsitlJ, .t

s83 $ 8r

Numele dr.l.lrJ" qi ale tti;rlelor art, thiloso|hY. scicn.c, el0.

etc.

Denurnirile de pare a Ii lnzesirat

noloare, st1niui,
r€rolrlont.

toI ce

I o ' o , n o L i v c ,! f f -

Neutre pentm majoritatea vorbitorilor, denumirile acestor obiecte sint ad.spahrnininF. tn spF, isl pcrtrJ p.rsosnclc.ar.l. manipula€z; :i sint ata-are
I a \p r. "o r o o. m v . . ' dn | | r 1k , . / . , our " ! " r v d J v . qn, t t a r j a , i n t h " n s l " s o D l ] d . \{J p.";" .,a t hp t t ot b. "h?, ot t ah"a \1r.r i- h r I nalr ir $i . o. r , o/ o, ," t l. r : s r - s o . . s r o n r ? I s"j.d lh g, , . : . n. ia. n ou. . \ ' ^ nnJ p l .

srl nd;d{i l. I r \l'ijn nrnnpls a-d e". Bi4. dtuk".

!a 'i.1

Ssr:

Distinctia intre obiectclemasculineii celefeminine. a5acum a fo:t erpusi _ lr a.acl pLnir. nI ,51. LAdpir,rtr..pp'lat6 ,Jp Loli auror;irtip..rp dintr. ri l.\in.t Inu libcr ;msginrlrel. ln rezumst, tot ce at'esau pare a avea o personalitate- {io un alinal. o plJnl ."u .hi.r u l,i.ru ,dr" dpcimnatprln pronumel.ppf"^r"l n.., utin ' ..,r hr.;',in, dupr crz. Dir pu rir ,, fiinl4" lip.itn de nersonaLtaie c"oiii m i' i. arrimalcle si-r dpspmnare prin pr,num"l. 1i ,tiarp"r."in"t"rr,a,ur.. personalneutnl it. cu iormele corcspunzitoarc ir fi ;rsef, sar disprcluii,orltuit. o plur0litaltd" .obi," o. . _pJSul'btali\olo oolp.lire. .drp dcsFmnpd?d pri\rlF.a Jn rol si .urp ..,or',truip...u Jot tla gpnul n-Ltru: "ij.;ularLl3.
'lhe .feQ nds obeyed nr olliceN. The fdnil!/ is praud ol tr membeF. The arltr. which rns trlt ot ts usurl e,rthusiasm, .rlrsscd ii unrcsorcdly(Pe^tn lturnl yezi S tt!)

IY. NU.}IANL'L SUBSIAI-TIWL OR CONSIDERATIIGENERALE Substantivclc pot, avea doui numere:singularqi plural. 1) LInsnbstaniivest e la sirgnlal ( Singula;N n ;be; ) arunci cind desembool w:rlcli )abl leaf

neaza un "qrngur oDreci:

_",

tJru,'i pt tat ( Plarat Nunbet cind desenneazd ) atunci TJ,::?l'r "stera
loots Falcles babies l.ares

Nu au plural decltsubstantircIe numeiabile.
1a etu r,lon ? aipl n" t An ) . n. ) 2(1 . tin o, tBt En"t L, lt C; on, nt . \ ' ) , ,\3. New-York. 19ri1. r($ -orld Jo u liLc to ; auJ , U, / . , , r . I ; r ' ) , t'eing o\rnrd bj dr. FancJ se.jng i/ pvfl 3 \'e 7i !' 11 2a.

NUMANUL SUBST^NTI\TELOR

87

ln )imba cnglezd,in mult mai mare misuri decit in limba rolnini. nu erisi:1intotdeauna un acord intre lorina substantilului si numdrul tui: cuvi te cr: iormn de singular pot avea inleles dc plufnl invers, cuvirte cu lorme de plural pot avea intelos dc singular.

S 89

PI,URALUL SUBSTANTIV]'I,OR 1) Ileguli gcncra)i. - Pluralul substantivclor sc formeaznaddugindu se .l"J dupi con.oanala surdpr.i [z] dupi .Flc la -s ring,rl ar.\.csr \ sp Irron,,nl sau rlupAvocalele c€re sc i,r{l: Eonorpr
ch e q ue .|.q ucs

S 90 $ 9l

tsl tsl Is tsl

bead chrir rir.jle nccl

--heads -.hairs .iril|s hecls

lzl lzl lzl l,l

cinola

cn'enm

tarcc

-payees

lzl l21 tL1

tri S 9S

2) Substantivetelcrminate in c mut preoedat de litcrclc c' (d)9, s sau z' pro,,unlar.rFspari\ l.r. l r.. ldrl. ., vu fzl ptim,. "'H tlural l.,minrlid -.s llltr lrlonrLnlofu lrzl:
8das. - garagcs
rillagc jnds - o -village.s - juds . r

terni atil la singutar in lii.crete -s' -x' -z' -sh: -ch LtJl $ 93 3) Substanl,ivele primesc ternjnalja -rs la plural:
bn*r claser -- Io\.r - lillLzes lez.zta \nizz.s fliintr iish I'cach mrtoh s.nd\i.| pincc{cz -.hinl,z.s lrshc bea(,hA .. Datch,s -saDdNichesa pi!.c+26

A se observa pluralele plasses(sg. plus) Fi rareori,llJscs Gg. bus) (i'eDit din SU,\). Obscre&t,ie Substantive.letumiDate in -ch pronunlat [k] sau hl6 urmeazn regu)a generah erpusi la inccpuLul acestui caprtol: , ',',,r' 'r- ri..t' r/ah. t-t.l tkl [].1 ',nufl'i i ' n i h l.Ll p a r r idn h l ." ,i d r.l ' . ' k . r, L
aDoch - t'd t-tl -cloflis L-ksl loc\? " on l xl -lochs l'.sl 4) Substantii'ele terminatc in -y lrecedat de co'rsoani lomeazn pluralul !n -ics3 astiel:

s9 4

s9 6

Ad i . r , p) 6. n l. ' . U , l h l , L l . t . L l i i 0 . . J,i ,, ' , i, , 1 s nnir . h b l tJ L E .L I-. In l .J n .' u l . a .r\-.i [,]' . i Su b sldn' : v ' ll l@ds " sprfi ' l i I' pl " ' r. t h ru s l -l e u ! i h d u /.4 d " o I ' r^nrnl i cT ! l i ".r'., / r . " nl \ i i t.ar' \r' Il pr on ,n ra l .d :i o r' rn^ri r' " a rs td .t. l " ro rd n ' . 1 ,,' .1 rl ul r . n" l " ' . " o' I u1 .l ' l i n '-i mb ,' l' il lt r i ? Dronuntat flr-\'. 3 i crminilia: i. . - f ons le d i n s tu i l (s e mn Lp Ll d ra l u l tri ), l ror.ni l di n i r.nsf.rf,a.ca v ocd 0 i Ii .i l e : ? s i ' e I t oc rl { { l c l .g i i l !rl 1 l .

B8

!... | !; i: rrrm^1.r'n.trir :i t.,rril.,1" rorl'ira .ub.rrnrirarc. in mod .L cu rnrur r\ce ronrr:
ou. l,$o L .1s rll il,r llcnf-{s thc l,vlvs llif Tlr.fs slitrid D\-s $hr-s

96

(ln irsn -)' e,{teprourlat de 1.ocalii.l.r t,lural se adaugi nunai un -s pl|,oun!it lzl:
iroy r)o]s (liv d{Jrkft lic.lJ

117

Substa l.ir(le teurin.ric ir -qu} nu (msliluie o e\.eptie. dar tiind cX .'r'rul rrt F/.r'r J ,'l , a ".re o:,',,; ro.rl; ' fri 1ir,r. / "r t,r,,,l. n' iI Pr P: cu l\\ l, o e.r ,.Ir ' r r . ' t
'.r colloqtrI - - ( olloqui/:!ol lrtrr pt I . llit i: - solLloqfiis r)1,r1i...1

si fornrrlr rlf lhr.nl rll] rrrtrr:LtLirutui substa ri\': -{ !e oLrscry.r
is ! r lk , li s ir n

lrl

5) lI i(,ritatre slbslfrti\clor t.nrir.rte jn singularirr "f sau -f0 primesc .t ]a t)lural:
. lr ' linr . ll. n lr i , l it r ic r r r LLlf glr ll iLr Q f l , : l i, a! lr indk f r lr il f s g. . i\ nnr it r gr lls dnr r t itfu.i ijtfl srn, Ii ! sirilc - Irroofs ililr, silcs ijl,,s *s t r i i e s

99

tlnclo substalrl.ivcld.ninatc in -t sau -Ie formorrar nir.i pluralui in -/es Prcnuntat lrzl:
i, . . I lPaL s lr eNt Lh' f i loaf . r LI lru bf ( ?s 3 len'.r s r r er r is lhigr s - lo{ r . r - - r ! l. r - lulr'.s clt sr,[ slltl lroli krile tilt, wil, -. L,ps s!tr?.s .hcl,.s \ol.cs kni|cr tn.er \rir"s

-

100

un eazspecial: srill,iilr, (: nat,,ri n,,,artn). pt. .ri/i/-t'tr. Citevasuhstantire au anrbele folmt de pluial:
s.rrrf slafl s.rd.ls. srinr(.:: si{flJ. star.rr llDf N'll{l - Ioris lioorPi; $liitrls. lthures.

l0l

6) r, Substnnt.ircl. termirato in -o preccdairle consonnjt iornreaziDluralrl in fs cind sint cuvint€ obisnuites:r, inrroduse de mai nutrn vremi tr Iimba englezi:
r go _ r (,ho.r lr.sl olr lrcroA inos qr ilo/ j rdio lres, o lr.ro m os qI ilo nfgro l{l.llf o loriilo lornado iofll d0 rfto negro.s polalo..s t o m a l {r c r - t o r n {i l o ? r L.fpedo€s - rrlo.r -

-

t "on n r , , jp. + . . . Ft i\ |. r r t lr . t , , , ,, 2 "1.,.. i.,r \ t / . . / . , r . 'r r , ii lu, , / . , . , . . / , . ., I: n uma i. ci!{t niseadr ii, . v it r ir f ir t r r ibii. r , , s n a , . i r l . ' ' l . \ n^r ' ' . ,, r ve zi l. 14; 5 U,rrli,l / . r . , ?J . s lr . r , i . L rl!,a.. r s t r nnj t r , Ff i, ' r f ( lr f it , , r dr A

dii.Iil.'r calii,',tide rarne de racl)

oa

89 S 102

,J Cind nrsn.o final este precrdflt de vocali, plura)ul €ste rcgulat (adicn t€rminat in -s): porioiolro .nbrro iolio nnnoio Iamboo cx(ntoo edbrJos lolios lunoios -}amboo.. - 0L,clioos lorlololios

radio -rrdios secnario - s.en.rios shtdio sl,rdios Hindoo Hindoos Lang&oo ltangaroor g 103

c, Dintre substantivele terminate in -o prov€nile relaliv recent din limbile sirnine (tn special din linba italiann). un€lc capii,i -s la plural dacd stnt mai pulin frecvente sau daci au o sonoriLal,c prea sirdin6: albino cnsino .h.ono dJnanio rugnfto allinos -.asinor .hrodos dXrrno.s - magnetos photo prrno q ra rl o lhoios p'{nos -rN nrtos

d) ,\ll.e substantil.e strnine iefminfltc in -r) au ambele forme de plural, fapi car€ dovedeDte e; sjnt pe ealc (lo a li asjmilate de limba eurenti:
b.njo iJra\d: .alico (ontralto orino3 i. a . n;o 1. . . " o ,,h" ' o grolro halo banjoer -barjor, }|a\or, hraroes .alioos. 0llico.s - r orl.ralLo.(, *n|ralLt do!,nh8 -dminos. I nin eo lr , . r ' s o. " - fr"., o " Ir ". o, _ jh.||,,.. t "|lo. . gtullo.r -grottds. lralo.s -halor, l.s$ Danilcno daronto nrollo torli.d ! r o\ i. o olo . , , t r LU stiletto lola.ro -l.sso.", lrssoes manireslos, minireslo,s ncmcnhs. mencnlocs - xiottos. nroLtods torti0os, portico.s t ! . \ " 'r . t r o v r 'o , s .op"dt - . . opr . , n o . - stjlcttos, stilcttoes lo!a(os, Lobir(,oc.{

! 104

ln timba contemporani. substantivelesirnire terminalc i -o la s;ngular tind s,, iib., li pl,r'.'l rmb.lp r"rmindrii. e) ,\brcl ialiilc terminate tn -o primesc la plural sufixui s sau 's (vezi

s 184).

! 105 S 106

7) Suhsiantivele terninate in -th prim€sc -.t la plural. Tcrminntia {}s se pronun,tn[0s]: de o rorale scurti sau de o consoanii, indusir.r: d, Ctnd esteprecedatd breruri, deatni, nout, sn,iLhr, births, he.rthi, hcnlths,siaurr, nroDtlrs ,, in cuvintele:
lcaLhs, faii}s, !+owths, sloths

c, In celelalte cazuri bath j',uil'
Orlograliat li tyfo. ./on,m '/tus (trrsoaDi. I'aina

l,ls se pronunld Idz]: tborol ai',.0I
Iatl,s nouths ti{lhs Io u l .Is lbo,dzl t atrb4 fpo:ozl l j r:0zl

l: nwtit,or. rovi(l

40 Unel. substantive au insd amb€l€ pronunleri: lrrutl'.lrJ0sl . I tl -81 I Ilrrc:01 broll,s Ibrrdzl,tbrr:osl mdle.iale) I tkl.Ol olollN [kl.0t (: Ie]uride slola, Irlluil sau alLe
1 .,, [ lrlh L "d Jre dh " . ll . 1/ l bu il, J " J n i J pln/r s ru rl -, r,.0r lo :01 o ..oi ,f.:o i ] uLh, s r LLlu' , i4 ( : ll' int s l - dr ll' " [.u ldll' s r lo: G , o, 0"oJ ' l' lf li: 0. 1, - . l, i

mJtpridh)

| 107

rn, 0.. r J/] [ir,.oj \tr J lF r'i:0-. "i:n/ \rPdrl' iri 0r Urmdtoarele subslantive fornreaze pluralul 8) Plurdle rcregulirte. prin s"himbarea vo";lci t tlutotrcn PI.rrttk):
lo,l -let 1, , 1, h - i€€t h g,0se - ge€st morac: lozse - mnie -troe

lJ/l lo:1/l l ', J t i . ') / l

s r08 s 109

Trei subslantive primcso termrltdlin '€n: brothe.- btthr,n- {! 14s) child- childre, !€zi acfsle iuvniic, (Penl.rD cotrluse ctr S 16! 1tt) substnrlivclc 9) I'lurals cu acecrfi lormi tn li sirguhrelo respettire: Unele substantive di limba ntglezi au aceeali lorma utiL la singular, cit ti la plural. Din aceasl.i Lategonc iac lartc: o, ' rl,\d d, un.rrr !1. drr,/r' \d l6l); l/ sub.lbnliv.l" o/r'l \ - 0'u :'r 1 " ',i 1or"7 s s L l p t [ ; i s c ''a ,./ |a , I s:s,./ iLhs ld' I iv "r n l. t ,l . mJsurS. ca dr ur,pl, .ub.rarrir" '1'- J.nu,er. urilrii I'plufal aldturi J" lorma patthl.cton., rrrr"ori r:r,r',i/or.;-r,dr". fothon,taot, it spp,ial ia -s. aL,si i"rm dn plurJl , nl,' it rJ'',.i., (u ",, pa u siagularului. 'cilrd sint umatc de un nuneral ce ildice subdiviziunile sau " tn limbai'orbitn, de un adjeciiv: The wil.e. sas tci f.t, ls{n faat) ttitt\er' 'fhe
n..p. rikc Nas LPti latlon(s) 'fh€ d.ptll ol l.Ie $atu wrs lour /nr','ns Itc is si' Io, l t dll r \'''i I ' l l l l 'r / l\ Poaot ll'r ol t \ o t . , "d' .' p J v ldr - i ; r rr' DJ,u, "iJ \ h " lu inl ..l . : lr ' J F, , . t / ) ". n" , (rl l 'r o l \ ' l" l or ' . . ' J '.o ' / t li ' (\i,i i,i 5 l.lB9i oI l " r ':

itt.

unitatca de nisuri' Subsiantivul rl.Jn.s.cind des€mlreazd sl,c weisl's tcn !tr'?: s[o hasrrt on wcight.
Tric! b;rlghl l.*o r/dre oi ilour lot lhc .anteen.

esle invadabil!

n '" l " r l a 5lo' ioue \ 'F d f i ',/ ,, ld. , / " r\ca d o. : - i' r " s ir r c u 'r . d L ' l , 'r i ' Srnsrltr lruoa. , "' , ' lo' r,m.' fo rtu.rl .",r;..j . l' r 'r r " l , / r 'r ' ui"u' D r . t a n d i r i J 'r " " ' L l 'u ! l . r 'l u l iI t in , r' na, nd rar.p lrd'lL - 1. ' r . l t d.rn&usa. trl. dtnLkt n / I t o^t . . I lii 'P 'r.,lctaL r , a _rt,". i . i 'u \ rlul r, . . r , \ r , ; i" , nr . 1, . ' u, "n' r ' u p l r " ' l u i '. : 'o '', l r ''n L " l r ' I il' r r ' ' a r '- o r ' Ptu."t.? "a a.l |.',,]la -1,,,,l.l "l, s r ; l r l 'l a r ' i '1 l"nii l l i d' r r ' : r ' unr ' ' L', 1' 'r' rt: L; l i l r 'r P . oJr' | - / 4.' 'tn L ' P r , lar oo, l'r

4l

?,, Substantiv€ln foat, lrcrse, sail au la plural forma de singular cjnrt in seamnn ,,infanteri,sti''J r€spcotiv ,cavalcrjrsti:!,,,na.i,c,i, cu sens (otectiv:
Two llionsand /oot n?z o. thc ru. T h. cc hurd .ed /me .on . 10 t h| r . s . i. Twcnt.j- sdil /,ar., ,ro, lhc bai.Ue.

S 110

f) Cruft, aicraft, sedcraft.space-taft etc. au plural cot€et;v cu aceeasi q l1l formd ca aceeaa siDgularului,dar ou verbul lft plurat:
,l, o -.,- . t i' t r r al ! r. , lIJr, ' lha,rrlk w1 , i. a, o'o l. i. , \ r r lr \ ' liant r ' or $1.I p r , j \ . pt ) al. t l 1i, : dr .

t0) Pluralul ti substantirele eolectirc.
o l s'rbs ' r nt ir elp . ol ..ri !a s I tn g F n .' e (v e z i $ t,1, o .i neLrra torrrru d ..i r'-u l- r si t,r:\i rp,.0 un ' lpq" n ,..a /d u p l u rc ti rH te d e .h i p .rF r d.n' i ., -F c- I 1 ot "-i l o lr F F e\ . m ol rp o r' i n r," .t-r ..,t.A o ri r. ,,r n,utt m;i ,,umcroasd lD lim b a e ns lez d dc c it in l i ' o b a rn h i n i :

$ r12

n.my
a$ emlh

,1.:r

j,,mily

, rot r d

ot ls pr inAr

.onmittce .omlany

g' n F rn mF rtrtrn\o . juri iesinr€Dl pu ic Loop

l*ri)l

llignt6

ta l p s d .,i n g u t,r s" rr J" pt,rr" tdup.i ,r2,0. ,Su b sta nr r r ele. , lp. r f " i s u s a rj tn ^ . n4 Lr r \ r a l p a .o .rd p rJ l i u n i n tr,E . si nt ,ubi tsnti f" i ndi 'rFn u m pc . . olp. 'd riduale qi se construj€sc cu singalaral: Tl e .l d s s oar lak en n v a v frr a u e te ro n f. Thc enmittee ..nstrrs oI lwelva ncoolc. llis /n,ri1, s,as sma1l. , " n^$ b i , . rd r. d .1 .' l .o " . \,,., .o t l r,\p f.,n,,. l l " ,,' - : r 'I h c l ru f ( J nD{ dlst o d l i rs e ,!r;i .. Tr( tra,hing s r a/ / , , as ta g i . l p F hr J lnq, l" m" m b ri r ..n fo n -n 1 i . Ci n ,l c ole .l r\a sp . ons t r , r ic s , L u p /rfa l rl : N.,rl J , ll r r " . / , . r , ' p " " !i \" 1 ro o l r" r' t... 1 i " o tF" i !i t" l i i . sub.r ,r.ti Ji t€

h ovP ' . F o dn . nd"bl. ' . liI . . Hi" lann lt ,krc all dsl. c l, n lhr r lc ds . T l,rsr rn,lrl, n .! !rrv lin. . th r qr r . - t , l t ok , r , , ii lJ r r r 1 . s _ t ; bt"a " rs.r.,,/ ' Il' 4 ril hin ' -,.,// u.' it t , \ ! , , ' J t o I r ' r u l. y , r u, t , ti , , . I russ : poDoll.

t.i,,," _.. a tort n n erj . _H. , od "1::i,l:.-" lJ n 't-l"!! -,P ot J p atrt. .
"lh"ht iln;l

dr -i i|l,s,i..n{.t,r
'Ja

, gt , t Fr wi t t Lt

alt , pt , r "

nd;r,.rJ -rip$.,s,r. oi f"4e
dpJrio"ni. . l, tr,n d p st /. LUn-

p l".,r . r , , t " is - r , . 't,l;d" r"' I (rl€ tup r , c iini c t , ) on rrn... , . , ht r

p$J dr t d

n J a- J loul"\

t o, s d . ,

t, r,r.r rru t i , nr s " \ r i . i. r . ' r i|r J ol . r : . i r r . . d u . L d \ i . t v r . ! . o . . 1-L. ; " 3 Lal b an . d. tr"r i, d"lf , n: , I . J lple) , r k r t : dpm . , r/,/ trerchdiP r0 Numnrul unui sxlstaniiv .ot€ctiv csre indicat de verbul sau dc d€terminantii !:sprclivi (arliool nehol{.jt, adjectiv d€moruiraiiy etc.). -

!19

eolective.cu verbul intotdeauna la Plural fcon."dD/ Linelc snb-clanl,ive buldr!. i fantry, mili.turtj. palirc €to.).pot fi preceddtoii de un jrumeral cars le dn sensde plurat individxal:
al,ih. ,\.\.ral con!Iab\rrrlt u/c licepirlt ofrler al, l,fc d,e/? iacins thc litrglisl,. tit. tlu'1stt,l. l.Nroh t,ftnt, ,r.ne nilitatll /d,. slopt)ed l,o Natch thc pflio{fls in lhc prtk. (: noli,len,c,rl di..d thts t.i!rli,i. ?i,o ,,lnr

Numrroascsubstantirerok{ti\c au ti tormn (le plur individual in -s d{i .,mai m,,lte grupe de; divizi din categodarespcctivn": cu ingelesul
rrngressii r onnf ils . . o{ ds lLf m s I lef ls il).lis g. odps he s hor s e h o l l s iur ns t uinis t r n , s pr'rks pout lr i c s ptrl)li.s sPnat.s soNietics sqtradrons 1.rnrs irt,cs irros. et,i.

113

calllr:,rc o situatieaparte tril a!'c:rin trecut -sisensde r) SubsLantivul est. conltruii in limba englr:zi:lcLuali dcsemnincl un singurarril1lal. singuiar. numai ru pluralul:
\\'hcD{ia i,rih e . alt l. anr t \ t f r l / ) r ir h, Lr , r / , e , r i d l t h f i l o l i n 1 [ c an3.r.

cc,rlsideti ra fiin,l roleciile ,sisubsl{oiivelemendj tinii granruticicnit l), d. e. i47 r, b, r, tiil. 16r. cu alte ruYinlc orice la 108 109 d, tionat; S substartive cu formn de sinsLtlarfi tu-telesde plural 11) Snqulflro ftrrl plural. - Lnele subst&ntivo din limba englezi au 115 trumri singular. in vr€me ce. ir limb.r rominn. substa tirclc corespunz;toare au alit si gular, 0il li Plrral: 114
infornariof inlclii{.nof" k ro \r! d s e ldsjrge melrlrtr,dis. rNnel lNdrrair lfosrss strerql h \roda

precurn ql:
hail. lightning. slftt. lhundcr, 0lc.

116

nuneLe dc nLatcriil !i nxmeLc.rrno. ln generat. sdslanlitcLc alistrdcreB, produs'Tatuati { .r.alc cr..l. uneori.hiar prFlu.'dlP UU n'rnrrr 'incular Si d€ci sirt Ienum€rabrle: b,rdey busvness' hrppiness nlnnr -1;r Iea.e
lnil.ion saDd 1H.W. r'owie., l Dictiotut! o[ Mod.m Dngtish a dse. G. Curme, op. cii. etc.

] in reIte .n"" . int or m dlii s "c r plp. { \ rll's".on "L ndd , u bins la"Dl indiv , J , r il l a d @ r , p t - u o d \ t , " ) L . r tnsFrmA , , pro,lu s ix 8 .n ral lnllr r f J i . au indnql"; il' _ PA r \ t tl P N d u . ' r 'd n u m J i u n 'i n g a l d r u I nlple r cn lcL tiv (: t ' r odus e nat ur alF. agf luole) .

. Vezi ii $ 10. ? V ez i s i $ 15 . 3 Ve2i si $ 31. t A nn sc ra.e conluzio lntfe subsl,anl,ivele ,ur?Fss t l,rzrnlsl (: hph,l dc a li p.in o.lo' o.utrati actititate intcns{) si 6us,acss t'btznrsl i: {laceri), ca.e $e deosebese sralni, rronunlic ii Inteles.

{l
Her adrt d a@ alfa* excelleDt. lsfatutile ci enu Intotdeanna e]cetente.) The fnnrute in this mom,rtoDss ro vado s peiods oI sr\ne. (tlabikk nin acpaste came.{ dr stiluri dirdite.) rlr.4-\ llurb lp ;Flun ot;aa hr . I olt o$ed r hp t r un. t , ins n t m l l ) n a d s t ! . , . r . I ,

-* . ^_

into

n '.,r":n l^ .m t : ; pv t io. t \ r i ur n, . , lans lr ii n a L . t . r - t , d r i a t " . , u , " t , i p a j _ - n ._| 4r4t , ; rtt rG In spal,ur €r1 r,nt'rsLr o. ) Hi\ Anontpdeeof hisrorv ir apr\. sticht. t( "t,ein \I lui d" is , or i. . / ir i t ojr t , . t , , b. . ) 1 al lu \Bro" ; . t o b" , ht . uqr - t in r ' , , \ an. ' rn n: " lra Li x+ st jrn . toa tp b oEar t " t t obu^ dpp' s " L v . , r onu t 4 p b . , c a j p . ) lh.', b mgs ar ' r J t ha, l . , , 5 . ur pf l- Ls . \" -" . "." i' 41 l' d1"nql , "" . s IIi. . L r" g s 1t r.t,, ,,r\. .J ' t t , I . . : -. . c t. " tr' tJ .rmb d . . gt ! ; J . . r , . r o. , r t . : 1t r . t u, otn i r . , Hrr ,r.Dcrl {,&e taihrq idsr. t P\teile . pdftseeu cn repczi.ri!nc.) ,o \\-' 1 1., 1 u". 1, . r . n, t t t h t p- n, d t ; - r r r . s : r , l h . "Lr. \ . r r . , t Ld, . ' . l rJ I I'i.: p pr,. r . . d 'r'r.'

:{,-rrn:,rrarpinljmhaenglezA'hr"ratulci,jndsint plurnlFinlinbaro,rdnai ./ susmcnlionot.{j lli,. a\rnd , |rtetes ' lA lr.'lnprpdrnrr..Ibstantrvplpn. ru pot ,ala idma dp.ingrtar s"u rJcptural .i a.ri r,"r a,;;;l;i ", L-r!"l lnFhotdrjl d .aU dr. al caruj Inrpt.sFst; dp (ineul6r. A..Fs.or; de DF .:'- oll r,F rofpflm In unul singur dintr. plcmentch .;mpon"ntc al" t^rali, ';tL rF.,rrspmla un.u\lnt ajutdror {i/pn. /n-. et..) ca;c sli redcanuania -\stfel:
' n ! l' l o m obillr o Prostrc ' n- or m ilP o pnne r n r ult er o a ,;a / n t + l \rc c - d p ,,a o t w rrt., lnn @ticle ot iurniturc) (rornall : a pta? ol nonsensc

.

O b s . r ralii a / T r p b u i.r e{ln u r laptul.x sub.ranrivptc de ma is u s(S

il . rj, r . o n b i_ $ t 1 7 -

i P ' 4 ' o t i n to rm,rti o n (ar rem ot inlorrnatioD): : a ioat ol b.ead d /d s t o r l rg h tn i n F 'r .drl oI r]'und,rr grindine {piatrl): haitt a haitsroae. !l_ }aitrronss Tltis gouet js a beauiifur ptac oi \rorl. :, l2).Plurale ldri_singulara. ln aceostl caLegorie se al]i substa tivele care nu l .,i l lat na dF plu rd l { m c j o ri ru t" r t.rj n i n a l . i n .sr tara un .i ncul ar , u d- los i in tp b s . S u b s ra n ti ! F l " .u p , i n sp 1" ace" r, f - . p r,l ,/i ^r t,ur.cr nrrr,,* " : 'l ..
:1L-

{ lt8 "

n mohil,i: o pi.s.r din nrobilifr ,9, i' 1, ; i" . r .n i at . !1l al or.i de i .. "a \,.m p ..,,.\.r' .t .o , j .rr.d t I s a: . , t t , t,.;,. ,,., i .. i " . a;.* ;.,;,..;l. at 1, r ^t t t , , . . . rt,-' ,tn \.1 !..,. 4 . i . .t.,| ,_..,r:r r..rnt.,,l c rrn.tr..
r lu ",' . r i fo r n r jd ,-,,' t...t tn. r,. l i o_r-r: ,t".n..1

t r: : s.rs 1 g151- 1, 14) .

..:L.r. tnt.DndtLah. k.trs. :.l l, r' \ . 1 h , a 4 t . 4 , \i. ii.i,' ,, t t " t t L n dp , a [ " fh f,",* . p r i n 5 - : r s L b s,a !ti\p .", '\ , : . : nl d rr

. n...t.,.. i ntrebur,t

44

MONFO!OGI^ - SUBSAANTIVUL

SIl9

oIt'\ti

ol tt"t)'lu;
loifs. iLfws. Litrls. elc i

bowcls, cDtnils, genitals, gill.ls,

S 120

b) bali.ti stdri dc sqiritl
m p. ( , , n' . . nn . 1 J . pr n' r . d u rt,irisnlei, sullts, elc.; d pr 4' .ri ..b F. m l JrLul i " !' i ri d g l ll uo n l ,rsr-l rai tnultc pdrli: l ' ,' l " j ' l ruds

5 r2r

c) imhtiicdminte .onpusd din daud sau

r.. t.r.. kar l .rh. l nr" kpF ll Lt ooT . r . . lf r - - , u " ..i L F s .,l o n .5 . boc |pr ' |/ jn: . , o \" r| | | .,' .,,rd " ' p ' U | .l .n n ' ' !' ' ' ' ' l ' ..l our' ' ' .hU r l i n rl nJ onq. bbP B ' r ' r ' ; , lir.. 1 F . l i l h l .l " ' n l rn o l ro r r' l ' r' 1 ' r d\ . " r \ - , 1. , ; ;r4 r' . L b l r.. 1 r\ l l rr . $ h i "l' d,) unclte ti instrumente conpuse din daud pdrlil so" nl ' nprdF l bllo$" , lin^. 1 " . p rl ' ' { ' ' l i p r' " n ' l - Irl -r b' rr ' /n r' f' l ' l a' . l ^ ks nn" ' . , pli_ : l .n c " l " .p - f.. .. a" r ^ | | ,

s 122

' a' kpB . frmpot

5193
lorl8its, bil)iftds, .afis, cl,cqucN (sau Sr',{ oheckeNl, darts, doninoes' drauglLts. marue1 nirretins, quoits, shrl,il's, ulo.I

! 124

f) tti.inlc $i obieLtedc studiu (substantive lcrminate in -i.s3r: i s i l ri " . b' l i ' l : Fl rondur J . t r oDlv s c ' . i_ o l . i -, 1 " r' l r* . d l rl .c i \hs. A on^mr s, el q' r0n,' r..l'hr,tr, . d p l o m l i .. ' l vnbrrrcrdd( . : : . . 0. ^on , .l t,q .,ru r' ' , r\drn' r ! Frnl ml ni s' rrm n , h \s ' .. g ' r..l r, )dro' Larrs. " \ or pn. - A p n t rn l r 1ol ' rr onp| G, k inr i, " . li ,n l h ra ri -.m p r" ..Il v n d.' .i -'r'Ji rrpr l pLLr^. rc: l' r' Ll " l " L 1r r s " . 1oit . " , . !o l ri . r' f l i ...' j e) n me leagnltt I tlie IIrl,fidcs, tle llighlands. lhe lDdirs, th. Nell.dands' tho thl] ths. lrif CurtaLl,ians. Ilnil,ed States ol ]\ntrrca. .lu.i h) stlbstantir. r.tbaLe i 'in| t s.

$ 125

$ 1!0

dissnrgs. doiigs, lcclinltsr, eiriings, sonrgson, leav;ngs, iodsnlgs6,Frings. lickingsl pioio"iLine., roting", scranting$ shalhgs, sctthrgs, sltoricomings'su..oundn'gs, slippings, sweepings, trilings, iakings, ltinniDgs, etc.i

5 12?

i) tuljective d.utenite substanti'te pri'n atldullarctl terminaliei -s, eommons'd.inla|lcs' ediblee {nli(E, bctters, litte$, cmoni.als, chemi.rls. comesr.iblcs' em!ii.s. n..csdics, nervs, nulli{ls, odds. Ohmlics, perishables,rcgimentals,riche* shorls, sla.ks. Urcatric{ls, 1ighls, ralurbles, cic;
I Sinquldul or.ralt alc hlelesul de "halal." ipentu personal sanitar. muncito.i elc.l: o ,cf;lrs lDl. l 1: s alopFt i) ,c,l a ' ''n r s u b 5 l d n . ubs l. bnllv ul) i biLlir , d . t n" n d d p s i n 6 ', l d r r l t u 1 ' -r,"i ir I o 4tF lr\ : o t r P , Llr ; " , : " s c , o , u l I F S P A rite d s"mn"d; d und d, n r p pip' l. ' 'd t d de jo c), d nin ept , ( : o I , ^Pi' i) et t ' l J '1 n r 1 r , l o r i u l r r o r t i i l r p o r i i f,\ o o! . r ' . ' , u J ; o, . b, F r ' - m i1J L:' - i s nclF/ o r dp .r ' diu in t . r p r ", "' "r ' lr no' o bq ' a l:\i l1 , l. L . . j 'J . o i " " m J p n n l r r o"t' r n l " / b J '1 - i o f or , . r . i m . , i "dr ' ' la te Jn liln zo li I t he . ot unLni. I Pt hic 5 f../inf.. : qh t t iLillt ilF, . r r nplt ir ' oi r.,. , \ i. . li, ' .r-,r',rr. I.r:;.; l, l , 'J -rt a, el;! lade,1i. 'l r ''i r and todEins rtc. b.d

NUMARUi

SUBSTNTTVtrTOE

15

rr" nd .., a nn als. ,'r l, , v ps . a"n5r . . 6. i2 . 1- s pi. . .. ! n , ) . b . T . ' r s . . l n 'h . . ,- (- \dr. ul) . , or n j r r 'j con :n". , c onlpnls ( " , . '^ ! . ' \ p. . i .n.d op sirAJb"i, J 6, , dr eg6. "ut . . ' olli :."s ' h r . , - p r q . . 'o b r ' g , l l o {- . e " i l r . g r o . d r . o t"r.. , . .a p iri 1r ' J , t ir F$nr r ( . 1= o dr dlit h: i) , lu n d . ' ' . . ,ro jdh : p1 "iu l pi . lr diir ' . s r oals . c - o. s hJ J o u b r p =. inton. . . 1. h,.igi. l p 1 n r . I 'n l i \ q . j . I n u n r r r o n c . I : bt 4). ior,in,r.,rpd s, (L'o lil li1k q, l. l. r ar r , nr 'r '. i '! 'u : l . p r o d s q u d r l e r ' o. lpnPa 1, . pFa\ d. : I.iA , ou lsq ur s, ltin m i 1 , , r ds . c r a. { l' . I . c ' , ur ' ) . h d , ', 1 1 . " l o ! s . s p i f l s [ - '1 i . . .o u i n Ll , , -- - i r' l ,, .o _. ' '/'" " a - , ". r , . ' r ' 1r . . , , r n_r on. . 1. r 15 l a n l i . L d n c . \ s p " t s , v i d n J s . rL' , r'd d i :r.st. whe.calrouts. worlrsj erc. .

.8 198

latinl li) sltbstantiw cn pLural latin sau cu dspect .:ndoiaj, ta.eliae, imtedimetli, imlondoabilia, litt'rati. n:rrsimli\ memoralilia, ,\(jordul cn vcrbul fi cu detorminan,tii, - Sulostantivclc nenlionate la ..rit purct (12) se construiesc tn generecu determinanlii Si verbul la plural. :..! €rceplre: arl numele oe Jodafr: jyin'riB r.'"@s sreat skill. Dtu;shb is" a lciy entc.t ning game. b) d.o.iL name d.e boli: - measles9i mnrnps'.
. o n " lid " . @dJ ps, r s s e v .| P.o m!l i " d l i o n .ltants ts.ontagrous. .) nunele .rliinlelrr ti ale obiectelarde studi termindl, i4 -ics (cybernetics, .L,.trbnics, m€chanics, physics, etc.) construiie cu verbul la singular: ,l.oas,ts s,zdtes sound. ,,nt.s ts concerned\rilh the nrinciples ol norals. 6l liquids ai (5t. Hrr)nslaLics.ledls$itj! ihe Dressnre M;ftenatics is indispensaua|o ihD siudy ol the exacl scierccs. arp,t.s r.cd,s ol li8ht,. Na td r\ se observa ci unele dintre aoeste subsLanLive ca: a.oasl;ds. etlict, mech' r'..,p .)ttl i" s l/ d, / i. s el( . . . l n d n a d o s e m n o a z r)ti i n !a re .l Fcl rr' ,.,uubi atul :, rd i u, s " . unc r r uies c .u v e rb u l l a p l u ra l : The dduti.s ol ou. new auditorium lcute noihitg to be desired. llis ethicsda above reproach. \t\e Mhanics ol plRy witing d.s unknown io lim. 't]trci phnneti.see benealh .ontemlt. Substantivele atlLLetics(: atletism) ;i glmnastica se conslruiesc: cu yerbul la ring ldr cind au inleles abstract, adicn atunci cind se refed t,rrctid la arta sau la practica sporturilor sau a exercil,iilor fiTice; eu 1.€rbul la pldrdl cind au inieles concrel, adici atunci ctnd se refer[ la -ererciliile lnseti. sporturile sflu ]a
I Aici slnt cup.inse si subslantivele cnle au ta m'4 obitnuit tot'rl ile llurat, lormr ,i. sinsdlar (ttril -s) fiind rdeo.i intrebninl.ald: antic, d.chiee, bdta.h, contine. cu.I, . - . b pjuy. . io nd .'ilr,rl "r u r \ : nd o dm . or n d. ' r li ( o t . p i " N d 4 ', . u s t n h u +. ' : e A art - din . s \ m t un, qot hl p( lp dp obur i J n r , lr . d '. q i n ; , r l , r r l d . m , s r " r d r r i : , rbrd.ti\u t e4 . i ,rf /.4!,nl! r,.clcririir Inloeuil .u sllstantiyll lnlFl"5 o fli4 Dd bl ll J p s r nr r lar , s r . ; ' . r u 4 l i ; r-\\r' . r '1 . , , . m 'i 1 a 1 , r m : r r c d l u f i : r ii o'o rm, i r.l"lr d" - iogr ld, r 6' p ln Fbu, P ro e-.o t t r t ne 44BP\ d 1t ! 4 wr g. I n n l n u 4 :.: o " 't r . E " at.It

s 1re
$ 130

16

d/ Numele Un;ted, Statesof Ametica se consirui$te cu singularul cind lst consideraica numele unei naliuni, cu pluralul cind se referi la lnrile care al(ituiesc naliunea:
Tlre Lizi&li [ta,.r of Atuetk:a has ll'ashington as i.he capital'l:he Unnd Slat s of Amii.a l@rc roied thcjf rcprescntaiiresir (lonsrPss.) I)ir.rsc. - Substantil'ul n?es fiind un singular, de;i are formi de plural, se construieste numai cu singllarul: \i'hat is the D.,e.s., lio ,.aB is good nars\oNadaF n.,rs,fd'ah {iln lghtning spced. ,Ue,rs qi snarnDlessint construite intotdeauna in limla eD-qlezi rontenIorAnir cu singdarul. .lxmrrons, singular. are plLtralul s r?r?ons.s;i se acordiL cu lcrbui la num inr l c or c s pu n z i l o r: 'i here d'd! a,,.rs al. the li.k oi l.he sqnar.. ,\ st,,,&nr ,rds sdred on u,c grilly pdll. Tnc iailill is$r,d s..a! lfunaae\. -\ltcr the colonirlisi rtiaclr, tl,e ]\lrlcrn villrge nas a s/dnrlcs. Sulrstantivele umritonre cu formi de phirfll ul.ns. arnnds. barracl;*. .arq'!. gallatrs3. headquartcrs, littlts. mcans. adds, thatiisa. lidi trs, li rtollsd (: atelicr, uzinn. fabdcii) - sc consl,rui€sc atlt cu singularul, cit lri irr.rpluralul tn lunclje de intcnl;a \orbitorului, fo.ma dc plural a substanlil.ului insi rimtnlnd rceeasi pentru ambele numere: TIic arDI ,d.'o./a ra t,san o-e) empt-{ {l llte rnonient. Th. l,h.air. l)ad a .ar?J dc hallci, wllich (ds lamons. The tx'o amy .o?s /d'e lecn advisedoi Ure ohnngein La.l.ics. \:liere is lne an\r h.dokatt.:rsl _l$o T\e heddrra e^ or llc i.ade-unions oe.€ in uic saDresheet. The.e ,ar u (salt )linksl not lr lrom the niotel. 'rtft (saU-)ti1hs slthir e{sy reacli rr,., ferv. IL sar oDlv d Dedzs io ar e!d. tsJ dts e;rs produ.tiliiy ts culain to rcgjster a nurked incleasc. T)'e meansoi locomoiion {rrc ample. \Yhal's the ,lds: ID ihc clanpionship .onrcsl.-ihc oddspcre asainst ih. Driiish middleseiSht. flI"nls/ l- ThaDk Iou) Thants lerJ lruchl I owc mony /naz,ls. -vou .l'. r,lorts .rc reeded. The glad rlltn(s (c (siu oa") b.oadcasi lasi Dighl. ,\ Iuge nouoD.,tsir .oming inl.o being in otrr town. ao'ns /dre r.cn occtcd all ore. the country. -\..trnerons Cjtera numc de unolte fi de instrumcnte (S122) sint uneori cotstruite cu Trr tn's.w;r'so.s.1, i." ar old,'r or nrin.. Shc has lolglrt and tr is r\rllP.l.
lth .t n - t n- t . ;. n bd rtt I .f t t I r ' . t r r ' u, . ! :!,r bstrntirnl ,,rt!. nrfarialil n , , . l '- ! 'l ca lornl orj.n.c ar li inlelesul, pluilr.rl L- 1): sc dis-

I3l

of pliersetc. snrgularul. subinlelegindu se cuvintul a ?a;r' o/: a pab of scissors,

linl. (le snrgrihr ss lkrri rrl.lkx:rl lrnr rNruntnrr rsdll4(r, conslldl.,l! o]rnr,l{i si,isnlan,l, a.e ii tlualul sdlro(! inr SU\. li tl.
'to...t r. Lt."lt') r cslc liloa. tltd tidi\s " ( o r i s r V e r i F i \ 1 i5 . .i \' t, s.r ,' . g],,ntrl. tt. 1 uneori lxiin t-" n,. trofic. tt..[,t,"... ].

'Aslizi esle irni oniinuiir r a,ll ,,zae.

0bser0oti,e Cileva substaniive de la S 118-128, piiDtre care numele de jrcari, (: ochelari). tiarlrr1, lroxsdrs,r€rpers spectucles rrecum fi cuvintele scissors, pierd sufi\ul 's. conlorm formele compuse, ii... cind au funclie adjectival5 fEsulii de la S 166:
b,lli.,rd a li" ,lrJuq hr b odr d nineph player skitue allev bdddr r oom bow. l r om pl! i|l scisso. ca5e speoiacle irame .usppnd f Lpll r o l . 'r b u l o n thrnk oilering resper bell

ll&joritatea celorlalte substantive de mai sus pistreaz{ lDsi sufixul -s tr .ompunere, in generepentru cn singularul dilerii ca sens de plural: paft l,..cches llonoursList. Eood!l.r,rin coaL $ofks r ornlLittee customs examinalion sporL! (\reziti 5 166tent'! con'tleinF) 13) Pluralo striinc, - ln dccursut anilorj numcfoasc cuvinte strnine au 5 132 prooes intFun :: rat in limba €nglezlJcare le a asimilaL- li confirui aOest, ': :, ai mi. s.,.rm0i m1'p dupd vp"hi-r"J in.'..14/d .i dut.j "\rir l"rFJ lor . .r uldt;,. mxi mul l -au nai pulin.ir.rm.crisi. .ii ln 1'reranr. cbidr la .Li ]11ai muli asimilater paLternul dupn care au lost consiruite ln limba lor r: ifiqine rnmine, cu pufine exceplii, vidil sl,riin dc speoificullimbii engleze. Substantivele diD aceasti categorie,de fapt "outsiders' foarie ulili, fac S 133 ::rfte din marclc numir de cuvinte savante aflate in sectorul qliinlific, tehnic, ::-."dicaletc., provenilc in spccial dir limbile latinl (uncori prin iniermediui :r;lnlrezei) grcaoe (unele difccb. altel€ prin lal,ini). llulte -si din acestesubsiantire (spre clcmplu $ 134-137) pestreazi plu:]rl lor originar, dar un Ioarte mar0 nunrdr dintre ele (de exemplu S 138ll,rlr. pc lingi pluralul lor de origine, azi rezervat mai cu seami speciaiiqtilor, : L;i un plural englezesc in -s, seinnul rodirii Fi asimildrii lof prin popularizare. ,r n treiac&tegorie(vezi exemplclc S 144),ceamai numeroasii,cuprinde curin.l! compl€t asimilate de limba englezi atiL la si.gular, cit Di la plural. a provenienld strdind, in mrjoritate savante, Urmltoarele substanti{e de jji plstreazh pluralul originar sau au o formd de plural loarte apropiatd de a) {sc. $ 134

139):

opzs, {masna)olerar coder, cod;d,s, vo.trr, outos, custoder,eic.;
r Sub+alri\ul rnaah pJ5bnaz; lDsI tormd dF lluml ln cuvlnr'tl lhanksEiu;as. : S inc ula r,l .larlm rslr r { . t nlr ebuint ll. Plr r . alr l da & e s l e r n e o . i t n l o q i l , l n l o . u l d" c ph hai m r lt o or i. h a z r s e r o D 5 L r u i e t l e j a p l u r c l . t i t T h:sJo lo F \"ry u sp iul, . ' laf p d n ru ,r sp e\ita .iog ula r r l dol, n. ' t r p s ut r J pr . a p"danl.

48M

S !35

b) pltt.lle se,:etti (v. li S 140):
, oll oiir " :L -ic p -n!p l ') I ' n. . ' . 1, . . , . , oj tJrurtr... . " -j.. "| | ' ' ."|''|'.mp ||np 6'''h \ ! olha. : ! ' } ' \ po, - ' , . ' m ' |a. or l' h. . r s . r no p l | , r'tralslr'lplrJr . l" rr''r lnol _ p ''n pi. . r n"t , t d: Dlr ' 'r 'l r i r ' . "t ma r/ : In ' f l" pr' dr'.ri' r J r n li' " d _Dlrp rn.r Lam J ' o: 1l I

_ ilA._

'n l

lr

i

apq '^ 4 4 i

t 'd r " I iin

rpnP' r r r o ''

13li

l ro rau i!l p ,""i.i:t,; n. , , ., U$dirn'es ctc.

() plural. france.e (v qi 141) "s b' l"dr r and " "
- lr liu! . ' l: 1"o, ' . b"' ' "n", . no, , ' : , ' i.

\i

r i f '0 i ^ t t r '. t ''r i _ orJ" \lalarn I 5 " r r ' \ l r '. \ l a . F

13i

d) pturuh itoti.ne (t'. s.i i 142):
' - c - u. I l. -i . IU n | ' rr " . ' o r ' l ' : I d ,r r i I an. or a!1oil.ada, ru[o:rtrad. el.chrzi.on., lazzrroni; condoll.icre. conbamlino, lambini; p|hzro, lalazz,,'

ObserrolLe e uor-di. r,nLFiJFI'nnun:i- 'li t" rprrnin'i, !inS" rlr,s^ r',nli' rr\ )'s . ;,rl ,rrrl'ri s,s .r -Jlr f- r'. ksr.l si 0 eea a plurrlulur -s's r sl.a p/r S | :tl r\ ,s a . trc lpr'rinr'F in roalp ;rplF t"i:rl sulrrln h l- i:i, slrc eriemplu: pl. sg.
*bavs - eritrr i .l ,c!es I dsi:z] I bc^i :z: I kra,si:zl l 0i :si :zl

iheJts

t 0i:sEl

(p)
\ur , r"Jsp ' .In a J, nri in' ,rin, m 'l' rrln buinl r" arr "ipJ "l' 'i 7 s' r' ruldl iir|.r' 'rlpl 1,"rrr"l ru l luralul l"' ori!';rar. :r u , plur-l errgl' n I0rmu uncorrprcrL s-r,s: ,r doun lnrm" Je pl,rtll u'nr dihreoliel".a 'rr z-. ., mli ol,i.a,rir; sa', . nilrara. .F"ldlld slrrinr' Inlo'ilj in-strlul lrlprir. in siiintjiic sau t;hnic. Numnrul acestor srbstantil'e cu pluralul englezesc ls crelte neincetat, pe misurd ce ele se tnceti,tcnescin 1imb5: n) IrlLtr\tc lali t (v. $ 134 a): S 1Bs 'qi arcnrr: a'cnde; d,l: ldl.nna anl,ennas.rnlcnDddr rre'd ll \
Isc, -a: ol. -i ierralizl. n,unla - inim',1 { a it,, 1e), Inrnruld,; la.uno -la|unar' vertebrae, ctc lc.tebro -vtrtelrar, rftir@. l e l,s.-x. r|-.s I h7l ' il: ""r r ' J ' r - . . 'c 'l r la'rlnad, retr'a -rcirr's, u l r 's " a l " l '' '1 1 'u 'v l p D o l o r r 'r c a . r 'r " ''' n ' l 1 F q / r - n , r '. - ( r '?

.n -r' q . ' li ll rune u,t. - i d l: olus a l' lddr o ir h i l l o p n 'r m / ' is lT 'j s l h m r h' . DotJmir:a mL,.s. i' m bus , |' m bl ' s ' nUi|! lr j' r. .;'"r.nn '},,r'|n |..5. ' |' L; ' n' l' 1' , ' _' ' ] ' U! sJnr0 r rrnnr_ .id rj q '.op s \ 'l l J b 's ,'rs . : ir ' op . s J r n b r 'P s "J rt"olndgt 'r) r " 'r " um u i s . lp lnin u nu! . i " 1n , ' "r m rd rl p rn r_ lrul"irrnb i1 J r la l-; {'n r r'1. ' cln|'"lrrn '..''rl]||'".'o ln|- ' ' di, al' ' oa! - r d|um . orru; m - - d . , nr ' i m s . d , c P n F d r c t u a - d r c r cnr i.u lrrns. .d ni0 dd, dc c ennnr r ? npordj dllnrirn -cllh,\'iu n, r . c lr J nr io, - c r nr or l! n- . r t lor i' r m r , m r r 'z s 'i r 6 ; n ''r 'n c o 1 e. -rn11 i, s |' . n"' m a usorca, ai' d a u s 'l e n m s I \ t r o; ni. lus ole u D int.mg d lu \rrrn- lr \ hx m . . ' f r r , a", . r r ", "t u c r t t no. t \ - a r u t s / 't u ' ,,"';., lnd

"";.ii.,i""r-.,
'lgallr .l t !d

ir p sl. 6 4 ' lb d ' 1 .

.,r1.rI"on n, -ii d,ra,r,

o ,-e p-rdrur/ds- t1.,,r4

NTMARI-I! SUBSTANTIV]jIOR

40

r '' di r r I I o r n l r 'm - r I m o _ n' J ; n m'\i o r qi' a r r i. f ill" r ' r o r n r m '4 n' l' I n i'.rni "", mofatorid, rclirr.dlt -rellrendums, r'leFrda, sara ."..1-nrtns, , .r."i"ii"p ^ r . , r i . - o r t r '. : r,r.,.a . ' a"i' : s - , - . . r . n. . b"dr . p. .,', rml . .Jrd"n'.. '| ' n. ' i, 4 ' v n' iii' r m j ,iirnr. ullimat t p '" _ o i \ '' r li ' r ' i o ' 4 al 'l p | n d r r ' ; r'r. -iri r". -nB r"n . r ' ' i, " i i ' r in , "r ' 0 " " t " 'd a r 'i '. . " . -, ^ r- r ' i. ". ,;.ii,i.. '" " 'rr' ,.;,..i o-o., r : '. . , , , r p\ r , ".,i";...,.r..s',,-"' fto. i.statri.u' l,.statrix.s, ' n, , rr:e,irLfl.es,' testatrlr J 3: "ot r ' , - ' or t 'r : 1 . n "r :l' , . ' r . 1. q ippr l' 1 s l' r ' 1 5 . ip p-* I lnar "l "/ 'r ','..

b) pllvale 1recetLi: -trttl: ||aumo- lranmt, traumtn, tss.-ii pl. -s (engl.), (engl * -attoDatons, atrtomrlai"il'cri'a - 'fite ), -rl aniomat,n i,,s. -onr lt.
' | * 5: m "- ''n l ; ' dn ald"r ' . dr onlr mdJapolia r ni ro 1. . -h.t.-.s . "^po , lrcio iv : ne "^pol: s ^' r opol' 'r' ' irtz'c'", chrisalises chrisalddr; irls -irjss' lss. -isi !1. -eF (L'ng!ezl..idesl: chrysitis sphinaes. slhinfs{. -x; !1. -cs (eDgle']. -gesl: lnlJnr - lrrXnx.s' larv.ges; sphint slTrn \€i, sr r r n! ds . er . : : ] rinr r , . . 'o D . C J ' n l / s l r " u loD, . a\ . ' opr 0, ' npue u ,rnp ".. "l' : D r\ r h F:

S llo

:

rJ;,, b" ad h" u l r' r' l -, - . r . r ur r ' . { r ' n g l " /l : ' c (' )rl l : :o F , _ .d i " /' h; , f J ' 1. .Lr r . o" r' p !' " o r - p l r Pa d sI.I' l P^ ' ' r p' " l n n' r - poa n' l n " d i "" r, lrou$.aa - tronsscaN.troussc4,., et'c: ':lrtrraniedu
cic' lss. -Ni tl. { (e.glezl -el: auloitf{da -autost.adas, autosftad', io " . , . , i an: . / 1, b' nd: | b J n d i : bd dir r , tsc. -e. o : Dl. -q '" o n ; r -i glplt g | '" l l o s lrbfFro-lrbrFro ilr lplilnlji c l' pllo (l lrr. ' al" ldil'i'1 n i, ! ^ p " J _n _ r 0 n . l o d s o l ' r_ d r ij s ' n. . / o ., " 1r1 pr"-ro - h r / o s hpt / l. m por . lPm pi: ! r r uo' o i.mm r o. .o prin ^r' "d

c) pluruIe francezc'.

S l'll

(1. ) plurale italicne:

s 142

c) pl rale ebai(.e:
.icNl chcNl.(, .|crnt'rn ,

s 143

pturale asimilatcln limbr,

s r{4

tVarialtn amer.: sanitarirh sanita.iutu, sanitarid !{m J t ar alr ' : J iir r b l d rP' o re J i r.' l o T p n ,;; : ; a \ ' o- . ,., rr' f.rt . n r In ' r' bLi al 1L. nin r \l J i obi: t s e In . I .. \ L l o l ta ' o tu s . p 6 Orascleinorne " ale riitonnri 6lo;ni dc sitAurN "sfe clJdoP san c!.laps o ?t,.tu." pcd;nfi-(F T. w;od, the Crcuntaorhol EdstisL Gtamtuat' ' nr t ; z i' po n l .ex n s n o l ,i s m L o n d n-i:"i"; n ,lt 5; ) "ir." e "t. " t ub - r oot t f d n o ri . n v :n o \n l i : Im tb i n h" " n! at tal.a. nl, adeseaIn bioloqip a..dp. :0 \re r i pt . 6" u; i n ,h ri , i r. l " r" s r S l 4 <

50

S 145

14) OouI formo de plurnl cu irleles diterit:
t,'t^ ,. btathtre i: irJtil i^nIi,i. tup t ht pnt r * r . dli dps , ngp \ p, nl , n . p '. I \ '1 1 , . n 'r m l f , d i aceleiali comDniGti, societili clD.l .o{r i: vacil .\!',, A;d ' ( $hJ , c . lr i"r a| I / . m J k ilp penr r u r ur n a r e a o p d . . l i i . u r . m o n d d o r l 14 i.. I d 1.e { : z ar un, c Fn: i. od$Pni d. g. n i u , | :.r.r . es s 1, i"ir . . , 1"1, , . \ "a,i It ex es I indc \ ur i ln. dr ii) l ino, nat . n; t i" l id "" i , " '': . i ' '" " t ,,.dilns f- medii (rersoanill aass i.- .ndjroacC, (d€ _cu]llrarizare a nasclor ctc.) !ezi: I ndtia metllt $r tuunrtudLa" I I t en, ;3 moreLle d€ clte trn Dcnnvl4 \ . ' t u' df , in pdn \ \ r... nrll.:lal.e ajo.cr cadre, !.rsonal al unor, irstitnlii elr.) sbfir i | t l t f 1

. 8 "1 "'-

m.lit m

-'"J -''tt

t

t

.r. ^

t

"t

1l

I , o. r

\ d Lm u/ ll"

O bse r a a lie a,lorh(: nat€rial. stoln, pinzn)are plrralul clrtlsa (: ieluri sau bucili (: hain€) nu are singularin engleza de stofe sau pinzi). Pluralul clath.s? contemporana:
The satesnansloFcd rs fario''s .lrrts l.o chooscr.omThc shc Nore \\'cre vc.I smart. 'nlodcr

$ 116

15) Dord,plumle cu acce$qi formi, r'hr cu irrteles diterit.s
rnei urmel, rl. ,f.c.l.r lss.) l: (,hiulas'r (pl.l l= rari.alodi pn!'i h sru slb golxn,ihi) (ss.) (: c!lo.rre), pl..onrzre (pl.) i: dratell {sg.l (: r'usola), pl. .on7d$€s (tl.l {: comPts) ( s s ) (:o b i &i l , p l . .z r,o n s (!1.) t: rmrL) (ss.) [: a!dic), p]. da'ds€s ddtuse damaEes lpl ) (: deslilCubni) ( s qI ( .L r' n d " a " r l f.l . D l . d" dr' sl .,s dt o" eht ' i n .,,rl ,o ,s n i c d p l F rn pt i r" l ul d4t ih^t ' -i nl " l ' r ..dnmel breech brc{:lk\ cot ut cotaure catnpdss .onrsser

'

j o D l dp

I Pt\ra1e1e Lr.lhr.n ii ll,r, lnrL iorme lilerarc, dcntelc. .u exccplia $tbstantivului ,.arl'.n cn scn$rl dc .o,/4i. rs"a.,rs g .niu . on dr g, r ' r . : lood er t l B, L; ,s 4r.1.r t),L\a: q"n;; .:^r.-b po\ Fdlr ' nd nr J b" J F r i pl j/nta.. ar' ) i sg . s,rr.. i ' ,urdji/r' t ' r iJ ' L' d. " Nd to '_ r . m inr or ndr r . i '.Iul a m 1 +l o r ( p r p s i . r d 'l i o . 'h 'a o'r lplpviziu r...il'.nla roj r ir pt . ) t i nut ' t npdt n . , r iJ loa ^ n m u l r 'p l . r r r m F n l p l i a r , r i n \ i inlel{s. iimlnl el,c. cn accla$i .'Ih / r , t , - 4t s , 1 m " hop"t . " lor In e s t J m p '. . C . n I l.\.lqllr Jo,r siv' m. t$,, rop J r ' r . o Ino;.dJ-d- i p' n1.. rL^ r " . . tot r n, , pe + . J ' t er - e. \ J J " p a ; p '1llF '. a r '$ 1 .../t ". ' ' 1a1" d; d ; un u d. i r . 'n . ' 5Cd accast{ acceolic, rluralul s,ueas arc si sinsulrrul star,. € r \',. J p; s "o"" t n, ' pr o- ur , u l o i : , , o f u l h l " 0 r . , l o t t s I k l J 0 s l . r l l " . 0 'l tlJr,l",

(s r06,) . i, , t u" t k r r,,rD z l . 3 scnsu.ilc aralalc aici sht nunai cacrnDliliciri: e1enu .eDrezirfi l,ak intelesul'lulrlel€ la orc singul.fll ru esie m;rlionat nu au si;guh.. .iLc substantivclor meDtiorate. t V ez i $ r lt 8, trn , 1 rl o a .

NUMARUL

SUASIA

Tl\'EiOB

i: 1P l ) {: (: 1sc.J 1! r ) L: (se.) {: (p1) r :
l:

sertnl), Dl. didr.r indispersabiti,iznenc, chilol.i) nr.ct), rl. "//d/s 'f"c]p, brrnuri molile. imbrirtnrirne) s.nljmcDt), pl. /eeli,as s r n s ,b i l ,trrtF su . s c e p t,b ,l i ta ls ,P, i mpi l i P )
panr ,ton; J" flan"t.1.

tlarell), Il- f?dnEls ,o , , r r hir n4 d" f lan"l. , . ln . p , i b l ' 1. I rrtn li la L ic lel s du lJ alt c joc u r i r ) (: m ot iv ) , nl s m ! , dr (pl ) {: ,i1i l. ' r a , n jur ul unr i Lladir i) iss) (: soisoare: liierll. !1. Llr.,s

t pr . l

l Lpr

1: dodl. pl. nau na nia'r'er., t)! are r I rLiqr niil p1. _n/ s . i, , ldan, r l (- ir Pr anc or F.lr Elet el ls8.l {- nr iluLl. r l. m r z t 16 (- pro.,is-!0ral al unei |edhieJ

r!1.r L:

(: nnmnrl. pt. dnrar

lprJ 1: verslrr, loezrei murltmel
duerel. 11. tan?s 1==

issl 1lpl. ) is g. ) 1: tprr l: lsc.)l=

parl.ci rolJ. !1. ralrs r r p mi s \r, r/1 . r,.u i r' s io r.n . j m o l L l . i n (i n ta ) Dunct e1c). Dl. r,,i",s

(rr) i:

imu4

lss.l{: tprr (: Gs.)(( pl. ) ( : (ss.)(: ( pr l (:

dulc,ati de irurrel, !J]. rr.s.rrls o.helan Je }roleclic) sl.rt), !1. ru,/rc.s lo c n i n fi ,,c a n to n o me n l ) chitani-r), pl. /adt",s lnapoierel,pl. rerz.u s

(ss.) l= sami lmuz.)i solzl, pl. r.ai"s
t: baranla)

lsc) (: bucelicr. lracment), pl. s..dps

{rl.) I I r m n n . D .fi o J d i . d u rrl l i ' f.m p .l r.l , rn. k,,' Lss.l
(pl.) L: t ,r,n " n ,,i F tu ti i , ri n o rl u ri : L o n di l j i l (pl.) {- .oslrn din tweed)
1: a!ii), tl. rdra,s (: un I€l de stoli dc lini), pl. ,rc€drs

( pl. ) l- rcsturi (de mlncare),deFu.i {de mclal et .)l (: srr€rtmol), !1. sp..rd.t"s

16) Doui plur:rle, rrllul colectir, colilalt individual. Cilera subslantive au doud forme de plural: o formi este identic[ cu aceea a singularului ;i are obiectelor pe carc ]c dcnumettei intalcs colectiv, adirn se referi la lold1ila1.o caalalLi, eu terninrtia reguhtn in s. este ur plural irdividu.rl li descmneMir
'\'i r$ - ir I o | ' n " l -..\1 ,' .. ^lln tu t \ . z o t u l L i mao. t r i. ) { v e/ i: i S l i 2 b ). , /dF?ls: Icluri dc ttrccd. r' ' ' i l .^.l ..r,Ji -' 1

.^lr7

5!

!r

sau /cllrt d! rDt.lrt,l. Ilit forlna cu illrlcs coleciil-, cii $i cea dif.rile .)bieclL plu|al in s se conslruiesccu verbul la plLtral (cu c\c{,l!ir substantivului dri ltuit')\
' . h4t ./,o , r f ,,ni i , traats l ' 1.' i : ' ,r:l " i .. l .1,ri h , p; road" rru .te , r, ,./r r lr r l t,ri t I .o b J Z . b o mo" Ln n I "l " ol , l , t . b o mb , -.r' 1 1 'b r'

s /.o ,t- g l o ,1 . . / @ , s onL , e ri " " ; a l i i J pior c r , " . Ji Fl . g h i u l " l " . ( n ' ,rn -d " .n a n The ereny .(rn.u (.'r abandoncdin tlie lield. {Nil ) - t h t ds . ; " - d ,@ n d a p ti r-n o u " a p -. (rri ) T t o, onio" . .,r' u . d i o m h tp n .n ,y d ,p \l ' ,ol " l :n I. n,L' r, \l\e t.it ucrc' ri!e. ll"na ts rvhal I like nesr. E,tl l.esh tL# anil k€ep lill Thc srll siNiee sl.or. l,as tuirs oI nll sorts rat zre corrjng nr drill ' I , r . , . or ,l y .r." .-t.1 " o r rt,e r,ta t,. 1 P tz n s l' iuN. ! r nlei a n l l td n s c ri ,,e s : l. - l u" " nl; J . /,,rs o . h " ' € f :. o r h o r' . ni o " _: The shir rlied lhc corst sth her ./,erls ' r n" v : l, ir n" l 1 J /." /r. C o ..l i ) a u s i h ./e _ll^ i, i . r " a/o ,p rrp ,rid l rk i r ' o rd ,n.rj .t ' r' ' ' l l " 116 Tvo siotu were ii.cd tuon the irigate. l S oa- u , /" d J o " ' , d rl h ' ' -l " lJtr i i. ' r" .j ' ,"r . . d to r r .. i j. d ..
,n ' |

s r+8

rr 5uLdr',r.iL^lplrlt_t.ol',1:\,1.i/r//,\lp'.in-. inr Llorr,lorn.eJelrL,' limb ltanr' - t,pr,orr.-- o"m"ni ..tdI.ilid .rul".1 rr .celrrinr'1. tiar sau couun) Fi ou vcrbul la plurLrl:
''L i- n, lalt.l Do g, ' . r - A. ullJ l . od@ , b n : : s r '' r ' The r sftu stu r { lv ( ounir v / o/ , t / s ) . . Eh l d t h " n '' l a t i hp n T " rn Mnlo tr , : * bu"y ' ' ir o 1: lcmeilei birbatii) ,, t',.1 n .. f m i' a , t P n ' r P, , l i r ' : i '. I . J . an t[. .,i : .t ] . h- , " , , at , / in lr ti I'

j I tl)

F.ri-. .i .n 'i"eul 'r .1"" /r1A t ropur ' n'1. "7 n "h lin i\'l' muii /,//' ,unpu.,: lJr 'u lui.5 I 'r. rnpi. / rr' l:'n ,', tott t't lt sa.r[aLltflIesrer' sineir, t l/' songs, foLhstarLtst c) subs|anlil'ul t.oplc (: popor,nalnr e) €steLrnsingular;i ore llulriul regulat pcolrlcr (: popoarl], nnltunt: .1 ,.orl€ .s masleroi ts own dPslinl In afard de aceste form€' €r.isid ,si un substantiv ctt formd de singuhr qi sens de plural, col€cti\': Itc Zrolle (: poporul, cebe,icnii)sau individual (: oaneni lume, PersoaDe, famiLie):
r 1 1d , n fl.r"r r ial. i, ' - e: r dr l .'n o rn,. m . r : t 1" l ""t , k A . olll"i. .\r _' . ' r l 'J r . d r '. . " 1 '. ( . l h l h p l r i l r i l I ' ut ur L i r i l - , . '. ! F r o r l J . The ,;opl.f, ol lhc rvorld dzr lishling ror pcaoe

l lnlcks u rrm dl, f ol 1\ ! ,sun nrn tr\ut(u t ,rnddFspmn.dz,,olp.ti. ( , i\ : , ", . / s , , "ons t r , : p. t ", , r . ir g . t 1 - . r t se riial.ca ln tolalilaten ci si e;ie asimilat .d nunete de natcric sun ru lluralul cn tJ "t"m"n p t" , om r jon"n, " it , t u, t i. or i' . v a/ S I I : d . b ) . . S 1 5 0 . r..r rPl r,rlu Ln l^ li\ : r anaa p l 'r _ ' d a n a r r ' l . " n r L l pr ldr " fmid" \ nlt . l la. ^ r ii . r, . PU 1- .r vojt c" uJ drn l."r' rL ,., n 4 ( l' r 1, . \ 1 . /: ", r . r "r ' lu": "' o l-pr' a oorb' or drn li \ "t lir lr' \.:.n tatu ,. 'u "t , tNL$ c (S 15 ll ! S.n cri c d. t r odus t r al, 1r alas im ilr t t u n u ! n r 'l ! : d B ! \ a l o i c 1i0 sr lrio). $ ' rlA .RrDL LnL. tf lonl( 1. _ p or" ir .- r , , . , a/ . . p l .;"' tulor ' t o\ . - r ir i " " '

NUMANLTL

SUBSTANTNELOB

T \ t d ^ --. ..,,u the \o u'- /,o rL I $il lJ\' r.{ Ju

1, r , . ' l \ \ ' or r d f ^ ' t oDl" "r . li r ' ! i n ! r 5u' n l lr r r r ' nr r ' i | a l"' lt o p ' \ "\ r 1

l^l

e

p o _ l 'b 'r I '': n

tlnele substantive au Ia t7) Pluralul ln tul](tio dc s(lrsr' -stngdar .1" unul Jp .,;irrn rt 'hl;'dL'at' lt':,'t rrr plural ' rr n rh:i Intr"."-dp ';i, '1 nlr\ i llul sub.ra Lej, plurali neavind rit Si

S 150

l,uir*s

I'c l

r - a b u rl , n l . d r, A [\] ri v rl L \\l i- i n q ,l te l ro l e , t : !.x \.i l i c . i n trp n fi n d { F l , p ]. D,si nA Y s l N l . I' " tta.tl l i N N l t - - ;tu u a ,, ro L n d i tc o l c !r1 1J i: J d a c te r i a L s tt ;rr] tN N .l d r ' . l i on " i . i " o i ,. r ..' -, i. n trfr..,/r,/s )l I\l l- c u l u /i td t l rl ' \i r.n t I t\N l 1- ilcli.alcsii. lnldd.r), !l d./i.o{,i€st\l l\Nl i: d€ricatelc labs|rnrL.).1 r : i o c- rl . . rn s l \l
.e No n li in lo n o \".i,p r e r l. i ;rff' l r''l i t-d'l T"r\l

l'1

1. o.l rr' '

crl\I iNNl i: i,n;r' {.o1, .!,u I'rl )
(: : : i: I i: (.i: i: 1:

lir de Di.), !1. /ui.s t\l pir lfolecti!ll l\Nl i N l rrtd ti . 0 i n ,, f\l q h i a i ; { n tri n F In d t' ri F l ltN\l r,o 1 rr) r ' rr ' l l ' n ' .r. | .0 4/ 5 !l n o ,L a t: tn b .tra c I t t\N l Ii ic: zird; .oinunicrr€, L.zr-i). ll Pdlels hirlii. acte. do.umenl.c; zia.ei Iczc, comuiclril llrLic Prrne de natoi',)l l\Nl s fu rl l , l l s ? o //s lNl i' l trr 1[\\ .o tr,.. ri .a o l ",

18) Piuralc dileritc (u inlclos de sirrgulnrelcrtrspectire:r' a) Nutn:le dc tfrol.fii si de pralnse nuttule {cer' e. zarzavaturi eic ), care. ;rin insnsi natura lor. arr ir mrid obi'lnuit fofrli dc singuLar',pot avea si to"';a de Dlli"al. dat cu o srhini.rare de inleles, irl"' 'Lnind in acesLcaz, oa produsclor rospectrve : ;i tn l;mba rolrrenn. ,.speiriiale nl.rlefiilor salr
fol lons linos rfools oil( \ s ifrs lsolll Noolls lul s . i,. " ste'is, ot''

$ 1;1
S l;2

(cl. s tL"/

adescaobiectc confeolioDatesau forb) N tueled. ndle,'ii desenln{)azn lipsiie de singular. in gene'e lnsi sint u eori respective: mate'tlin materiite au alit singular, cit li Plural:
desret; pantaloni /ld,ael l-- Iianeli) Ilannets l.pl \ \ ' tlanele lle .o.p -lcnnen d in llJ n' lel' J. luin p Losru m 6 i ' , r u"' pr d r ' ' r ' " n t J t . t 4. l: ,,.ulo n ';i;L:. : , ' r"i | ;;:;i;' -i'',tt'i. . pr ' '4bP"" sqro," : rp '.. 9'ro. ,, r',d r'1 dn nr s l! lr iJd ' du niil ronn - d nl' r l, l I

clc nu rel)rezinfi rod'eInlelesurile sub_ 'scnsurile ailtate sn,t numai erempliiiclri; stanlildor menlionate. 146. '3 Vez is j S 'strbsrantiaul,d,s. Liu..stc an llufal . Xa;;Diie 6 vi ' i ii P ag. 51, l ^ola Vezi li $ t3 ti lr3g 24, nota t'

6lM . ri4 (: /.,".d r .,"..d. cositor , lablli, t ir ic heal- a rt! {sg ) (- o.ul.ie de cons.ne; nn bjddn), (pt.li l,..t,ri .r,,

r,f f , l dn , . or . r r ' . r , , ads t t . .o5t,.," trn .$..J). t ntt a r.,J L, l o |. id. r f r , . t t ,,a,J. !:d.r. lyezi si S 16)

s r 53

c) .Nunt.:lr dc culati a| la phral in.t€leFul de ..nuanl€, tonu
,\1o . .n . ..t , j i. / . , r . ar t , . r li_r ic / pr . . . I1e lorfs 10 pairt r|c rcds ind ,tu,i;oi -.\utlmn tcares.
,a.

ale culorilor

Lnele plulale alo numelordo culori au inlclcsurispeciale:
. ,'.::

,r /rr s i...ns ,,trt..r i.rerJ

1:rr pr r r ' I . r I ' nlanir llr : r f . o. t lol l: liainc alltri l0idoni .]c ltan.lii rtbirl han'e g.i, panhloni ih llaDetil grir lxi i

|

.

,, F

,,

J.

..,,

o...

|

, ,t.,.

ilmsiil

ir 15't

.l/ Nurn"roase subsl.antive absl.ra.to oare,prin nntura 1or.si t nerrne r bi ,;iJ' ilip-i'ed" pl,,r,l,\",r S llr..rap rrrrr.n, iir,r.l,.ut .t,...ner" .i.. .rn,.2J...'.trlr.l,,\,d:uI,i.ir,lural;i ,l-,-rr: ,l orrhl , n, t-'l'r
I La !1 ilil. l).auh:s) t- n lrumtrs tr. o leDpie tu{qroasil a tdlh ipt. t|un6) t: nn aderr"irl uh nnr i€.tue .lpt. int.ttige,/.:) (. . intelig.nlirl d ,r.,nrJr | o mescnlrrr.l t!r. nEonn4!\)

so manr* Itdzesr.s
1 'n , , , :o n. . q, i. nl J um "n , bn r p r J l , 4. r "i. . i 1,'t.r hrm ltr c / |, r r . i, ' I ' \ t r r . t . r pnum "r dt t r r I iol,l him a ifw ,!d5. inuncmlill r" r.,brt)

c) Alte plva.le d,iftrite ca inlclar rle sing\hrelc Ns!./!i.rt,,.
Ir,l.l (: jntormatii, ftiri, coDuni.'i11, nNliintirj, avtci

(r,1. f: a!rc (lisLfai)l lss.l I sfium dii tigarn; .ctrliri in, rtin,l,i. lomerlll general; .cnusa xnri onr Dorl, n unei f6e. Ltrl i:.r:nuir-1 ircendiatc); 1: ruine ris. ,r oJn.s .f a la en enpte) {- .cnnia din soli, .iuin) 1 ,lildift marc ii linplii on o lrzurmirl pl.l i - (,azarme,cazimil rl al i l ,, asp(ci 1rl uri cl N L . c o n d n i l i , p u rl ff. l i nnl .-Li

i:i:),'
LeahnSs Lta.t:' Lrac.:i:

j l k J n i c n l l i : c a p a c i i al c) 1,.c l d ' ts l 1: conl i ndLl ipr.l I l trt.n s ].l k a n iss. ir)'l l :0 1 L c l l .,,j .l i d u frh i i ial i ., j du.ul i r .t.l l
l ' ,.1 \,,r' r-r,.L l .,i . . .r L U .; .. r.r rn,l I t:.,...l .,,. rr:--t-i . ' ' .!.r

1!1.) i : d i ..r!i i : !o z i l i u rd al i !l l lsq.) t- p o e c h e l d e !o L i .n i .hj . de .i i n1 .1.l l LIt.l L: brclcl. Iientru pant{lonil

.' :

J

I r\'rri ij S 11 8 .1 1 t, l l l 1 . 4 sll,riantirul 6/d., are llLrrxllt ,/d..: ,,hundnrds oI Dz.e or ta.l.idgc', lS t 2!i)

ti .r I

NUMARUI, SUBSTANTIVIOR

5EI i, t , 1s q I " , ir ' '
rsg ntddtp aq p Lhe , VL dd k AsPs (Pl I ro' :." ,"r I prort r ? {pl ,c tp t -r' r" p "L ! IPI rotk 1sg) : -. it" * g.,i

1 : s o l , r' 1 m i n i , tP re n ) i ' l \Ji ri I i i rc j d ' ,.s " d i n rrrr: rrr " n. t ' r' ' l L -t. n o a r, .i n s t.l L: o ^r' rm' rtl r t-1rrJ ob' i ' , ." " i r.:; .l i s rn 1 i . !c i 1 rr I' p sp.' J /' r! f.nrrr un r,r.:' .n L i ti tl u i c d d "'m i . .ur5

Lil.h icadetnic.)3 \ FliL m llor i". m r r ir ' 'l 1: et ul m ed' ir 4 \ e r '! r d : l {' r i ' 1 l . lPnr ' i n' ' r . m ' di | -' " p. d' r r ' poor t r i r I m l' , nalr r m i ' ons i' Fr J : ns lF' . i I om J gr ' r '. P"' r "r 'tl l. r nun' / 'n n r '1 a r l 'l ) , z inb r p l - " " b n 'r ' pr ls g. . ' o; . i. r l un r r I n F i n 'r ' l J - ur ur ii$ r I J ni' r ' .r bri€ky'orLs. n gasworks, an ironworls. a steelworks. the lrorks fonncil

Toate pluralele de mai sus se construiesccri v€rbul la plural cu cdceptia *ribstanrivJlor larraclr li itorAs, care se poi construi !i cu singuiarul ci d au sens de singular. 19) Pluralul substnntiYelor care trati nationalitatca sllu prolcnientr regionali. - Substantivelet€rmidate in -s. ,r [i,J]'-s, ti +rc au acee'rtiIormii la singular ;i la plutala:
the lrognois l,lLcS*iss thc Fren.h th," Scolctr l're Iinglish

$ ll')6

S 1;7

Celelalte substantive formeazi pluralul regulat in -s:
the Czcchs6 the Danes Sobstanti{cle thc RomrnidB lhc Slaniards tre _q\t'des thc Turks

compuse cu -man sa\l 4raman formeaze pluralul conform
Dulchwomen Welshwomcn

regulii de la | 168:
aDui. hs oda n an Englishman -lirglishm{il r \\tlshNoman a Scotchman - Scoich!'cn d Cliinanan -Chinam€n (Yc z i l i S ti t-t5 !) -

20) Plur&lul de tmirilor alc anin&le. forma pluralului difcrili de a-) Danumirilede animale au. in genere. aceea a siDgularului:
lic riuckoo kippcr -!i g i - kiplP8 onlf gooss - cahcs - gf6e

s 168 s 159

rl e zi s i s r 18. 12 8 e Bd oa'Hoturt\ t\' \@t Hatutrs, lJa@tuB ,tsr: lista de iitlu.i, decoralii de S u1. r u n \i ) l n l l Brrt. c u ooazia zilci Sale de na.ile.c,.espcctiv h {t , co D ief lt e

,'ii,[if]r{,;i --*,*ttl;llt$usltllg**l',:'',"

50 l6n

Mo

/,/ l 1.lr .,rl.rr ti\" ,tir, i.... '..l srn:,. -i :r t. rrL .'1. .nrj,t.r.u r.... .1,", i". , r,r.l ..It l,-:\rt. ,j, atin.ntr. or.,
i' a nIDLrfr ol Fjlil ,4a I I rt . lr ' , . b, r , l r [r., i rp. .ou 1,,.,,,ai: ra.iors Jnnsl or i, t in ;.

161

({...J rtrs. 109 a):

Citela nrlxrnnti'e Au o sjfguri lorni
srlrcr grrnrs

l)entm singular si plurat_
satnron tu.boi, ptc.

dcc. 162

r.jndeer

d/ .\lt€ r(artile u o tormi rle pturat cu inrele! cotecti, idenrici cu n FF - r d inr ' , -s ir utu i . n ,p " u .i tu r., d L " p t,,r .tng.ta 1i ^ _,1p" n:, ,;;" " , 4 . r . nur Lr / r s . I,tri F ,, ,,," ,ri i ,l p i n d :\i .i ,ti n .t,a,i ., drnuni tH 6. " . "

,l.c hcre nnv /tsn in this rirer? J h 1. l?' . , n )q n t n i t! l t, rh : j L o a r.x I
f tt.L | | 1t t d..a lit. r rl ?/ . . t r . h. 'lh@

4 .." t." ,1 I ''." ^ ..,, r.. 'tU Ltluts' at lhe CaqraUjirn brools a,, r..r rinf. '.idr@z ruD ulr lron |rc sen aDd Uifrc o., atsol)l!n!n tt.\t, a ke pike &d..rs.,,

" ,

/tsral

on thc truc.

,, b

e,

..,1

163

2l) Plualul substaDtivelor compuse. - Substantil.ul comtrus csieformat, i ' , : r "r ,li', r 'rn Ll'rtir i\ nri "if,Jt .i u, , u t. " r c c i , n u lr" ' " u , in : ", ^ . . r, 'rF -l p .u t slalri\-ul principalPturahrl substinr,iletor,,,nnpi,"";n a""rt n,ni s" t&",eor; pu,,indu se semrulpluraiului numajta subsrani.irut p riput:
.,,,r,- marllal .oegn.\ gPrmar ,r/s arr)u.enl. ,c/-! s!:nel.l ra\y4ls r.rr€rs pltenl ,ftdes to.bc e?rs oI mail /ddcr.s in taw ,€i.s,at-ta{, ldlns-jn-lyaitins maids ot all-work

r. n

. . m pl .tp o r:i r,,

.:.. r, , u r rn ,i a Jr a,ti a.ti v I,n ti ng., :.b_

164

Cind printre elemcntele unui substanl;vcompus nu fiqureazdun sut) stanti\-?rincilal, se adaugir s la utrimut cur-int:'

:::' :""", -ii:'i jil,':l:;;i-' ""1","r'i,1 t,i';Ll', l :;1i {"1 :,,"i i,'"i', r,t;; j.'"il ;i; i,, ;1r;;',i',-;r.; :,:;l ;i.-:iil,l.:,fl ".;; 6< : t .
14r . 1 1 1 n ,f.ti t. , E, : 5 cAp.iori, ciutir. 3 ftr1s : slecii dc pilsirdy'.

',oi;r.:,, . *;J-,1':,':i:..il;.I,i"', ::i,i",-li:il ll l"jil;:,:;:,.b:iJ:",.,'

r r. l:,1d"11; ",i:; )1,1 ',,1,4.me ;1;::';:;'i1LT,:,1,.ii ;r:r: ,',",i1

l

trp m "b an . tFnn"li dredlals pl'6-/o"fs H - , ',a Jp ., p Jr."l ol Itpr "did -\ud np a.r. - lhp $ df b ts4 r,,

. ' , , LL. oI A $rrat-noh young maDt,L{ pu", iD' y , r , , r d. . ' r ' I or l oi. l r u. / r . , . t , ^, pJ t L, . i/ u"r , f r , i , t , , I . dt .

r ood . n F r . , , / , ; , . j s merry so-raaali strJ d /,o'Es or I n . , r . , / o - . . . m . 'n r ^ . , - . . @t ,

Substantivele terminate in -ful qi -laadl tormeazi pluralut in,s: , up/,rrol o'oa nhr /,/. ni ton,l buLU"dJs of rriDocs ha.d/,r.oi n1r ot r,€ ,a,/odls r,ot&/s ot lkra
m.,lh/"1 .^ o _r 'ar'd y $nY,/s or /rod?h r r , . s poor ' / , / s ^t r . , d, iii1, , . .o.rti.odj .i touri!tj .a, Ud.ds oI rillagos i.ainloods ot NeeLcndc.s tnckloads of coul

S 166

Substantivul secundar al unui substantiv cotllpus DasLreazitn serere S 166 {orma de singa/or, chiar stun, i , inJ are spn"d. rlur;t s0; cind .sre pr;.cd0L tuncria de idr€crir. - un num"ralcu.ens dF rlursl, deuarp.F.ti',J.nlinFstc ',r-.,iind invariobil,S r;tlj. r.]n,,ne',.{himbi tr'pturet:'
a @o,n}.ush lhe glore departmcnt ,",\? - b! r ld ns sr? .lir t ins a D,oLkecl)or .t ./,s slro\i d /to a rr s l o D a i l ' h rl .s i r,l ,.n a thrcc'r.ac .oslune a ttn mt&r, liclure

l0? . Fac_exceptiemajodlatea subsrantivclor secundarecare au numai forrna S de plural (S 118-129).,subsiantilole rare. inr,rcbuinlare numai ta sinsLrlar, .,r I,U Fa pro.lucn, ..,r fr Ii n".t1rp , I r,, ., a.iFSFori suberar li\, te ^'rtuzir '' ^,t,u.F,rir m.i,nulrccu\i,,,. i,, sfairt d, .Lmi,it" uti,irt". Fi.,tir ,- in '' nr0i ha.\ent. ,bior';i .r,h:ran rrele obi_.r,uirts r\ind .err" J" piur.l:

'lhe ko,ds a .\s.€,s r.ndor Aiants , p I n Ld . \ , , r r a . . O r j r i n i , . , , i o n -\e l)Ibti. n ,/,r,i. I \ . r , . , r t ndn l' n frJr .n ,'r' jl'^ 4"". r n|' , , , t . r nir , t . i,k s , o n j r b 5 a umulicdtian s saL.ltiLe an Indian /rrt,.s airDlaDc rhe Cl,,rcs and Jn.s bishibuting Centrcs t\ | | r-p tr lt n! 1qr s f , r bt . t , inj i t ' r L 1!e Lo rlor , ar i Th. i ' P ,lpdrds Drhibition ol Ar.hii.eiitL,r-"

ivezi ri S ,t5 :t61) Substantirole compusecu el€mentul ..nan" sau .(tvomat',. - Cul.intul nt.1t san '&omanprimefte semnul pluralului &tunci cind €ste elem€ntul prnr cipal al unui substantiv compu,!. Iiind det€rninat dc u adjectiv sau de o altn parte de yorbire adj€ctivati:
bnsnrcssromdr t'hliqatuln .ongress@ndl -bdsinessdorua charvomt congless0ond4

g 168

l Cuvintelc substantiecle ln compune.ea -/,1 si ,oad au devcnil. de lapt suli{e, i l i r rora intfi sinL .dNid .ute r r d. r iv al. (5 Ji9)- Subslantirete asllel lormate erpridl

: Recura nu se aprici fn c;v,,i s,rbsianlivelorca: Getndn. Mlsstitun. \'annan, -. na\ notuen, Tu.cainan,.at!nh, ra?iwn e1.,.. Att ,iare.deii ternin{ic ln -mon. nu sini llnrlirsc in Imna englezllmodonri .r $rnisnii{l rn(n.

n rer.la nt,n nr Indidr@z: ,{n rt arnrs ,{n o i NrrJ

: hant t , n -!rfi - lnilirri.z rt rrns -rrn 2. , of \ r

llngljsh,,,rdr louuadan lr is hdo, r d , r nilk d! , f r n rc.dlcrr.,ra, toli..nrnal sto sfom(r

lhglishdln€n lotet ,?rr --lrislorttD -rtj]ktranen. necdleito,'.r Policesatnn slorl.vro,zu

tGS

Denlnr a arnta disiincl.ia do Ci d s bstantilul t .att san Qamatrser\'esl.c din,tian (sau .fo,ra;) -. substt$tif, ambii teimeni sexr ln formel€compuse primesc semnul plurfllutui: \ronr0r.ou'rilloB rncndrilncn
npniolk l, s l men nrilliNrs $cnscfrarls nr c D s ir gor s Iirtmen nnLsnriars

aratn (lislinclia de se\, Cind sribstantilul secLxrdar t/li/r principal : dc substtrrtivul .slc n..rrlsi semnrl ph1lalului ltiNit
,dn ,rt,r erleN lix d cN d,-killcs

1?0

Sllirstantircl{]comluse tn ck\ncltul 'ifoot'J. 'rtootrh" sau "ntouse", ca su} suu'rr/r.: stanti\e l)rincitale,foimenzri !lJhhn ir !J. res|ccliv 11.1//
la*t..l hnli /,,r lor/i?l 'I\\n\I l.,t l.vt)ur. lielrl ,,0r1.", tti! trt ,lilli /.,'r, nrrntu. Di, -licli tttJsleth nrilli /rr,r

$ 1?1

(lc .,11j., lir. €lelinrin invariabile Cind lrsi a(esl. substarl;\e au 1'alor're plurtl: sens do chiar dacir au
tn'!h^.hrs /oorriltrc t,ltrfr rr'ri|flLsl! '?.,i/rl)fuslrfs l,orD, .s l.,,r,!nrl's thnrtir\ - /oorst, ps ,,,{sr Jroles /,rrP hole , r or r r s ' I r r n r i s , r or . w, s ( l! { ak , r , , J . lr a! - - , r or : , lr a" s

s 172
\ 1:3 -

Titulaturilc (omt usc.
(nrora irtrn un sulslBntil'determirrat' d) Lr tituldlurile in con,punerea pirii Je !'o$ilc adjettivale.substantirulprim$te de ur d'lic,tir.r|Ic.,ltF semD l pluralului:
nla, l' ..'mtr . t," ' ttu"t .t" "1 (.noa1

sau ,orraris cirrt{i,, ;r;naals .ltf!& d'alairesd
r,r.rild Dhd a 2 Ind nrrn n: I otrrd. a ',n, Srtrr rn l.d. 0r ^ o, ,:l

iirre,r.rs senerul zortries lnbli. llurorl,c .Jroeis

' o n n ..:L t o n P .' 1 1 '

' !

'

r't ) r I

s.rs€D7.s tl arlrs sd,seanb_nl_la$' strgeart_mdJ,.s

Ia h l {'\\

P\ '0

| .rct r"'

= ={ s . onr f r c ial. \as . ar c l&0r t onr el! ur I ndi i l e . \a dt, rirzboi. ., , , r ! . I nllel t l1. rt o4t."t-. l j q : r , ) +r I '.

NUMARUL SUBSTANT1VELOE

69

ultimul ouvint se pune D./ La tilulaLurite compuserlin doun subs[an1,i1'e. in genere la plural:
b.isadier s?a,fnlsl | ,ld. o t.a.o t. tt' 1i'2 .."n t licuienant .olor.lr li- . _. Loti\ Chnnallors T.ord lI /-" l. l\ lI a - "

.\ l7t

deli cuvhtul cnre a primit somnul dar d/f€dlorugeneral sau dircctor g'cn.J'llls, cslc rdjecrir. ?luralului 'rn .l Ciler-a titulal,uli conrlnrs€nu amindoi rermenii la llurnl: ct!. Iinlshtr Tenrplab Lordisj Justioe.{I-ordi!) LicnlcDarts.

I l7:t

umelor pmprii, l'hrraln numelol de fanrilic urneazn i 17C l2) Plurahl rcgulile pluralului substanrivel.rr conure (:\ 92. 93. fB. 106). cLr c\ceplil trnninnliilor -o ti ,. care se menlin la pLural chiar atu fi chd siDt pr€codnt.e
ll. ll(N $ t|c lla lit r r lh. \ \ ' nllis . s is a ! t lc Co\ c r ll! I . r lI s t [ c ut r r r or tl!' \\nllirl the ]irrli.J

(lind numelede tanlilie estef!ctedal de un l,itlu se p ne sennul plufalulLri lia la nunele profriLr (in ]nrbtr vorbitn). lie la de unlirea titluhi (jn timbu oficialn):
Cortrade Jones f I I | 1 t ll,. Qrruade "/,u.sd (iidtba rorbiti) doadd.r JoDcs ilimb{ olicirli) Ca,nrad.s 0. Jones nrd S. Ilurphy | e \ I r . 11, . r t i n , l , 1 \ o r l ' t : . ) 1t ". . - . I t i. t . ,. , h J o . i d r r llr 11r . . / , ' . o- ' . | | n r l J r o r b i i

S f77

\ 1. , .dr \ r.,n , lrali lrirte :i sora . , r " o, : Colon.l Crosbl

|.rr".a,,",. r:","n ii ,,l,.'o,|': I tl' lli,. .t,,.//, lli nbr \urlil:1 1rt, v: ," -mi,r, r,nb' ',ii .l' , , ,.,
{ ,6 . i ,,,, ,r ,. v_, { rtttt .neus 1 lhc H{leI ,m/r/:': t tho i,/,lr^ llrl.I - l l , H " l .L r' - Llrc two llolonel C'orrtls
^ \l ' sti I t/.,u"".

L ,r .J r -i
P.oi- llcc{l

{ n.- ir r,"..,,,rr.
t.,/.b..r,!

, ,r ^ ,\"

7 ;../r

r. . nn , ,

ltccd and Conpton

(s r7e):

Prenumcle are la piurat s (sau s torrtc rnr in pri{lezarontemporonrl $ l?8
our Uar.fs. our llll's t he l$o Denier s i! s a u llades t h. t No D e n i s 'r

ln acelagimod se srrie pluralol conform regulii la prenumele masculine ,li leninine: Jefircls, Jerri6, Johnnids eic.: Ivics, Jennics, Judics etc, dar ,numele de luni au: Februarlcs sau Februar-Ys; Januari$ sou JanuarJs; Juucs sau JulJs.
'Ii I r" r , "' l I i ar ' ir' ri ' ir in( , 7Lnn, , . li, i :.\.ti.oiu rrns.inrrc r , r inr r az nt:i liiat:: "IIah! B t o t h o i '.

80u Numele compuse din mai null.c substarrti'e proprii sau dintr'un nume pr.triu + alt€ cufinle p nesc semnulpluraluluila ultimul cufiiti
r - l' - "t H / . 1 { r ' n' r ' l' .r ll \ lr\l l HL- u o '- $ , r J - 7"n. l' L "| Tl,.I ue like Ja.k irlhc-ro&j

s r79

I r,ii rdopl" s..ru -s,r ., rr "l I,l,rr'l'rlri p"nrru jos F lirrile '"iirori n', .itr .uLqra,,l,\p, nr' un", da i .i in .azul numelnrI,oprii d € rurbir' , "rp prenunelor: frnilie salr al Tne d.isq's havo askcnthe J',€s's io dniterItc o.dciad three 7'0n and J.t.u;\.

$ reo

Numclc protrii striinc au in genere,h limba enslczn.pluraiul numelor proprii engleie;tli (vezi S 176 1791cu uuclc exreplii in cAzul terminaL,ici'y: ure llnlens€s lhe Cnesia tlrc \ie.us.r ilre l)uDotrh ihc Borsirs
t\e lloi',.or the Sifili.s thc LorenzoJ the I'i.olerii.r tle \cros i1i. (uri.s tl,. Julios the tiol,ti.fllis ure Apollos lhe nl Grturos

Ex( e p li{:
th€ l,ro C.{..li, the rlt./l/.i, l}. lnrt c1,..

s 181

Numeralele snbsLantivate 23) Plulalul rumeralchr subst nti\at€. scrise.u liter€ urmoazirreEulile subltartivelor in pli'inla lo nnrii pluralului: lrYc.strr,s Ifu lliilht:'
nr t le lt r . , r i. J ol Lhc llt h 4 , . t u r v .. t/,.|l. . , . . r, /' Thc gif ls \ r f r P Fr ilnis iu , r . J i n d ^eos. (i.N Tlt roNing rre il :rr.r and s/r/rrs I 1 4 6 ) lll! . 1: J j 1 l i r i 1\ : er i ii i

s r39
| 183

Sorisecu cilre, princsc s sau 's la plur.rl:
Yox . 6' r and 7C' i ir i s m r ids f , l l s i r , r a D d 1 0 s J ior). ln l, lie J o' r oJ l, liis ir ' t r r r v lsau lhc l16r ' s ls { u t he 7r 60 J l

24) llurahl plural: la 's

rumelor dc litcrc. lJont roll ronr /'s.r
Sh. I on ne!.r \ r r ile

\urnclc de liter. prinlesc in g€nere

(,mssPs hef /'s. lt as s " \ it li l\ v o s . r .

Unii scriitori ornit insii apostroful: \\'ril. "l.all' Niur 1,\ro,s. la plural;i in intregime,astfel: Numele de litcrc pot li scris€
"Ll,c lNo e.s. e/s, .11s. .."s.s. eL. "r

s 18{

Plurahrl cbrcf iatiil.,r se formeaze ad6ugtn25) tlurahl abreri:rliilor. du-se in genere un -s la singular: (ss.lC.l' Pra(tili.ner) (plI C.P.s i: Gener.l \1" l'. \l P. P: liar'rn r , \' l | "r ., l .r (pt. I c l.jr'r,g [, .,. ' " lssI p ,,. 1: losicafd) hl ) p.r s
1r " Tatu a\ti. J.'rl: lm l.l 1 m.1". 1. , , , , ' r - . , r ' i. J i. l\'/.: ol i. lo io \ , nor . I '1,., ,r' ' .\ ". t \ "t at a, at dc Utlttr.:i ^r , : b"r i. ' i D. . , o1 ancric.tnii. , i 'tl...:. , '\ r 'r l . l v . I 'i r '. \ ll i . t 1.1, It. 1it I r '' d ' " 1

, ' d,i

l

NUII.{RUIj

SUBSTANTIVELOR

61

. I .' r'. .: lL. .!.r U t iq.l rol. , si -. s! I lb. -t 1 \ 1r _! I L, R'. ,.o : \l L r ''' . r. \ '.O 1 -.

.ap itJl) r - ( r , 1. ) c aps = l,on r) - { Pl. ) hs {: Nou nta , n) - ( pl) M t s (: volume) - (Pl ) lols l: ao rFte ) - ( PI ) im ls i: l,u nd .edlv eis ht )- ( pl. ) c s t r r: nound < libra) - {Pl.) l}s (: rArd) - hl. ) v Ll\ {: c.mtd,, ll - ll, r . ) ' , os : t)ro lhF r ) - ( nl. l br o5 c" e r. l c al O r r : c 4) i { plr C. S{) . O l ?r ' \ lon I nt d"r , - ( p l ) \ I O s -\l"Li ' \ fl O s \.r.r:o m m n. i. n"d O il6r - / ol. l r pl I P r r 's . Io 5l U i p. l' o! : 1 ' \ ' lpr

.

lnsi pluralul abreviatiilor alcituite din ilriliale Lrii scriitori formeazd (l188); s) la sinsutar ii:r1ind's (apo6trof
,,f.\ \ LP \ N .C .O .' S P.G.' s sau ini!,ialn: aile1-n abr€vialii dubleaze la plural litera linali - { Pl) } { s S .r l u s. s au m s . ( : m i tr,s fu j p t) L= t , aqr ) h ' l ) rrp . /o ' \ i t r ol os r i I P d s ' s ' \lte doun alref ialii au un plural special: : \ li. t r r r 3 L l l \ l l " s s rs ' .: \1 . \ li lr " ' o l \L ' r ,m " ' .. .

$ 185

\l p l " rLi LIP!orl ,i rr , Ptu r x lul c llnr i p.l r!i d r v o rb i ro s u b .l a n l i \a l c ' f or n paz , d " .b i " .i p l u r0 l L l c o n to rm rpgul ri ganp' el o , sub.

s lE6

:' . - : i . d o r ( $ {11 1 0 6 ):
\rrs iem pf . . d t r Puhops * a. il pot s / r l {s t {A d ! ) il.ir. nslfcr ({d!.) i ,,,i ri..a voltr i/s'arrl ,rri (-conj.),oI you ilirs a;d ,'rl,/,m. (^dv) ll,s iil, I'{s"t till oi ar." and lr,'zs fh. dsiri€s .1 l,istorv. (Ad!.) -ir,c ad's anil z,es tin Pa.li{dentl. {-\dv.) Pr pr . ) a nd .oa " s,r ' \ r ' , gl' p, l ' d. . nr lr ar t l -:c r:o ( \ u m F r 'l 9 ', \ nt o,L 1 ".,\:n j l. - r r oom ot . ' : r " _|" ' r a' lvPrb ' i- d , ', / . id, / jr' s n ad la an inl"r m r nat l. " o_v oi " h " Nlai-crP. thev aE " ''Ihe llower is oDe ol the \rhal loi onllrnsn! -a Eorrgy,

t rele cuvinte primesc 's:
i l r $ a s leit ur oll t P rrj l i r " f,l l rro r" i -'. r p i\ ' - us " olr p n d t.l l s .n u s tl , l
fd r- r 1n p..hd1got I' o s d o .fo ' r d " ..

s 187
P " ;a _ d P n ," ssa. mo.l npl " a' 1nl

L nii -.criitori tntrebuinleazd 's ca semn al pluralului la orice cuvint ca.e - '.tc u n s ubs t ant iY c o mu n : 't. l tt- : " fd i r rro : l l r J o . r: Ll . ll" p ro ' i n u " o a ' ,Io u r rs r oJ,os ''. .ri; r J ', l P . J nd oi l l i s s o rl J " ies { ilI r' r .v r' r' tn ,l ,h -&.a r | l pul up .b o i t" a s a tl th t* i o r 'e $: r ' l; ' , 1in6 " r nrrial : naiuscxlti. !u ; s r u r lr . f s r s l a l . :,:u d anr ( ' ! . ' dum l r. ;,lfl.lraria cnliit€lot.arc nu stil, dc lapl sxlrst{ntivenu s. conlordoazi regulilor _ i.rri. sftst{ltirfrof: rort,rlrr';i nu ro..riLli.:; .arefulu:. li n (reft.Ui:s ', :;i l,rorrli S i: 61.

s 188

62

s lil9
ll,rl l9l

\T. CAZUI, SUI]S'TANTIYNLOR
OHN (ASE OF NOUNI) unui l,l'rrr.itlrrrlii grtrrrslo,-(:," ra n,rm-sl- Irm" . r p^'ili .d,r j' . prirr ,:1 " '" rr'14 ,rn'rr0 i'jru:r',LrLLd.lr! !!ln . "i\,lF',rul-i I ' a , J r n n , n u pp li ln limbr cngtezne\isti loarte puline pnrli dc lorbifc care rlr aslezr pentru diflrfcrlierei cazurilor, si Ace:t('a smi: pron&'itu' forne (Leosebil.c o?'-.in l.l;ril J lr^nrlr'l r,ro .i ''rb nli l ,.t.'.t"t . p-.'tr"l"

Irrn hl r14' u\-r' rprrl '. . ' t t l t nl . ll! l i i l F .r/-J l a . " i n rpn-r' ' r:ri ' rr$ r , rr" , .r l, r . ln7; ! r " . p ' n l r' r n o ^ In , ;.. l ' '1 - l r' r rr' pu?r.rr I' e1 tru _S c er it il' nr e s i d rti v )j |1 )'l r bos c b i re d e l rra rn a ti c r rrrn ra n l . c| IIc 6rc .rnr' ) fazrrri - l romrni rl l \" r . , . , ,,j r. l i \.r \^ ,d :,\ ftl _a I, ir , i. I ' .' ,n.pr" .r," r f i J rr i r" ' fi i r" ' r ' ri . ' rn r i .. I i t " r, i r' ' " 'l m , r ior it ! 1{ ] a qr a m a ti (i c n i l o l c a o Io ti rn i rr n i:n| i nal i vul oi l i oumi l i n ci rnsl ! tnl i i noninal.irul Toc.ttil') ,\,rtri/ttlt irt) .)l Ad(Lr.ss ( nl r' 4 I ct l tti 1 .,.t . , 1 ;,r" l l llll , ,, d a " ,.r: f tn .: ta,.t l l tr" i ' pd' ' l l ,o .r' i \' ,,..' r , , , - r e, ' , 1. l r' -.r' r" ,rrr' l ' r.' rl ' -l ' rr.l " F carc::c p ri n crz ( ldru l al ci rrri l ca url nare. rLn n u e s te . , , , ' ! oz t t ] , r . n l e D L rz rti o l d l l ' 1,i r' ' 1" l r I ,. " i r' n ," /i ; , , ; - r | . . . , r' i ' iL , t , lil i r , ' l' . rrz u l p rr:p o z i l i Lunl si nl ades.ori re:ui i l c sun un lr \ d. .' rL r7 -i rn ul . i l rr -ri sirNur nunre cdeNrir: t:o.;t abiccli; (Oli.x:tire (:.ts.) Ca ,sicnzul prepoziliolll1l' r i. i , r ( f s la nu e s t€ u n (a z d i s ti n c t d e c e l e patru cnunerdto nl ai sus. cr ost' t (liroft. indirect sau piepozilionaldupi cum o arat'a (rrzul fotrr|hmentllui la 0rj.d. eare tnseamnn vcnind de a/rjeciire. numclo s:'t culnrtul inru,.i (Dic,:t Objai)' ind:trecr (Indit\1 Otae.r/ sau pfepozilio ii\\,r .,"'pt""1".t ( PrtposittonaL 0bica ). tJ pcntrD tn.te Lfl urj l e i rr afrfi ,l e S Lr bs L. an ti v e la e' i d -o s i n g u ; fn fl f s(1 ,.1 ; r ' , ' r' u n " h J e " o : " on," t' (( onn' n .o: I ru" nFr n" l r' , r " , r ul r r nr f \iorare intrebuinlate, cr sau fnrd prcpozilic. si$ de,tumirea (le. nominatil (\' ezi !i 197) (l azul co un nu ! , LLir i! Df eD. ,ti o n a t..l a tn -.a u a r:u z a i i r .. :ls i zrr IF rr si nl ni l i " i F' unIU r ,' l " u' ,rz rrrp r r..,i I' l ,r.z i '

I lt)1;

2) Dccliuarea srlsttntir[lui

(oi rl,.l lirs
(to ' l h .) roy

I tl.h itdt nhn : |L: t 4^t ilnli. s lli Di loaio or i, iD . u\ i r l i l t r e l t n i r t r t r x $ n s h f t i v ll: r rr l,mn uri.. u adic c t iv s nls t ant i t . r n g. r on d i r . u n s u 'n i t i n l i t t r r b d n n i i n i l i t , o ldirriunr. r..c!'! si o lroporilie, o t)nrtr din {oeaslr sau o nfuti :vfzj s ll lit . r\i 7i S 2 r l3! . ! \'t,xi s :r s .

{l Obsetralie \.easti formi unici pentru toate cazurile - cr.r cnccplia ge jtivului Forn): :.\nn - se nume.ste fatma cam nd (Comtnon
' l h r" ' / \ . 4.) $"i '"9. " l,o! a (Ddt.) I garc ilrc p.n. Na.y seesa Drs in il,c ga..lcn. G.) 6an. ta .:.) Bo !,6 n e l re re l

S 197

Cu prepozitie:
He is a lriend of tLc bor ne\t doo!. 1 sa\e a pe1 tu nF boy. E x ( e p li e : gen i L i v u l s a x o n : TIc Dos'slci is in I'is pencil-hor /C.D.) (Dat.)

NOMINATIVUL
1TUD \OIIIN,\TM CASril)

s r9s

1) Defilli,tie.- Nominativul este cazul subicctuluil, al numelui predi- S ltt ,ti\' .,are deterninn "qubi€ctul (rlunc prcdicativ mbiectir' -. Suliulitl ,,,,tl.n1.nt)$alapoziliiloracostora.Elrist)undelaintrebnrileutro.2(:cjnel'l .:iifr2 (: carel) sau (,ldt? (: cel).
'I' Iu nr lii. \. . i n " ti ru l h r i .r' ri d J p

'

\ 200
\ 2(ll

r) subicctsau partc din subiectul unui rcrb la un rlod personal:
7 . , r ". Tl. ' "Il o I I l\ ' m "I ' or nr ! ' a' ,1 join J,1 , " .r t 11, h' d I ool.r r \ p . ' \ll ihlt n.rl ol .drl, {$ i,heirs.

ii\

,, nurrlo prodicatir. care detcrnini SulJjutit,e CanpLcnent)| Shc is nr otl,.

subiectul (numc prcdicaliv suL;er

.s 2ll2

Thc nc\L ii,ctu is l,lrc iDLc.laLional radio nriir. Tlose Fho died jn the cause ol ihc p.otle ale l...es.

,:, apozilie sau parte din apozilia unui substantir (sau a unui echiralenl. il acestuia)care srn h nominativ': likcs my novcl. -{da, l,is dazgnr,/,
_ This is }cn's trtcl\Pr, Ired Pork.. Dr. U.,. Aaad oi Ure English Dptblnent jA urc Lnife$il) _ ol Ohann, is now in

S 203

d) subicct al unui ljnitiv care frce part€ din prcdicat in eonstruclia n\n\iti\ nonirltit, cu infini.tia3 :
o o o d .r."n.. . r / t r i s l p o ..J o D c " rr r I " r , , l. ," d " .r.. / En'3 rl h ," ,a .i ,r,, t v. e, subiect al unui parLicipiu prezcni, care face pade din pr€dicat tn con slr'uc,tia numiti noninatie ctl larticipiua
c/. \d n o tn p ,t /d q n g , L o .- . a r d:$n. 1he .pacc roci.:t \ras s:rtched sodring jnto th. sl<J.

\ 20I

5 205

l lacc cxccptic sulic.trt h razul ncnzittiv al unui rob la o lorrnir in,t*sonrlr sa n laf t ic ipiu) lS !5 0 rr). linli n? i ti vzi \e { : 1t 39 b. I Y.zi 1ljt 5. ' a Yczi S 51i11.

04

$ 20(i

lorneazi subiect al unui verb la un nrod irnpersonal cu catc ttl1 | nom;nativ absal r\\tr1ilrd.
pl' r r 'd . 'r 'I o r 'l r " fur

fon-

s 207 -" *i" -

\ t . d' p ' i m o r ar io' $: -ih" , o,' tron,rr'i nr' rr 'rr' ;;;: ; . r ' J "*," T'i;";ii on tonisht ",1, I don'c" on the $irerss. 'aizs &tirul-locattv 3) Nominetivul Yoeativ ( oninatire of A.dbess) - Noni r ura nir rucrlr un sau denun€qte o liin,n ci ^;;Jl"bstantivului

Is lhat You,rdnd':
An". < ' ; P. . 4: ld" n

Nominativd 'rocatir'nu are rcl sinLactic' ii S 1e2l' {Vozi

r,o"o. :rri,.y,i*nT ::, ");;t,i f",; ",X.H",,' " ;,,,iro

s l Ft " € r P {o u '-

208
::Us 210 i1l

GENTTIVUI'
(THll GIiNIT{VE C'\Sn) Ic'rib'rlul'ri -\prirnJ in ori"'ur rirrdr'0''1r llclitririe. CeriiIul."z l'irrl ' /'n'" pr;rIip'llri' pnprira i"a 3r"F 'r r L .f '"'pund";rr 'pbrrrr' t xl't h t"'uil's"r i,-i 'ltot t "l ur.',.i e\prirrln dile2) fi c.tii.-- Genitivul are {le obicei tunclic de illrlx'rrEl rite r,rpL'rtur'i,dintre c:rre cele rllai curentet sinL urrndioarela: possesstue arata pos'rsrunea: GenitLte.'l a) lt)nitirul pos.sie ('the
.lr.h's t..is iliis ,rr""r""', rol."" ihe s'/@'l'lillrcr1s rcd ties ilie d4ts kitlcns erprclsi(e of dc|cnlloLr
'/'ar

r ,l'l
\ ll3

b) ! titittl aparlon€rL.a i
UrP \lrtt

alrartenenlci (fhe

G'nitit'c

) attiii

, / lhe .drr

tltc k'J of mI

t) lenilir L i raditii (fhc Genitite lJ2rcssingf&nil! irrudirea: NLr's Urc tr"0's' .U€5'r sor
the sldo{ o/ grcat ^ 'rir'.

ftlutianritip )

rtt\

"- *i,ljlil:li:{if"i'J,i,1X1"il;,,[,',H,;1ll#:i'::'
s,'DeLo.lv's adni.n[ion rha .lJrirg af the bdbll

fi'r#l#,"::il;:l: "' ,'","1;1.fi:i':"11s'i'f:ill?:,1{li,",;1'H"" r r ho*e r0r
3'[i:i;"r*'"'ifi:i,"," f:J};i']'ij"'t?''!dffi

:ir"iiri'""'i'i'i : r;:l rr''r' ;#l;r' i' ii r i:l; ;+l;:il:'l;,' ;'yl r,, i.:"iii"i;" rrl ni |,,,,i
"i"t,..., :,:.iljlli,i,;,i.i/1li;:

CAZUBI 'N

CARE ANTICOLI']

LIPSE;T!

115

J,OCUI, ,\RTICOLUI,UI 1) \mbele aflicolelre.edd substantivulsau al,ribululacestuia:

$ ;6e s 570
S i7l

tnainteacurintului whole, dar dnpd all, bothl, 2) lmbcle articole Eta.u rrire. iust:
The |hile galden wils in bloon. I sdrked at )t lot a @hDl. eeek, .1ll rtu siudents were pPsent,l Ballt (the ) ptetts weft Eeated at ttte table.r T h" sl .dy o r 0 r'ilp. , ur p r s qd; t p t h" \ bps t lhin g l o f X o r . U " saN o d're n ,,um ldr or ShaL€"DedF s Dlr \ s . Thjs is t;s, ,n, house I $as lookini ior. {: iocmai) li. is jlsi aa ordjnaly bcd'sittjrg'room. (: nirnail

3) Cufintelehall rsidoutule slnt urmdlcde articol cind reprezintl mnsuri: S 572
holf a doze eggs ftaf d pint ol bc4 ldto rmnute's silence toit rie bottle was emply. dolble the srn daubte the d.ubb the ^nmbet si,ze lYo paid dourk ,n, vatue.

.

Sjnl Insa lr...ddr. de .rrticol atunci clnd lormeazd un sdrstdntie comlus u rd " cu "ub.lrn'i\ ul urmSlor: 'npwA ' ltu hLtt-ho ' ) a.l lturl
\\. sp n t d t l"L an| 4' t t / D, f r F1oing. We heard ,}l d,&rr4 iecl. ol the postman. The word hns d d.Lblc nca\ing.

S 573

,\ se compara:
sdu \Jcdnrl) toll a 1 , , l, daaj r , m . 1ld' "d ' oo' r ibc / i . dm il/ 1 "diu a ialf-la lt diu i o J '' l, r !r:pi , J ni. r ' d |ber r . h;]J hoLda! 'h P rve"v \, par hp d lor i l huLl a hat t uo! I n l ' s p d " t r s . / ' dl/ I " / oir &y in s "or ld n d . Th ,t.p,D Thuadav is a ldl noltdd

iii' ii'i

i" ir"et;';i"-td"

. rhehalthotiday

VII. CAZURI IN CANE ARTICOLULIIPSU$TE
Rcguld ge erali Nu prjmcsc articol: lt s.rbstenriu"l.ir''rab"inl-lc .u inlFIF t rpfalf\\l 2) subFtantivelecare au url caraci€r de dn;cna,t [NN]

s s?i

gonoralnu primescarticol; au S 5?ti 1) S[bstantircl€l]€numcr[l,ilecu in.tsles ,alegoriF i.'rc u rme t o a rP le . u b . . -q rrro ln arpu.ta zpr o . Jrr a r t i .o lu l " ind sint lnirebuintate cu sensqeneric:
dl substantivele care denunesc dDslld.itt [NN] (S 35)l
-B.tu tlJ s t r ut h. nut h h bpout ! . ' s ill er r c r i / . . la,sd,r'u' r 5

s 5?7

l ldj{,0tirele d,l ii Dod nu se const.ni.sc co aru$]ul nehofi.it.

t!; p \n ri nrr ' n1l ' l pm^nrul t n ttiLr Lt ob: t ir I th O b i t' " G n i ti J " t F n ' r -rbr' r: L ,l ' a l 1 ' s u l" ,,';',i .,' 1, : ' ; ; ' ii '" ^ ,i !-i n " /O' e 216

;1"*Ji",i";li;3:fii i*IHll:jl x;,:t:i,t{,ir:'i ,,",, n{ f ! hlY I r i" 0f "
l)ur is hm f it

f)

D60iptit'! Genittu') (les$ie sr$Ftrnlivut linlti.rnl rltsrriptic('Ihe

"'

S 917

uneisinrple \ tls roLni Genitit't)ayil1rl ':) lnitirrl alra:itt'('llt( t ppositit"' detrrr"nar: proprii substantivuL .p,,;il. l.,ri'i,r,,ilz"aznprin rririne
c{r:' l+'|rP' In l'r'rr'li' l' p'ttti!:r t lh'Pnrt;t't. .1;r;ttr l,) - rilt '11 ' rl i'r/rnrr" l"r ri: it Jp|iri\ ia l; rn'l ir'r'purrliH'r\i nr i"',-r'1.'.1,.. "'i'l'l

""' ll'i,;lr':'ri",,i"'" 1,,'liljlii":lJ:i,1,i,,,,, "f,iirJ' i;l'iii,ll"l'jiij,""-,,.rr,"';?1fi

lii:illi,,il,i'";::ll;!i:'iiljil,ll"lj,lilJu'*,r

t llf'

i'i''iil,'l",ilil'i:f''* lll",'':i'i["li'Jl""li

(Tht: {;t/titir' i) y itiral itl]lttunll]tnal. sul'trlutbtllui! : suferlatl\ dP crprimn rroliunea
-

of Gt1tLalkn)

S 22u

se tratlr(e iI gc ere in ;l) l'r.rdu{10re. (}lrnitivul dio linba erqlezi pu'l: liniba -" ",1 r orlAld i at inrurtifii et!): (ge itivul posesival apurteneDf *'it" ""

'' ' '' " ' " ' ', '"it t',':,;;,1'' |i, '. ',"';,-'' . ' ^t ' . n l t rlf r"".. ''.,1

S s2l q 22t

i'l:'i,l,",il{"i''"'""1'ilfi l1''i.ii"":i'o-r i "l,i.'f,ili'i\i.,.,,r l!i"i.'il"ll^{.ii'lj1;ir

.?f + substantrv(sc iti\. des$iftiY): ,, (|(n,struc1,iR

I !13

o'0""'''"' n,",r i:'ii;1"!Y,"il""i1{ il'l;l',J"iii," i ll*rl.-;:',;i,,t,, I'j,l)ilii.1'";.T1".,"l' ;l"ilt", l),;il"tiili:i'5,",,.,l'rliiii,i f1"i1,i",li",ll',,,')il'J,#ii'lii,)':"lii,,'!"
lariiliv): ..1 fulintele ilinir', din (parliti{) (selrili.|-

\ 22{

'''',,1'"'" ;';,--"",,

'' li i]"i;' "'," , '','
5 cranratica ltmbli e'gteze

'l 'i "-" ': 1,,:: 'l' 'i"1 "'

i 1i'-'" ;-

,,s,niri*,ui r:1rirn,i i)l ,ij:*::pjf:,,:i?1i::r ,i'lli:,',i,{','3:1ti"l;,,'' "',.."

6 0M

S 225

dJ o apoziti€ (Fenitiv apoziriv):
the dt.v of RuctL at l= ol\ut Duclresi.i) 5i.. "rdlr4's Park (.- rJarcut Sr. Ja cs) cJ un adjectiv (geniti.!' dcscripr,iv): .,. r : , " . - l o , ,l tt,. | t :a.t. I ,
. . i rd e i r J.ir 1 to , tr,i _.

thc Isle o/ Md? (: hs'na ltanl thc monUi o/ Jondf, i:lnDa innudic)

S 228

S 9P7

4) trolllll. -

Genirivul are in linba erglezn d.a d fart .l ,\. !.nitiral s.oor (sau ft€\ior.f)i B. gti;iti eul p-epa:i1ionut. s,rrxor\${rJ c,tZUL pos}istr -{. ctrrtlrtul (?riti stxos on\rfilu 0n posstrssr!}j (,tsE)

S 298 S 229

Forlrlli. - Cenirivul saxon. nrrnjjt. ,\i cozul posasi!. ceniri\ui flc\ioxrr F"L,gpni iirl .i'r" i . . . r, , rn : : r rr| ,.2 ,1 ..t.r.,iri,-t.r dir t:mL1 -r:t,./a r0rm:1r , fln ll-1,In,. Ll Fi. n r;mJ.itr r \,,hirlrii ,,F iri! .,.0 . 1) $ingutar. La s;rgutar. r:azul posesiwsc tormeazn adilldndu se s $ SeO I"porllul \), la lormHuH nu'nirI ir .i,,:,u11' , .,r1. , t,'jr,"" ;rd.l.t ,,. t, ,.1 subslant[rulrespecti! s.: tontind sdn nn Ln -s..
tn.r .d ,p's m.mllN Si. ?r"Das'.c f{osriiel C/d,,rd.-. r Lr(rltoir.dia ,i.ldrs's atrd It'.rr's riol.cls ,ll.! s fransisto. radio

r,' .r's hools rlr .trn"nr.s herd otr. s,',se,seAss Btan he';' .t)i1\j th. Jel8.'r lerd4t .tu]/fr,,.r iim.latrlc tli. huEe/i.n s lail

s 231 s 2I!
23e

Er cep lii Primescn r, 6i ,rtu!trntul : linaln nrri€pc tti se teniinn .u suretul . _ ! iu 't) substrrtilplp.r ,aror srlabn
trj tz t: C..esls' lreasu.s ,J cjtel'a substantiye curintul s.lA.: lsir' tfrnjrla ;n s,'netut [s] ti
sake

comunc tornlinate

urnnte

.Ie

I'r .ozfdrt.r..'

ior ,", ornC salc,erc-

231

ln nczr,l.lp t€,;. ctro.r'ot.l ru , .,a. bl,:. tori,r: tAa^.lJ.i ,,rtir,t. tc.. -, eulor un,n-; il in,r.oJi',{' d/J rlt, ori nu. ln itr i . ,.i: tor g,od,.srsake tor ..ns.i.,.. sake
ror.on'dn,4.. sak-A ior tL.lt Dffite sake, ell.

,f J " n ri \ l i -n , , d" J:r-: 1\ ' " . t rn , l. , 1T r r , et nt a r o .d l c j ., rn tfe l rm D : T p" m r n, r ia r.r .t.i d rs !.ru rr ' . .t,.1 -n \ 1 ,." ,,rt.i ._ d,rt . , l11' , r / p s . t,ru ,n n ri f!to n rl l .

., ..b.tJrt:...r

|

,,...

,.,r.o,n t" s r,J. t. ,,Jt ,

.i E 235 in 'ibilJn l .ulrrJt' da si// -..--,,- reguLu -,h\un,-1. proprit ' se supun dF sd'rr 'm in0lp rn sibilnnrali urm nnrFrminaro .' .',Li*i;;;;,;; "P s)]: 's (apostror irL,i.n" ladicd primclc

O b s e re a lie

srkc Ior ?/dnas's
Iot Ar;'€'s sake

l:""i#lf,'J3*

6n1i36 - lcrminate-ro $ 236 nrmclor proprii striinc - moilcroesauenJl'z"rli GonitlYul r$ 2{r' zJrr: .",ir.Jti.l- i"".i" i,r,"rariti" secon'porra 'a ii 'alF
C'ilnDlst cgg house Il'rdtl'J's l'asks

iii r.l;i"i'";t"

art lor o"s sake

fn cu €nql6za {ormala sorisi . s( omiie arit tn scris. cit ti oral -s. "--,- -? \tluJmente ins6! pantru P'nonr€ (c roru ' r cn i s 'r F :

s *t \e,"lir":l': iiruarie \fpsati l^.-':ir:li,T;.,TliJ,T.t:If!i^r".lii"l,'"'""1 hr/' ) si estolncntion€LiarcrlAnlru cr
i tlii i'ii i " r ' ii i ''l 'otulmanri nrnJ u
Pn4ebrs'iame fler'L1's' flub

i:x*f*;s" i'*;*'"*::l'" t-,'t;;;;;'r"1"
-Eaaz'sr

iltf'[a:i:"HTi4'l d;ii:""qlilll!4:"-" kingdom
p;no;tnces'6 oratioN

'r;;r's'

i"'"'?"'iir'ii"*Pt'Y l, . t d' s' c o u ra g e

L''nk' blrth _ A/u rr1 J 'atti l Lrde

IJn i i a ULor i' P . ^f f s n d a l n L fe b u l n l a rF -l g F n ;l i \x l u i ' pfA pozi Li onal l nspeci Jl s2:| 3

r,

","lli.

pr "p ;' an r i'c lungi.'ila celprprnindt"in " : z l:
'h " $or lq o/ ?4 e7 L' , ' nr P"in r t ' ' Lt Ht PPa"' t "

239 dp cFniriv sa\orrepini'a Pi11 S L, ulrimplpdF.cnii s-a In.rrat'nrr iorFa dpo' ri ni n rrp b u '|n' ar ' 1 r r or ur ' r itii' i.,",- "Y1""' rd , " 1 if i; ; i i ; s ; c s r d .r" ti zap \' : " r's"r Pronu.trriIrnqrurlrrnLLZI .,,i.i.,"1i"'r. r".;i""'" la'insulit ia insdi nr€n!inirdu-se thc ac'r'st' | €ktrsrzl fa'r'
t'he rzi'rss' :, J a"

il otd

se formeaze h do'rd moduli: 2) Plursl. - La ptural, cazur poscsiv se adaugi apostroful firi sr a) ta pluralul terminaf in litera 's
na " her ft;r/ ; h i ,;j ' tuit' ' .i r" ' ii'* l) la pluralul care nu se termini tp h ' P 'e l -' B€rnelr'- rouse

u il''' |"1i:ri'o'r"r"'*''"lriil'" -"

[ $ertr$tz] I 'rmrc JIL d 'rm/r/

S 2{0 S 911

s): in lilera -s se atlaugd 's (apostroful

$ 2{2

run'! hais

cliildTeD'! Eanes

gff::i i:iy*

ltr aceirst;lsrttra I In lrre'a pmnnnlat;l ca i mnnne$ sc rornl'rt'i -F&uztlrenlsl' '' lj.. c:r ti sibilantr :.

213 "s

{lox{tuzie

Cazulpov j! se fonifazn: 1t l,t Jdrx,,ii rlu ie ,s (apostrof s) iir io.rte subsianli\fle colllunt, "in:.rt.ltr. . u r'-oprrr..l,rJr s. 1,,,"1, 'rmir |r ' 244 Erctiplii "s lll substanl.ilale terminHto inrr o sihhn cnre in(,cpo ti se termini flr ,; ,./ cttcva substantilcteminare in sunFtuts, ulndte rle sirl.: 2) 1.0 ptutdl: d/ adiugtrdu,sc atostrolul fir:i s 1a pturatcleiel\rrinritI iI r: ,, a,liuqilldu-sc.- (aposrrof r) h pturiikte rerft'lntrrat{, ir .".

s 2Jt

$ 246 ia217
S !i8

: lt . nlie ! S pr e r le o s e b i l ' erl o l i mb a ro m6 rri , substa l ;\ul i n cazut r)oseri 1,!/.a,/n n,l ,rl .,r,. l , rrr:brr ,1, .,t-. l ,.s -,l J ' .," F ,.rtc p rn ,,,i . t.tJ ' , , . ' . laof i, , l' r r,i lr nl, r c pr F l r ' ' | | | i urti rrLl ,.,,\,,,r (.ub ' ,..J ..\.' l J ,F d .,i i r,-p :n d u-.,,' r stantivul determirat) Ei co tjnuindu-se cu cel sau cele {are il preccdi. in orrlidra apr ut , i" r ii l^' d - c l . SF \a ti r,F . b i n ^ i rrFl FS .." j L,a J" t,,r]tul ,.H cuL. .r,ri v" t,. J F l. ' m ; nA nr F s l , i l u i ... ru j ' l ri b u r.l e l ur un ;rr,p si .i ;rJi ,.d ;ndr,.,rh ,i . i se aplion in {cest .,az u subslanri\-ului deramjn;ni izotar. ci intregului grrp: nr"r clder sisre/'sl.lio trer lalc n,.\rnd,s D-d,..'s hoNf, r " " i. . ..f,,' b r' ro ri r.' l .,!l i r/r' i -d.b ?,r' .i (p.rrr,l ui ri .o ' h / , r r ," , ri .l o ' . 4 ,..,,...r' r,-r,h.r' I j' r ' ir i i h ro i a l !,l fi i l o rl ( nerdut nt\.sri ,i l i i ,t,,i tl i R ol ,) f4r.'s !d..nh' risilr (: fizit.a trirnrlild tui rinte) Subslanl.i|ul determinat nr esl. pr.1:.:dar tt.i articol: the tost,na,is ,ln,rn (nd fostmn\ ,nc knook,) thc flrildr.ns h.q t ls lt\t .hitdNr's ,t. .e* io-rs:i

Subsrantilulin.nzul pose.iv poate Ii hsn pr€cedatsa nLrde.rrtiroll in lun,lip rnr.l.s d,,r n; arun,i,ind i,"m" pror,rirr ta srnq,rl.r,: 'lp ".rn "n ( Puttlr inltcbui lafta a ircLuLuit:n nnmcle proprii, r,r.:t,si g 463).

s :Il
$ 9.',0

(l:rzuri speci:rle
. 1) Glltpurile de ruvirrte li titirlaturil€ conrtmscau semnut cazului poscsiv adnuqat Ia ultimul eu\-inj,:
Ih. ttd! Llforc\ pat'pt tt. lais and a hatf': ntlar in a n ilul e at e, s ii t : tt1. i.:tt Lraan Ankticatt ireokt nr, r&ri.r-t ldq,.r irords t.li rdnr Cltel Jr.-rnr,s {ddnss nRs i t I i d n t t ; t h M n e t u , . r o t h e f ua,{ tirehani: t)jrt \\orli .,lfg! (ta,LL.l lrrl |,s.

dc tirnre erc.) :rloiilujtedin nl^i rjrrtre .Tot astfelnumele (de pcrsoane,
i^ nt:nr! I III': L"jgn th,, td;roz Co.'.r r,$rds

09 .t) Cnrd doui subsiixtile lcgokr llrin 'axal" r€prezinti pos$orii aceluiatj 1,. 1.'.r,!'dl crz,,l\rip.sp'i\ 'F a'l'rre" la ul imul 'u\rnr:
\\'lh 1.t., ri- arl 1 1 .. R.t' o to v ro i/o " . . " t t ! t , ",.d ,o tn l n t l.s l' r ^ ",r i . " n'dbor'l

S 2l'I

Cind insi obi€clul nu aparlinn ami (lurora.se spLrne:
\1ith llltrv's rnd Jn"r's ,!mlliments. and lrihor\-$o|lts t-^';rr. J;ri'" iluriLri indiridual'i ' Ii

i

P l u 7 'r r r Par F inlr . b' r r nLor at t t ht t ' ,,/ ' ' lJ,u :en ili\ul I' rr1ljnlul ei cuvint: ,t; l' n\ " l r'r rl TJ,.a ,r h' F l - d ' / "r / e m ll H,,\'1n u rs'r I {lid t|is lo. JuPs ,z? amll,r. s salic |:n!lan'1': munr'' \ilfs llII l/k nins Il.r.I "f

'r ttlori!ia priip.l.

s'rr'rrl

*rv I t 'zului pu "' hl:

de obicei

s 25r

predi.tatio. sclnnul losc"qifitluj S i)i'3 bJ dacn genil,i{ul€ste inlr€buirr!,al determjnar: s,tbstantivul s,ru de e.rc frhit rlc apozifie
ln€ ,'/.rs. san 'Ihcsc iro15 a.e Prt{ lhe .nrtft Trif$ bovs dre /.r.f'r sa u 'l he aPro; is mv sister ,mirsr's 'fhc almn is nrl sisl.t'J Emil.r*

cj Rareori, scrnnul posesivului se giseDtela ambele substallive:
Tlcsc hovs de P.t.t's the carter's She \vas goi,,A 1o Libbu's thc st t.t's

"s

2l'1

ln Iimba nncl'r" ' "nt'm aposlrollhrila razul po'c.il. 4r suDrimaren obic"rul ,a c.nili \ulrri 'axu' '" tiF 'uprinrrl' or',r.nir aposlrotul .rn.' s r' i'., n '\.--13 FslF in.pc.ial ,dzul 'ubslor,li!Flor,rr lnrni J" nlural.dr"n'r 'rnl n! rulrimare d lrpo'1"'l rlrrr'- inlll"rr.ra i,h".' de f^.e.iunts,,1.si "r-mIl J" In'i: r,. in , rnd .ur"r'r si l'.ir'g,rlar. lil-rd ' ''lerr!rrrind,'P
1sg) St. '1lro,'r (town) 1s(.) Sl- ,1rdl€d s (to$n) is a. l . / ' r s - ho u s es p i ,i i 1tl.l ih. ln'o lca.." Plat 1!l.l a ieN n,r's rest lil.) a 1w. miles dislaroc

$ !;1

,\nrbele lonno. cu snu iird aposl.rof.se intjlneso ad€seoriilr -acrlqi eon- S t50 iert. Urmiloarcle €\emple sinl nume consacralede t'eRt'o li snli de concerL colelor ziArului "?/l, Iirnrs". noienrbrie 18' .p;-;r," din p asina'specl,a "i".. 1978: Sl llaftnr'rirr Sl l{tttins Lanel Cnar]|s, Ilukr of lorras,Printr.
\lJnd l n,ir Q u. eir , f lc .

Raoa nin Lt'l; ll u 'uhurhi' I' rrnrl'rl Lurr'lrei' Tol .'.li'l c/ Jau'' .i 5, /,,,, r /lnal irr_-'r,rl j, ., . Roodnt.. !o? .,rburli, I' q.r'1. .\/ Jrr', ^ 'i, L, r',lFi. DF ta!1. :l .l,rn". .'p 'r' 'l^ "in.,-nr-/" uri d r,rrtnir' .l 'punrnrr'. r.. 1.,',dr' bi d- ii. arp | ,l , u urlni'r.Irr ,.r l,' 'rnl'J rl'' rlr'F 14 rrrur" la cazril poseriYd JLt. ln rll rriiuttd \(ripri'H :257 aposlrofului SuDriuiarea ,iiv,l .,rb.r"r, . n.r,fului. ir"t":,',,ti\,,r sF,,rr;'-l | -,' .i tolerlra d rrci .r,rir.i ' ,li\u' l,l'rr''lulurnhi"nui' rr r"n' li- d' J liaii\' L', iri\.1 il s,lrrr"lului ,- niurii 'u urn'd "4.1" "rFr'irrr- irr en4'/a -uti\r in f. cr" ',,' prn'1,,. --'-.r1"* i:"""t *tr"t infertiturtine in p ririrlla locului apostroiului in inl'enfia i '58 qi coniuzieln lcritul (omunicdrii: rorbiforului. do.i amLisuiLate
r lczi ii idrirn \i.ol.sl. 7."dirjc in olgletn hrikrnin cant'ntPo nti'

i0M

2i9

6i J :i r,,,r',"1l'rot,riid i',"riruli,. tirn,",t,br; i. m.!a ; . r..r ,u-'n -. pilrluri , .) sirt d" rceul" , onsid.rateplurale tralatc ca atdre i privinla ii rcordrihri l,rr cu verbul rqi(,u pronum€le eLc.r{xpcctire, rimine iotusi incerti tu.iin!,1 |rrnti ln pririnf,a nunirului - singular sau plural al.numelui propriu ti afensta in domenii tn care coa rnai mici eroaie poalc atca conse cinle dezaitrooa3e. in donrniul afacerilor:
1- t .,,l,,Jyllr I , l. i: r r . , d, . . di i r t t r ld, u L r . t-,rj, r - i, , . . . ,. r,t, t , it . t . 1 ( lds , ll3l Ad, .' . |r or s lt ! .out a r.N dl.tionnfJ. L..1,rl

:lll0

.l tr.zerla unor subii,antive apar€nt plurale .,u rol de adjeotiv in forJrLrftn sulJstantirelor rornpuse a prLrdusezitnri la plirdr.a regu)ii roDlorm ,."i',l.n,nul r'r r.,lnan Fd-.,r\il , n'r-.r, a,rl,.,; ti\ , trFLui^mru. nu ..:'1," iur" ,1, nl,[dl r::.1. 1f6,. S-, rd rn "pbuir.t ,rp.,din.air " " di|l"1 ',jui .ie rnri lrc(rcni,i a pluralulLri elcme telor secundlre ln substantiveleoompuse. uneori partr)el cu trceleaconstnrite dupn priicipiilc gramat;fale:
tllr iltr.. d,./,!- old rihild ih. th. t!tcnl,.\'.3/.ah'olds fhf.{r ,'?.}'6kl .lijld

261

d) a,lcsoorinr se mai lroatc deosebidacn un det€rminant,ast,e considerat din pLr rt de .r-edere glamatical un simplu ptural cu rol de arliectir..un genitiv saxon silEular sau unul plural. -{cesta est,ccazul substantivelor ca:
tfn sli/lingr rrin Dione! llr. d'fe( Loute ol Wo.l}Ltth-.

Thc lnii|!d .l'aro,s OrgarizatioD a! oltl rU(sl.'s srle i.h! ont /a;rrr dela.irne!l cnt.ai.r

!, mri nlult lnrl accasti ercesir.nsirnplilicare a lost cauz.r int!€buinldrji nejLtsiificate a unor substanLive cu h,ieles de singular.onsacfste nr engl€zr (ontemporani sub formir dc plrrall I're qot to so to n), ran,t.rs.
IIJ,l&r.fs ,rc Uli l(i. tlacc lof r0,, lo go 10. l \r j rs l h n d m X g l o ts scrl l o Lhc.l ,a/N . iar lirrDtl ac€st.i categorii dc niagaziue poarl,i nrrme|: B. Smith. dlr:azr:rs. :r) Sulrrimarca substaDtirului d.'tcrllrillal. - ln uncle cazuri, sLrbstlntilul dc l?r m in a t n u " q em a i e \p ri m i . d e oarcce cl sa i rl dago di r oonto\tt: \l ' ! s L a l l n c c i a l n r r( nr,s (hous.t. Lcl's go 1o LotLi. ,rrd'.1 hnaoet. 1 r,a l l T o .r' .' . l .! . , I Io " , r1 - o ' r ,r .\.r..,-. Ile weDt iolo Jinps,/'s l.cstan.ant,t. Iler ial|.f is il, J, ?,toz,as'r ltk3pit{t} "\1hov, roice $as that?,, ,.r_4'is'siroir,l ,' sirall re alsit I/ 1,orl':r lCatherlf!tl loriir? a'rr.idr.'s lEorelt .tr J,t,J tcotr.slt ltudnor 1lt\l,iLition) L,ri' chb). o"..,,s (Hrt|. "!!..rar,l's icri.k!t.

2(i2

s ,63

s 265
de u

I gril

Intrcbridtarer caznitri !o!$1r li Ro3 li Spupralt.. C. zLl tu-^i, s"ir'tr"l..i d/- ir'.,:. r't^,'rfl,: d/ uL nrr\":" pr. I'a i ,, i Jl : ^
r CnrniLel{' s r|njl,lrsc 1D e\.Drtrl. tfu!j!ie nrsi .\tj.irrrre it r.,ri rjinil s:nt Ifec14^1e rd jr'.li\. los es ir : "L. ls m er l. _r t &r nr r s .l , , . . S t i a l l $ e g o t , , y , t p l r . i , ,

zl ,l substa irele col€ciive ca: tlalian, .auhtrlJ, loJi l'ttion gaacrnn'] , Parlianent, mdiorrtl!' campanU' J ll erc: .,b1,it:is1ra1ian.
the thc the rhe @znt!'s slog'aPhY za,i,n'r relrfs.ntairlcs ,,oll€'s roi,cs lzrt's rc.dict

\ z&li

P, ,r,ic !ofl,ind. J"rori'. rc Jinrpi de ii" tlifi" n ,si de nivelare din uL.ter' :' ' hirr ' l" nrnunFpot rYeala gen!hv 1.: ||' rr, rprosl'uri' care numesc sau sngereazit itdli de .l substantivelc ji::llti. greutat., raloare etc ): cUmensiune.
a three lo,ru' iaik \\" '''|:": )" l,.,f a r n, )i , rrr.- jo f l \ ' t .."o ,.k. t\ . . - q, il a 7ro,:.nas rro1i.r. a s/dn,'r thol' the ,drl.'s ltrrglh $a]h dirl ' ' l' . . / ' / | "r f . I.n4h \l .,/,,d I Pt,'rNorui three slill,ngtl \rolth \torth .nc's ,,n'r's I l.ro ,.il.s'

nsurl (tjnrp, S 26?

lvlzi ii S :99) sarion ale sul-'siantivclor care dcnunl€s(ruitnli de lor rele da Eeniti$ p"t lrilocuitc uneoti li r,;r.rii 9i prin forme edj'ctivale compu:' ale cnror flenr€ntc sini unite Prir cratinA:
a l,.ehab t l1tr a t4, r,tle NalL

$ 2ii8

de tinp intrd qj:1ado4'lnt ottor'' l/ts'/'/n4 ""/i r.initilt-ilor ln catceorie n'or ,t""r. olt n. t|ntt '\ n tt r'-n' Dn ur'r sr rru ' le ir' rrlo rJnl t, h \. ;i ario',inpuri: (cciis
,lays n .ws _ natr . !.tlnttl!.t

S 9{;9

rtcotnts IusI fte\! /anlr'.- liolnlrY -\ lli&r,mn,d ,\lsnts Dr.id The Ift'r./'r Trle .u'r.ddy's tiptl ltif s,n lrislit lalc le.n S€?rrnD.r'sthe ,ar./ ac&.e's Paper. She wis r{ding

urrate d/ cit€1'a substantirc ,-'ornd710
tor i n Ior lof

de cuviotul saA':

S S7o

s{lte lor l4d.tr4 sa:ke obe.li.encc' ,r td lof !"d r caalla. "Jk' ti ii. . . , , 1 / a . a k . . ior,.der's sake .o's.t;.., sako lor l'lY's sakc tr..!'s sako (Vezi ii ! 23il' !3{l

.J substantivele.nurnc d€ obi€cie jnaninate' care pot r\'ea gerui nlasculir, sau terninin t{ 70)l ;) i",li" insuect'i.,ni, abstfaclii.sentimente, l--'.*" ""d'i."i!i.,."" ani l\ 7l ) ctc :
'',/i'

S 2;l S 2?2 $ 97:l

,-"J unele obieete $i aspertc rLtnnaturi, sau clemente!i f€iomene natu' etc i$72)l raie. unpo,i p€rsoniticdt.

'1o . 1

R- u' !

iL

t'

/a'

L"boui

Lo'

rslitlliDs-nl, noncdd lerinatri. toll\i

menlioDati oa ralod. nu nunni h tecul'

tl
t hc r ooln' s s iAil' s .nld ,l..fin,ss hr 'nrr,'J ?iz €' r nt h|s s n. s s {rr gnmrenl -1rr,,r'r . \ ' at , r . . - r iair \ o. d] s $iiil l h '{t 1 \ /-or,r-s liftl ,/.s ior tlrt sr,f,fs lilnrncf rt./.o/i\- door

i 27{

riuri etc. /'"./un',lcrrrne grogmii.e (de c{ntinente. !iri. regiuni,ora'sei ( )s7:j, rti ):
a.,,l,r's lrmous parks l/.nrrs lro|lf.rs /a rl i as l .rn r o l !o r.H rrl l t i l !' l rr,,r. s i otrN c g , o Ira PL i .l o s i i L o x (,/r,' al l s l ei rrl l ng i l .osl )hrr' l ,' .i l d tL ' ' _

S 2 7 'i

, r ' " . ) iine l e l u b s l a n ti \o c (rl l frc l e . n u me de,)bi rcl e ir z r s r , nle f u o i a l d p ro p ri e (S 8 4 ): D ' r.a f r \fh i rl s l l l r.,3 i ,a s s ta n m fr tl ' e .,rs.r' r .r' w l l e si i /' s nrart

i n l i mnte far.

pi r

s 27ri

ca: t/ unele e,tpresiiconsacrat€.
en'ls tLr o' s /r,s4' or l ol / . , r , t s $a) hrf /r€,rr's dcsir! ,'C ihr J,u,ry'r

.( 9?7
l-u ,'l

.u satne.anu, o, caery etrc.Ft a(iverDul ?ither.trcith.r, one ett..lolnrele comprrsr-'
d/o/rds iitirr tun" Lad\'s tr.l))':r d,r,,c r olnrioD . , / n. f r oln. ,orody'r l dli r.irrcr'r nrni t {. r 4 , , . . " $ i s h lr ier ds ' , es bc s t \ \ ho r r . s I r r oir os il s ) 1a l l\ t f ( , o r s n l e r r o r ?

, lp LF ; r i\

. h. ' , '

J ' r r i Ln. l F

pfonulnc

nehoiiiriie,

ca.i o,notit.t,

27tt

2) htrrhuintnr€s gcnitivuhi saxol ir loct gclitivdni prepozi,lionsl pr€I€ra genitnul sarongeniti\uluiprePoziliona ziarel€ l']rirt,uconcizie, rnai ltles1l tilturi:
? , r ,r iL 5 :o !' r r "xr lll

2i9

s,rinlihre$cin mod curent roniempora!ig Llerapt. in lirnbuca ;i in "nriL'dle ron, iziei tolna dc genitit s.{rioli tpebuinldli ii ponGu irlnim.,to dir Lrutzn ri. pro(nru.ondunat insn de prrilsti:
1|f ,,a J. "_ ir o n L lo o l

ln !,h. vtrrd s .litf,,lnrn
ffllt,.iion s slr iPf

llif zl./,r'.s in tlif till,(

0rc oi tl," ,zt

s jrrks

t80

:i) (;c itir'nl srron irlofnit (u Nulstrnti\'1' ( omtlusc. Sub;ixntitul ir (,u un r':rzulpo:resi!. cirrl fosesoml rtrl{'slc o liiot:t. se irloruiette ades€ori subsl rlil . ompus:
rilfr '(ritri ratrlt sn',bP.!, t:n!ti!h, tn l.ti/,rr!it: trn,nttt [o, FtftigL Strden|s,

nr \ lr. (rh.li. st,i/a

7A B, GXNTTIT Ul, PRXPOZITIONIL
Ir[I' PRI'JPOSIT'IOX,r.r, GENITTYD}

s 28r
$ 282

l) l'onni. -- Genil,ivul prepozjlional. nulnit dc unii aulori fi ..qcritivul {tanfez"sau..normand"(Nornan Getitiat), ori genili\ut analilic.estefo rat dirtr'un aruzatjr-preredarde prepozi{iaol:
tl,c lnlure ol ,,d,li,l lht lpa!€ o/ tlie a.!s

2) irtrcbnin,tflro. - Gerilirui prepozilionsl osle prin er( ekjnl:i geDitivul substadlj\'elor neutre ,sisc jntrabuinleaz'i a;adar (le prefe nle in cazul substantire.lor .,are nu numesc iii 1,c:
urc rool o/ ihe /F/r. 1lt " \ i t lir ! "f 1 ' t " n l L r , n . t

S 983

-\ se obseN'ah special intr{,l,unr1a'ca genitivului prepozi{iona1la,?41.. S 98+ (conin,ert, precun ti dut)nu,,{,1. den ,riri geogralice dupn culnrtul ',onll,r
1tu rrj\t.ti .[ D.t tir lhc \ illagc , / al.rllh

i r , c . on1ir d, t , / l s ta Irel,llb!i. .l h.rrt.1i lie So,,i{risr.

L r,. O U U , / .r/.,?i , tt\p ts)e al tlal thl rj {er \l ' rs.1 i ' l si \ 28l i

E r. ( c ! ! i. i. : nu,nele de duri th t fi \.r T h rmc s l ne r iv e. Danuj r.

an,ploare srilului: l'o.fi.,a] \\'o.ks a[ Itahal l] arnirg t'li1.lt1l Tl,f \rnts ,I lrd, iTill,,r 'Ihel ioiled lor lh. \c]lxrf,/lh. rc11.. iSrillivrrs.l Pentru a.rlRti rnoti\'. irrtr-o (onslrLtctie sorrtn este prelFrut gfn;1ivul i\ 247 ir sarionlsltllcr's Pa(tical I1'atks (titlu). l'].d r si:l.t. Kin! -I/.nra-.s(r,1ia.$1. h,ng cere.pertru echilibru.gonitirul Prfloziltunal deterrnjnanl, ( the sisl.r of Frctl and J ill. th. six n'ircs of Xint Hcnrt thc Eirhth.). ,/ .,hrd un adjectiv rste inhcbuirriai substtrnt-irill: S 9ES esteinsolit de un atuibutlunq s:rLde o profJ rind nunclc posesorului pozilie {tributiri:
lhe li.arrlr 4f t|f qirl in th. hau::. arF,slt lh. dothilr o/ th-" lhiltl 1 om !oi4 ta n. bnor\al ili. da rin: r , / t he 9, ! , 3 th. ?a?,.v/ th" esl^ic '/ t ht nlol l r / l l L . r , . r llie i nrlrrse .[ t\. J:t':tir,

\8\on. l l ) i n lr ebuint ar c a g e n i ti ru h ; p re p o z i ti o n a l i n l ocnl !rIi ti \l | l Ii ,r j ,L r' ,' .r.l ' rr' ,,ri L'inlir L ,',,i ,i ', , 1 nnlnT : liln1 l p :i I' p,, ' ,, " i rt ur rrtntoarFl e r& zuri : , , aren u n e sf liini. c . inloo ri rl d g e n i ti ru l s a \o r i l l s Pcri i .rl i " rm a l . g e n i ti rul p* ,l ri zi ti onal .l i i ai /r/ l .r t it lur r r g" r r , ra l ' ti l u l . ' r l' F r-r -s ri i ,n .rr ' ' l :l ' ru.i rrr i rr' t" .1 ,,i l p r" r i n ' - , rl l .' ;n t lr r s nr o

i\

2lr9

saton f, li iortnli l/ tn qenerealun.ii cind inl,rebunrlarea senitivulLri (la parantete. shilimele etc.) 5i trebuie deci eritaln:
T lrc l.sson s,/ U'. l,,t / , id' . s oNt ir n. t ' aolr t s r r\ r t fr r f r l i n l , l . s l r r r i r . olltt obsliitu' '!o lh! lrJdi,rN Tlr. lrngurg. o/ Ihf "-c!orts nllrlh" rrl,"r1.. 's

! :1110

n,fniionati S 991 in cazut gt'nitivutui subiectiv'(in afarnde situaiiile ,:) uneori la $ 285-290,293 294):
T lrc nflrls,/ tlrc Io nngf r 3er . . dr i. , Nep r r r Ls at d l h r n t r o h t r i l | i - , r l \ a s introd,,cid in o nr sch ools . Tlie aeln,veDients o/ lhc socjalist resnr. sruk ror themselrts. o -J ' ln llmb .l \o rL,r.l :. . J - ,trlt popr al t. 'lh "n "b t. n " . m oth ' V czi 5:1 1, 18 5-2 !0. i \ ii s o\ ' ' ' t h"t tt l 71"DP. /d 1 4 E t '. ) t anPJ"" lrnifnrg

t

Niic."

in r.,zul g.nilivuhi obieoiirr:

I I ' ai "I ' r 'h ' i' ' llrc .t oit'llion af tl't: a pr sc o/ s@r'D'dv lor 1or1: of Atn

na'tt:

lrJ

'1" un adjecLiv Ini u: l ol'ir'rul ri .nosdir ''lp l-'"Jdr / ll r-lrr ' rLr ,1. 'r' 'rli oldl nFhot; "r'. ol itu si'/s \cF n!'rnl lor lh! sporl'scodllsi 'Ilose
i /ri'rd a[ m! uhcL Darr) ' He i! 'l'tn''s \nn und' l ,' 1 " n;/i r' ' l ol o' i l ^ rn ' : , / p' nr r l r^ u n a ' u s " o j i " l \' * l i oi l dr" " ' Lri ' rl P n!i o1 't , . . ' . i c r nupos o (!' 0 rp ' ' " " ' i " " ' ' -p t' ' ' d -' rrJ u ' I ri u rr rd l' d' €rri ululr' ' \ o t u rt r' ti

{: ' j l }!

i,'r ,i " r.u,i" r'r-'Jrr '1F "l "i i i ti- un FIic"rit n 'J'iv . - l ,;' ,i" '" ',,1".-t. t coLFL" ui llis wiie's

' t rv

E 20; "

pentrLrinlitursrcaForrra do dublu gcoi!i\- esto in spelrialtntrebuinlati ,'numitol onfuzii '\sttel:
r n l 'I : '" n l \ I t] /" ' L J _ "il' iun P d i ' u^h nrL I ln "' J d . J ' ' , o, r nr 1, , . k , , j , . . t r u r , _ - a i kF' i l 'D ff (-o J ": a"t r"nitiL jr Pot ii o 5' ' e ' ' n' l l u p i i l d ' c : d n L u" por ' - ' l in" ' ' r d ' I d b l 'r s " n i '\ l ! o"r r , r 4/ S/ "g" ' jd rc nl u f or lr "l Pr ldr Ll" I

dlr llirY oi Ilrnrard shLss b r lurii r ber ", D- " , " \ uo ' i 1t I t h 1 s

s 2$6 ''""

do dublLr'genitiv Po0refi Precedatl de un adjeoti!- demonstretiv' forma 'Irrnn-nrrmal l.t""tr,i'rtutl ui fdri a aveasensutdeunexemplardinmaimulta i t ic )' Iaud cere'

',ili"'.""lJii?i"J;,i r idispr'l ncpro i' "oti' """"-ti "a,, "i,pai tntocmai ca ln limba ronene:
l'ut on drd' red 'aat al r'\-r natket s'

6 29; -

]lllrJone Prnis'dt'o' I tiind fiinta lr'inrrrl Cirrd un goni'iv d"'p'minb.un alrul amLii po '"ori g"t'itiv aol'" i'" ia'rre 'zr forms de s'F Iorrd pr^po/rLr"n"'" 'i -.ni'if
r qr I ir o' _"h { : t ut ogr ' ' lr i al t'1s " , '. " h "

l'fi"i'l'";lY;:' :,,i:"ill:ii :!.i!.h;' d E: r:,, ",,;;, "

destul de frecvente' de q 998 Dul,lul geniti! estc reconlandat in locul formei' ' la $ 21rli. S 299 pot c're nuDesc ulritili de misurd (S 267) Unelc dintre subsLalrttvele ut"u qi tn"*" de geniliY prcpozilional:
a Nalk o/ D;l's '''o ir delrY ol diY" 'ia

r,,,.rnr,r,t, I ;.;, : , . : . f " ; " , b * ; l" r rrrrt (- zi'r, r'Ntra onrr
'ul

N o|n

I "vezi

S 116.

lo! m a lilr . l) ! i41at n dc o b i o 'i

's t e

d u b l L t lg e n i t i ! 1 5 t ! r a ) r " H e i s I

in i\ ul 'x \( r' iu r'r'nlt!ilr' !tii: l, l, e0it ir ul t roporiliotrdl l'nsl. ir'hrui gonii ',ii.r"iri'"t"' 'rt' tnt )iotht drort'' ;t tn'hr' ,-,:","rrt -t tl profrii cird lru !ir'L pretc1\'ru,(q4651.asimilarc cr nuntel€ .. trtril. Cor'h. ?.i! dr ui adlectr{ posert;:
C,,l'r li!fIrtirLr sirr.Li

s 300 s 301

D./ in razul numelor proprji .lD L'calilili, s loTLri Sl. -'llbans 1- St ^'lrran '.rt ' . 14.t t : , , . " i' , t , , i '.

piele. clndiri. institu'tii. rl]alra' Ilotrs' '

S 302

Dr' 'r'l'otr\_ t lu

in gcnitil' l]rnale de un gerundir'l: s 3{r3 r) in cazul substantivclor ,o"r's |. lt,,./ F." I' lionrr' | " inermrnb"r'Ir '' s 30{ precum ,siln cazuile ncrlioDale la S 276. 'tJ utt $ 30; ti,rt.luzip. ln r--rnoce;eririr'r1 .,'on "r' " "r''r;rl d'.ti.r'i' n^d l" -\iil nL' utr n. la"'-l,rp'l,;'lFF1. nr';\Ll nr.p"/iri, ''"irr'rrll lflrIaIr''d . r"r\,rl J.;rmin,nl .0u,la " hrlrbfrr',mDloHrp.i" aH| 'rF i\ului '1\"rir'l^"1 i . \.e.t tff FxDli', r"r,l inL-r'1s 'plrr l'FDo7r',i I r' " arrrn i rn'l ,nal chi.r 4",; 16.".nrul rrrr ". n n lii l' . r ,. ,r" g;ii ;. ."'r'l; , S r;o. .l;r. 2qir ri ini"r. ir tr brri n lri' l'ri .e rr'rrrrr !r-rs ra :.,n,?i{io-11 lnli ul ."lui .1\un. t,rlru r 'lH Pnpl ',r' 'rr r-r irr ' '/Lrl i rrr ' i r .c"i,irer reremonio"sr.ru lo itluril' '1. I'r'rJri !. ;,' ii. D"n ru u d1 ,tor;rrr"-'i , hilibrrrhal"i ($285 2rJ) s 306 P; llnc€ ar'asls. g"nilar.l .F\'np n rrn:"rritit 'uh'' ir'i'r\r'rr" e , Lngenirit ^hiali\ ii nu"r''i ln m^l'\'rprrun: l' r"ni i'rrl piepozitional dp liit ^ podr. li ;i ''rhir it ir: denu'rririt"r "rzul se compara: -q. ri \
r' t r ' r i 4 1 i i v c u b i 'l '" r' 1 " n \6 r' r ' " J ol mv s'll. lgetriliv olie.iivl A des,iriDtjon (: o ,leacriPr. in ca.c .si.c inlaliiai'1 ncraslr rn.!l .ada'srear at sea (gcniliv slbicctirr (: icana Idei Pe dare) O ut t " dt a l t to E n i r\ u l ' i ,' i ) l= t c om r r' .a ' tri d ts l J a l .' G . t r ili\ ul pr oUo z i l i o n a li 0 l o (u i t (u !u L rl c rrl i \e coD rl ' u' e ' pr' i ri ' ul \ .i ' nprJ: ,,n sul ' r:,rri r , -r-zi l i o n s l ps r c odp" o 6 ri j n l n ,,,i r .u n to rm ,i r' ri ri r' L' p" -l i l l \i l o re l ' i i p ,,* .:n' ar os ub. t anli ru l l n g c n i ri \.' n " l u "ljd€terminai: substantivul '..adir \ lr , ' , / .
t\e t)o\ct ol th. baok 1ne .quipment ,/ u iarn tl,e /d'" .qu'ptncrl

s 30?

DAf tYUI,
{THI DATIVE CASE) lr Dcfidilie. Dfllivul, d. obi.pi .azul "omll' mFnlul i indir'' l 'r-l; a,tiun"a p\primal; J' !prb 'o,r d"numir; 'l' Lbslarlrtul ,.i i se a.lre"nrza ro de 'rminar. El ri-punlle la inircbarcato th'n: lar tlanl "f tl't"):"'t (itr/ (: cuj?), ro;iricli? (: csrui?).
rPe nt n t F r n, pnul S p n ,n ' l i r. !P z i S r:2 i .

s 308

s 309

r {M S 310 S Bli 2) I'or r[. ln limba enqlezd dativul este expdmat tn douri nroduri: al printr un substautiv (sau prin echivalentul acestria) neinsotjt de prepozitie, cazul fiind indicat, in aceastd situatie, de locul substantivului a;ezat imediat dupl verb:
{iivc Jzue nl" bcst rcga.ds. Tell llie a6srngd to ooDc inl

i 31,

t) printr-un acuzativ prec€datde prepoziiia,{,. rareo /ofr. ol sau ff{rmt:
(ii!c m.y L.sl, rcganls lD ,/dne'Illel wf-" tallting h lit: secrert.!/. (n,1 lhP brll tor the waiting Doyr. I ioqdir.d ./ ;1,c $hnt tl,c bjroi lo. dfbalc al lodar's s.minnr wrs. I snrichcd his handL.driel IDD ,tn to w.rve {t th. *inDing l..am.

S 31t

Cod-itru.iliafiri prepozilie este cea n]ai obiinuitn. Co struclia prepozilionali. ci d nu esteneapirat ceruLi in unolosiiualii (S 323).se intr€buinleaza pP||tru3rrenturr!r. J) Ir'rtir Si aruzatir'. ln Innba englezn modernd.daiivul este insolit .qBl+ 1n g€nerede Lrnacuzativ. De pozilja dairirului fr,tn dc acLrzativdepinde intre, nuxlrarca sau suprnnafea prepoztler. Datirul ptepoxiti d pre.cdarAcuzativul: S 315 fdtd
S Jl 6 Lat ii, uI l i i rc rn J s i i t4 . (d { l l I s d l ac.l l s|ow mI rrirnds ld'rt) Xou sinnp (ou*tiD la..)l cu p rc p o z i ti e s - ri dupn acuzri i l .: rii\1 l.lje r.or (iu ) io mr ijctfr ldat )l !Io* Jou. stanif itt ctuh t,\: \ to mv ldords ldrt ). ( i .l l h e r.a (rc .) to r t.th e r l d a t.)l cer

S 317

Pulinele verbe cu care dativul se poate tntrebuir,ta fdrir acuzatir dativul prepozilional: "lht trtur. Del,/,sJto socirlisrl' is the slosan. Tali to 1'onr nudiotr(endwl Didd't t;e 4fne to John? I wanlld ro .ed,, to crlnnie,

$ sllJ

Spunenlnsn ca nrai sus(S 3i5 316):
D i &, t s l c w ri tc J o i D l d a t.l a ,rr.r l i c.l ? Didn'|. sle Frite a larle. {ae.)to Joh! (dal.l? I wanicd t0 rerd Gtann;e (da|.) th,A z.ps iac.). I \runtcd lo rcad lhe n.a,s (ic.) to cBnnie {dat.).

$ 319

4) intrebuirtar0a dntirului pr€pozitioMl.- Dativul prepozitionaleste lntrebuinlat: a/ cind daii.rul €s1,a precedatde un acuzativ: $ 320
(a..1 to lhe sfcet dotesrto (drt.)l Serd ',.d \ \,. b o ...' ,r ...p . ,. tn r' rp rrbFr (.1,r.. ..." d Trj j 1 fr.o t. t ] o t tr .nul hor rl d.i .

!| 321

l)

c ind o p ro p o z i l i e i n c c fe c u d a ti vul : ?, h.r lasrdd {dat.l sheiiriles r lett€r ev,)rXdtry,btrt nevcr ro n rl & ' l d a t.l r',. llabv (d{t ) she {l$'ays btr"yst|. lDst tr,c.c is.

'J

cu yerbele insolit€ de dativ lnrn acuzativ (i 317):
'lhev sDokc ,, Ule .road 1dat.). {l irlfi ocorrred ro d,? klat.).
Il "i-r i flr']'' Jpfq ' r ' l / ' I r r ir ' lJ l"pr ' r ( , 1, t ) \lrite ro v ou , 4/ ' / c boonl \\'e read ,; G'a;dt;,r{"f ldai.) cv.ry rlcnirs

.ir 329

datirui prepoziliod ) dupir anumitewerbe( $ 2614)carecer intobdeauna !rnl. .ihiar atunci cind ac€sta precedd acuzattvul:
I drsc.ibed b l.he .l4s (d{l.r the llow.r show ({ti.l I t'rd visite(1. io i d i l 'i " w r 'l i ^ ''l H rlun'.d r' |i".a l|"oA" r ld l ar r ' , 1r a l[ r' l^..^l 1orr Irlot]. \ \ ' , n' "ilion d to t|a no"o' , p' \ dd t / a, ' l"r ' J - \ ', IIe ir ./!€l to lnn|'!lq. Be tirl io Lu. r ! Is h.r opinion nrrrtl so Intrch to l'rrtrci$? rFndit," t : n J y n t " . 'a t l lia r iv "l", 1- ' / / in .p ".i-l'lL ,t" ^n, 0dr ar : " Ftr.: . "t t " r . n t. su',;lL t t . 1' t nht t n' , n1. ; nlt ; a" t , r h t a 't l o n o ! . ' 1 u ' 1-,,1t ; J at ,, r i . qnat lll o \url:. a |o "t L. d/ . , r t o I -t \1 -1 ,11 ' t a" io ' ll r ' t nim r l3. Tht re$rlt Nas LoL rtutottiondte to l,he erlorl.

s r2r
s 31{ s 32;

.l dupe adjective 1n genete:

S, dupd substnrtive fi pro une:
to ny chtlilr€n. I uannot lo|gft mI l,t/ Yotr havc bdrn like a.llrughla to th| poor somd.. $'liat is he. axnude to [rt? Trll ne, afc A.v fo Iont )roth.r? 'vh.l lv c z i i 5 t 61t - t 6lr "l

s 826

5) l'u (,lii. "

Lln substanliv (sau un echivalent al lui) io cazul dativ

a.) complemcnt.indirect pe lingn un verb:
l.nd lou. motltor a ltscnii Gir€ Ghily$ mr n.ssagcl bJ complemeni indirect prepozilional pc llngn un verb: I spoi. my mild to T,ohe. We se", an {rtid-" to Lho prpen.

$ 3r7 s 3P8

s 3s9
s 330

-

rr"complement indirect prepozilional'z pe linsi un slrbstantiv sau o iIlterjec-iie: 1r " ' , " t L ..i n ..,, g i l .i n ti l u a .l n rl r oni ,13,\6 1,I" , ". ,' h ' , i o I' i . n o -w o rk c .r. ll" \ v d a -r llc kcpt hia pronn; to his pnpils. darut lo. lhe holidsXs! d) complcment indireot pe tingl un adjectiv: Yotr de ltfr, you. mourer. Unllne lntl.cn-, he sts neve. shY. e) complement indirect prepozilionai pe lingi un adjectivi l{is house wis olporik to the echool. who helpedme n, my wo.h I cnnrol.bullecls.,k/al to the eomredm /) apozilia unui substantiv in cazul dativ (! 2589 b): I Srre m-{ ftt?n.l I}Nil Jou l.Lio 1o lerd. Ilave Jou rPoft.a ,o fi,gr, onr .'"s room-mttc?
'r _ ' di ..cl . i {S i l r:). ',1 . 4 n n rh 1 r 'l nL dnl,iv .tr fLrtr.lil '-:l 'i . D .11., l r . \ .. r B dcurt' ti . {!i /.,

$ 331

s 332 s 333

tx,t,L po -inru ,l li" r ir i' " ! lr . o, r lr ' ' .L 1.n i , . ^ r,m'. i4 d - umt F r;. r in ir". I t4 r r o l . II; pp .8!,9 0).

i sn

s 33{
| 335

ACUZATIVT]L
(T U E -{ C C U SA T l \l ' l C A S Ij ) l rr\.d1pr\,' r7 1 i \u l . p ' j z u l ' ul ' ' -n i rxl ui { -' r :l ' lr O c li||ilic . r-\par:ra dF ur) j ' ri rr' ' r' 1run" " Ji re' ' r' n ' rri l o H .,rl rrJ tLr l. i |p. l' r ' . 'o l ' r' ur 4rr4 r' \' ' r71 1 J /r rl F l ,- p l ri n F \c -l -" i \p r h r . ' / ir it l l ' mp ' on \ul risDunde in Drilcipal lA irl.r€birilc:

5q33{i

s 337 .( 33t s 339 s 3r0 s 341

('= cel) ,rlnml l:De ci;,ei')ri ''. ''iar? lui, cind €ste precedai de o prepozi,iie' i"rl'toi,U'n'r siri echi"ali:ntul su rrld in cazul acuzal,iv. 2i }'rlllclii. - Acuzarivul indeplirefle lunclia dt: l'inzitiv: direct al u ui a/ cornilemcnL '€rb in lhe sire'l
He saw n."* stsref

D, conlplentcnt !rePozjlionalr: At the m..tnig. lr. lu .d orer 1hcllo0' ro Smi$'
\ho js loo\iis al'l Brian?

.) nume preclicsliv care deternrin:run eoflplement direct (mlme pledi cariv ;biectiy l- ODlrcIift Canplcnent):

s 342 s 3{3

ThP nana{er aDpoinicd /1,n 8.oet$t' She erlls rva.s;.,r "consi " .l/ apozili{i a unui substantiv (sau a unui trihivalcnt al ace-rtuia) in cazu! a c uz at ir i$ 2; 8 l i ): I .alled nr t /rn\d fldJton. N. senl, lo. r. 11i'ls the ]ofil ssgco!' tl .l Jl, ro l/ rL r " Ioremn . e-,i complencnt diroct al adjactirutui "o,'lft'9: is qort a fo.tune, llis 'oi.c / / , o, , ple mc n i .rr.u r" ' r" n L i d l . o ' i l !r l e di nr' -urr ' o' r I' l " rn" nr ' .i " um ..r , ii. t . , t in" r \.rb . i n -a ' 7 r i \p a ' r c i r rl subrranl i \ul ' ' l F ' l ' l ' rmrnar de l o' ' rl r.i o ri o d .rb o . F \r,r;, 1 nd .a:i -e' t\crhel ' ,,; ; ; ; , i; . . ;;","i" ' pul ' t' ottt' -t)1r ruot o Ji. : . r , ls . \ " lu" r ' n . i rp l l l c € . n o d u l . g radul ' l " l runtt (4' l rttt' 1t \' uttJl (. 1J , . ; biot t t ,s tti t" t " u u s ' tb ' ' .tn ttr a tl r' rLi oL (Lotl lv€nt lone. Thcv l \- \q o { ,' ' .r /,. rrth . ' l ;_P l h e c .r' b rP l ro l o l I p s :" n ' r' 3 al l ' l " l " r a' d /o r' I' odra' I ml riic ohildtn go lo a pifttrrc a,./v n€€I' lTiml) 11. nn the nhale 1tir. iDistantill ' l L " j J ro r!,r.,,v m i l ... ' n i r' '. r\aroJr! r /rc s um f or lq n i 'o l f s l i r ' :
l 14 ' r ' 4d t h ^b io n' . r m q" r . ' ; i, a, l &, . p o u t r r l 3 . r i r ' l o r r T " nur ' s q' n / / l/ b! r . d ( \ I o , l I u _ | I 'p a r P Thc t , m r ' ' , ' " t t , ' nt r lllolooln{ 'r' . , ' . "a/ s br dr F r o o J r t Grddr 4. , J ""

TI. ALTE CEESTTIJII IIE}'ENITOTRE LA SUBST.{NTIY
A 314 l, Subslanliruladir(tirAt. ln l;n'br "ndl'zi 'ubs'anr.i!ulpoal' 3\pa l ur', lic dF adjF. if. cdi.a poJle cara'l"rila Lrn rl' 'uDFlanr\ lF nnsd '1rp std:
nylo, stocknrgs /ar .oat !Ve zi !a g. t t . ttarll.ng let\ Jrr,,s llsmons

r ot a I

?!t

ilu'intele nrlon. fur, morning. spri s, pdrttl, penn!, d.e1\substa tille. - :.t intrebuinlate aici ca adjective. (|rdincn curintclor. - Partea de vorbire care c acl,erizeazisubstani,irul .: raL,eare, prin ull]lare. valoare de adjectiv se puDe, ci:rii acesba, inainten . rL,rtAniil'|rlui.Se atrage in mod sPecialatenlia asupra acestuiiu u, deoarece :ielesuise modificddupd ordine:rcuvintolor..lstlell
n . { n ,\ fd., ftors, ins€amn! "un cal dc curse" irae .d.d iDscamDir squoro mar.e: I mi (o lf.rfrfn pirtrat;i N lalrua de 1 rrc^ oi 4 iqdfc ruh.s = o srtrllnl,li de 4 m: square nn coror dc 16 nl (axl) (un lirirrr larpet 4 rut; l cn latun dc r !!l

s 3{5

Cind un subsiantiv are mai muite atribute. celc mai apropiate de el ca irrs se pun imcdiai tnaintca lui. In limba rominn ordinea cuyintelor liind lil€rita. d€oarece substaniivul pr€ccde adjectivul, traducerea din limba 'rogleznva incepe cu ultimul atribut, din grupul de curintc do tradus rsiva .rtge tnapoi spre tncepuiul grupului, lutnd['se atdbutele pe drd in ordinea :propirTii lor dc s{rbstanLivul determinat:
a qii.Lst.p lolk'danc,, nNic i:o rnuziol pentru xi joc lrotul$ cn lat rclezi) ., lho r. n f,,'rr,r go u, 1 J FI nw I , r n". ' , 1! ' J r pl\ " rl"op .ur ' n o..r ' i ,l a n m, djn bf o, dt ( d "u. nr . . ) g' r b l - J , - F . . , r " J a o r t J t o n i

(vezi ri S 2aI) cdj"rli\ul nesvinJ plural. FUb anrivul sdje.rivrr nu rrc in prin"iria lorn de plural nr.i , hiar-"tun"i logica o d. .x.mplu dupa irn num. "ind ".r.. - sens de plural etc.: rrri cD
a si{ noaD a ninc-r1du committre o1d cliild

s 3{6

(Vczi ti g 131 Obsdaati.,166-16i,26r-26r)

2) Funcliile srbstantiyului. - Substantivulpoate indeplini funclia de: s 347 l', subiectlau parte din subiect,al unui verb la un mod personal sau s 348 impersonal:
Caoperatiar is l,he sec.el,ol srccess. I cane homc carly, i"a,n.. bcins out tonight.r A completeItsr ol candirhtesrv,rssubmitted to the dean.

D) nume predicativ sau parte dint.-un nume predioaiiv:
a nicc a@ur\. He $6 Sl^ F b.'im P 1n , a s s o' PPul". Hir F\p rl ons nlhp. J Uqpo lht popl"m r dF 'r : m a p o p . l 'f rp.o,

s 319 s 350 s 351 s 352

cJ complement direct: the ne{ plastts? Hnre you Be€n {t) complement indirect: On'e DdDy ils diDnc.' I told the ,oy a storI. e,,l complement indireot, prepozifional:
Ure pnrel tr yort nith.t ! -qe.d is a g.cat asscl ,o tlc larsity /,orralrlr_ l,ani The rcleree was lair /a both ,eams. I Numit ii nominilliv absol,'t (! l72l).

$ 353 s 354

/) atfibut:

\ D.Jr;. lldrr lriLs disrjorcNd und{r Ihf delris' D.'n's rrpli.ution wls r1$cpnal jr her lainlings rarbe $is mtiniicsi ll,r loli'ol rr

l '+'s r " r '. r ''i n e ''r l i '' I hr : t t t "a"! ". L r - 1 ' . l"li "..r:or-n 'in. r '' . r + . r r '\ d d r " o n 'r r ' r nr ndt t t ,;, a i I :;, \,, ' 'r' i .,.1,.i ,,,.-, r o. . h t y r li, hi. . il\ r ' ', 'l " p ' . u"! l ; | , \ 1 rn'rrr

i.il""i',i.,1:; r"r"":.ir,

s 355
! 35ti

il

',"ir':iir',tr,conplenent Tnepozilional:

',"iplFr\r

' r'1r'r'irivrr"rir

ilLP l. ngPn i' , r c oo, l " r, |iln' \ ] r , is t o au jn "' / .r/r r 'nir , . . .

cnutnstanlial (S 2633) rl c(trnpleme,,l
$e stavftl al. lh. rcst_hous. liorl a foLtritl)t p' r ' r ' \ ''n d ot t ' ll \ ' ' l o" l"t t t s L. : l:r'ii t tt' \'bt \ ^ \'titrpl

s 457 s 3;8

1'!t. l'0RllIAnnA sljllsraNTrYill,0n {}0rd[lrlo\ of ]{olrNsi
t r nu ,:'r lu, lF 'ul" anlrl pr^\ir tat Ita' lin l;r"bil" r' r'uo'-l"r (hrF ,.rrr',i' li r' rurr-" r',l:-nii 'r':l /F "i''"';"'' -,,, ir ',nr" l. Ii"rr 'rl .r l"rrr\-l 'r sru Iurrrhl r' 'r"l'rrl lcd ln"^nrorn] cel.,r trei procerlo€ uurunie, adi('I prin: gramatjcal' B. schimbarea(,a1eg.rici C. totttpunere

s d5l) s 360

,L. Dltrur ,ttrDA
iDElil\"\'rIo\l r" ' Jurr'or It iub''rnli\-r' )r' l, .ttiratia ( lll",r;'n) 'r \ntbirr' dF . i'- dr.p-rli nnr' "liucc''' .1e.,.'ut rr'r"'rrrr"r,lin "l 'rb'"n elPr' rr urrr(ur r.: ur' rr\ '-.r i ur",i uli\ l , u ra l ' rrra P'-li\' lp i' 'rrIrr\-l' ,,ir irr,'rrrurrrrJr'' 4! Ll'/i' at,1r{ir,'rn ^rdin"d trr'\"r'r"r .;re ir I'11lrleaei' linrbi: a1 gcrrnini(e: r, rornalifci rnlrntoarc.lor './ (l;nrre sufirielc llnn mai ios cjl;1i Pr€tixele;i 'urerilc' Prcfir'' (Preli\cs) aJ Gernraille:
r lilnr ' rrild l Lr r ir ' r ll! l n i.J:' u d' J - i n 'r " '\ '' lnint"rt.L tr' i i l r'4 't ' r ' r r r i' / lr r d"i /,,,/sh rt,,' k ' n, dlr r r r l llL rnrjpj,. ot r . : r . \ . aa l l r s f . o t l l a \ L - l r l l o o k 'r q r a l i c n r ' on t-3:,//r!rsl.

s 36r s 36'

rorr: /,,.r,nhe,. /n,.nrr. ir',o.r, r,,,ilill,ilLj;,1'iililii,li;ri.i,,oon i,!.rnistrl. r'r' I'
\'

! na

r r ; ir idn L d. , l ,
a abt.!

:

" eoc G r , s inr ,

(;i l fdt' l l r' l (l n ' .n u d rP n ri i i n l : 1 a l )r! ntonEndtLcl i rnr' !rri rtrL' ca l [' l i i c (1 . l a D l .rrv i rl P d c s i rrP s l rl t i l tonrc

d('

81
or$J : rr..all. ...froar! ,r)./sho.si or./sighl,; ,r'€l.ha.g., or./doso. ,tz{ullihnenl, . , , . i rp, ' r r'1 . ,nl€'groNti, ud..8round, und.rorrrcnt. ,n&resliD.le, rnd€rJ I rnd.r,lolh.s. r n ) ? r 'l u ' u \ d ,-pl^t , t L otL ',rr, "\'. , , , , r ' . Er Fd' r al' . ", , / "' . 1 lr : a r d - 'l s l o o n P t t P. ' I r t r ra rrr\ n' crt.,n.1 .6trtFmPnr . r t u] P. or pfro\lr' /ll,"p / I l r J f 'l irlr s "miprti" : ,,r,"inr r n/ . , p ur r nl"] . r ' r ' r l r l' , / l ' 1,1. "r rr. ,/''i.,n c. "1 o, r . r p. h. l. , i5l 'rl

Subslanliec

dn

sens

negatial
el..: nlssi!in!r.

\ :lli;|

zrdr.ss. {ncmnlorme.l,. L,laxlul!e'cs. urrcst. ,rlrrlh. nn- : /,liclifl nislit. ,,,scondu+, n,so{riagc, ',ir.oiceriio,i, 'nisj: el. ',t.(lcmeanoLt. i, m t s t it c . , r is ir us t , , n i J hap, , r/ . s lo.lrin c, mislrin

lJ Roma ire:
arcrre: dddress,dllusj r-. sil-, sl-. on-! a!'. *$: rdiirs'ln{nl.l,slfoi. ! , Pr' 1. dr nda cP. rl b' r ". o ' Aior ' , b . l 'n l i o ' { | ts. n- . nb * : n r'|.' : or ' ar s r r " r' : .r'l nrlr' . rrrrdli"n ,r,,J r r l. ' , , " b t rt,')" irf . -. dn li-: ,, prodtrct' l,rr bI-: relalt. t.liPl. b.qtrfsir rtl elc.lioD, i,y hN Dypts, ,,lal,l, b , \ n\. , 4r\ orJ, Fh .: " 4rlli r '. { . lr n1l o iornl,.ol-, "/ l' r ' , r ' l u n . , r 'n '" 'i o r ' - di-- de-. dis-: .liEre ssion. , llnPr s ion. d i s n i i s s {I . e t c : dim iNt ir e, , ir is ior . 2 . l . r m . n t , eionq.lion: ,rrcss .,aspc.alioni cr lr|sid.nti rv-, el. -eq c- : .zriision. .rttsion: 4 r L r sLon,. s0lie , .vasron . eI r . ; It rp rior' .: t - b' pt t ia r,lol'r. ini. r: of i r L u r r t u t ! t n n \ 6 ' , i. i 1a\ t \ . 1. |\' t' .ii-: p /d l. to:! \ . . . . .I p.i\ ., t p -l. r r , : . t .p \.,tt. t l r , lr ' ' ' pt un^' p4 r 'o o l l r i| i, ru-. r'trF : , " l a , ' r . / ^lo ' r ' o" l' : ' ' ' '' , -"' r'i,rrrr. / , a / , 11' " lr ' po' 'l , r' \ . lo r . , "pl_J or ' , l' ' v?calrdctd.. ; surch{tge! r?c.ioiily srper-; su.:- : .{l€rii0irlitr, lrsns-: /.o,sl,il,i01. lrdn.rter, ,ortitio!, ,az.nali0n, .Liir 'r ''

S 361

Substuntir(
.

.Ir

senr

negatir:

S:165

dh-: di.-abilitr. lisl)rli,l. di.{,otrlcnt, Itslike, d;lasle, dijtfust, eto: irF . i l- , iB-, iF": , ' . 1- r J r ' d l, , p-.'r-iu rr, a .'.on 1 br r ll ". rniN -t : mirad \!ntu re,,r is c hanc c , , nhc hic l. ni. { r eur l. e t r i : l. r o?f on i ! a l a n t , f L e . ron- : ron ad lresloi. r,"ndr er t er . c , , onaNi

.l Crece$i:
amPhit iac)\, dtahit hcanc dnrrora, .cic ; snpl(i)- | dnpltbio. ,n-. d;'ir-: archorite, dre,risnr; analogj. onolJs's, dzutomJ, elr' !nt-, snli : anraltorisni, .lndrcli!r dtribioiic, d,,iolini.\, dztnacassar. anl,seplro, ,tc.t i. rtot h' ' "t r ' 1t ot 1' o . dPl' ^r inr ' : ap(or.: 1 orrit 'l l 'r o . . /rp ,^ l"r Fn, t . 1, . r . d, r ' r \ l. nrrl' -: o rll,.(., "r r ! uto- : , ,/ub iocr.t. r, , , / hi . . d, t u. hr o '! , . lu! ' r . , d r h 'l d . ;ta lrar,. 'r l o n ! 'di!slr-,: /lanetes. 'sl-: di,dcd. diagnosis. laagon.rl. dtdl)Buc, cte i L. \ ' p r r onj l; n rti-: d,""r ,'''.rrl-Irt a . d "l .. nr ' l. r ". r , ll' . ' - r -si, .,.l "5r J s m ; r ' , r r \ . r ' liF". , . 1. ' . . . . , l : , , \ -, m. : ",--"-F, l .. hdt 4t P - lr u l _ , ) hlt at n"! r ' blpeF : rgp ,l - t it r . / 4 P d n a '' : hup' ' t \ " l! lo' t t \ ' tvpo-: /"rrpo ,i,li r. l/ / o' lun4ad 'r ' mcttr-.mrr-.md !.:,r'ab uli. ' . p. , 4r nor r r hu. - . 44r p, n. r "r ' r n p - l " h o . r : . @ 4 o d .

S Ifit

""

I \' czi a 36 -. n oL L I. 2' t i,,,h'a r,uro n: 3Db' (lf.) lFlix

. , , , "plo- r ' - Li . p : : n r ' n . , l i t s p , b u l n p g d 'i ' "l - ub. al lubsi{riivelori acclaii (ens rr" ln nol. , . pr ' ii.

8!
!!rsa !tu- : ld.d|l ci laldsrapli, ld, alJsis i Po.dsitt i P/en ! h.sis. lid'oLiXi ldlo tl smi

P, ' pr if i. I'cri- r -, me . . - o n Ft ^p ! aa r \ l' Paar ' lrro iu-: l!r'o l .la"t , 1 .!n -,sttrF,.ll-..1- : i, o. 1 . . ' , l 9' , 1' i : ' t. frlc_:e ....rr - . t , . t 1. 1, o. , . t .t 36? h ol; t : Jttb.ta tt;r a4arch-{, dnfudoi.' a4allihabclisnr. ?sligLodlisdi d-, rn-: oblssi .ic

s 368
369
dan.

Suti\e (Srftirrs)
a) 0ornlaxice: { r ar r : handj(" -/ t., . -" t - t" .rl ' . - J ur : r " . a" r .. \ts r,,..r;&r' " .n .!i ' -. t
|$\'s-otJ.4 - ta d .a r' n t\d 4

s ,,1 . ./r..r, h. i n/.r' . l r' r' r' o- o a -b' 11 u i -rF. orl l ' P \' 1;' :l " '

i rl

i l ^ o o -. l r' i + - r , r , " : i, - . r.,._ ,:r -o o t " , , . Lu $ r' lennP.r nd rd? '. ! "{ it . i4' j

,.: ,/. til.ti/..d/. i; t , r . "Di, -ho on : Lo \t,od . ; . : o/ - o, . "t . ./ i \rr a r ''J r 'o s r nuk , a s ollr - r ' r e 'i r l ; r -in s:'r'"'.r4p ''g i ' J aw' i r' : a -L"gs b" dd,, s,-4 u r,"a . ,iu , , a, I Lr , gr r t r , n?_ . oio r , . r L t b k ; s ddl . | ;1 , b 1 " '1 . : ri: L ao l;r b i, ll' , Lund&, lind/ , F a' r "n t : 4E s r nt : 4s lou -1itr8 : d Jrl.,g . 1/ r nj ,: 't \ " / r 6 ' o '1 ' " / 1 6 r ooJ 45r ' . r J / c l"Pr ' hppr ' ' -p -trc\s:.Jrd li!s,. . !

't '"'.l";'ii. ,ry...,p,.sd tu ,p . ,r..: ,..,,.. , i v.../,, r,rJ. o/,", rs.op". ibti: ,u uf"lir. :r-,l.lir. Litulir. o{lnriiIr h.'rdsr,'. oa, hrP: hotunmtn'
sn,p. l,"JJ"n;, p"ol "s u$/ "r p lour / 1lpr / , , t . ' "oldrF-strr: L -iv.e ", h. r r j. , p", "o' gr / ". , s pin' r ""r b '1 . " . r . l o u g '/ P . c a n t o r o _

"""'' l.li;,",u,

.rronsl", hcisht, e!0. weal/r,,. nft{dri, srow,n,heatD,rrdrn,warmd},

S 370

D] nomauioc:
oo' 49 I ns , 6 " t o u L d s " m r l " n g ' p o u n 4 n " '" 1 ^ i -rq c: J\ rd s.r r dnia8"r pc , s " Fr... -al: dn ,m,/, p"ono, , / r m . lol, r p' ] u5. l. r . m o. . r . l d / . I i r 'r D u d l j a 4 \ l J n . r n r o r '''r o n t r i lus i, niCi_l Bon lnr da, -la n.-s: ' bt idgr dr ' r p P r r r 'd ,i {n r n 'd n r t , i. o r;',. m rs,.i4 n, \ \ ' as n "r / n, J pFn5pr ' , , r b1_bd " i 'r . F q F r r r o . etc.; rclnblicru, ' u r f P n '. p r -u ! -.n r: 'u m m t nJ r a' . D"d4r . ly r d4r i r ofr r ' ' ''d 'n r . " l ': gm nd/ r . s r ld/ r t : -.ry: ad vrb ,r r , di"liold. y 'r ' l . : y . ! af ain. r . oLst i n a . V ' ' -.ri : ad \o- r r lJ nk r J pl ! , ; u p . " e l " E e i l 1 d o " '" P l F r ''r 4 . -"i : atrs"n -. addr "s " , bir c * , d- biu"F. | . . . ,,o Jy,F'vpn J.:.o m m i||"Pj. oJ 4r ( qlU|n' ' ll|Lpb|oL" J p h l f r he lr ugh' i ar 'd l h ' l J u g h a P + r r ': Lr-. 'd urio r" a nd hp PJ ' r . a"* ptolrtPcr' mnskptPPf. engincd., mountajnc./, auoiionet , -ee.: €h.l lorlenra@c, dilig,u.., !roildnae, aPlea@Dce, assisiar?. nujs"'; ridddz.?, etc.; grocc', Nher; chllncello.. docLo., clect'/; accumulator, ele-e"i. -or,'-ier : bultl€.. P c.: ,. , rp,f \ar o .. r.,", hFf , f indt r , i"- . lur r i - _ "o u r , . . -' r : i l J l '" ' p :n.Ia l"* , "i. Lo il. r ' ", Chin"r ' , Po"u s u . P r \ l r l n a P \ ''" r n " " ';st: l ': r "l"gr , p_' ". lr L " J d l i o F n ,1,1 1 6n ..", 1 6u ;nr f s r . o. ; iilq, . d. Fr s , Aond, s , hun' I Ps c. m d 1 J P p r " s s . 'r u '

I Sdlirul a din limbr saxon{ provine ditr limba laLine f'al,d.r. : Dlblll srLi\ .../ bsttrriivlle dtuughttli,hcight,din suliaul 'r,1 a .inus numii litt"r _r' 'ln a S uLir l. r t ir .i !r(r. rr' ' n" v. I -1 ll- r J . , - r;n d rI F , n " l ' 1 ' . C rri ' ' n livol lormal cu oci d.-al doilen o lndcrlin.ilc I StrIi{ ooe lo.tncazl su}slantiv! de gfDnl lcmhiD ($ !1).
0 Sur'\pl !" lJ i : p a r ' .l ' r i dr.d ob:di I i "Ll nrt "^ 'd"

*rrl

dn_

-li. r:

llisfjllir.,

u .di.t,. j

n. t ur l.

( ; r Flir . ,

! jjlor i/ . .

gtsolh.. ni..Lt-,

qnintn.,

'ioD. -{inn. +ion. -\io.. -rti{}n. -itiotr, -son: t.girrr i$jri,,. va(l/t,n,. crt.nrior. 11 .?n, i r 1f |' r i. r / , ni . f lf l, r i, r ; r L r . r o nc . l , . .i -: ! r. ' ill: .o " b rl /. , . u. lr..rl: ,o ,.,rd...,..1 r, ' .. rr , . , o. . r r . bt '. : L rlken. slr.r,r.,, s|1,,,, adornr,.rlj lasor,nr, m $n.,1, i, . . t.- t : t . t t - i, , a' 9. 1 u i, , ! , . -onny : J. 'rr)" rr : d b. ta J. lo 1 . r. Ln. -.. t _"rr. :n .-,. ,o ,,r. , , t . t , J 1, t , r j h. . .". h. . , , . / -rr : . " ' rr: l r, "liu a..'tit ' 1. Jr. -ilr. -lr:1".'ur,.t,,: ,.,r.r.. -1 : assembly. d.li\ery.

t..e.

la.,-r.

t!t..1 -, .

. r ' . . , . : . , , "i. . . , , .: , t r : , " : . 'L j, . . r . lJ : a J.-, l 1 lr llo , ' : " ,lcUuty, dii!!, 1r0xly, clt. "

._./0recefti:
. {'.rcr,:
{ f , -c f . : . o

l3 7 r
|hrtoorr r/r {uolloqI (cttono./c.r, srobo.rn.r.
IF ..i\,8 ...r .u d ltr Lt.. t.,t. 1 ,, ,' .r ' .

luto..d.g/, lr!.rau.m.t;
./,

n ,l 1 r.zi S ; lt lr ) l

,... r,n :o .... n .." u , r.,,1.ti rt,tr,.. -i .rn : t a- i r , . " . . , oa .r.. r. or l 'Fr.,, m , r han. u. r r , _ . -irt! : ]Iaxis,, so.ialirr; plilorogtsr.fllsicnr. r,lani.d;dtis/, ],n 0risr,. antlEoDisr. \' p r' c ,' . P ' t p ' l .k r l ' . . .\r' .r' /,. -:l _ : l , lar " . l ob " r Drrr,. L ch ir r r hl, ' r l. . . l r,h i r .rr.r -iiis : rpperdi'itii, nloi'.1ri.". !oln^, sinrlstrtr, lorsiutir, cre.: ' l u,,r

dJ Sufixe dimhrutiynl0sru dopre0iativc (.Lit'..rs(. or*i,ni).
-ard! -o.t /g.rn.l : b$tzfd, coM/d, drunkar. hgsa.d, stuSga/1, wjzdfda, b.asgdrr, -a1ter (lal.tr crilicd.de., mcdi.as,c., Dusicds,c/. !octds,c,,. ol!asr".. elc.: n lulln q . il' aa i-',' . . , / . . , or jr . . t ut lc . ' nt . . t a, l".p o . i \ t " \,\it,:tti"tpt, tA" i tu)tpl, t|fun ,tp4 , mo l.ir t p{ , . r c . . i,n lijern.): ohjokcn, Lilten, nraiden, etc.i il..): rorone,, isle,, lerer.4 nidsd,, osl,,; bill.r{,. bull./!, fitl€,4, haich?/a, pultc4, . -et 4. d
| -onn,{j i

.i 379

I _

widotr?,&j eonducrord,rar. lr drunn -ctt€ (rr.): ciga.cre. Iil.heMr,, maisonlnler,f. mijofer€,. und€qrrdu€re!, ustrdcrF.i uanncle'e, learho.rc, rlush.r&. erc.: _ . . -ier lo.igir-aobscui): Antrtr, ,\rohie, Jralie, Johnrl.. \!ttlc,- cool;,. deariz, doggt,, -kinG) {olatrde,amediel: oailt,, la,nbntn. maniitn, Pet.trtur sonnihns. Moui}ar,

-1 e 1-rl , r { S e. m I I br am u d . k n d c k l c rk e ri .l . e to .; vnre,, start 4 woodt€,,. . ..ret iff ): trnkt.t, etel.t, llauer, lNiu.r, hafl.4 tigr.t br{ceierr, chnp?e,{, i,aole/i, w.islj,r{. en,.: o ' r:L /r,s . e o J i 6 . n .h b ,rk l r,j . -u.t/rrs. tord/,rg.l ri n" -l i n s s r ' . . : 1?r lr s tt ng. rn e rn \, ! ndc f lr na,wr a L rra j e t..i -ock (germ.l: bitt.ft {dialectal).bullo./r, hiuo./r, etc.; '(e).r.I (lr.): cock'rcI, Don8r.r. w$tru/. etc.; -st8 lgerm ): dah,e., do!c!rc.! gaDerr.f, gangs,e.. !usra., rh,vmesl..,lipsr,., trick, ob. . ur : E : |r , . fa l l /. J o n L . P, s j J . \\' h r rpJj Lobby..dbby. .ookv. , r , .-r u ri /i n tu. I,'3 ry / $r r gd. p t { . o n n y . u n m| h J n k y . n rd t '{ , F . r Suiix cde formcazl ii subnaniile de Ernul leminin. :I'ri n i n lef m t s diI liDbrl l o rl d l i r' l -i frU \rz .r I| . u $, r i\ ul d/ .. 'D l rl diminxlilal sau delr!(i.rlir {l snlirului s. .Itrlelesul tierdut cn vremea. 5v€zi Fi sliirul .v mai ios.

84 J ;t

Mo . d,l P rr-

2) Dc r iv r r c n ftc rc .i rn I B 4 i tt.F o rn a ti on ). _ | o" tp j uhFtdnti !c l o r m ar I r i1 dr r ita rr rp g r" i i ' u . ,L p ri n s upri n,arc,, ur,Fi P i rLt.ronrl "di vitc ca un sufiri: plp - ptrply trilia < triri.rlr g.eed< greed, tat < Pelty typewrile < typcwriter dooste < donaiion

! 3?4

Acesl procedeu, 3) Iied ceroa (Redurtion, Shortcning. Clipping). , o n q ti i D sul r;nrdrcd urr-i Ii !!i (i l r.P put. l o a r t e pr oduc t i! i n l i n b a o n g te z r), . ul. . r," d i p r d i n rr-' r' r ' ,rtD rl . drn .sp .^ ob i n- n.' l pl o Iurn' i d l ir iil " H, r " noud. Uneori aceasti creaiie nu este d€ fapt decit o simph presrulLar€ .1 cuanrtului irtiiial, alleori inse capite un inleles oarecun dcosebit sau o intre

buin!,areproprie:
S 37; a) suprinarea 'engl r "t''l -ri'r: inceputuLui
< ioDd...
< m o ld . .a f < mol,of cod./l < bLlt:le -:: C,efence

tn(intului
lhone pranc slori squtre sror"r larsiry $.fl .- telrphnr!. -. A.\iPume < dtslo/t .-9ss",.c < n1stutll. < tD'r.ri1ry < pclrera

L{ereze -

b^coy (!op.l
.oa.h cXclc nroe

lla Pa

< l l .tm n o (fo p .) < Pi p a

376

b) s pr i apocopr:):

dre tr sftrsitul

ui cueintul

.i lapocopn - (eng])

ad < a.lveriisement: brt < rrassiercioab <.drriolel; cabh <.arlegram: champ < p: rh a aP io. : l o. /, l or: 6 ' .l " u 5 r' . " 0 ,;n l a i Jn ,. " t /d ' i. : . L i\ dr r Lrnro \i nJrRp - pa,A1' n/ , l"l, 4ioit lind r\.
rine: nn , r /iisif", m oli , Dr t - r p '6 o . r t . r 9t ut t t , ' n", p' rjuc r ; / poaa t o " e : ! T i b / t - & t r i . i n, n i " d I 'o , p . ".u ., io f i: ur uT. ud' prnp p\prtv' t o 'd n prozt-.f 1' r ' , p. r J d ' nr r lr l: 'a o p < s o n J d l 'r m . tio': rrt r "n < / er ul. r ( iuni - r Fr lor r ll' . a l r . -,./e -"" p ti,hr;rr dJ,riL rpllj 6 vrr.vr al^: r . ; d! lln s p " u F r s r ''. i \ i t' ",.,"/ \:,io n, \ ' r ', l u r i d H d l l ; w l l k : F . l a l l : o < rr r dn, , Fr iidr \ , O ld \ ic Bol" railing ldl/i1 e r r J J io s "t { . ?oo < ?ooloc ' , J-g. r r J ; 1 " 'c , J cin q nd i' < r ; r r r lnd / , J ; J n t Pf m or h

377 jatEon €colbesc:
,ol . "r/l g nAlhrJ< liJ . / r gg r g ! _ . \ am < "r dn i J l i o l : l d b - l 4 r o r a o t y : , , r hi, . ld ion: pr ' p \ p.pparLtion: pmt \ ptu^ sof : L",g < no'h nd n: n ,ar . t ,sotrometrri vac < racrtron etc.

s 3?8

cu addqatea unui suti.x: dinP' (Iam.) < dinirrg'c:r. sleelef (rrm.) < sle-alin8 car r-o " i a i c n fo o l bl . s o. " " ( ta ' ,' rugg# (ld,n.) < ,nu8iy lootbill s m ok a (l rm ) < s mo k i n g -.o tri dA e no. { m k r .rm .) / ,' o ' ,-" r,u a n 8 .a r' dqp ls o d" r \' 1 ., s1l I l $o dp Ls i"nr I < b u " . h rt l-wo-seat (fan.) < (ca. wrlh) hro seais '
_ r,ri'ial: nelnscmn{t, supi,llicirl,,z tri rl. ?/,riu: ltrc.d.i nfiBcnnrate, lleacdo, lilnt, lotoitrnlial,

s/ai: Jna.c {dmiraior (setr adni.atoaful, !,tsional(rli duti sport tito : lrra /dr, tun nr F,t, hdntbntt F,6 erN. ' lto 9e tq ' \ ' ' \ t r lr lll l nattti.-tntlie - atarat d. ra,tio e ililor fcccttof torlniir. : : 1!o loc{ir Lr loc uin! a.

cuot' ntul ui din i n te ri o ruL t r t t .J r s u n e te .) cd d , ?r c 0" isincold - (engl.) s?incotel: cu.tsl' < dzltesX bike < Dt.yclc mrko < rrt.rolhone tmcy < /antasy dormonse < do.mDt t0zse motorbike < tut .Di.Ycle cade motorcade < morotcavr

t379

.l) cd.d,.rea F.

unor

sun€tc

Ln

hqi

nuIt.

t o : it ii:

S 380

pran < pe.dmluhto. <,irningham au < in&enza

.u ftLdt\afta unui sufir: nabs< ,arDara .) comprim.Lrea nai
,n u l l o r

nim)- < inmccnl (: I,rostdnac) c L rri ntc.

s 381

Anc.ioaradian l: 4noican + Canadiat) lmerind (: ,an.ricar + l-did) Bakerloo : rakdrst|ecr and $raterloo Railw, r r l lUn d e rar odnd

\r,\rr,anr. o-'"""i:,r"'-"i"4si,i;'"' r,'iii"r.-.."" r -iibockeN) ,'-',"t. Ln;.1.t

electmctrtion l: elat,ic executian) chandclE.) cleeirolie. (: 'Ie.'ic +.lsu, Eufasia 1-- t,.ote ro.rnishr (: /o.,.;een zi,,n,sl

radd (:.adio detertiorand.anging) $ ]cz

ffi:: i' ; "fij;.:;"1',1il, motol 't I Nta' "nsi"''

Unpl'subst0nlivP sa 4l Attsmaffle tonatift lCrddotrcn, Xlutatian ) vPrbc.r. ) prrn modili.ar"r unui ,1Fospb,.c de alr; parli d" !nrbire (adjc"rive. .Lnpl \o.nli. n"Jian tl at I GratJ,ttiorJ. insalita .ad nu d" lrodili.ari consonantice ale terminaliei ;i cu evenbualaadiugare a unui sufix:1

Substantie Verb
io lreathe brcath c.lotl - to clolhe

S bstantie Adjcctir breaitth depth length {idth young - broad - deep -long - wide }ouih

'(Vezi ti

s 22r'11

5) Abrovier0a ( Abbrceiation ). -l|[ult mai f.ecvent declt ln limba romend $ 383 se intrebuintoazn in limba engiezd abrevierea, adicd reducereaunor cuvinte la inilialele lor: Broailcaiing.orporarion, i,'on. n R C. { Bfirish !s'1" I pounJs T\', torol
nola b"n " ) , & P . i . l = p o s r d r i t 'l '. l h P { h i inc..;e n.e t- o c. r Doir . ar dt . r n N. B. , Dlc h"lor o A r . . ) , m l L S c . ( - \ r d s l r r o I Po :r Oir ir F. , d BA. I r, . P . Lr. ld .ncril \ , , ip" .i a c.l . Ccn crd l Pr ; c li ioon" r dof lor , npdr . "d r ^ p r a r U . . 1 m p J i . i . d g 'D ' f d n . Non. n a n : s s i o l " J O u i . " r '. a w q A F . d ,M.P . -u(;r,"r o l ldtl, anFr ' , , ao NCO I ( nro" of lhp So\i.l io idlnl , - rnen, b r o t rh " \\'o r"n s A r \ ' t iar \ . \ i. I or ", , U. S. r . H. Inilpd \aLi.n5 Oryuni/alionl, I rilq l 5ldl. s i f Am pr i. a, , l\ O I k ebunlicar . t5 \, q' i nlin l l ' r l O r g J n 'z J i o 1 ) p l ' . dr d I NE sco , Lr.rtL d N o : Edur s r ional, 't ' UNICEF iunitcd Nations International Child.etr's Xme.gency Fund), etc. I A " pisll mu lna _"FJ pnr ' ' l n: ll, ' h bJ n. Lo g l l i - . \ i r d l ', r d !f s.J , e. I,,.,", ribf J . s nlr l, d4 ' dF. ' r f d1' l J U. t . i..hr 1u t- b Jn lo ". a,lo . d1; d r r l t , r t ' ' ,.r 1. ji .. m r t r r j. l : T. c . t n "dr l. "orosn 'Lrt

"r'

ZrD";n

MOR!OLOGIA _ SUBSTANTTiUL

.rr:lsj

u*,

0""',inl:'l,"1i1"'ll ;" :'Jiiiil;T;";^ "*''' J 3 q(i ' ' ' ' .u . .,^, " i i ,.,, 1'lill:;,' lil'

lc'I' rile r:ll Il'ltl:,1:1"";"lii1ll'li];l.liililri''irdc rn,lcsubsla
, - . i: i- '

B. SCHl\lll-\Rli--\ c'\TllcoRlEl ico\vllRSlo\)

Gli.l\iATlcALE

:"'ii'i!4.,"''"' l*i?f;:-' T'"J;l'"'* *xi'ffi
#'1"'*'11" i';',.,,;1il"i.,,'#g '
ti
a blildtng handw.rung a !rrrltng A ldrmng ln] \tashing ihe {c.u-".tl t h. ir t r t s l. ! - L ine r lc ' t s a\ d ll, e Llc r ar t t L h, r Ln[ ' ni] + , 1 lhe unk no{ n . lir s t 3 s elonn ihe k'lost'g the lrvrns Jhe I rsornS tLr li irnrr l l t r u r t 'm p r o J c o l l 'c s t i r t h e n , ! l . i 'd .

1i', iix;"; ";;X",

Tii',;:::,(:1",tr"i1'J:i"l1x"'ill'i"lilLT* 1 \e 2 ; S ti o -t6 0 1

s 3s7

s 388
S e89 Pcrbtt

. 'turr

J o';n'{

: llFh'

" iI.l

i rorl lin t

"'i:il"* . r,"" i"'r'-.,

t' t tl"''"* 0". ^ ....-,. ,;;;:":.Jl,1 l'i'r,".,
Tn' r llL- s

" ,i'l ,iliil ii I rl "t;"-e.: aL' a swu :iu-;Ji,i,Hill,'1.!: "",l:ill shot roat). a "l

i'l'"*,,,

" "iitr t^'0""n

i"r::.|:'"

::ll:'"'#l.q:^iljxl'v"I' l''i{*; l' ' tonorro$'l tiivc me {: ring ne^w)
' r";'g $v m or r So ol P o a ' dJ o"l f is dn old nd ' ' er '

';""f,:u',?:",inn,Xti'i; i; " , "/ i j''l "'
n c liL ' a rt L c o L "i "J::,

S 3'J0

ttl .t e tbt:, prtpozir'ii' .. ,t,. L",t !, Lpean.t . ..

coni

l'*:{lr'il'11;'' i';t"lll,tli*"y'li.l'""i5ri."*,1'i !,""'Ji".'r'lti'e'"\'ilj l'i,f"l" $.: .;:'l::', ,=",;:,llll"t:.t1,fit ,'.,,,;:J:; ' i};;'l' ni' l' ll':i:lli; :r:i'-;'yij 'i;,;,';:j,,;iI "'t't"t ;:,;,; "". .r .,,, il , ,f,"i:T {,:',i,,1,,"
"

i l!i , ' i l ' " ' ' ' il , '''1, ', i,, "

lil:*';"": :

o r' ' ' ' to ' ' " r" ' a "

$ 3e1
{ ,.E L oi g.aiihd! ihe Da.: ol l]ii,s ihe .ntt oi bids the clarg ol buses Lltt ble'rl

the ntss ot th. sf.D.Dt il,c n ,i or tr. cirrs { nzr, ol surp.ise the .u sre o1 silk the srtsl ol ihc b.oom i,he ,!rt.f ot swdlows tlie rrrf of coi$'hcfls oI thc Soviet ea.th satcllilc pluralului:

n) cu adnugarea lilerei s. mirca

s 392 s 393

(Ve!i ri $ 127)

fo

tra tn -iry
..omiqs and soinjjs gol4gs roogDSs sunclndhgs eamings emplyrnss sarrnSs takinAs $4nnrngs (Ve,i qi ! 1?6)
lilings

s :t94

$ 395
in lwo rMs to waur on all /or.s to lnle si@3 in eloves. the I'ghts to be at rt €! dd 64eas to dressup li! tle Dtnes{la!].) (\i e z i fi S 1 2 1 6 , !2 6 4 )

s 396
one's /ttdr and d6rik3 the slolls (sau s/'dlrsJ ol momlity

a.lNetbe,

conj unclit,

prepozilti

s 397

thc dyes and nocs (in Pa.liamenl.) the tns and o&& ol the case r 1p1r c " . r - d . o r u lh" /od. f, d rh u/,ys ot lh. nd' l f Ii" t r. a rd,rl" lr r . , r s ald d . , , s i n o n . s l i l p pots II t/s and a6r were and tans there'd bc {o need fo. tinL-"N. \lc didn'|. knorv \cr t&ereaboutt and couldn't loNard your lette.-

( s 2215).

c, cu modiiicarea acc€ntului(insotiti uneori si de rnodificarea loneticd g 398 respdl.n'e), substa tivele fiind accentuitepe prima s abe,verbelepe a doua "

I Semnalsonor caracteristicprinului satclit sovielie. t l :t.t.. y a4ds - lt r o d \l p , n p rt,1 6 rr| a r' L r .,p, t \ r t r !r,t;dr .or . d ..a l i a li i r r r odr : r " r. = L ti th " A :Ah ts (\ z i p l g .6 ' .noa2:,i ..pa" r luat{ ourttd dupii or.t 11 a.m. 3aD este lorma r€.he r conjurctiei il

.= arti .usttuo

E 8M

.{ 399

C. CONIPLINJ]REA icoMPOSITIO\)
rrn p ro " d -u d p In rr ' rF u tr\i rrl Fl { l u:' rr' frp' !Fr' l p ' r r i' r P " .i ;J . i i ;"';'r, ,,,d,'i r'" d 4 " u :' ' r n " i " ' u r r r ar" i tl r; i n r ' L r\i rr' r^r' Fl ' nr" r" l "ll'lr rin iri' ' r' rej.r-

i i " ,r'" , 'ir'',,i" ii "
.^ ' r . i' , ai,

L

, , .;l ;i;;.;;1
singr r r f uI i" l, :

" .'"i.'.",-'i,'Fna,rr'

r' ri"

t" i;,1'';;.1' '" l"r,il:'l:l:'i,r,i' :;i:ll",'iii;:l

rlir: ln a|cst nrod sc Pot fornra srbslarrl;ve .dr,*i. \trI'\r,:,,r 'r ,t. .,:r Lo ...rrl:'r'.'uL

rlur"_

rtoern' j rplarE'

" ",ili,llliiii'.,)"',lll'li;'":1il:"il1l:l:: 'il;-b, 'jIhou'i

:,;;l,l ::";l;;r r.;, r,i".:, :iiiil,"''"i ;;;i'r; llL;j!t"i, " 1'l',;i ;t,, ;'f i;, ;;.":q;i1;i'":r1,':;;;;'i:,;r;ii,ir,l'; rrpan"r:iro!L'boar'

""""iiiil;i*:r;,::ttllli,'titi',';ui lrltliil;i'"ll"ii';*Jli;":li lll'J,i,l;iii
.i' ' ' i,,,n:l; ''"u;;,1n,';;,,.',:,];1.' ll"i;)oi.ii',1, lii,'i; ! .i::lii:,i1.,;l"i'r.
o no n'rrn l'€o: o\ $n\ . loiniod. \rhizlbaDg, !lc i I t r p r l' . I ir ' g P0 'l

'""':ri:i;;:ll"l;;;'* i"h' iiillriliiii;l -i;':iliilir,")il!lfi?i!' ",'ill,.,,ft.

"'i*1' i,"1. ;"iri,; -' ii,; ]l;;,'i,, n;,t,,r'._ ii ". l',:,:, rearer'anddoiu:aro'outer' liilii.iii";"i''il$"::":,il''iii:i;'i")"tii.""i;ii";.
i','rf, ;.:1\l;i:':''i'. .'il:"1't' ;:l.l ;,1 ,,',", -'.'"1, l;ll;1;1,

', i;=i' :' ::"' .":"":i rlr' litilfrlfii'i;L,r'*,ii; "i,r .. ;,
(uri e,.enpre iis\ii:,l.;,i;,i',r;-''iiliiiirl ii a" pit*"* trrntitodrere re sint
i t l - qpeli:

\ {00

(ionrpuseeite astizi tot at'ii de pr'rCreareasubslanti'elor derirate sru personal' (luctir:i ca !i in tr,:,:ut. cont"'o'rinrl i^ i"""i"'*a unui stil fdarlc

,,is,.durn.ss, lll:lij:iliillil:\,,u.".* riii'""'ii1,,"i,",iii"'i'"1'-'t"'" ;l"J,ii1'l-3,j11f.i1,,1'ir"l''"'u'
lr\,o' . ^. . , r "-:,,,,, ,. i, ,, r,, ".' , 4 . , '4 o, ir,r | ," r 1i;"'rr,. /, ;,| t' ,' I i t.p| b\ ' 1,

inlf . r l. in liniliir ' '(irvin ,ll.$_ , teIorl Pr . ar ' t n, "lY'

60 _ l l .-s0, k c wir h a S o o da mo u n t o t n e a .t o fi a .l Mi t!.u ss.l -.f'irow6 qrlh utr.p\s t}|at gpt lhF wolk donA. l 'tt.kt "B{r o p no r ur s . . ' O trp r mc n o o b j p .ri o n s ' f' ' fhe pefisdns ol thc doiag-what prckad it.,t!t-ta!.I!..t e,ondpa-did-and.tpt:

Substantivo telescopato (po manteaa,Nords). TiDul de cur.tnt numit, € _ 4Ol lnlinrba engleze Nord.eaxa blpnd.rord aporlnantpau 1un, u'inr ..tclcs.oDat-j? c.r" n.rFalip arrificiald. foarla sugective adpsaori, carecombinAin mod arbilrar pafte din sunetelegi sensurilea doud cuvinte tegatelntre ele prin lnleles: l,rurcl I. bFalta.l lun.hJ rus p lnmpr.l I . rurh husrtcl suurry ._-s.urtpr+hrfrvr .snort) 'hor'lp'chu.kli ! Innurndor .mog ( snokp : tos, risrnu€ndo r-- Insrnua||on
n g Pf ( - Lon r |lS F |) !n a .k { ' snake shartr motel (: motofisls' hotel) Nlirlicane {: whirhind + huricane) slithy (: lithe + Btimy)

De fapt, acest procedeu de formare a ouvintelor std la baza vocabularului iou..intrebuinrat, extensiv atit in reclame. cit Ei tntr-rn anumit, gen modern . 1, . li l "ra tu ra.

I \. Bert. Cadunt. I i. LFwis, ,ltotn iktrr. 3 Cuvinte intrate l. liob{. a N. Twair, op. .t. 5R. Aldinftoil Deoth ol a lterc. ' \ ' , oF da l dp LF$is C; r oll ' uv r nt ' lo. , . ir Adee wes in Wbnn?lbnd, ThnuFh the lnniLs.Ck$ . Hanap's Sttndad F.ench d^d Enst^h

r , , . ar t i iltp g i , r i p i r r r , p 1 . 1 . " ; n , 1 1 , . , , th" i;;;k ,.t T* Er;ji"s ;j1;;;;;c "f Ditiandr!, 1s31t_

ARTICOLI]I,
i::O\SI]JNR.{TII GI]\JJR.\Ltr '' "'r''i 'i ,.. . \Rl i (IOL UL S I S I ; B - q T A \_ T l \:l l l ,i\l l j l l El l \L i L l t \_ o l r r h' lJ r l j h .r.n r . t nlr " . ' bi. " - l l .' rl :. lr ....... S.\ti \I\Itt1E i t,!utr, ti .\_ 4at1 !11 .r1l 9i

ltII

,,, !t !t It !; !t ,t5 96 9t 9)9,1

t,t2

L)l
I n "i b" , oll \- i. il rl Z F r o . . . . . .

l' ,

r' ,. , 4 i

4tt

Pru ,, l r' . . . . l-,rD.!i i l c ir li. olulr i t olnn r.... / r n "i B"vrl t i .rn r tr . t i\ . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

4i11, .......

9i 9l

450 451 4i2

98

98 98

\'|n ,1 " l, - r / i. I r , J " i ..,... ' rr' \u rn e l e de z ilo, luli, a n i.. n ro ti tn p u ri ,s i rb r' ' i o ri...... ................,.. ' .l ' bit u" NrDele olifc_telor de studiu, rlc jocurilo. ii:rle sloflurito. . t ' " J t. : ot . , at - t .; to t ,t........ \ q rJL .Lt 1 1911, , 1r ' 1 1 . .. .. .. ... F o fn ri i ti r r o. unli{ e. . . . \ r,o n, d' r i r l' rr.' l .l ..,... lr . { rl i .!l ,i l i e h. t nf t iio1ods tru 4 i ro u l o .rrd d c tl u ra t........ ..._............ lnl re h u ;nlar er nr , i" ulr lr i n c b o td i t..... l n ri n i ca Lil. lor ilor i , nu m e l o rrl c l ro re s i i . n p s c ri i ,n r; i oul i l ai ,j ........... ljulrii lnlintrrc nrc basincss al. theptt i tah ol. tt.e!t.l.sst.n .1. the tN.te of

\'r I Jr-op i d, r. ".^ . .,. ,'n 1" , , i+oir'i i.; |. J" ri l r .... .. .\r . )r f ge. ; r . r r . . . . .. ..

g. ner alr . . , . . . . .. l l P3 rl ,-L

4' l t 10t (6:? 100 ai i t i 00 46i i 43| l 4tt rl i J 51r 51i 5t1l 5i trl i :l I 1a0 103 10,' 106 106 t0: 108 r03 r0?

\

i :5 109 i:M09 ari J Ir0

q1Blnrini' .

;;,,, ;,,:;,,.' i ri "l lilill:: "lr ;i:;ll:,:'ll1: ";,.; :,;,i',i ;; .11,,;: ;; :,ll:.,,l'i';l o: 1,;,i : "!;i i;g,i*;',: ;;l;' u ii,'. : 1. i;';;:;;i;;.; ,- /. . .il'i:;li,-,i,.:., ;.1- .':1.'.lll,"','l'.j,1
h i i n r". , , . , r , r . br , ' rr tr -i r' , 4 f' rrIr
vtvtnt llPs'r^r'

nu '. rrl lo _ t at

-t

t l' r u t n\ t t l t l ^^

r ; n: P \

lln I lo a\i 5i r
iil

""

'

1l r1 trr l
!

Ah! cntLi

tn .arc attiolrt

-

,'

-

iLt
i:li

l l .ts i P tt' \ A \l rn ]' ,(J n _ \ l l l ool tl vL c'cl Nsl DE R T ll - qI ' E C\L I *

I til

iiiim"re oc mrsri

.,,1 g ,n" t ' ."tr.ra, . , i*, . " r ri 'n ,,1 " l" t . r '

- d r r" n ,: l i rl r " r' rrrl rr' ' d r 'l i' ' ', ' l

iir'.r

1l n

Airilritul ti arli.dlele Rctrctnrca dninuhri -

-i dt

r14
lli)

vtl.CAZURI lN c-{RE ,\llrl(x)LLl' ] ll'sDfrll
Remli g .nFr''l' snlxr,nli{FlL SoisianlirFlL sul,st.'n li\ "1 " AtE cazLti itu.orc dtti'o'i _

'
.

ii,

ti 5
t llr

l n te ]| s g c n e ra l . .
riPs'fr' '

:t6 5

.1Ti TIC O LU L (T]lFrATiTICLE)

I. CO\SIDERATII

CE]{ER-.I,IJ

l) I)cfi ilie. - lrticolul este url instrum€rl|. granatjcal care serve,ite. S 11)f ir lri,rcipul. la indiridrlalizalea.obiectelor'asupra cirora se oprcEie a1,cn1ia \,,r1)itol.r]lui salr scriitonrlui..obiccte rlonunrile, cu a.ir Ire plan gramal.iral. t rul substantiruluilnlolit sau ru d. artrfot. 2) Fon i, Grdnatica englezi are .toali arlicolel: !.10;i arti(olLrl hotArit the a.t;colulnPlotdrit a sau nn
,E l,ca.rr'.s ,,. JcaN
lr ' i . . lF lF .int l5r , '. n l r' . thtl;t;...,r H {a e '^ rt.r r

u rins ra id.a
t.

:l) {lrratteristiti. - Spro rlcoseb;e de limlia |orrrini, ilr limba enqlezn { 101
f lr ' . , u\ i' t p c lc pm . pda. , r h . r h , , t i \ a t p ta,.irp I n : Fnar p, a . . . n t , r a '. : "r li. olpla n u , i n ' ' l' . ,/E h.urs a .nild t/r llnro lr-"nn lolntriN dn able rnu lVez j ins ii 5 41, 0.ila)

4) Fur{,tii. - .{ icolul ru stn sjngur; ci Insolelte tntotdeauna u. sub ilantiv -qu un eehivalent,al acestuie,fapL pontru care unii grarnaticieni il ItnFniera o partjculn. ,Obieclele cxiste le se imp8rt, in doun categorii: drlirrtt. (adici specifi .atc. in.livjdualizatc) tarl nuiefinit e. d.) Defini.r(a obieetelor. adicd indiaidaLl.izare /or. se lace cu ajutorul arti(,olufui hotdrit, the (the l)efinit. Arlnl?). erc sril pe lingi snbsl,antivele ,.c ]e ddrumesc ..i al cdrui rol €ste de a scnrnala faptul ci obiectul in cauzn ,,.te snu ra fi cunoscut. Thc, care la origin€ tnsemna lhis, that. tht:se. t/os.. ai pistreazi tnci. rtenuat. acest lnlcles. lmpr€u'ri cu irrncliile corespunznt oareI the poate lnsoli iird 1r, .{rrslan I ir.l?. nunerabiie sau ncnunre.abile.ai.lt }a s; qular cit Ei1eplural. ir i,,n.,lie de conte\l: l)J r.slul substanlirelor. adic{ acelea care dc,runlesc ,obieitele, n€defini1.. ncnldirnlualjzale, sillt insotite de xrticohrl ncholl\tlt (thc In.lrfi it( -l//nt.,/. .\cest,Rrtjcli ri sau an, crre lnsemna la origine one, adici unitttca, nu poate deci insolri(le.iii,iorma de singrlar a unui subst&ntiwnedefidt.. ,\,ra, iiar p.n1r|rfoo.a (lc plural forespunzil,oue ncer;stiDd un litoouil.orposibil, . a dal .unrele de artieol zero :rriicolului r,are af trcbui s^ c\istc in acel loc. d&r care lips4r/r. Lipsa a(ieaslaesfc tot atit de ilnporl.anli ca si prezenla unlli arlicol. deoarece cn are functii distincie qi holiriloare. (Vezi S 429). -{rtifolul neh.rtniil nu i sot€tte ]l;r;o(latn substantivele nenunerabilc.
r l]rii 1: ri i ( ii lt grarnati.j.ni .onsnl€ri irindr I hol,'rril ca p. r^ anirit. itr articolut nchoun al;.7 rit nelnnntit lr.zi llF Can i.a ArfdnJ Didiaharr, a, sn, t\e).

$ 40;

S 106

S 107

\ 408 .s +{)g S tl$

91

! 411

lI. tRl tr,||LI-l

'''' i:l'l;i\\lf,;ilil3n,\*li'''''
Il.cul:i qcncrxli

s 4 19

i:i#:;

< . , t . n n t;r
:,,t.t., "t i- , 1

,,r' ,, r' rr;J rV

' "i::i t ut 1r t r '

iiililffi;i
+lJ

'. .in ,,l.r' nt n p"t primit'r singurar pi.,""i.

l" '" p o .l ri " 'r 'pr-'"r t' -''' i n'n ''r'"ru' i I'
t o1 t P t \ \ t .i i I ' '" I r "0 l

;

-tt

artic,rtul holirii'
:

s LI, \i , i //r!r l rtJi i Ll -: ndrotirit c,qtcintrcbuinlil r.rr.r.r' t I) .\rticotul st'r nlv lnr nD lLr u a i tc t\

, ll |

""

21 \ uh' lnnli\ Pl o n u mc rc h i l c

."airl.,:i"

";. alt, determinat:3 "o h r i- . ,' r .bll.r_:i..1,;I',.

',,"

,'"

" " ;"

I

' r' J

lr"rrl)ai'sn fib'r ili I'n r:' r ;r ' au nebotirit - d.rcn ru nu 'Ln
' ,'l i rl ro*t.\1.

' '1;J,:i,l;in',,u, ,,".' .'',' 1: , ".0"',','"ll:.'l 'l''l;,'-l',;,' ,,. or,,, moLr ,1:, "' 1;:,'-,i :,"1,
," ";,i,";it:;;',"' , ,r" ) f':i:;";,,;.; i,i;,1.; i' pn"r'" rr'i"1'r'i ;"";i :i; I""r.'r iiililll,"l:l;rll,]'";l'lir:,"
-"""[i
.de

'l iII;"r",:.) li "i . l ;,:i:),.;ij:" 1 , , h I"a) ' i . . :" 1 " ;,i"rij",,',,,':;i";.,1 o t oL L ' e , $i'

, e rr. , x . -. . , r -, , rr r" . , ' -

i '

'rl i,,toit.:.':".",-..,".iur.,.," ...r".,,. .'t" pliii rt"" ard lrdtrL rrr"rir'

lin

rei,r,., esre ron r.' lli il.ltl: Ji'T'i":'iTflli,fL:i;""i"!i,xl.,lx r sr c liil: sie n d"Tjiltt: Lurr m a i m u ll
.i. : ia,: r', "I'r" 'dl'rr

cu ceae.,slez:i: i:1"",1'i;. romini in conLrast

l

$ {1(i

Con(fluzic: (rtiule nthatdti't io 1oi tc-\tul rL'nnn'sr' -\'rrarai Nici wr articol nclLatnnl te\tul ergleze:c4li: Fxi:,ptii l:i rtErrltill, !
Iloll' a rvlLisltr ind^ottr' Lrl!'isi: rcinll Ca0l;, is ( 1hP' dniD o r

s ,117
q, 1 1 8

/ , ) s Lr u,i !L i l rrrL + tP : q l n d _ l o ' r' Pr' ' v ' t nt , t ' I t' t s re b rtl '

" i" " t - , i'

.,', ' ' , \ r " i; ij " ; ::l:1":'ll. "l';; " ii, ' t rn l s n l o l l ' ' d 1 o tl rP rr'
r \'r..rjl \ ' .l '"" " '

r , "r u' r ni'

'

tr'"

r |.n rrLr I ' c lr niir an! ' . \ 7t i i 4.,h.' l : {t'd Lorl 'i!

1 j.ltr .L^-:":',']

-"

,, ,

'

,. r'r '" :

CONSDERATII

CENEE{LE

96

3) La pluml, substantieele n mcrubilc lNl nu p mcsc articol nehotirlt:
\r{tctres
) -"nN

S 419 S 420

nou.s
idcajj

4) Substatilele nonnmcrabilo tf:ll iici articol nehotdrit,: li

nu au, in mod normal, nioi plural

qnaljtv. !.rseeianP is a 'l otr can'i. lile .ll $ea1, liinds bl D6t.. air r w is a nr elal. jldis!.Dsalle to man. -{tr-is Ci. The atl in rhis room is nesh.

5) Concluzie. - DiD cete erpuse pinil a;ci reies clteva reguti de bazd: dl dacd un substantiv este numertrbil, deci are plural el 1'a alea li sin gular. care poale ii preced.at d. (trt[.olnl tu)lntdrit. Arl,ico]ulu;rehotirii {asau an) ile la singutar ii c;rcspunde al)stnltr artical tnir la pl:UJa\.
, J o. g g"l 1 1.r,l '0"-, hool I -J. ^\..I \ere s$ arn '! r g our iir Fr r f r I pr. Lizs ( 6 , or i, '. our.

S 421 42P "s

Substantivele numerabile au ariicolul hoLdrit,the atlt la Bingular,cit $i la phral: I sj. 14' 1o ..3 ,irr \"- //l' .r'' ' o.'
all ; . { pr. Tn " L "1. s" Tabnanent Fitn s. I g r o ! \ io. Ll do. , r o $2,, , . / / , 1 . . ' - 4 r '. 4 T4t s

S 'tP3

,Ue@l1t,N Urc maiistar ol his diel,. The tuat yon sent ne was deliaious. c, Lnel{, substartive nenumerabile por de\eLi nune tbilc jn lurclie de j teni,.ia vorbitorului ca atare ( S 30). !i sint tra1,a1,c Jl Dq i unjj a, , t nr j i n d j r, a ' l j a c ti v u l n e h o tn rl t rorrc ca pl ural al arl i colului n a b o ,. r il lif . d d " s ru i a l s n l u fl ts n ,r a r, .{ d r o,pl J.i 1-rel p.,a " n/nr dp.i In l o r r ir . d l^ r p" i p ro ., n u s p p o rr. i d , p in oJt" si rnal i i l ., .hrd -"i r n r . lr.u l u i r dje, r ; \ Llui . o r,,. fi i rd m ri r..tr:n F d d p i i t 0ri F1 a cL,ntri sr.;ru lului .e h o ti rit : I s!. I . dN d b' bv t l J l i s r l h e p a rr.
{

D) Substantiv€lenelrumerabile- adici abslraclii]e. uneie de mat€di sj de nase, precum ii substartivele nsi]rlilale cu acestea nu au plural si deci nu pof avea decit,o si.nlurdfa nd. cen dc sirg&ldr"!. fdrii articol ichotdrii. Piirnesc insi articolul hotirli, liir tn iunotio de contefl: \o oDc could lire $iurout notr. linos'ledEe ol lis success was sn.r^d bv nress. ' the -

S '124

i 42; g { 26

I r'

,

I Tl@-

{p"a

, d/i",

I d \' r ,t

I :,.r

.i l i \.

',

o .b i d s rr' J .v ,n ; i- rhd rrJrk.

n ,r Dd r

III. LIPSA An l.IC OLIr-LtiI
Lifsa:trti{rolului €ste tot atit de imporlanti ca lsiprezenla lui. Pleclnd de la acest Dunct de vedere. sramatica moderni stabileste tr€i situatii dislir."l' !;;num":..ot,Ltttnris.,:'ntutu;'. ur!;.uldt:"ta: si it"ti.t,nld orti1) OrDisiuned a ieolului esl,cdeliberaii. Ea nu lnseamndincelcarearegu, lrl r!r01"r;.a'a itlp,inini o 1rp:".,1.] crin,atirila. ri r.umaidorinladeiso |ealiza o tortcizie, care obline edeseori, pa de o parte efecte stilistioe
r: a rl i . r olulZ E I T O t Ol . 1 :e z i 5 6 .9 . :1.r€h .st. Cc talrLlotna conlund(S !t-irs), 3 : n ,.ri, r olul z f r o 1i1, ,15 4 :!1 . cuc sc comt)orli1ca nn singdar.

s 4!7

{ 42E

'o

l .:lllilt'l :,1; l,ItIill'lriil'il ^,,1 l;"i:l ll. lil ji':;i"i ;;i1, iq c.,,,,n ';:":iil:ii:li 11:,:,:tit:t;l,t;':l: ", ;" llil'l,ll:'i'i , ,," ,.,";;,1);';il,'ii'"lliii: ' ' "l,,ll'"lii'; 1,:1,j,:;r.,'J,:;: r ,,r ,.r - r ,,.'r . , '', t', , ', ,,,":r u: i ' j , l j ; : T l i i i : l ; ; : , i l ' ; ".d .- ^ - i' u ' ' !i' ..^
',ll,r , 1'-, i ,.,1 '. l" illtli'1,,r rli,;i . ,., " " ',"1:,;'^;:y::;:;l:li"-,i"-;
'J',d, , ; / l . ; i rl.' , , ::1 ,"' ,i,, L.:,;:

()"j'^:i:l:r'i"ill'"'t:l'l:li t:il; "tii 'irri'{{rui ;:i" ;l:"1'1,;'

;'";;:;;:':r,,'r;l;"'ii ' '" ::i,;iiii:ii'tiixl "' ' ;ilj;;ii,; pr 'r ''. a r ! " ' :
,/ subslanrn'€h "{1.11';ilJi$l'l'lToi .hina..,". I ti k . to d rn ' rr _
t i" t" t a .P\l ' r J rn (

I "/ :i / J i;i "-' lr;-';)li';l':;.;,""11;11;;;;;"rl; i:ilfii:ll.lji:'l:;il
''' " " " ' ' "

,L,L'-n ' | , L L r:"tif il" ' f , ,lil' f i, ; ' , . , r,,,.rj '" \r,,." r ,Jr,i ,,,r,,r,,i . ^l

..nrrt.. - 1_rrj ^

: .riii;i::i;;i,i:r,rli::lr Ir,:;lll" l' t'i i";':'1 ,';r:;i,';;1:l;i:i ' ;;:r;:l i " :;1 / iiii, rl* l i i , r t , ' i r ' : r ; rr':l " l i r l:;'.i.]:lil,lf , ,,, ,,liii:lii,;;,1:ll:,lil,':"1'iilil';Il":l1 ll , .," "", :i::ri:l;::i;til;:l': ,,''l",i:,1;:lilittr.,lil":ll"'ll:; "i;lrll;ilili ' 'll;iiii;"*,':'j'''',llil::''lr'll';:"'l :;'""h """"r\"'"4:'1":l etf '
Lonttot'' tt attrihsttittt 'iii''l'^"""' p-p'i' n' tt 'tnttt ,,,1,1l.'i' (;rtat t.oitaitLl'fslii' 'tnrrr'fl

"' rlrLrrr' in'ri' stc """'.l,txttItll'; iiernitdi'l'l nudc !ill,ii;i''*""' r ,r "r ,,i,' ,' ir ",,- .:,,,,r u , . . . i. i; , " , l : ; " : , . ; ; j r l ' l i " : r " i,th ' iu . ..:,.i- h

'" ,,,,,,i",,1 . ri1'-,' ;:'" . ' 1:l " ,"'"t -";"'r"r'1 i:.''ll 'ill;' ":ll':':'i"',=, , , , ,--. ,,,,!, s ,*' ,,,, l",,llll.',1:i:: " i l l 'l 'l l 'i " " :'r ' *' * '' ,' ,, ii;i::;:jl''"ji';ll:; ':;'li' ;::l ,i l " :l l i : iif.';i"i"' 1', ;',|i'l',,'*"'u"'u'ir'!L'' :i":i:i::1. i:; ""'-'" . s'o',,;,,pi,i ll-)il:ll:,":l:"lllll"" ri(L;f' riirir
-T"i"'u"t"i-tu'"uu'ri 7'tu csle o rart 'Pufritrli in mnL'n "nlrltidt

,:'il;.i',*il"l'll.i,n"ir.i,,i

r'i rtinrJi s.rmati.rr' ar..r!.r'!xn ri.r,",,,qr-:,

AiTICOLUL

IIOTAR

T

97

trOTi.NIT IY. ARTICOLUL
(TEtr DXTINITD ANflCLE)

s .137
S 438

de 1) tr'ormi,.- Articolul hotdrit 6ste the' inva abil in sdis, indilerent gen' numar sau cazi tle boys ti9l '&
,,',2 aeach&'s address t/ia houses we vrsiled
r n P '$ o g i r l s f/r" p riz es wer e gi! . n o l& bny r nd IhPt saw r / P r o$n in r l4 dr r r dniF

2) ProDunlio. Arli' olul lft' 5o pronJnri: 36 it LoiN ti,onC /,f,]1 - forma rarprr ' ind rsLe o'fenrual sau clnd ' The delinite article rs "tle" Is he 'tnc" Sliaw?'
lEs lo Pl . Plebar l 5l, aw: ) is hF "dt , ' p". iar i: r i1 ! ln m d l o l 0 g J r

s 4e9 s 440

b) lbtti (;NanS farn - forma i,are) sNtl6r) (acak form ln.int€a unei vocalesau a unur, mul':
,tu c{Ith ,tu jnn ,fte hour ,h? hei!

forma slabd)r $441

.i

"

cau a unui ft aspiraf .J fb,l, t6l. torm"'labe. lnainrpa uDAiconj'anF cu consoanole5: a'imihre se"ii"6"it"to|" t*t ri [i].

$ 442

FUNCTIII,E ARTICOLULUI IIOTiRIT GXNXX'AIX coNstDtrRATtr
demonsLraliv lr llomonslrBtiY.- Arli'o1ul tfre l& origine adjr'iv u4ur demon_ a t - tiLsthnt.th,s.,thnser,peslr€azaqia'l6zivoloArFs,sLenu0li strati\', a'ind uneori .hiar :i fun'!i0 ocestuia: lr. is iusl what I unt sr rtu (- this aomoni.
Mnn v'h aDD v Flum € ol r t u { = ihr s l ddy

! 413

s 441

i""lll1"'"'"j'*' il;^iT" rl'li'J,''',i;; r ha""', r prrce u s "d c ar J nd d' "do al t h? I It sas
"4'
""tTi "O'*'" t'" J/^U"'"i" -'i.#

care de' 2) funotii. - Articolul hoidrit va insoli aiadar subsiant'ivele . "qnot"utp,lieln ambianla 1n ' €ro sa €fl; obicctele' anum;t, ori aLribule: un'u.io" sau psrti'ularizste prin d' rermiaanti6

^ (":h:T:il rhem. #-'J;'".", r hea,ir ,*tidj"ii,"$T."ifi

$ 445

s 448

$ 446 ,",hf;:ti;oj"j:;".,,-,,. $ 41? ""':fi.ll.:r':r':X;;;l:":T';1"/'f';b,""'j;"'.,"""i"'::: i scml\.1 'l l{l r' di ll iniliali ir r ' - r v r nl

romo si"il (0I) esielormaneaccentnale to..a acccntnate ,"" "r" rof.::srLb da,:far"r" ;lT,,i;' :.''i1,,' n,r,r.t"! .hu,".tp;,.t"an.!.hntuc.,,

'.'';""1if

' '::;1..,,:l;1, - '"r;;;l)i;;,ii;;l;": l,i:1i,r1r,""1.9;:ili',il;:i.' " ;i1"f "' tI,l{5i :'{i:,,rt| t - qr.hailcs nnbli ensrezc

98M

S 44t

DJ lrnir.rtr, irdeo'ostecunoscut€:

'l /M dror js shxt. brt. rl, rindo,s are o|lenTurn ofl lnc /ddto and h,rn on /F TVJ P\i ott tlte lishtr, llcasel We dor'I. sdl wastc l,crr. Are vou coine to lctah llte .hitd tuom scliooll Iak€",/F i: ilis) pastcdntro thr post-office, therc's a good girl] p)eac. Thdnk you for tnc aunitioa. I\I h{\\e the h;fi tdpe1, 1 mertioned chcss: he was !.olieieDt in ,nc sdtu,. The pi.ttta an ,i. ,@ll fte his own. The hishlishls al tlt $ech's ln Engtaud, caN drire on . Lt and pass on t@ ristu. 1'lE c.smos is a wcll-orde..d syslcm. A t enlie ! 3 ) ,q.dvorb.- Th. est.. ar t.ical hotdrlt trumai clnd sti p e ltD-qi un subsl antiv; clnd lnsd insolelte un ddjectir sau un adrerh, )^ qradul compdrati\. sau sup$laliv! in speojal cind sint doun adjective sau adv€rbe corelate traduse p ri n . . c u c it . . . , c u a tl t..." , l h e e s L ed d p d .r: .t t\d \F fb t h ] . t u' P , 'h r ""r He lias had a rcsl atrd leirtsd,. r.fu. ({or il.). l-A.dverl) ' 1, . . , at . g. r t p ,l ,i l ' 1 ,//' 3 .,o , ...a r., .\dr rb, ( lr " ) ilo - nF d b " " 6 (,t," ) 1 .,,,a a t, (\d\erb) s nosl . e ^ i .\ 4 , r" ,

$ 450

Zfu eslc tnsd articol cind precedi un superlativrclativ + substaniitul erprimat,sau subinleles, deoarece, ln acestcaz, el determin[ subst&ntitul. (Vezi S 724). $ 451 STUDIU CONTR,\STIV
AIiIICOLUL IIOT-iRIT SI SLTST,4,\?IINJ,I] ABSTIiATTI} SAU COIOIiNTD

s 452

Etemple:
o.:t "t ,h . d m " l t.l" t t l h ,n a ' " r' ,1 " | ,5 .- r . r\D 5rri l di " r tr ",o ,, I'o1\a") . a t e - \"a s t.kb r 1 - "p a .onup

O sene de substantive pot fi uneori abstracte, alteori concrete - deir nu pot sau pot avea arLicol hornrii - tn {unclie d€ inten,tia 1.orbitorului. 1) Substantivele bed,, br.dl; (: rcc/catle), canp,'Change, church, callc:,,. S 463 coufL ha.rbaur:hotnc, lLaspital,jail, mass, marhet, parL prisan, schaoL, t(". shne, tdble, tcrm, taen, aork etc., nenumerabile,nu primesc articol (au ndic; articolul ZBRO) cind lnlelesul lor csLcabstract, deci atunci cind ne reterin la rnlian€4 respectivi:

na Chanee lo have been to .ol&sd to }rine ini,o .orrt

lo leav€ s.l,oo, to lut to sra l0 sit doivn to rdDl,

to admit into norrn(l 10 s o lo bF d,ro J p , o 1 6 ., l o .o rl " g ' ,l o ,o r' .i u..3" l orr, o" . p o ri. , e. in o h^s pi ra l .l o mT L In ro to r. to p , so j i l . 10 to town. t o uni\ c r si ,y , to $ o rk , 1 1 ,,

(r' 11 t' -

1. ( A b, r . , at or r.) t' ;e h [.J,' i ]!o nd " i ' 6r' .i .:t . rro r,rn l rtr.' r ' )t x I n' aL. hanp. /o .1 ..,1 ) .,,.rr d i n r.ur .l r. ' i r n^ d" l d. rr,r,,r ' sublnlel{asl /o l'l. "Ee sEnt to theb \or^e".] ii ca atuc lac! t,]]t! din categori'r de s'l staltive care, lmlrl"url cn o lrcpozilic, au lalo.lle dc adftrbe.

€TICOIVL

ttOTARlT

9C
c'' r 'o l i g n 'h o m " in los_

i - illhTn|n dlp roliuin b'l,i ' : i . t o J . i d l r . o , a 1. . ' lool "

i

qi\ "

mai l seamni $ 454 de la S 453 S zr55 To\vn,fira articoi, pe lingn selrsurile a]) ornl'.rlur: rlrul (comercial "i
' Shall Nc have ililn.r tr ,oa, todav (- Il ora!. la rcstaurnnt satl la chbl? Slo l o' ui l d i n n o ra i ' l p i ' r4pi ' r' r' . ,i ,i 1 "., i t . t o lr s l' on n ," x "iJ on! Inarn' ^,,(1 ,' ubu' h: i . r { d J J u ' l a " ad rl ttP) ' ta " ' ' pdr $ 455

: : r o r ca u edon a lr idal. Se intrebuirteazl insi ariicolul bolirlt atunci ctnd ne relarim la inlelesul .onrret al substa;tirrelor de mai sus dcvenite nurncrabile, la un anumit orag, , ) al u mi l i F c oali c t c . : TheY lookcd at ,ne ndd: it !'as €nPtY. |the'coltele slood {t d oossroads. The lisiciiersin tne.o&r, lrcrc not interesled. 'l'he chcmisl.'s was rear t,l" /@3,Dt,2,. At Doltani,,nd P.tsn h4le€n turned into a museum. \Yc salv tne scn d, bciore tts. ! , , n . r.J h i b .rrl ,' di n h p s u n i l l d r. T hpA i r' ,n r" 5 i rri _ g d , fr. ta b l " u F " l i o Ll i r booLs. rle iN sriislicd with r/P eofr in !f.p SIc wcnt ior a $alk outside,ft4 t Wc were alProaching ,ne ,oaD. 'qa. Irticolul hotirit se lllttebuinleazi

S 456 !i in urrndLoarele construclii: /i ' l a b o rd l o ty ./rfi ,/ L n i \F E :'vr.go do!l " ^i nl o ' l P ' ounLrl :' I ns li l o so '., Fs. ' o,iv io' . r r A r' rLm . r. l -u b i l rnr ,o h i ,l ' .o n " r' l n i o q o io ll' " c ilpni. l h P i )s th ' ' o tr' e rl t/r' o D ' rd. l ,p nrl l r s. ft. Inertrper' ' d a d F l r" l rr" u d G mrl l c d l P g o rF ''r b sl Jn i i v o. 1r e nur n" s c {n/ p' i 4ufv sch o ol. - \ da s ' r r t ad ,t,i a a rv s .n o o iw l p r s h " s R ' :.. S l r E pnl i o 4 \N nen ! . {o Dli n Jr s - y , . nd s penlfo u " )PP t. d Is " ,{ o tl T l ' Pns n p \ P nr 1oY 4n4or!^sta^t ro r 4? u4' ' ?nr.ru / r " s - or l, . u s to o l , .h " w " n l u p l o ,,ru rs ' rd In uucnrfest. . , ncr:n i rh ed R u c h u P ' tu n i r' t' i ]! oir rn d Fsr{ ! u" P of , ' idl) ls r u l o rl h p ) ' drent l n l rmbT\or' ' ra

accca;iregnl{: (au deci S 458 date|,cselarzilei f: meakJurmeazn 2) Numete .lrticolul z€ro): o) nu sini articulalecind ne relerimla noliuneeabstrnoti:
,.€dftlast is nY talourite nealCone to lrtul tomorow! ?!d h ai live todaY. lThe) dtaDe. is seNed \Yon L rou shv lor sll?ef , * g .y ' a n o rh a rl v d s u ' d i w l d ' : l he ndl ' rq $i rh hP f noa? i i a i .,l. in; "* ,) Cind ins{ noliunea esto concret5, substantivul poate alea ambele devine numerabil, adic:i ore li plural: articoie ""i S[e put rh" rrd^/nsl nn lhF t8blcr'nj d ri c ' t' a ' l ' roo: i i , i" , . , ' o ' J -.r" h ,. s ! 'elc h l/c " k, d P l e J s.l Comc on. vou \iilj Pnlov rn€ dniM'. \\:c sold a" l, , r ndF J t' r* i to t, a n d Iv o I' u n d re tll e ," todaJ.
tastd! L\ t . . i d ,".rb inlr"r.lln: - d ar lr . : b La r , r r : r . r . : t : j \ L pr "l"r Tl1. m d J l l' lr oi , r "l . rr on, - ,1,,r .'r //i. dc " ' lt (\ ezi U.H. I{illils et alia or' .t , p. 68 J j \'e,i ii S i'rs.
ii

S 459

4t

rt.:tJ:

100 460 c/ In acceafi cateeorie f6, inlrn si urnitoarele substantive, care Doereu plurnl 5i ori,are dir ,"le doud rrri..lp. d€r l "u o noditi,!r. sem"r,ti, alun"i "lrd se relerald o iDt rrr tir la n,sF".o p, rrFrarc.t... ./i"n". .parryr tait n sr-. Il:"y .g"u" " 0 arcarsurcess. Helen has iccn 10 r@ dtra,,s this we.k. W€ had d lovely lancl at a Sohorrestau.aDr. ,161 - Aceeaqi uzanli este urmai,e si ln cazul l) ItlijLoacele(le Lacomolie. verbelor lo gor to camq to learej lo lrarcl. urmate de prepozilia ,y (: ron. cu), care precedi, fird artirol hotArit. noliunca fiind abstra;rn, numele mijloacetor de locomotie ca bicuclc, bike, boet, bus, &r, ptane, taxi, train, tubi, und.er. graund eLc. I
I se nt th o D dc el Dz dt . lp f'IorL oDdnl; r r . , , / J ". r J "! . I n. b o v s q o i n F r y n , / , . b i 6 . p t o . ThJgr.l an(l 1n o ,lr !d. nr h s om ! lr . nds Go by anderyNlnd to "Piccedilly Cittus I' joi . rh-m,

prepoziliitein, l,n + articotut hotirlt cind . Spuneminsa, htrebuin_ttnd nolrunea este conoet5:
Sh " l o o L ,1 " /,rp to O\1 ,' rI L:r rs I/." L o d l rr.ri ,r \ in - tnin. We had lunch aL th. Thde was onty stn.ding room tD ,nd rd;n. 'fie.e \ras lo one we k.ew on ris ,ldae. I *as on tLe bus whcn you got in. 4) SubstantiTolo abshacle slnt articulato atunci cilrd, conform resulij de la ! 455, numesc ,obierte' anumitq cunoscutc, mentionate ant€rior"sau particularizate prin determinanti3: Hs prafa.pd pcansidpt:t; th" p.p,n. and tbF suqsestio! was ac.eoted. T l' nujh v o, n s . l J s i h . s rF d n m" t rn o t.] s;i .. " d s e n $ o l \..:.s l h S r r r dd lhD g o'o e j trd i rF o/' o,...i ,ri " D . ?he lile. oocurftd to t.im thdl ties night ldre dn ovtins_ AX,TICOLUL EOT-iN,II SI NO]INLB PROPRTI

169

s 1(i3
ldl

4 c s . m nr un b n u m rl n \p mD L t J ;h tr o .rt. or: . rV e?i S ,i JJ InF\i .r.nta articolului)Num ele p ro p ri i i ft t /J In s s ry -' , r ul d. t.t,i ,t,dt.. \i dp" i pri mp.. . t t t i' oJ ul hat 0t i l . a l d pl urrt. ..u ,e i uLsrarti L. " i n d s r' r i n trc b u i n :a c or unp. qiu , i n d ,l r I !d r i , u l f i z A e ,l a n dc," rmi n. n (d" i but ..pr ot oz i, i. . r r j b u ,i !r. .p , z i l i e q ,r t,o p o ,/rl i F apo/;ti var.

Rogul[ ge[erald Numele proprii cu formi de singulor,prin faprul cd reprezintn u n J n,pln r up,...0u prin,rs.arti,ol,.t lt o t a rr. . , " . . . " r! in J i" n f u a

166

..o m uno ?s im ilarp l o r' n a mb ri i fj l n ,i ti a i . p e rsoa' ptp apropi ate c ..t Fothpl Mathcr, Mummlt, D&dcl1J, Aunt, Uncle, Bab!, Cooh, N uise, Teacher erc.l.

1) Numeleproprii ile prrsoauesau animslc, lmpreundcu substanti\el.

Lrc:La s-p ,lrr.on $Jef d' ; , , n' , r ur I o. df i. r - r . r ' s , . . , . oI iald I n r , r n , t l i : u o f a t . n L
:olv' fb rra i m.r'" .|") z i: . s o_, d ". "1. o p, J b p, ' ar ; ,\ru at ?: t nl0lPnt s t r nt l. !ci. $ 4 44 -1"0, 45i- 1Ljr . i- 24. i! 6. , I dt"pt-.e.

r,ton : carticrd;n t.ond.a, c.t€bru lcn1ru reslarrartete s{lc cu tr!.nfiLrie shnnri p;..ottiu!lprrJ',irtr'drr tp,L d.., ..n,1, .rm" I Lir, . ., !ia|;t!!t Ci,'.s
ua".\. I J.: Oiaa

AETICOLUL TTMARTT

IOI

ntr au articol la singular,nu au piurui sj so scriu cu inil,ialn rnaiusculx (VeziS 301):
Is ?,, on ihe Fa.iorY ConmiU.ee? Aucudus JohL'{ "$rasliq DiX" Iaigs in the Tate Galle.y r-i4.r. (Jolin) didn'l. !irg up yPsterddy. Tell Croft Urc .anteen hnoh is nt lhree todal. Diil ?ld.l.. call lhe .oU? s",ofty is a wise cat Aceeagi conrport,rre !i la yocdlitr

$ 46{;

I shun'l,Ire a ti\in\tl., IIunvL!/! Daggi:'. tet.n lhc bulll llar.'s a good boll

n;scut din recesiiater S 467 Numele tle faDilie este d.'fapt un .leternrinanl de e se particulariza prenumele lvrzi L,f:girea rumelor scolicne, irlandezP. scandinal-eetc.. care 4,, pfetir.rt lr prtruncle strnbunului flAnuldi. ir sco dl lui.. l, ial in in irlande,r a)' (-,/) t(desr,erdent) liann ,4{d.sar,11d(= 1i,,1. fl. . lui...). Astlcl t"lacDanaLd:: scandinavnsuti\ul .ttrr sau -s.,n (:liul descendenlul Ir11 Donakl: O'Do oea : dercerdenl,ll irli Danomn Chrislo' : dscenden-tii lui Chrislopher. prrersron sau Chri^'tophercen hot6rlt numele proprii care au pierdut caracterul de s 468 Primosc articolul unicitate: a) numele proprii cu formi de plural: $ 469 Concert ai the Loldon PlildDonic Orchesira the BroaasandilE Sttuhhs We me!, DJ numele proprii dc.renite substa tile comune ($ 7)i I was dnvins the ALslin: aulomolilul (cu marca Ansit').

s 470

Wc l o L t h? t ; lads t a1l,b .' r) o " 0 u " c l o l l ,p . ( c p a r dnl e .l l . ,,l o u l d p C ausui nj ^ Di d 'ro u s po r t u Ca, s l rr_ a l rh - r.' r" She ;as sitiins on- the chesleiictd (- canapca).

cJ numeleproprii particularizaiepdntr ur) atribut, sau pdntr'o propo- S 47r uilie atributir.i; dc un at but,: substantivprecedaL
tljt ..I.bNted John Gdls{orthy the /dtuB llrs. Sidilons

substantiv urmat, de un atribut:
I conld h.trdlv rDcosnize the Bd.ltarelt I didnf rike ile Opihelis ," the nad.rt o/ p.eaat ddys ier;ion of th; ptay.

substantiwurmat do o propozilie atribuiirn:
Tho r\m 1 nonirZ nds not tbe -{Dtr t had ntust in ny ch'ldhood Thc Tentrs /ou sd{ wus the (alll}Jsiin Ictu8.

Erceplii Substani.il'eleproprii praccdaie d€ adjective ou rua li afectjvi, srtu de cuvinte care constituie o poro.l:i sau e:rprimd o singurd idee nipreuni cu substaniivul. nu prinesc articolirl holnril (Vezi $ 433):
31' \i darl , j \Io n ' f. d '' !. "n. Eoo l ll J ^ . s . poof lr l l . \ n n r n u 'r '. . \ldy. bnv e liub, i llaod. por r f I ' rJ/ r lo,r. dry r rr n' " " i r s,lint Joa ,,, Yo ,,n" f'4 ' 1. oU 11^ B, oN ' \: ,,ri. , ""i r.;;;;. \t;d;1;o,F"r:. 5rd-d:sri.' I n F,ns'dno:i .ij',q:'" _ **' " "ii;l " R orna,,iJn li 4"4r..r , . o loq. ir l E, ' 11 . h. n, "dipldl S 'h i u . J "", I A -8..:, Ed " Jt ,l t.\, ," t a19_t ' , ; t , t i t , . r r i s r r r op o f l g r nu . r r . : J im i, , L ' . , ' d: \ f i 'p s

S 472

102 473 Cind nune.le propriu este ur at tto un adjeftiy sau de un substantiv apozitiv care constituieo ?ofccln. arli.olul precedi porecla:
Iolit n Creail (lhnrles lk /tdl.lr Fl.\a dtlFaor t . . . . i /" \,.-

s 1i4 s475

Erceplii: John Laclil.tnd6, Edward /,onXrr(rAr' 2) l{umele prop i lnsolite de tiUuris. - TjtlLrr;le (de politele. prolesiG nalc, aca{lemice.nobiliare etc.) urnate imediat de ur nune de persoan:, prln laptul ce au un caracter dc unicitate. nu sin,, artjculate (Vezi S53-54):
Niss smith

Colonel Brown Q,E€r M.b loctor Rolinson tiin.c Cl,a.mila C,rnr, Gonzalool Lara 176 Etcepgii. lililurile striine (Empffor, En cst, SxltdD etc.) au articoL :
thc Arthdule Ftatz Ias.t //,e Ca.itto llan,. -rl R6hid ()zdr,1 Pcter ure Grenr f,te,

Canstr ctii perimt e: ,na ladv ]Iarion. tte ladv Roscna. 'Imarry,/irnrl"lail].,\nn;'flirl,ard111de$'.Shatespen.e)1';rlELordRisin ln Tl,. Bla'k Arow". fjlm 'r\ Titlurile pdmcs0 iI,sE arlicolul lofdrii atunci irind i.si pierd caracterul de $ 478 urricitate ssu ctnd stnt tnsotite de determinanti: o/ rnrur e rnra nDmp pronrrl

477

s

fie .,L",/ illlectcd the tloopsZle do.l,/ \rar s.nt l.r. The lt4i4eht .rddr.ssed thc neeling.

480 481

D) titlurile la plural sau urmate de mlme proprii cu formir do plural:
The Mbs Btoons (s a d,d r1t;ssesA.o.rtrl lived ncxl dcor.

c, titlurile prccedatede un adjertir sau urmat.odc prepozilia ot: ,n, ,/ar. ,{dmirnl Ncisotr r/'., X,,,srI D.nD{rk
rld s*e Kjng Solonon
7i. Pri(:! \\:rles '/ o/ lh4 riollcge rne Prcsidcnl to i]1c tlronr.

482

Cird tnsi Lii,lulurmat, de o/aro lurclir de apozili€. articolul rln seexp md:
&lwad, P.ta., ,/ Il-a/cs. snllerdcd

r Iadn I ('ul llIdr.') 1135i-t433\. fpqe rl Porhiqrlil,i llrli l1]31. , CdtuI I I'ccl rlla,?;) (82:-sti). rcr1i Nt Friniei lr4rl 8;1. .ci.sub n!mete de C.trol Il. Imptuat al Shitul lmDerni Ro'nan isti-tt7:].
,tt t,otr,.'.

rd .d

'ttevic 5 AitL drd L lninil t t e 2. , irn .ird, r rr.i, Ir1 ll6'lao ttt.d. sf n,^ i

r"f. s ou' I 00i liaris(t rul, tiriti

o o o r d .ld

I

_ cd t cr a t- .

ln, i6. - r \ -li.i l1: de r,ortnlalia 11tj1i4-1i6it.

l 't , i,roNrlo.

al crrtori:dtor

( 115i- 119! 1. r eg e a l l n g l i r , i l t t s 9 lTlr j r, "l li i \'91,.lll ljlu.,

t1!!):nhatlrtc ^"..,mna. \ligno

lfd a I l: ^. t 110- r i. il A :. i '1 0 : . . . r , . r c ) i lll linsLnt rsrr t.r.r. 1 , , I r lr nJ r P lunc r . " \ sri @mlara cu S 4t6. .t.1 r' dI r . i q ir . v t . ' r.../ r ' ns ii L. t th st Na r . r i , , . o, ". , "not.l. ,,, ,. ;",, r r or r oq- r j ,i r!.. s.,u ,-. ,l Cilatul ale srroarcri ljnitii lli Siiik$po:or, dur rnj e nri !u roCll pfntN otito.ii . .

l 0B

-

3) Numirile geogreficc. pd ' r; ' / . r' n n ' irr' n ' Fl5 rr' r" a ) S ut.r ,' r i "l e " arc n'rn,'" ;n'nt !i !. In ' L ra) (\prr J e i : mrrn l r :r eiu n i . p rov ia" ii. lo. dlir' i ri d i ' l ri '
,,t . ir , a r u f or r n r L l " .i u e Il a r tttl rr \\' ' ' s lur oD"

$ 483

s 484

jii,:1"'

s frr.o r: R

i .i," i i ,,r,'" ii'r;1""#il;;!"
EtcepliL ,ne -{rgcntii.l ,le coDEo rne Ltvant r/r PalntrDaie

)'ro )'i,,'
iiiil*.;,,,",.".

!"#:li,'.'"
southrari.nsington
$ 485

' ndP st

forni

de lhuat si t arlif,dste cu ariicolrrl hotirit:
r / "' I os , , r r .

"r
Obserra!LL

r- ,'

,i' riir'",

"" rr' H i rh l d t, ;i ;: j _ ;;' ;,r. it | llanJq

,. i -

r /, P \ l ! "

l/" Bil

t" L' JmP dr' r, . I norn," rlP R o' kres

l," L" vi' s

r' 8"

'

' ' FI btd l ,r orkn I

d'

srticolul chiar dac[ au formd de siltNumele Sirurilor ile munli primesc jhe-P nninp (hoin' euf*r rlr" -frir.. tbc fa" o'r" B "rnod lit]de St Cathord Jdn.[]au'theS! "--Nr."t.alrei rrunli:fhc 'in'

$ '186

articulate. mnri, estuare' S 487 , ) Substantivelecare numesc intinderi de dpii (oceane, riu )'p mescarticolul hotdrtt:
/ne (Elglish) Channer ,r, Nile

Notd ari'icolul nu este exprimat ina- S {88 in cazul suLsl,antirelor proprii corrTlrse, j?l: i ;nr""'run 'lo" cr qr.l- dF rru L '/i \ Strailord_on'{eo' Newcas|e_otr_?,nd Burroucn_r".,r '\ t de un I'unrc S'189 lLrmdte-imcdis tnount|ad rdl.. Iakelloth. c) Substartivele ' ' r\Flr cltt': afllrol S ptopr', un r " dpo/iliP ltu au ""u 'on

'

-''J;;

C apc Con averJl

rr'r.'..r

r ,r"r',n,t"".'r' ll;lill :,";'i' I oc h Lonr und

ll;:' l"'. '

Cind sint, lnsd insolite {te Un atrlbut, e\e slnt afii''nlate:

S 490 S agr

del'€rminat de u3 nu11 a,/ tll genere, cirr{l uIL slll]slon1?ltomdn este rr' i\ul 'umu'' ntooriu ta{t; 'd\ ^F nr)J-t)t'1"r" ,'a":d/"r's'Fruid'qub (""i'ii""t"",,';t'i"r' nu"'.rr it 'ub;r'LalFb: , u" '',"
rne Rasqre Prolinc.s r,{. llirrhiz stepre rrP str;i ts D .t errrts

i:;i';i::*'[ii:"*'

i*ilf:ljfim"

I St slnne iNr

-lrs€rl'rd'

?yDl, lrderai. tn -\ustria.

104
rr, Strait ol Gi!.alta. r/p town of GuildLord

,ttd tohemie Fo.csi I t / k ) US S R
tl, Saharlt (Des.ftl

$ 492

ErceplrL htrbnn hat"n' ,hill't ldnd' ball fitth hcaL fni'l'.'fs( Substantivele nu 3u rrtrcur(rezr sau c"rnurre' pL n'rn]P rle preie<tate rrrriiorg,clnd stnt 'prii

s 4 33) :

'on; nsprtrite rctnLnilor si alr /tin'rc art'icolul c$dinate punctetor N umele .) { '- 4$3 hotnrit,:

liil;i",fl;il .;,1;i i;;:i

.: Fllr".l r'-'" t i'ro''

)ll"lil 'i"i''" r'dnd

""''' ''',," n,:n'u, vijro,u: :;t,h.,,,1, !:. ljll,;;:,tli;"1:t,,:.;':]lL'l; "h'i'"ll;,,'f"J"",1'l; "1H:1',"-r"ll*lll'il * r.d- cs,i.n,, ;,l'i";,'i 'J,,T'',I";i,i; #ii*illj"stXli.;l;,,f 'f'""'",*k
Er ce Pt.i i idl ariltind dircefia' .1, numelepunctelorc'irdrn e i l'ebuinlate ddltf E 494 " nu au ortjc^l(\rcziS 49r)l
o. ' ' I h" wir d hlo\ . u' r ' \ ' \ ' P NPr ' dr ' \I)'

S 495
$ 496 I fol

de t'iput $ 602: b, in expresiile
We lcouleil the woo{t lrom io so"r 'or'i and l.nd e'Jt to 'ves''

4) Nllmele d0 strtrzi, parcuri, elidiri' vapod'rc etcnb'tdnttu rr'rrm-prnpriu"ru rom:^ I' i"t' iormaiedin (tot'.'r d, 0un,elF ' i ' rrru 'rrt Jrri'ulire p*' i"ii:'"'o1'6"1' '" .omu4 rd sr' "/. tq*' (Vezi S 433):

il;:. F;i iir,,l*i-" Rri;r;il;";1""* Er'"',:;F"'.y"''l iij;i;;i,.i;;,1 kl l,i,ll;''

lln*iili"
s 498 s 499

i: :i'i:r"f: Y:rirr;r,r
,d \ationdt oallerl

tnsi articolul hotifit: ,) Drimesc nn trntne cotnan: l,;.;'nu'r'"tc proprii formaie dintr-urr ridi"liir +
l/P Zoologic{l Cad€ns

:flll',;'l,;'fill.l'l'"*,i]l'"'l'i'',li""iii;"i?l'f,ii,l:llTi*;i[:'!"]"' ^* lon(ronez. '"""1 fri,'i"'ii"f;,i!.",," rer.rerar|io,,

AFTICOIUT

EO1'AR1T

105

E a c e pyi t
nr oad S rre e i tsrondwaL Suburlan Pari! 6'.,1 nnele nume de cartiere, stdzi. cA $fi foorle ctnoscutel tne ndoiralty tnd CFnotapti -Arch rn" Cit.vr ,nd Mallr rn€ Mansion HousC li, l\Ionnrcni ne Str{nd lp l-owc' ol l.ondon rn. Tare tGrllefri tlk 7no clddiri, nanumente eIc., prin

faptul

S 600

,l@ Adelplv (Tlealrel ,n? -^ldttrch lTheafei frlP/ DnrI Lane iTheatre) /n . Ol d Vi e ! i Theadel rle Cccil (Hoidl) rne savov (Hot€l)

dar ldrd arlicol, d.s; loartc cnnoscurc (\ ezi $ 433): $ 60I Pall Unrl?.Co\.entcardens.Soho,Irdgrarir!, Unyiair'. 5)d),I'unrel" d,./ilp.tuni.sfii.cnotimpuri.birbnloriau o situariesporrp. q S0, . AcFsrF rLt,strn r\o sint | proprii.dF,i IUn,., uni.Htp. na ar, in g.n"re _ 9i articol (Vezi g 433):
t1 ,t n rd 1 y . ., On l^ r'r, r ' 4. t n. b tttd i ..) r;6 " d r.d .fi n p t,rt c U rrdl l i c. '.r,. a J u .. 4 r i s -rtr mo . ,;ro rrs c,sIi \a' i n ,hF r S A . i Y"1. r-,"* rkd r/ r ' la 2, lr , - r . . | \ r!r.r l tt.l J fto .t .i i th a fo r. ,t!, ,, To r u. i. , u c \ . . pr i F tF -H rti ,o ri . .ubsrsn,i v.tp dF n,ai s us q i n r n .n, r dLr t r [ r , r , ,l a .i r,r.,t:,.i D , ,l a i d \n i pl u,, L pra rL, si an;^l hot iri t sa u nehot iiiit . du p i c u m ' u r;;a z a : ctnd articolul t,tc are valoare de adjectiv ilenonsi,rativ. se spune: The (: tLdt ) artunni Nrs noautiiut. ll-c sha]l go io the s.asidein rt, ( . rib) sumniq. cind substantil'ul nu erprimn rirrlut jn rtjpori ru prezentul: On ,c X loiidal l, e wJ,i t0 w o rk a s l s L a l .

I'-'^L -il t .p\ ! i'l un r r:, 1" , r s i' r.

S 608

S 504

cind arLicolui eslI intr!hLrinlat .l,lrrasii\ |
Those werc his p,tstim.s in ttg witLtr; it th, s,r,na, :C . \ o! tj,'.d . , r..,.r nf used io .nI",r r m pr . , r , , . . . . r b. ", : ^. . . i, r : I.i ri .,.-;,r.,,'J.. h, ", \ d, . . r . , , r

$ 606
d,11 maj\,.hpa

. . * , ; ; ", ' .?rre M.l'.,t.o,,\:. r ..s a La dr L .' Lo nd .a.

., a

. t u, , t i r . 'd r u i

n , , \ i n g '. s m . r c e ,J . n l o

*"r.":'li ltJ;h';'"'i. "*"c :p,rJ'jl,t*lil*
3 .lS :

*redinla l'rjncitr) a ro(h']rni (rhr Lonr lljn'iarar Londrei

erl.#lrJ',;;J,''j1"ilfXi'Lk"^:t&::^:),:l!,ll,Xi""li'iiili""l,"i,,ifffi,' ,i ..r".r rr,;rFsp. afp.r" f , mJ.r' 'po,' .rid dp r . ar; ,r"
'5'. ".
stfarship. ttto :stftn J'o r.on / jc pt ! br apan r . . t r i" , , , loll u Fvrp lrd r I m b"ilor , lubur it ^- . t , ' \ \ . . . P 6 F] ' P F llm4. i.,,..5rr,iI,ror,uIr.d,rre^t4 Enr.,a-"Lro. ,, r..Lrl nrll

,i;,i;""ifi,:1 ,"Iijiii" !",r;":;iirj':,:d1t",,, cii-d : .";; ,; J:r;''1;;;;i1,;ljj',t[r
I Belsta,ia, .MalJfait :

i'"+

\:

;i:l' :ll; ,ir ;i,]l"ir'rl ";;:i:

rdnsnrm' a '" imn",

N{ijcre

trxodsc aristoc.ate.

100

MOE'OLOGIA _ AA,TICOLUL

506 cinil aceste substantive Elnt pdrticularizate printr un otribdt' lhp' "" ot l]F H' lPil s'm''shrroi'alty' lr th"u *.f tC4t.L,n:n;r; si'hsrnod
01 t helv " d,a s d a u l a l l av i a s . h ' ,1 ,n I' o m.. ; 0; pcn^fo1..\i sl d i l ri " l .usl i p In c , c i, r . l in. d a ,l s ta s u b s L rn l i f. ^ u l ntP l P . p ri !F:l e anol i mnrrl ' r no:runP sau .u rn l o rb i r^ ru l p rif i, ia ar li. nlul u i . d u p d lron Osloto AthcDs ln 19t9. rlD QtD,,. hail becnte.riblei sno{ }tad fal1cnin masscs par aliz P d C o rti n € n l . o t th e m dc h aDd sls stow to .ome. rhe suine Sudd6nlr-srrtag ws there in ali its berDtv' pE Lel osoti t r 1. / A f li. olul n c h o l l ri l p ' l F i n l c e b u i n Lar ' i nJ. sub' l anLi \11 tat e x ..p l rd Part! tu . , n . tl l i fi ta t;1 . c u ,;" :t ddj- ! ir by an iataaeiv @ruNinter' Tlrafyear \te hail s lotdr! atr,linn, fol1ow_"d it-i; now kt. ptn,e'. About this liare last ,1-cdir rvasalrerdv da'! s!"'s deratc iz dasr.d.rL, jlo lt n' i" : {Consi-

b sio 50 9

t

i'i-"i" luniior si ',rbslorilur tc s'riu "u ;ni!;ulu 1-ojus'rln dal 'ii"r"". au inilidl,' 'ninu. ul3. (\'czi c\.mplP mei su.). nun,rt" anotimDurilor \,rm.l" zihlor, luoilor. aDolimpL,rilor Ei b.rbalorilorpol €\'er inoa,4/rr_ p dupi cum pol JrpA uoeorrEr p/drdl rot n hota l cind limpul n"dofinil.
*d O1 a S,!../d a i D D e .p mb rf,I te l l ." u d d p n l Jt ' d up ar l h" i dra ol ' l l l } P del ' nroi and aecidedto enjo': I Nci teor's Et in the nountai's bv ";;;,i-Gi"',, ';t;

611

limbilor vorbite alepoloar€nu au xrticohl hotdrlt cu-exce-ptia 6) Numele lvezr exprimst sau subin!€l€s lnsolite de un substanti\_ cind sint cazurilor g 433):
M v naii\ e t o n a u ei s n o mn i n \ v hai is t ai f tl a y i n -F .e ,.l ' r r ; if dr . s la t.d l b ; b o o k l ro m c " n o " i ^to Lnsl i sh'

! 5r2
513

Se spuneinse:
Is t6e nnalashlanstdsp rerY difficultl lYhat js r'? nou a"-id,i arlm;., tof frir Irlav ? Itun the'Busion ltdncuds") t ii"i" iiia a noler l.rdn5rarPd

7) Iiumcto obic.ictorde 6iudiu.alF jocurilor r'i il' lporlurilor nu primcsc arlicold Lotirll dcci' alunfi cind brnt p"rli'ulariTdt' pnult-un alrrbut (vczr
I 14 ErcE .iigav*d ,e;nis,sheiiayed otussand t'olh walchcda some or il" *ii r6"i "i had a oharce. thcv when ,iu;o'd! "-*'ri"i,iijii"-*1r-iti; pubricrvoe /oor,ail'c.;cir't,hocte!,stvinminsetd st@lins Se spunctnsn: al n"b' lr" \a r.s d look on t lF. t , "nis ' . ! l.a nn o ro "S t t eht llt n llo: J l- hnlny : . rl qibi0 lunil'

s 28):

aPh!

len;sL 4

atdain'

rtr

511

8) NrIIIcle ziArclor au articol ltotirit: Ob*ret, Th' Dailv ToleTh. 'l'nnes.The Cua lidn, Ttv Ne*s Chtuai'L' TILe Nunele nagaziDelor 9i ate altor pcriodice nu au articc'l (: inexistenla ariicolului): Lif.' Nees,eek'r%ue' etc' lunch, Tine, Language,
araPh, eic,

ARTICOLUL

TTdARIT

10?

ALTX FUNCTn -{Ln ,{R"IC0LUIUI EOTilt lT
1. i ,.1 rl lr u l, r it i, , " or" .' ..i _ r ! : .: : 5 d pr e( €ada:
the Bi? Fiset

s 515 s 516

i l rp p d tl i ,l p !o rb i rc tn afsrE dF.ubstA nti r.

I numeralulcaxdinal intrebuinlat cu valoarede substantiy:
tha Eboea'

: Dumemlulordinal (la date, capitole,leclii, nume alemonarhi etc.): S 6U
th? f4t \on \lr(h rl" /:rl lne 7,i ot November hp thnit chaotel th" !"nth teBsin Edward the nilh

), t r u

1

par t . to l tti ' .. a 4 . r.p n .. I;n e . p d ? c, numbq etr. grrcatr . 31". -d p t rE la- 'd -L u l . ' df p. in dc F s t , d z . F q t. n u mp ro h rl ra rd i n a l cu val oare dc ai ozi rre: T\i" is Aoat T@. ahaptr Sp'"n: L?ssanSu, ro OE-

-\ se obsen'alipsa articolului hotdrit atunci clnd substantivele AorA. 1' s ot t .

s 518

i,;i"' ::i' rg il:r,j"l:,i:: :!,:;L' i:,,ff:; ::"i,:;.:!:". La hot€l: Floor 5, room 51.
{Vezisi S 1lie)

:\ ota

2

L ri udliil" din g i00. iOJ. i04. ',06. tbt,p,te o icotd.nrcwttuir. tr:i h .' A rom;ni l:,,1...a. ,ai..Flp. e.Fl(a).ace{e)a r-r etc.).Iapr car" "rat" arrqrnProltrcolulurhol;rif.

s 61$

*)L -

: un odjcetir, cnruia ti dd asrlcl caracterulrte subsLantivabstract: g 520 . .,a | .ulli lul'. /r, b ou!;[utl ttJr|o tt). th" ip ffobt. (: inefat .tbitrd ,t. tl,".or.t t ". t l, I . ht t r

-

*
-

pi'" r"tt,r . .' i..: ;'! .,,, ,,,,; i.T..,l/.-,:;,,,,'::,::::!,i ^t:" j ,t:; ,'",!!i ,';^.ui. 1o
,,,f .:;.i r ..i l l .j','",' :;, Ir,lliY ':'1''t"t " d r' . t , ' o ' h l. t h p , t " Ma d

u',adirctir. urr parliciliu, un gerundiv etc.l care capiti in aceasti \ 69l ,lF .uD.rsrtr\ ,.ote.tr\,.a,btruit .u plu"alul.rar un singular: '

lf t ! t !

pt r .

1:'.,,i'ii"":*,:f;ii':,.fi1,,1',1",l1j#'frr:#;,#,#:* ','eri dttarii S itn ! huticeh d\ubetic, ia cuyn(ul SUBSTANTI\.AT) "'ff"{,*{i.i:'1iJ,"."".
;. eomparatirul, cind acesta are yaloare do poziiiv sau de superlati!3i ptir]' tE youuter, Hc is /le utc.r al tlic two.

S d2g

iJ suporl&tiyulrclativ:
She is llr atcrs, of aL Lti.i is tte le6t totkal ae tutiridual I e\t r\et. Ee I 1|e Mst iatarestins man I L\ow. L r: ccle ciD.i ita -" i. Sr \ . \ ldFJ 0i, dnip. I r dn,a . t l t i a , i J a ! n n i . , rizboi nrondi.rlsi .lr la nllf inla { e PaLc de la Pr f is , r ! 1 9 . I rh " c1 .* n = - e, t , , br deCo lns!.ezccc jucltori (ta so..e/, ..ichet, hachai eLc.). : \ rzi E tr ' r .

s 523

E:1-l

108

,,24 :l ;inif; #"l.lil;;#l;i,l"ffi{;,?',',!fl"##ITj111 7,1,:,: o ",., Iitere naru''ltrro -5'- """'cu uneori i",i;":;":;i;
tu"''i*'.]u*'",,*r}.*i"oT'*'i*i;l"liihl"|'"*eH"'""i o ** r iivar""i'idi"r"tl#fli:i':",i""'i'H e'rccrd' ) ^'eai"ar.

s bsb

$;zri
R it li

ew 11, ' ,h.'bo"' :,";j::::;,.,"..p.,h" ",:."1;lpl:,"I^"':,ll,l:1;:l; l":'''#';"'i"i.i.l,i,'"1"11,"",,'u.-se B:l",l'llfll anLedoariz onoli,.lne ra id fi e n n d e m o t
9 r \ ar r P oat "

i,,:"Ili'.:l:"*,;j.,1,;";l',1:l'

;;l;"1J'"1;'$' ;:r l;'i' u,,,,,,,, l;,;;:; h;'lS "Xt;:";:l);" i r vo" I'i'* o'r ro' lll'ilrl:'0,1:;'"J'';l'fi j ::,1;1"';":"1'1"''l' uu" -, ,'' lt-i;:";l; "' "* *;r;1 -'"':

ur" j'; :;'J "'''i'; J i;;; "Y:;'"iiii:'l'liJ; 111 .;. ilinl ii ;tll''r:i

"" 52s ,"','.", "u.* 'iirrr,li"j'"" $ '1"';.; i,ri:"" "' 'TT;'l*i^"" "

tt'r*' " {x:,:,^:"','::"'':'%' zi-

s6ss "alf'*;"f*H:lTgl'*"""T o.1 ll f^Ul"il;r""" s,rup*'I ll l:jli'"li"l'::llli,i:'*r,ffi;:lli.l'l:'; - -. €c""nru]"";',i;i";"'"""i;;"'";np [;rI cindcdP-",,]
iJi"'""l,r"t .a.'rnui cu'nnsodDerer: .i tntrebuinl"rza l r""i.it"t. "1":,.::l"i'::"i"' " "" a "rfl"' aspiraLaqi "'l"r""i''- ''" ::i;i""' I :li, ^ alrnsl:';:i" ilili",," "'"' se lntrd t'" nl nad 'antualr

rr" :i " ' r"r"fll#iliiil;i.i;"io'u ,l il'i"'"
An {ptonunla lsnl 'lnd
a 'nvelole ' ' ' rrrr--

c'r" t"'""i't

U'

ro nd ddo b a 'r'! dd ct'

*it$r,i-i

';i;; 'd "1 -r ' '!'iil.::i"i:i,lti .iq i;:;l;lllr

E\'Pzi P:rg 9: . noir r ' 6\'e r 5 !1 7, nor a d

*l

r ddv"rb I r;;r,'i: i',i";; ";i;"'r roar" "'Jr'

"il " ll"'lli;*'"

' rhis 'n'irs14i'

109

Forma dn era freovedt inlrebuinlatn ;i inaintea unui i aspirai in silabn neaccentualiij astdzi mai rar. Istfeli
u r his t o ry d a .: a' habr L
a rhdo

$ i):J1

az hrs toricat picture ar ha,hihral dnrnkard aa h€r.oic selgeanL dz hYs terical child u, he rediiary ilhess guilarist aa Ha *aiie

Tot asifel so auzea pin5 recent:
dD ho iel

aa hy ' P o i n e s B

lnhiL qi lero, prima siiabn fiind prea pulin ln subsrantivele 'hLstorlJ, accentuatd, sunetul[h] era atit de slab inclLnu se auzea. E x c ep 1i e : a Hun'gdridn. 2) Articolul nehotdritti plurilul. - Articolul nehotirii, neputiodinsoli $ 539 prim€sola plural ardcrtu, decit subsbantivele cu sensde singular,acestea :4ro, cu alte cuvinie ln aceastisitualie articolul lipsegtei
Hc is a ba!l..

3) Articotul nehotirit $i o oonshuotio cu lormi alo plurol. - Articolul nehotdrit exprimi unitate; poate tnsd tnsoti o constructie ou formd de llural re exDrime o misurd si este consideralil ca un tot unitar: A /o&. rudtu is sullici€nlto eet this work ilono. \Te spent3 ?i!asaa, ,rde dass in the country. Thesh.v wa DostDoned for tutuer r@ ,raks. (cf. $ 2i5t) 4) Articolul nehotdril, nu se lntr€buinleaze declt ou subsiantivele numerabile, nu qi cu cele nenumerabile,care nu p mesc ariicol nehoi5rlt.

S 533

$ 534

I\TRER IiI\ fA RE \ \R I.ICOLULU I : \ E HO T A RI I. inarntea subsianiivuluipentru a r\rticolul nehotirit se tntrebuinleaze specie sau cat\oriel rn erenpldr a.Lrecdre d,intr-o desemna
\' lh"sljtl-m" PLr ls r oddv on/ , . , l rrie rs d rnr.ro $ooae .P.o.'/ M/s Stuill has called. -{ pr lddFm ll d " d t h " l l o o f .

s ;35

Caznri specialo, - Articoh

nehotdrlt este intrebdin at gi tn urmitosrele

$ 53? S 638

l) ilnaintea ti urilor, a numelo. de Troftsii, mcscrii, nalionalit,te sau a lllor subsLunlilre simillfF. .lnd a.ac ad ronrpzinti e\^mplnreoare.arcdiotr-o categode Si sini numo predicative cu formd de singular:
Sl\e b 4 student. She became @ t€a.r./. (Este sla]entd.l lS a l[cut p,,/as,d.d.) 1l G o L o , t . I, r ' t r ' d H" .vs d t,r,. ( Xs ' " & i : / r . l t - :ctosra psa" ti. n. qFf ld. I an Easlislnnan.\ (Snrl ^n ,nsl,: )

rospectiveDu aLr arlicol. A se observa ci, in limba romAni, subsijnnl,iveio (Vezi$ 60.414 41r)
"pu"" ".ri"oi.S" ln*{,1"Dnslish pt:ntn t'n tintltih csle trn adiecii! ii a{lFctiwl nu e

1IO

MOEIOLOGITI

_ ARTICOLUL

S 539

O bse r a a lie abslracl Areleaqjsubstantile,cir,d au caracterde uDicilatesau ln.teles D u r b i.i '11 "r i ula'. ({ ,"1.;84/:
af the 'Itude(s) Unian. lle Nas elecl.ed He had be€n Headnastet "rdident ol trton lor seteml vea$. Dickjnson Nas ,razag,/ ol tht Norks. This book is nv John Soith, k.tei.. ta rnslislt. She sot . job as 'an.cas. He acted, as idetpteter. Hc held thc olTiceor sd..'ra.?. He $ns awarded the .ank ol .,roaar' Ile had l.dned soldte,r. lve Inet Uiss Shalv, !iargn,e.' ol the celenrated writ€r.

S 540

af' the af' the p(ttlrcle of, the prafession 2) dupi cuvintelethe l)usiness
He vas ncring the ?dtt of a judge. IIe had lbuos'ed the 1ra.tcaf a pouer' 3) inai tea numeralelor hund,red, thousan(l' millian, dozen, score: A hundred I a tl@usanl.etc- Inen altended ihe shor. 1 bonght a dazenhandke.chids. There-we.'" a s.oft ol leollc prese l al tho airport. 4) haintea cuvintelor l;lll, Ei /er, exprimindu-se in acest mod aproape

$ 641

S " 542

(-$ 687) pe careil au-aicste cuvintecind slnt nearticulate coniririul inlelesului great afl good manA, lat nan!1 locuJiunilor adjectivalc 543 5) inaint€a S TU' r :
A rcatt no ru r ' hpLc { r " A;rc"t n dn T ' lD! f " iir "s n"l \;.o .ld,,ri.i,; d. r , , r. pJ r t in J '6 l . m o 1 s t J d l i o n . l. . a iuloFo b v l h l n P o r n . h 'i r p n b p n d . I n l l " r o a J . ' , q s , r "a/ or ,; l

s# 4

6) dupe adj€ctivele lrecedate dc sa, as, too, lnwl haoeaoi
Shc is nol so qxdlilted a rorlrd as l:on Thev moved ro as ni.e a ,,rse 3s yours. It is 1aoltiflicutt an .xuci,e. IIa, p.rfect a oi.$ ! Iloee;er ttutLfal a sil lsl\e mar be), this finc she told m€ a ]ic. (l\tp:d nan!, quite, ralher, urmate alc un substantiv cu folmx de singulari 7) Manu ax ttallb lds admired Ure Danube De]ta. Thel \rere nllotted quilc a aic. haue. Sne \s rath., a dcar.

S 546 S 547

Idionul rzanrr o se construiette cu verbul la singular.4 8) dupn oifi"at, sLtch li Nhat (€\clamativ), urmate de un subste.ntivcu formi de singular (cu sau fnre adjeotil'), deci num€rabl, carepaate tnsd at,et) plwali
He broughJi me a senl eithtut d bult. Such a bilrla\t pifatnarcc $as lo ]rc e$ected of a yaruiiy cha.opion. .t4.1 u scatt€Fnrainedcandidatc! trhat an ided ! I;t .d, a magniliccnt a.hbftnenl t\e Danrbc Black Sea Caral isl

n lon Dlir d", o s r d p " J i F . f 4 r m d . d d l i 'o l lr'd rr ic ol d nn . t ho d.u lnkl./'.... .!, p o . , m pr d " r I r m J l ". l, , , , nu, , lu r i t . d i n D r , , i n " d . u s r | o r : , l o *o d t r F , lor m r r lr r t uli' nl p. l . s , n g l r " l l t e b u i ; l n L 1 . dpccse.lr.l, p prtru . on' , / F s-vo nu i o nud , i l , t . 1 1 r J ) i d . 3 , p " J p s r p l 1 l . u i 1 . l u stt s on. : \ ' r ' r , &' "- " r n on! - . s utldr r \ ?lDt r ! ' u \ "r ou t . I p l t t d . M o n ! N n @ " . . . slil. l "olo ri,l | \s4 ul,. rfaln s i. i r tp"n oa tips t.Bahet. or lnd: I dn! , 8( n) lhr t i 6 e 'p

r ClndcstcInsl hsoiit de un ahibntsesFne: in €'.euent ekli.d, elliat ol fottune ^ (d. $ 45r J. ' l n r d n ', lForn r

111

:\r[ico]ul n€hotiril nu cslc_insi expimat cind cuvirtele mai sus-menlio- g b48 nale (8) precedi pluralc sau substantive care nu au in rnod normal formi de ' plural. deci nenunerabile (nume de matcrii, substaniire colecLivcqi anumite substantiro abstracte): .rfar caDnoL lire qithnrt ft;ends.
\ li' ing .f.sanis', shP s J - u / / , o \ olnr't : f F . r inL c a no t tr st 't t"o tt fa o d . d r r r .q r n .lh a r t,n tt,6 .a m.

,Sz.ft loyelr Seplenbcr dals I o n d o ' t l, a I r ' r . p. " ,./i ,.\a L i l . ot,t " rt,c/. .u \ 'n- . uk th . c o l l L tl , L ,ri n Wc had szd, lunl It&ar interesl,ingl.]k danca ! What tinc rapet ! l vh a t g ood r ; s ; It hnt t,oLbl. !o\ loot : oind adjectil'ul snci este precedat, de ro,?c aau ro, ori ci4d {ridf €ste adi F. li\ i n 'e ro gar i\ . s ub. ' J n r' !u l r,rn a .ti \ n u i rp a ,ti .ol n,hor" rtr 1n ni ci un I.h .\tl , ' a" $. |t , it t u, . - d i n n rJ mn J rv trn | ,tJ rt.J oa mJ pf 5n[l rj p.

b49 $ -

Whdt ald! ol the nonih is Uris?

,9)

lnaintcaunui $ubstantiv precedat de conjuncliuas sau de loculiunea g bdo
The chil,hen nscd lhe chair as d lacomotiee. H. .rr J c o t ot h?' aL t ^F t { p_is r r y O f i i c e . :aF d op ,dFd ar , ho bJ l dr ' s pd oJ o p o F p . TheI sert her a doll oli a ,rrs?D,. A d rh,tC, ttotJrL dtF ad! $as . H. $ a o / ps r a M 4 t ha1 \ p nr qii' f h i m s p t t :

10) in uneleexpresii curuntecarenu au adicol in limba romanx:
: la disiantl) : multE/scririli nencl : cu roco larerlc{zutl)
oD d larse/small scale

s 661

: Ie scari laqnhcdusa) : pe picior.d-"egditdk) : : : : : a a a a a Ii grnbit) li In situaiia) avca raspnns la toate) afta rolH de niac€rc) avea cap de {liloiof eic.)l

iL is d pil| lla shttu ll to lo tn ro to l.o to have dz dnswd. lor eveNthinE ha\e an otpetiE ha ve a n/,d lo r hhilos ol} y . c r , . l nelc d Jdry Jor t\^\e at aDpo.tulitu have a rtil,:, to haYc d raLn, lor

: r d ri i ,Ll l tnt l r, penrru) : a inlLAiine corespondeniti) : a tx r.,c.rpni l a)

ro keep xp 4 c.rapndcnc.

l It

is a shd tue !de ii lnl. ) es r l: "E N, s inc l"

119
r. Jrnd an drslpr to takP a 8ar

MORFOLOCIA

_ AN,TICOLUL

I

d lf im i l p

r 'b n u ! " l

to 8o tor a aatkla saitla di'.la "it,;\c.'

: a s' dute ra.primba"'e/p9,19v9!,19Li"' automobihl ralonuiuu tuasuia/cu

Notd A ss observa construclia foarte asenrnAloare celei romenelti' din care S 552 lipse$te tnsd articolul nehotdrit:
Tlat rascal oI 4 brothef ol tlne' (itrensa.ul acela dc lrrie al meu ) She is ar aDgel ol a womrn (Este ud lnger de lcmeie ) A shrimp oI 4 man (O sii.pil.rrd d! om.l i; : t I ' u{i l e se fdce ddesea conl uzi e l r' rr' rr' s rp u o u i I I J _A , - o|lc . n l ri l numerul ul rn sau o n pl ' ^rrri l d rl i Ii m b ' ro ' ,' j r' n , f aplul . . in o ri n _au "i formi; din r.iensti eauzr trebuie s.i "p d€a multi at€nlre deosebrrn a,-,eeaqi d i n tre eln: a este articol, ia! olle nutnoral: I have d dogI havc ,ne do8. un.cl i oc' T n pr in ul e: ' -rn p l ,r s n o r- rI v e d " r" /' rz 1 " ub' l snti !ul ui --,.am anrmal el or n,tki r' l ,l r s ' i n ' i s l ; aquprJ o u o pi. jc s ; r n r l d o i l e a ' r" mp l .r r" . h a i mu ' n u num ai |r n c li n F . --a '' rni; " " or i s p inr rc b L i n rp d /j ' \n d ' i a rl i .o l u l a cu l n{pi esul numeral ul ui o' P : n i ci ndaln lns i num rrs l L l o ,rp n u a rp j n t' l F u l url rcol ul ur d: 1 r :' ,o u d b p l o n s " r b t a n l rP .
Th"

She .ou1d not saY a single wo.d
d JPP f. d G:5 Pr

oa-

sa

I' r a iPn h f d $

oh hpdd

ld "r b J H, F a l .l lJ jr m u " o f.o l- .

sau ln provcrbe ca:

.4 bi.d in th. lush is Forth iwo in lle hand' ,:1slitch in tiDre sdres n'nc'
i\ C.\TiT AIiTICOLUL NtrT{O1rt,i.RITLIPSN$TT

i 5; 1

ALTN C'IZUIII

Umriioarele subsiantive nu primesc articolul nehotdrlt - cu alte crrvinte aa drticolul zero: ,I,5 1) ln generesubstantivelecare nu au plural, cr ad,'irc' .heakh'.furaitute, S " porlr t l,rciu rr,'rnJJ qlujbdrel' INNl: p rni'sioni prudu"P. r'rcJ"ss. '
t r uaL tle (a\' Td$ p aood, di, Th pih avpb od ghr - v . r y lr Pt u; nt ua' ot d r ', s h r b 'n - ' o4dl\ ' r " vP r y l r e l u r n ; t u r e .p mobli lodrr '

lrumoase") S ho; niov s r ad i l n t tu ' l ,fi .!u d ta d i a !l l ' ' l ' n : o ' J" rl i ' ^ l nfl or" oal €" 1 I wm ' 8ii. n qi " l P n a rl o ri /rl i " s .ri s i " ). u i i t€n opr m r s 5r o n -.,o @ wif ound v pt J i n r.ts s l ,n g m e d i c a l ., i n l h € rountry{ a l erJ rnre| " sl rngaocr{' :,p m uoc J / , : lu: b i to u rl " i n l P re s a n l .r" ) (Vezi 9i S 115) 1p pf oounla ttp i :]| : p .n n ! s a u ? ? n c c , . V ez i r i 5 r l 5 .

2) substantil'ele cu funclie de s,tbiect precedaLcimediat, de ndverbele
Il er! authot Nas hader to translale! h(sbanll had a morc failhtul wile \eqr

)( 5s(i

exisl.riparolcl c:
It eftt dn autlbt l'as Lanler lo translate! I.'cf had d tirsband a morc laitlilul *ife

AIIBDI,OR AR'IICOLE YI. CO\SIDDIi.{TII SPNCIALEASUPR,,A.
d.numpr o blerie (au talcgorioprir.* lr \uLsrdnrilelp rrolul hol6rir siu nph^larll ,.i r'umirul si',gularsau plural fara deoieLir' nr:.1rp Jintrc r,ps,p tormp indidnJ s? ria:
T[o /;o. s 1u s l, on] h onp ol lhe s l r o g F s r a n i m a s Ttrr ltotrs ls a u Liotr3l ic" so1" ot tle sirong.st anrmdts.

: ;-'8

Toa1.ecele pAtru lornrc sint crtrente. cu preforinln penttu pluralul ne
Li.ls arc 60ni.r of th. sfrongcsl,rnimalt. ,l Sulrstrntivele farc denuntescp[4i &le txupului au arlicolul hotnrii' ac€sta rlesenuind utl €remplar dinir-o categorie: the brain7n. tuad conl.ains

$ 569

Thr lta s ha\e live li.i8e.s each. The feet harc livc toes eaoh Substantivele din aceasti cfltegorie, {iind concrete !i numera}ile, av6a ambele numere !i articole, ln iunclic de context: That hoNe has a beautiiul tudd. and de.oa, a very rine colour' All lho hoNesin thb slud have w€llgroomed long ndres and lutr!.

pot

3 ) N um elod0boliS i u n e l e s U ,ri d o s p i ri ts i n ts x b s t ani i vepl ni recent.sLtpuse uno r u za n le t r adir ionel p l o s rrp .o m p l i .d l c p .i v i n d l nLreburnl dre8arl rfol trl ur l " d puer m ina. ln li n h a tu l s ,' u ;1 . q .rF s a u v orbi l . In rare' i mpl i fi rsrpa "arc dicteazi regula. axticolul hoiltrit nu mai apare deoit, sporadic. o rimnEili ir

S ;fi o

curs de dilpflritiei nehttdrit: u) cu urLicaluL
l d . " 4 're ,l r' ,J" ' ' ro "J l' r ' l, od, o h d v " d n J p p .l i .d " ' ,' ni , 1 .-n . a -o r' Iro a r l n ." l o or., r' ,npr' r .r { rnecki l o a. uJ " k ir ' ' :l :_ ' o r /. r au, h d r a a ' k o r ( ro rnr ' 15. o
: 'l '! p, m 6l h l' s . I n' r qr ! . . . r ^ r ' Lo hdvr F:rrJch .. !a ,h"t t aot r ' I ' f , rh m ll:5 r, (tl9 t A o. I t h" h"_o: 1r r . , r , u- u" r h o l r ''' L p 'o '\ . . b. n' , . t 1"- r , , "1 r o"n ir I . r t : r o s . l \ n . bir-, 1-ro"tan c.rt"d horroN' rickcls, et'i l/F hlues: ,l' creera, tu dumrs, te lidBcb,,i'

i ;ri1
i' r '

b) cu saa fbd aricolut hotiLri/

/ / . ', rl l.rnliJ

S ;6t

4) \umelo ile mnsrui (LiimLnsruri, grcuiate, oa lilate. timp cl,c ) pot f" n' avc:, u ri . dr n din " " lp do u i s r i " o ' F , " u i n :.l F ' d i ,rr" i l ,u i v i i ' u pt' hri rl i tr11 lhr I 3; D a/,ne dosel ol beer. lu i ur r l € h rm s a n d w i u h ,{ yr r" J l abpl . . t ! 2i, a(t o th " Io r' l o J u l a y !V.rr" t,$ tess a.e 50 D dlhe d.ozcn r - 6ir t o" su . tb r' d /,t" p o .t l . I Adici rrlualur cu attiaolul zetu tl o v d i ,' r " . i a .,, i ' fp -n c o 1 .d r' j bpP i . rrruti l p de h.cl " t" ro ' inur i uL, o-s hrrnb' Ll ,l g F rrl d ' elrddi .i otr.l 1. lb.ul r - 0 .4 J q k g m r' .ra "r{&,r ' r - ; .

S ;tiB

l14
Shocs l]e 5 45.!t !air' '1,i, d iorl,lighL onc-A a weck. t{irie tro worh I\' /n. da\r to bc laid'bl_ tP non!'h lr r L' J ' r ' o r r r l 1 I o' r lo hr " a l d' o. . / r h o r

5;61

6 56! "

5, -\pozilia'z. l, -pozirii 'pjnr'"LLinl'1rJ ori'drp Jin "lF do-d crli' , onlorm rpgulrlorrnnerul' r\pusa rar sJ(: , or" .su r'i,i un,r1, Thc Thanes.,ic ri!.r whiohitorvsthroughLoDdo!.is slannedbv Ditnv blidges' (q 44!l ' I sirr,, )".t . " in" tror.- $i1 'rp Dr-b!. J1 -3C \\'. H1,r,r. Lrri.h,r'.r, ".J165'J:i 'S i'lv.al $ 162' ri..",ys.bt 6l Atribuiul si articolelc' -\tributut estc o nodalitate gramaticali foade eficoce si subtili'Dentru Darticularizareau ui substanliY El loate preceda sau urma subst,aniivul pe carc il determini Ctnd urui substaniiY fira articol3,expdmind aladar genedcul,i se adruq; unul sau mai multe atrilute .& clil. fatnft.n un tut. o stnS rti id€e' prczenra rrrlru nirnic id"ca de gerreralitate atributu\d (sau atribuiclor) nu nrflrLenlcsza exprimatn dc substantiv, acesta rlmintnd tol nearl'icuiat: ,ltaz is an jntelliSentb€ing. Antituniesaft no\t in the lorcfront of interest.
Cr e l: a n,n titres d"r in lhe r or Pl"onr ol inr ' r s

jtii",.i,;,

l l d n l d d or l. . r p in " rl i n ri rl ' l \' r:b u schimbl sensulscncric al Bubstantrluluil :5 5G6 '

t'i""ai;. t^itoji .'b"tt t ni, *t,t

4oi?d ri6

mrrl ' i ll u pl

nd."u/t;" .r 'r'l'tr'slrr,)
' r nnr)' rhsr' r" vi

l rdnn

Dar ou un atribut carc aducF o iilce in plus sulsrantiYului. ap$P artico s ub s ta n ti v u t c x p rj m a a c u n o j.l nc preci so, sau srLj col ul nchol ,l h o t i" it , l" " { tdrit daci subsliantivul e nedetinit: Thri Ga-Md|tunr ntD is belie!'€dl.o liale belorycd to Llo same slccies as (fr' moden mun. antiquiticslornd jn the Balkan Peni6uh arc in lhe lorcl'onl oi 'nr'r's'' \rie Grcek

sau articolului.- Cind doue sarr mai multe substant'ii'e s 5G? 7) RrDetoroa " articol'rl: mod obiinuit p nc,ste in primul prrn numai and. slnt unite atlj"ctiwe
she rp ad s iD o : lo! at l dt : t : t t \ or " ,4 lilrh b ou Jnd . r . l "r c s s lhp r oad g1' n"t l} e l i t ) l ' 'rh" htb.: brathz; rd da / $ra ull In'lrPF He il.rced, E idn, nAat, so/i, sdsdr, rt., and /&er on the sticll' ro E filth and .,irtn Pages 'lrr'

.t '' 568

Peri'rn accentuarciusd, sau atunci cind substantil'ele ori adjectivcle se referd la persoanesau lucruri dlfcrile, arlicolul ljc repetd tnaintea fi€ciruia: ) The Dcn lu.niiure I boughtis ,ndsndf,.s,tzd,ft' {lccentuare '€sr' A se compara:
TIE bt)fesor th e r"o feJer A n on ;r:on I Eo aa .ra nnd Doct l.rt.1f.s on lrlondav' l0 sirgurit a nd t t , " r ot l t u- ol \ l. ndu\ ' l l r o u - , I n. n. r r o L i t , . o. . "j a n4 lr aj. \ . obiql and. " Z, r / . J , r i, r iur ' ". . ilo. i u leNoan'i) p o 'o a n " ,I '

a,nr.shr rioi i ln r , 1b. , r . r nLt o llat nat o r t. + c , r ; . : r

r l nt J r ! tt .l.u c . l: ; t. l ' , n. r lir i, \ , ?, 5 r _r 8l1 r tfl, d .tinil id . ' t o; ,.\vlnd adicl arfidur zcro.

a.ccn|!at, ii ins.amr,"t. uricnl ,:n ,, .. ,1" no" " I l , ,r " | rriD l o ro o' tn . l r(n ' . i l " -_ r dei ul e_l D r' l 'n nrndl mol " " n l ' J t r:,' u r ' .1 i ' ., ' l ;i .,

CAZUEI TN CAIiE ANTICOLUL

LPSE$TE

lltt

I,OCI]L IRTICOLUT,UI substantivulsau atributut acestuia: 1 ) -\mbelearj,icole ?rdrzrld
4 boy lne Lov

s 589 s 570
S 571

dar pd al}, lrothl' 2) Ambetearticole slau inaintea cuf intului vhole, " quilc, just:
?l,e q liol€ $rden \is in -bloom I worle d 3t it for a liak Nc eK

1:t'';,0:','u;.i'5"i'f.":'i"'?li "',*,'"0," n3'1iuffi."u,lil

i,l:" :tyi;;l;:;;,::;;:;,,i' " i. ; : , : i , / , " h ^ u s 4I s a c ro n u s
'i i l . j; " i, ' ii ';

to f or ilii d rv h e ds i tti n sro o m (:i rr- d ro" mx

li;;g'".'""

57''l sini rmdtcde articol cind reprezintdmnsuri: S holf ii double 3) Cuaintele

iu

@rnptrs \ -t1z formeazi un sabstantfu de articol atuoci Slni lnsd pi"eccrlarc -clnd o s,nlurd ide" cu subslan'r\ul urm€ror:

kli:'":""i""i',1;' fri'l;!Y.;:L,, "^" ','lll*[*"1;,:t';"nr,tiu1^,!!'*ilui",n

",,i"ill""n;.,._ : :,J? * i::;, i:: :;r:!,i
Thp LolfJ@v The wod hns a d'Lbte wddng' _r

had slnrl

,{ \e romparR: '

;;Yil/j1it";uui*, i:ijl:',";l;il * ^;"u;';;';;:il ; t"'i::'I:"f:' "" .';: t -{"",i LLda,i' l; i'i::{ifi.,'fJ ,k hotr'h T"Ji;1'"t
t"ott a t , ' t : loJ l

I r c ' pdp' nn4r :

s 'I t J c l n L

IJPSD$Tf, !'r. c{zt'nl l\ c,ulD.q.RTICOLT]I,
rESurd

{ 57{

Reguli gcnrraLi 1!!4w'!!

s 5?;

.u ,nlp,-. I n'rdl,\\l )l"l;ilil1,:Jii":l, "buinLa,p r/,/N' *.,"'*,,. r,n, '; :;;:i:;ii,;i","* ", "i'
cu firiplc'ccncralIru prrmps' nroulDcrihilc I r Sub.tantireto lo rr.a'ra ca egoriJintrrunnllosrele i,il""iLti,"|'o "*.r", .ind,"int tntrebuinlatecu sensgenerrc: (S 35)l {t) srbstantivelecare tlen mcsc a'sildcltt [NN]
'n 'nttu X 'rdut i" t - u' t " t - uh is t eout ! jor n' s lr h er Per Ft c

s 57?

nehotlrlt' all ti Dod nu sc conslNjesccu arlitolul

11t 5 ;78 D) nuncle de naturii. protitls.t ndttraLe' ?i dalort fNNl: -rnir is nsed lor * lrng' The coin wns dadf ol -itlt# Itttual is a ce.cal Rcd afi btue a.0 ihe colo!$ 01 our iean' 4 5;9 oman''z manhind, qamanki/td, ]i ature societ!, cl s[bstanlivele ntln2, \\l : .1 d l q rr" .L i i ons ida ro " ra s' . ; / / .
1lo

i' iii. ir i, *. . ; ' , , ,.' l i -to ,r;c o v l rr' i s c o d m u n L o h ol l nont' trJ' n' !td^Ii nd' ,\'dtutu nas neer lamesse.l lrr mdn. we nave dul.ics t( sd./.,v as i'ell as to 6x'sti s PoJrai,y apprccialed PurQell'smus'c,s 580 d, precum ti substantivcle numerabile cu forlnl sru inlclcs de Plrrdl lNl: Bo?s lolc foolbau Da"n?s' rl " ' l i k o o \' .' ," h a a h a r' t notnl 'I J I' J l o l " " " P r d ' i r i n l l ' 11 pl a' " jlu eu lftirol - ln aceastd 2) Sttbstartivele cu car ctcr dc utricitnie [NN] cat€gonc lnlra:

6aJ -an'"

Jr 4

' n r I i' e ' r

I

ne'

6 581

c, numeleproprii la singular ($ 6); S 582 l,l numelciilelor, lunilor, anotimpurilor,anilor. snlbitodlor, obiect'elor i ssr 120,123 124 502); " -- a" sporturilor li aleb;lilor(S510,513, "t.;i",j"*rilor, irr' u'cdrr r'polil.l . nroh rai liuldru'il 5\l
{ ./ '' '4" tudt,i (S i3 5i,4t;)rl .t) snbstantivele abstracte n€numerabile' & S 586 paradise.prcailence eta.; (vezi S 3;). 'lr'' 'nu"nit" hcaren' h'll' purydloA'

S n8 7

Erceplii'
desr au Dn Substantivele eotth, san' maon' sk!. Narld. uni'erse' costlrDs. concreie srrbstaniwc sint se afld cafacter de uniciiato tn ambian-tain care hotiirit': primesc artioolul atare ca cunoscuteli indeob.ste
?/,e s&D was hot s" We l4? tu,, .omin! n'rl ol ? m o rel ran to ' JrrJ out hi 5s hcrnror' rrr& 'r" l n ,1 " ." _ ;rdl ,e d p ri ihc r 'aw i is not l,i n g W e s as ' a t t rrb o p ro l h i s l i u P i n ,i , s i g . ln limbaj literar sau poelic. "'ubsiaolirele rA3 !i rtd ar Di plural: ..under $resrcm .r,t;r,, is the titte ot I nov'rt. Hc sailed ihe Sevon J.^tr De IaDt, in astronaul.i.Ji. toate substantivele substaniiv[lui cotr@s deocamdati) au 1i plurui de mai sus (ou exceptra

d 58,'r '""

s,r r r "l a' l or ' .1 p. n Il 'd L n u l r ', u n r i l - l 'r '" i " lil. ,.,',,r l | )ll:-l n ,r,t r,. l 'r o " " d . , r.. \'\ ' r ., l r " / ur J.n dr ir ' \ ' ' . a !CLi sensld d" tu1aki.n,L t'.!pcat.t\ n)natttitd : V.zi si \ 1 60. 1t . ii. a I s'minra u.r d S 476- it , . 6 :' 8.-:: ||' r'.,1 ' r ' J ; nr i' Ll d' l ;li ;".ud ,t \": in :ri,r . \ r 'l J r 'r " 'r r ", ^i in r' n;nP l ) 'o r'": , 1, r' \rl; ';"," " -n (lig. pochcl. -. liiminLlltri .r,,,,:, ' rdll

UL LPST,$TE

117

}Lseraali.e S 5fl8 de E.neralil\te sau de unicilale dispate f]e prr]1 l lali, ce caructeruL i,prul .dunple.ubetanri\F ;r' p r". laplural tsprootcmpl.rnumel"propr'it'. :r" nrin €Jauqar""unui alribu' .du a un"i propo?i!iislribuli!P .srF la pertirulirizeazl - substanlivele primesc arlicolul hoLirlL sau nehotdrlil atunci clnd ne refedm la nl andmit emmpl.Lrconcre!, $ 539 a) hotiirit, 3partinlnd unei categorii: he ran away. Whcn,p lt,D sawthe llames.
She was nolishine lle sr,ee.t, Do rou ;ind t'i6sing the su€Lr? Th. ink nt n! inkstand is drY Th. bluc ol lhe skY was nlensc. He is ,n, tudDin chaq€ oI ihc !'all garette The aotuan nexl door is {n afi stud€nl

b) n e h oLdr it , nind unei cat€gorii:

at u n c i c i n d n e re fe .i m l a u n e :xenpl araarccve apat\j

S 590

sorla,"isau caliriili ale substa tivului nenumerabil:
b.cad velaei -heads - velYets earlh watd

/ lt,n ss roaring. I saw o mn al the door. A fuv noan was dsing otrt ol t|e sea. ge n e ra l d Ob se rg alie cind devine Cind un subsiantiv nenamenbil apare cu lorma de plural ! rdi. ; n u mc r s bil - qi nu i n tra l n \rp u q A d i n c a re g o ri i l c l rnrsj e pl nJ ai ' i . urm Arzr q a fi e f nlples c a r e te ri n d tr-F l € d i ta ri L e " d l " Eofl i . l P tuti spcl .. tori P tdl i . - eartlis - waters3

5591

Exomplu SubstaDtivul cdrth. ca.e are un caraoterde uricitate', ilustreazd pregnani intrebuinlarea articolului : cind inlelesullui esie dlrfatt: articol &)nu primeqte
6au cind este \.ume de mdterie: It was rat {or heary) cdtth Th€v filled the lit with ea.r,t.
H n Loe Fd h Fs\.n an d ?d- l io lind o, J oLr pFs pnr dd d r . s bJ . k t o . , . I h . T l"e. dti.'sm lsed on his " h m " s oon h"ougr | "r D

S 59S

S;)93

h o td rtt c i n d tn l el esul l ui este condret ,, p d m ef t e ar t ic olu l ' -i : aunosc tll san pf ecLzar ?tu ra.rn is rclnd. {: Tena-unioitate) T hr \ N " F l i l l ' rg ,n P d { ,L I- s o l ' rl l 6 l th" .arth. T ht lit $ 6 ru ' l o t \t l ' a t,.t (: Frlna - mrsi conoeta cunoscui.). n a i unci cl nd reprezi rl e n e h o td rtl c, p ri m eDt e 0, r t ic oI o ,I exemplar iLinLr-o catc1o'tei ,4Dea.rt on whioh the.e would be pe.ce amona pcoplff is an idealworth st.i ng for'
e trr' .;b" : arsintdna. 3t.r pt,",lt t1 . d ;ri.rp" m , 1 - ' t " s , . . r p { r iur : . t r . u" i . T t r j . o " r a n p p r . . . ' , , 'l r l ln num rorse fapresrr rrg!.4r.. . o44 p.n . ro n :.i,s. d inilial' m r lJ qJ ll. J s r ) z i 1 '1 u " . u 1 1 . t 1 'L r 'a - a i i l i d ' inairscrrli cind e ntrlle de llanetd (: Tcni).

$ 594

S 595

IlIJ

596

LIPSIIITE .\r,Tr1 c,|zlmr N cABx ARTTCOLLa lrLicolui hotirtt nu esteerprimat ln urmitoarelecazuri: (S 247): 1) dupir un substantivin cazul posesiY
Flf;rr's arotl,io! the \torke$' /a/d todaY's Dem

597

598

pososiresau alcdgt€rminatede adjcotiYole 2) tnaint€a subsiantivetor m0nstnitiY6:
ntJ trnby t/r.t chjldrcn ,,a, mountain ,nes"lowns

599

€ripricind acesl,ca 3) lnainteaadjectirelotlast Einoxt (+ un substant'iv) (: articolulzero)i mi firtpul ln rapori cu prezentul
H .a.6 L nme los t ) r ondau l- 1J np. t rh "j .lP l"dL ing t o" lh Deioiup , ( J t t . ' u' i) . ( s l l 'l m J n a '+i \ 'i t o T r P ) .

Notd, 600 prFzpn€di" ri\'lp /!9lei t''Jl nusi l.or''i,l.rrlFinrcporl'u DdclrSnsi Itl, ,1" eiprimr ordin"a irr ro sFricsi su urmdrorulInlFlp.: /fls' .ulliriul: nerl: ur;ntorul. in acest caz sini piecedata de articol, atunci clnd insolesc un substantiv expdmat sau sublnleles, ;i earLicxlateclnrl sint singure san au raloare ale adv-erboti de prepoiilie laceasta din urm[ in cazr lui nert): ol tl\is monthis a holidav.(+ sul'st) The lastMand.au
r r e \ a! lL. ( o i -u ,s J r.. Iu l rl t th ' ,a tt Jtu " ul l ) $Js/l l aJ. o b s e e r,rr, d o ro;.\.' .,1 \\,l" . r . . . " " , . ir , " , . r r ,.i ;. qi r' ;r" " du .,o l h p l i 5 ro l f.o l i j " nl 6Jnna' ' : t h, \ " , t , t . t t aqtt\" " )t (\' l r' ' J,L" l ) :rbsr_

\l.hen I las, nel. Lenn. sle sas llourishins (-^dv ) $ n " ,, , r' rn u ;o ." I s houldlil" io - " - $ ) ;.u n .-l r,J , I' i , " . n . P.pa ll. \ . , F \ nar irC a L'd

S ti01 S 602

qi rcli./ stilului: 1) pentru a se aIaconcizie a.) in unele loculiuni adverbialesau lerbale ln care substaniirrulare / ( J' ri.olul 7.ro) lrLFl' " ./r./r'a

in {thc) lutuc

to deotare$'ar lrgnmst to fird emploJmen!

to hn plc utder foot

603

(: ,J in unele cuainte compuse
{lownhill in- s hom iidoors u p s ta i N

allicolul zero):
oul.siiic trpsidcdown do$n-at lt€el u! io-daie

604

c) in unele etpr.rii cozs/ra;I,r/n.lr'tc, in oarc doue substanti{e sint' unite prin prepozilii sau coniunclii (: artieolul zero):
trom begirning io erd lrom hand 1o mouih dry _by day . lv hook 6r iy cmok oi.e. nountaiii and plain to linish ne.h and neck

lrom 1.opto lottom through thjck {Dd ihin

C^ZURI lN CAFE AEllCOLlD

LIPSE$TN

IIC

u'"' ..",1,'.1:-:ll:1"'liifili!;il,lli",tiffl;.1'11""",i"11 :"rinoril'e'' ( omiiunp\ ai"Lioni'e ;;;;:i;t;;i'i";i;.r'r:ri'',i'
""g1.
uea5e, lend rnone) s'lool rre (Tdeg'aml)

rt-m' lI'rt,-9:..".?til9l: 1,""j:;.,i'1".;"i'i.'*0"'il:"ri',rr'i,n:o d ir r r Jr ' ir cr n ;;;o ;;;r't;l rrar ill : i ; l t l ' ""# i ; l

.Jii: ';:n :; .,:;L;i*l;u - r iuu,d; i:l:"::i"r'i:i::ll t"ff:,lt",ft f equ ri o r' 1 !l trtl l S." lio"
a;d steari de

0ndi"rlii zid) b:"1';;;;;!i;;;;L 'br comianr'{^n!ir i ,l io (u v Io nn uo ' ,) ni l h ;u uu ss ;. ' (D .ito on ry o ,4 r r ; s r nr r : ur ' pe r5 iiir: bel i""r"* n"o ol rlonth (rrtlu arri ol ?irrr lnuiests l'ai on I etrol'

num r 'fprlpr,o* o" I br isr",Ii'ksupr'"iv'' dilrs "tg ;;;iJrl " t 115,",1i;.1:i Rsic)

I f ,i:,l,if if';'JAi11,

de {anteziste' Foarte adeseori titturile din ziare' ericesiv ile concise ;i etnt inintetigilite inainie de citirea artioolului' [In exemPlu: da'pre cunhrinll l' ni{d l SwimbuiiSuo!mit. - Tillul urrui reportaj ';;{il-;;; tinu nui'r'osrumd/ tlp' P'r'Fri Par"ur'lrri i;';'..lor {""1 15' I9;') (-\eqs'\Fek Janu0rt ;;; ;''";g";" rirlul. 'i lo uuadFlups

* tvl ii[***r* r'ffi t** :"1:i i;'"T: :ri"'ri""s: :;il;'* ;""' "'": i -giir' ;;fi''i;lil'i"il$ "''

AI}Jf,{]TIYUL
C ONSID E RA T I I G E NE R { L E
ji3

rlD JICTIINI,tr

CALIFICATIYtr
113

{.

co\SIDER{l II (iiiNxtl-{1,8
D cliriiLie,.
f i" t rr Fu n'.o jii s i.i

......
. ..... .. ........ .. .. ....... .. ....-.-. . .......... .. .. .. .

610 6ri 622
.. ..... ..... 6|ii (itg o/tir 641 052 D6 liltl 'l : 8 '1 1 8

{1. couP\RATI_{ ADJECTIYELOTi.
Com!*r&lir dc * rllfrio.itr t li. . . . . . . . . . . . . a:antrar dtiaa dje ctie elos t. .. r ldicctiv .lc d c o sin su ri s ilab|. . . . . . Adjeciivr df do u! silab c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\ ltf t l.ii de rorb irr rdj{ c t ir at c . . . . . .

65' 6i t 6i 6 6i t 659 661
IttJ..lite .u f.ine lc.:onrntatie n:t.gurti.

t:9 l :19 l t9 1l ! I i tn r:1" 1a:l r jr:l li3 135 136 133 139

Ol sl fva l ii as lpr a adj. c l i \rl o r .u g .a d ed e c o n u tu ti e ri ,rcsul ai i .. . . . . ... .. .. l tt .. . . L ;tl " 41 t , 1, t . | fu l r".h lhr e lt r . \ t..' .. FI.lPr Fldc"r. OD"" 4t'1.1...
I o-h" . thrth". --la tt".a . F ta h ,.i ......

6t: 6tri 690 69t t06 ,0) tt0 717

Later.L at.st, -

Iiue r.I ^

...'...',''.'.''.''.'''''','''''''.'.

.............. " a oI' r. ( o mP8 B t iNil. . gdibn. ... (omp3r.,tlA dF interlorihl. ODso.rs9ii 3$rp.3 tonp&nti€i ndJe.tircloritt s€nerel a :o n stnIr 'a pr nno' it iei'o m p a ra L i \' .a 1 ,, , | , i I - . | , t oit " r t-rm p . rt ,u . r,.,, ti , i .. r \ F t p l t in" . . ,.,i r,,r,." , ,... .u ,Fl 1 r' r : d pr " L, " . ir . i . rl r.l l :\ s rp r l n " rl d l. .. S t,+l 1 l i\ ' l 1" i. ol''rl .. .. " ' rl l r'fo t4 i l i . om p. ' . ' ir . i -l :p i " . ... .. , , t o, . 1 lhi " ^rn mrff,li1 .o p i rdlid dinlr un ob d ," I i rn e .J p I'.b -.1 'om par r l: \ . Dub l u rs rp i c ri v .-,r.l "r,1 a . . ^m F . a \ ' r t' rj i i .' rr.rL 0"rst .t ii idiom at i. ec r d o u .l c o ml a ra ti v e ..... ..... .. .. s a u s u p c rl ati ve.... I'ro ..d fc lc nt r u c - \ pr id a rc a s u p o l a ti ru l u i a b s o l ,rt.. -.. .. -. -.... .. .. .......

(a n p o "o' r na, t J " " t ,lov,

71a 141 i2n /r'+2
1/r:1 J2l 1i-)

,22 J23
i !4

r43 143
l 1,r

:34

L1;

1?2 II I . AI,TII CI I ] ' S T I I - NI R D I' I' IIIT O A R O L A AD J E C T IIN ' ' ' ' . ' '

-|
ia,o ,' 01 t03
ilD iil i))

ryqr48
148 1,1 1i l 1r3 7i] 1i t 't5r l 5i 15ir \54 1i 5

,74

t\. fcHl\.\l t\'[ll.\DJtcTIvAl.I
..... Su }srant lt . . . -.. . Ge r(rl dit . . . . -... Pn rri i j iniu r r . n\ t t . . . . . . . -...... P, i .i ; iir t r c dL P miiripjrL . In l i n i tiv , , . . . . . . -

.

)J3

7ia
17i 719

r; 5

15t

/-sL
t8:l

Locnliun. prelrozilio ali. ... .. -{p o rl ' € rehtivl t'iotozi!ie

1t5 760 7bJ

1i.', 15r> 155 155 15i liii 150

v.

FoR\I-\nI^

ADJECTIVELOR -

..

Ite ri rer c s . . . . A'|j..tir. cu t t Lc. esntir ". Sxi i x o. . . . . ... -,... .

7S 9 ,-90
t9l

lrt
156 li6 Ji i 157 i 57 137 1i 9 l 5t l a8 li9
li!) ,l6tf

li n a l o -.. Du l l rtr ea c ons oanoi -e - ntut lilral

Schndbiredcrt€soricigrrmatlcal€ Pdticipii adFciivate .. adjcctiralt. . ,. adJccurarr. -qubstantile -substantile . . adjeclivate . \trle \,tte rbr nr i ' \rl r.o lu' r " nF r ' l' r ' ' u !b l o J r" d . ' l j ' l ' ! ( o Dp rn. r c n . . . . . . ADJECTITELN DIINR]TINATIYE sAU PRO\OUL\-q.I,X ,\diecli{clc losostve r\dieclircle ilcmofslratire rldjecti!ele rntoogau!e Adicctirele rcl'rtivc Adjf.ii!€lc neiloLArile-

t9t i 94 ,94 t96 t97 793 ,99 800

30ri 80t s08 809
814
818 819 3!1i

'l 6 l

'10: 16t
164 1Cl

szt

A D J D C T I Y UL
(lHFi,\DJE CTM)

CONSIDDRATII GDNDTi-{LD ,\djecti.rul estc partea de vorbire care calilicdl sau deier1) Dotidtic. al acestura: r,,ini: rn substantivsau un echivalcnl,3 29 leloved a .rcq€rwomar $de clinlk /i,e rerdins
t.ot me a s@,ng man ud the sam, idcas a 4.58 one

S 6(Xi

se lmpalt in doad categorii: 2) Clasificare. ^dj€ctivele (r 608) ,{. adjective calificatilc B. adjedn'e determinalive, r,umltc 9i adjective prononinale (S tt4).

S {n)7

CALI}'ICATIVE rT. ADJECTtrVELE
(D!]SCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES) I. COISII)I]N\TII GDNDBNLE 1) Detinitio. Adrecti\ul ualiticati\',care esle de fapb adjectivul pror unui obi".la ,l- i rl , alili" r6 : o ln .uqir:e p rl r - 2 i . .er eL .i
anes o r btutrn elts
renDl. .io[.do\

s 608

S 609

2) Caraeteristici, I n I i mb a e n g l e z n , a d j e tl i v u l a re, cu ci tel r exc' pl i i , ' a ) Itor m d. . n l i mJ r s a u a z . El , u .o pndl p dp.i s ofdd sina ,a l fa m d, ir . dilar p n r J " -F r.. l ,rl r.p s l u i s 'I p e at. rl .€l i l i rd: .u b .t'an' i\ . u o .h i \;l ' . u ul L. J u ' \o t mri sS l \,o ,,c Doa s , ' k n rk i n F ' l .n s l ' n P \\'e '" r $: ll, ; ' / o. , . . r Ei " / . r ' " " -r , g ,l c * (\ " lam pI l ll^ l h " I dr " s o lt o u n r t+ \e t' " ' rl C n ra u l .l r pl | . , " 1 r " r - t \ o l l tn J .u n 8 . D a l g n n ' o mu 1 p i . adl rub(rJtn\a "Jo r

s 610
S 611

$ 612 Ex c ep lii formeadjecscurtesint singrrele qi superlatiruladjeclivelor Comparativul tirrle {lexionarc:
' \o n g J (.u! tl J i vl \ o nc \ o .n i p r ' o m n ' . i \ o 5 r ' u p r- l al i rr bl ." r 1 o m1 rr. ' r ! o*(Cl. ii unele adjcctive prononinale S 817-81e) t \,rt; t ; . 4 - r d. ri " . / a ru a e ri i .n d ndi ' ' n i l rl ns " ' ri . ' 1" r" ' " d Dr nlir u r . l, r lp n a i l J 6 J b a n l ' p " " l d 1 S.drJ ! Intdesui untrl curirt. a pr.ciza, a lluri ietirmim: ",4 3 ve z i S t ! 0. nola 1 ! sels sr{matilal ($ !i. 4 unui

o! .'t

114 (Adj'ctinl Phrcse) Loou't'uDea adie.tiaald LocuIiuned ."{ 013 impreun; " ua i"Ji"uriii'"ons t l dinlr-un grup de crroli"teteie p""aic"t coreiuatc au'\.aloare de adi€ctil': T. r-a i's , rto, 6,'dPntr" rl P: L s l d 'n r ' a1
. t h" aPa in{ o"; n L "v 'n i n ; " 'l s s T,i r,.l r'Ar,\l'h-"r:e is Ure io\el lent to Martdn? lli'.:nt vou folnil arvole glad la h?:]P !ou?

ddjettrvulni b)La.uL { 614 " rnoiutca-ub.l.,olivului pp rere ll

esie pus in genere Adiectieul 'lrribatiP 5: "lifi'
houses - thc nlce o&.1

615 616

(Pcntn detalii vczi S 2668 '683) 1, t j t i, ut L, r' c l t.a ti r " ' t' p u s .d u p d -\-rb 'au ddp" ' ofl pl ern" ntul (v ' rr F re mp re S /o / /oJr' .1 rd I c\i ; ",". are Itei funcl;ii sintactice: Adjectivul 3) l'urc-tii. a) pot\re li d.tributl Madse' a /iae girl. wa!-comi g to lcaI bo'urht sorne ioallen He is-a man /drd 10 ':lo!es !l'ase' ,) poate face Pade din P,'edt:"r: Conplementf: l)'')'cd nnme pre(licatie l(hedicate) The sLY is Dnr'' It sre; ddlnAD old shoe ieels eas,' 7 got readll i^ a lerY shorl trme'

Ji r" ' t

I $17

t

618

inteLesul.unui,':il"^:i-:i'1".Ye:T*,,',""#t::i; ,') pentu.a campkta su'o*,r'",? .:3?#"f'ii'xlj""i'i'#ii,'ii"li"ii'?i""i-""iii" J.i,i'i'l'f "'i(
Resuh'!)l ( Pred.icate Prtdlcak of )| ' Re.sultt \' P" i n r d l l r { l ' " " l / ' l h ' g ' " u F ' _ o l " l L - 1" 1 sru' l ' r' s'l'' I boiied m 'ge cl poate fi complement circtmstunllal de mod: Thov came hom' 'ied' Tre'$ind llew coli''

620 S -

{ 621 s ii22
S 6f3 "-"

($ 750 760) are luncliile substanlilului Adieclivul substani,i'rat ( s 347-358). Ir. c0llPAnAlrr .lDJECTrrEl'oB
OF ADJECANDS) ICOII"ATTSON

"

ot,i- i.,"1, .:,.i.i I'i".r "u, ;, /;,,p. pri\in,l""
' ,rk.,, dmr -i-^," I l f 1

it.do.ud tno'J-r': it'tr 'l eomfa,alia adje'ivFlor p^"le Ii r'alizsti laeiobie'rr
He sas nn ollef workman ilrm his brol'her' iie w6 the aatas,workma^ in thc laclory dd balrd'" [ler health lad been growing tJelr?/ it $as Des,l6t lundav

t'iri lmnnd' consii tle lart dintFo pmruzi!ierelaiira t-,t,"" r; e tttvt" ' ..) tk ti t" " " " . . "diectivah .,t:.' i ...;" ' . , ' i. ; : : : i ;" p ::;,:. , . . i * r, : \i 7 i Ino' ' un' ' ' d pr' rrl l ' " 1 lt on. r r ' r " n : ' ma ri " a ro rn a n r' d d i ' 2t 3f l, .A 3 Sens granaticat.

COMPANATh

ADJECTIVXI]OR

l!6

2) O compara_tie poateli fdcutndin rrri punctcde vedero: a, pentru a se aftLa egalitateai
lle b 6 lizl ds Jane.

{ 624 s ii:15 s 62G s tig?

0.,)pentru a se

^rdLa

saperioritatc&i

T I" i 3 i i ,d ./ t,,d i J .n e lle is Ure fttud,r, ol all

c/ pentru a se ari|a

inferLorihtea.. He js less nt4 than Janc. lle is nDr g,,/os lia.l as Jue. He is,,,,p i.ds, Ilad oI alr.

3) Pe plan gramaticalse deosebesc trei gradode comparatio: a) gddul pozitie,clnd adjectivulnu a suferit nici o comparalie:
cold n ) o rc dul . onpat t t ir . rior .d u i nlF r ior ar aluiJ bcautiful " i n d a d j F .' i \u l a -ra ri o i n (u,ci retntr-un 1T" d sun" \ffl m c ' tri n g ra d u t p o zi ti v. sau egsl ;u arebi J: ' coldaf n,fe beatrtitnl tsnrerio.iratet lcsr cold /ss ieanriiut linfu.iorjtarct as cold n! ds beauliiui as (csatitare) not solos cotd as noi ro/as b€iniiliil as i r.riortrab) o tnsrl i re tn gradul cel

i 628

s 69$
q ,::i rl

g rd dul s npLr lot i! ..j n d a d j e c ti v u l e x p m i . t.) m ar tl )8 tt sx u c el m ar srd z u l :

S ft

most beantjlnl lsuDerioriiate) lctBt Ieauliiul (inlerlorilale) SLrperlativul poate fi: , i n d a \p ri m i e rd d u l .a l m a i tnal t sau , pl msi s .rzu' c') .s.up" t lo. t ir . r . , t o,,r. , . a r rn e u :i n r I nur ot , t F . l i1 i n mp s rr' tp c ' l a t' F o b i F c to sau l r. ti mpl Hc is ou. @sr .'italr. tracto. driver. , r" I" ^ t s rc ." ..l u to t ,t,p , rl d i d arp.. ! , i" r q r , I h. r v " b . n r. ry .tl 0 l t $ rp I b u t I I.rt " ,/j l roday,

.: r,:tJ

c" ).superlatte absolut, clnd arati o tnsusire tntr-un gradinalr ldri stabili lea urei comparaliidirecte:
,ca,.sr Fathol Tldnt y "u lof ) ^. r r d. , / jnJ ll, y { r n aor r ", L r ^ I ' im . Shp ; , . o"t ar , d. a. " I, pr.

S (i:t:i

Superldtivulabsolut, aneliticl se deoseheste Je cet relativ.sip n acfert: sup'rla i! ul rbsolul. liind d".nripLiv. ar",, "pnrul p" adierrir. tnsr."irea exofl mcri dp ar..ta allinJu-." pp I,rimut ptan st inLpr".utuilsup"r.Lerivul relitn ar",..rn,ul p" sdr"rbIl /rrr,. ri rqta Ajp'imt, d..,Fl.tL- tn ,:arF s. and obic,. 'IrrF i5 rl," 4osri,h,athc ot rh. boohs in th" librrj. tSuD""t. ret1 \ lle I
h thn 4o :l H . r" Trk! tq ,, \"p. t ir x lar p. l< 0"a. r bs . r no s t t nler t : . s . ( s up"r l olr r ,

. tj:]1

rve zi

5 638 ii 6i3

120 DE St l Pli Rl o ll lTr\TE collPAltATL\ icolljl-\illSoN oI sLrllr'IoRl lY) formeazl ln doxli uo'ltrrj' Corilarati{ul .sjsupcrlatil'ul do superioritale -se G3{i (tupi curn adjeciivcle sint scufie sau lungr' _'r i"nF' 'u i\"1- - r ' "n ^u 'on'frr'''i".:i ti:l; -\. trli$rlitolo sr'lrl. n rrr 'r lto/r"vrr' "J ,n"' r,r.ut,"rlu'i'raJ'u! la ll ,JjF' i\ul | ^'1rsI sau flerionard satoli): 6];
VioleL is a rdl, girl lPoTitir) \ \ .1. is r/,. lr ' I nlJ r r " 'n "r l s uip" | r I r ". ir . \ro . L rt" r" . 1. r ul I r f r

li:Js

(lenlru oonfnratil-) -:l LJ. Adiectileto lu gi primesc adveit)cle '?'rc (metoda ,nsl (pentru superlaiirJirare lrrecediiadjecti\ul in gridul fozitiv r:): n;ll"\ionJr. hJr' 1alitiia 'au (Po7ltirl
M\. sor is iut?lliaezl r",;o '", h' 1 1\ l"r L r "" N;:,1 ' / 1,buiBt r,' 16' t uo\ ' n ' r' 'lr -.n -/', p"r' l' i!orrrt

!lnt in]poFihildf Lrrlicatii cxacte in rrrN.mtaronrlrarli!; iLLjecrivelor l nrar!uio'rz rI rual l lrrr' .l1l i,,.t1diul:n crr-,n rtis lirnla in! r-ld i' " " on" { rrl hiir.irI r'-"r:i r '.,' t" oio-t,"'-".r0'. l^rm"lor ' L'/'lr ' ' ^n '/i" "r rntpns":r lru'rualre o d-rrn'i crpli.ilri. p"nr.u lol" -s, ^" '' l",.;";l in uzanla curent,a. crescindi ''-in cvr I ii .tl' Lion."n,'spi'ul'rl '""rnd11liFiidjt''i\"lor " l- (,caI -l pFntflr rel p\pmplo '..'nrri' 1"lu'' t'le rnd"roni" .1u exocdiftl!uma..u '!en sarl aDruF sir aibi'trasate unele reperc, ahiar instabile, ' ontradr'torri onErhrcc ull"Llertsur' inlrlni jo.. vor i rrorii erpu.e mai ,1,. finthl 5eamrd" drirpl" nrprimori drt"rile, ol'i.ii 'onlrJri: dsr rLr \of ri"a 5J.rru Irc,inL4rp:l 'iur. pentlLr int'rLocutnn'tnt tn'! $ttL sau sn lie acuzatide lipsi de con.iderslic he on thc safesidc. ri 639 a. colrP,rRrTll -LDJltfrrvrloR, sorr-rirrl o[ sH0tr'\D'lljcrlvul) lcolrlAHr'sor ,{cessLdcategorie cuprindc: z I adiccti'€]e monosilabice :

i l a b a: .i l -Ld' , d: ' rr' -,' r,,1 p " n ri rr' i! . . u n I srrl D J: b /s //d i ' " , 7 nim - r oa" " a d j t' ri \p ' u ' ' ' pnl ul l n Ll r di adjectirelc trisilabicc ct preii\ negati\. l\Iai{fitatea acesLor adjcctive au ambclc forn]' tl€ conparalie: [ot" ' o Fl ,t0]' i : ' tr ' rr- F" ' i o11, , *or o i ' .r s u l i r" l o -' ' ;i t ' ono ru b) h l

;i ili;;ii";i;

ai";i,ai.,t"'-i".t" ir\'a' 'L!, ''r, r' -o", -ro'rcsi srle

Dxemllc UrnlLoarele adjecl,ive fofireazii irr tnod norma] conrparati{ul iIL -cr ii suDerlativul ln -esl: ' 1) Adicctilele ile o si guri lil^bti ( nnosilabtte)l lnrc olear thitr, otc ga.r llrctuplel .iear -.l e u e r lat - htter garcr ga),
-.Ic a r$l - lattcsr - g.xesl

! 610

127

2) Adjectirclode aloui sital,cfD8ildrfu€, terminatetn -y _ay: fi
bu: . . Dr l elrsy !,l !p j likely i \.h m. ]t\ sicktl:, etc. _busiest _eastcsf. t.i 6 n d ri p . " | ' L t .t _I0rclesr

s 641

E x e m p le :
Dus y -h u s i e r easy - e8ie. ! : " , 1J' .v . tr n d t," r ..i ,.\t r loncly -ton,"lier Ob se rv alie

prefc s 64! cu ;i superra'if, ,,,,f;:ii#ix::,,fr::fi:;::l::;':!:';i:,i:,:'nparaLi,
r',/ ml j ili bleJ i' r j- . ri \' t' r
glad

tn a r,s ;td b ;,..

$ 8,rs.
sii|I

llji

i,'iIfi n"r,,,ul

adjectil'cre ,Islrd'ir' tcrninate in
arg_ry
risk-\'

-y s&u J3l, acirentuate pe '

6t+

iliifr'!Y
'x.tx

"1,""v

l.id r

locc.i
.J adjcctivele r/J;1aDi.c.t.orminatein -er, -Ie, -ow, -sotne gi -urc: biticr teebl. hollo* g.L,esome 'i"l i"n :i ..'
sol4

i 6{l-r

tend.r

h u m t.t" noble

srD[e

lo$ stall,,w

vc]ror,

wholcsomo

",". dl alte cltcra adjec1,i1.e bisilabicecn acccntulpe prinm tabd: qlier ..r!r" nile ,rretr rcal s siupid,.tc. lteasui 'ppie ,/ nuneroase adjeotivo r;rlturri, .jn act:t:ntul pc Ltitna si.tabd:
ibsurd dF.reet Irrolound .oDcjsr minute: totitc .cmdte sinccre, ctc.

;illlli:.

s 616. s 617

. .n,,,j1orri, ,a .j/ u.r_-o . /l .'a;",,;, .la +..:tol,. .t, ! r.t: n d4t .1..t bt.tlai.t.,,t r .1rr ru ro.t ior. Et, trin ,rti\rr.:
nnkindly

( r:tr

l lormelc llcxionaresilt ori..grariatctr tiaba..ng1ezl: nue .t. oa.Zesr.iar nr Srr\ rri d t.l r x t r J , r . t l{ : m i i !s .u l l e 5 rpaioi a(ljectiv (cu lrononlia dil€rtr.le roc.n .-

t9t
urt.rD, unl.;i,nv fr.: $ h rr\u inpoini lt.Pleasant rniidlJ u n h o | t; - i'npol'tinsrxfd insi"..r,. er,. trnhary "s imPatitEsl

'

lilg

lor' nono' si.bisilubiucu gradede compara,lio adjeclive llrceplii: rnate analitic (lumai cu more fi most):
4 o.d L mun osilabld i ,.' n 'r d r " r c " n r u . ;;;:; ia"r . t , " t . . t - s it . t "o! \ ' I l;:i;;. .oanl r ' o nth ",. b i,o-., b ". r . 1 r a do. , r \ ' laL' r ' 4 1 r r r r ):01 1"t' (-' Itr r m ' id r ' ) r or I d " (a' t r ' l 'r , r " ' i p' l lur n .1 r.n;r t a"' t ': ' ' ' 1d '" 'l r' :'l u t 'r' oDir r r ilr . otat n' . ' t ,xlj"cfirpl.p rnJna"! lirer upr er i\ ul ^ 'l n ' r" irr' n l]Jn nJ du t o ' . l a h i l i r ' adiF"' : \ , 1^\n rf.Fr",o-rp rrlli"i

tl'r,rezi.'..r .lur,aan'rmi -,rirorii . r t ur .,l n . . j u' l i . i o c" Tr mud r'^ rnrl '^- m,i nbi:rruit"'e ir,' 'u 3 l'rrrl iu-r''nlorll nJrat;" d'li,clii"lor hi..ilobi"p l:"ni* ri'i- " qi -Fv,,,np.lnd "Jj..riv"l" bi"ilibi" mir pu{i'r ohi-'ruir"f' d" ""miirair" u dj,rrurulf^t'n"lur I 'rlp)iiorr"r'" unirnri ' 'u "'n' 'rr.'d"1. cu ambelelorme de comperatil'li super' adjectivele lt;l ln'ceea ce pri.!.c,ste in D:trc mnsurn dictate de eulonie, riLn:lativ. aleqereaiirt.e icestea esle exrres;''iiite. Pe linsi aceasta.in lir a votbiid si l preferato fornele llcrii(naie. pe cind in ldba Lterard se lotosescnrai mult fomele oonstNite 'tnarL si nost.un.l. adiFci\p.u nusn!n"\clu'rv lilprlrd - 'J onl;qa" b;:a"l hd sir7u".t". avin,i.aEr, um .-a aru ' i649r.' mJr torm'la nFrl'\ion1' "r sc conformeazi acelorasiuzanle rl Li;2 . 3) ,{.lto pn4i de vorbiro ailjedirrte
loor ' \lho li\r on tlc r pp' . lld r r'.vn "5 r $ 6 lf . . lir lp. , Lr nuLr ' . Ou tlfu inchdcs ihc proauction oi lhc cl,i.,r, \1'eren't l.he littlc bov's {ords the

,ii,[

witfs

4) Concluzie.- In englezaconternporani au sparl tiparele in comparat:flcxionat€, lotme ca nlore!lat1' n1't' rdieciivelor, pe lingi mon;- ;i l0isilabele .oi|t. n"r, obt". niro prau!, not sutl 'au n1r" hat. n 'lauda - rulrt" i n'o'" o"'1. t"ore ' kn"" bud l" BllC -,bior uulplin". 'nplcorul^si;o,le w'tr-al,'t*d. na\t tr ll'ihlar d. n,oJ 'r'tl dt'ss d - plra tinaar. no.t iormFlein i/{ si -pd ru gradr dp ,.rnparali' lln\io rHr'z ro0l- 'rpbrrr' r,irr,rri im. dov' dindu-seuiranti lrdi leri'iL ;r''pi"1r" li irlpr"idr)l' elocvente !i lraparrte cind se abat dt la ltorn{ decit conlornindu-se, curnni: acesteia.Iiete de fapt, era noului. a ruper;i iuturor ldnludlor, a incercini : oelor nlai indrezn€!; fi ,,trnsnite". din care izbucnesc adesea idei genirl Excnple:
1 " t , ''J h4t L t r ' r l " r ' \ 1 1 1 " \' \ o nc ot th c aood , a/ 't h " C n ; t ' o \ b 'c ''l r o i Itth . lo"t 't'- 'nns ! t nr lb' t ol 11"' t t "t ' ll l\ r ll r . lt , . , P t 1 " , ! ) . DorF b c"f-tno sn lo n- t hP. L - , , i44 'th"thrt r r ' t r J l r '. . 1 r 5 'r p p l " r l{ m n"' j"' l. r Th .-r''lu/ 'a " 1968) . '1...) LMdon nn:: an th. ,.t!J ro ,.,,,3 ll't lciilinscs{ ll"a I lJohn os|onf. ''"""!l; ,f tt Inn,tah tLnr. i' itt Pnti i'aftt ,*t"r,"*"., ' 1906) . (Pcni trltimele l. c i . iiat ! , . i. S 6t 8r ' llhc tLLrcv comcl' t I

r lii'i
*7.\dall

r" ?1 .* ", r1.^4li,anno,at
t \ l . o l "- .r , t"n d r ' " in c,- l

apa a -at , e t . n .
a ab

,n L .ta "t

t-rnu.

1!:-.

l a:

-

COMPARATIA

1!0

..Iar pe cotorutcirlii Guinncss Bookof Reco s 1971,printre alte superla:i|e este dat mostestr." E\.ident ce aoeste citaie nrl constituiemodelede urmat. Ele alrartin . nuid o mFniu . a rc 1 na . c . t . a z a l lu r u r o rli.pnlplor- dom.niul srrii' o ru lu i, !u poatedaclLsd ne edifice,pe unii locindu-ne, pe a4ii tnctntindu-ne.
B. CO}I?AEATIA
{COMfAIUSO\

ADJECTIYXIOB

I,TNGI

OT I]ONC -{DJEqIIYES)

s 663

liv p,.i larli"ipii formeazrcompdrativul Urm;roarplF €d.ie, Si superlativul | 65,1 prA pdind adjectiYele ' L djurorul adrerbplnrnorpr .:i ,l?ovz ;i participiileln sradul pozitiv: 1) adjoctirele mai lrugi ds doud silabe: $ 666
atiractiye }eautifut (rcativc cu.ious despoidcnt imporl,ant

Ete mp l ul rtlr!(iive nore atiractive nost attractire dependable -more dep€ndnble -nict d€pendanlc

2) numoro:rse adjective bisilabice pe prima silabd: eu aceentul
lSill. d o,il. tdr ' , t e rraglre hostilc acid . , n ,,i d t i \:d .onstant ,.a s r tr.re " t lrddent ; dd. t1.:o..,.. ..

S ri".,6

advcNc t.opcf In special adjeclivcle bisilabice termir.rte ln ,t.'. -tsl, -tlc, Jcss Fi -o"s: r.ri r. L r ,i ., Ioolish tnilhlcss .toJous.ctc E te mp l e: r{ti* more fttivf .omic rnorc comic nrosl lonrn loolish - mor loolish - nDsl toolish (V€zi ,!i S 611 61,61 3) parficitiile adjoetivate ,si adjcctivele cu sufi)ic p&ticipidle: s k rl te d I h a .m i rg u!!rt lrdncd .rnvnicilg. el,r.

E r e m V Ie:
m.st. slrn - morc skilled - nost skiled -mo.e cliar.i.g -nost cha.ning L x c c p ! i i : crooked,Ei tritAc.l. care pot aiea lsi formele fleriionare. skill.d charming

h stilul tatnilidr, pentru a se accentua si mai mutt irieea de superlaiiv, 'L n er^dFF ddj,,li\F. tn .pe"iat.cl" in -obt. -.t. -[,]t. -;J :i -;ng. ,oru:i .upFrtai!uL ir 'FrmiIdre 4.{ nu au .o^ pdrativulln -rr. formear,J -...t.la'dFt .J lo.ma netlolrorArn l
Jq ktrd rd -1 . biflp n,. I I ,r"rr'p s, .h, p r'.rp. . dnd d. s ' o. j, nlr ir fr J gLl, sr ' im pid. . r p ic id. . d nm lab, ps t .n"ible. r t im idpr ' toyalest tircdest Do yo.Df damnedat I He was the .asgrd6r clild. . 'r n n 'n q p c sinn,ni.sr ss.nsinsN doAs"d.l dninlenest. etc

S 658

I CoDptuatjvul adverbului nr.r. s iJuptrlatirul idrp rn!l'r' ni, / l I - c..natica nmbii cnehze

130

659

4) ntte ptuli do rorbire a.dieotirate:
The v dall' ^m P:

" mu liis nelheNso lle loted-o* than uncleio him
660 """

Yo; d,

,, i'"'

F

bd !r: 'r';,,",P

1,J1"1,', p,n., -.

Notd douir comparattl e Un substantiv sau €chivalentul si\r poate ti lnsolit de adverbul tn're cu cotsiruii ali ;et tn -cr terminat unul * fo'"t"" aii".ite. pe a'alitica {concea prccedd .i.teiice (h -,. sau'e'r) i; ;;;";;;i;;; struifi cu mo,'e sau mosl,):
She looked ,.ot" ot r\e Lwn ti; ?!tarc' and rhe hoft cteeet ie iii-lr'" "ia;", idpii de.progresje Pentru simpljlicareins6, p€ntru rpdarea "ssu,pentru jn lnod, obj\nuit' trrfixul -€l la adjdctivele scurte'care pnm'sc *"".t"""", mote: €d!Frbul on'lrrrilS comparalivpoi avea si forma ' ' 'r a'd m"' e't"/ftsins llian erer'

'

ilffJl"' ll"i*Ti."*;:1ff?ii''i,,:T'#iix o ' om" dd' ' r rnot"t' tP dnt ' P at f o r" t ; . fi o ;'
' o ' r!R " r' a m' s,:;" if ;'i\i,"i"ii'^!:o r. R;a'"i"'""ii; "'," He te)\ tu e deld thaD axve

S 661
S 662 """

oRroGRArIrl
!o'al; dF o siDgurd a, Adjcclilele rPrmina'"ln r o 'un'oana'zprF"pdar! -Ps/: onro"nJ i4ainrpa'uli\plor -pr $r 'ldblpa/i sl ".rr'l'qi "i.."trr0ra bigg"r - biSg' t,,c - th nnesr rrin - hinnFr pr€cedatd de ln celelalte cazu (adicd atunci ctnd consoanalinale este nu est'eaccen_ precedenti vocala clnd sau consoand, o alti doua vocale ori de iuatl), consoanafinalE nu se dubleazi:
sweet deal solt qniet -sweele. - dcate. -s o l i e r -quteler

663

,J Adjectiv€le ternjnale sulixelor -.I sau -€sl:
nice lrue lree

jn 'e mut sau in 'ee pierd pe 'e linal lnaintea
- nicer - t.!er

ri01

jerminrra in _/ pre''dsL dF o \o'aln neac'entust; , LJ adlc.li!Flc (nr sr in.ca amprrcsnaJ: In limba pnglFTn / fin-l eslts,l,rblsr -ca'elullest -ra'etul]er -cheedullest -cheerlull'r o ellest "r'-""ii"t ordcl -cruello tivele lernrinst" l n -y p re cedat de o consoa i dJ '\dj€i srrlixelor in -i inainrea '/ :L - dricst'r drie.r drJ -lazrest tazY - l3zi|r
r Uniis.dirori nr|.rpreiear. h a|€sr cazconpuati{ulnde r\ d" ' i n ,.i d !,' , d ." i 1 1 ' o n ' p;' J r . le- r , t , : , r ; - " . p ar nl, iv ulli! ' l J n g l $ rl a trr trru l /d rl F " t Cu t r c ep tra(o n s o a rP ro,, r ! tr _ ' dtYest. dtyet aaris n't "Uncori schi nbn p€-:l

666

0afiind sinonimo adsf,ral : orrrnJ )' r' Lrroi '

COMPA&TIA

t81

Ctnd ins[ -3, fina] este precedaLd€ o vocali. el se meo.tin€: gay - galest -gaJe. cov Eacepl iil shy sly

itl,{ wry1
ADJOCIIYECU FOnlIn Dr colrPAB,\TId )l-0riDour, aT-tr Urmdtoareleadj€ctive ar fornre neregulatepentru gradelede comparatie:
Pozitie

s c66

Canl.lratir

Superlalir

l
ilt lilile

I
{

\1o.st

I litl.lesi

t t
{ J I

J oldcsi I l.lihesl. iarth.rnost n ' .th emrost I l ,rrl h c s tr.

rarc
hind

{

I iitst hindmosl, hindcmost

de ad1erb, Urmdtoarele cuvinte, cind sint la gradul pozitiv,au tunc,tie iar la gradele comparaiiv Ei superlativ ar tunclie de adjeotiv: (beneath)
{'D )

s 667

(our) (upl
l compdaiivul

{

I uLmosi. ultcrmosl upm0sri uupernosL
adjectivelor ,r.v 9i,,y si t adeseo.i ortogfatiale ti

qi.sute.lativul

r Icn ru ,.1 1 si ,l/. ru va oar e dp adi"c liv . v "ui s i { : 64 a , - 6 q b 3t d4hc" r Ia -t r,rob dL : 1,la or ieine, . onplr ali\ ui ddv " " l , u l u i / o 'e . s d . d J p l 'r n i i !L o ri. a l" i /o rtr /u";t .I f!|. un s r n: r lJ Liv ior m dt dupd . , r l* . npd. ri:n d la oris n . .o m of f J liiul aJ v Fr b- lui , , jn; , "d"" . e r '! u n d 'r b l u r o m p " r a l i v i dverbulu jatsn. ncr, a losi sunolatiiul fo,l d or ' s r Dor n"t l, iv F t or ' nar . d r , I d l . i n l d d s " " L 'n u i / , r , i " rcrcn^t:tr;''an - d . pl 1d\ "t n ) t D 'n o r t t n l 'r , b " n g f r l , -p ? , cslp ul i.omp ,mtiv ror nr ' la n". ' '

132 668 pu'otele cardinal€ au urmitoarele grade de -{djactirele rele toare la comparalie:
easlmostl. casternmost no hmostl. northernnost souihm.str. southernmost westmostl,w.sterndost 6t i0 ru l orma nprcln s r ar i da a' F ' l e l o rm" m a i ' \i ' ; o -c ri ' .' l ' sunprl sl i ve l a unpre t?' s/ . p ri r' .d ' u !' a rF s .u p F rl € l i !L l u i ' r ' prmrne!r' !u l a j e. . ons lr ui adjectire sau adr€rbel
n p

i.d

n c .a .o rn o " ' i J o r l h "I r't\csouth{nnan leak ol ihe range \ " old. f i; 0 r, fo' .t' P a .n , n " l p i d l -' l i \F C. s i ' n lin, b ' r ' o' 1" d .o" ' puo' ; nt l ^rat' o.tP quu' apt' ^n4t ri , D ' s l ' ' u b t i rp ri ' pc t . . r r ' " ' r ' rf' a iie ' rrr d ^ "i i ip l ' ' nl ru i di l l n' l r\el ' si nr ,' rF p n rn t. i rc n " . n t;t j-ri r.-1 L n ' o rIo l rd r \ ' cu ' " l .rIj ' r i r' r' . . -. , , b. , r ,.''"l" , .r F . ; J i .i ' l ' i m, p ri nt r e ac es t ens e a fl i i o i e ri e d e c i l .c rr L rrj n t. Iro\.nrtP tal e qui re urn nmra ,l r^ l ' i , F .h l u rn ;:i i r' l l " ' Joru\i nrul rpo-ra' ' : l d ,i n ' i. ar l' J r "

r cr n o r ,

b@1. of

r .p

P\ nJ or

opt i LUnl

671

n E a numpro (F quD'l I n,ili 'r "n""'/ 'dra'ler:7 'r pri- praT' i ,in,l '-.I oruti in -od "ul"r'r',r sjr'"ial tnrraiul lerni in laLi,; -..e tnrrln,., "L.otu - adeseorisi in ccl masculin - lorme ca: ihe mosr P.r/4" lit e lat
ine 9t,,a'des' jnzz brnd a rcr!/ tnique clild p"*"r poise in anvonc lor hcatd a nDa ?aled musical)' I harc neac. seer ".ou she sill do eelg York ler olporllnity. Giren '.DrlaDle
\t ( d t itu t" . s\

neregulati obse alii asupraadiectirelorcu gratle ile comp&rafie

$ 8i2 ! 6?t

Itt
1) Adjectilul tll (: bolnav) are form€le de comparalie neregulate ttors'
Sh " (d. -,s" She \Y.rs tu.. \ t h, l I c a\ hF"lis r : s hr h J J c d l l e d u p l a r d o ' o r ' ak n to noop|ar' s h n s h" \ "' f adiJ tZ /@ree, ihan rYc thougnt"

674 "''

si'ft ln SLiA' ill este€chiill €si'e arlie(Livului 2) lll si siek. Sinonirnul avindacela;iinlel€s: i;;;al ai atlieciivuluisi(A'anbeleadjective ""}".t"i;ii
t Fo.nc r.r. intrebuinlate. : hr1dn61 '3 afietu^t los.rmost : lae.st.
in the e,s n dle 'tui.lmost: 6 tapmost.: al lhc aerg tap. r tn l.tna st la! , s l I\'?r ri r'.h-'la\ t . ll \ l: l ir j r 111 oP. r r ' ' p r a

5l

co@aRATu

183

l,ohar,. In Angtia. tll (: bolnav) este iDtrebuinlat numai pr€dical,iv.r\tribuliv ti ca adjectiv substanlivatr, este lnlocuii prin st./r (: bolnav):
t l. a, lt c oti ! ) t ot t ibbu! )

(substdntie) The si.l musi be caredlor. Cind lnsi sic& estelntrebuintat predicatir. lo &dsi.A are in ,{nglia nuanla de: a avea greatri (la propriu), (iar la tigurat) a ii sAtul pestemisurd de cineva
(ptdicatio ) "You look livid. af. you 3i.l?"

_ ,, r.s,rd'\ - l l.tsl t , | ..,1 6 \ o u l o Jk,// L,1 ' nJ H F F 1 .r ,l n ' "n . 1 p i\ n n ,, /,.1 i\p on n" . ", ".1l l o.\:

"As st./. as a.atl I am alwavs s€dst.l *hen I cross the Chinnel! - it's alw.rls ronsh. and I nm such a bad sailor."3 I'n si.ft la;d lire-,i) ol felliig her fo do her job t.opcrry.

3) Ani,oninrul adjertil'ului ill esle {r.ll sau in good ltahlt. In bad heaLth S 6i5 este sinonim or ill. Heahhlt nu este antonimul adjecti!'ului til. tns€nmnd ,,sdnitos" ln sensul de a fi iniotd€auna sdndtos.rezistent la holi. robust. 4) IlL ri trotst, norst poi ii !i subsi,antii'e9i adverle:
I woD't hale Jou think ill ol Jour felioF. lSlbst.) l' ll t binl @roe ot l,im il he doc s r ' l c om e. { Subs i. ) Let him d o h is !o rr. t s ! is r . ) Ii wiil 80 il, $iti Xon il ]ou don'l oneX Iour doclor. (Idv.) I'o.J plaJcd Dadly. fiona piar.d,orra dd Elsie played ao.-"l. (,,\dv.)

Little. A littlea,- fcw. A I€$a
1) Lit e- - LittLc are cinci lnlelesuri principale: O lAlhs \lntn substanliv plural) (contrar: narn) : , pu,tin(i)" (: insuficiont). se rclere la cantitate sdu duratd, are comparati'ul lr.rs ti supeflativul /.asl _sieste intrebujniat cu substantive nenumerabile (nullle do Inalcrii, d€ abstraclii etc.):
lirl? donfl. htne \\ite. Utne timc. li,ri€ intelesl. She has lri& (: trea pltille) knowledgeol DnglisJi,so she .a.'t r€ad inis boo[. 1..$ joy, lcsr air. i.ss wo.k. lcis tngl'sn. les.s noisc Hc look the line ol lcas, resistarc€and accelteii to be pui on a diet. , b) a liulA intrebuin,tat, cu substantive nenumerabile (deci fnre substant iy plu ra l -si gr ade de c om p a ra l i r) :.,p u l i n (e )" (: .rceva" .,,ni qte" :si noni nr: son€1. este lntrebuinlaL cu Eubsianlivele care nu au plurfll: a til1|emone\, a tiltL winc,.r little wliile. o lnre jnicrest She has d hirL (: cevar krowledgc or Xnglish. so shc ran reid thjs )ook. p rl nj , t L " n . l ' .v ' r : I' a n d b /s b p .d u .dI l J\d /,,,r J m oiP v . ].1 n .J n ,s 1 l i v ., ) | 4d n h ' ,j ' n i - h l n d b .s b F .d u s . I h \d o 1." t" ,- c" \al I m on r! \.a n a ,' ,ri i v r' l v e ,i i i S 6 8 7 ) cJ lilll€ (+ subst. p1.) : ,,mic(n)"6 se referd la f.irsta copiilor nici ;i a animalelor tinere (: pui); are comparativul yourger ti sup€rlarivul Soangesl (iD stilul familiar,lirer qi hlles4: Ji m i s r l, t r , boJ hp k m! t,o o k sF ll ilt F r ' 1onr / i rd o ;ts l \l l a p ,i i ,l " .D r" ,4 r sl i d d" Iranl a. CanalLt i InA I is h) r har " 4 'Tl s p FL. a bal siilat .r rotdcaum de .,lu de m re: !r//,ti /./bint dJ " . t j\ p, , "uieri ri rrri v " s d u n ,h o ' a rt" d e r" rm:nari v.r.ol i utesi of,! s lD ' ad j .ri vp npholr ' p ( dp rp rm i n d ri \., 82t . 6;\d j cct , v delf , r ninaliv 1 S 8 2 1 ). t\p 7 i S 6 -{djectjv calilicaliv ($ 609J.

s 676
S $77 S 6;8

g 67$

g 660

134 Tnp sn arrca {a s lr J ine I ' r / ; r r L o' P' Th" /;,/P' kjd ' 5r r r pk ' d r n or nqnr ' He is our /t',6'| (onc) (Ian l ' o i;

S 6!1 "' '

1 p tLinr'1rlor'dnrrai plrL ' mi46' .r,liah(r:ibubFl 'l'F';il:':. compad' gra4F t' l; d;m'r'siun' i-do1"r'LJ"i r^re'd ..rn* ;t,u, lPast "'r"hri asrazrr 'ru I s''13 si superldri!ul f1L;r.ompstr'rt'lp'.s'pu1rnu'i:ar (j!i stilul tamiiiar' lil'61)r
i r' ti 1 " m' nd " u1 I ' ' . llr l. r oo d i ' 1 l P n. r n- , no t , " a n J n h l l h ' n d n rs ' L
'h tlrc t?ss2' tead h rr l.ssrr \o'L j, ll' r l' iet loc r q
tr 6 s' J(

ri c

r,,.." ,.,fi ." 1 '6 ':,;i.,' , rr,. i : r r ": g n ri ,.r ,r . \D,,r p5 "q r ' r d Lown -,oe u" lhP |t
oi i,i;
I bt

,:.. .hon+ ," /-.... P o\".1
o' /"' r /

' lF a "" i" , . , ' " , t , . r" a ' ' o " i J U " u r ' l L ' j tn e /td e s -t c r nLlPlla r lt r i l T lt lir , . 5l lh ' n A' o l d a rrYIn e J o nrrrnl d afecri { 6 v rrs l s :' r d rr' " run" ' ' f" ( C\i J t nJ t t t 1 1 " - IF l " ' l u ' Lu t 13' I LLLt s u r d x n rn u trv : lls dulins lt'rle girll (|'.tila tur dragi Il Iliess rour li'l' lrei'L l ((le ntimioal1 bun{l) . . s hc hadillc l n o s td c l S n l l u l n l ,i .v o i c e ' th cgal estl i l tl €l uugh,tl l eni osti N oi l ati t' g lirlc vars s c ' ' F i rl o' ' ri ' pri r' st" d// " u.grr' l el e de ln li r Lr " i l ry d mo d e rn a /J // e GD:i mar rFt' rn l " si mpl d drrnFn5rurre ! t l. r tt rq i s n ttt" \t' o tu n ri ' i ' l ' ' ""' ,"- " . i, 1i" i, i ' olp' r' u n ' u b s rd r l i \' o n ' re l : ', "i " " " I s aF aS w€e tl l ,l l c h o u s c .m n c n s n a /l ? /| h { nJox.si i ,l l csnd]/' s,hoIB eIl l ' Lveeve

j'"

$ riAl

i./.CuvintullirrlePoateli '"i:
ll'he /tl, (adj) (subsll I caa gile votr is, l'n atraid' loo lirdc

,.o r,/,r€. dome ,Fve f;:'i liJ;"li$"'."' g $c l lPr ^v er lr
\ ll,r€ g uis d lor l; r' lL_F

S 085

|drerbI
'lr"rt

it.j,, liiTo " ;;",;;;; "ii::1,i,i"i'',i,";i
r

lt lc I r . l. I n

|'

oLsr

'::"J'.4"'1"1:',''i';'",:il'rli";"" sp'. sri\6 rl ' nm ' s LrctulnI' dupn | (. ) - /. I'l"':hir",": * n

A tenlLe

" ""'." "':,', lj:i ii i;l ::"ll r.*:,:' F.:'l; r l:il ;"1' *r ""if, n '" -'t'i '* !l i - t' / v ' ' ub' r ' pl r ' . pulr r r * , , . t " ""' r , i . ' . . ' i r" *l s''':f;1;::r,,,ti.llijj:::,ll::ijii;;;1,:l::,,,i,1',"1
r r lr r f r Lit r s f oql ': ,\Lj(r lrv l\:!rrn ri plr r r al. l" r s l' eLr r t e

:t:f.':;l i
'til' O(.',

,,',1;,rl rl,;.1; " Id'tDredrd'iv ,ti 'j :, l', ,:1, :,;:1
LJ o d' 1Dt hll

coMP-AnATb

135

nF!".j).]:i 1l I' nuanla puzrtrir: arri'l1l"l:
tI. Lal nid "

,r'J
.

,-or oo,'ul 'oncr,., r:il^rlr t,,tt .i o [e'.'.,tc
., "r , t ii nt".r \ lf r

ll-',q rp

n.,q"

/,"

I . u, in. , - i, . d.

nrd mJd

't,,4 ,/1

.,iifd

.' / , r

lr i"nds

o I n, r ' l: m

.;

l,,nelL

de p r i , " n i

ILi.r,

1l :i ft{rcr. Leasl.i tc$c.t. Drt tiind .r t1l/p( cub.,..(./ n, pri. { fbb . I:\ pa. n,c i ar'rrra r,!r/:r i- -ub-'. pl.rn,n ar.t. /"* ri /",./,iin. rn" n"t",," ";^r rFntrta',. lptFr Fi /Fs"o' p-n,ru ru n if. I o,Uti, , umF0ro tivul /as'.,rFir:a raondndi l 6 ti" Flirdt ppn-rut..t", irFn f^rm"i r. .i, rr. i in/r 1,'in rrmba pnsrpri ronr.mpo,a,'ap",|'ru i p\p"i_d I un,..rur, l'1::l: ri !l"gl' op.r ,rr .ompJrirr\ Ft pozrl.\ut,r' /. r :
ks.s r.oots Lls clorhes lprs leopte There ]rcre Lsr thsn ten p-.opleir ihe wa,uns-rood. 4) Little ,ci much sint antonime. ca ;si pluralele respectire te\r si rrany.

ti^m..

S {i89

llnrb. lli

Ir. -

urh. Long

s 690
q ri rt

l ' ]l u r b. llant . l tl .,,s t. s s .rc .tp rn rrFb,ri r,,a,,,r.ub.." nti \p n num ta b t t ps t F \ pr i' 1li. d n i tr..a :" rb d i " rp ^ rrj v i . n o n,t 1 -rbrt. nt r. i nrl e. D y! n l a (u s ubs t anli\ . nu d p td h i l .. i ma n L ,rd r rt . D eo.Fbi rasdtnrr_ rco.te "\

:: l i " i , , : i " . 1:.",.t,.,.h r cp4'i,d.i,r!^ c'bi,.adinrrp rd i. , r; \ F r,

/ r, . . i

/.,\.

.,mu{:h', ,,mnny', prin sinonimele lor. . 2) Intoeuirer cuyintelor !i Cu_ vintele r?rci Fi r?anl sint, adescorjinl;cuite p"";'"inon;,"t" tn", ,-"*rl fi*, a La..t)dpdl tott. pt.pntt a[. t t,,! tat) ttam.\.ta6 (of) \tarr.). t?.)|u t,ton1, .rnonime tl d.Fstp se a.langd d tvud qara:r.tttt tnanu . o yod) nunbq (o[)l sr d /nr:p {sAl,o "t,al Tlr I h a d J i . n ,'hh"d In In F .o o o F r .,' v,
a

{ 699 '

..d | 1 soot) d.dt ot thc n,t\rF !.4 t b""'1,"ri1""1!ii.:""f o " 'vprd' oa +H,:'IJ':'il";i ;"rl!.:'"""' ' ''""" . ot t i np^.1'

" r,.

T ha'

i l; '" rl ' ; , : , 1 j ": ; ' , ,i 1 i ," i 1 1 .,,,,,
\ "F.

lot a t too . l . , t . oi- " ". d, lv t o L. . 6r t ot t , , t h , . j r , t F n s n m . . . d, I n- r na . , t : 0 r I , n d _ , n U , . d s " r s . B,"ot o e. . d ) t , nt b4 ot t h . r r in, or n,, h .i ,,,"t,,t ".te mai t i. , Lr j , r t t ^ r n . t d I s , r i - . . i t

" 'd

Jd' iol' ,

mdr i{ .

lll "chr ln r"Fdi.p .rrr - inoni , , ; nt out .. l o l ^ . r Jll,; \..F\it.,.u.,'rlo lat of . t ot s olt n

lil,llurb. T.or-9. lLu,:h ,t lun! -jnL uneo sinonime si se traduo jn Umba .a 69J roIar., pfln r.nur(;) . , i ,[ ,],o-pbi,^l "ta1r.r n f, exprim.l cantitatca. numirrrl, morc sugerl t jdeea de ,,. ,,artiijona1,., lrzs e\pinlA !durai.d,, i r.inlp:
'l'ip r is . ' t ioo d. n r 0r !) ro nos. Ilt tilf s 0' ie, , r . c ak e. . . " 4o, . qu. . r o i o, , d ll." .- ' p tri n r I o in" Ar . I ne s o, , p -,r.-

" " ;-:t r1"r.1 i pli:,i,i,r: t,'rl'" :iLjl lr,,Jtitr'i*l]. ll;,ii';iir,i " " " " '" " n e n !""r ' r ' ""oud L Jnlp":,i rr\" .. 1 .rn r r r. ,r" ," rn:Iarj \( ,6 82r.

:1 !..!, s i , t , J

,.ii."1 . . . il J , l : ' . ; ; ' , ,l' ' : "" '';';.l rr'

r30

""11;'1,i,l;;,, t "1;,"1i-: li";: i),l',T,, *"'". """':l'1".'"i'l:;':
S ti9.1 der de furclie' - 'l4arh poate aveati funclra 4) Schimbare a) subslantLe '

i inT;;.::''';;"""

':'l''"i"'t

"**' y,' i"i;l"4#"T'i'if :iiiti','fi'1"
He js ha'l belter toilaY

b) adterh:

s t rig; "-'

lrrelor pozir'i!Pr}Jx"l s' E'r' forrd dP sulPrlarit al P'lj' quoqran 5r llocl. /r'x"" ) :r 'u ,,,,,i.':;';,.Fhu,ni esz;.u."r,-;"i'ri'.t',",""o4tl

r.r"a*o )'1il,rrl'i'ii'" .l'Tj"'.1"""i #-:"i''"Tf

'

*a" r , " :. i, .a ud " r ' r r c,b s'n r ; '; 11n i, " , ! , i , " i l ' , 0 , " . ,d ' ,".r u b . .r ' . <r ' i \ u
h at" r hd 44 r ' on \ ' ' " Tho ;"n^ r-{il rt"., n{'nle lik' lnlstr r ' ol a l ^ '\ ' l i r d I 'd p l r )

-''. i: .sr;" iiir:,.l.ri;;ii;;"til"i:n; i';Ti''''"b""r"'
less' more lqr ca;i comparativele ti) llost;i lcrst rint antonime, Elder' Dldest 0ldcr' 0ldostl

.,i,;1. i!'id?:'' ;'I :l"i:',1"1";;: i:ll"

( 691; { 697

s (i98
""

Erdosr. - q":;",r:,1,i r, ildts,. :"0.;i1"""' 1'. lf t nr r x pr r o ll,:l".il;'iil.j'liXi,i qe rr'r P nt em lr ilor io a pli";
I i'as an ,lda son' {h",. m! rt . \ r \ r s lr .

i ; i ; ' i i ' "' ; . :
L, . nr i. o c

,j .li ,; " 1 ';;" " .'mr'" ' ' /p ) """

H' Ii"h s"" r no*lr Pd
" l ' ri at' rrl ui l ;i l ' hm

Ti: 1"":": :'':i':';'" .t],i';,':' ;l;;ii',i;*:tii';l ::*:i'if t,;;.'; r""''""" ""r' Iir:;i,,; llli..'.1f".''i:i l''ll,l'" ,""' .,1.'';;: l.'l;:ll, ":l;1'"
n iaLa { - n; 1i t" " ''

ro rn p ' " rp l i c a l i p ' r' o a .ral ol l i rr 'p

i1 .;.. ," "li::;^i1..;lj.;'Iml ;rj:"' rrd'a' ' '' ''' p^ 'h" r'rras i",;"{i li l:l ri'i,"I.1.,.::'":;"-li;*
: v i 'i 'c e l o f c r \ o f u r m d l i n 1 'e cn L., c,ou, ". ' ,

*illi:: liiii*ll*-* iilr;rrN" ;,1';,li*; llil-.,,," "*llir !h? Etda. ;;'.;{,:;1,i;'i;,,-ii 'Hlii'"i'ii.,-.. r-oB. ,.:d.nu,n,' t n') a 1 t'

*'i*lj"illit,,i;i';;,:j:r';;:,l.rtt,''"*i ]'::",,.,"..,r,u,,s r \u dit /,ie nld€' ; lr nt ' u J I i deos ebI o

COIIPARATA

13?

tTdel poato fi ,ri sub,(tantiv cu acelaqinrleles lnrgil: Uv b.o!he. is Da ,lnr nv th.e rea6. Yi,n sb"dld onslnpr louri Fa?r's She rcsistedurc adrice ol he. .Id,./s.

s 699

Comparatkr .ld.r u poate fi urmat de coniuDctial/rd,. este nu',L.ri i 700 . riburi! .i n'r p Intrpb i ar tF,lrru a',ir,,Hlsi tu.r,rri. F.tF sub.ri,1i\'. .ou lnsorclle intoideauna un substanliv. ij este ln genoreprec€dar de articol ori de un adi€ctiv poBesivsau demorstrativ al,unai cind-calificd un substani,iv la singxlar.Cu un sub-rlanliv la plural poate lj ljpsil, de determinanli(\ezj exemplele cilale mai sus). 2) Older. Oldest.- Fornrele oldd,'!i ,ld.sl sint, intrebuiniate atit pentru { ?01 fiinl€, clt Fi pentru lucrurj, ,ldf,'fiind folosii atunci cind este. sau poate f;. rrmat de ,ran: ]iis .llr sistcr is ten yeds oldc. ll.hanhe/hjml.1
I y d o g k o/ dpr t hi, ' r o u 6 of \ lilr " n. ko rk s i .,o n s i d m b l y q J u _ I o ..n p , She is llre ,idrr, woman I cso mel. ln vrenre ce c?derEi rld€sr sug€reazi in eenere o comparatrre inrre tralj sau r uror i . Ii i sa u f iic " . t or n, el" o i .i ,r a i n 1 dri s i n i tn rre b u i nl oi " , j rrJ , ump,,-runri ralia nu se face tntre membdi lamiliei restrtnse, atunci ;hd comparatia nu cirnstituie obieclivul prjneipal sau alunci clnd mentionarea rirstei_mai-are o alt6 implicalie decit, cea comparai,ivi,. Astfel: she had an dd./ sister. (Avea o sorl mai mare decli. ea.) Slre }ad aD ou,r sister. llrea o sold mai ln vl6tl1 deott accca despr€ care est.erorba.) ls there no ol&. son? lDi dectl accsra?) 1Nu exisH t]r nlt iiu mai compet€ntp n vtusl.a (s ar .ldtst) cotLsinin mod obiFuit nu tnsea'nni ,,un vtu MA eLd.er ai mare (respociil' cel mai mare) al m€u", ci,,cel mai in vt$ti dintre doi (sau mai rnulli) frali, veri ai mei". MA alder cousin este 1n genere preferar pentru intelesurite ,,vbrul meu mai mare decii mine" sau ,,.e1 mai tn vjrsii dintre doi veri ai m€i care nu sint fra!i.'3. Formel€ r/dn (cind nu este urmat de ,rolJ $ olddst indici rirsri tnaintatd sau durati de tinrp lndelungatd: She is an orlp, woman f: o lcmeie (mai) tn !lrst{. tn etat€]. Tlje ,ldar hilding jn this to{'n js the Gui)dlall. Shc is rny o?d.srfriend ( = c.a nai vcctre pieten{)a. \ 702 " n ..l' j o/,,. rtJr th" tl u' rm

S ?03

I'arther. Fart'hest.-

T'urthcr,Furthest !i ?0{

1) Farther, torthcst si further, lurthest sint adeseori intrebuinlate fdrh pentru dislarl.i (: n1ai dcpirtat, cel mai depdrtat): deosebire.
I s\rari 10 l.he fatlhrt b^rL ot th. rivcr. lDistantel \1rr .onld $! lli. /orlkr cnd oi th-" strcct. (Disi:inlii)
I V ezi S 698 . 3 H.W. Fow]er. ,p .n. clder, -est. 3 H.W.Io\rlcr,ot..n . cld0.r -cst, C,rrtr liidl trn s[]rsi{ni.i! saD...v.I|i"), interlr'rtara date ai.l lentru glDul nasfllir.stc

tle s.nxt comun i ..!arr,. r€lalrni Fi UItrr .el

4 p. nt1, sp-,i , L r., r ' r La dr n , pJ - t i n"op, ii", . , , r t o d , d \ p . . r v . . r t n r e l + r ,, . . ^"a ma r!'n. r--rF , ' b/ . . pt i. r' !. r.or dr,r.i o.!e .fill'r'.,c', , r nd n,- . |,tt. ,o lnJ, i. , . , LA". | \1i1"t Ac.lntnt.t , i. lt t . r1o J . r t ' l ."iA" t] t , . r o. uo ' , 145' " lt

13E

al., ,',i" ..,r,'i"''i i" t dc djstanln lipse-ste:' ""|.".,i

l r L lin Li c l s l, r; .o n l c m r^ ro

i"t"*i"'t to;n'"t"['/rth"t'//i/'ai 'ind ineea

i

fo a h r E i fd h t ' r' l

l cgarF de i dcea do

plus rrr€dus ..rn ..rupl,mcn,-r-. ,,,^'";-ii,l,i .1,,.;i;; ia""" a. ,,"aitio',"r.
uoeriri prin ,,alti, ,,mai" etc.):
TIi.r d is r o nded f o- / ' , t / , . "' dTpl L u o / 1/ ' " . on idPr dr ion h" d r id' d t o I .m told there is no /u,ft€r nevs' r ' ds on inr m y d ' i 'i u r ' t ll u v " lor r r / , / ' "" T _ ! I i' k r ' oul / , ' r l"" dplll' s r \ n o n 'n s lo br dv } er p ' o" I $:. /,/r" 'I :. , s I p / r "i/ F' pnil h' In l rs nn rusrons' ' ou- d r p a 'i [urthq li futthest

at the lt1hzt end oI ihe room' 'lhere was a st.rhLe we headcdior l,he/drtn"/ sho'e ft ii"it*r lo^; rion the sohoolis nine grad' I''l thersilu t, / sa rplpra in mod oLiinuil ld rimp crnlitala ssu

ln li-b a pn rlP/ a . onr am por s nd s F r - inde l n F a ' a l f f 'n a l " lot r ' ale t a h||ifo t 'l 'a t in lo a' . ' r z "r ih . , inlulJiri.. ' Th€ town is ier kilometrcs a$aX at the /uttust

$ 705

2) SuperloLivele larthermost,l ffffienmit

enprnnd un grad mult mai

l n d l l d" . ir t or m oln " o i F p u n ? d l o a rF /d ./rP v Si /rrl l P sl l

are siudvins the Idfth{t46t ls^\\furlhettusr)ends Solitt expcditions

3) Pentru /ar cu valoare de adverb vezi $ 2283 c S ?06 Nearest. Next

1) Nearest(: cel mai apropiat) se referd la sldliu sau.rud€nia. e'' comla ordinea in 'are se rfl6 obicrteler la timp siau (: ""i""e "";;;"-.O.;
\1:e rane np the nrd.?s, doctor. urc f.oi lrrs zzarasC road. r TheY are mY a€dr.s' 'elahons s par ' n r r F m L 'r m p l o t h " d r in' p r r v o . s ed J o \'.f, L 'r ' 'tn be c onLi ir r nL" / r l n - pJ ''l'\ I n I P r t u Pdi. nl lle t : m \ EJ ' al + ; " 11i ' s lP I Ud l 'r'li 1 t ; n, y , ' J ' , / r ir ' r u d p l i l F m a r s D r o p r a r pI lm i il

nP i '! au p F rla riv u lu arli'oluluihoL iririn a rrrros l i p "n i." inr*t "i"lntea vozi S 600. Fole. Formor' - foremost'First 1) tr'ore,cu vdloarede adjecti.!"esteinircbuintat mai mult in formelo
lorelcg 6 ?oR 2t lormer, toremM deli cumpar{ti1 fo'$to ca formi, nu e\primi lorc'urn€r intotdeauna o compa_

2 l Pe ntru r'ir . , u

! r los f e

dF adt "r b

vPzi $ 228J "

S ?0?

iost{ p'olesoar{ a nea) a /o.tu' i.acher o{ nine (: un lost proiesoral meu,/o
:,,.a.a rl : cp l m ir s c ur L,

COMPARAT6

189

3) SuDerlativele lilsi fi loremost sini aproape sinonime, amindoua tnspnL- ! 709 nind ..p ri r;r ul . F ar " nn' t i . rp fp ' b i o j ; l a p o ri l i F . '€l i t01F. i mporrH nl .;.' u r" : r .nc .i .ti rui" a. npr , iJ pi i d c i n I i i a t a l F . s v i n ,l n u rn l a da: d) ...c1n ' ai s t d nFa pl ' .rr:..pri mul di nr' ' D / , , pri n "i p alul' . . . F l m ai i m D o r' s n t d i ' ' i n F . b u n m a rc , +i di n l i i : pF . in l / , / s r A r' ,' ; o rd r^ p . i n r' o s p rr.: TIe /or.,ro-.rlroons had reachedtlie riter. th " l l .r o r s -., p l a J q i s h . F o. na" ^n ro gh t to r4 tu tn n g ]1 " i l i ' l p . n " r" O nins hor ui live o'clock The /rr nns pa-ssts I $iil lale ll,c /tst lrain Thev sere tl,. /t(r to comeN'n; is the /^, placeon rou riglt ]t rva! a /,st nigj,t lFrromance)lntrebui ,tarea anrbelor sup€rlative ir expresia firsr nnd faretuast acten lneazi ideea de inriiet,al,e: The t{o hothers $erc [iN ann forcnastin thc stNggte ior bctter qna]il] Soods' 4) Pentru /orr cu \.aloare do adverb vezi $ 2283 c

Lster. L:riest.- Latter. Last 1) Lster. Latcst.Latter,Last. - Formelelol€r (: mai thziu. mai recent) S 710 ln funclie da qi ldlrit (: ultirnul pina acum,cel mai recent)slnLconsiderate timp:
Idrd. rnmours saYtirat he is dead Iashio! This is lhe l@,es, (,lin doi,. doiled ulrimul Latlerla/ lopu'lui lormer): l'l r"lerindu'" "l mod,rn, a.rual. prP/"nrl: la'l I u]ri' d" rirnpt "./ la llirsitul ;n"i Dprioadc mul rdin mai In'it!ir tnpu" lui firsll; ulrimul dFfiniri\l se rplcri la lo ul pc ' "r' dclFrmin€t: rl ocupain lll,p ,au iitr'o s"rip "o1r516n1ivrrl {erc ine later l: Ih€ conbine6l hnd be€n ovdhanl€d; an.l tombitres nl The tlactors
bt ' 't alr.adv Norkrns. T \ r l;2,, hd tt;t Jdn dv $as \ r r J "o' d. lashio ns a .p h. r dlv b. om r ' g lautdar ' rhp lak; p oa l- an rlL ing pair r n lh" iiJ hr lor I ' bpJ v d n d p n J l p 'fhcsc were his l6t No.ds. He caDe ierc i,st FridaY three Nceks r ' gr I F I o, r lt j"ndt T 1p , asr h ou "p on " 1r r lhom . on. I h" L l g u".t

2J Former. Lttter. - l)upe enunFrarea a doud obiectel,comparalivele trebuinlate pentru a ardta: former prinw], corelaiivo forrrrr ti lallfl snri rreilionat: obi€ct ultimul obiect. ldll,lr
l' p m n u n r a i n s o r _ i n " s p a - : d . : s F Ih" r" sp . tso .,.;.s. - r : o, - f o- t h, u"pLp r ' ' r ip lh! sea5r4 | t o t h t a" p tolo . t p t " latat ' rto rtd ' "E lo ,a't ( Vf z i ii S 965 9e6)

S 711

cuprinde md; mull dP do 'i obieeter' $ ilz 3) First. LaFt. Cnr(l enurncrarea li\pl! .^r,l.,li\p /rrs, :r /dr/ "rn irr tpbuinlale n"ntru a aratj': /r'ri suDprl, primut obiecl. ldsl ull.inul obiect menlionat:
,,c. li\,^1 Ilt . Hdrll i'"* o nlit'"' L : r' o\ pli,l. ir "l cD r l. ' $. r . i 1"/ r "' ' r" ' r"rnriish$ri r '' 't ' r '" r

Oricare dintre adiectivelo /o n.r, lattet, firtt i lasl pot {i inrrebuinl'ate s.i singuro, |nri corelati\.ul respcctiv.
I Sens Cfamatical (v!zi S !r'

S 713

140 ;ll l , Lr lo. l. I a' |. r.rA.r . el ' d /'r'; ''l ,rr ' i' nut i -pri n l Jpl ul r' i trp e l d i \ e ' ' d' d' br' ' o rr \" -r.' ' pc rrnr' ta:r d/ l a ta tatad t ' L l ' rm rrr /rr" ' 1 ' ttn o rd i n " a i rtr' a s t' I l " rtta

in viuie)r tiitrd atrtorur ,"1""::'#,1llit.t;i"iii"'*:i"lL'll;ii ultina' s'is o artir] nu a Itrai aotorur, P'i'f'3'i[:l*"",'1",1i";5.e 'nu'jno'
i.ezi S 2283 c 5) Pentru lald cu valoate de adverb'
'rll. ldresr buscs aft tcry 1t6r' I cNsht the lds' bu$ holle

Uut

s;lb

P\rre m ) 3u r nielP! e b s trrd :

"L.ljl":ll:"::';I";#;,1-iJ:ii';;',:',i,i,'":"oi:'.;,:":
rh..,,".rna, ou./ cloll\es
nn &ll" stlanger

llil:;:t::l#:i;r.11,1,',,
ttt liltili"

&lrd.onrrsron

mai inalt decli '*iii un grad muli Forna de superlativ dle''mos' exprimi forma utrmost:

c''lrih oIthe il"'i"* .:1".,:i"J?:"""'i"";'";;$:i"l'l:;

s ?16 "'"

$71?

2) Contparaiivul o ldr este antonimul -comparativului-;nner' in(F t)tnott our("'1nos' 0nronimul 'up"rlari!ul|l ''ul-

iarsuperla'

fo mp rra i h J\" r h. lof inr 1/ ; o ra c r' rF a F ' P.l ' i l :' -:i :l .i :::

lrr'" il]Ji'l :iktrul,* $:;;;ll";",i';:;"on;'i$;;ii"fl ;r;?j:ir """"xj
-i :-" " t. ar,,n.i ci nd e l om enn:

t) .A.djectivere "i";tii'":*i'tL :1Tl'::' :1*x:1""il;tT,

'?ffi*t*i iJil"lx#1"3i3"1'J"ii" un sau adiectiv

r;'1";o'1"1'"-' o ;:';;:;riY:' ;"1;i1" l"''"' e"'''|'rri.'a''ookins i',*ll,li f##;-.Tri;"i';;i-;:))"'"1 o-' l,';o,"l'li'';'-,n'' 'j::,i 3".'i%r;;:13 '" :"lii;'

'ninn 'Pd primul elerneni foF ii Tost atunci oind lJ./ 0u ajutorul adYcrbelor mold ru rl doilea: ,-.nns un ro' indiBolubil -pn7"'

rj;g';11i1; ;;i1,"1i,"",ii:3,.!f3ll -''",,' i" I \"' " ri" ,/'" ri;'i;

#';ii'i,1:;';iilif #;: li:;Tlillt fi;,1;iil"li' "....-'.,,,., ,,,r".,.,i i 1"r,), i.;,,1,.::,ii"lT"111"d.",. ",r,r., -. ll:,i;;;r;:,,:1" ;1,1'l: fi :',ijil:J"*""i _, srgrr ./,,rr srshlfil, rurr srLoct "_, ra o ' r i rh n ;;' 'E;i ' " p r' s r' l
":;

i:tii:i",1H lJ:{i*;Tr**-1ff [*;i'*'i:t$:'lll##dil"aq,"'1:irjltfr

COMPAFAFA

141

fh d ! adopr r u a no* h i s h ' n i rd t l t' n v It \i .s r h; m . r ou, a[ th " -rt4 /" i ,.r.L o .,o .rd rr,n k o. i n l l ' r' ' o nrrv' /o / i ': n :oir t , ' t t ! nli P .' J -" i ,n ' .r H rl :' ' ,a' 4d' e p 2 ) ,^'ri" . r it " la " om pu s F ..l " rro r l ri m F l a .1 p n rF' un ' uvi nl ' drP n' r arc r :rad.d c.d -pr r o1ic . t or ' m c a z aro rn p o i a ti v u l i i ,!r,p " 1 1 ' ri \ ul u 0j u orul sJL" tbPlar mo te l r ' r qpec t r v m r \ l : darbtelaced,.mote dol1llc'Iaoed, uos, dottl€_laced n tu ., .F ,l rrL ro k t u. p hpartb ro t" n , h e .Itb t ol, " n. .fthnni, moP oittdd, nos' olr and M * . o" l .l i ,rq s , @ r ' o u -.l i rri g ';u l "d -stiit \rc, o llLh. 4ol" " r 4d -o l r-_ ,ru s ' s ' a n do i l ' h s,a todav ihm vesi€r.tav I loud hin marc doenhe@ted Shc is the morr selfrateious girl I cver .ahe aoos-

COMPARATI.\ DE EGALITATE {co\[P-\RlsoN oF DQUALITY) 1) Comparolir de cgalitate. - Egalitatea 6e exprime prinir-un adjectiv 1n gradul pozi'iv lncadrsl dp conq'rufrrd:
David k 6 lleased as l/ne!.

S 718

Construc.tiads .. .tJ se menline io propoziliile interogative, negative ;i interogativ-n€gative:
ls D a \i J o " p l PA ,d e I/mP ? I/m" ' I D a v ' d ' ' n rt d s n ' e a s e ' l 'r 1 _ David is not ro nleased ds I/me. Isn't Dalid as Pleaseddr I/mc? in n rr s, d" c so estF di n 2 ) Co mDar alia oc qa ti r5 . - l n ' o n ' l ru ' \i s 'e o i madi al l n dpa.i al .. ma i d .s inloc uir c u a s to p ro p o z i l i i l p n F g a l i v a . ' l upd l ormS.o o l r s s d r a is , " / , t .L tn t' M rPn t.d ;d n -t ' l c i n vrFmccpsocdl pmaLmul l lntrebuin,tat dup[ adverbe ca reall!, qnite eIc.. He is n o s o k i n d 6 t" i " i HP isn r o s L ' n d c Er;' a Our task eos zo, so had/rdsu 1 as ndrd ar we ealectcd T h" n Ps m L s i rl s u ,P, r d i p o p u l d o s l h" o' d nn' s ' lh" e d i d a r a o o s fd _ ri i l r' ) d s (l h " v d ' i r JA sterddv
HP;anaot

$ 719

so Inst at I thonght' ara zo, qtrne The sardens .on.lru' liai ds. dr a .onlribuiL n'r numsr Probabit .d lr ra,!pindtrFo tpndintoilF.implificarp'atitdp a' ri!a aclualmanl c 'i9i inllu' nl3 sononl6Lrl lo"uiiuni idiom€ri.. 'lP lsrqacir"ulslip mult aprPfidlcde Fprrlul niLore-"iilor anglo-"axon, ti ,onsllnd din jocuri dp.u\in'P (puns 'r-ont 'alr'nbururrr respF'6Jje.livclor. naslru$r'i'' ombinale'u sullqlsnlrvFlc asuprasensurilor precum: tive,
(do.')D at. os t l; hl a . o b a t , a < . l osp o s o i o ' J tp - . o s d . a d o n u ttar- ns 4.ol o' 4 4s snatP tl aLhha"' lP.n o "n L r d ,l d sn adrso d s g a o d ose a ll.o o sd l n bo a l.t.. d, e needle, etN. ela. .rc

Pa L lu b P s

b d d d ' 1 ll

hdl

lAdelco.i adverbd ds, care pecedi adjlclivul, nu se exp.imn: The child is shop 6 a reedle Th e b aa tt,' d -u ns J ' . 1. Hp : " , \ ' n a! o t uk . ros I ' o r m 't l : "rp ,o"."r xrim lr i. "t inlFb. i^lar I n - i". i limbajrl colocrial scrG sau vorbit (\rezi ii $ 87i)

14! ca ambclptofmF ins (op.r't.. p.24- 25) ajungela con lu-zia Anchela ,,ltiii pnrna in snrul a"+pjabrlp sint Ji'culdrP. dp nrl so...arr8i noi 3b..4, alll jn o Fr€pi ln fnpl da t1'nlliar' \orhil; srilul in limba a.r" i"-, l; l*rn"i, .;" lenta disparilie fina16 a forl'rei not so...dr'

DD INFERIOITITATE COTIPARATI,A.
OF INIERIORIl'Y) (CO\IPARISON I ?20 qi .i ls p.u sF inaintco adjecInferioritatea se e\p mn prin a'lrerb'le 1rss'? 'as adl'rrr!urur: Iungimea ar Ii li\ului ln gradul poTil;r' ori'srp

r ohn rs t.i p /4 ' sd l h a n I m F (C omP r.ari t J ohn i ' rl P i d ;r ri " 6 ' d o r ' s a ll (5!p" rl al rv' as.) F or m a nF s at rv A a .o m p a ra ri ru l u i d F e g al i tal e l not o' e ns nat 50' arebrr' rs esl c prel crsl a sj co re s ound" c a int p l p s " o m p a ra ti ' u l u i d e i n l F ri ori tatF de compa'ali\ul je'rivclor.curtc ,"'"t ad

ii" iiHl"i;"-i";;i"i. r; "pl'"i"tr" i n fe r ior ilal. l; ind s o fo l i r m s i p F d a n l .

AD JECTITELOR OBSERVATII,\SCPRACOTIPARATIEI IN GENERAL ?21 G o'-'

Cazulrclui dc'al doilea,teJmen ici romparstite' ruclia 1J Cotrsl nropozil €l doileA con!inc rare un - li'irlo piopozi!ii al eomoaratiei 'omparativ rfttn rdecrtJ conjur'1r3 prin 9r' pnimul Psr; de lPgal term.nal ci,mparaliei Lprmenur cu ln a"elaqr se sfld t ;etlciP orai" dc din Dun"i lanoti"dl. ''r 'az care esteeomparat(Yezi 5 881' 882):
?,Fygr\. n,r b"llari ecor. lhansir,ldidl Nonina.i\) /obiprtrvr b"r'.t rsond rhan Th.i'Ea\" Ilhevdid '. ', nu cslFrespe'tat6'ln urmains;' €'pcslaregulA In enelcz,contomporana ambele curentp dupa tntn: p.ono-inale, lorm" &o,i tntilniir ex;mple toarele I{e is kinder rhnn sh'lh'r' kind lhan stultu'' He is leEs He js not so kind as ttuln"r'

in arpaslt situalredupt Cazul nom;notttts"?r/al pronumFluiobligaroriu ln s'ilul formal !i.ln.lrmbdjul rhan.f{'t, promattcot "arPit'i "" \ntrchtinterza in lrmb€lur'oro'este folosil (r'./ insriiit. tnnrom" cc cazulobiPti! 'urpnl

i;iii'ii1"itii,i

^;gi,:;i aDropiate -"'"i"i."lri"r"'"" obie"'ivinlo'ul nomineli\ului'repsza ln'aamhipor l6muri'itunlis rlp'"" ronulsi 0ncenlul -,ului ,".r" gri,Jfi. 'arp "*i". "i;i -"i ln conl'ersatie Spr. prl,l '. ev.l'Plul .lasi : th.tl ntz'
fal I lilie hcr morc i. e ll "' i tdl d r r"' 'n llb ' lrtll ir, dP_ d

en i Faur"dc ca' rc priFi el scrisoriror mitiar oriin""r ra

tert, completat cu po4iunea omisd !i interyr€tat corect gramattcal ,q.cest lnseamnde!'ident:
/ D, | ' {r' r '

I llr \ t "' "n "" 6 't 'n n " ; d or ' r apir ' lr Co."l"L li--'. o i "r ili ' r "' o ' lar ' li d r o r d ' lFp' a A "(I'm.iri o L 'p-. - r CodrarntiLtl jrd\rrhbr i,rrre 3 Supdrtatirnl adverbului ltde

r l i 'o r " ' a'

dlnmatr"dpiF

143

Totuli, tendinla actuald de inlocuire h cazului nominativ cu cel obiectivl. addugatd la omisiuneaudei pn4i din coniaxt, face ca acelagitext fa,i de mai tfd, I like tier morerhan nm.l 6d lie folosit ln mod curcnt 9i cu inlelesul nccorespunzitor gramatical astfel: I like her more thatr ne iliLes trerl. f.) (: Ini llacc nie ea mai dult declll"t./ .caa.F aqle.u to',rl Eltcpv,t.liind o,nbiguu. A. S. II ornby, scrie: ,,ln stilul colocvial. yorbitorii nu isi dau intotlleanna 4t'n old so ol ogn pppla,t ,4r 't .ind nu a\i.ri ri..ul ambisuitnlii. Is "h€ os tsll is mel Cor^.t gramati.sl .5.o a\ | aml. Gr $"oto-oiti nu est"erotd.Cl. Inlr^huinlafpalui lt's mp'. 'Tbat'q bim her', dpdut d? .uta td in stildl colocaial." Dar ce se lnilmpli cu linba englezi in cazurile cele mai numeroase.in .Jrc vo'bilori; ..ntriti dau orlpneala sd lic rrFnli la.rps.c spun {sau!ma mult lnnaj au uita' sau n au vrut .d rrip niciodard ,lcosFbirFa lnLre un rext corect gramatical si aitut incorect)l A.Fla.i pro.ps s pFtrp.Fsi da"_a. dup" rl,oa.pronumclc sinL inlocuitc.u numF proprlr. Propozttt0. la) vu li 0 uI. r: /4, I likc Agatha nore than .Erdd. unde interpretarea ambigul poate fi: (a'):ln:, place Agatha mai nlult decit Fred. (4") : Agatha tmi place mie mai mult dectt lui Fred.

Clarificarea intenliei vorbitorului in aceslicaz se poate face numai complpllndus" omisiunilF din ."n,-*1 u. t", fa'l I like Asatha niorethatr (I like) Fred.
fa") I likc -{galha no.." tl,aD lired tlikes her). (A se ledca hse nertilrat qi 5 s81)

.umpcrarive provcDite din . . 2'. Comldraiivclc l ati||e. Lrup.; ,lr.\s junior. p"st..ry. yihr. s,niar, sup.rior etr.), linbi lalind, (unt,riur..in[,r;at. Fsrpttuo.u r cu pr!p0/r\tr lr: ronlunclrJ r/?an
Their sooils $ere infqiar ta o11ts. Oxr team wcrc rlrs.ior ,o ou oppr'nents. IIis clajm {as J,'t. ,a auu!. He is th€ jarD, padnir iD the lirm. 3 l C oos t r uc ! ia pr op o z i l i c i .u s u p o rl a ti v u l rcl sti e. l nLr-o propozi Li c . aic .o n l i n F un s upF r lr li v re l a ri v . s l d o i l " a ' p rm p n € l .onrpai al i ei est; de obi .pi

I 722

$ ?2t

precedatde o prepozilielol (: dintre), in, rn, under elc.l:
Lilies are the nost lmsant ol fXnaos. These are thc f,E;t ;ppld ia out ochatut. Ile is the D€s, an ;\' tutlL Shc was the dp;s, @naa undcr the Nn.

A se conpala cu $ 87t. ^ IA.S- Homby, Gat.rd to I'd ans d l asasein Engtisn,pag. t24.

144

4,supcrra,i,ur i:11"i":iii"""?'illi s;2,r ?i'1ut""-llr ll'o;rj;,,;,':i':l;:lJ,l "'*:l:'il':.,i'il:iil
"*'lll"l" "#*r
*t"*"t clnd substantivul eriprimat: colul nu este

Hf']"'f;"ff:ti 'ro'"'"
*iTil""n"

i:f;:]fjil o.if.".i"",i', prcp'e orr'!!-" oause in the

art! de un adjectiv dctermitlatiY'

"--'lll"",ll:"1;,.,:;l"l'i::'"ili"Jl;:":""t:, :i,;if l''"'l'il"T"ii'lllii'i;" "".'- i "'"'" i u p e ' l s ri \u l ui ds rrl puri u nLrdnLs l o' ' i
LioqA 0r li' ulLrl rri //" i rrd rn l " r

" t , r ,r iii'"*

FmoriP : p .i .i"a o prorundd
t ol i1"nd 'l rr ' na l' ; t ht t t A' - Fns , t r Pl' '

esle precedat de articolul hotidr' De objo€i' superlativul-ansollrt nu

'*';ffI:'15i;"'i"":*li"'

,n'uh''.n'iv Cnd "' '1 :"1;.,':::ll"ll;";'iiii;:':;r:ili$i'^"11 $726 t a i u n ' I c rrrd n u se r epet i

Jsid"i'Il, '..- 'm^ 'ld ''' ' r'ul^" .

"""

5J fonrlaral ia rrr trnsrogur E 726 r' cel al 'up"rt'tttut'n: " para!ii poa " lil'r dtr' In "azur 'ornpdto'i\ulLri'c1lsi

1.'"**'"' xij!,tl;"1;::;'o:"":,:::;,,T:^T[:-:lF;i't";::i'# "ln'"'f'lix; sl ur'pi'nTlPrman €l'loilcd lrrmeo - LclJ'
:":l'r"] ll; " " "'a'v ::,;'"" :'f".; .,h",,'re_ra""l,,lTi :; F '' no.,
fi "nii' is*iu*';' i;'i:""itf#:' .x"T;
-h" .",- ,"*,,,...

' lec

' ro l

{ ?2?

un'l:r; eliplicn'- \ trbul din ptofuzilrs 'bJ Propozili€ r/z/.romparirlrli eorr lro'F'la(I omp''€1ii adF caro'onclrlur.dl dorlcarartirtslirrrei

2? -'- 2 8 . 8 E2 - E8 3 ) o 'o rnpr r aLiplnr ,r PdoY:l,"lil' "";lbi d o u lo h i o (re 'z'i t f o r n p a r a lri a S'" i2 8 ' au"r p^z' ' r ' n i : : T ""i : .i ;:;i ,;;..;.p " ;" ri ri rr i rro"ur iur *r r r tir Jr r i ;:,irf

\ ?2 9 '

"'i"'"'J'i'1""' llili::i ll"'g"li*,'i; )n;j';,] .;' l,a'i::"";T-:,i'.,;i:":r''li'iillii' i;:',i":1"f ,,"" " ''' " '" '' A s€ compara: il':liiffi:";iiil"'""'""'" i]': i"ll'i\ :l lll",'li:;,,1;,[1 ;',tru *: I i,,,'; J" rump' re' r\' L o-' J
"
' '' Cor r , p, r r r ir trl ' u In -l a ' d F trr' " rl ' rr' ' ' hatnri t ' u:t o rtt' w tul d t' -' tt' t 1n n r ' nl, u / i' pr , n l J l ' rrl ' " rul P ttdttt' u

1,'"' ""^i I ::" ;i'[;:;]:,,;"ffi ;. l,;;, *,ji . i".;,-il -i' i',.::;";.il'j:',,"j "ri.;"lll" ^:".,r l;;f:;l:' ir""-"11"" -"'"v *i i::i;;: t or - Lnt 'r'1I sn pn t tl'e 8 f P' r ef pnr

ii';i"ici,,i"Ii"iill;1,1,,,'') ]" ilrr, ll i: t:j[,i;J \i ; lt"iill,
I l' , nt r ! dur i n i ti atrd r li, j "' ',r"',",. ' ", ' "
|' pl r r nr ' ' /r"8i

ffiiLn"#'\'" ii"',","';iii'i"",1l ili,'.:ili:1ii. tii?i """' :liiii4il::;',ti;;ill:

COXPARATIA

145

douii obiecle superlaTotusi. se lntilneqlc unoori ti irr ronrparalia dinire lilul i locul conlparal,rruluri
\ ,e.i-1., Ln n.lru .l

",,'ii'","iu* ih ?i:*""1':i:;'ii 8l',,i: '",- ""
p F ' 1. . In gr r or P ' J r ' ' i' lp"r ' i la\i

n F ! l i i 'n l d

sril

Engti'b"' i. n iir.r. runsrijit: 'tipstrod ( ;ll(l r url ohicrl dirrlro :i trtr.crrrn rlrn'lun uLi"' ''rp otnpdral I oDrpam!in '. i nd ' r/r" rl i n !' up el ' rn' .i . r r-p u l Jr " ' ' r ' lJ ' ' nd rrF " ' ' " ' ' t" t' " i " rt ' rt llt t t u t, rp i1 ,r'tr" s' .' , ; i : l ; ; i " ; ",,r "i i i " '' 'i t "cuvinte ' in rH" :ca: /Derrsr S 73r 'nd 'nrr" '"' unor ." iace prin inlrodur:erea ,t'i,rg"..,p ;;;i;;;'"" ul : ariv CornptLr
:\

/;J;"^';,," ;ii" t alrccre ct)

J oan is ?t u fe d i l i g € n ttn a n ttu r4 ' o l tl e cl ass

** J,i?#"fi"$:1i"l,ll "ll:,'ilfi;f|:li'r.,';;;ft " "t,,

Dinlporli!4. lntr'o propozrlre!'u in gtupul "u .1ra FsrF 'o'np 'r'rr: 'r, h,I- ';,//r ,\up'rlalirul:

li : :: ;:;'3',lll;"",::,':"-ilti1f."1il,#i:"1ilJ"iJ"'li:l* il?iiiii. ::'/-"1',""iit'ii, f;,ff|,',#::itr" ii:::: ;i'4,,JJ'1,;:: un saP'rlaiit' obicctul supus comparaliei $ 7:12
is u,., n.ff:i".1""i, ,t n"a.c,,r J^6n i,Jo1*":"i,1 ';"'1"1,:,r;lii: 'La 1,r"..",",;,r"1""fr oir,,,,ji,L .nh"r.ra... ,",1.Jfl;";i;::.","iI ' ,,r"."":"l i ,,l l oJ ttn. o,p ,t,. r qr/ $ ,r.r l " ' ; : 5 . f i: '
iLa"""L) Th ,! $ erP t h' / t ' es r oL r (CarecI) 'lt\e v lver t hc nt ' €s r t hildt un in t llc pa r k

"i1lf

" "'|/;-.,",,',

prrria parre caneriini, race Hi ;;il:L:; nii'Kil,.",lo ,(J;"x;;; il":l,; ':1.11; .r.r..ar uraD her sisr€s'
srre is (Cotect) \ 733

sistcrs is the.l€t"'sr ol the lJodesl -\t\e t tle dublu-conparativ 9j Dublul comparativ'Dublul sulcrlativ - Formele e'nnstb'r't'st)1'F InotPobt dubru.'irp"rrarir | -.;:';:i:;.";;:'i;;:;rri DFsi .u'pnr inrrpbuinrdlcIn \r' n Fa lrri ShaL"pFdr" ti "it\a "',i" "ri1",.. :i;;;;',;; d.rualrrFnrprr;d"dz lip'i 'lc 'ulrurs " """.
-

' '"' ";il.::".'Bii:'i::: .ll.t,i;".nli':li'?;"1,?:lliillli:ii'i,''fl'Ll,".,ll'ii; '", ".,", i" ' : i i i i : ' i ; p tp i i ma' " d' d' ; "" . ; ," " -" '" ,. r'r'i i
sau/dr'. ori urmat de 1)Y lar etc :
;,.l .., ' " ^' ; " unp r' ri \u l F s r' n r-' F d rr
i'orse lodaJ

"

d e aJvqb" l "

tr" r' Jl

na h

'|r,. Feather is (aeu) nr'L lr ar l \n1 '/r' " l

l "'l :l :"-'' - , \ ' n r r \ r r a l : :',.:;,.'.n:'0""," il" i i',' ramriJ" n, /,,.. t'".
i i: .';i"
!.rm,ti

7,

" "

"'

l. : i

o" t, . "ll I , d . r\ ai, )

'-

ra l I I'ra r ' ",r ' r .i

li

" ; ' . u ' l lor rr

li :

l' r

"_ ' lo

lp "4

o

' ' rl r'r lr'n / 'rri si rrin lattrl ci1 .ste nar

r ' :.n id l

de la S t3i. In gramrii.i.

140

llli'll ;" r ;;" ':: ;: :; " i] ;""i'il'r :l i:; :::l.,i{r't;\ i':r:rr::: 'r,'. "[ji ,,,.,,
sru Prtnrep( i*,oic, P"""'al"Pto'

rindu P r: uLr 'J ll:: : ;: lil: ,i\,",u, .unprr. 'r-'|J c^n,parili,

,,.r;.r *" i i : , , . , 1n" i" 1 ..] ; i "'1"'' "ltlll:i"'l:'""'-'",' \ : "0.',:i:,

*"' lrlii:1,i";riii {""4;;;il:";":::: .;::,";,. : s
i\ o-6itu" o""i':ll':; compxral dorrir idiornAlr'o. l: lI, construclii 'tt '' 'li

rr lilx.i:i;;,i;':t :'{i:');:l'rr:'

.:',;lit,l?llil'';";';':i': "' ' dnf'"" "o "'" "" -l,l"t"'l*;lw$,r'i"":"'ilf "," ri"-';;iiH;
'la pozilii dihri'P drsnarrna : mar"cu at:li.. rh? sta4., tn, dJB "r,4fte ;3:; ;;,.:,j"'i .

r : rt
'

A'l \" l " " rn rp r" " J'l c d "'F "l:"lYI' ]'prrn l' l' ' ::ii;::.' ll' " cu i r"" b / ' l "d c o m p a llnJLr' p"" ii'g"t"
;,il: :J'i 1:' i":;',r";'."; ;'t:,^ i' ]'l;,* * r c f^:n: "":i ""

;:iir,l jr]#Jlii;1i s,,,," l; 1 ilL o i ii.,l i,",:ii $il'iliTt't "".,,"1,
RcFsi n .n " t t i. Un" L" { r i Z e ' i € z i. 5' u rl : ;d ev ar dr p th b k rp .

"; ifif;n"i;;l'#i:i,jlr"I;"!'i:rl;:''
'f;'ii;f ':L:t; i'io'-' '
,e h ,trtr.

s r ' ?re ""

,-,,*,1?a!iiii*iii'i"'*ffi ::":i: ii;*$i$i",11
S ?41 a) intrebuinlarea adverDe restrlNd, loo':

"^o ,rr u " ,ii ., .",,,:-:;,:,;1,,1.:,;,-,. ., , ...'r,,,,,".," "0

u" * i:'J:', superrllri\p. Dour 1":ltl,.l;""*l:ll" li i:i:'i';"J",i'"'

l't\:'*tj';*tl{'#'; "
-,"., ,n ri'-,
sLrperltrl,rv LLsnl'rt drn

t'i'; ))a""a ;;1 '"-:;;"r;'!)t''

;i1:tlil',"";':L1r;';.;l:ll '""' trmotr -'Lr ci

''"' s"- n,rnJ i:'....'.?'o

a"La r'II'! 'p - q'r'nrn

COMPAEAT1A

147

unui Dumer foarte mare de adverbe echival€ntecu adverbele S ?42 _ Dl lolosirea oau stilului mai multi exPresivitate: tare .le mar sus.
dp_ao\ .

l l l :!' 9-l ' r" t px rJoror \i P J\dr\' i i sr' l v h^r,i b' r.h' real J rl ' ,' l i r fu h j r.s ., , : t , l c,r.,\.,r " nit f . " \ r ' . ndr m..5 d a L.\' 'i ho Lrngi 5rng!rrrrv. m d' ,L . r' p ^ l l J . ' ,p i n n, i,,h r'.r-tr, - , r , , , . 1r . i' n " d i n ,.r' 1 .1t" n-ommol rj fl i b l j .rra r- r\orn j h ' hn, . s r , , L' 1s l .f " o n d o i ' J . ':;;i \' ,"" t t \i 5 rl r ra m \" n d ' ru rl f 'l; lL r l, : , dl 'i'. - : i ,t,r. lntrobuinlarea arlcerbelor eragerat tle erpresive este una dinlre oaract eri"li rl " . ilului t , m r liar i n l i rrb s " n s l " rd l > h p u a - o u /,/r" r,l p a ' ' d t \,,- /.rR 4 ,/,//JL i l d o r" I im drea.lfutlg sorrYn r' lr \a ! ,a ra J a ' f n d l . ,: .i D l ,/-1 'i r " ' n l Yo u S 7{3 cl ui,ilizarea unor adverbe cu nuanld de superlatiY absolut, ca: irut. .ruitc.' pasili(,elq, reallq. s;mplu eLc.l It was ius, snlendid. I q d a u rk d i s d D Po i n t' J di'E d l I ll P^ n ,,4 , ;s i n "A was rimFit aslul ' a l /J , She S 7r+ dJ lolosirca unor anu ile prelixe sau a altor cuvinte la formarea adjective-lor: ."'rlelalnuai€d ngPelsensitive s'rra dry JuP erttnr o r,.b l .r' ' € "-o .st ion, l o .a " i z e d ipnr iods rJp p r o ns , l l i ;:.;11" .,.
, lF ir'rlli L.*hti" lJ P) im d h r l\' o vPn o r ' rl r'

ad mi .d blf . J l4" mn8. y . d .p .rn s h .

i \\ru rl r

rd

ro o$Jl !

c I folosirea superlatjlului relativ tntr'o propozil,ie in care al doileatermen esle l6arte general sau lipEe'qt€ cu totDl: ) U€ has Ure ,o/sr ol temlers. {: IIc is e:l.ao.dinarilv bad_1empe'€d I saN the s,er&s, batY 1: nosl. s$.et) !\1 " m " l J l u n n y r Sh p i d , " / ar . , ip" , ' n ,l d H" sa. n l . p , nt , s , b rr mu \p d

$ 745

Je1 come aorossl.

T ha'

,l'

"kl

l,rd s oi n\

si\tp r i

t

n o ct a r n ^ !

n 3 : h ps l l p

ro

'Fst

ict $ 633.itl) tdri interjec!'ii: S ?46 /J intrebuintarea unor constructii exclamative, cu sAu t|'rd, a /,r' sFechl Oh. Father.Iou are so &tndto mel "Ha| GrceaW8 UY ValleYl"r actressl' mos,e..?aisitc Isn't she 1.he ! I intrebuintarea unui bubstantjv sau superlativ urmat de pr€pozi,tia r ?47 i\ sla .l' 'ipul urml ror (S 220): u/ tni' ^ (on.r tu, !ic spnir
Thc landowner was a lnrae .f knaoes riluP t hp \ nt uP Hc Dr o! ' o t as d' "d ''^ oih : ne"im m n on r his 'J i i s i^ rl o/ rtStI' -5 { o' , ld ' ur pit o lr tt t h?a\ ol h"o" s ' np k nAr hp $a 5 r i g h Ile Nas thc l,(c.'r o/ ilie lod'

r o tt"4 ! - e dnr 1 I , r.n u n l :ri tr ' -n ,l i " ,1 4l n l d " .: I r:tlr] clnd Inseamni Fi '€rl f 'rJu l ,1 ci n r l lns eam ni, , . , rr{ z. h "p tu br c t obt ut n i i l 3 T,u ui x nui r om an d e tl . L l ' N e l l J n p rp rra .l rn s rd d m' : Inalt dectt simplul snperlativ . i o ",t i" , ; " ' , t . ' l' " x' l d rJ ' \ 6 O B. sha{, Coaot onn CkoPbo

148

rloRFolocrA

- atrEcrrvuL

S 718

ir, lungirca li accentuareavocalelor: r{llow IIc's thc r("sr I ILt:trrdtstl
I halcn't gol th! l'dsr I lj:i:stl

idfa

S 7{9

cu D.d ; 'n tu "i t') ' . "n 5 n' s ao ad d!!a od' t

unei aile'dolc: proceileu pe care il rcg;sim li ir rona ctte la auz-Lrea 'odrdl iJ repetarea unui adjectiv ssu adverb: rump;rde sisl'rnul. 'lh. ncocrnewsXsten: dl thc hi" PUrh{sesJstem' '1r ri' l tmorun I a l '
I r " a 1u t d' r r ui lr ) - - m o' il od i i a

*

'*:,!1,'JXi|.0,,

du'Ic'a li;lJli",iii;"ff:' ilii"i?!u*" '" "." 'Nnosu'j X:'""#t?fi' +T;""
ciddintirneitio tate !" E{cramaiie srum€alr , (: ,,N,,p-ij cuminto
dd t inir ' l

pljmb lnilu se d

L]l' ADJDCTM III. ALTE 0SDSTIUNI REI]'DRIT0AITD (luscnr,r,arDous BllllArixs) $ 750
faz F"l" in dI AdiF' li\ul poale li rnlrFbuinlst'''uhstantiv'ii irr..am' gener6rnu'.t.lusiv] pr'"ed1 d" u'li'olul Lnr;rrl Aslial ulrlr/al dpsemnFrzA ( 'io:iindi'izii crrc Io'cJa in'u+irraexprimur; i"""]"".;i".;,;*';;le,ti' rnloruprnnA he nai*,i'1. D"'i lorma lL,i romrnFnps birnl'arn a'P dn'orpa j" plucnl: rprbul ia ronstruiFtrp cu arun.i se i"i"i"J or"*t si
the s'ise (: lnlcletlii) nra' r hP liv ir ' g ( : v i i i ) r h. ac edr ( : i a i rl n rr) th p nobl e[: noLi l i i ] r c r iim inal i: c ri mi n a l (i i rl th e l ess enl husi astrf 1: ' er mdt t' i rrrn (: ro t.0 ? trr) t hc unpm plo y € d e nl uzi astj l rhe wo.klcss t: sone.!) i h e hF6i i nfordP .l{ :.er r dr ci rl r s a u thc iotrlc$ L: sometii) t he inil' t r r y (: mi l i ta ri i ) The Daoersnublished lisis ol ,n, d€dd and 4d nif'ng' i h e j ndi .i ary (: mi ai \i rdi l i r th c E ncl i sh (: enC l ezrrr tlLe moie intcrestins (: p'6oinel'

substantivate' de lunclie. Adioct:ivolo 1) Sohimbare

oba,, ll: ;'{lr:",h.,'-i v h., ?ii#',fft?;;'":1;;:"i.j .'qm .The" n ttr stto.*
b"ru. {6 not

*n'"** Tl",e;#;i!, i'fli",'?ii;'',)l'-.,i',il ":i*'f;","."'/,"i'i"lii "

hT b'loid t',ai "'"iii"r""i"s't "i;i""i, ^i'', ercintended .lerarted. his the -i " ";i;j;; i"ar"ia "su rJ Ln nu'r.ir.'F'rins d' indt'lizi ;;"i*l;li
"i".,. prin insulirea ardleld da adjp'ti! adjeclivulrrFbuic insnliLJP "".".i""i"r1' un substantii': 'l\\e Lnclishmdn s'as ialking to the rwo 'ttotcirutr bv thc gale' I saN i nilt,a.3' ryaDstanding
dsr'r' ,,dn, She t's i Ling f ulL bo r " /4 .J,'rr^ , "4 $. r ' t n\ p l^ b : . o; a' ll 3 o l i". '" on, . Pt '0

i nl rpbui i ' l al P Cit s v , €. ii. c i i v p , d P \a r,i ti s u b ' L " n r;v e de gcn ' o' run si nl th'd PosLd hisbPtroth'd,

r 5e pr o, ' unl e| .l -rd . p .i rl ' i r.tq ' rr l Frl d:rIP a s" d pt bt ll- it n. n y .ta L e t' \" o e " dL d rd l r' ' " : G . I a. bhaw . .p . .n 3 ['erdrrd]

nod dscd: nnbrltrinise;

149 bl ,{dicctivul lntrebuin[et ca substantiT cu tnt']les numai de tnryuldr J. b"m ,'F,i r I n g. " , 1" 6 a b .i rd , l ;..J U l i rn b 0 u ' u i p oporl Sroa and skddy Fins th'" ra.x. lProrerbl IIc has io stu'sent rrght dtr etD'g . 'lhe uLln&sn holds no lenors for ]Im Iiindlv nddD, is Lindlr/ tnkcn ll'rolerb) \Ye k"no\t litlle lnsltsn but spcak goo'I French b" r : i .1 . rh " a l ,i o n l b h i n 0 rr' F l " t. rhd Frr. ne. rh" r" rri bP 1r,;'",'r', iii. , ' r ' . dtmrnal; tin lilms, ctc.). thc t u n ,l c s uur lot it ) pt iti "n ,r-sr, io. t ar " s r , r ' . \ d .r r,.- $ o ..' . rh mu r l h ri l li ng. . No td E 751

intrebuinrateln constructiiidiosubstantivate A se observaadjectil'ele
1t) lo tlL ttal. Trr"j w'r. soBc' Thiri6 $rrc "t(oine /'on ba'l E,pn ls , ' r p , ; / , f { o r t ' t ot 'o h bet t e r . I'll do nrl b6t to holp T "t .a r at derd o/ ntL,/ .^ HJ\p rou s aP, m 4 i' t s / . ' Cooo: , o qui 1l, "ir k b\ $or d . /r, U. rc ailr I fo 'rnJ ' rn{ q' ll , r / h" lblc } ol lr ing" s hol+ ll. $ c , lu, t ' lea"4 o, l,.t lrim ri. its wo$t. ", "

S 7ir2

tt i qt^" th" LP rt i a \n th " o l ' s t t dt . t o E o t o th j b o l l -ro rBk F -' A ? ,a d $ i l hth egaod o elr'l atl ot suddPn c"a.ot.itt ttu nain'in tfu oP"\' in sho't'

idionatLce constr tlclii AIte cu un adjectiv substantivat:

cu forme de Irdrol: -si goo.Is, 6h@ts, tuins. aces,

etc.

culori au atlt singular,cit .) Adjeciivel€subslantivaiecare denumesc ti plural:

S 753

t/iolpr happPnsto Ie tle colout I liLP s d b N " n ' o r a u mn l .i \d b . Sh p Dat n; d r ' r c a. ans P 8 5 rhp pi rl t' " s i fl rr rn o i l r1 ," ' . ' rh d n ,o" F [" i ,'. i t , . ' . . i, ir " ' 06' Lieht Blu*z Th. D@k Blue;', \he d, L n i l c adip' liv F A u d p \e n i t a d c v a ra tF " u b s l a ni i ve si pot av' a formd d c pl j ra l . ar t ic oie. s enili v ' i d F l e rn i n c n l i ' r l i s u bstanl i ral a propri u-zrse:
a catital a daily

S 7i r

m gqral

a lrcleta.ian
Rath er a d ed ., is n i s lr P: y af t s u h dPar yr r ^ o rnr hp rp, p v , lor t t , B, : I L.t mc look at Yon, ,tv ?.ell'"s l \\^ d..rl i. tib : . . 1 ar y r ods - nadPs . she Llo ps n ot d ; r r d r ln judg' o"nl ol h"r ? 4 " 4 . - onold. t u"'"',tiliil ;i."i:I^l/,i,lX"l ,tuziBld tii"i;oxrordi 'l,l;,#""'fl"t:,fi.lgiiili i r ni!"trir,tii dp la C.,.bf:dsp. r' rl, p spo riv.u r"j.d r { s au a jur t t o s r D l 'P - l n r P p r z " q i P r i \ a

ar,*.

,:,p.i,-"lir'i,

150 ?i6 F . / | nF lF s 4j p c i re . p ri n a J -u s 0 re d r" r r,' i naLi Fi { i n trFbui' , ! at c numa i l a p l u ra l : rrl' bellers ' l pti n ' ub' ranri rL

'256

E r c e p tiii substantivuln€rs. .are! deli cu forma de plur'dl' esle no c6re are singularulio (: un cint'c melancolic)' singularfdra ilural; a Dlues pluralul. iilp!rlic cu -s (Pentru ditalii vezi 9i S l2?) /./ Ntrmele de nrtionaliti,ti f't AdiF'iivele .s;o aratii nalionalitaleassu pro!pnicnla r-sionalu !r por fi Inrrcbuinlatpca'ubstanLive sirr j;rminirF rn ., Ir[]. -s/i. -(s./s. 'PsP cu tnleles colectiv de piural (toli locuitorii din acea !ard, regune sau ota!):
&e f'renclr (: lrarteziil t he S c ot c l ( : s c o l i e !i i l the \ltlsh 1: locuitorii dln \l:alcs) tne lrish (: irlardezii) $e r'lemjsh (: tlamanzii) thc SR'iss(= elaeli€n'i) (-' (l'inezii) thc Chinese the Geroese{ = geno\'€zii) (: lietnamezii] ihe \Iielnamese ihe Viennese(: tienezii)

1i8hls necessa.ies movalles lla\" \o. Drl on v our r o, 1/ , s - s oollFn lol I i r 'i JPl.' lle .l-,in t ie a' , lie / idls r . ' d. l aam "- in 'r l , l r i 5 ) . lir . l ' ls 5 s d i r i a s P q , Tre r€ $crc n o / ir s , s nn ihdr l, ain i H. dl{)r- pld J a r l' r t a' i"c \ - \ ilI J ' ns pom n o r ' i m p o r 'a r " h a r u 'l 'r :

{ ' ?57

?58

Cind esteinse i.orba d€ unul sinqur sau de mai mulli iocuitori, adjeclirel€ jn -a, l t fl .ubslsDlivilF man t pl. npn t. so an lcrmjnalA "nu -r, slnl urmite d. r"61eq1;'. .'om bsrbali \i fcmpir: \pl. ).ru !,opt
scveral lrish0,,@. lwo Scorch,r€n many Dtrt.li tcolle

E:x c eplLL Danish - a Dane Finnish a Fint Polish a Pole
Je$ish a Jcw'

-a Spn ard -sDanish siredistr - a SirPd. Turkish - a Turk

[ " ?59

rdmin insil neschimbat€$i tn aoestcaz: Adjectjl ele terminate in - frrr, -esd a Japanesc a SFiss -some Japatrcse -selcml Swis a Pekiness an IroqDois -rvo Iroqlojs - many P€liincsc /") Adiective]e Lu alt€ t€rninaiii decit cele arelate pin6 aici sini intrebuiniar'".a'subslsnlive' u totm.r dF "ingularli primesr un -'la plural:
ir ' . \ m " r r an \m p ri ra n \ ,n Asrd -\s:Jn. a Czechoslovak - Czechosloraks a Dane- Dmcs a Fjnn -IiuDs a Greek- ore€ks a Je\r - Jews i \l a l a! \l dl Jrs r PoI lolp' a Scrb - Serbs a Slat - Slals a Spariard Spa iards Sweaes a S;ede Turlis .r Tuk

E ?60

0bs er v alie Spre deosebire de liuba rorrAnn, tn limba englezd atit adjecLivele care € rdr r ; r lr ondt it a l " r s " u I' u \c n i p n !a re g i o ral s.,i t :i ' ub' rd' rl i vpl - rp' p' cri \e r,p s . r i' r lnlolJ ea ' r' r, rr tn ;ti o ta n o j u s l i (Vc z i ti S 6 1 . 1 5 ' ) I J.0 nasc., Jc'cas fem.

l 5l

2) Adjectiyele !i advcrbclo idontice ca formi. eaii fornre ca !i adverbele corespunzetoare: we look a /art l.nin. (Adj ) TIe lrair runs tasr. (.q.dv.)
{ Pen|I u dc t alii r ez i S ! : 5t l

Unele adjective au ace-

$ 761

Acelasi cuvinL poale avea v:lloare de adjectiy clDd determinn un substantiv, sau raloare de adverb cind determini unvorb, un adjectiv sau un alt adverb: Ad j e c t ieL ..Littl€ ,Udr" qnile contrrrv...", lsubst.) Titian's Nomer hale rcildiah llatl. (Subst.)

S 762

A i L r e rbr

I se?her verv littlo norvadsys.{Ve.bl It doesn'tmuth m,t. $hctder h€ is youns or old. lvobl l v € z i i i S ? 6 t) I like the roddislrrmo4 colour ot her hair. (Adj.) She was wea.in8 a light ,l4d lrock. lAdj.) The sky wa5 hlue-s.cain the distane. {Adj.) We drovc l,omc lasr. {Ad!.} '€rs (Snbstantiv Tl!.y raD s/.dt!lr homecu raloire de adt.)

prediertive.- Adjectiveleatribu- $ ?63 3) Adjeetivele atrihutivefi dtljectivelc tive3 preceddsubstantil,uldct€rmiirat; adjectivelepredicativea sint legate p ntrun verb, fdci l astfelparte din predical,: de Bubstantiv
th " b ".l,lr r n. r d nt - ! it g a , "d r la g . , A d j . a l b u l , v pi, r r r . ia. p" di.Jtiv) uc |" - d {A d i .

d,) I-lnel€ adj€ctive stnt tntrebuintate \nll'ai predicatie. Printre ele se afld urmdloarele cuvinte: d') adjeotivele compuse cu pretixul a-:

S 764

alight

a") citeYa adjective ca:
drdk ill well

grup (aJ au qi un sinonin cu valoare atributivd: Unele adjectire din acest, Adj. pedintio Adj. dtributir Adj. ptd,icalie Adj. atibativ liShted blazins alighi
bur Dr n A , ' " j ,' " bur nj, ' g ,n' rmi t lodlin" walkrn8 s dpr r e. glosirS
at<in

S 705

tl L p a l i tp a l o tro Bskew 3 s r" p P

l i .p, . n' i l dr l i ri n; l on" l t. l on" .rmF o}liq-" -r .p' ns
$i (rng

k iiidf d, :i 1 ,1 1 r

L l ,L i k r1l

conscious,ktoFing 'rooL"d nka 'sick, 1, etc,
determinat meniio-

l Aldinele reprezini{ adjectivul sau adr*bul, 'A Nureetu Rhune. cu iunciie de atribut. '3Adjectvfri .AdJe'[\4lp u t|ntlia dp nuM ppdidti, r i c a pnshzal. VFzi $ 25 20 .

cu$ivele culhtul

L1unit ( Prdtat"

.ohpl"np",)

In Sramd-

152 ?66 ! " ,.) ,\ite adj€ctive nu pot li intrebuint'aLe decit olri'driri prol'enite de la nuldele de materii: b1 ) adjectivele terminate in -dn
.r 'utk,a \as ' "| lto t l trr a leot l' * P k "d"nol: o/kare^ llour B" adPn,6no' l r o 'r r P ' l r m p Pr

Nas 'noes i.t"r"s'iiq""rt X" * poul" 'p"n"' lltr FSr"prop lu rr: , ind .., "ensul .*;'''.;'.' 'rhe Jrue'\\ere n'adeor 1\o'{1"' '" "ood,n'. i'#;"fi:;i;;;i;-;i sens lrgurai: Se spunc insi, cu In the sun his hat had t ned soid'a'
Thc skY was le4dtn uis s6len€nls wcre e'oden' Her tr€ssesshon€rilft€a'

* predirrtjs q:"11, nu pot li lntrehrinlatF adjecr.ile .{ceste llli:i""l1t s€u I Dc Noollen : ' jumlei

,')
the

adjectiv€le derivate de la nunlele Punctelor cardinale: counties ilre Pes'ern iolrtulz }eniislhere

Nu se poate spuDe:
The hemisPlrre Nas r'trncrn Tne connlricsN"e 'res'an Une]e verbe intranzilive predicative' \ erl,elc esre eer ailiectir€ d l v F rl p : l o " o djc " r i' e pr ed i ' d ri L " i n 'l' 'h' $" ' " i rl i re 3i l eD t' \ ou lonl s p l p trd i d . llrla^ ttcn'd rd rl lh" I /,4 wotrderlul. nsppl ' Th" -\ l P t ror l h' rard' 'nBs ." * r. ir l. , - , . . ir

[ 7ti? '

cer

perr.rr. r,.F\r,orp 'r,np.a,,.'.
The milk lastes Sood.

l]"f"iil"'l;

,an" auttit1t.

E t68 "

sus ru arat; Cu!'intele scrise eu alctine'.iD cr'emplele de I'rai "rr ''r/r alre stt subi"ct.ut ii F\prin,rra d- r"rb ',a' iir';ltii ',u 'uvrnr" 'r"' unur ""tni, ua'".t'. i a',oai-'i' ,i. in '^nsP'inr6 rnrr'bu'nLdrpa ;; J;-r;;,;;'J; acc-csbla:ltYi: in \'trbFre cazun rreuui" Aitdi; cu grjj; a.ly€rbin asemenea pr€dicatrv (\ezr + cu ln b'.,/'iar €djectivulest'P (sinonime l"p.i-ti"" ii" "r.t s 251?-2518). ind'eplin'-tt€ verbe put' fi insolite de adverbe carc si arate cum Ac€lea.st lcrh: Jp sub, "tL,td.{irr' .r "rpriqatd
:F loal"d nr ut dnd d o s n m i 'd i l i l i r e l t ' Tlf n' r a" k l' nt dnl' lp n a r e t u l l r ' . . . , laJ delrgnrF(rI' TnFv { - _a / ! l/ r aa' llP HP -soua{./PdhP eong luiousll' qlo$ l i . > np as , ad lr P loo4 _\ ". t dos r ' ' 3r Ft ll' n d l l hur I o' rs r u! \\' /l .,. ' ' 1\ d dPidlY' E /t/'6 m t id. r ' r ' H" . lhF " . t ) LrF "oom q x r f B r r . scnzori le delirr tl?nzili!' c ii v er bele legr t € nF p' r t P l t i i l e -\ s€ ob se r v a l^' ul r \ u lur' J 'l l 'r In .in d" , r r ' u l|n, ' " 'J\-rh slnt urnilloarere:

S 761)

.ilu ""-

i;;"1;;"re

cer adiective in loc de advobe

ctc nu inseann *"r,, clnil se rehn la ur miros s{u la un lrarlunr ' 'ari""l*.tr tt s v ,' i mo q : l a rru ml r. du] t r ' . ", , -. t .? ^ " p In o r' r rts - old. , ; l i " " " g - b F

1;B d) verbele copulatilc aritate la S 2i15: to bc. to see continireimpreuni cu sinonimelelot; spre e{empluli ta became i t')

h -

rl:l;;i,..'l l;il'i,ll;ri iP,, "l",ifilv;i iffJ1 l;t;i. ;;JJ:";J,|', precun qi:
cJ
\d i F/ri r ul pnir c f ilt

: b t at t aloo An^J ' a t 41 r 1 n n ro bc oui l. ro.._ s, ot 'l 'i l ' " 1 ' p i / r ' ) 1. r . . dt t o - , it : t o t oat ' t t \ | -i i iui r t _\ ' lr P pi: D I r o l d l i r J so r d \hi l, u ' t \ ' t!)tt,a ;{ b btov "t"": ' .lc la f,z, son r' -;n . " dt \ : ro.\dl: to ltou tr)" Pir . ir - n : r o , / "1 ' nd J;,:;,; 'i'n ': - aor ' ' ' "n' Fnz or ialFl Fxlt;m " p"t . eplii 6 / v"rb"l".u r" r o u g h : o l : ! " t a a i . '. \ t 'i ,"r*r, o1,. ILn q',..;.r l, lhiFr \ : ' . / "PllJ r d. painlul

| -: D /; b-ri d , n ha n tJ D /d /l d d d . i l l : ' o s u P F ti el t s" orea' i ,, , . " *r . : F tr 'i:,o p o i ntgr an $ ; ' . . ri ' p ,o ." ,o ' .t " _ o rs to t;" bi rgl ' ' ' l u' npatl

"". , L j " " i i " ;.'r i . t;,-aonr,l.nent)3.li..orIl"m-rl,rl
till. - Obiectiee Comqlemrnt )a :
H " I , a." /Jd ln u li.'d ! . r ub:

.uL ia r,,l ri-,1 e.rpru,, . prFdi, d ri! s u b ia rrv .
' : t " Com r l F n

r" h u i i ' i a r i n l o u r a d re rh u l ri nu ' rai dd " l ' " rmi n;

rL onrp ' dir..l lind c'lp nump nrP4rce

s ri' '

ii" i'"t^s i ""tli 'lt 'r'r np !'!' i:..,"t i;" i;; ::'" : "irh ljt t t l | \ . i_ so',r,d tn' t
T hd idkr 1,,.t /. ...' I n^u-d 1 5 .j'.-. /,lr ' n 'r' ol \ \ ; -. * hrr. " so .\ r r lp. '

nr ',r'.' sub-' \" cornpr""nl
( : o ll { r ' . r om p"1' r l

1r) Adieclivrl caro ciliti,rf mei rulte subsfirntiYo'- Adjcctiv-ul cAre ub r''r'i\- rLr rr t'pe d tnain'pd liF'; ri ."u n. rr ult ., lifi:. ,fi 'i ''

S 770

.,a,h.! snar,$t lvotu rhei, itiii" il$ Jiilf';$'li',:T,lT:iJ #11'.,i1'll'{'"',iiike
df el: Repetarca adjc.tillrlui ie face pentru accentuarcaideii eriprimate :') .tdir.li\ul )i Pr.p"zilit trrornl"nr'. r:1 ': !"tr'-l" 1di' ir"oor r. urnirtr dF.rr d. Lr',,rni" tr' l^/ilii rl'r'to/rrrr r "rrrr^nsLJi:
dclioienl. in $il diil-"rent /mn nnvonc 'fh; coll-"ctivc iantrfN liad llanDfd to hive 'eo trrlioN a'rd nc'' conbines

ru

i i7l

r"", r , l r ' n ' o
im tlrr1 "

learnins keen liabi. 'D a [a{ p 'rL 'o

pentrrra 6) 0n0 (pl ones]. .\c€st€proluloe Fe pun dupn un adjectiv F\l'rin rlrri o'lar; r,rb'ldr'li\ s" "rira r"p, tar.a -l?: l oo i o
Il sGa ldk, ll l i,, p r-J io "ll li $ (liczi :r ' . ' ' ' liL lo { 1 6 4 !e n lN e o r tl Ic \h r " d orP d e la lii)

"'l

lr r

'," " '/ ""' lP' r )
S 772

l Ailjeciiveleoilalc nu linL ilecit exe plc: ele nu eluizcazl lista adjeclivelorde cme Dot ti d rmn t eler belp r P s l p .trv e .. . , er hi\ a| nt al s u rrs ta n L r\u tu r 'sa u uo ,5t4. 3 Vezi I \'czi S S t i2u sau ' ol o' J ti - s" si mt" i ti t,i' o" a . s - im " r1 u T l n J n " rf" .i o IL s rn rrdH de s P i ri t). r.q re ie D r o si . ls t J r e ' t\'l !zi { : 64 a' . 769 b e "n rr ir, , " pr on' r m "\./i G . C rfm' . o P i r' S l 0 J \' I04 A

( ?73 '

7) VerI. Much. - -\drerbul rPl, pre'edr adj'r ii\ul pr'prju'?is (tn u'po't"rru1;ln'inra; unui parr:'ipru ir"rrr ire "rlrcrhrrl l;i n-i'i""u "',.7 F.lp lnlo Li' print'u h.tu t"ra nu h:
I I i.. r-L 't. pl' r n "N '. ,j); r "4 Pr er ' l- - l' ' adj c " l n / i 'i \ l u. . v pr s ; b t . r t . . ( 0 J i . g r , s u p p r ) a l i t " . , . . . ' h" n ) i[ d ' r ' , f v , D , , o l l r g 'd p l r ' I p a r | r 'p n l

)iumeroase participii tr€cul,e, d€venite aderirate adjective' sint prece,laie de adYerbul ,€rg: tired, €tc r..?.oBpli.aitd. t€.9 dislinpished,efls pleased' 'cry Prored€ul ac.sta s a exiins ln engleza contemporani chiar qi la simple Darl,iciDii trecute ' Cdmpa"ativele slnt precedate de adverbele much' ecry much san tar: It is scitine n!.t colder'
I I P r " f PI ng , ' - 4 n"' 1' \ \'t n '" li t s / , r bplr i. ' o ; it lor lhp r h o l a r 'h i ! n o w ( Yc z i ii S 1377 )

t 77{ "---

qj li'o.!rurlii ad.ierli\alc sa|r crbitrlenle cu unelcron'lrurlii impcrlonalo I-'rale''nsr''u'riiinp*ru"nol"sauadv'rbiAl" ti;br iomAni. a,lt"rrriot" 'lio Jn.car-e adjel..tiv'ul sinl,redate in limba pnglezaprin djn limba romani -propozilji rc'0a liv inlrpb!inrdl rrrcdi'sliv lmprFuna'u Frbrn ld D" cdlilici un "ubre't pcriorral.C'a moi frcrvpnte 'onFlru'liF ilp a F" lin 'clp forrnal' drnlr un idiectiv urmat de un inlinitiv: Shet ccrtainr" Dein. Isi(xf c] (ea)P nsJ l lltisn t lili./'/ ^'
pr obi6 i a p l ) 5 l !' n a a ra i u ' l n J l l\ u. ' ' na polm j- d ;l' l ; ' 1 1to l " o tn b J l ra rr' ' \ , " ds l, i p. / i - P s l p tr.u d , ' n v b l a ' Il p d r n Jrt, ) Tl,.Y're ru€ ro ,e away - r . r | , , J nr n ]p ,d (i d i n o rd i ) \ ' . is a, , . i i n d F s i n g ? \. d lm b ta .a t re l rPd e l l f LDr " , Don. i b" t , nx a to u t i t! 1r ' r m r n. ' r ep. o ts r
\od u' ft ha o*" 'r ta Pko'e l; n l!L m e ,."a ,ir a r i E li uF'r

d'

I

Iur'i l

l

lT. ECErY-{LD\Trr,4.DJUCTr'[lLr
FontLia adiectivului poate fi indepliniti rsi de urDlntoareie pi4j de \ oroirF '-J .o sr' u't;i "djF'ri\ Jo ir u; 'rrl'cl anlivsau o'' onsrru li' sub r'tnr:vAl"'u \eloarP'le. adjP'r.ie S ?76 e cDrnrclnd sensur atrjbulir sauprcdicatjv- ln generp,rr i',rm; de singul0r. de plural (v. $ 1uu):
-.t. - bt n .

".1 | ;:::.:L;::: ':,:;",.':,T.:! ,;"',:":'".:,'2' ,'i;:";i':.::";i":.i';i,;1" , ^ ot d . ' , . n! ". rtit , h. t : : . b". ,...,-.,.t
t€ndinla lntrebuin,ttuii plLlraDin rc iD ce mai mult ins, !e acceni,ueazii chiar cu ro1 dc adjecin' (v. $ 167): lului substantivelor
'llf- ho"E affa,s cornmittee. ile r'l ti'ts ' t . n r.it ,t'l;tt t-'otiong tlr r ti nual Stotes cu ditltion, "ikd lr ik p a l h p L 'l l o n s " h n o o l I o n o n '':

\ t t r n t at L i n " r' l i 0 /,,o J l i / r" . b " v . - os a r . ' . na - ru b r:' .,1 ,rtl ,rro r p p \n n,l "

\l i "

'

p' rl l rr ra dn /r fe (\rrr

2) un gerundiv:
n' ,,rIo ol..' ' ., lc"t..,; I I nj n . n o, A ..1 r - \ int . . t ". o1. d. t , , J "l i^t or '"r r odnr dd : , |)d ,n.a rS1:to. l:.tuoh'

S ?7? $ 7i8
ra4nt,g wrter. the t@nhg irrnr. the

3) un pa icilirl

trezcntl

Ihe accampdnyiig n.te. ltu . nirq slom. au t s ains t lne. e t.r. 1 v si S l; 0! r :

4) un pa iciliu trecut:
-L.t dnupdn . l\rtp d r.t 1o . r " p1lLpi" at . \ "t ' n. . . "$i' h t a' , b ) lr l. t "' ; . aa t 'a l . r k i t r \ \ " n l. - r ' i Jir. -. \

$ 7?e $ 780

5) un infidtir':
an int)r1sc b sir{r thc last lo Lar€, ni.v rvisl\ L ga to the pictxrcs;

6) un adverb:
) r'" n. . lh , . r l r / "" n/ . . th .t t L iL-:J.i -r..',b " . v" . '-, r r , l v ' tsi S 1ri9 2 56 1. S 2l_ | lP datn :bi.'. ' ' " ' lhd '/ . ? h d l n 'r " r ' . t l ' 1 o '/ - t ' ' - r b, l" t .

.,t?81

7) u

genitir:

| 782

lne lno\rc .f tle rlot!; nlt ftin.ls sot: hdtf a,ti tt.'s silen e: Itjjt: Lan,lat tarins's n o th Y eaf r l' t ' . ?n , a tu | ttu n rn E mo t| 0 r n a s .a ucd tp Ct'hatu GreeLe's' ic an"nas s et 1n \i e L n a ' n .L v .ti S :.8 , l s l ). " Quie i ,{me r

8) un :rticol:
e tsn ): one: T o hr * l \v o c h i l .l ri : a b o y a l d a Si rl i a hrnd(di r thousardi a nill i o n ; l v. s i S ial. l3; r tlt/c (denlo^ttattr ). rIe s " ./" 7 n . ? tn a" ) -" Il .ri Ir D uf..l l .{" is as ain s s t tmrs m e a s " ? ftewools nc k r ' II r Du u e l l ? A r c t ou t p f i l i rl p o e l l " ' (v . i ti S 5 r4 l :

s 7t3

9) un rlumeral:
fabteen sqnat\cts': thc thi..l door o n the lett i fttTn lverue6; ,nd.te.ri.l World \\'af l

$ 731 !?85
"l.T l L Jr ' l.

t o ) o l o cuti ue p r e p ozilionali:
' f hp I 'ol r l r :

r u . t . r -.u b n "- n. ,

t or n ot tl c to p l $ i

JL .l

q rts i

.'

.),

fi m

$d

d rd\i ga

o_

,

u

t dD ,fa sj carc circulii spre Londfa sau sprc un oras mare: dorn,.atns: cnr. rin de h Lo;dra sau de la !n orai i)ri!.ipal (atlail l,ilelessi r&tru up ptatlotmri doen plat'fDit

nlafrm : aefunt. ' , o. ' , r i 3! r ' d , , ' , ". 1 ' " . ro"r C"hhim ii;,,, r '/ . n L . . . I n l 9 0 i 5d. . u ,, n {u '. i o t c l t i i l d , u r m 't - rF rto ot'd .L: /d./ a ro s . i. ' uf idin". u ! im ll . J / lo' of i' iall l L o r d u l , , C , , 'c P l a r f - I n . d u l u i d , \ . , ndLou .1l 'uDo r in,:JT"r.' l^v i. or . ' r nd J : r s' , nr r . . :d d : i '1 1 1 i / r b l r p F n t r u d : o , H i e h. ho, / eit'^ t r t t k r ' t opl" r . oJ i , r J : '1 a r l i 4 o l u l . d r c - l d I i a m i l l ti n" . D lu u foPilo r idu r ul 6|r h }aza coircil ui brjtnnici /r./ dcn!nirea de lt'ddlsdci simbolizenz{ iii ttnclia dc Lod Catr_ €Iar. a.fstl .eprezentind |ocea Canw.i Latzitot ('Iht raice of ttu Halse of b.ds) n\ p\ pr "iii, . / , r . I l 'o o l . & rrv,rfua".i" t i mo ll j " l .ti op ll@1. "l,l- ' r ndp. i d i or.t Ldn. la i. Lo nl-r ,a, . . t dr I no, Dlii"s r F, . 1, J , - I u, l, i"l " . r "rnir:br.udl ' unr " di Lur ' d e A p e j . P d s r r b o r u \ l d r " i , . . r i l i ei. r^cr b ru rn l-1 Li. '. pr ' . J r ' "l : . e i _ u c. . k li sr ra o ut , . . , " u. d p, . , r , r d. J , . j t o . l i n , f . o . J t . n U J . e r J L o r - , , , r lrb .i Jlliuntesd,l \; d r, flde!jr;o n - \ or b. a- . b i, J dr u ar t il l ', l o r . 'l I/ r, r ,!n1fl, J r.d,"d lapl L p r o p 1, ..1u i,mo.d p ir .-,n lppt r r . d, ' " ' . l' r . , t d. id , i J n " ln i rp r rb .l I n r ". nr lt r dpr F/ r n r r 'l d 'r o p i n d s d p I rJ r.lrs : . n. J r ' r ' i, ". n r o r , ' p i,"d.il r ' ou. ii"r l"o l i.d i J.p PFr p' 'lio. e lC L " l i : S u p r 'r d . \ t I a Ap.l.r , o, m bo, , l l. r , li iJ'p ; " . . ' 1 ". t"r rh "u .a , n rr, t , u nrdt cr rt.u " rn Dr,J J ir d i J l14 public : ' $- hal L ll " o p n i o n o l r ' Ilnor,o-l , n rj r, l T , a, . rar "ri rol o. it p"r . . - d il' s pr nd J n gr 1r r . t L n ' l i d d " j u l . ' u t t . ont . ' . p G oE" bu r- u pr onunla F, 3i. dr r d' . r n". . U i . , d ! " l l n '. . 1 1 , ' l 1 l t . p o l ! i rohax(i.r cnslpT to .lrle apr Fc r at . : ier.0 inb .Jr ; or J r r . iAc r d. lp d. p"opl. r ar o o r ; J " " ! . u r i . t . m r 'l o '1 1u cas;i ,j1:rtl libere. Buleva.d din NfN \-ork, unde numele prlnoip&lelor bulevade sintnulndalc ordlnale-

1,56

s 786

1l) o apoz il i c : ._. Sir Nrriil lIoLL,qn,,t

.f the19i7 l;ol,el t'i.e, N,rs Lnightedin 1961 1or his scien-

s rt?
s ?68

c i. r " . . . n. / . . . A1 .,,...' r.p o i l - . ,,h ,.ro" /,1. /t \.ar" d.t,rm1d tl .tt, , r n ' o .th I:. o t 0 r" 0 ' l !ro p o ,i l " r,J' \.i ,.tr." rg_ri l " l ami r,l /h" l r 'n

12) o pmp0zilie relatiri:
Lord Rnfhcrionl. (ho eat a,va llt Lh. 1908-\-oLel Prite. \ras ihe liNt soienlistto sr,l i t t he at om ( in M .rr. (v . i i 5 1 7 !0 ) 0I t s t : r t at t e UajoritatFa erhiralenlilor adjectivali sint, de Iapt propozilii relatire

or . . t t . " p. - r 1. : p : $ ' ,L i d d .,rp "um. o-o,npor " m h 1 p .:..It ' ti na-ra. /,r./d,r . , , oF pi ro p ,. o , .:oti i ,, ' h.-sti ,aar;s.l u.o: "j , lcaec: l\e l.st ta srpst Fho blt, ri..

s 789

I. l.0nnl-{nEA lD.ltscTlt'Er,0R
(!'oIirI1ITIoN oF ADJD|_]TrYES) l,inba englczil.ra ti limba romdrln. cunonft€ rele trei procedeee obi5nuite de l0rrnftrc a adieciil"elorI al derivarea l/ schimbarea categoriai granaiical€ ./ compuno.n (ct. s 35t, !:011

s 79n

DERI\i.\REA IDNRIV-\TION) Prin Llerivarese iormeazd adjecl,iye din alte adjectile sau pdrli de vorbire. la carc s0 adaugi un prelix sau un surir. Printre prefi:iele 9i sulirele adjertivale rele mai obifnuit€ ln limba englczrl se alld urmdLoarcl€r:

s 7tt
(;ermanice:

Prefixe
4r ' l5puk 1. r , / s r r 'd n g . , l . . : u ul-: or lr oir c . , ", lJ ins . tre.b ,. ca nngr , r c . . as l: o. "f r onliLlpr t . t . .r r i i l , i l , . t p f d n F , o r€r": "''lon o u , f l 'r l l , o u p r . ! o l r t e . ,re.polulai.d, d!€rsnbscribed. oerloight. ot{seais), etc.

Lo anic e: r-. rlr-, rDF: aclirotnauc.adanantr arnormal, arsent. or.dpnions. etc.i arl.- : anraredent.dzkdilnrian, anr.mernlian. dnr.-Far. el.c.;

/ lr i1r F. , r g! m ol. . hi-:,r"n:".. Dl s a. . D . i o n l h l \ . - i , ci.cn m-: ..r.&nr t ex i c r r c am lac eit - , r r , a, r poa r , , , ^ r , , s o r a . j ! 'f t , D r s p P , r . . 'r ! e & sianlial, el,c.: col-, .om-, eon-, cor-: .ollaierali .,r,lassionatc. ..nponent, .,ncaie, .ohspjc!o!sl .r.rcct, .o/Npt, etc.: ro ofrr-: ..r,"dir lor v o. "ot nt n . aan- : . orl,stJ. pt.. !\-..I-...:,J|Fn s i\ F' P' , p' ' - : "h|' "[ |nien|: extn-: cz,.arnuial, c.taneons. d.rrao.dirary, rrr.{tcrcstrial, .r//o{agani. elt... o' !ot

I O r r c iijili la E BC f' o r o u ' o ri ; ' o. i o- J C \ l t O"A4nqhh llFrn limpmeridiamhi Grcenwich). : Ntrnai rfel'xele Fi snlixele au o.jginea indicaia, c!rjnlele citate ca cxentl!

16?
intcr-: nt€rallied. i,rcrclanscable, ;/,rcollcgiatc. inrdlnational, €lc.i el ' lnr.. ,P;a nnt . . Pt p. t . r l: l, / lu' id I ' . F , pel: tpfn l p t r-r r-li o'\. P-'^ 't r' /Feous P Pt or r ' o"\ ' / + s Pnr '

l '. _ $ a r '

rctuflca. /.t,grade. .er.ogrtssive, re,/ospecl,ire, etc i rotro-: ..tuacti'e, , inr. l' : ru t r -. sur-r . ,ru 'din d . .,bs"qu"nl. , D5idar Y. . , ll' " J ned n ' ; Pr it t nr r . . dr ' l' ir il o: 5"4p a l i l . r 'P d i n a . F l . : F U t c F . $r-: s/,qib un din t. Fr t , La' : t Fr'. l ru s -: ran,rthn li". zll}amun' nltla': L/r.acodv.ntional, zrfa fashionable, anlznarine, ,ltdmontan., alra-slrort, zl,rasonic, rlr.dvi.lct. ctc dane, dltdllanetarJ,

sufile
Qermlrnice:
_d uo di"Fd , m o pJ , r . lI pd. s r Fl. h r ' . Fl. . , \ 'o , r S P r l . 8 0 5 . 8 'l l -F d : ,. I b-J,J, p ,dllFr, g old ,,, pad"r , $ood, . , $ooll r . F' . . ; . 6h : a. -. n etc nardd, out€r (slacel, nlp'. -er llomea,a com!ffaiivul): {'rn: easlc.,. north.rz. souihe.z. $'este'n. elc.: pr,.: -tu l : l, e" / i/. "..t.lut, a hi t t dt , g"r "l' t , p"1t "l . ll, dk &/ . lre rl r4 . r i' 1 , ! . lo' ir ! , ollia, ' ! . r l. : -in c : axru.,n p. . Dps l. $l' l; 3h. pl . . : -kt -: lrhr, r. u1 ],./': roo l, , { . ; lJ ; . n. id/€, rimbl., etc.: licl/,. b.illl.. -le: etc.; hol!.lifr€, lilrt^?, rnrlii,, -tike: bell'ltne. clild,t^?, q!.1/, d.r"1u t o t ! . , i. \ ""1! . i- "1! . t anl! . ; 'l t t . "1.. -l ! : : r. odi,/. ,1 ,.i/a. .t.rrtJ ^i. . tsontP). rtt: t t A: a4p. \ \ ' at ln. +o m ( A ): ' nl'o 4".|^ A r l . , t r ' , d . )r.o i r aa, S '2 '1 r ' -n s f l ij | 11"',d . ,. r lr . bd, , i' , od 'l J $ r . " r ' ' rl. l'r'ny. "i J ! 'l : . r , ' at ' . J . ' , ' t'i b l c , I r ^ : b b '1 4 ttt i itnot ' . t ) / r b|" - m t r c ll, -! b f r . -il, lc: /ll .,, n nt: . ! t / . g- os t lr hr t ot J . t ^: ' r l ) . l ''o t ; . / o l t . 't ' -i . f u lt: , ^m.r.//, u' J dr . , ln. r l. lid '/ " r ' -s l : !n- 1. 1 - m n l. o n. lr u ior . / amplibi?n. GeorgiaD, Elizab€il,dn. Dnroped4, .rnslaolar, -&n. -jon | \meri.,n, G.fcian. rerubiifa,. Itusslon. Shaliaz3. etc.r - a D t : u" id, / , o is,o J,.i. d,. r a, / . , alj! n- ", . I 1, , , , . " c . : innou, , . ! "r m aD4, , pFr o r 5 l , , , , 4 l ' - e o l : d D nJ,l. uilL .,.ridF, / , d /. lh li-n ,;1, f l1". d/ , : sl iu li. m l, adr r ond/ , . li. i - , a l "F la ..;.. li lor , . t . bI , . , . ' r lphuli, T' ulonr " e n : - n : Rvron;, .1,.i - i r" : ,i, t i.,, ,o "r,,.", ,o n.r uFr , / . il' , . r ' p. ilgr , ' p. ! r "; , p. r p s r ; 'p . ' 1 " : " Ul. r'"iltl", A"n /p, hr r m bl", nim b/ ". Fl, jr . m F n d o , s p r ' - o u ! : ' ourd s o ,s. lo ro"i"h . gr or io, s . jo) oas . I , r ", io, .

s 792

Romaniee:

AIIJtrCTIINCU fiTELXS NIGATIY Pretixo Germarioe:
unwise, elc unpleasa!!, uDtrne, u-: zzcrt, znhspty! enintelligenl, Iiomnnicc:
dh - : di,asree ab lc. d ;armin s . d6hon"! ' . d6lonour r blP. di n l . a s P d , € l . i it r -, lg-, ii-, im-, iF: ,a.jp ti; ilp. ; s nobl; . I 4p8s l. , m m o\ dbi. . m a r i o n a l . p l . : nis dar pd, n; s l a i d . P l r . m i i - : /traDplFJ, no n -: iDn-t s rilish , ro ,d'$ fi pl, @ 4m or al. nor pr r dil. i. t s etr s 4 . t u n '. m o ) . i n g n a n ' s1op, no4(eJsucl. etc.

s 79:|
791 "s

Sulixo Gcrmanice:
pitil€ls, tireLss, etc. cease/trs, counu,ss,lolcldsr, pennildss, -toc$: carelcss, 1 Sulixul -tu&are ln g€nereo nuanla depreciatir{. , Su l i \L l Jy , s r " . ar dc t pr F ti cp p n l ru a d v p rb (8 2 2 5 0 t. 3 R cl e ri l n r13 G . B . S la$.

$ 795

s ?96
N ;C;

ORI OGIi,ATIE

;";,' '' ''T"i';i'1"".''o;'; l:":l;:i:;"""": '''-'' " "1""; ,:"ll: '"':"rl;f" ;;;''
-:l:;l ::;-1'ri;.. "' '-'
Er cePl i i :

il';i:J:"t""i::"11"i".:u'i o) LacuvinLFrp 1"." l:i:r)'i"';; '"r'i"'"

1r UuLt rrr ronsoauoilirralc'

i,lif?''"

in fe.able tr'rls lerabtc In ' cl'laite ' azuriio fud'"'r:'l::':;:td finali nLrse duLlcdzn D) Consoana a saucind actcrinl rLeaccentLrol t i" de d"rla de o alti conloand' ' "t"i" ""*'i' silabil: nu se nnnline Pe aceea-si

""":lF. '3;;-x3ili:" iili."-li:#:u til**. . :" ' /'rr ',": 1,"T"f li i;,1": t;;;i";:"j"';li'"1:i;)::'. r " "': ,li ;"J ": :l'1""';:"':; i". :;Il;i:""" ;l:;;1'l::.ii r:,t'r'''"u' t:; "'; -'il'r'r'i'l'1il'i.. "i',"Jf"' - !:"l,ilil'f, -,,",,,,,,1*'i'ii1"' ",
Eat:':!ltr:
Peri/ou!, trn larill'/r'd

'?"i ;:' ;;l ';

,

:1, ,f:;

,;sb

, i' : u,ui .u r ir" " , " in ' " r ' " u ' - 1 : 1 l i ': i 'l il 'j ; ,,,r- i n.i ,'FH

:"i" -,".,,,

Ll:,:::,r1,"

1t: -;1;:li'

ErcePlic: igrcous gllt'I, uucJ' suliri ca'e incepecu o conli""r * rrrelrlin€insi indriea unui Aj -" ''"t

E:r ce p lie:

ii'ii:li"::'t'! lt,l't*,i#il.'l:,:r:",'11"'i'i:""IJlt'lli? .",,l't,eil
b l; J,"i l;;r:;ir;"
m dr gt r bLu

lliijj .

s i'rli

de ronsoa'n-1 li!al seschimbn Ln-t preledat ," r'r'| tirr:rt* ;)ri.1'lll;, .''r'"' | -rr'le''arrl 'lul' -lp " r' ' " rr' : 1 " ,1 ]"l i :'

'' ';': l ; .''-

l:.i

:',"'

, rr",- i:'";'-'

lorlnei lalire g/d'i'sLs litl ln acestcaz _€mrt s a hltrslormai 'n -L strb iDlluenlr

169 ttrtt b l ' rl a -l " aut?oJb' rn r-D.nl p' t ous' prs d u ./ - I' d 1 0 ' p ' tr' i tt """ D/ 7 ljnal s c m enf ire i n s d a tn n c i c i n d e s l e p recedaL de rocal i : . njo/ . ' b l e p ' d ,a u l ro,,l p.buo. / a' . oroxr c/ I t inal s e s c hjr n b d j n to td e a u n a tn i l n a i n tea sui i rul ui -l y: bodY datlX - bodilY day d) -? final se m€nline lntotdeauna inaintea sufixelor -tsft Si ItAe: c o ' r1 trY bt e - bdbJish ' ounl " ,l :k" ho! - borl i l - g rl " n c"i e) La cuvintele t€rmin at€ in -y se int rodu ce un e mut ln aint€a sufixului g:

SCHIITIBARE.A CATEGORIEI GRAMATICALE'
{CON1llNSION) p ngl pz; pr i n trc" Fnl a l ui p. Are -r r r r oc pdp, r r !" r" , l e r;' i p .n r ru l i -b a p i r l i l p. d' torbi rc ' F]p m" i pr i. " s r " tn rms r" J a J ;e .ri \d o r. ln """a " obisnuit adi€ctil'ate siltt: participiile, substantiYul fi adverbul. l l Pa flir ipii A djpr li\ a te . - V d l rF p a ri i ' rP i i l rp .ul e sj pfpzP nl F si otl nl rP buinl 'rp a djF . r r \ al. r r ne l e l -v " r.i n rl a d p \5 ra l F a d j F crrrp .unsrdpratc ' a sl arc ln di cl i o n a r e:

s 80o

s 801

ple$eg _
0harn,ing
Lakng

.

Cn.ori Darticipiile au fost aiit de mutt' identiiicate cu adjectiveie Inctt' $ 802 ca ."i acestei, lonireazd adverbe prin addngarea sufixului J3: ,mur.d1u. hrrmou.dlg"ic sood 'pJrnpdl!, "urpri""d/v, el!. l0Lingly. lovinglyrvilling/v Jd,ns1{:AnosiDglt. (Vezi9i ! 791.1rr1) ln maioriLatea lor forme verbale mai vechi, sint S 303 tr€cule. Unele DartiLiDii contemporand. deosFbindu-Fp rntrebuintaie nuniai adi"' lival ln limba enql"za lvezi $ 1756 J" forn',le cor".punralbar.ele parricipiuluitrecul propriu-zis 1?58. 1760):
11! bound.endnt! a .a4,rz Blaiue lpoetrc) jr a d.urfteD ioryor

sl,e hrd ,.nr her knePs.readv to laU i l du' \ ro o\Frl u i i l l l hp ! an T h !v (o rp D o u p d He iad .arued a head iir tle marble ' ' On H i r " r. t,o u -a l /el mv h' Jrl i n l $ai n l I had d.!nl rnv sla$ cheprlullY H e n a d Po rh i s d i s re e l v l rrd $ork. The lam-p has noa hffn iir {sEUli8her'l Thc heat has melted Ihe \nrter. It trad prc'4d my sood lairh H e h rd s i ,' € d i n l h e morni ng.

nohea Slass an rnt.oq€r accusaton

l lnaintea sulixuhi -o&r, trec€dat de consoan{sc ofiogaliaza uneori-€_'pronrnlia -I cazn.r' remlnlnd aceearioa si In celela,lte i D.hirdledii adj@ti',li 5 )-i5. '\eti '\e zi si c aDit olul Com p l n P | F c S 804 .
. \\' c n , . - ; f e . , F . H o r .ta r . t .tr . ,it D.t 4 .4

lG0 The mate.ial 1,as ri.znk i! the wash,g the conl,was sr./dez iriih rnin. The conNc ol events \Ynsslagr€d. TLcy were vr".l Nith paric, \l:ho has s,rrLs n)r violin? The storm had sz;n thc shilShe had o,€n'ori€d. (v e z i $ i S 1 8 a !l

!/rr"8e d rn stru m Fnr s szzftez wrcoligarden

80.1

2) Substnutiveadjcotivatc. buinlate ca adjeciive:

Numele de nrtedi

pot fi in genereintre

Celelalte substantive pot, fi ti ele adesea adjeciiral,e: l.le Bz.nd-4, streets a f1otbdu ream /a.u eqnitmenl a sree, \rorks the re,ur4lar-" 805 ,{li,cori substantivul devine adjectiv prin adiuga.ea Fu{ir.ului -rd a participiului LrccLrtregulat:
&o.scd .ad,iag.s tlie Doa,r.d interesls fl .&h{rcd \lonan ,/o-!p d r'rn l'rlr^. a t b, o n"r r : t l o t | 'l " t y Po"\ ' t dtu: d ;:/ / !,rfi t "' n "..:tta in 1lrt6. Thc \\rorld Ilorlins clampionship wd bsle,/' D1- SorLlh {li.a had sal lh. di.r bcio.c. Thc homf a{lairs ronmittd, r/,at€aP br the Eome J..r!la.r H, lo ok-t 1 1" . r ' . i ?1 , . ld "we adnrir.d ttis ftann.kn ind r',r?rr...l p.$on " "\n1 Lttctt. a*t.adletL and nLfre.ed, nood .\brl " 1\ ' ez i ii S 8l L i

E06

3) Ycrbo adjcotirato.

Unele ,ierbe pol avca raloare de adje.ti':

S h e i a l k e d $ i l h m,.t s o l .dni tX . lle \ras only a sidn captain. Ther sa$ in l€r th. acircss e 0.. Onipnpil, iho so"ld Deorator, hns r bent ro. toelrr. 807 4) Adftrbc adjectiyatc. Cite\.a adverbe sinL tnrrebuinlate tive. unele arind chiar grade de comparrlie:
thc o//-side !laj

fi ca adje.-

.\.lon t lsin up) hie/lutt these /,tncrl, results

?ur, mme. o&r.r space

l1'r oz.r proviNf ol lril.ain the ar&f,r,sr delence linPS.

This is otrr g,De,z, [cacli{. Is tnis a ,.r,sl, irain? Slre told nt i.he rpri.,rl torsc.se 1 \' e 7 i i i 9 .3 1 9 b , 6 i 1,1)

806

5) Articolul !\i umeralul ru \'alorile ile ndjt(tiv. - tlele doud ades€ori numeral€le au 1'aloarede adjective:
tne fridsP thcle a pounua wee k
?€n oterativ.s the st.onl steike. iYc z i ii S 520, 12t il I : g[zduit

iicole !i

161

COMPUNEREA
{CONPOSITION) ln limba enslez[ se formeazd adjective compnse(CompoundAdiectioes) atlt din adjeciiv;, clt qi din alte pn4i de vorbire: a /D4..i"sr m0jo'i'] s.\srpm. subst.i subsr.: f,ont-xh"4df|v?, \ ? l";r-pu\hds" tu

$ 809

lIFt sat rtla'. ct' si.lPm, * - -; ;rtn .-"t;; 1. , st;Pom'litu shrpP "auad.o,? k 1 " e d " rD l rJN hi rP s" J* orl l rt b; F ndnev. c d " k .u -.4 o ;.:-d ctu.i sotrnrlprool, fb o rn o t ' ondi l i onpJ rgg sh0pP d i u b sl .+ Ds r t . : t " ar l- r " n d i n g .l " a .r Io \ In g erc i thoushtworn, heartlelt. ' ' "ii i . . i J i ii .i '

li"lt;i'", rcn.n",

h 'inj ldJ,, ""

irrF s rk a L t E \ ' e : lt ' t

h: ' \ ' . oln r ' d pl" 6 d n l s D o l '" n e l ': d +p .lon "d . har J bo"d ;dj. -psf.: dt' : r dv. 8d l.: d own ri;h', . epr . ' hd"p our bJ nJ . pr ' c r ' idv. -r nsit.: ra'\-c"in s. hs r d \ t or } s oul "ndr n. l o \ '_ b a r r n ; \ ! F r l m d a n n g ir i ndr lnr n Jo s n "d l. l,;sl,sh J\Pi, ha iv r _la' l' ve.b + snbst.: l.hc ral, taL blush. elc : \ p d' n t . \ n 'L l d b " ! l " s 6 4 t ' : a dl r rrrr + re tl: n ok? b't:p " s at ai ' J o. t o' r o dr J lr va u eerb i !dr.: a h :J.4 i. d ' u 0 " o ! ' g6 l , nr ' r . o,', D , r g a m " s . t h " o P F P '( s ) / n..; b"l.:a1 lfr,../i,, ". \ i ", l t ll -s /l it. roa d, ai,,rh, tf t d e . - batl ar\ h rondu"t. "\c Adi. (,;Dme ut i\ : dr olrr"m t 1r . h: a llr d odL | o t n t o . ^ - I '1 " o n d 'd 4 o t h . a' ' "4oJ inl.: a 1 sPAq' m; i mu riF rre"f'..ti!sdu ' J 1. . ' .t . u Q elc. Jno, 'o n,o L,|:)a ''JIu 'ho, d. r \ d! ' ho\ : ado! b! . |] o' t al-d ' " I po Ps an o tt ol th" qoJ Ptarp atr :l,o ,: ihp nol/-rl"/ "rAl,/ D-tut' dn" . ."t \ n Joyothona \ lh' n. t r oonstruc lii rrrrrs:lc: :t+ . t 1ui E""o, dhl ^h nltv t. y\.o n '. rh! srorl 'r ; n. o b" 4n' t - l \. \ " . d . / , utd; t hu a ^ 11 ! tp o - i, Unt \ t t o l S p ) l a 'n s s l' anuh \ ' s r dr . h, 4do' . "rt ign. il lnb -,,ds 'pa nn ^'

Elementelc care inLrn in compunereaunui adjectiv stnt in general sau scrise intr'rn singur cuvlnt, sau unitc prin oratimn:
| $ "r,. , "r F ", . _J d. r . \'\ Eoeryd.nll (adj ) nnslisli Col|sc Il is a lans disl4ne aw0! (adj ) cau. Ii€ lrad a lo,s'd,rd,'. Th !. u", p linl bt , - o' , i. aplt ; ! lo \ r '. T p lo - , h" t t a* - and t F: anal . , r t ? o d t a b l "

S Sl{l

Liniula de unire $i locul unde se alld er prczinti loart€ mare impoltanlA pentru intelesul cuvintelor respective ,\ se compara:
(: 1: (: i: l: (: o camer{ dc hotel nicl o cam€ri dc hotel nrice) retala unui t'Iandaiir strivit) ; pchu de trandalir stdfita) calrl vcchii diligenlc) leirlDul c d€ diligenl{)

a cndpled

/otr ledl

plefgdlt de !l adjectj\. i Sll un substantiY in linba engl€zn. Foarte adcsea al a.p.ruie prim".l" !uti\ul prrli.ipiel -'d1cbi3t aluo' I !du dF un FfbivclpnL un sdiA ri\ ,ind nu exista un !erb .o'..pun/d nr 1n limbdr' forml d asLtel

(cf. S 805): compus
qilfedsed a ane'kgge.l rr,an bdtu ed 8\L a double
Thc chair had dn upenr)ed\o\ tor one l e g . 'rh. restalrant \eas ;rcrnaDledL shoestring : ll - cran.lre t\\..

linbji encreze

812

Ailiectire telescopate(Partmankalt ll'ords ) cerea termenului):
gald nr " inr I u r'i m Jn i' r n! l d r';r lr"

(Yezi S401 peniru eaplithine

bl:l

l-roarcdadierli\cl,'r rrrodorrrc. Cr' dr^ ' al' ' lja'i\" noi r' rli/'ar.arr pru'F'l'u.qrrlr'I .lild .r:Jf.nl0 in limbd - el.zi a '''o'r'p "l' lolo''l; a 'accentu tn scris qi in o\presiritilrii area subtiliid-tii. lldsi,icitnlii fi p entru la'J.|l.rJ e\en p|" '|- ",nFn darjp'li\F In'r':rrrrd" I lrmb6 rlrFl' ,r+alii li "ra." i,olH-;. "i -'d,\lnil ,r'i"r -'r"d" 'l' 'omn,r-Li' 'onlurFr l'-ced€elor ourente:
an daclurrsbtel nnn dblel l]hces u n_ge,_al d r n \ , i 'E 8 n d , 'd g L . s t s ] , at ano ; n f / r \ t r . l d z zl E n d lhc r !r.r ", ,,,x1 -,1?i.,ish: {ir Il \r.rs a n.(r"-r' lntE., l' ; l I i' ) l/ * r ^ r ii nd /t a lidli. dr ' I L, . , - nh. . bo.t 'J

lle $a5 rod- St*'r ' ''_ \' ,o ull lx q |d L '.IlL rllplh . u. ' 1. a. "r "i tarian and Eu,lar-Dor0lrilh."r z.v l,' ro a '/,,a frin "Here'!

Iatn rqiadjectivc tormato dintr o lo.ullrne snu diitr o frazii tutrearn:
1l\is h.k'a|ain'Co&a!(ilr

:i ;

'',1: n:t" ! .

,a ' "i " ti".

;.

: r,

'

oDt " l'

t.:.

lriend oi lis

-

t-.l/,

r' , i :
'| l r '

l on

i { ar d Adjeciivul tr€buie studiat ptralel cu adtcrbul

NALII S 814 B. ADJECTMLE DETERI'II\A1'IVE Sr\tl PIi{JNO\'II
(PRONOITIIN'\L AD JECTI\lilS) lirrbA proprirrzis', P\i\1i in ljr bx enql-/;. (a qi-in In afari de adjectivcle lc lo'rn iirbFrrrni"lor' rrrui plonunle rare nu dc romeni. o cateqorie lirr 'i i.""i"* .; t" ditermini ca $i adielli\tle. Ille lu nti dtr. r: Llrr' firr '1ie (le udidit' 1"" derin adcvirati adjecti\e ii de aceeasint ':rtr\it.. "; poarln ""o'iuln": ele n1ai e trliiitati\ d€ adjectivele Einr,nflr iominalc. Sprea se deos€bi .lettmlnatLrc: a4iedLw de
Tlls lot lf ail is r f o. c ir r t er ' s l l n s t l ] l n

i rk ,t ui el tc ?i. al es t e n p ro n u me d e o a r' e i ' e u ' t ul . in. d a lt c l i ! p p r,rl r " ,l rts rmi n i -. l' l " h l . . \ P r ' bt , c P ru n u r n r onunelui int e ro s a l i l ' s n u rc l a l i l n /t' r' ' pLrf ur a u 5 i u n c o l e s l o ndent p r onune nehot i ri te

subsl rnti trtl ?t' tml t: p" ' ' " t ' 11' rLrFl ' Jr\ /ri rl !r01' r' rri arl j | tl i Y al '

''d r '

thts

-i;'fa#,ll:Xi:"1'l,i'll'"1*;,*'

d. L,\\,. i,, 11',,nnqhtui Ad,anu,e! din.7ti.,s
(}'hatosrut 't

trR. .n. -\ldinstor. or. { iala o iarLi iDiuz.tni.d ca& ra lnraiil .Im 5n lotosraliali" 1 i" w r ' i601. " ' P u \\ \a" "tl :ng Fry:\ ',J' ou.P. i 1r ' l \ ' 6! n i\ ' . /o .€ l o d l r I i n ' r' b -: l

163

Adjectivale pronominale so tmparti ca lsi pro umele resp€cti1-el in .tncl S 815 .ategorii: 1) adjectivc posesil-e 2) ad ierin e demonstratiYe 3) adjectirc inrcrogalivc 14 adjective relative ;) adjecLivc nehoterite prononilale sint inl.nriabile, cu erceplia adjccti\.e]or posc- ,s Slti -{djectivrtc sive. demonstrati\.e ,si a cito a adjocLive neholnrite. (Peniru studiercn comperal,ivi rrsi amnn nlitn a adjectivelor prorrlS9'n 'll |,inil", \"/i proru,'l.r'.p'rr\p '012. 1049,IIjl]l. lj tdic;ritolo p,'sc.i\; I Po.-s,J" AIJJ T;r's.t : nt s 617 I ou' {.- trostN, nonsha..

"s. { ,a . {

il ffi"l=ii,:.i',t.;'i,:ili"l"'r lw*
{= (1'cnL.u dcialii

{: rosrru, voastra
roifr! !oaslrel

$ e00i 2/ .\diorlirclc dcmoDslralit0(D"nonstrat;" .ldjcctitcs) stllL. tho (: acel, acea, acei. acele) Or€zi $ 444)
vczi

li: l-lii'(,f[;;,1]'"' ,. lui, ri) ln PUt r ul

(: lor) (nascnliD, l-"ninii, rt 1,t,"," nculrn ir conu.l

S tl8

I d i d n ' t k n o F l .h e ma i ,/E Ii m e . ls he rndrCronin'1 ac €s t . ac eas tn ) (s g -) ?its bol goes 1o e dax-nu.sery. these (: acesli, aceste) (p1.) Arc ,tusd cigarctn's yonrs? t h i s (: that (: acel, acea) (sg.) I'ndr rcst l,omc h6 jt6t been bnilt. acei, acele) (pl.) Don't put ,lD.? things on the tablel

those (:

the other (: celdlalt, cealalti. ceilalli, celelalte) Givc me ,ld ,rrdr Dhoto: this one is no cood. l'll havc ,1, od.f apdesi I don'l like these, ihey're g.ecn. thc lormer [: prinul (din .jouli obiecte' sau din dodlUgrupud de obiecle'?)] Doesn't he p.eler th. latwr ?f,Letn.\tite to the laiier? tho latter (: ullimul din lo d obiocte'sau din dou.t grupuri de obiecte?) Aren'l rne lo,rd !.oposals do.c atl.active lhan ihe forncr? the fi$t [: primul. primele (din mai multe obiecre')l rvas lhe best ol the thrc.. ?r. ftr, tiile he s'rggcsLcd the last [: ultimul, u]timele (din rzal nulie obiecte'9)l Ol all ihc plaJs you mcntioled, oniX fta 16, onc soundsUfilllngSuch (: a.est, aceastn. acestj, aceste; asemenea, astfel de) \there did 1on lind st., a perfcct pieceol old ohinn? ,ta.n rv€re his wo.ds. .lL.n goodncss is.a.e. .larl, liorsps ,.e Aood lor field sorlt.

':Pronu,l t [0iJ rezi ! Ir1 Srnsgfrmatic.l(S tl.

1|]4

acelaii, aceea;i etc.) The sdtu dav I went on a irip to uie seside 'l ory (: chiar ao€1/acea/aceilace'le) We arcstandirgoi l'hcterl ryot Ftrcretlc baltlc\rxslouglil rc"i a""t-'' u.rdretbp \on. rt'url ,i !oniitsrrur li rdi''ir"r ' 'rel r'"a n jr'lul loprr': cl JialF' o olol"ii irt -'rr,'i n^u"r". n -"b rrnL"l .J \ 'l j Soms (:
ln r n | " l' \" o r \ o' " " h4 ' r n J L '^ d 'i / \ d \ lnr ' ' \ ' 1, p"- . '' i; b l"' 'v d l\iczi tnrtN detalji s 93r) '

S i. l) '

/i' "s./ sir. : J, .\dicr!i\elp irrlprogrli\e I tn' rr' -at"1di I-'lrins rrn'-1" 'Frp'rrrl Whi.lii 1p"7 ure Jin -Ln rru"'
.1 oj , !" " 1 1 / , . f r \ ' d- o " b .." o r' : ! 1 y t, , r ' . ; , o ! ' ,:J " " o " n nr" \r t'trl I\'hosc? (: al cuil n cui? ai cui'l ale cui!) lfr,se sor \tas h.1 rnos' roice did l hcaf? ' lT bat ? : r : e? c a re l p c ra re ? (i n fc l e s l n rg ge cral ) lr'ial rclatives ln!. Jou got in Buchrcst? ltla, lciter .ue lrrstT iry'd, cha.act0r did lie inrpersotrate? Ho\ l m r loh? ( : c i t] c i tn ? ) ,'1,n,,,rc]' llnslish do You kno{? H,0 nr./, iJiFrest did he show' r onY l (: c i ti ? c i te ? ) llo\ t
lh. 1 o lhp nnnor ' ' 1 5 - ! m 'r d 1to ' rto d o "!u - \ p, Ha r " aa -t \r,:s , . : d . \ o' r pl nLl {vezi Penl'u detalii S 101!l

S sJO

inirodnced me lo heo oI ihe rcadD's' ltcnt The li|rrim lfo ntra nkPr' nan a fo l u $ d r d\ r D W to'l h'mlo ' nr obd ' r lil

ri]|,tl 14 ,{djectirelo&lttire ffielrtti'e Adiecttues) : (pe) care Which

rld

Jones' oni'l'

hll'r

lvhoso (: Wh$t l:

al rafui. a irerci, ai ciror, ale cnrei etc)
"n s

Thp mln Lfta i;:' ,s ll|o!l

idrili ls b- dn m r : o1p| i o " d o o I r - r " 'l p r J 1' . r ib m v $o k

ce, (Pe) carel

poi tl pronume orr Cuvintele compusedin *'har l\ Qhich +erer sau soer'J' .Ldjectivc: 'o
. h m u l l o 'l n' dJ l- . ll h dt rro f.,. r c llls . ' p r' t om ds f ir lr m or n h : he ". p\i "i delalii S 103j) lvezi lenlN ' r"l

te rd ir ^ o . . nt i' ( 1 tYl,, Fl li\r n 4r r ' I do _ troL { "hdr s o. ( Wnal liitle tobacco r€mains is at Iou dispos'tl

i 5::1 "

il tdiertitelo rrebolnrile//ndPl'l/P A.di 'la)'i",t: cnur' rr' o inJnrrlJr a ccrtitin ( un/o
d.rrdtz Dan Rlrrt with him Hc broL.lehi,4 iii" *;;i i'* to @.c.'dia exrent sadsractorv cedsin (: unii' unele; oarecare) h a l e ro b rp to r i d /z mL s' t €f r din oP oD l p He I ' a" , - ; or ' , b o u l s h a m rg h l ' n l " n 5 r ) vu

somel (: pul,ine atc.)

cil,ira, cilcl'a; unii, unele; ni-ste,ceva, pulin, pulind, pulini,

Wc sarv so/re teasets at worL Shc will buX srru rrce. llhe ernibiLion c.nlaired somd

sorrre... or other (:1'reun,

vreo .., oarecere)

Hc is alnays sure fo make sol.e eti\1se or ot'tet. $'o mnst liird satue reas(n o. athct lof our absence ltom the party

reEpeotiv)

d, (in propoziliile S.terogaliv-e,negalive sau ipotetice):i'r€un, vreo: ( negaiie)nici un, nici o; sau nu se traduce; Ha\. rod dra rare books? 'fhe\-\ion'i lti ni or9 clild urder seren any plcde. It Jon trale any llorr, bring me some, &l : orice. oricare ,1,v ohilrl conld do lhis Toli niav tale du, nro magazines lon like. dilerili, dif€rite; mai multe; mai mulli, several(: citiva. rjtevn:
Jar€rii lircfs 01 iewelr n..c missirA. I rn re 'b ee, , lo \ - enic ; re /e /a i ti r,ra \te oalled iberc or tlircc .v,t.ral da\-s. 'l-h-"sresis said sood |yc and $rit tl,, ir .\.r.rol \tays su dfy (: diierifi. diterite) \Ve liaY€ m.t on s,nd'! occarions. Tlroc wrrr sdn.lfr reaaoi( lor his alliludc o n o (: un, o) Orz dat l.hc cosros \rill hold no secrek ror nim Thcre i\as onc }Qter ln pafllcul{r Nliose rngs were Folks of lnrc a alrother (: un alt, o ali:i; rrdi, hcn) 0!c ol ile mcn lud bougl,l or. ho$e, on.lner one anolhef. Uav I lralc rn,r(. ro ol ica. trlease? Stir LnaLhe, th! rinulcs. Fill XoD? (5 133) other (: all, nltn, alli, oh,e) x lid! orllr peoplc callcd he. altfnt'on lo it, slie r.alized lier nisiakc c'rEl da]s, ,rl€l \tnys. rh m o .n i n l . . Tl f " $ d : " . , 1 us : You lnov l,o\L na.n Norh l djd yestudtty-

uch (: mutt, multii) (rezi $ 690 694)

mary (: n1ull;, nn te) (vezi S 690 694)
_

inlo orttr -lIa,y \rtsr tlie resnlls iolloring !!0n lhc:launchingol tlie carth srtellites I halc mdr.! radio h rs: auons mI lri€nds I savc him ./ lrtL adri.. on his $ork. H ,; L n n \ s r r , L, ludn J n ( ' ., l a l i u .

(a) littrc (: pu1in, pu-tine)(vczi S 677-686) (a) re\v (: ciliye. citel'a; pulini, putine) (vezi S 687)
. . 1 / t u {o ds a,. o rl.n o, p plol, \ \ p kno! /.- rFop le i, ' t "t r hur "s t lhJ n a long s p 'h

1 as le d ! o bicdi n d. srn AT lorm' "nl . al ln, onr . * L- €|P de. i lo r m a , l d b l l p -on! Jnde so a ropo?iipi v"/i r T' t - rml nr od r ' "ials uuda! 65eallblJ b l r r i i l ! l '.nlu il !i Q ll: 8, lt 8i. r fdd,o lan J : rJdlo am at or i { c olo( \ idll.

186 enough (: desLul, destuii, destui. destule) We have iood cn4rsn fo. our oul.ing. Thoc arer't ,mLrn cak€s to go ronnd each [: fiecare in parte (acc€ntuindu-se padea. nu intregul)] We should see a tuture Dromisein €adr ohiid is $vil..hed or' -Eaci applianceshould b-; ovefhauied belo.c it eycry [: Iiecare (inteles colectiv); io!i, todt€] /, './ L ' , , 1 v ll' ov J " 4 \p n u r i ro t' .n , rrt d .i .n ro a r" d " m i , ri ; d, . i" " r , I'i i i * E e.e Jaok had ltis Jiil. all (: tot, toatd, to!i, toate; liecare) He worked l,afd all dar ai the lorttiit ol an acadoni.ian. .1lI peo!]es stru3gle ior Peace. cither (: amindoi, amindoui; oricare din doi sau do n) ,1 .1 .1 " F o {",j s l r v o, ' t la" -rd r o r 1 P rn d d / 5 h " I ral l. r \ p . t i, . . r o o m . s h ' ;.h r r s h " p - ' .: noither (: nici unul, nici una din doi sau doui) ,{.id.. I.ontranke. was over bvenly_Iive years oI age fi,nnd. scheme was accepied. both (: amlndoi. amiddoui) to,n mv cliild.en are at school. Lct m€ have totn testtlbes ior the etperrment no (: nici un. nici o) ,Vo ma n k np( r Lourqd d e n i n s a s m " ' 1 . 6 \n Tn p p o - m d ! - or ula@ h rr.rs .v e s t,rd d j nolle (: nici un, nici o, deloc)l P"d .ri .al , \ p" r : ar r p h" h a d .o r b " i n S ) ' o o J o ' rD c Bd "k,rdt ur ij lur a. r hn rew e re to 4 p i n l \" o " p h a n d Cr' Genius he is naE. (Ve z i i i S l l e 7 l

Nard determinatitetrebuie studiateparal€lcu proounelerespec,A.djectirete (Vezi 1152) tive. $

I zond, despe.liI de subslantivulle cn.eil determint cind cslc adjectiv,sti iI gcnere literaf). {stil

PRO\U}ItrLE
coNsIDtH{T1t GE\ER_\L}l
322 824 8r5 427 828 838 ii39 839 L PFO\I \ LE r ll I t F s U\ -{ L Delini!ie Fuclii
N.mn l Iratut"ElIi pprsanol

pts
til

trt 111 171 t1r \t! 17' 1r_2 1/-3

Persoanaa 2-a sinsnlar PeNoanaa 3-a siniular Phalul antorjlalii ti al
fa: ul lonun .lot t.,.o nt le

8t!0 1i4 841 1 7 t , 842 1 'L 3/r4 |,.t, 845 t74 846 lt4 849 I r-4 85ll 1,-5
869

870 873 887 888 890 8-46 900 901 !07 !09 910 911 918 IJD I^"TiRIRE. 919 920 grt 92t 923 92i 928 929 930 931 934 9t5 936 939

1r' 8 t79 181 11J1 181 182 183 183 r33 184 184 184 1l t5 1l l 5 1€5 186 186 186 laJ 187 18rl 188 188 189 189 189 189
189 189 190

IL

PR ON|IE I , E ! t : \ D, J E C T IV L L T O S ES IV.

III.

PNONU]IELE IIE}'J,}III\T

-qI

FlI']\U]IEI-E

P rn r.l u rJ - r r or idr ii i. , . o r r;.,i ..... ...... ...... ......... rl n ru ar dr e f r n' ll r" r' .n l ' r' ,,1 1 ,\i f i l p l ro ,,,In!tu d. n,1ri rp. ,. rn n tn /.- pr onr m - 1" .. .. .... .... I"o u n " r n r l" \ | , ' r ..' n r ' 1 . ! n " l ronLn frn n 'rn r pb r o|F \ r v .,I,, .u t ,," ,,o ," ,,,... , /fu J€ l t r nr r eDnr r lx I r Lo ml p ronnnr hi ; eit . r ir .i a l t,l r.u n i i rri ri e J n i ;l ;.;... ........ Ft ,,\r \ t F Lf . t \ 1, . L L ,I:\tO.-T | | \' t,\ ' :T .\t

... ........

I\ .

t6 8 945
{r48 !4! 961 gil,

't HLS (THtiSL), THA'1 ('tHOSE) lu n cl i i ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... ... .. ... . lo rma . Gc D.Nu: lr . Ca Z . In|rcnninlarc 'Tl ,L r,- lhx r ' ' .. l, onu ,n l _ l r\ \Jr. rb " , . or . l ' r . " -l h t ..... i - r . " ' : l. r 1 TIlD T'ARJ]IEN.THE ],!'T TL A lu ,rj i i .. . . . . Fo rml .. . . . . . . . . . . . hhelxinla.c ' )H1 .: I.I A S T , ' , t HE L AS ' | ..........-.... I H f Oflt l n. l111, utt1 l 1 :. .....

190
{90 1)1 19rl i9J

!66

191

96t 1161, 1 9 4
1!5

s A l r E ... . ...

,i 1 9i )

195 rl9i

v.

PTIo NUI E LE $I - \ DJ E C T IIL i . l Y l l i L l .ra j -l T I\' ........ Dcl i n i l i . . . . . . . . . . .

i!l:r

ll .

101t 1n l8
Siualkt ..tut\ ....,. ,.. In te ro q aiiadir c . li s i n i d n e d i -' Ixxili;ril DO ln irti,rcsatii . . . .. L o "r pr . ' o/ li i.
'o co n struoliim ionilic e . .. ..: .. .. ... .... Proa , l o i , iF ' r .... ....

' rrr r?-

. . . . . . . ...... . . . . . .. .
.

1011 : 102b ln_ lotll ' n' 10:10
l nl :'

1035 : 1057

'_

\.I

PRO\UI { F I LE lI

A D J IIC T IVU L R E L -\T IV.... .... ......

189
4i

wHo
IYEICH Inteles Funclie

1053 1059 1060 1061 106, 1063

205 t05 205 206 206 206 206 207 201 208 ,08 ,08

210 210 2ll 211 211 2t! 211 A3 .. .. , . 2t2 212 212 BUT 2t2 lnr.l"s . .. . .. ..... . ... ... lnsn 212 mrPrlrnl,rr .. .. .. .. .. ... . .. ... tO99 212 2\2 Ake clkstnrli. ft f.t itaate ta p.a numete 9i atljtti, eleretatiee... .. .. -.. .. . . . . . . . . 212 Su b sl d li\ , , ol " liv . - l J ,.o -n u m, h rp tJ t' r .... ......... .. ..,... rrul 272 urrp sap o' uad. r r r J . v ,P " o . ,j , r" l u l i \ /..o to l . ....... .... rro2 213 Lo cD rp rlnur n ....,, 2t3 ' r,,6 214 c u r r n .{ rF d P s u b s ta n tr\' .,. 2t5 ra t6;i; ; i; ; iii'; iit i r ; i . r i p . l . i i i i i i i . ' " i i i i i"!................. ....' ...1 1 1 2 215 1120 216 \t21 216 1t25 216 7124 2ti 7129 21) 1130 2t1 1133 21i 1134 21i r\t' 2t) 1136 !l r. 1137 at?. Ca z
I'tadutrh \:II. retalio II .. . .. Pll']NU]IELE D ' irili

WHAT

1083 1084 t0a7 1088 1u91 7192 1093 1091 1495 1096 7091

I DJ D C T IYIT L -!-EH O T A R IT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._........
.. .. . .. , d. it \ q r . dt r ot J lt ....-. .. o r rr J r dlr " r f . t or Lr hot J r "t n , u alt p p r o n , r m . , ,." f."u.t

ri l t
t t(2 It11 lt41 I t4u

21!
. 1. :t. l. :.jl

170
j

protrumeri sdierlieo oetot6rite . EYE RI . . . - .

t1r")
'I l5t tt37 7116 Llii 1t5i

,22
:l2rl 222 l.!.! 22) 122

I ri 9 223 tl6a 1161 123 1163 " l 224 116i ' )2L l16i 116,1 { 170 ))1 tl14

Inleles.. . -.

.
' ' .. . .. ..

Acordul cu alte Proaune . F un o i i i . ,,' consfruoiii idiomatice SOME, ANY..tIO, -i\?NE S o,tl f lnlpj e . .. . t nhe b u i n l a P Pro n u n l i e Funcli . .

1r)'5 :15

1 1 r - 6 " 221 1 1 1 8 22i

... .. .. ... ....

. . .. ... l nte r e b
lnhebuinta'e
^f ^rnN/i

ANv

... .. . . . . . . . . . .
,' -

l-la l t74 22ii Irl t' l l 8< 1186 2), )t1 iii* :tl . . . . ris a 1),119t 924 .. .. 1205 !t8

F o rmeco m lus r

P N ,O N U IIE I,E
(TIllI PRONOUN)

OONSIDERATII GT]NEBALI] l) Drtinitic..
dt

,

rn Ut pc nr \ dt enli

PronrrnFlecsr" _parrea de vorbire care ljne jocul unni
dl ac es t Ur e.

S 8gz

iub.'-,,ri\ut ,.ru c.hivalanrutluir rnto.uit de pronum".e numeqlejn g 821 llnti .rlrl-z; .nlprpdcnt tl pronumplui (lnn.pd" sau Prinrr'parl.Desi nu r..'r', rotul .3ri.15.d'odf..a,pa.tn dFnumirpfa fi tnrrpbuijr!n; pon,ru sim_ plilirar" in 1rr. r*r'a <1" l;,; in lo, ul ppriha,,Fi fnlo.irFin a.c.t "az dp gramati"a 2) Clasificarcr proDumelor.
d/ l"o1r4d r o"":o na , " I

Se disting d€ obic€i rsdprecategorii de
r a s l '4 i | . $ \o l h 'J nr m . , . . . ... \o" th,q I I nin! J o. r s . l, is \ F r ' i l " o \ n I onr ( r o r r ' r hqr r ! o r r ' ols . l" lour s l' . ||: m r i . I . r p l l . i , s d , o u r e p h , " lonr s . l\ es , lnPn\ el\ P s i o n c s c l l ntciptace: eat:h othe., one doitrer r i. . i! . hdr . ih o . " , r h - t o r m a " . t h " d " r , lh ' i. . ' hp las t . I n o o t l , . r t s , . s ? m p , s u . l I'r. $ljo? Nhose? whom? $l,i.h? Fhat? sho, Nliose, \rhom, which, $lEr, rtrat, as, bur r nor nl l oo r u \'r' ) o! .

g 894

/ / t , o..,m-'r Do.,c,i\ c ' ., Pmnum€l€ relle\i{c

d, ProDn fl.

(lenro,,stratirc

e.) Prorrmel-. intcrogal.ire ll P.o.um.le lelal.ive ti I I I I I

d. h. J l. on. . , r ' , or h . r . ^r tr hp rr r jrr.l!, " i r r , , - , n . r . r r . bo . . r . s e. J od. t h . ) . s sunurr., aj I. k, s or F. t uv . , , on4 . om " b o d J . s o n . , 1 D . , ". o tn r io "th D;q nnJ DodJ . anJ on4. a n J l I n g . n o b o d y oi n ,. p! . r ! bodv . . \ e. ) o.. r . 4 \ d r v r r i . a

3) Acordulprorumelui. cu antecedentul siu:

Pronumele se acordeinge/\ nutnb Eipersoand g BZb

i rnl ,rm, i. : .a. snc m.\ d1.gt,.pr. Th, n,,.- Jd aL n //",r,I.imo"b,,or-30,.Sd"\n,'r"r,at-. ln privinta ca.ulai ins6, pronumcle este ildependent, de antecedant. q 826 cazul pronumeluj liind determinat de ro1ul acestuii tn propozilia alin care \ j 4lio 1 .l , a, ' r ' 1; l n' $ r , " , , , . , al. o ! o _ . T p . t1,n t.. N\ , $pr ( ur k ing d n t dr t /r,,, rddt.l. .o 0(p , . . .-i i.\roa nr r v . o . | to th/r . . . 1, . . , ? ( . jat . , , e, ( "nT Srrc mel lhe rolrd, (ac.t. rrnose lgcn. ob.t in I kne{

. . Pronum-tep"rsonalp. 4) F po.".i\. ,, rt,.\i\" -i d- jn iriri au, { 822 iu il. \., 'rDlri. ts\.pprii Inrn- ddcritF pFnl|u pFrloa16. runnr tl" p,r.oalla a3-a sg.) .r ^pn. .-",,lp parsondl.si ppn.ru Pfa.unFt, in,"rore,i\ r_td.iv "Hz.
1v. zi p a8 . 62 rlta L

r?9 dpmun lrnlivp //lr ' rftdl' rr4 dre lorn, ditprirelpnlru '1r. P"lru nronumF on, th ,t!'t.):i unrl nehotrrit (n'14,arr plurllulditFrirdcsrnguLar'LcroraIe Pronume sini inlariabile. genere valo{rc de 5) l'u 8!ii. - Formele cu valoare de pronume au ln 'si adjectiv. EacepliL pprsonrle pro rmelp \ u au lorm.1Jj"' li\ al. ' orplpun/droJrr: "irpllptivp' t'lo' cu cazul int'erogativ-relfltiv Dronumele demonsirati{ s(]: pronumele *a-t; pronumele relaiive that, dr li D&t; pronunele nehot'dritecom' iii""ii' puse cu some,dny, n0 | erera. formi de Adiecrivele corespunzitoare pronum€lor poscsive difere ca 830 maso' cu ercepl,ia pcrsoa ei a 3-a sg acesl,ea. lrma o.rel" ru\inr. Pot lr fi: $ b3l 829

8r8

s832
s 833

s834
i 8?t

illl"l'1"1;',1" i3il."ffi,ii#]"ii,fig: ".,,,i11:*i,'"1,:'1"'lh,''hfi?''iiti}",''J; Dzneldlr: oDe, lirst
alc-re: all, any, 43, both1, but, eilh(ri neithef, little much no' sone. sonelhing, (the) sanc @aiLtulii: 4. botli' bul, €ilhor' neither pepa.iliet brlt.

s 8:r0
$ 837

lunoliile sintrcticeale pronumelui stnt accleaqica !i aceleaale tivului ($ 347-35{l). pronunelui' - Substantivul (sau echivalentul 6) Locul tDtccedontului 838 de aelemai multe ori Pronumele. ln rare precedii pronune lui) tnlocuit de cazu inse. il fi urmeazn:
" \\l'cn lh. 4 r l, sl,rr ; r -/ ! - - at nt . Iylo lo ron , i s 1 r hr , , dr puo. o i:l;".;' d l o n 'e r "1 '\ f t / r 't r 'n ' por . ( ! _or ' l ' v "t J o n e F a o E n " r " iant e' ) at t h' ' loo '1 / i . r 'r ' l a '. 4itre t hat uau Bpt la'' l" ! 1". t r

strbsian-

s 83e

posesivo 7) PronumclePorsonale, PososileDi rellexir0 ti ailioct:ivele
(Ndtudt) (Pds.) (cel )

ss.

l1 toate j r { I masc. | 31hm. t neutru t
I

it

i[

"l'osAtre (]'totu ) (Adj.) rni r. yours Jour his nis hers her ils its oslr Jour their lours tlieirs

F.flerit (l'ton ) trrsel f You.seu himseu herseu itseu Yort!$tves llcmBervE

Pl

tl i

I

toat e

r

ioaie
PentN

on.'s o1$r onrsell lo.mrlA a.lraroe alc lfonumelo. v€zi S r5l

1idverb sau coljunctic

CONS1DERATfl CEN'RALE

I?3

8) Pronumele li adjectirelepronominrle Pronunlie.l,'ornLe tati ti forne sldbe
he her htm /hir/ / ha: / /hm/
/Dt:l

S 819a

t) Forma leticald /;rn.r tale(accelluali) Farna slabil.(neaccentuarn)

n,s
lry she

lhtll

ln.\tl fomd nutudrd lli:l /s"rn/ IlAl /ttun. rclatio)t l6P.Unr th ci r J i 6 ..i + rc n e a n d I la..rl + eacatii !!em /irem/ r.her l6etl us /^s/ rre /wri yov (adj.) l1t:*, p.*, n@l 11dne

rIdIjl/

i

tl lqhd

ttabd frc.eenld

ij.:zl 2) Pronun.l" nFntiondrd mai jo.
,\tt st .Pd normald,

yon.s

fu a tm d L e )

"u osirs.ri

tatn.n: funnd tar,,.dt.

* fil{ al pronumetuiesire pronunlat [r] inairtea unei vocale si este mur Irnarnieauner consoane. prcnutLe Fi a,ljectia denat6tntic

ttutzt

?ranum. inte.asatb2
hd' ", . t t , ": s-, J.. / ll

3) Pronumcloreflexirc
1. ". lr' rt\rl | J |. n xf.rt\ hc , t r / r t s . li/ m'r'' ! / a ." rF I / J',. rt|

r ^,.'"r
No ta i

you-.dr\ ds

,.l

. . lf . | , u . / o: r "lt / q: . "1\ /

.,,-.r,",, . . jJU.- h /. ,.d". :r:

In r ,r . " t \. "

n " ,n rt\7

l l y. . olc gi; . F un ;\F r.i ra F i i t" L ro n C o l t" g. qe ot i snri ptrF .j ca , "T n "oo( . l3bi I m rl p .r.l ' u ,// 1 n r . a s'a ronna !utor\ ri tua r^ .i ;l p .p nri al - rrrl d d?'?... r o a F r r p. \ F nr i F rte i n .5 ,r p ro n u n l -\p H rp r tu i l /,/ Lfr rl !i i n u nptp e\ preFi l .om u n c !F:,J F r . r / r ng t t /i . rta t n u l n a l tc o .rT i i . l .s .Fn!. i . pi erel e seri oase p \ r s'i o .ra d r t i. . r a! pbi t n td i n .J d . m u l l i a . o ri . d . s prol unl a fml | ori do , p n tr.,},, . s t a nF lc . en ru a r. rD i n ,E ,6 ti " h p ro n oun,i ng D i .rt" narr.t, Daniel Jones.) r !.q i :i l, r . pr n. :i d i ,,ri v J " m o .ra r,\. ., l \ r,:8.

,1rn :illt;rt,"T,J*,i'il:'df;tl;i':"il;il,j: o".,, ;,i:ii:l"., t:iJ",,.;?,,#i s"nfupr .dQ m. : t - e \
toa rp la 6d! o. ier d. s ' , r dpnlit of J in in r i i . . . t , A i u t u i .

l'i4

$ 840

I. PRO,\.LTIELE PEITSON,TL Paorl)tN) (TUE P-0risoNAr, 1) Detinitie. -- Pfonurnele personftl inlocuietie un subslantit. sau €chl valeniul acesiuia. desemnind ln acelaEitimp fr persoana 2) Formi. - ProtrumeleporsoDalesini urmitoarele:

s 841 s 842

(:

Pc nbe. I 'rie, 'nrr (- tie, tii d-talc. dr.; pc iinc. te: Pe d-ia, l: hi, i: pc el. il) 1: ci, i; !c ea, o) ei. i; Pe el, f:hi. (: roui,- ne. tj; ]re ror. nel ('- roui, rii l)e Io,, tn. vi: d!,. Ire d\'.1 {: l o r , l e i l e e i , i i , ! e ele lei !c dnnncalorJ

( - ei ele,

then

S81 3

tormJ p"rrlru,Iip'nr' Cu .\' Fpli" pcr'ua ' i a I " rl'ul 'r' p' r'p' :'"'tirp dih'inl 4i r..'n, r'nr,u o;,;";.i-"" "-.,'i ".".;;";;:; dupa p;r'^aru, r"rrnir :i '"/ ium"i /' / por I' sr pronunP 3) Fui'rlii. - P'o 'rn ' l' p"rorrrl' it ! ' !')') tt 8 844 ' (\azi S lra4) nehotdrite. p"orr^'"t" p"i'!"'"t,i pot aYrja Si frrncfia d€ adjective. "u \ulfi.R(ll, PRo\ulrrlltr rilrisoNAr' s 84b

O bse tea lie

$ 846

s 84? s 848

4l Persoana I singular' lntotd'Ftrnascrjs tn litern nare chiar irl r'; p"".r"i"]" j i:: "'t" "'l m locut llr'Irozrlrer: I Ln { l to_so' n "nlro1 i r'' ll in .ril'rl ,u^,\i"1. rdFt"n i lt^rr,m"l^ / r'r r" nrprirr'" torbul peotiv Jipsind uncori li el:

l'" : , ''i T ' ' ,- , r l l. r ' r , r r . Tl' ,,
to. llc

,i s k , , ' ' ::C "_ ., r o dr{oa s I q;l' H )'

J or r r om or f ow

s 849 s 850

l' dF l"Forrr ''-l s ' , r1,' .' '.re urri pr^r,rrm' trt',' '1- ' l1r'l^r:-Snrr\ ro\c t r' pl*-;:,'ia; sL,rts. r'ortut,i " lvaitins' .. (l an1) sorr-v... vou ' 5r Perioanr u 9-n lingrlrr. mele de peNoanaa 2 a llural:
.. ''u u' ^, I 1 I I

d/ i';;;;'-r"i"n-

" ,n '

: ' :n :u r 'r

'''i

n"J

sL .l Ynr df . I r r , laugi' r ' l r o , dr . i t r r r t il' lr n tt l I aot r luur r ar lsc la* \ \ " - J $ d", l . I r l ' in r

nnrh I

176 ,, loun.le arhaice ale prouuntoior de persome a 2'a sint: r,z l:tu) (!ron pers l { \.n
| ^ ';.i !{r'I:" I o ,,
|

$ til

h. t I

-l t

ta u . td tJ r. t..l Pl ,,J. r!' . ,d " i J. - ,ro... no" ., ' a " r.-n p r ri n ) (p ro n . r" r' .' ,i ' a
' a. r "l, r i .o ri,.p \ndr(prol. p^.t

t N oo. I\t" { . 't

r,' I ''
]

"" "."" I a,,"

t ,.

' o ::J ..
- pl .o r

Prorlnd. fcltc\ir I ss. thlflf l. (rcll.): iDstrli, insat,i (le inti.i.e) I d. !o4'scl'cs : lli lreit.); in!i!i. inscri (dc ltrierifcl ;i-de Intirrirc -{cesle lorne nu sc mai gdsesc iD limba moderni decit in "(tilul literarJ i,1r 1[e., ,e ;i in sii]ul dialectnl sru in cel colocYial. c) Pnnnnele de palitele l-, dumn€aloastrn. dumnrata) este pronunele p e r so n a l d e per s oloa a 2' a : Io& a.. a mcmbcf ol thc Union of Artists:? . ' DunnrJ \o tu | ro s l n l ' n .ml ru d l II ni \rri l l ' r P l d-ri r Drn n "i n lo & ,., m m ler . o lh e U n o n o l A.L tt,' (Dumn.deaastnj. Pl$iio;?l .tnr.li .rcabri ai Lniunii lrl\lilor

oh l '

It ! _ "'1i ,I

'"'",

p fo,. (rp df. !"^ . r r.

S 869

6) Porsoanr a 3-tr singular neutru. - Pronumcle tl erte tntrebuinlat: S 8;3 d, pentru a lnlocui numele .rbiecielorsinaninaie, pe acel al iiinlelor $ 85'1 al cdror-sex nu este speciticat sau nu intereseazia. precum ,si subst,antivele colective privite ca un tot, uneori chiar qi numele de persoaneconsiderateca abstrac,tii:
t rJn g i hF l. ll, )ou hcar n^ ' lid bdD " r i / w 6 a s l p rt. Sl e l o nk edat t h. Hc caued the d,s. and t came at once. The n?ru addresed tset/ to ihc ia-sk bclorc ,,. i; him would sseli tbef wlcn i/ had an opt ortunity. She iinc; the 'tsnnaD( Ve z i ti $ 6 7 -6 9 , 8 5 , 1 0 6 0 c ) D/ casubiect aiverbelor unipersonale' refe toarcIa timp, orcme Ei distaal.i: t de{$. lr driztes, i, r.eezcs, n haib, n lightens.t rains, n sleeb, n snows, t, thars, ,r i s !rr iUv hool/ s dr m /h o t/fi ,,e rd ,l l n !s coneI o f loc k i , , i s p a rl v ' l a tp ,r i s Si ! , dnr . , r i. ' r ' : d o i J u .y . rr." s p ri r. -\l n a t t ide is n. " a / h b s t' -c k b r. 1t is three miles to the nexl to'vn. Ir i s a lons wav io m v o l l i c c . // i s th r p€- weeis s inc e ' l o u \1 o l p 1 6 i . S 8i5

A se compara: 1, ,s [: este(impenonal- pentru timp, vreme Di distan!e)]:
t is dark, ir ts laie, t 6 Uonday, t;

S 8;6

2 o'clocL, it is lar. t, is a lollg way

Thercis (thercarrJ l: esreGtnt) (: se afln. se giseqte,existd)+ su(tntrebuinlat biectul (: il y a in limba franceze;esgir, ln linba garmand)l cind subiectulvine dupd predicat):
?iald is a saden round tle house, Th* be peipre i the ga.den. (v e z i ti I2 5 0 5 ) t y, esle prorultrt lji:1, nneod ljil. svezi a/,i-d pas. al!. rota r. ( r ezi 2 ). s r am , iiianl $ 'Scn s rV.zi 67- 6! . 6 \e ri S S 1196.

1?6 S 8 57 t al unorv€rbe i mpersonal e: d J ( c u v aloar e d e p ro u m € n e h o te ril ) c a s u b i eo , l hJ I ppn \ l : s c i n i l m p l ; ) n appears(: se la.e) , / r han, . s l : s e i t r t l m p l s ) x seens 1: se pa.cl (stil lanilinr) t says, n tclh iin d pla), a book' elc ), tl is said (:6e spune) 1, aplears ilai sle Is woried in ihe "litsi ol llav" fa'torv belore /r seemslie wants to be a nDsrcran.
. // lb o a pp pr"J lhbl lhpv \ L r ' r \ : r ig in ll' s J F l r ' i' . m ' J [ L\ d Ln N r r , ' , 1 o, -1r l$ r claxcp d /r.,a vs in h rs !.l ool r po, r r \ ' ( r ' p : . ( n lnL l i n r l l i n r 'l ,p r lr oni. l" no\ . 1, . d, t J l , l ll, . r ' r n \ . .// t- tr :n

Ne putem da seana cd verbele de n]ai sus sint impersonale.in caznl de si pusah mijlocul cu il poateli Lleplasrt' consiruclre fald din iaptul cn aceastd fi ljpsit dc l?rbul nepuiirrd ir sa fdr[ ca sair uneori'la sfirr.itul frazei. ']j'f.'i, subiectul seu: nr the "first oI IaI" laotorXb'lorc' Shehas \'orkcd, ;t app.ars, n J in ll'" dr'' slr -l l Th,v r"r'lr\"q, rr' 'or ' js i rl P l i g'l 1and li l' : ool In : - " .
-pnrl ' ld ^o

\ s58 "

Mult€ construelii tnlpersolaie din hnba ronanir se traduc prin verbul r IjH-i'ifiu. J\in lcubi p'rul i/r limbs "ngl"zi: to l', r unddiarir '
j p 'r n i , i' ad a ,J( i, F "\r. "lu- oaJ ' ' - 'd . . r l, l' , 1 ,l is Flp' "l-d ' u p p o i 4 ' r/ 6 lhoudlr Fs r F i los bf ,/ i' tr,; po 's:b l h r pb. l ,/ n "n s'Frr I It. is impasible not io lPel erl.Iusiastic or.r ihc last constnction ]fogralnnc socialist countrtes. I. i. r.... a -J It . '' d bd' Lr n- ' lot s r ldnm br " A lew'o:.1 luratl the.c $as lile on thc ]rlanet Nds Icos ago, ir 0ds 'a@o!cd

in

in limba englezi, de ceie arixate ln De lapt tnsn. aceste construciii -lin, (h) (S punctul 864). g us$ dJ jn Fopozil;i impersonaleln care il are ln!€lesul general de: ,,impre' jurerjle". ..starea de lucrun erc I a sure ;, shall lc weU$rih l'oul i is wel/ill sith... llo$' lares Li t iares un nume aii\, in spe.ial ca subiectal verbului,,,c+ S 8ti0 _p/ ci donorbtr predlcatll lrr nomrnauv: 1, iB ten miles lo lhc nett lown' "$ho is nr'1 'Jr is l/nc."r "1rs a long way io Tip!era.y." \\:har is n. (JonRani)? /l ca subiect al verbului ltr r. + uD nune predicativ in nolninatj' i')so' 5 8$t pentru a sc accerlu{ rclative, construclieintfebujnl,atn 1it de o propozi!,ie un subiectsau un co rpleme.t:
/r h I/m. who havc! ron lhe lrizc. lt .ra! orerc l.ial Lidioe6 uscd lo be. \Lho di*olcrrd thal. llrc earlli Llrns round ils aris i; .;; C"p""ri;. I ir: rnd ! lnro r r n, e dc uons lr ' . t i1l. tIn rm I r.,--nr l . . , " l 'I r '1r ' r r n J . dJ - li t;rrl/rid I r r ' ''u / a r r \ r l""ap i I nl df t u r " r i b1r.: pro nu n' l" l r on, i , r : . "l " i 'r " 3 il : rhis s& Aat. ou antcc'dentul prorL: Fopozili.i rdrtive se acordi ln nunrir;i ltAodri 'Vob!] i /,i.fur, sat cehoslovao disl.rls d. armalu g.tuanii, c{ r.ptesalii' JI' 194''

tradusi

cu consiruc,tia romeneascd: Eu sini acela carc'' A c o to -s tr to . rt u rd ....
C oPPr n i' P"" d e la

(V e z i i i S 2 5 5 " ,

'd'

precedenrd sau urmdtoare: S 862 g, pentru a inlocui o intreagd propozil,ie
ir do, s n l m lllp' rhz \lep ha . bp pn pd t . t t , ! ) l1P ds ,li and had a lFrI bad tin. ot , It l/ i"n l b .k:l'A lno m ' r , h. , odld : t au I Pad n" ludr r n L P l k , :

Nati. 1 1, este in senere omis dupd {,s !i t,tan in propoziliile comparati{e In caro it, subi€ct; inlocuieqte o tntreagA propozilie:
As lil) hB becn nentianed, dl the candidatcs x'€re accelied. I sill he lp vo u 4 Ir. t s r , / , / lt r ' v it hin ns L' ! ' r ' ue did a; l,r) s.en.d Des' H . erprL "'i -im"Pl n ot " t hon I : t ) ' os Aoat [ a" h: : I '" o l h Orr team weren't in tlainins long.r thaa (i. teds) necessaty.

$ 863

il introductiv) ca subiectgramaiical S 864 "I/': D) {numit, Fj prpparotor42 al unel pr.poririi ;l c;rFi subi.c lugi" a'ra un infinitirr tsuu o 'onslru {ia.u infinitivul); un serundiv (sau o constructie cu gerundil'u1),ori o propozilie in apozi.tia lui t:
lPh ./l is good oI Jou 'o -4, tikes me rr hoor t. !.t her. $:hen will ll be lossille /o. us to t2atn thc .esltlt? 1ts tro ute 5u?/rtza. /r $6 .u ulth !o ;. p nb"' ng 1] " . an Put : a4 \ 1r ' ' . \ ^. u h r o r o l " d i n i n g 1r nd n.. ssd rv thot it s @ e l p; ' t h" J ag t o \ p t o t i t P t // orcur"ed lo i'-n r " l; , P an nF €"at n. t f t a o t htEh"- tP , l, imDal..ia l to t.ah- hjt "t Does , mattcr ahb speths firsl?

ri.e cu .arar'rpr.' ursive.in .ubie' rplF)ugr." tCurintel" .i propoziLiila ala vprbFlor al c;roi subi."L grdmrli.al P' P n./ il introductiv) ou lunclie de complement direct S 865 i) (preparalata "ia': p;Doziiional p;ntnu3 anunla un 'omplPmplr dirpcL{un infioiri!. un gF"au predicu iofiniljvul sau .u g"rur,Ji vulrori o prop^zitie rundiv. o consLruCLie lui il: in apozi,tia directn cativd sau compleiivi
I lound n hatd ln slzPP \ ra "ou gh l , \r"t ,a t pt t k , ' a , , , v t V J . b; . , . - 1 1 . H p ha sn r tol :t 1 ltin t o . pDr - t oL t ' . . ., d ^ i lJL" /o" trnu .ot 'o a .p t, 1,.1! \\', , o,..id,.-. She ihinks n'j danscrous ?rotr. saLmmutg tL (g eat.r. t o na P' Poal I lrkp i, ,4 rr h"i r aat "e* I but ir to vou qhllh.r h? da\ ttBht Iric. -; no ll"irs ,", ; b r ' , b"Rt at t a, t d\ ' n t e t 4". t 1 I P a " 1 'r ' lll od. o lr ll' l 'h" t "Lt " ' * r ' t ! r ' t t..' P\ blt at oat J n '\, rplr o 1 :ttlr t )o

Notd A sc observaordinea carinlclrr in acest paLlern : tl introductiv, preoedat direct sau nu de prepozilie.este prs inediat dupn Yerb. iar eoRrplementul
, \umii.i i,,,tud ,. t 5. t o , t t - r ! - ; . ""vd \ "r b, lui, . r p, , i, ' ii1ir '\ o p r 4 ! o z 'r ' u. ,,"n* r" ' Ci (l su6 i".lu l lo;i" "JU introdrclit su conjurclia tru, n.narn de un snbjoncrit, eiLc prfteratf' consiruolir cn 'l

S 866

l7,J

a$;

apozitnrall vinc la ifirsitul froloziiiei: in ri:rznl uriFicompletiredirecte, tocul ac€st.i se alli la stirsitul ira;e;. j/,,.\il,,,e,1-trnn,,,.,,.r Luto.ti,,tr,...,,n.ri",,4 L nrJrlempnt dn, , r, In..pf,;l il n nor 1-cr b{,rare au nceea,li tornrnca ti substan, Ir r-.nF r\. .. ,u dr.t; : trppu,,rt,, ^ '1
lo niakf ,/ lti

Y ou' ll c alt J r , r / Notr lor trt
To r"d (p. r," t n . 'I-" h ,r, d.,,!J o J r . i Sri\ rJ r, || !a .,rp ilul .,ln \;d r p 'n r t , t , "" i. .

Ito \t l tl fs i ., H..s i; ior ir.
t . , 1" ,,,.1

I . r i6 r : , r , ' i u . ro u " 5 : t\h " rp o i d ,o u ri c k ur D i .furL I . dn t s ' 1nd ' ' - a ' p i s s D d rteI -,t" -$ ri u " rc ki - . r t , i, r . r, a L .o ' .' p ty .' ;1 " \,trn i .J l : ;... r , . s , it . : t he , o t l n n ru /i tu m ^' You musi mccL himr he's the ..t,,, oi rh. ih.atrB rlortd. irmlo.rantir No Nonder she's a success: shc's goi ..tr,'. iIarn..)1
S t6! : l

d" . , h. r ar . r r . \ r J , r,rbi,td 4la. rrJi - rn ^ t.runun -j i \ nr i1, " . ' l or pt . . . . , n t i . / t i - . , JiTpotri!i..a.t.,i. 'r . .

., r,,r int,.t,..utJ F ..i rnL . r ra l

.,f ,r ,. -r:

;. P lur alul au l o ri ti ti i :i rl u o d p .l i p i . pronurn" tn Ja r,.rro" nJ I f " .i p l u '., 1 in li' nDA r nl l , n J . i . to , r" 1 !., i ,, ti muJ " t-. d" .i n,.ut,,r ngtnz. r.,l nrar . l u l i ' ' . ir d s o r " l" r i l .' u $ i n trrd p o r.4 d n a s i pq a "(nLrebui de l urori r" ri . .u \Frr ni. . ^ni" r pnr r. ri . a u ro i i .n i ro rr , . 1 , , ., , ,u ;i i n Ii rnoe crgt" " " " " .' verbul are formd de plural: (Rcsina are tut aa,sdd..." "\e Vjctofjnt. ' t d, . , a. 1, , a . _ .p , b u r rh :.k . s .d } l r ,-. a oLpFn. _ j 1 ur i l i ," .u." " ... ([l l h ,l r" . .ta rtg i . n r r,€ ,. $i .t -" ' .utL . ,I t ' o " - D- r ' r dd . 'l

S 870

c-{zur, pnoltutrllon

pnRsorALD

granaiica actuati lace ,I" c.e,r .c pri\este cdzul pronuinelorperson&te, o dcmarcatrenetS intre: o) stilul fornot. i:ntrobu intat ai,ft tn scris (: Boal' rngl;sD * sritut livresr : 8?1 si apisrol. rj. r' :i in v^rh;r"r .u1,,'. iolr ald. rrti rlta. granrdrirlt6: $r b) stiLLn infornal. colodridl.intrebuintat tn vorbirea cur€ntn si rn scrisoS E72 rile sctise in stil familiar sau negliient. _ Totu;i, aceste doud stiluri se suprapun in unele conpartimente, sl,jh: .,olocviatindcpnrtind chiar forme gramal,icate ( cfolom inlocuit cr: esen,tiale nrr.. sau nominativul pronumelor personale1, D€, ;re, {rc, rr.g, tnlocuit,cu tor mele de acuzativ Drejnn. ner. us,in, n 1. lrstlel, form€lc coto;viate au crstisi si ,i.lir' rapiJ rcrFn.c; insrilul lornot rorbir. n oara,dr- na.uri si 1nqtitL scris. chiar in c€l olicial.
l Conpl-em€ntnl direct erlus ]a accst esle considerat tn linbR engtezn tn a!0?i. !urct ' pronumehi it. : ld.scori s.fis c! iDifiaE mniuscula: He txtier.s hitullf t. be.'11.. 2 A se obserla ir a,iest crz Dnirz. far. intfrline nr rorb;e inainrca nfonunFtli .i ,,a ' L .n, . . hn r i . ' . i o, . d D r o n - , e l u : . ' u rl d , t "1 o al hi\ lp rur Jin ". lim t . 1 t r . ' n. / . - Llt " a , r ' r , . , i , . n L nosiml roL, rJJ \ nuani, aclsrcr cxpres!. r\L Shakespcafc, 'Ihe Lilb ol Eins Uenr! |IIL fia

tr0
ri r J' rr' \' rI -, u l r'r pn^/ ir ipr ' l, r pa -r" ' i ' rr' l ' 'u l " ri r -i ,l l r ' rJ 'Jrr' :n l L-rr' i i rF r H r' ' .,Ii .,| . . ,1 ruarl r, a .l1, n ulu: ' ' ' ' , ' ' I , ,; I . , r n n e si - hi b , r r l" ' lp / t, " r" " 1 " - 5 i ' l: \i J-;r ^ r' -I' d t , i" r " , r ",n n -!tl .i l i rl us e d efi terl Ltl l ri sl i l u]col 01] s L ts rra r e\p u s I r , ele l s o v a li n e sea il de r ;al co re sp ur z elor " i n s l i l l rl g | a $ a l i (' rl l o D rdl l fonLrni el e personal l) l a zu l nor nint t ir . sllii i n ca zul nor ninr l. ir i r u rtn n l o a re l e -s rl u a l l : "c . ,/ ci n d es t e s aDt f f l: / rm xo r s on.
!L i, . inr. hNr.

s 87;l s 871

{r

rir lrrera't of Hamret' i't thr rla.v,/it r)tiilg '{sr -" l'', acordai h caz flt "\rbiettrrl S 8;;' 1,] cinci esle ttrne pt.tlicatir (dupn 1.) ( } ut lt ' 1t \ t 'rLpt n' rt ): 'u ore crr\ u , d e pre' lr .r1 r! irir.i l;i",, i'iii
ll is 1 \ iho aJ nl lot r r nic nd' I u m le { ] lo t x t , : s f lr ar g. { ll. r s pok ' w$ r l' \ h' Th i Jou 3

prErt;faiir al 1-erbului/o ,€ se acor(lii in caz cu subiectul verbului ropulati\.:
/,,5/i\

S ETlt

-.-\' 1' nol ''l l :\ '" I \o fl ' I \\ ,i rer t i\. r ' l l_ n I \, r r 1 ,, t. n ,/ \\L btlj,.\,t '1 lo h " 1' l o.i -l "

1\ 1. _. , :

.,

/:!o

o "r h

l :,,

o:

{".

r' ,n .' "tJ
I \"

\' ,n

h'r'

\'

. n p . e : ori

o lorm'rlrr" l' r "l' -* r "' nr u r": iL " r r ' i' ' ' ' ^ r ' ' i' ' " i ;, ; , ; ' ; i;";,; ;" ;;' " i', , " ".t r "'r' ' r p r ' ' " ' r'i' i\ ' r ! " r I " r " i ' nu"'| r'"c ri "., i; " . 1 "i;,;i" ;;iri.; 'u rr .r'r'.r i; lo'ltl norrinarivduis icuzatirului ia Iolrr:i i,?. scartl rn "i'bintri,x. Itri rerb.sautind rronunere i""t" iii'i",;p;,trlii., iiii""ii"l*i"J-'-," '*' ifirtitul propozitici:

rcspeflali in stiln) fornrLl sL:ris' -{fcastii reguh trebuic r ' lur"r r''r r'j'rl" '1" r, 'r In lrnld t)orl)tto. "rl: r '- lpl rl irre \irDAr ! H U i r 'l l' r i
''

s ll7?

, Whols rtroer' (f/r:s) nie.-'

' ' "Insleo tor Kr ox l" ": I ht t r m _lt r l' o "1,'s-on lr I' n s o r ' r ! o! s " "see iI ddts htn ' r" "iare wants vo" on lhc rhon' " "1)h 'rl "l m rhaiil n tvael't thtnl " 'ill Fish ir t ( d , . . , r r " '1-ou'rc alNa.ts liglitirg hiBr'" -/ls 's or /'t'
r 10 1o'l

"

un gerundi!. in lo.Ltl unui adjc(:tir posesiv: siu prcc€clirtl
r. ;r" , \ l' 1r
{ //

r i;$

o p P i \'

"

"'

' rr

/" _

ci su i teatril . \{. Shakcspcare, r:s ,!z Lil' . lt . ! r . 1r " . '\ \ . n' l '"n l ru , , nur nt s P r ' 1r _ a u t* . , z ' i i" d c . ) uLi 'i r 'r l t ' |ebo tn6 , nr ii 1 nt ^td n n a .l \ t , { dnt nt \ ' o1. ol "

""{iilti,i,}Wlqi*id*j*:}l''il$*:i
! / '' r 'r l ' I 'i d F i r s n i n n o r n _ '-

18C € 8?9 "'" "

MoRFoLdca - ?RoNUltEr;E

Y p' hLLll ' r b' i n-p\pre{ a Cind ins i num e te p re d i c a ti r u a re s ta p P l rr' grr ds i ' ' z ro n u , ) l -,' .' " i ' " J " ,,' ,' i .";;;;" i" ' ri r ' F-n " \' " 1 ' r " n to rml l ' r In mo J n " r1 " l : cu Jco' - i- ' ilLl 1) llt i. l v t' o o n 'l ^, lon / lllr ' - s j t' r' : ). me " ro rra l l ' " ) ' I a It was ru rc gi':a thc ea'ftikcf lritt' the kels l/"r''lal)

,r ,p ,l r "
I

.DL L )

|

t dL,

I

*1";"1
lt hot I

E k n a ' |' o l- it )

S 880
'.

, az ul nor ninit r \: l : | t alt . t - t ilt .n / " ' r! I . " rl h n ," ' n i'l r" ; ; ; , i" , l ' n ro "- l l $ p l p, C r' :l i " i. ; , '

*'lo"rz //tlil sau 03 apariilr \lnui stil mai ingriiit' Iersiunile cu pronumele t; cnreprimul termcnst; .j a"p., ,- !iir,,, ii, prup"zrliileconparatirre
' oo\' : eor' ' ' ^ , , ri oro' rrrLL ' Jr' l r'

:: iTr;;j: {,,::;
al the pl{l

fc.loc'n,l

S ' 88 1

"ut,.

H .!nld pcr:onalest€in acela;icaz ou Jupi ar .'i lia' pronumele l" F "o,"rr*ra!ir. .n'i.'ri s.'r pr"rrln"l' rr ' 'oFl 'i'
Sc ra spunc deci li: "p

,{i.\ sugLtslnrn1tr! Ltr nfur' inteffstifg ihrr }tint rs gold as 4r'r' ?lkt ltno$lcdse .l ltrglilir tim i ratrre rne,r ;;tff tlan II 's 'ah! ." r . , n,l . . . ! . . t: , r ;; \' ' r' h" rD rL ' rp ' , i o i ;. \",,." "ii A s o . , om P |lr a : ! 882 t kn.\t htr rcttef Ur,tn n' fkrr'ws herl I k no\ t n. / be tl .. tl a n l l k tro (J /' L ' cl & ri Lateda' :d ln c az ul c e\ t i c l e n l d o i l ' a c re m p l u , fro p ozi l i a ar ci ;ti ga i n hlocurior: verbul onis ar li enfrinat', lic chirr !i Finir un /, I' i n I l. ! o, \ ' . b- | . 1 d i\iczi r'i S 1918) na exp nrat atunci rlod dit€rn de primxt i'iotilea .U doiler vcrb tr€buie { 8SJ s ru c i n d i n s u ti a p rb rrl P ' l c a l tul P ropu/-i ti a urmi i odre' del t ' " -" ." ti; , ' ; ' ' ; ; " od. r I p"n l i n l u r;l F v.rl i ^l or ' rrr ' l rl pfl r^: u r;rr ' a. " . . - i' r ut '' ' u Ue ts at l$'ortX lcss se'ious miidd l'haa votr at liLleen Cor p. l ' i. t r " P o z i l i s J a i n lle is rl. twenlv lss s.ricns minded thiLnvou c''rd ai' lilteen' r A t enlLe persr' ral s a c u ro a rs t€o a z u l !0 ra rt tre } u i e stl 0i }; Irontrrn' l ' a P ent r u { o 88.1 "" Lptbul u n' onozi Li € ." \P dJ ' fl t' : ,l u p" " o ; r n' r ' i' " , 4 r,' i ' o rr' p l " ' b ?ne? consideiLim norc ddpctenl tlu sld lconsjdeN]rin-rl

ii,;i ;;i;;i;;; i,'i- ii.i"

/@ tlan iuret oonsiderl -.i"t*t (V c z i ti S 2 t2 41

de la S 8so sli4 slnt lalalile ii Ftrtnr subslanti!_"' '-r".".ii "".g"U;i cele 3 O llpsa (Pronumet'ri ftlrti!)' -

l 8l

ln stilul colocvial, nominalivul dupi conjuncliile r,hdnti a, este inloouit prin cazul acuzativ, consiructie condamnate de purilti. Se spune totuqi in Siierrlr-.Xou.ge.thio ru. Ile is ar nrch tauer than ,r. \\'e a.e a! rrlev.r as rtun. lVczisi S s7i) dJ Oonctuzie.:in slilul coloct,ial, pro unele personall chiar cind este ul,ie: rd, iir'.b?ul nomin"ti\J r"- nu.. - d"t"r;ins d"ni"i oprppu/iii". ia. t 1o'ul ,.ominatirului.lorma ecuzeirul rr. u rrrrr-i lr tFr"orn. l..i ll loate pcrsoanele:
It nas zs \'h0 had been sidEjiAl. \1'! sair him at l]|. corccfli al lcall i thirk iL nas nin. U:c -Uother md Lr -\rnt lor a trial n in or. nNv .af. am I "I sorn. rPsret." -41: nd (exploziv) : ';,1t too! lu. tooIt-r. nDl" (NeE'anaiicitsi trutologici drr c. i.struei.,pp ,," r.' , 1". m . 1i"., , a ' 1. "r ", 1.in,J r,-. r r r. gir ilp A rJdJ , i",.ar .: i. ar d" o lor m ' I r,-r" '( , d , I 'rn 'i c r J J rdl n,'"q i l rr p leon. o", I1 t, .V, r. Toa- .11. , ). I c , 1. , d r , . r ' , lu t \

g 885

S 886

Dr. P. Gurrey, Readerin Educalion and Head of the English Department in the University of London Institute ol Educalion. €tc. etc., etc.. scrie: "'fhe use of the Nan Nominaliee form of a I'ronoun fllter 'is' in rrr","edt rcltoquial speechis 'Who is that?' 'Ii's nre"'. 2) Nominatirul vocativ (Noninuti,tc of Addte$) (S 192). - Irronunele g 887 este in crzul nominativ vocativ cind se referl la animate sau inanimate cdrora ne adresim: Hey, goul WIat are you doirg there? Mfuties af tuy childhaad I $ty do yon comeurwanted? 3) Caz[l gonitir. - Pentru forma de genitiv a pronumelor pcrsonale S 888 qi adjcci,ivul posesiv" (S 900). 'Irronumel€ O formd idiomaticd de ge itirJ intrebuirllate Ln NtiluL foart. fan.iliat. | 889 lonsti din pronumeiepersonalin cazul obieeli! precedatde prepozifiao/: You wilt I. thc dcalt' ol mcl vezi
I wouldn'L do it ior thr lili 0l ,nc.

4) Cazul obiectiY3. pus drtrt verb. a) Pronumele personal tn cazul datlv sau eclrzativ osl,lr Ctnd acuzatirul esie un pronume, el prcctdd ln generedatiyul:
I g d v r, (1 ^) (r' ) l e " a l l d o "oa I r Jv " ,/ J , .r /" r' . 1 7 , td , ' ul Cind insi acuzativul este un substantiv, el rjne datd dativul pronominal: I gave l€f (dal.) a s,aer (ac.). I [Ii tl i n s , or . . i/ , naA .9 0 . , P. C u t i, t . " 1, ; . ; Lt K t .h L , o a a o . p t" . rD Jt'\. r c uz a. iv s iDr c D o :i l ,o n d l !l 9 i l ,R p s u IL .ra m-.i cri rarr orr\ .c.ui ,trr' . 1i\ 11li i n d ,i G aF f p \ . r . , 6ir - s ; t" i rr.,t.o ,,,,n ," e n i \s F n ,rr..b.rd" ri ,uJui .,,i i Joe l ,i a . g 1 2 . p nri u tun. rl I i . d:.l l ! nlru d 'f:n i ii da i\ ul. i. S 1 r0 p n a l o rma "i.l ' .r' -l u i ..5 L i l I nl " un i i ni l i J u"nlr u .J-Irn iad, i z dl v J lu. S 3 " 7 p n k u fu n " .i " .,/ .l ' ,i {l n l i .ba r o' bila. . nd p r.n u ,n h trs l b In a .u z a ri r.5 " 5p' rn un or i i : -l ,l 4l l sendsoz {dat.) ,i (ac.).""Don't you slve ne. (dat.) t, (.tc.)." etc.

S 890 S 891

182

Erceplit:

Sul,\tantir',rl | pronunele iD dati\. firrl se urmnresle -c\tzaIi\ I'rtctdti jn mod sperinl H,'" tjrarea da'rir1rlui. care este.iJr a|easti s;rnarie. pf€cedat, dc lr€pozilia t0: I gaycl.Iero,,l ia..i io tur ldafl. not to r,, 1dat.r. D, Dupe prepozjlii.pronunlelesi,n h cazul aruzativ: S 892
.rbout li,. bI 4.,. oi !i. to ,p. \rilh r/rf,. eto.

$ 893

Er ce p li,: Pfepozilia,/ poateIi urrratn lqide un qen;liv:
T r ja r.i :h l l d ,/ z i ,c i s a 1\_czisi $ 196l personal .r.,/ Pronumelo in fazul obi€ctiv este nrlrebuintiat idiomai.ic ln unele irterjeclii din limba vorbite: lvai: -{delirat? lir lrai spun.:) lv ail v ai de m i n e :)

$ 891

de ir.l) rsnra{n1/s::r.rc{ (SdJacarle.acul de ti.cll

ir 89.i

d/ Pronumele perlsona] in razul obiocti\. este uneori intrebuinlat {cu o n u a nld des uet n s a u p o e ti c d ) !i c u re c h e a l u i yal oare de pronurne i etl eri r' : I loid ,r. i: Drysclt do$Jr ro sleep. Ef t,ad built ,t, i- li;nseut a trous.. T he c anar yloo k l o i r i : i ts e l l t n D te . "L'i1]e slars mat hide r/pa ( ihenBel\€s)Nh.n lhel list..' \'. shakesrare)

$ 896

IOLL-T,PROIITJITDLUI PDBSO\.\I, a, Plfi)umele personal este pus de obnr€i cit llra; dproape de aniecePronum"l" ,1, pprr,Hnl . . a th . ,h . ,1. //,FJl oa,r "d-deori n"-'pre 1.. ,.'rlu/ii ln.,.p".apirint.,.Tr"L-r"daim'rltiit.nLi, 1.,irtrpb,.rnr"rcator:
Ann's Diotlc. mored io Ll$l,c. Nhen sn, sas h kirjdcrgaricn. f\t nrana .ra la grldinjl;i ciNl s-a ,l.ai.in Llster. ci .\na. Fraza t.cbrie rcli.uti: astlel: "$'hcr -\m $as iD lindcryirten Ler moiher movcd \i,jk iord tris brortrer d didi L know Engtisl. tsh larc nr ilia engiezeite.Fraza trebuie rellcria asllll: _, _l\Li lntelc. .i \i.lt er.r rL, ''Nicl<said to Lis l'rclri.r: 'I dor't know nnglishr,,l P er t r u ac elas jmo ti \-. p ro n u n re l e p e rs o n al de persoana a:l -a nu l nehui e rn tro dus ir t r o pr o p o z i l i € i n a i l te c a a n te c e d entul l ui si fi l ost menri onat: .." rt t! .d D " o .o . d 1l L " ro 11 r\ h " n r ' a{ s. . n l l .ql o h;n. otr ' l "p " ,, PromLmdc de peNoana 1 singular'. cind apore jnsolit de pronumele care se refer:'r la celelalte personna sau la un substaniir. na lr"er€dd, ci urmeazil ,1un as \dl ls I/m.r hlls to go al oncc. Io a a n d l rn e a re fri e n d s // and Iile cou. lo b.eaklasL .arly.

s s9?

i 898

i ri!rrl

La piur al. or d i n e a e s te u rm n to a re a : $ e , aou, * eu: lt., ,,, rnd hare nianJ tastcsjn cotudrn. 'tuV

PIiONOU\ '{JD ADJJ]CIIYE) {ITIE POSSESSIVf,

P0SDSIV . Pn0NUIIELE$I ADJECTTVUL

s grxl
S 1)ol imz $ ll03

dord lorrre tjfrriti\ul pforumFlri personat.are' L) lrcfini,tie !i rornll. re prri"li lJp'rivLl rrr r i n^ e'iLr' p' r, , r,, numi ll' {p o -'it "dl' 'i:;",: to"J'r1s; f""'iu t,',1",,,t " l^' Iunui 'uh'"n'i\'b'| "r' 'lhrscoat's mr'€' determini ur sub"qtantiv intlicirri ln acela;i timp ;i ,tdjectitul posesit'
Tltis is D!/ (oat

- .".n'i't nu"itut,'i''

,,,"":,:":iliil:l?,'lliT;i'".i.,1lii'ii'""$xLt"'iii1f,:Jli*'"
t""'ilj;*t""" sint urmdtoarele: !i pronunele posesive

s 9o4

I! ls veDs
Ii is tu. dog

Obser p&!LL

,.,"s{,1.x1?"iil?:Yill'{ii';*?':l:Yi?;lii:";'#"11
906 bJ Formolorp.ri al' sdj"crivuluipo'e:iv ra;t" -si/i;,?P"rnl inlrFbuil.!dla s orr adJerrrve_ subslanlttelnr dupd un \o.clit sauinHinlcs modernO in onei"za poatic' sduarhaic5 .du cu un t. panr ru a dd o nuan1a i;. ;;;,;, ;r. ;; "li "' " stilului:
r nt n I os l n r FonlJs o n t n r l " 4 r n " ' ntn p"\,s,m i, "aa" Ftr rai, n -\'', Lddv m ; t el t hi " eJ ' " t ht lc h c d t t t dJ oqn | \an l lo do ll"nJ " in dir P I dd $ "1 ' or n"d bY m ' r ho: i: al neu s i dl ilu) . ij , lt , e i: Ce F aL m eu e - i i r l U u l .

s 905

produmolui 2r IBtolosul $i al adic(livuluipoqo'iv' DeodrP- fronumelc p"*[i'-.;-o.a l' io tirn6uengt-a-(u subsrrntitul cdrcdPnume:r," * .,f i- i'i,-r' ';".;;;;;i' ;1; se traduc !n limbs rom;nr'u roarelronu'nele sal ad:trrrv'rp Ind'lorFnt oc pospcorulur' io."siv" rehri'oar la p'rsoano 'orespunraLoare ex'mplu: Spre pospdst obipcLului i""J ri "r*a*t
nir ' { - sl n ru d 1 r' a i D d i a r Ddhl r n" i. si- 1 l l o " , I l n r, a i l u r' rl " l o r) l: tiu. ta, iei' iale) "olr i: noslru, nrasl.ri, noitf!, noastrc) €Lc' ;ur

s e07

i ',t"r* g, *' t i, , t l ' ..' S r' m rr\ p o " s i r n u ' e ' ' i "q i :,,r llr . r , onu, n "' T . rd' l i fornil cont.sl' ntr trn loseBrs' ,, ts 9i esi.s

ni ' i oddtl ns' dn

l r' ' " Jmnr

184 Natd S 908 Ca ii in limba romand. Dronumele Dos€si\-DoAte dre.{ si inLelesul de ..lamili..'udc. prie'eni. sau ..propriouare-:
H e { i l l a l (d 1 5 ,h 1 r \ fv L i rd r ol ror and u-. .. I m' (- n o i l ' :tt0 rr' o , i e t* e e i n;i c ana 18." . (Pentru

S 909

i n g F n. num J r s i . p e F o a n a . .u q u b s ta n l i v u l .src dpnu.n,qtp poseeordl .nt -,i ''u obr p,r ! r l pn. oJ d l . .,r' ' .a a .o r,l ; l n g o n .i nu.u. tn l i mba fomend: Me has lel chitd: ii. is n,.r. Da a.e coDitul cii este al ei.) t/i? nas i"t chitdren; iiey are t.rs. [Ea a.e copiii ei] stnr ai-€i.) p o s e s i v l ,e r" .re speeti v l rrs. si nt l a D ersoana a s i p ro n L rrn e J e [ { dje. t ilul 3 a leminin singuLai i.a si pose-sorul sie; ele nir stnU acordate !i c'u obicctu) p u s edat , r / / d, c J r€ e .rp n p u tfi r ;i , i n p ri m u l oxempl u, l a si ngul ar, i ar i n al d o ilei la plur dl j 4) oaz. - Desi pronumele Dososil r€orezintn genirilul Dronumelui Derso nal. . l r ^ " t ' z ut p ro i ./,,i ' l F p F ;d e , IJ p c ;ru t ant" :i de.rtul ui saul d" .rmi na. d c r olul ju. ht dc ;l j 1 p ro n o ri i i a d i rr ra re fr"" parte rvazi si S 826) j ' Itz a (pron.,nom.) rs . will x on lend . l a u N a t (a d j .,a c .)? t: ny.o4, (D ol l r.)] t t at h?, a tl .j !ro ... lh, . l d r.r," r' i \ Iom. i s d g,dr re.to..,bi t,v. / ur , t s Nv lpo r --g v . l /s o r /a d ..d " t. s i -rri nst" " .brt tr,.J;n\;/r... l t'ron. , dar I lns l i o t.s . AdjFctirului pospsi\. in propozilie este d€torminat de rolul substai,-C0zul l i vu lui ( . nu Hl p.h i \" l c n t.l u i o " ^ l u i J t p p trnqr .1r^ .ta ri , u cdrp formpaza tm r up s int o. t i. . { \p /; pri n " \e m o l p l e d e ri r,r " u-" i l di " a. " ur.i r..1 I ' r . bf ^r gl zJ p p a d .l i d e : ' d \p )o ,.i o' yo," . p.on.. a..). r et-s r l- r r b r n ||' ,u .rh o ., r.rJ t.. d, p" p. : l ook Jr t;s (pron d.. tf!f. Lo$. - r Nat il . T h" t . br o b. r /,..s r rra r" l e s , F tr Jt .i i e.,a un dubtu g6oi i i r. \ r r p ex em pta :" / I m r ai nl ,,l ra " ' ., .a rri .t,n J .a t l .u T h' . o bu .rn .. a l t" " ;.. ... -rL r.i N. t , ic t , r r . / l i (.,s e \? r r, j r.t.d b y th ; Hansi ns eommi ti ee.l N i ci un radou

3) Gen, numir gipersoani. Promrmete qi adjectivele posesive se acorde

adjeotivele posesive ln spocial, rezi 5i g 817, 911)

$ 910

s 911 s 912
$ 91 3

{ V e z i , p e D i .u d e ta l i j , S 2 9 4-196,:esl

5) Adj€ctirul posesivfzie Passestiae Adjp,ctire ). d, -{djectivuiposesiv insole!leintotdeaun'1ut' subttanltu sannr gerundie:
This is mr./ stsrer.I ' subst.t Do ).ou mird my smahin1l ! (+ seNrdiv) , J Ca or ic e a d i € c ti v 1 n l i m b a e n g l c z a ,a Jj ecti rut poscsi v rf,c,' da substan d " F fi ,,i n i . n u l l ,rfl ,' a ,,d ,r- i n l i rnbr romJri o: !.,"F 'i t,rl , ,., a l T. (Aceasr.n e;te pilirin nad.j IlaYe i'ou patsd /oh crarn iJr maths? /7 ,-a ' l ,r(u t e x a me n n l { l raLcmal i cl ?)

PRONUMET

$I

186

livclor cu tumlic dF $ 9Il lnlofuies' arlifolul subsjar .) Adiectirala Doscsive inbd inintP ln rFtF' d( oPi"alp pdrli trupului .rr; olP I denumoic subiF 'su iolnrir: arli.olul lalrF .azuri sF tnrrebuinlpazb
S/@shook 12. head I askcd goa to Put on Y'zr coat' Se sp u n e lns i: I took tu' bY ,nE a.n I oar nover'look ntfu in tfte lace agnin They thnmpeil /,tm on rre nack. (Ve z i!i S 5 i i I d / so Hr , ic o i, , s pp" i d l l F nt l Tr b a 1 '0"*ii . d rn li; beer ili r n e a c c ent uat e: 1 lnt on tu4 coal. 2,"";"r,;;l r';";.i \r $ " nn / , ' . l" : nd' ' : (\., . n " d f 1 |- ni H. took oll nt! hat F n l ;d a ' ,,p rd Ir-o n ' /i ri i l at i n " ' r^ odi ' ' i f" l " r' 0 d u r l n l i n b d 4 ' n sr; Iri n Iorrr' ' dP ddt' JO(. elilitro ha{c leli lor tlie Pioneer' Camp fre au rlecaL copiii in tab;lra dc piodie'i r c \" I' / I ''i' rn ,/\r_ d p i d rd ' rr i u"
I havc paid m,/ shr.e. fMi-an rlrlljL paltea.)

S 9l ;

c) lnlr'o enun(.rare. adjcctivul posesiv nu se repcti inaintea liecafui substlntiv dectt perrtru clarificare "(au pcntru accentuatc:
/,' d b d - r hu,; ' ud II' .rnotmL ',P p. . . nb"i na. eo " l 'n rprq d' 1ii ]]r f,r"tJr,.n 4 or" , . . u, ! 40. r f i. ft dn d 4 :. . t r t ;'n 1t . . .." \ orJrer uJ r ' nd \ ' ' ' /Ir'.-an da ll"i o& p o.p .i!. s r F bdp. ei ; r nl: l dF ' u\ r n r u l \urp.ri\L l //

S

gl{i

I

D r a p t i u 'r '

S 917

,dn inrrFirp id'"' no "sirul,ri rPsn".ri\' J-r.1t" nu '' rr"Ju ' inrold"lund tn lirnbfl rornnni:
"TIe aii.l's Ora Boolt.": TheiL iltcrests are mr otu (Inl.tusele lor snrl ii alc mPlc)
Llo m-r ,0a .ookirg. (il11l,cseshRr'm.l slrc makes |o 04? dfcsses (lli fuce singnri ro.hiil-" )

L,r Adieriirul Doqesit :i gpru r-iirul. P r,"u ^hrirFrpdu 'ri 'rrl l pids' optu dr\' p"r tn limb" slezev' rbul prcdir.ti' ' Inlu'u: .rc ad'Fori 'u rr' pronume posesiv sau a urtur adjectiv formaunui stn sub p€ Iingn care"sribiectul persolal ln acuzatrv: r Do vou mind lf I smldr deline: 1 Do you mind /y snaltzsl
i r r i, , uo, . r . ' . " 4 ., /o " th " tr' \t' tte q 1 wi llo. r . r t ' t" .: ' h .' r ro i " " ' / 't-ri n ": (\tuzi li $ 9l ll oon

S Clq

DO iIT'4.RINE s 919 NEfLEXIT $I PROT*U}IELD fiI, PNONUMELE GEn riEFr,o)ul-E AND Tm n]IPHATTCPRO:{OUNS) 1l Dcfidtie, - Pronumelecare, tntrebuinlat pe tinge un verb activ, 5 92{l arata'ln prin;ipiu cn acliunea"exl mati de verb se rdsfringeasuprasubrcctului se numeqtePrununerelkrLe. (s"'1fii"T:l"Til;i]"
The Ba!\

runeori adjcctivul ,au calain o nuanle alectili prDnnnlar!: Mv awn btuth't !
Aen Baak.

care avea vremu,i, roareapreciarpe ii pe.echea,esrectire ",sreze

186

$ ,21

Pronwnele rlc t,?rnn,'. in-rolaltF antererlentul pcntru aI acccnLua. 2) I'ormi. - Prouun€l€ rcfle\i1. ti pronuorele (le intnriro au nceea!.i fornle in lirnbr elglezi:

m \* l J { : di r L o x l s e lr l : i er

{ I | I 1 { t

: i nsnmi : : : : : : l " 9rj Insar in rsi iNiii insgli Dsa;r

( I
Pl.

linRu (: s) lrersell(- se)

Nrtrd

iiserf {: {l ' our*lvs ( ncl ]' o u s l * s r= rri ) ilEnshas r= sl onseu (: r)

i

I I

: biine : nr_si ri i I - l'iqrI - tns'tl : ir$!i

s 922

Pronulllele refleriv ! cel de iltdrire slnr sinqurele prollume care. ja peNoana a 2 a, eu fonna de ,singulal'dileritir de fcirma de plural: iss.l Jousef - lp] ) r'ouse1.., J) Pluralul dutoritnlij $i al Iotitctii. LI 'i lronLm.lp rp cnu 1rl,." relers]3, s;r:&fd pprsoal"it,tur.lL, au.!. rflSrii :i polite,iill. rorma rFflF\i!d Fsr" ,rA4l qi ,rc,ns.tt inu o"r.t,,. "l !i'e oz.rcry belicle this to be ie rnrh. Ion sa'd so loLru.4, Youf }lonour. (curinte adrcsare judcontoruhi.l 4) Prinrilslelc funrlii proo alo m0tui rcflpxiy Fi atc !ftnrunrrtui de ixri. nrc. - rn i,trjnli \rpmp.p'onu1.ta rcllFr,i\ ,r.f,lI a cipj, dt o i.rrFr uin.dr. todrler;jpindild.i rpdi."rirnrnrtori".Frecarrru,irLrl e.ri.rno.lesrrr.inrret;in lare. Dro u'l alor d, po..o,nn l. 1 .ru a, . liin4 .o,rqidord,p to !". er! LJ Jorinld d \nrbrrorulri rl".r .. pun" in p!iJ"nlj. fi, .e. ,ti-)porfir". ,,r."/ rrrn4un .uiinr n rr | ,n: t i,, pntu0,.,tJ .rilulDiur aopp.trai t^,r t.," , drn 0lle morirp p^.ibilp -, rr\ tul tn vll -" de, or.s azi.ri nre" rnutt "ud" f.]r.,,1i.,"r ln'1 . Po "nalpr',rlo\iv nI rcbuiei"to,ir ca .rrbe i, ltoiler ard 1/e fnr inlseli)hadrca rogethlr. Pronumele rellexiv sen-este: aJ la fornrarea cnnjusdrii r.fk::ciw a vcrbelor,:
,, a,d '. l\ 6 b r . l! \ ir I '.to v .Tl' n mDr' rla o p. 1eo i . d s t ' , r ln.IidPd sing trd.l \ ld 4t t f . 4/ \ ' , - L 1,,," ,t , I d., ,,.. id.,

s 923

s 921
$ $25

,d L) rn ",F,,; - rrppo.:,,:. p.-"pJ. I dn onnozrr:i. 1. "t,.,t;.) n/ $i /rr. prnnun Fl" -rl,p\i\ xr" ln1"lFtt ,1c ...in;ur.. dar.u ;u1 ," nit-r e
l,] a ." // s in; r n"r ' . ol I s ". r n, J . Lbl | I c am e dt ll |J L) r D. \ , \ n. r i . 1! r , 1" t ot _ n"i . o t i Sh-" did it n! hcrclli. (A lilout o sjngDrii, DcajutatiL.) d. nim".i,

" \ ez i il $ 1i; 0 .

SI

PRONUIIILE

DE 'NTARIRE

r37

ot oz6.lf

l: sir(tr.. de la sn€l The cdD c.ackedd/ tsaf (Ceascta o.llai de la sinDi lor o n * J / f : s ir ! : , r ( t u In s u l i c L l l l;".;;j " / . . , , , " - " r r rp \d - i a r o { i o ' ,l d ,n qi -,-a' .' i ' ,,,.r" -.o' ,nr,.!jl"i ,' , r i o rr' l r' ' r' l r l n l " r ' L : \.1 . . i- r ur \ or r" :\" f- ,' "o ' r" i " Cd. dhe prcpozilii: IIe k.!i. hinBdl r, itnt'f. She cadc & n..rall lSia rclent ) \Yhat .rre rou dontg oltk t!.u'setl lr:orbeqie1int.n iinrftr insrilijin nu.rclc lC-" Iaci asti{ea.d?l i rootr iL Lrh ,m$tf to o o n re n . tL e m e c l n rq . (Ii mr luat sarcina de a S 921;

c, Pronumole ale intirire tste intrebuinlai pentru a da mai mrtltd tirie dnui substantiY sau urui Pronume: TIer hcard the ncws lrom ihc witness ntnr.l/ lAri anzit resLca ohia. de la martor') I nin it mysctf. (-\m fiirut_o €u lnsumi ) \Vhen in Ensland. I p.eld to \Yashmy clou,es nyMf al a launderetie'. ralher llim Iule th€m $'6hed al a lannd.t'.

reflexir se lntrebuinl,eazd I 997 5) Functiilerronu rclui relle\ir. - Pronumele
rn g.n"r- ,rn sobiectul: p;lp n"mp pr"di ari\ sdu Obj t' ,i la s."Fdii p'Foani ' u
!n' {as not lefs.r/ last nighi. {\d c Ir.Pdi0.rtili Eob I\rtL hinretf- (Comrt. dir.) -He x-\" ]"i% .tt d mr, , nl I r I { Co npl ' nd "' di" rh ; n ,mba- r o h?""t t . t c ^apt . i-[ f r al $. r 'i . 'h dlo n a r 1 : 0 s t 'o r a d o adr r'u I ' os s h" J' p& r. rliJ rr'a r /,hrp .4/, r_lo lrold ' 1ana3 r ' J " or poz i, io. J l r : m p $6 J mr' rv lco np ' p_ l o r , r o l r r L ( c om ll "Ho' n' . . l/,e hou!,, h l.s4 /: i onJ' ,, ,ipr ,,/ b . .nnt " I ^' , dr tt. r"h; L.omt

rnlo.ul .alli p.'qonrlppnrI-ud:nc\irdsmbigurldlca 'FIle.\ii.-LFinlretluinls propoatunci cind folosireaunui pronume personal ar da un alt in-teles create zi!iei: \'as prefer.ed 10 nPrscn Sr, k@w that na' datrshte.
' lrr .d lrr"r '' ii 'r'r lr . r . al- r

- Pronumele S 9'lS 6) Pronumeleroflexie cu raloare de pronume Persoual.

f"wa! prefeued to l,er" ar li insemnat,,era prelerati unei alle persoanedeclL :rceleia la care se refetn subiectul".l 6 htms.lf r.other was as caDable -aiir (Frutele sau cr{ tot alli de crlabil ca;i Fl \ l'as /r" s ar fi relerit la o alti persoanddecit aceeade al ciirei ffate eravorba.j
shc asked nc to look alL{ nJs.J/ (lli a centt si am griji' de mn'. 1 sn aibe ea grijd ["She ask€d me to look after tr." ar li insennat:.,\'ti a cerut de nine".l Cind confuzia nu eslc posibili. sc intrebuinleazn pronumele personal: Hc srve nd tle nPPl.s. \fc sa w it m in lhc s tre e t.

l lduz.tz.rtc : sDltutotic cu aparatcautomateundc lnblicul hi spale ii calol sntgd! d " " ! l u l s tn ' o d rd l or i lr' l t t rll",!t'n l .u ' pi" (5 ::or. ir ir . . . . I n q i rp .r5 a u tr" p o z i r' o n d r 'co .n n ; m en

188

S 929

7) Pmnumele refleniv tu comparotii. A se observa qi tntrebuintarea pronumelui relle\iv cu valoare de pronume personal ln conparalii dupd lilxe, than i as in locul pronumelui personal: Hc is l,ol-hcaded li.td n?s.n S " i. mu t' \aut t tLA" nJ,tf.
T'r'

S 930

.

..u..t. r.ia,il Fntiu: "1 slaq€" in loc dc r'l ;ndrc n?a.f". -\c,la!L 1 loc de "l dBs /r/s€l/" ctc. i\rezi ii ,,Dinie7d .elle\ivl,. I ri76l.

8) Iipsa pronumeiui rellexir-. - In contrast, cu linba romend, tendinta limbii engieze-este dc a tnhi,ura pronumele relleriv acolo"undeacestanu esie necesarpentru claritat0a f?azei. \i€rbele reflexive stnt aqadar foarie putine la nunnr tn linba ongleze.Chiar lqiunele yerbe cu formi retl€xivn, cari au o rirculalic mai nar€, Fjnt i locuite de pr€lerinld cu o {ormn aliernatild intranzitili: ''| ,,,t | 1r ,r,rrir_ "r'n,"J .i |,.th-u,f...
"I drcrs', tI

'"

nn

6

( "ad

s n) r "e. . os a' - . . t r .

S 931

9) ?ronumclcmoiproce. in limba rom6.6, u eori pronunele rcfleriv nn a.ai; o fcljunFcsfc!e rd\fringc asupra subiectului, ci acliunireciproce a

dou; rdu n "i nulrF .ubiF. .. Tn a .Ft .,/. limbd "n-tFZj nrr mai rrrrpbrin. ,eazd pronunele relle\i.i, cr ptunumele reciproce, ctLreslnl urmltoarelel eech oth0r cind este vorba numai de doue persoanesau lucruri, sau de o actiune r€ciproci lntro doud persoanesau lucruri dintr-un gmp; ono another penlru mai mult de doLri pcrsoane sau lucruri:
Thts t$'o hierds wjll nol sce.d.l ori"/ nsain lor a lons line. (C!i doi ieteni nu se vo. dai redea mllliL vreme.l I n o . ' " ' . 1 \ p ," ." J o . ri ,.. r .t t !' rl o r./" or.,. o J rr, ' ' .:r" sdu d L p, ' u. r a , r ;, !. .,1 ,. ' ' , lr i l , " ln ts | rr.ri l to \' n tI co ,o,ri t on. " .o N si gnraD re i nbccerea.) LUi. , , F y u; .tu ti rr.rtro ., r.h i ra n o $ h ,' 1rn N i qi i qu Not d Onc anotho esle rdeseari intrcbunri.rl si pentru doui persoane sau luorurr: Siie nrd L,,r broilrr arc lor fir\n ol ant: an thq. rlusbard .dd Ni{e (ere siltins Na. rnc alalhn. A s e c onp& r a : Ther kncw /lanvl.€s. (Refleriv) t 5. " , , u. r ea tp e ,i tn s i tr).) T h. r t n,\ . d /. o ,l .. i r.i ,.o .. d o .i p " " ..o, J tSe cnnoneau (i1tut pe ahrit ).1 'lhel rnl kncN one antnEr \tte.:itrot) n{i nult dc doun lc.soare) LS e, unoit P { x a & r,l l l .l qi r e\pri ms' p i ,l i ,!i rn n Ur . " l" r pr l" , u i r l i nb,.o..n. ' ^ i l ,ro c a p \,rh ' l i mL" ,r,,' tru n u n F rp .,p o" " tS Jl l : Lr " z r n in l]'e,.r jn ujr Darl<.sdd a l.w {ords. slorl l/ids and Da.tcd. (Nc'an hnlniL in pot:, z az sp,s cifera ouvhte. ne ttu siins nita ei nc-amd.s-

S 932

S 933

O bse r a a !i e Prepozitia sepuneinaini.d pronurnelor reriproce, nu tntre elc ca in limba
'lhc.t t.\ll<rl Lo .Le aiotker. lvoibeau un1 cu altul/lDtre ri.) Tl,.\. couldn'L rt.IL hotr edcl. .thd_ lNn_ sc lutcau desr)jir1i unul de altnl.l

5I PRONUMDLE DE TNTARIRE

189

sau adicrlivul neboltrit. - Panlru roflexiv !i prr,oumcle l0r Pronumele pr onumplprefleri\ cora'ounzdiorf r^nu"rFloli cdjF'li\ alor n'horari F \'zi s 4145-1151. " in ]"sBluri 'r llr 0ne.plt. intrebui0lare. un:1[PrF inLrpbu;nLJl 7'o heoe a Lnits ivell doDe,a? mu$l do it oaacry is bad nanne.s ?'o srcdl at lensth ol ozes.//
Eihi;!: b! aneself is the besi *ay lo see a c.urtrj

s 034 s 935

ln "onlrH.t rollo\ir ti nl nronum.tuiJc l0iirir.. t2r Locul oronumolr ri pn ',pzH cu limb" rom.rru.1n dra p'onun "la r"rl"rir pr. - ta r^rbul. rr, lin,b pvte dupd rcrb: se rellexi!' lronumela
I lurt rt u / '/sil|| rh 1/-d r -i r , ro 1 d h. \\' '1 - J " F . ' lo"el " . m ui. lr ' l lo r l _ b n I 'a l

s 93{;

Pronumelo dc intlrir0 "<ep\ne inediat llald carinl&l p: care il ittdrclt€: I n"sdlf rvroie ure rvordsflr tl,c song rDtr-t;dDut arn s0ris cuyintclc on,tecdui l him*l[. He had rews ttom Unde fnt'.t {.\ avtrl rc;ti .nidl de U ut.rhidl Vin0entiu l U re o .i I r o r m " J . r" rrri ' a - a r l ,,r' ,i r-t" ri l ' ' ' r\i nl " Ji l ' ri r. ' l i n "n i t rF -dl t ' r ' " " , r . i ,, l ' ,r,.,,r' ' u c u ,:rrtu l p r ' -rl ",l i a .El tr"t 'i r' _ l ' ," r l l , I |, l Jt"{../ ' i a rr\' p ru i " 11i lp o'' r'r,. I lJ rf r. r lr " ndd dojp l h ,\, 1 .- y \" n t: r' .t.^L-stl (t','lc!sc e:eruiliilc .hre thiat de rrolasoarn) l ' o n l u ri i l ron.rrn.l " J" Inl ;ri r" ' i | rJ " I Ci rrd n op, r i i' i. lnqiur ' . jr l e l': l " ri ' 01' ru .r- I rnl l i, 1' o n ,r' :i ' J i i i ' - r "'"r-i -l " ' cu deosebire preleriin ln limba ! orbitn: t .lin it nleU. {tm lilctl o 4. t'rtn, l Ih.! \rcnt thete thtusele^. /Cria. dt s au d6 acoloI /Fm,4. !lj. tired id the |loctr oL rlals st€ had desigtrcd ll-muia in blo l pe (am .d ,nsrift il ltorciavi l , \ pr r Li_1, , lr , r ri .' ]
L 5a \\ \1 1|Y fu. s , / i-\n vlzu fo.fti al ! e Uar ia. ) I sr\ llrr\ nrnl/.

s e37

S u:lt

I\'.

PR0]{U}IDI,E ;I ADIECTIyUL DEIIO\STR]{TIY oEn DDlroNsTridlrlE PRoN0Il\,1-\D,{DJrlTrIE}

S e3e

inlocuiclt€ un substantiv (sau un S gao I\onnnele dt)/)lonstr.ltii, 1) Dcfidtie. preciztndui toLodaLi con-tiechivilent al actstuia) erprinat sau sLtbinleles, nutul in sFatiu sau ln irmp. std pe linei un substantiv (sau un echivalent al S 941 A(tiectie l d.emanslrdtlr pentru locul ocupal,de obiecl ln limp sau in spa-tiuill raporl a srita acestuil) cu vorbit6rui. Pronumelc !i adjecliv{te demonstral,ivese acordii ln numir cu subsirntil_eie la care se relerl. Pronumele demonstrative slnt urmitoarelc: S 942 2) I'ormi,.
this (these), rtiat (\hq.), same. suctt, stchtitt, e, the 14u.r. Ihe fi4t, the hsl, th. other (the aherc)' the fond, one (an4)

1OO

MOFIOLOCB

_ PRONUMEI'E

s 9tB

\ 911 "' '

demonstrative pronurne celelalte Cu eroepiia lui so fi,nc (anes).Ioatt! r;r' Lt"n'hn*t"o'ir'1 ru' li 'i tti' i fdr'F.o'^'Lm'i l' ' l\"?i a\"n,rl l" ii lr"qu .F I ld ria.dr' prnnrrmr rralrrc rr'/r !.6r.it)l ar-; -P2t.837. i .r p" r'r sJie riIrp dpn'n denoDstrativ adjecLivul Cind ' i) R;0;h;"4 edi;cti\trlui dcmonsttatir' bar' el nu sar'L .ln'J prin conjuncl,iile unite sribstantive nrlt; a"t".i';'l'"1"j sc repctn inninter fietirui substantiv in partei lh' ror'l ?n€sd bovs arrt si.ls \tant to "oss *a3 nisi,r ?na,
Thc atnaieur P rYe.s were Lh. s' ticlds ' _-'tl., btt IiiinfirSs sellllir"s "r afe srldom lountl

lt-1"j,liili, l;t,11",#;.;" u., r|,orL in rhe ":lg:,.-bl:i ".,
THIS (Tl]trSrl), TII^T (TIIOStr)
.IDJECTTI''1 Dtr]TO\STRATTIE)

s !{t
S 916
.'his

(TFONU]IE

S\U

1) Furctii. mY look

This (thes(i)' rhar (thas') pol li pronumo sau adj€ctire:
LProa l ?ft'sa arc mI

.:rl;

?h6? are nl.vsns iPionl. . , ii.j iJ'-r''s"" te-".] ?&'s' boxs nre dv sons l-ldl'r itur a,,r is tlai.i '"r "l". rezi (I'enin ndje.li{c !i S slsr ! '1tcnlt. C.r\rnlul thdt dre parru trrn' ii ptrn'ilrlp: d,tia1tu ien; sraie e aeela.acer' cer, ac€ea a!ea' ;i ;;i; p;;;,^" ";,, iotdeauna tea), f ronunJati ldetl':
fia, is ml' bol ?ftdr !&e ts dr'e'

t-ra;.i iiii" i,i,,i.'r'-.*iii". 's

7/..rcbooks'ar.mitr,: (-{dj'l

hoolis (Pronl

b) prcnntlt rel.jtie (: carc), ptotlunlAt [o'eL] (forlrla tare) lilat 'tl (forrm siabd): Niling about \cff do4 thc Thi6is ure loundcr laFrs .) nnjunxlie (: cn) ptonunl'atn ld'ell forma iate (rar inLrebuinlatn)' l6atl lorma slabn: He |ind me tna, he had |een lhcre (l) ad')crb(: atit de). pronunlai irtoLdeaunr accentuat [6eL]: 'l'hc sro\t Nas /n.r high ia.lllnd inellid'"i otr mloal S !rfR Zr -Formi.Uetr.\umnr.(az. " 7t'+.tl, . '/,r/ '/,o "uo'in:ur;forfl' pnlnla cenurite ir .azu'rle': ele nu sint dilerenliatedecit in . ',"',t;;";i; irrmirului:

itti{ ,,,,

r*-r { liij { li:l ::::!:,, ,,,-, r"')J
{li:l il:::,"

[ruu:t{lou:]

i li:l ii:ll ', 'o'"" .,,., I t oo : tI tB; il,' L" grI

llil 1 ,"

lrt 1fr'r I ! ", L tr i :l
adj,'.litel,tr, rezj I 8181 ' tt 'a t t L 'l t (r'

) { ii:j I tr'"-

{l,en|.fl, tNdu&rea

: f ru nxnlir dr t r t n io nc pat r r az r ir lP oJ r " 1i' 0", ". r ", ' - . ' , ' "' ",.',;;;1 1" e ste lom ' at s t c u pr . poz u, ' a t o' 'Datilx1

,o,.: .jnraloaP ste nun{arsax d. adje.ri!. ,"., PSI I ,lllilillL,Ti.x!,{l'1".,,,"

r".'""

l 9t

3) I tret'ui lare. s 9{9 jn (ttuse) inlocuics.j sau deterrni.i ob;eciel rpropiate tin,p sau u) Thi: spatiuin raport cu vorbil.orul: depirtatejr timp sa.r that (thosc) obiectel spatiu in raport cu r-orbilorul: Tinp:
Tntr t-. Iinc Neathcr oe dre l{ving. (Prczcnr) a. lhc rvcatlcr (. iad li6t Snndal iTr.ctrtl ?'no, "rdr rill De iine! (Viitorl Thxe arc \a! remarks. ll'rPzentl Ihasc iete t\is Nords. ilr€tutl I shalt tatl to rlosa preseni. lviitor) Sp a !i a W ho js , nl- " ? (A !fo p i c ..). \\:h o ' s ,,l a rl (L retarLa.e) / iu t ' r r L ' y l ./ d o o r;. J o .. D p . " r .r ' n J to $ -!. t@ p d p i " | i . th d." .\' .r. ' pr ol' r " r€lcri la i,imp, demonstrativelc this, Cind se thesc sirt jn genere l€gate de lrcrent, iar that, those .le lrecut ran de t)iitar. Cind se referi l,r Fpaliu. demonslratirele this, thcsc desemneazi numai obiecte din imsdiala aTropilr a lorbitorului. obiecte pe care acesta 1€ porte atinge. Cind tnlocui€sc o propozilie sau parte din aoeaslia.this, theEe sini in gerere intrebuinlate tumai jn c:rzul irt oarc curintele Ia care se releri precedd ine diat sau urmeazi 1n aceeasi fraze. Potrivit acestei reguli, ioarte adeseori in limba englezd se intrebuinteflzn lndt f*oseJ acolo unde limba ronAni {oloseste demonsiraLivele opuse,,ac€sta' , ,, ac e n sta " (. , ac ef iia' . , . ac e s te a " ): ?/'a, Nas onr decisioDat tlic lirne. lAceasta a last hotlrirea no{sili ]D ac.l non|Di.) fld, was a lortrighl rgo. lA..asta se $tretiea acuri doui-rsliptnmini.l Is rrzr all lhe lrgga8e }ou a.e iakiig? L, t ^ a- n to ,€ i i i .l l . l i"i ' \\-1,all r}inl ,,nr l.l oti (n,dim usrt l.I ?ra, is ny opi[i0n. csn, I irna nica a-.1.errro lvhat do yon Dean bI ,rar: icc $fi s,-L su'i cu dadsru l, -\p l i ra rc a r c E ulii r l€ m a i s u i , 1 -a l a b i l ni n o a re fa re nl i suri r fi i n l i mbarome ni. e ste mu lt m ir i s lr ic l, d i n l i ' .b a c n .q l e z l . 7 ' ra l i n pri mel e doue €r€mpl e se r e lern l a u n lapi t r ec ut ; ln a l l re i l e a e x e rn p l u s e re l e r d l a un obi eci cfl re nu sc a.fh in imediat.L apropitft a celui rare l.rrbeste; in ultimele trei en€nple sc fcfcr, la.iufinte spuse inajntea propozjtjei in care se afln lllal. ?rts is lvhat I advisc Jor lo do: make n list... rtis €st€ intrebuinlat aic; pentru ci !e relern 1a o propozilie explicativ.' c^te ur/.ca:d. in at:ee.tti lra.d. Ti d i ar e in\ A o niult ma i l a re i i n tre h u i n l i rr' e rl cci l l ri r, l ui nrl u i acesl r)i a adeseori locul. In asemenea cazuri idiomatice. el scape regulilor. ;i poate lj 1n\'6!at numai p n obrerlaiije ,.i notare.

s 9;0

Lo lelcfan:'\\'har lral:" 1:Cinei acolol (ia distan,tn)l "rnis is e Gene). ,\proapetoti, incon;tientrridicn tonul. strign chiar. Gene"(-,,lii rind rorbesclir tclclonj aiii derie e impresiadepiirtnrii.Rarcoriallii tnLrcab;
1 sel]s sranatical {$ !).

109 (.\Vho's apropicrii tlis?:'. prcbabil pe un ton sLizuL-\i?oatc sub impresia 'nl1 u r c c n a '
.onriian t.rpd lp d F r n. P3 !n la v or bpilp

S 951 S 952

b) This (Ihese) sint intrebuinlale in corela,tieN lhat (those)l \ hi do Jou Pr"hr' trb o" 'i'' ' \re lour slamlrs lidI de aceea a adr.erbuhri ?trs este legai de noliunea adverbului t'l'
I'ut rnlr lich.c hrt. and that 'ir th'tt

S 0;3

! /ltenlie i\'lor Puri lii 'o',dim ' " lii ,l u'r pl"orr'rm rr'lr^bunl r% I' onslr_' r stttt4ltn'ra r'.Lu tr"'t'to1t":1' i4;. i1ro, lr.ulir. rr;l',r r\d"/r 'i 'l sa recomandi:i'qi fic evitatc. ea !i ir linba ronlann: this nuln hte thdt child Se aude 'Lotrsi a,:l€seu. de aiei, copilul acola de acolo) ca o rccentuare sau (: u"o"iu on"ti Ih$. eLc. clarilicare. .7 L ri inrr r,L,or^m"J ''.is t,t ^ t \thl| /'''s ,'inr Inr'"Lui r":i Penlru a se evlta repeLarea
m . on' - , ' oll. r ' . . t . , ' H""h^ $.d I r,"""-.o .r r o / h. " t.- -r a le - : . I. s J s " l 'r ''l !4 . a $ - 4 '_ a a ] '

S 9;4

.J) Irronunele ttis (thtsN). Ihat (tha{) sint lntrebuinlate li in lo'nl denonstrstiyelor the l1.uer. thc lbrru:r: is rs ruch oi a! cltrerne6 dar' Hc disliksl liolh dnosar'. rnd nanill,,'i lor 1nis homelong alie. ihe c ldFni ltlie 'lrild'erl I'ad Nn al ri-" r--nt...,1*l $ d I d l o \l \' 'ftcs' r" l l ' $. , \ . i\ ' l t hn. th
'l E r ' c eplt iel La singulrr. pronumcle li;s li llnl nu pot intocui in acesl caz subsl'llntive']e care llenunesc PosLrane: \l-. coui.]n.t .lcci.lc brtieeln dre gtl a\\f rh' ba!: the ltrz' \\Ls us innrlligenl' as ttE Fritt. d' l i }p pen ru i / / 4is s ' , , . ' rn l i n rr-h ,ri n l s re In p r un r i d rr' :r ' l i rrmp rrnrrosai o p' ri od' l ;44 a re f c ht : l, nnz " n . r" I p p n u I d -' ' rn t nu se t'raduce construct'tc aceasti ronand. viitoarc, iegate de prezent ln limha acesld, accatlal decit rareo Ptln Sce you aaain fils di.r x'eck (\_'iTh.r is.r sl.onri bfrier. cs.ere^itgs lLn+ zcnt) (Nd reledcn de asLezi inl._o sllunn'i ) (Vintul esLctnlemrc searal liis month Sinain is lo (Tr.ortl she eoinq rvc.k asal ,ris bcer He h.!1 {Se dro; lr Sinaia lLrna4..dsD.) lEste Dleori dc o sipLimiraL. (-{ losi rlccat siPumina a0edla l Iou Fill rcsret jt one oln's The-l.l,avc be€n norkn,S hard d,s lasl. (\l s-o rcs' e!i i ntr-o zi l ) Itu luo, l t onr t " m ' n t i n Il trn ' 1 r z l l r

€ l; ;

,\ se observaintrcbuiilarea i'lje'tr$lor //ti\ sJ thdl.c'rp Lr li arij'ohl { 956 unprpenehotartt ($ 529), de;i ou formn ila sinqular.poh dct€rmrr5nurrLcLe oade de timp cu sens de plural' prif itd ca un toi:
'1 nd \'\e bd ar , "r ! bus v t hh - dJ l. r do! \ r "J h1"l o n 'o Thi; Jo rmy / i"* u, . r s bN b+ I'!c been cxpeciing lot this taert! mLnutes r "

sau, pentru irecui: Thst lrst ,rd turntnsFas cndless

$I ADJECTTVUL

r9g

Aceeati lntrebuintare o au !i cu alte plurale care pot fi privite tolectirl sixty 11 (sau rn.el no* Beiterhavcthis t{o !ound(s) Did he rcturn t|rtt tbee Nunds? Thel: coultlha.dtt walk that lst tqo hitomres,they wereso ljred (Veziregulala S 2i'5t-25ts ci. S 533) Natd A se obsdva lorma de sirgxld"" a substantitului ln urmitoarele expresii idiomaticel Wc hare tilcd heretn;r seren,.dr a lialll coulle
ttp ha, b.-n ,4. , i n ad I d do o.

precedet[ sau adesea o intreagn propozil.ic f) lhis ti that inlocui€-qc parte din ea:
kno\ ,i; n, t"r. t S he r.it "! t " ut t n" p anat , 6t . l tn r r ' lo' lor i 'm o 'n : e I dJ /" I p' omi.o, -: l " anl thtl .)1 Th.a ntt\t !. hanP lle i,s the;epulation of a rn.^l lrnt 7//, hc cellainlX is not 1a r r th6 p sin nt "ir i' f^lo' ir ' S ) T his. '.i ' L"

S 957

s 958 s 9;9

? les' are m! childfcn. (lli/\ { r.eziil tc copiji m€i.) h) Thi,r (these)\i tm Unse) + ta ,, sc traduc prin .,iati": T7z.r. ar. his lliings. 7/,;s ts sliat hc told me. (Ia ti ce m i- a s lus . ) tIat,'!i l,rcNfile (nici).1 ,.\l'hioh is 1-otrr por olio?" ,.7/,tsts il." flior. afc ltis Dftenls. ilalli i Dirrinlii lacolol.l lcre este'scrrii,t.rtn? lai o ) Tnoas hoN ire heard about rt. (latn jr c! fcl am auit desl.e ace&sta.l *This" ,i) Toate Pronumelc demonsttal- pronlDclc relrti{. ,si'thii' r" ' du j " hrr:' l " P /} ' ' si t i\ F tu l i n J li ' , r - s r " J a t ,o u n ' p rp ,d r' ^ . , { p ,i ,rdt sint supuse aceleia,siuzanle: lvhat is r/,is rno,. I sci? nefor' is a ditTercnL nroblem lmn that (.tltuh) \\c discussed d l o ' k ' r,/&. tn h ' .n a t" an l ha ban' h d mi i l n r€ 1 ." \ n " l1n. b1ll" i n ' "Lir n8" /rha Th p .u l l ^l; " lr n| . , . r . fl d r ' .d l -" ,,r' , i l " l d ' a v rh -t.t" am A l t Tri s i s Jol, n S nit h. {lli/^/d }ronri t. JolLn Smith.l Na ti i . Consiructiei thas. trho ii core""punde la singula? lr, (s au s,it, {tlD: H. ( 1, . r r n do p . n u r tl ne" l ' .1 i P { pahd. ' s3. ' r,i l o " o l F .p ,l .' 7f r ; - , ' n. J o n .. .i r!l i . o o l ." g " J ,j r,l p ( dl l l ^ F{ pdl al . (pl prelerete prelioase. le slnt urmiitoarele socotite acum Acestor constilrclii. conliderate mai pulin pretonlioase: Thc siudctri nho doesnot submit... StuiltsntsFLo do not s!bmil... 5) Adrerbe compusc. - Thi.s \i, that. precedate de prepozi,tiile after. at. l n l o u i l e i n li nrbd ]i r" rrr6 " cri rS ori in L, t , , o [. o n . t . ) . ur an. r ' 1 k .. r' ' rn .^ ' i oii"ial a "u FJ v " r ba . o' np. .., d i n a 4 \p rb p l " l | .o u th .rp-: tratrozi l i d ' F.pp" ,{.sif€l: her . alt c r: a l l e r th i s ili.reniter : alter thal

S 960

$ 961

S 982

, p' onun lal p I : ri. , / . " r . , rr J.+r .13

s d, r PP, . ' ' nl l . I n a o n P d d n o u ; Jo_r . / ?r ur . L'. pr 0num . . I ar ir . pf on I nlll [ d3 ] .

cramalica rinbii eneleze

194 iherety - by. ihal hereuron: thereipon : l,e.Nith : th.rcwUr : rpon this tlpon that with this with that

9{-i3

o, -lbiq $i{h l id{erbc. ln' ilul rJmilirr'/'l''"i/nd'l"tfisisd!'r1." Jpn'^r"lrJ i\e I = .ol Dl' sinr a un'i urrnllF d- un rdje'li! sJu de un adr!rl care e\pr;mn lniltimta, cantibaiea, distanla, timpul etc.:
r l. s h. . 1 = \l ' i l (c a :r ,. /t" -r,, 1t us 113| ||t u !)n i g l ' { In /i l l i m ' ). P , , , . \ r i, i G u u i .' ,l o J l ( s au a ,) i a r' (D i s tm l e ) " & t r aici (sau acoto)l fPlnl Th-a $at.r $ds Inor hia} ,i n d L :-' l ' I I n, w / nr s m u rh , l h a l ' o u s

96{

He rvcnt tldt iat and no Inrtle. Did wc stax the.c rl4, lons? ! Atenlie ?/,it ti lhdt cu in,tclesexciarnariv (: dialeciale:

'' J

aiit de...l) sint expresji vulgare ofl

I s $ r/d t.o l d l (['li_era aili de Irigl)

$ 9ti5
6 966

Trr! Fox-trx& Trrn r,ATTnrl
(},IONU}Itr SAU ADJDTIIIV! DDffONIT'T,ITTTX)

{) Functii. - Demonslratjl ele the fanrto l- pLimu) ldin doil pr in:: prim ii sauprin',leldindor,igrupr,rirlsi 'l' tdtt'r ' ult.i rll't r<lin,loucr. ooi), ulLinaioin do r' ullir"i"u 'rlr m'l'rd;ndou:grLDUrrrlpol Irplo'l' sarr adjecdrel I lravereadBob's1\ork anil Jan€'s l ptekr nk funet {llol\ work) to /r lor"' (Pron.) iJano,s). '-- ine;"r";ked l.ochoose bet\on Sha$dd Ocas'): rn' /n/'/' snbie'r (Eh'tr
$&. pelsipr, t h P 10 .t \o ' p \ Ocd J ld mori rp" r!'cdl

{ 967

r/r lbrmo ;i tfu lalter au o singuri lorm; 2) Fonn5.- Demonstrativele InrX distinctie de gen, numdr sau caz:
, \ lic el. lNasr 5i l. m s g no, n ) Isaw lho ho !6 r s , ig b"h: J | ' e' t L' h' \ 1a5. s i lpm . pl. : , . t h b "r \ ' e d Jl.' p 'n t r|| b '1 " ' J d d 's 'r " ' I

Cecil dit Alice arc hoth€r and sislet: the f.'rn r (C.ril) is youger Uran /E larr-_

t]l ' /r' /o'"f. tiind^dnua th fnm". Fli Demon.rralivcle 'on'p(not;r ''ill rar I numprari unpi In obi"c'pr. la doui se r"tpra site numai arunci,jnd '€zul conline mai mult, ale aloud {iinte sau lucruri, tnt'rebuinlarea acestor dou: sste incorectir. demonstraiive -- -'ti fnrrotruintar". \ll dFnon'lr"ri\ul [om'r. rit "i d"r"on' -1 . 969 I urLl de arlul 'l"r "u morrlr "r: tattpr pot li inlr;buinlaLe inJpp"ndFr -.i 96E
m:r lomr Dteits { toe ii m' rhri, th; fun{ dcin 1 - lostul dc.d) in /o.ne. tines (: ne rremndl lhe / dt lpfhalj o t l h ; c " n l u ry I a d o u a l . nbl a' p 3 s" ol u i t he lolb, Dat Lo l L h Pn o v d (- u l ' rmr Ird l n a romuurul in r h" : " l; r pf d s v s { i n ,,l rrmu l l i D t. 1 n ,i l " l " no6k" r a .l J F . ' p :D i idp ul rrmi o" rJ v iew ! a I r r r p. - dav ' ;o n .e p l i i I S ens€x am a l i .s l($ 2 . Pe ri ru d e ' -a l iv i p z i $ 9-n ! perrrir o enumFf;re d mai m-lt dp douJ obipctp vFTi 5 970.
nv tonat t . a th Pt .. lo b l , n "d p to i"r d "b )

$I ADJECTIVUL,

lt5 S 970

THE TIBSI. TflD LAST
.PRONUUE AT ADJEI'IIVE DEUONSIA-{TrIN)

/r" fi.s, ( -primul. prima. primii. primalelsi ilp /arl , ulliAdic"rivFle sini lnlrcburrrlat".a m Ll, ullima, ulLjmii. ullinFlc). liind doua s,/1,./d/i'P. pronump Loolrnenar in eazulun.i eau'nFrSri.dre si adip.livp dpmonstrarirF hult de dou[ fiinle sau lucruri. (Pantru detalii vezi S 965-968). TEtrJOTIIEIi
(TRoNUMtr S-{U ADJESIIY DEIIONSfRATIV)

THE OTf,EES
(PRONUME DtrIIONSTRATIV)

s 971

(: celetalt, oealaltd) este consideratdca lnd€' Forma de sinqular llv ol,{€r" jar Iorma d" olinind une"ri funrLid do adi..liv sau pronumpdomonqlrdliv. ;lplil .prlsl ni ea pronum" d"mon' rali!: r= i fiind numai oth,rs ilurdl !h"
j. r ' ( \ d j l r nd t "t ' + t |' at h. . ir Orinc rl' b lu" \a5 . r'. i o .rr J ppt d, t n, r LaLp , t ? o/ f r - . .s I . A k" -ron.) ' E a h", . dan' pd l P " o n r l n rir. l h i l in a "h ro $ ; 1nq ; nt l SAITE
(PROr-UIE S-!U ADJECTIV DE]UO\STR-!.TIYI

$ 972 S 973

poate li (lucru),aceeali aceia-si, aceleafi] 1) Functrii. Sazrc[: acelaqi pronumesau adjectiv demonsirativ:
lrllatrrryNew Yearl" "The sand to yo!I" (Pron) in rlre sdme way. (Adj.) Thei irehared A tenlLe ! Intrebuinlarea pronominali a curtntutui sdrz€€ste condamnati in unele cazuri ca nclitirari !au desuetn,dovedind uneori chiar lipsi de culturd, spre exemplu in vechiul stil com€rcial: Wc liave Xonr aelvet and {'ill scnd sa',. at once Samc poate avea li valoare de adaerb,cn sensul de,,la fel", ,,tntocmai": work w€nl on i'ast E satu. In his nbsencc I leel thz sdne as yoo about teaohing. Dimpoirivx, loculiunea all tle sdnd (: totu9i) exprime opozi-tie:
A lhe sanc, I don't like hef.

S 974

S 975 S 9?c

Sdmepoate inlocui i a tntreagdpropozili):saa frazdl They alplied the Dcrvmethodol wo.)r,and I did the saru

s 977

are o singuri form;, lari distincliede gen,numlr sau S 978 2) Formd.- Sam€
'l'hcv all s:rid the saue. (l'ron. neuhu se. ac.l T hr r df r p op l " w r' - d ,i .' o n l a i o , o n l l ' p bu' ro l -i ol i _ 1. \ dr m ac s i l e m l l n .m ) Sdnc est"eaproapc lntotdeauna precedat de articolul hot[rit. 3) Accentuflrc. - Pentru accentuarea ideii' same poate fi precedat dc cudnt€le ter4 sau sef (: chiar acela, identic): This is ihe v.fu saa.r baa I lost. S'" \.- r h, . " 7/ . dp. Li " l l I' a d m i o n p L r,,i n .

s 970 $ 980

relativ as(Y. S 1094). S 981 4) Corola,tie. - Samcpoateii cor€latcu pronumele
I Demonstrati{ulsdru poatetilsi clnd este treoedat ile adv.r}ul tery: "This is the $r

198

S 982
$ lrbS

so
{FNONUIIN DEMO\STRATIY)

D"mor'lr,litul s,, { a"rqra.r.r' r e'rF lnlrnbuintHi 'J I fur.lii.pronu ' :i "lun i In'o.uiorIpo Intr'-ei propu/rlreprpiedFnrd: I knewsnc wasr'l ri8li, and I told her so
"C& she IelP us?" "I tlLiDk so-"

E 984 '

\'erbele cu care pronum€l€so este tn specialint'reluinldL tn acestcaz,sinf: la beaftaid, to b(Ii.ee:tu do. to fear. ta hape.to sa! : 1otlqpote' to leIL to thLnherc' So poate inlocui lqi u Adjectir; S 9Sb
tle $ -Etre1,snaod sn rre \e I xse d to -be , r An, s , iLL I am o no lor ge. "It ws .old lesierdal." ".!. it $4"

i 986

,So esLc ;i adverb sau conjunclie: .to Dranymer, so many mnids lAdv i
| \

(.\n 1 .1 S he is s i r t r e l .tl ' L I le s nok e i, ' a l m h l i \,rL ) k r ipt ; on b tJ .j .o . ,o L r.r h d " J r $ ," . ,\c\.)
T1e-r i.r n l I' . ,L '. ."d ,. 4un_ l

s $87 s 988 s 989
\ 990

2) Soandso. Lor liunearo an.l s/)(Fubstarl,i! set'raduceprin',culare l $ilh ihe lr'_ozl sos lsubst !l ) \Y€ stayedovcr ihe \tecLend ,ctala : 3) So"so. Sr-s, (adjeclil' !i advcrb) inseannA ,,a!sa (-{dj.) is ro-rc. a clcrk she ^s sirss io-so.(-{d\.) lIe
SUOIT
(PNONLT]IE S,\U -{DJ}]cTY DEMONSTBATIV)

S

g91

a-c erLl { dFr' A ' a/ a l a ra . i rt' l ' l ' S a rI I , hr nc lii. " pm' npa p as laj r' i ' €dJ^' rr\ d' rnun' t1 F r..l p r^ nurF poilp li s " " pi; r a1 .3 re " tc 1 rr o, s"/' rs and eell knoND Hc Y'as a .lNm man {Pron l Sz., rcsulls are rery uDsr$sla.rorJ edj ] rh i 2) Ionnfi. - ,9r.i are o singure forrnn, lirn distinclie de c€n, nunir I can'i b€a slackersand all sr.li lPron Inasc.ii lem l)l ac l (.\dj ncntru ss Doml a\raJs Judn music 'tlcornc. 's d€ternrinat de adjeotivul sD'n '= al substantiruhi Articolul nehotarit p u n e dupi ac es ta : Did vo! cver see sz'l a tJiing? It rvas !z.l a ,ine drYl

S 999

s 993 s 904 s 995 s 99{i

a) Sar,t poste {i sironim cu demonstrativele this (thesc), that (tha;t.'
rd .n I Jr./, I lh6 i, r ha Dq, / l . or J i . L' \ ine , n s i l , l o r ,:", onlJ r l, , ar ; n - od r Lr r ' ! I n J n n l .. '\ 'l j r o n l F I 'o ":'

3) Inteles. -

J ( . / . li: . , , : d .n , j r,\' , ' . J rp r; i n g ru l L ! rr' B " l JrpJ : (V.zi 9i S 51') cJ ,A.deseorisar,t nu apare in lraducerei romaneasci: I t is dps i" ab hro -.u " l d l i / n l ra * d -:e . ' . r ' Jl o" oprr-1" lL" t e d. dori L .a r l rJ d ..r p a J F F p o lt' rr' " m" as rof" dl ' 1m' T hpv \ v " r . a L " d l o s l o n ' l l ' Ib u n l l ,/ Io:a' ' ' a m4' ' : sr \' l ' p r," ' i' : ir ' i s i a .n " r r iu' t oq

b) Sach aN qi lnleles e\rlamati{ (': atit de, aqaJ: uutF"a\P hal ,, t a bumo| 'rol rlrF - ' Pr'lrr"rio,, ThF Asri.u'ru,dl '

o r

FRONIJMELE SI

197

S 99? 4) "Suoh" -1' prontmel€ rolatiY. esde aproapc S 998 a) Cinn snch este urmat d€ u,n pronumerelativr acesia rro: as (: care)' rareorr iDtotdeauna
in l.r ' l hi t' , m ig h l l. $ r . h " a 1 r , i r p w !"o d ' r ' r ' \\ i\ : l, d\ o'' ' | o n p p " o j . | 5 / ' l n ' r d |lo u l' | 1 | .| l' .p n r J\' 1 0 1 ll, n $ lp l' n ' lo L J lh p h ' r 4/ , u. lj J l o l ' 1 r 4 | | ; r d r'nl l d rr \ar po r'

b) Suchus este sinonim .n thoset\Jn, tlv)setrllich:
ils dcicnoe' Let all slrl, ds t: tl,oseshol want leacc e'ork a.t, but'l wjll shitlx lrr d Jotr.rd,/'dr ( : I hoseNlich) I nav' i!;,s."; le; ".(,ik$ "' dl Srrl &s poate avea Ei tnlelesul ..ea de eriemplu": The Sl,alcstore ad{crtised loys sr./, as lraUs.dolls' drums aso Do lou lnow therc is se./, a piohuesqucplaic os ClovcllX? 5) Such and such, - Locutiunea srr.l, dnd s ,]h se lraduce prin -,cutare': On sr.lz and sai a da[o, it sacnond nr.t a llacc SU(,lILIIiE
{-{DJ00rlr.} (= ascn'{ta)

S 999

I 1000

S 1001

s 1002
! 1003
.\ 1004 ihfillers and nrnltne

l're neto hen

sr./r,^. iDlrdinccl

rrr.'rrr (Pror!M!/ (: as€nentn He enjoJ.d rcading a lotr lovels, short sto.ies, plr$

oNr,! 0r\Es (PnoNU]rD DrxrorisrR"{rlv},

s 1005

On. si .,n.s sint rrrolrrme denr.nstrative Ele pot {i qi S 1006 ltluxctie. ..,b"ts ri'o ii I2641.:ingLrl"rul nn pu" e ri nrrn"rfltil2lSr'prorulr'n"1rntirit !!u a!lip,ti1' n"hora,lt (S 1104) or' li on r d r n ircurd iormj panlr I S 1007 2r Forori :i lDtrh..- Pro'ru'rFlc jrr pri'inla nu'ndrulrrr' ioaja Lpnuril..i 'rlurilp. EIP nu '. d-'Fpbr' dai '-'1008 lnleles: S -^ au urmntorr.rl demonstrative C; p;;rril acccn, cel,.eal o,, l: acela. tss.) (d ) cci cere) acerea, ores(: accia, inttebuinlate pentru a se S l0og Pronumele one !i ,n.s stDt, 3) Intrcbuinlarc. erita repetar€a unui substantiv:
I c1\e h pf rr'" r"d riL lon J r d I , pl rhd oo( olr I'e r,,d g lo! "" r r d ! . r lhe L, lu o, P in s om F, dk o4Pr.

O e nu lnlocuielte ilecit subsLantiv€le care pot, a!'ea -siformn de plural: S 1010 to tlai llttle boY. l.he fair o/ SDeak like tncm? L;ok ai thoseplroiosl\touldn't you lilt to hare ones Se spunc tns6. cincl subsi,antivul nu poate a1'ca plural:
I IiIe cold milk ieild thlln hot. I'll lakc re lat neat not ihc lean Llneori promrmele onr precedat d€ lr adjectiv tu are antccedent '{cesta este insd eYidenL: l l y l i tt lF o, . i ( P uiul rn .x r) Ou r l i iile ones { : c 0 Prr'n u s l .r) l rl '" \" r ng, 4i' ll" o, q o t d n i rn a l sI p ' ' ." r' i m d l " ]o_

198

MORFOI,OGIA - PRONVMDI'E

s r01r

Dr] oltSTBATlYE gl coNsmucTtl lDlo)L{rrcD co ?EONUIIE ^DJEmlvE

oi'l', i"f"h"',"i'' #i"T"fi."tr"u noi o sr'rna'"dr L)

iit.i-;J,a;' (: asilcllZtke tirrs//ndl Ji tu r"r" ) Vii) iiiij 'i 'a'" r' cla"'iu,nm

armi :r na, :;i',,' il:", Am' ;",i":,,."'*,, Ii: ;,Ui,."

l#ii"'111''at "^";'i''n:"''"' o :" l]';,". i $'1"i: lj:';,;1":,"' i[lir;s. "iS'" u'"*nr :'l:Hrll'"i1""i35:'i":l;l; i;;"';l i*: out ,rilft tndr, sh. ran
r S r r alnd o' c dr ' fu g r a ri ta l

*11;""*;'t *l'n"'"lfi'a't a gaod Laa'
't"n 'li.l it Tho' tAi reusitl Brdt' rl r 6; s and J Ir wac a lwrls J ol' n i e.cu lo n in Fus . r on t n J ns l

c'rI c@d
' n ' ldr '

'Fii"*,iliii:1;}iq:i pe irinc. a,a,i a,,a;,i ;fli"[,.1; :' *"r \' i; . ;"?l,Y';;J; {
ll il^,",, i!:;'l,,,:
;l'"i:f ?ii"ie3 s1012 .
t l0f3

a hr ' 1 "". 1 ' *. "i , r 'p ,,, ;i ; '" '' " t ri ' o;'""' ii. s" orat r ' ''iT;'","' r"*"... {: io .u,adzi,tn .u'd^4 ""a 's"'1" "; " ;;'r ;;?l' ot,i''.1"'";
(TEE INIERBOCNr'r

v.PRONUlrE.-L!,.trr?JR:ll'*t';l'131"*tl

F're f'rr"s de "' t I" ;nt"togoli! I) Dotioilio'- Pronutr p'tut iv rlp n i't'j lu la ""ll'" '\'orbirt s r' r e ' h r n r p r ogrrrta D r oDo zilie """' "'-"i'-i'O'r""ri ' ; l ixoiimat ln r[sPuns:
''1 4h t ra d,r';rs l' \ lv ' t olle'

stl intefoEatit' Adiectialll tntrebart: nnei

- / /i,., ., ..," n;ii';; -#ftfTl1*"ltf-',"-,f:i;i;i l' forl LulsfeA pe ]ingi un qubsrantivii FFrre:te
fi $djcciirercintcroT::.:]r"i";:lt*'""' - pronu,rere 2) Formi,.

- '.::ii*"* " ^'o' ,X:J'i.::':;,t::,"'t!'" *t ** ;;"1
ltlnol (: cinc?) 1\om l

$ 1014

are ai cui? ac''? t;n:ii laloi? .", 1Tj,xfllill"i::ll',1*l

{': Froda'i s,'paL '""J#"1llr l=:itiil:ili \#,:\\ t"fflg*i ""' IFiilllil""';,,i";;fll'1..,0,',.'1"1.''''

FRONUIEI,i

S1

lv

199

T \r'";:l':t':rl ',;l:"iq,T { l"#!':lj,l\T" ''-'n 1iY,n:.', ';, i- ;.,i''l ;- ;" :;' dt"*, I#l;;l"J,ll,ill;iiTi;"J,'".liii F r l' I n dn ; n B ' L $ o d ''r " o 1 )
I lv nol

t|n4,'(',:

iii:; J';.i"i:t;.ll,i'n"iiljx.l . ,-' ill';;.""';,..):r;,,cj.
l l'i'" ::: ,',,0'r" ,n,.7.'oli:,
TbseraaILL $ lorb

'\on. -rr.

ltl,]"""

,,, Jirol.iiJHi"

alti de sinsular' pot alea sens inr'crosarire ei adjccti'r€le

iL" ., ,, "i .u,- sdip. in,,, i', iii;::::i,l:;ii.;,ll ii,i'' ,lll"li"", ^o,i rr' nora r: u i " " l ura I , jr , d i n Fo l c i, un s r r b. r dn l i \ r-r, .rr
" ' \i rrl -t " p"":;,, ._.pr. a .^\FJ..,n " .1"*) *h;+ .i l:l,l.j:";; 1,.1r:1:;, i

'a.i'li?ll': ,"',r ;,,,";' ,:'i"': "a:-,i'" ",,,'i,,':::#:iT";l-:ol; n'o.l,l;1";'l::'?;'.i1,;!l'il:1,]Jl;ll;fJllij'iiii'ii"ll"'h j'|.rG

:l', ii;i:fi ; li'"1 1,;;t L'''i;r{: llili,ilirXl il:l'lri l:;"" *"1'l ll;l;;i; tu tt lt '; 'n ] . u . r . .
fofln1.indit'r.nr ,1, gcr':i nu'nnr' P' n ru

l0t? ,," :i r l j ' i \a l "in ' u' a' i\" "' o ' :ingr ,r S a "2 . P ro n Lo r dil"r t rpFr I arurrL'r'

stnt tnirebuin- S 1018 5) lntxcbuintare. a) who (trhascl, Lvlto(n)' to o/ro'r, tate nunai Pentru Persorne: ' iwno is ihis rnm?" "Un'lc l orn" _iv,l" ."o' ^i.t? f i ' 4" I I'n" rhp!J ri -\ rulr'y -ii'r,,'"". i:".,; ;" pr s"roud nD n ! _ s.. "-' -whr'. is i r p. on ) "Th" n \ ldoor I
_ T o n v \rd rp $' 4nd hrss Lp.. i n ' ').0:""':'"" - who! n. t di d v o ' r '_ P" ty n o -: ' . l don l liL F r l' Whon: ) "

',;:f, l:i8;: ',7',' i:,iH' """

)l -riq llnl,lni '

; ll"il; ' ;j':rr'

:lT;;o:;'-:"::',;.J; ;

=

-r1rbrbr'.^

,;;ili jJ'ff Hi.J" :;i' dFpr"poziuia ;,"T.'iJ'Silil,"':,tTlfi:JiiiY" "'i"li'ii"",ilJ,ilTii o/: li' J t'"""i";'"rJ Ji;ing;r sauesr"utn'61
, j which intproseri! e.ip 'plc' liv ( 'arF
' wh ich t/nr ,t wh ;.h l1|6i.1 f a! on"il"j o l vour br olhpr " i5 \I^d\ oLc p J lx o " ih is $Fk c t ilm \ ) o t"p s won r hr r 3o- r \ or I dratr:ns do You P"f"rr '^ol i Pron'

1:'-',:i ;i[ ]:ir':, . " Tjlk"Ji, {fiT',"

din'rp) - prFupune aleepre S I0l9

o*'Pff"l",lj'i,i1 J-.1:"J8iJ'fl flil'';3f'.)i'i;ri#j:"il'.'f,
lI;;lJ'."$,".';.:* plurarurui. p.ererarr **"rui esre

i XflH]i" ;l"J:'r'";"{

sr ri'.p.r', ?"'*,. ' i r."h,ip 'datdeprFpoziria 'o '?lh,f '

Whieh iiind invariabil ca fornil, sint situalii in oare numnrul (sg. 6au pl.) trebuie toiugi specificat: I'vc lound sonc smpsiiotsr /ntul, (pfon.)wouldyou havc? Ambiguitatea lntrebdrii creeazi o sitralie diiiciln: l.cbuie a]esun singur insLantaneu sau mar multel Solutia:
Which .ne \!antd, you h.r1e? s a r tfii.l o"s s'onld vor hr!e?

1020

c) 'lYhat, ca proDume.sereferl nunai Ia inalndatel gi indirect la aninate ; ta i anim&te: ca adjectiv se rcf;rn atit la aninate (iDclusiv persoanc),cit -si
d i d " ,,. ^ o , pdno:

"n nd, (adj.ld,s nit him?" "The }utch.r\."

1

i r1,," r,"

i ..-

eb". do rou rrcler?" "\'rolet." gtts did I'iru tnlk to in the hnll2'nTo Jill and Ar.r." 's lhe ,tmcr" "1Il's), itrst goDc livP." di.I it .asr1" "T\r. rrounds'. js your nafuc. kleth'n. nnnt,a, oddnEst" nati;natiht, rnf.s!n'\ 's i'our \rife lil'e:'1 "Swiret and .os) to be Nilt,". I "ttrlo arc.rou?" ",\lec Jores. tour nrother's rricnd. .oDP l,un :1 s. canPan { the stares i: sL,{j"\ !,. J ' :\' I' } 1 /., ,- ' u .' 'l

1021

Aten lie

!

Se atrage atenlia asupra intrebuirtnlii incorecte a adjc.rtirului inlcro,JF "J "ron1' lolo.; d" .ru,lp lii ro, ini t'-,,r,,, rr" Lu -i, ;a rr .i;i. TI/; /' i, i,nji'r\ -''" 0djari\ului inrpo-J'i! ",.- din IrmtrJ '^,,';1. srlfcrir (: care dintrc...) . Cind adjectivul iDterogatir ..faret nu eslc sclecti'. ..e-. cl €ste tradus prin }'hat' al firui inlelcs tn limba ronarri nu €".tenr.rnrai ci 1i ,,care":
Cdl. scriil.f lLi nlar! cd mai niull? : Ilrld, \vritcli d; Xou likc best? Cdrc din1rc scriitorii seoobhi al IIX-l.a ili tl{!e? : Which of lti riih cenlury wrilcrs do Io\ like?

1022

What erclamati{.
n?d, a rvisesa]ingl \.rzi S t46. 1090.239t. SITLr:\TLI,lCrU-{I.l.

1023

.rJ IYho lYhom. DupI cun s a mai aritat inainte. iendin-tade sinrirlr ri'.-diir Iiml , !njhir drn.lrlul .o,.';"1 -rri. prr".ii', r.l 'rl 1'u ' 'si r'r" ,vhat4.tor". iiili\,.lui ri, rin?inJ.dinlo 'ri.., in l^d. iru-lrr ' ^,, la pInu^FlF )i cJ:p'riv.ln i.lp,4,d i\ ' torn,' oLip.,i.ur..r.,r',/,. r 'r | . ls,FlFrFloti\F. I'rrn I9'o. l.l"rr.l 'idpir.. s in:Lorq,ri1". r"1'. i: lrom now noi el et Lil saf€to prophesJthat within a corple ol hundr€d -l'ears nost leirned jurist t'ill be saling''l|hom did yoir see!" Evoluria actual'l acestui pronume confinni adel'drul proieliei cilalo.
Jt,r. !ro"urn.. nri\..- o t,,' r Jrd J - t f / . , i. I " \ n. nr ' . a! r ' . ' L d I.i -at ?1 "qtp tn"r r, ?,o /,! n "i ! j , i t d . n obF : nanim a t , r " e r r . ' u i . . j i r ' - l r '/ , o . tit pl,\.: d l . / l i d , . t r o r 'r n . _ u : r 'l u r r . '"'"+od ..r i. 1"i. |lpl. n6r am ali \rfe' "\.o u. "tanirL I Ul tyloi's the time? [: urhal tJ...]. 11'r just s,ac live. I: ll no6 6',8...1 r' S 1::' 186t, 3 Citai de Drian Fosier, The Changing ErylAh Ldnguasc, p- 2al, 19;t'

PRoNUMEI,I

Sr

lv

201

";ii: li#;i,,f .", iiliit: il:i,T i,if iil;i,1l.r t". :j;lll.f :l:l;;,1; .n - ilul .oloc\iat s,ri". prin ior^r" ,,o j!i,.r,,,?J::lJ:i'iff:J " ",,;'ii,lii;,ill:ff"1x!?l::,,""1J1,:i.ifi?x:J;ji;
s t i tut i nfa nnatIcok.aiat {ro.ntt sau scrjs)

lllat.). prcp.) Erenple:
'.rylo Jid

ro Nhom lor \vhonr.._
, pr

(9 " t 1 . pre!.)

' vho

.. 10

who... ior, crc.

r"iil;s ;''r'i'r-,i ,. \ ^ ,i". jj, r.;i'rd I;0";1j,.; ' ' J y , no t t , . h ,,o k D !
'. \, p-

,.r I ni,

nn

I , pj-

,t.r..r,i.-.-

1 ,. ii.jt ll l; 'l I :,;i,i.," ; ; 'r":,"lflooll;, ' ,,," ,'

;'liI " i_11,1 illli;:; ,,,l;;";' -t'll:trli; ,Jil,l
, n lo u r.,.oL . ' r . , , p t r dq r hi1t . . gol. . \, I' r

;:i;":r"'lij (,:;;;;il,l'i:li#ii:i
Thc cottage o/ o,,ri.t Lhc sh,ttqi

;r"': irlj r;*';ir l#:, i ;ir.lr r,ili lr ;i i,r' ii;,in:li'li"r "r"u' '', o' i,,,i".i^;;;;; ,
i;il:
arf grlcn js lton\.

. ri $bi.b "i $hat c" nanrir "., m,i su. r$ t^t_ ln stil,rlIo ,,at. ni.j jn c€l Loloclidt. ',r.i

tu22,. t.,r".,t,ir,,bdri q t0Z.l

c, Which - Nhose. cenitivul o/ eht.h. ltni o lorma pred greoaie. { 1096 p!re dp.Fl. rnai m rlrn ori t,,tocuit, u'it,F.,,n.,1r, Dr: Esto inlocuit,cu:
T,rP ro om r1".. t a9 r , , dv . |lr. ro om .,./i . d . t , - "r . .

iii';iii#E,r,,;'ii::1;:: i;fj,:;it' (:::i'i;;,.ili;,,,,."",.,")
ir b"y nin4oq . -

Inljrogalia diro.ri \i inrlirccta.- lnrratbr;t".ar",onli,, qi { t02rj pronu,,,p . ,, li €LrJAsrr\. Inl"ogr i\p. r r d' JuIA htuflr ,tirp. _:i inuirrctc.

FF ri r'''Fopro. n' ;;{,t ti' ; ",!'1 :l il;\; ;i'1 ""'i;;;, l' -":'iii',iii "p.' "1;[:"i] tt'tal is lhe lran,s namc.
IflBtn) .tid vou rt,E rD. I t 1, n i l t n e e r h l r ti i i i n i

11,,:i:1L;;;';,,11x,,:,i,,;X::,:i;' "'',u "i:::',:::":i,:ix,,lii:tl':ll,iliTf
| '( J ' r "l"' ,,/.n \,, I _l I r r t , 3 . n

r \-czi R . Q ni. k c l. at ia.

909

AtP,nlie ! ver\ul sau aunF La jn orice propozjlie interogat'ive'tn interagalia'l'irectd 6 102? " liarnl /r.t,rdii subieurul:
m' aa 'Ptul: \V "t h g '"" f ido al l|" d o o ^"r r \ \ nul n' ' 4" d /P al \ Vhu { l 'tl'

propozi'ie interogativx' ci declaraltt interryali'1 indl]ectl' carc rru esteo \ Prbrl se PunFJl/Pn 'ubi"' | : I i\ ",
qhd ln ' ) ! T lm I r ) l' d h - sn o In Sn o d o o "r ' l "1 o \ s

t9 5 1i { V e z i ;i S t0 5 2 ' t8 9 l '

tu t ro""l "Jk ' iP h a lJ touan at th" uoot '' n /l fto r sP '' Lh4 s"rP Io 'r

s 1028

inloroeatit' "' ' DO ln ixl' rosd!ii' Cind pronum"l" ?r lttritiurrrt ji,i':"a"a:""1i\ Jl inrFfofairv Ll"t'tmin; 'ubiP'i-ulnu 3e inlrcirurrr.rr '"1' propoziliil' in erogr'iLP poriLivel: iil,r" ""'ri'".i;i Dti in l7lD thitrks so7 loD:
lt ' t t "c s o1 r am " or ' ju l n o {: |, l, t r n s or nun ] ooLed in n"'1 J""rProar l'"ta' l3l!

E 1029

: propozi'tiileinterogativ_negabive) Se spune insd (in oazul obiect'ivsau in

i:"'i:"*'! 1):; l':':" I":#, wn!!
W h h "a' d: t lh" Por ' m 8 n g o '

tt stilutlornal rcgulilor.srdm6li'at" - Conrntrn 8J Lorul 0repoTiliei' 1030 ' "" " p r " p o li,i , p r o i"do phnum'1"'sr adj";rit u l in re ro g u lr\ :

i::,1"'j".''lLi' **, EL',,=n Hi;;' ^x:

:'li %xl'n" f;,,iYil.,' 7or ohom did he want it?-* ' langhing?
At ehat are lou

1031

il prepozilia pe care rotul este .{cesta "":iirt['ffi,il,ii1'"x'rgli:i, esie I curentriinsn.
In aorbiett Prepozilia
Ilrl'o is Uiis |ook school does '/r he conc l'o4' I/l;n it lb'r Itl@ did hc $dt

t{l'i#"" ;-,tri,; l:: J"-]"""

1032

lrr s'ilul Ln'iliat sp lnlllnp' rl r' 9) lronumele iol'rogaiiv compu' exnrimd surprrnoerr' t/'dl mele conpu"p: i)rLotPr' ettt';r "'/ li '"/ 'sre nedumeriri. indignare elc : ,tp ,in"': wl". -"'.,ro d tthD a1-: "rounill'i :i"iJ:'",

::*: ##}1i;' :iit*r;lii'*l:3r{

r? f;:'::;:'i ,.::::" :"' ;;;;" "::,'s r " n'a,',

oede acediar". :. po?ili\ nu r upr ind p o n e g a l r P : ,.Cine I ln "roe ,l ia . d c l_d' r er

"l* iffig,qit;"

nu cio' Jii'i"oon"s'fr' "'r"0'

t ,haterer Scrise tntr-un cuvini fitlo-€r€.. 'xhicheaer) )rt pronumele intero- S 1033 Insc s, €'drrtDtrcbuinlat pentru aseaccentua $l{)g4 sitire deroti ljps5 d€ cDlturS. prnnurn-lai'rre'og1li\'.n,r Fsle puq llngi pro'lrn": have known the rcason? devinein sc,is: lfha e,et aadC, Wh, canl.l,erd have known th," reason?

10) Conshuofii idiomatiee
Cd Xou tcli mc @ho'sqho? lPoli si-ni srli cinc slnt c.i dc faF lsau ocj dcsprecarese Yorbeqte?)l lAluarul notanilifililor) Itna, ,ind did h€ colne? (i,a ce ori a v.nit?) l]'rafs the Xnglish 1o. lhis? (Crm s€ s!u!c la accasta in fngh' (D a r tu ?) Ate n l i e ! asta?l What abaur t show? (Ceai zicc si ncrg.n la un specla|ol?) Johnny'sdrawerx'as luli oI ma.blcs,njls, nsils ard wrzt ,or. (ti€rl.arul hi Ionicil €ra Dli! de lilc, penile, cuie Fi cn, air.,,.,f trhdt of thot! sat What theh ? i ]]i i i ? C c i cu asta?) I d.n't know tuhit:h is ehn:h. (Nu 1e lo1. deoseni.) l l e k n o { s ," ftul s @ na,. i s ti c c l s e sc dcscurccl ) sau (D l ]e H. 1n111 me nax (ha|. dedrNbiuril-" cliestiunii.) il\{i r ertlicnl 'hot (M-a l u s l a ruenl .)
tEr sr I Lr' I uu 413.',

$ r$6

this in En.Eli.qh?" (Cum S 1036 In hnba englezn se spune: "Itrdl do !-ou 'rall uF nl a" r.un,e:lia -dbla In , ngle/F:r":, ,;i nu. c'rnt ." .t',r, ' ' tr" 'n rirri. , lin,ba romdn.: Hou Jo vcu :.ll hi.. i" Lneli'l,l' prir "nsluLi- u

RNI,ATTY YI. PN,ONITU}]I]E II ADJNOTTI'UL (TtrE liDll\tryn PRoIrouN-{nD -{DJltlrIlE) GE^"ERAI-IT,tr l I

$ 1037

l) Formd. - Pronumele relalirc slnt urnldtoarcler': s t03n eho (,xhase,ohon), whith, i|hal Mt, &sj but. Ca qi in limba romAnn, oha, trhan. trhich l; trhdi poi, Ii aLtt pronume inierossiiv., ,lr :i pro,un," r^,irirp. dupi Iun rr" t" "d'-. ind-plir'er. ttl'u',. .vhi.h s, ,/'ol tnr li :i rdjF" i\" r"l"ri\F. Pentru simplificare, relalilcIf|. interogatiy€le !i adverbele care incep sini grupdte tn gramatica englezil sub denunirea de "phcu literele ir/| forms" (forn,elc cu nri-tialelert,{-), la oarc sc adaugi !i ftoo. Ir^nnn,.lp rclativ arc doul func-tii sim tane: S 1039 2) Dofilitic ,\i lunrtii. le- S 1040 ul tinc loiul ,,,,ui s,,bstantir (sHual unui cchivalontal acestuia'). gindul de o propozilje alributi.i.n care explicri{ sau detenninis inlelesul antoc€dentului;
.1 . ,,,' t. h .r ,,.tl at.,- rsl l :l n l o dp. r , , ' nr r n s i n c ' ,r,u ' b": r ir I Pentru hadu.crc, rslr (lrourmel 'S till'r 1lrix, ladj.clirc) S 820. r Ve2i S 190, notr L I N u mi tn nr oDoz it je . : r ti .,' i ' ,1 l $ j l t3 l i! . \u mi l plo ' oz : i, " d i' n n :,u tt r \g
A n. s ., o 1 , u r ' , . a ' , . . 1. p "o 1r' tii,r ',' dl dr,/, t,.o^pusp,'d-.

l l 2).

904

{ 1041

al propoziiiei D/ este subiectulsau complementul direct ori indireci aLdbutive:
'lho man rno lectureil veslcrday is mI brother'

iffi'ffi"#ili "$${',:;ff J:ltf.ffi ."0,1:ll,tll,::'*,;f,,';::,'f 'x1':}L'J"f estc subieci.l
1049 ditec-t in dFt'rmin5: u l" ,lou: fu;"lii tol li .(bJ al" pronumcluirclativ a"stuin' nu'rbr-ul 6 7 p"-.o"' " 1i

r,i' orul L . inro'ui e-,vhi"h u' umer l Pr ;'"1,",i.: ",*"::i' ;;#' "f :f; liPnT;li propoziria €t'ibutivE- "Nl

m.trtioned !a!e. iy'3'l'"i#l'lll,gl';"1"+3i"I":?'i:li:"1]"ii.l?f"""1'"i

r04r li i;;.'J"i:'u,^^"'n" ;:; .,":l,",l"lTi'?"T11:,""",{lfii;i;,
.a"iiuj ;i 'e,,npe*oa"n li"j;'J:'ll"1l:;T:ii"'.i,uji.*:;";;;;l;"";;;,-.
lD numdr:
r' l\'dJts ldre g"Ls ulrpn rrold d' ,or. 'no ,r m olhPr , . inDoL la! ou_ \ d o a / rio 'ii': Par lY r iq' r s $io r hP dav ' "n "*

il'u#*

$'* u" ",1"t$ll,'"T"1T;*:"l"lTfiJi"i1 n"liilit"J:"i:lT'n"*
'u" t"'d rPro\Prhl

Obserr&!Le

;o ill;"" -;tr"tl";:P"fl l"J" "T,iXot'i":Ti.ff'l'l:#:

"""1i"c""",."""11:"Jl"cT,t ,ors s l:'::#i:i;;":,|:"Til:lil"$?,,:",;'"" a cps t sll joac d in p ro p a z l l d d tn ta
ri l"''"1 o "\' :""b il.r" ,d 'ii;:il;'jli"li"'"1\ rk ti ;:,1,;'; I' i;'""rt L"i11',";;'' "; ,:;:;i;,",,. t .". *-''','
' -ho

ililf^-:*l"JJ'iitl1;:':1,:t;;il';li;3i*i'ii"i,T'J Lomple*ent direct' sau indirect'
' is lor lu' o i s s i s . r nod r laus hq J l m

$ 1{X6

Declinarea pronumelor relative este urmdtoarea: Datie Genltit'
I ol Nlich
t o whi l h

;"'":pi,i i;.,;", "t;:" "l i;lj; 1r" ;l;;;:T,,,, :L'';.:,, :"1', 1 fii -,i..,,1 li'".:,1x."il,1
qhich

Ceielalte pronume relative nu so dcclinx' corelative" $ 1{38) (Vezili ',Pronunele ! Atenlie rdre sepot i!i 'lnd pronum"l" xsuptx;rP$'tttar.dP alenlia SF slrdsp s lM? '47 " iDrrdelru: relativ est" ur.rol d" o propozilio I lelt had told tho huth' He $'asthe bov @nom ' Ultptio_ apdriioa'um sulutuitirpsc f8'ol Ensli"l' ' r"emot.teO"lo a"'sl pun'l tn penLru as"pf' paiarLez"' ri"chivarFDL€rF ;en!ibnar' ;i iair,. t"lucra ii: 'oloc!'alP

{v ti 5 r0s0-i05r) liii,iii-.iiriiiiii'i iii l; i;drr d'.";tip

FRONUIIELE

SI

!05

wlpm trebuie inlocuit p n {rlm, propozitia,lird incidenta,.I felt',. fiind: ''the boy.rio had told the truth". Thercaresome ?eotlehereltrft I knowyoy nell havea ident lor music. fl,loD, Lrebuielnlocuit prin rro, propozilia, fdrd incidenta,'I know rery well", fiind: "people rr,io have a talent, Ior music". Fraza trebuie construiti ficlndu-se abstraclie de propoziliite incid€nte, cat I felt, I noltced,lhe! said, he thought,tre knoq, e|c. ln .x.mplul urmerorlnFd.propozilid-l beli"red 1o ba lba rulp'it np. fiind o in.idpntj. ulon. pronu'lc in'"roJari!. .rle .omplcmFntuldirp., al verbului belieoed. Ca atare, se sprne corect: He asLed me @i,n I leli€v€dto be ihe culprit. (...p/b I believed io be...l (coIo.v.) Df scruf &EL PaONUIIEL0I iI ADJIi-TITLLOX Rr]r.ATl tI

$ 1048

Prorumelerelative sht tntrebuinrate,in general,dupn cum urmoaze: (Vezi olseNaliile S 1053) 1) ponftu pcrsoano: S f04g who (: care) (nom.)
The man @,{,spoke io you just now came f.om l.he countf}..

vhoser (- al cirui, a ctuei, ai cdrui, ale cErui etc.) (gen.)
4n8in.rr /x h o a ra u ,n d r) $ " . . .n | , -td." tdm i . J tri rp . . . Tn p a g " hut r u" al The wori'al to alnm yo! ryere is (s talking an a.tisi a woman you u The were talk. i n g io ...l which [: (pe) care, care dintre (selectiv sau inlocuird substantivele colective)l (nom. Ei ac.) li a umite substantive ca sh{.p,. babls etc.. He had two broth.rs, onc o/ onicn was siill litUe. Slre sondered qhich ot rhc sislds w&s the eld-"st. I c_an't teU.rrt.n I ivould rather hea. you play -Chotin. Tchaikovskt or one of ._ The c.owd ,lialr irad collcctcd ch€eredthe foreisn delcsal.ion.
1nd bnL ' t t h t , h

I don'l.bow (pron.) this bas is. (sau ...,tF$ ladj.) bag this is.) '"hose whom (: pe care) (ac.); to vhollr (: cxruia, cdreia, cdrora) (dat.)

.h ;-

dd, "Js . 4 - ..L i F u .' oto ; r hir q4r no\ r

b r o u g "l

in

d . p r P.1 o n .r

hdnt

r/.'

2) pentru admale !i lucruri: which (: oare) (nom).
The d.s r/,t./, blt rou las Nn awar. Is the -clr}oard ailt l siands on r:our left nrll? ot Nhich', whose (: al cnrui, a cilrei, ai carei, ale cdrui etc.) (gen.) th€ roon, Uredoor o/ oLt., {s a tr o/ lhe door) is otren, is minc. The room. dnos, doo. is oDen. fs &! ',lri.n the room oith thi oDendiot...\ is mi^e. Th ta t.r , ' h" " oot af oh :.\o f" h (h tl a N o ts r" d d p p l .d .arpr. $aq be.r,' i ,t. Th ",o F. nlol" r dr \ v a 5 d a p p rp ,l .g -F,^ .\ r * ttt, k " dai pLed E " p,J,odlw , 6 b" dn(Yczi si 5 820)

S 1060

.

l rn se esie urmai imediai de un substmtiv itrii a.ri.ol ctnd est€ adjectiv. p sl4dps pm , , dL I m o d .L F n r p ri n l ro n i n .h j ,p rsooal hmi D rn;n" t* . S 81), 'si i Dl r pr onu mp r i n d l n s { i mo F 6 o n a l d rp laliv . or ps punz J l oIi . n n n l D pnl rul urruri , 3 6 a rv s r r d" " " m nd'dp o ri .p p p r.o a n A (i r a r' rf.i d . D d ri n ri si acpatanu ,nrotdoaunal . pfin pmnim"ln imp"Bonal _r. ru proDumel;rptd ie imb"Eonal .orpspunzALof r,,,t.t (v. _ { 854 1 . { ol enrn este precedat sau urmat de un subsiantiv drricerdr.

!06

MONFOLOCIA

_ PRONITMELE

which (: pe care) (ac );

106l

t) penlru persoane'. * 6 i"5 ' 1 i p. "arel {nom $i a"l il i: (;;; carel (nom !i )

Ahica rol iij*"*y'*jr'lrt"iJ'J'l;il"'j'xi'i";"?$'"5fl1 '.o'' animaleli lucruri:
'o

{'htch (:

clruia) (dat.)

tiJ';l#:l d*'*" -'',' I:: ;\fi:r :,::;i;,:;"0 r.'o:, ;",{ir,,l ii."'l' decii la ob se relern mai d€sla inanimate
re r: rne)carel(nom !r ob ) 1;. " n ' sL h F r' I J L l "'/ /"* rJ.^ o",a",d, "ij. l i "';i1 " " . i" , iriii; " " " . r' j''-;:"i'i p

"",nl' ; ; " " , r ' , ' ]

rol ,h" \r tup ;;iT",i:' +;i1,f*lr:"rut: ''I",h"rs 'j l{ ' l i'a,r 'i":J';^ soo d L ] ' ro t hr.n. v i:l :."r ;";- ?;:I t/id
',1, J"1"" l;;"11ii T'I T"iftl"T;.',ii
tlut (: care sd nu) (nom)

rh . p L ' o rt' ' s o o d

o n .o ' rr d' {

sa" \ou' s' n" '

i"i" ' t*L ""r"

lti"*:*r"';:t:1.*i
s lo52
nchotilrit 4r cr irrtcles

iil'i:fi'i;$":"''"

src$e' orn'ninescu

oD i shat (: cP. c€PAc') (norn fr * orr'J i 'p d''"m nrs "r rr'e 'r" ;;;;; h"o',;-"d n^ \J'

'l ' v ""ir r' '''r ,:";),,"1"{' -l,J""i ?i:; I'i,:""' "
OB SX I' IA T II \TEO
{?RO\1J}ID XDLATIII

s 1053

: ilT':?$. l:.i'#il; s,o'n ,"l,i"l"lil;1.:f"i;l'i lXii:,l"J:'J :li.: : :1,'l: p ro n um ' r F or i < /' c: ^, ll. i" J : ""' ; : ' : il : r ;i '1 " ' i 1 J'|" P -i n 'P *ttt"*""**-.

"
.

;i:x}f"nJr1i'ii* il*rUll'lt*:l*+lf{l$liii

S fOff

Zi U*-i

afatlar un pronume indepenPft' esLesirotrirn cu h' tt'hd' este

ll.friliifi,ii$"tiiil'ttl'"",;i _ nupoare rl _ deci !i,?ho ffl",ill,' s r0b6 s ,"r' ,'"f"",11,i,," jt.,":}","iitr,t;;,;,:' {,'6.'1 , "*i"J.,"J'i:i":'lil,l"ll ;l,t"t;Jl"l:l"ii',i:i;:,1"i#

" .' .l "

ll"'.""';ll 'i, ; ll::1 lig'-"r "1. cu aDim{lesn{ llc'r': ---l.,1;"t imP'cutriL enlioul'e cn'd siDt
,"

";: l:*l: 'u''?lJii"?;;;r' ; l:,,l:"|]jr .i:"Tr ;--ti*: :; ;i{,ii "'."" ' i.rr -,pirnd ',
".rr,d..,.,i:i,",,.ii,":;::ul;;;1i;,:l,l.jg;"j;ii"',.,i,.:i sr a
ri". 'n "'nt"t"l l' a7t lr r J c ePi! 5i

".r".a

r. lcrsonnc

PRONUMILE

9I

207

Thc trc., l.arcs il,(tered in ure h.cze,... '//rsd ligLts shono ir the darkncs,... The lut. .!Los€ 5) nhom. ln linba englezdactualii, pronumele rctnLi,twhom nu mei q 1058 este determinat de prepozilii decit atunci clnd acesteall precedi imediet. situal,ie tn care prezenla lui devine obligatorie:
She ivonderedIot @hon 'lom lad boqht u,c llowc.s. C a !i l a pr on, r m el" in, p ro g i l i \F i n ,n . l n s L i l u l .o l o cvi nl di o,n ocLei nl ,..ri l p r in /,t . s.b im hln, lu s F or J i n e B ru \i n rp l o r p c n tru c i prA po/i .i J s" vi n.] dJpd H rt"n , | ' hr 4 lr " h a d l " n l h i q s k rsh , u d q b i n d i rq on. q h , rp ,ai\ '| a " d. nnt i" m . 'in n ta a I ta ry d ,h a .l O) ' t.,n We lrave no idea who c]]ntabol.a.tes iiLh @hn.l,l I don't Lnorr pna he is wriiins dbout.lbl ' U n p o ri rhiar s i or p. p d J r d o tra p o z i l i p l "It js rery imlortdt." "To ohr?' LOll Pp n L ru a s p ev it s inlr F b u i n l rr.a p ro n u m " l rri J r\rcn. i n rtp Je dr.p" ri l i e, n h o ea Jl @ l tjl in) o. ui" " { p c b i i r 9 i In l i p s s u n p i p re p o /i ti i : Tcll me wno you watrt. (: Fhom) Ttr"F n no on. ( , t h. ) tru .l o n k n o w ,,re . I \' o .. A t l }p .lub , n , hould I r:n d b u t C ,ra l d : - \h o m ll A i q n pv prin r o ppoplp h n d i s ' i l " r. | !h o n , O l n ta ' u pf o q.bqranti vr \ a l way s hnppi r bdb y ' i 'l i n g b .trtd fp , s h . . tn , rn or, s" ,. ti dF., . q h " " toa. - o cu 'ip n - r nr ( r en l ^ rnr u Wh o m p oalo I ns a li S i p ro n u m . i n d i v ;d u a l . d " .i 1p ctor6tor, tdra sntac cdc n l (: h c Nhan. t has pN h o n ).l n c a rp .a z n u .)i i .cl F i nl o.ui t. ci pretFra. : l.I'non the sods love die youDg. (Prove.i) IV]IICII
(PBONUME iI ADJtrCIIv IiE'ATIY)

s 1059

1) inloles.- Pronumele nlic, cstetntrebuintat: Q 106{l a ) . j n d an lF.Fdcn tul d.numptLe un animals "du u n o b ip . Lin a n ima:t
Tne figers ,fidn he had secn pedormins carn€ from Belgal. w o ipslp d rnF !o p. tc..41r uh; . h s , l bFln ; 1 I . p, . on.r i r d o r . \ l lhF @4 ;16 ,rnr.& h rd jus t u, n, "|] , d, ha t ook t r , " I n o r . g I nndor. -/., 1 i"'."",,'l a! . ' h"Un, o l\ i1g, hm . 5a . ,ofotisoD theTrJT^s.

,) cind antecedentul denumeqtetn acelaqitimp atit fiinte, ctt si lucruri:
$'e iarled alout the tic"ds and erpoiencpr@hichM had had in commotr. peorle sh;ch sl.ood oli in oDe,smemodes. Tlrerc \r.r€ €r.nrs ^nd _. c) ctnd antecedentul, care dendmeste de obicei o fiin!6, este tuat, ca I made oi lrcr L\e eomak shih I rvnntcd my daughrerto becom._

notrune:

{cr. 5 854) d) cind antec€dontul esLe un substantivcolectiv(g 1101):
Ile had leen listencd to Iy taqe audienccs ont.l had tctr enUrusiastic. I : lipsa lui ,/,r. r U n p o ri FIa' i vut rnr:..[Idrl ha | F nnani_. ' 1" 1. d o m " si " " .l ra S i s . In rF b ,,i ,' !" a?J h ad a l o u n q d " pr r no Ls " d lo to l l o wh rr d b o u l i L r d D e tb u o D v.' 'g a l u 6 r . r v lnlul. a vo fb i l { l a o i n t} u .i r" ,, , d p b rus .u l p ror. pi c' or arhj ' nnt f T a rk l @ n d rrl J u lc . . . 'lu i cl p l dnB 4oaaoaa. or ri ti l oel i t alian,1 4 7 5 -1564

r0E
mic: el ctnd antccedeniul se referd la un copil the lrospital at had seen shc Do', the '{n" """]a"'t {orgei ''li'} 84, 854) 6t' s {cf sdulr"za prp'Fdenls.r' reca' a): o inl rFagrprooozi!ie /r cind inlo.uiFSle
'^ , " h " tp " J ,h " s tl ,' ts . u l r' /i q 6 / prti ' ' eotl l v proi P e' s acrron ,,, . ',t, o' a d ' s d ' h 4 a ' rp ' l ' h r" p I' r' r" ii- oir " " !)

t lOar i

''*'l;,';*1f",:";.i:'^1li';,il:itli;r,:""i]:liii":;i insi urmaatunciclnrl
pii,'.-.ir"'";"4
iubstantivul detLrmixot stijln ( o/ rni l t 'oll5J drF$hir^ t hrr' ' _oo' // *'1l or ""&\rsor

zt io n iiiv.

rl" i, ' o n R"lntitulr/'; l ot. rn "az u lg " n iL irro r" n a '/

I,'9""aero"-" 7-il';"1'; oapoalc

!i

J) Funclic. S 1062 ""' t r . l ' ,1 , a r i' fen r r u tiinrn crr 'i p"nrru l.rrut il
thicL titue 1l

11;."i;li:.1i,"''., I;lli: """:l "' '"' ", relatit)in carecazsepoatelnireWirkn poatcli qi adiccrie

girr !ett".1tiU,";Ji1i,",l:f;"1,llii,f ire iak; ro.rhe i:lt:'i,::il"$i"ii,"d S"if;,i 1hc $e lPfi rlP Plo ngh ' t "1.11'" , ' gr r c

nrP'pJs d"^prppo/iiiepoarefixnpotl ad\crbialp lllil 4l qinorrimo € 1063 r(dF'u"l' t'""",nto.ui, ri lir'rdri i'p'e r'/" r" pri""a'*S'f""" '/'irl 'poeri Doetic qi liierar), rvt?/ eic i

"'l*i;:llt"l,.,.ll,*,'jfl"!i'i:'#"ii;fJ7f,i,lu,'ii!^.*trh€.ire

""'" {ff ." ,rqrrir":j':.!:.ir:\.:l1*}'il"hllii'j',ll;rrrr r(co,ocv rd ) a hote, i! it a hotPl u /rrlliP' \r€ $ P lnt

(;i,fJ, '""'llf*.;" iji'i1,,, flJ,li ETf" i::il U,.:,t*
hdd bat lent: to)

s1064
61065 r'"""

rlai poat' \nlo'ui' pronumdc ll ftrlrrhuirrlarr. P|irumple rFloli\ d"t rntit'ai'rP' '0re oupc inoint"un"; propoTi!.ii uha.,,l,a*..1,' n ts'n"''oi ," .ri.. p'r" ab''l rr np'P'Jrd par'rru'l:'rrar.eaInlplj "u*

,","",Ifx1,.,,,,

S t 106 '""" 6

1-!" :.p-' ' l hal " l ronumcl o 2) Cdz ur ilo in c a rp !e i n l r' h u i n !' d z i rr d " u rp bi rp i ' azufl : . plF lHll" l ro n rrm p r" l Ari \F ' rrmi ' oarFl p i "f* ri 1 I l r\i n r r n ' o t" P l ' tr a7 dr r pa l re ' e ' l A f 06? '

;:ij:i["i,ilI.. ti rit,ilil i:i,;4, "r["*!il)
t'h ih) I s ar it t o s t l ' rL

ti!"'t 'if:,,i

$ 1068 s 1069

D) dupn r mcrale]e ordinale: iliil not kno{ wnaL'nrss nedia" mtant si" rr"'.,1,, f,,,",r, "t.o.rt,rd' (l€ urr adjcctiv ir gradut superlrtiv: r:) dupn un subslanlivcaliiifnt div lriarl \re hrd on onr tri]' Ii N*'Itu l,ris"/'rrr

rh" r ! ilnl. la',.. "*|' "l;i%iYi;.i', \'''!'\",','o,i;* :': ';;' i i "r '''r "n"

.H:f;Hl':i: il''33'ii"i{:il't '""i:',i ,*gj;m*rill;,**;,?gt:irliii:lii

5r

rELArrv ^DEcrLvr]r

209

N otd
D€ remarcat constructia irtiomatjcii de mai ios, tn care prol1umeletha'' imDreurj'.u verbul rFspecli\," inlocuil prinrr-uninfinili\ slun'i 'lnd snte,.i.nrul lui crc lori esic pr".Fdbt,lF, un r'um"tal urdinal un superlrliv s€u rhe t'erA: uDa din enpresiilethe anl1J.
F hie' o; l\ pls o n r h " B o 'p l 'l 'n " Chdmoolliol $ i" tt" lt$ 11 J PI ' to;i v t " i " p 'r r 1 r " a J e 'r d F G A r r a l op' t lt ot hlos ;i; ; ; i";ii;":, oi'n ' . - ; n ' o d' : ! P. a t H " " -' ;ler .\a. /, /., I No,-nr r ' ' ". dLr un i l' buz r i, t"'' p ima I m "i" r."' . ' Tal"" r or t ni r h f ", ". $ds Lm L s l.v ,o rrm" ,a h rJ..an" "/ rur La-m!r I por ni' F i. , op. "r ' ii.. iLi,ii' t , , lov p s r i r i '4" Th" " or' ., Ens. h b vo l. t o - anne' / lu l' ein1Fr 6 t t o L l r a f r \ r 'l ' s p r , r J ' \rr prrPre I n p 'r o l o r Lia! ' P. ol Put l; r "Nnodo" ,r-allllF p^ sl ,;5 li 'l"rrt \\'ilde .le lur O\.ar l d P re ;tru q h s.' r /i,,,/, o n @ r o"oA t r ' ls I s l L;" d ,/ d bin" plgl' r ' r l" r srrru , 'F rr ws i/re *ry nrn i. do the job. He (Xra omur td;.al ca sd ,ndeqlif;e1ld sanina d.r1t )

s 1070

d) duD! Dronumelen€hotlrite: all3, \'erqthng, sarne,anA, no nnnP no \ 1011 one.s6n thinS.ontthtn!- n.thtns.i dupd rr\'inlcl" D'ttth.1;ttl' th ' th ot Lu
,4/ / t.dl glitle $ i. to t r j ' l, i t P. Ll : s n\ er l r,t.rht r e t+o , I rr,.t , . . r " n 1 . t lol inr I s p"int or /nr l\ \ ' i h' i-' n.oa -l,.j t ' othinelth atl yo u tl" r\ a l. r r r e lul. \ ' Lt P ' t ' ni J U s o u o l l " ' 1 2. \ o. Ao ,"'r g oo d r ' , \ ' s . ri. i rr' o ju,i.t n , ..'tt', o' t t p- o! ! t r , 4i | , lin' I Ln o { l O J boal l/ 1"/ | n r pd . ol O n np ) lrL l .a $ ,r,.,/

rOi

e/ dupd pronurnele interogativ trio. penlru a se €fita o repelilie: ii riat rang jllsr noF? It'ro wa,s /) dupe construcl,iainrpersonall t Is. il oa, etc : He was suren eds Ilme that had rung hin ul

S 10t2

$ 1073

din doud (saumai m\ te) 5r$stant'ive,S 10?4 eEte compus sl cind anteced€ntul ahtch: trho, alnt\ unui'c€rind
thdt ha\c niade ttre world lhal I $nll write abouf ,n? l4o?1e and thc eoenLs it is'

3) Cezurileiu caro nu so lntrcbuilt.toari prolumelo "thst" -. poate ti lntNbuloiai:
$6 ns "\ on hn l i 4 d y arr:\e d \ 1s r a- Lld- 1. lIv mo tl,"r. rn rs nor an cntrD rf \ irhulas. dn /d/ ro u r aus h dL ' v r r ins ala' s r r ' r lldr dr r v "d r l r ^ h o 6 / n 'l J o u Ily m ol po sl .p ln;: tN . "

?lml nu S 1075
S 1076
l

d, in propozitiile e)iplicativea.deoarecel/lrll a.e sens restdctiv:
a!gn-

dat liind cn nu S107? of b) tn locut unui genitiv (ahose, af ahich sa.u ',honl)' are formd de geniti{:
T ' F ' . \in rpn l, {iDs" s ' ns " ' l lum our v ou $i' l at p''i d l F _ e: " v r n. e l. oI . r d' _r _ oI h' r m o u r I 1\d . " !o al".pu

r p ' "i I p' ' : Li d Dio ,,,,,'rh 'll " pl, ag.etd \te.c " ",4,1 Fcscnt ' ! Car nu llnr alsoli't nfoesa.. reftrtr

j;i"ffi"ri;*r-_ IJj, li::j.,.fre;:iyir ''"..Jii,l;:';;l;iilr:" 'l!ll,:,ii.'r q h a r 's n lr u oi n r I nr ' . r'r l1 l " \h o r..rit , " ,1 8' ' ' - i'
'l clariiat.a lrazci 15 ltal)

r Il. .

, d. |oc.' ;La l. l ,'E . Cdir o ESlpl. u d" ! _a gdil- ir . l T t c

s-d' il ru lPslpdpa.dP

910

MORFOLOO

_ PRONIrMET'E

s 1078

rle o prepozilieJdeoarece .r) cind pronume,leIeI,rLll'.{rsteprecedat, 'ilx, .,, oo.rl. ii pr-..,lrL ,1" pr"fo/rln'

r a n , a r . , ,,,i ,4 \d . " b " " 1 ,,,1... :l r1 r':, "' n11"" " " "1,

'"irJi;fiir t\ri lir ,;"'rili" ,l;,;';i i'" #i:'i,,
' f he t \ nr D i\ L sc Po atc \fl r r ' r :

{ o 10?C '

'r'"rbinr'm:i;;':i'jJJl;:l:i;l'il: ir"i,.."ii"rirre' 'r:r.iil'r"'i ln stilul colncli \e lootF,I rp'b:
".tt"l '390) pre'"d rp Je sdje'riv" rlT,Jupa num"l' or^prii 1i duni 'ubFrdnLiv'lp n'' ii rosr" ri r"strins' Irosbi\",', demuns'|ra""" """":;i;";';" '""''o''l lol IPstn.ov: iar l,tai ^f€

$nr lrccFdste imedisi-de lrepoConstructn in caro pronuniele rcl lii.t-"

': l:. :"j,-% o ;; Jl,,',t;,1"1 (Vczi ii $

cfl DrppoziLis 'a rin; Llupa

{ 1080

"""1" t g-.*rT"fti'il ii*"xfdffi "",-'"'
_llral zero.l ztt 4, Pronumelo

s l08l

'

rPla'it //'dl nu - De obi'ei pror'umFlF

oolliri""J""i"ii" rn Fitcerpritnrr 'tna"ro ' "ur

rits" '*bita depersoaa'l€

;",,,,:i1.,, " "iijT;"',1:1i ii1;r",,1 f ")ll.l.i r"r :.,1i;,: 1o1 rf'?]l"l'ii";"'"; ]ill''";;'"tl:"i''{"J m*' q ]iul€t di r"[",;'b'i:" ilr n': ;*,if l,tl'lll
Ob se r o a !rL

llX i ,0" lJl:ili"::"'J"#"i"J':',::.::i;fili;;l'"|il '!':,0:""t' ioar''i"n'el" 'ndinjnd ",,"'jj'T3; , ;."1 *,r' i,i"ulii ii" .:""r" rn mod"urentIormdA " """"i' Ih"
ln oo- irr tormnro '"

:r"1^:'; l;j'il"H:','; ['#j.t:d'ttI inl, "r;r;:,]:*
"h ":h;i";i':;;::';1;;;ur"*
.IVHAT
(?NONU]IE SAI]'{DJEC'IIV IIEI2ITIY)

s 1083
{ J084 r'"

'e -x Dr lm A t :

dg * i, lil! " : 9 : : 1 " ' I, ln r r o lr rri0ltrro't4hot ,that'r'ril' Cu p rin rin n u e s ra a s ru n ' i inrr"bL'inL"a / r r/"ri ' rn ' l n rF " c d p n ru l ';1"- p r o n u mei' 'p
Mdt bclonss to -rou shr'u be vous' We'lI tell You 0'd' s'e sa$"

o b se r r a lie antecedentr'esie ivhat e$telntlebuinlsL numai atunci clnd Pronumcle 5 1086 vag: neprecrzai,.

'.u-.r"r z F-r'nrur Ij 7.r6rr. s I08. '1";1d4.'?i1 i';r. r064r. ' "' , C'oi iiit*l"inl"iia *lati'"lolldr -tr *hr'a c0
r Cons t t uc ti a th e Vl h a t c s re

I doI t lnoq r ' oI r o r X P r ' "P s l i k P a I 'g Com P ' "t ' ar

PRONUMXIIE

ST

21I

Thot \thi0h se lntrebuinleazi atunci cind antecedentul se referd la un S 1086 slro'FdFnrur bau ,p"',"4" ;;;'J,"r= 'jnJ , "bi".l";;";;; (Lhnt hicL rrrcntnat 'tobrip '.J " 'Fll
Tnp\ . , J rl e ll lh memrn g. in lh- J ! lio r ' J dod li' ly "o , _ 'i r r o ''l i Tl,,;F $ai rro r i1 l' m "nt l m il i r p"lon' Lr k p Thal qhichl he said was no !e$s io dvone 4 lh" rdl' d

2\ C$2, Pronumele P,tdi cste aleg€n neutru. cu inleles de singular fi se $ 108? intreiuinteazi in cazul nominativ sau obiecliv: lyn r r, ro b. I'n. n,rr oe s"l do " \o r'rJm"hi1'lppd rob' youh.dirl'1n".a1d ll'l:d i')i'.,,, 1088 3) Frmotii. - lt7ftal, in afard dc faptul cd ara l-cloire d" I'ronuJne dupi S pfi pJna si,i. pod 'j sdi'.rir+lai\'indd-l'rrrn;u4ntrbbtar'num. a "rcta
Adjectirtl tyhar Pti.6 that got were all _"amcd phal poate fi tntrebuintat qi exclarnativ: W , { dr a l i n € d a l l nhdl n o n q c n s rr I l' r " / h e a l LY l i a l ' Ps r lr ez i ii S ' 1 1 ' 61 , 0 1 1 1 0 9 0 , 2 8 l rl l

$ 1089

! ,4 tcn tL e In erclarnalii, pi./t exclanativ nu rcdn cuvtitul ,,t4" din declt. atun(i cind acesta insolelte &n sa,slatl": tYiar dreadful manlers lre lce manhr,, olirilf .rr€lr 1CcJ r t . ' I ur n u ;r.r)

lir

a romenn S 1090

Cincl cuvtntul ,,ce" insolelte lln d?j..1io. el se iraduce priD ad1'erbul/I,*':
/' ' r si rr' 4l ' ubpns \ se o b . pr ! ' . s 1r pro p o z i L rrl p ' a rp ' ' 1 l i n ' u !i n rcl F r0 ' r' u l i ' n b d rnr3n; orp' F' l a prp' l r' e.xcla-fl ri t. I n gp' c r F . u6i " tl u l l n .o

tul.

g rp ri l i n u \l ' l u l .. c eva r" ...nin' ic r c , ' . . F " ro n ' i n ' q c ..' p nu ,' o rn n u ' l p l r r r l, hir " . t hine . sa n ;h ; r arri \): In c J Z u l n" r p ri rn rt rr'a t obi" . i pi i n t de ci ^bi

pronunrclc .'F' din e\0tFirlP"tot ccea'""' 4) Whst. That.- Adescori l hot D u' rx ott' 4' rr' r.s d u c F p
rFda nrrn o' or'

S 1091

.4r 1 d , , € h . r ", . i . n o , s,rJ.
,N,, io, pa

:;:.-;" .,:,:"i:"lj,l

t""- ;",1"":...

& s ' . br u. p, . , n .p rra r'

i ^' ; ":ij", ,;'ij :,# 1 1 - '

*'

"

,j l l l T " * ,

11L . \i .i "o;",: , , . ; t u - n . p n r o "

n do.b i . bao.\ don" .

'" poL rredure ir .lirba $ lo92 5r What. Wbi.h. - Ilelarir"lo rrrrrndlo'ul unFl p'unu'nc a'Fstp prin a' rLalo rirrn, cnsleznorin ,t/,d/ 'su :"" ,';i i"'1, 'lin Fa'?lTlrarn' " inse tntrpburna irun' i 'ind "i "r3t-irii urm"aza $hi'h 'lnd pB pr'cJ;: irobozitia
\ t J s v h! t l r t r d l .nd .\r r ' d l,fidrlcou lJ ' Dt r "Pa ldr' I n l _' nd ft4q \o'! tut rr:t P" ,hi h I '

6)';What" idiomstic. Pronumelerl,al, repeial se t'raducetn limba S 1093 romAJl r"in ..ba...ba " in urn:itoarea construclie: jn
lrnu;Nilh e.lins llnd /rrra,J witn drjnkiiS. th'i \e$ Year hril tome belo'e thev I ?tdr ,,nt,n estc *i8r.rL" "rri"t". ocuir IDin pronudclc .r,ar li siil,l colo,i'ial: $'rrsi nc sai.l ods cstc o prolozili€ san larb dh accasla atuoi iitrd anteocdcnrul

219

S loel

o'r".""*""**-,
pe circ le urmeazn' "u,l Qhich ti that'

E r0 r ; t _'"-

o ' l a i X \" il' ;l;;i*" " J" ? ' i"ii:" i:' ' ;;: 14 ' 's | t " r ' p' drelu I r F unc lii . - ' 7 estP
*'" rdvprb'au 'onjun

' """ *i'1"'1;'nn*'' Ill,"liuiJ"""'i'H'19""1# L i' :
i" "''"" t'" "t' ^

$ 10rG ""tJi1":iiJlTi?"iilTronumeie
! loe?

?,,"." :'fL'i;"pl;''i;;li,i';'l'l$ li;;' njt".,'r,;, i::.;if,l":"; atit peniru asseintebuinleaze
rerativ
,**o*n "JJ,o".o"

lntclpqnpgaliv Fi dP pronumer'lsriv' arc veloJrp cu B't l) iolelrs' s 1098 " ,'tore 3' nu': "noa"

E10sei "

"""'l""lrrw J#,*'f'"ffiTit'J#"Ji1""T""x}'':l ' ,,- '^-- u jtutrerruinlare.-,-4,,1f jii,Tii.{iutii"Xgi.Tlit"";ji:il't'*,i
hmD buinlet Si etunci nunrarln lsl F tF: 'olo'\ rronumFrctaliv bu' mai

I

$|roo i,,l^Yli::,; ,'i :'si:;,i. bdbr' too:poirr
mu"n ii' "5 'ur ="U): -'i*"t bt od tPr b \= dcclr' numai){
r lir h bov H" is . nor h i n g 'b ,r

= a f6 r, d e. daci u | = .t" ppt).. n;?T"'lu" *'"*""* "/*:'""#ilhJfi ' (t) e nantial: dar' insn (olieclie)l:

iour lalk is ldll ol

0,,, s,, ilI mlffit :: i* l;i ni:".J*:l1"it,"J;.r'","1,.\ linili 1 l# * u
! PsrP. relstr! trtD dnc{ Terbur

rlrJXCTlrELE r'A PnoNU)txL! nEl.trRlTo -sr ,Ltrlj cIrESTruNr 'E

'rrs

RllrflTf,

'l';""J';" ii ::l';;'1 Ii: :'.:', :f ; ::*":;'.;"

;^;1 ,"".." ",,' " ;]:';'i": il;' ""' -' tI:"':i:19;';i': "o;',;"'"",1: :'pTll""x'l'i"'3i"'" l.n;:i'lti'::'ri'YTi *1"1",1,:i:;liii

niii ,,",ii"":,il,'ii,: :,l.i; j:i,:t, I "i:i;liil lr;,;il:il:i'il ,'t,['"
.' .lnLi-"lllif*l
t nu are lunctie de curlniul Du iP 1 Unr i aulo fl c o n s i d a ri _ 0 1 ace6H silualie

onume'

propriu. p""oD, $lJ;Jril"::

PRONUMf,LE iI

ztq

pqle Plor ln raz'rlt'uhqlaDlir tnlrp p"rsordlli itufPrcorcl AlAserea 'olp'li'F lacuia ti gon.r" 5,i fun.1i" d" iirFnlis !orbirorului scu o s'riitnrtlui' relaliv zerofolrr' pronumelui S I lol relatir. (Pronumolo 2t Eti-osa qli in raLut obt tt' clipti. r'uD'i poale fi rclsti\' d/ Prbnumdp 'ind indisf"n'ol)itd si cfni propozitl" din cere la"" r€tl";d" J t rminotirn dn F ln 'r'rLul alip'6 inloLdFduna spronpP oncl€rE in{elesuiuifraz;'i. Anpasl6 ' cnglezrr rn nosrull dc lrmbrr vorbrrp d o.ara.leriqricd coiorvial:i.on.'ituip Anslia:
AI i .l n o $ i . m J -F r' n e w T h. Lo\ $. _tT h" b o J rl o a w " In " r" l , in o. " d. . 'Ih€ iactor! we aisited iv$ er.cted quilc rccentlX Iln loc dc:'"Thc lactory @li.t we visiicd. "l lnp . 1ild r n r s p o k p l o i s m v d a u c he t-s I t i" l; ; , t ; , - T i . .l ,i l d ro ;t;/i v o u ' l o (r' r h d p a p F tu)n u $ F re l u ^ l i n s l o_ . . . I did' l t f ind _. l h P p a Pp Fi o _ ,n ./l ]o u rv rP rookrne r lo loc d" : , J Pronumele relaLiv n & poole lnsa fi omis cirld este sabie'l sau clnd pro' pr y lic at i*i. dc ' i n u e s te u s c 0 s a ri l n l e l e s ul ui frazei : p ozili i "ste w T hp bol , n g n 4 re J J rp j x s ru w i 5 .my n eth qr norv ... o m p l h i b o J poar p s p u ra : l J tn [ N- ' . 'r ri i " ft i s o n o ,r s J y . L. r ' " \ : s it t h. tu .ro N _ L " l . v i s i l l h . Ia , o ty r" on l\ u - " poA le.p -n F : l h p l a l h i s l o J i ). T h. nap" f t idt i . o n _ Ih e p d p r L l \' { 3 b l P rs rod,l Jn j r \ u: ; " poar es p u n " : ^b !F i D I n b l s in F ar h t, a rd n Ct ul 'n _Cal iD l1lh"r I S ' a s i n l h' . -l t Nu " " podr es p rrrP : T hank v ou |or J o u r n o r' q l ;c l I r' " i v F d J psl nrdov' t Nu " e loal. s tu n " : " T l J n k J o u l o r J o u ' "

S 1103

Es c e P lii intilnite in vorbirea S llo4 loarte colocvial€, A se olservauneleerpresiieliptice. nominativ,dupi in cazul relative chiar lipsesc ai" care f|onumele "u*"tA.who i^P: is, it is, there
Ol //\ th F !d_ r br r , l ls \ i' \ r c lr h"' t "' ' v ot n O I n"r l 1' 1 l"_' r ' r o' /,' lhp r'..'l on lh' , ' ho_r ' q1, " s an ' l " ' l k 'n , ii"""'. ol rh ar \ ' r J t nn' k ' d J l Jl/, \ds """'. " doo" \ " 'r Ol

S 1105 c) Co structii idiomatice. In unele tonstruc.tii, prepozilia lipse'Rte odati cu Pronumelcrelativ:
,l ,p, ' 4u. r . s l, i hl 4ol i, / / lO ' | ^ .'n rJ t4. tw ^) .p r , . / , r r t . $ ! h. it r ' lr" .d { l ' h ? r t L \ '' l l' .l v u fnn w 11, n n"r t in \ t t t . hl t hP no , 'L q Sne d ns! r-J /l lon $h' . hl J ' P I "ar "d n t u t 't t " r ' l \ 4 l "' . r

S IloG 3) Loeul Drotrumelui rolotiv. posibil, antccedentdl sdu' pus, pe Itngd cil, a') Pronuinelo relativ trebuie Neresfectareaacesi€i reguli dd naltere ]A mari confuzii: IIe took an ar.i.o, lrom the iable.onrn he at€ \tilh relish'
( I nc o/ ec t ) fNn a mincar nasa, cr catsa.l 'Fr;n the table he took d altr,t ( c ot ec t )
| - z?n p lati. p rcn au a' O l\ x dir d

( ii.,r he ale \!lth relish
r F a 'i v , P nlru simbolul

r l, p. n pr o' um d. i

t"l

enslFze m;d"rn1: 7 4 : 2 9| j.

.umir-rD t,i!.,ro ispr...srn' srdrarim '" .T#jiiiil."Hi.i',i'l'"'o;o,,.r',r",t-,.. ol Loht'nPo4rv Lnet'8n' p.o9ziii Ptht',tidle tqnitk. A cnnfut

214 I s d\ v t hc m nn i r' l h " s " .l //' , v u ' r L n o \' , , - r ada " . ' 4, , .u 4 o s .u ' j ....a 4 rri n d " u b -tJ i vJl !l n." doroti l Jr pror. r" l p

l l07

I'i the strcct. I saw the man ,ndr vou know L,,Omul" este ,,conosculi'i mdD liinil substaniivul alropiai de prorude l r-nti trt' a (ott. both. ndny rr" " rp -i n . D ) \ um " r alplp !i c ' r\i n l " ' " q p ;b i pronu' ^l ui rpr' cP dst p u r In" i l l " J e ri ., et qol. s a t., mo .t. nuf i. 'h "i d F fr" po/ ili, " t ) o l ' v h o n . o l a h ;;h . ms i a l e q ci nd ' Lnt ' rrbi prr' l The !triv{Tsity sect€tarialc cmp]oyedsix clerks. r"'o o/ sn;n rvere univcrsitv gra'

nt.tlrods nos, o/ rrnrn wo Hc erpo,rtrd.il lo ns a rnmbe. ol rfccnt l€chnolosionl alreadv knc*. spoke ol ihe neoessitv ihe confcronce. the two sirls. &ort./ trl,n took r.hclloor .1ll ol ha\'ing a pooling ol e\peri-aioein farmirg pngl ,zn nr p^si bi l n conll08 / S pr " d. u. p b i ra d p l i b . ro n ,i n d , l n l in' bd ' s: stea dpparie de poate. situaljj. propozil,ia in unele relativi strur:1ii iri care antecedentul ei atunci cind nu existi ambignitate: i _ o" j mi " n n \d . .\/. !o o -F l ,l l ' ' ^ n r' n; - 1" " rrr:l ' ' I " . r ' ld a b^l , l lo tn . u ,tt t i t \b ' n o '|lJ o (Vc z i s i S t,1 5 1) 4 P r oou||r r lf rc h l i t :i n re p o T i l i i . - C " n l orrn r' .:ul i l or:rar " ,i ' l p prll09 Do rit i" t r Lbui" . i D r" ,l i n ro n rm" l " r" l 1 i t p" ," ro 1l In' uLP : a, .\' n ' l i i e Euii r im ine ins " i rts L i l a n u mri l n l i mb a s e r i sn.l n stj l ul col ocvi al . prepozi l i a se"punc lntotdeauna .lrrpd verbul respectiv sau dupi complementul ]ri djrect' The lainting d, ,li.n yor $cr.looling is a Dcgas (itlamatical colect in slilnl lormal '1 1l o' fi ' r u. , r ' r in! \ i r,i .r.i \' o u w -f ,.o l i n g , i . d D g. r' i I orn.Jl | ..rr." Li .m" r ' ,o.. r l r' r..\; r,.' i ;,.4 ,' si " - ' ..r ' . , . _s , trdditiunal /rrrl ' 1 . " : s p. ' , rd r' $ l ' o rn ,l l 5 .r J o u r ' er ' , u " l o^\bl 2390) S lV.zi ,si Cazurile in r,are prepoz;lia sH intotdeauna drpd verb slnt urm{toarele' al cind pronumele relatiY nu este exprimai3. lhe, r ' " t r ot hia e ,$ i " l ,l o ' ,v /o ' . Tr'c aitlor .i it,i rjN-Ihonciic Diciionary is TlIn hol. Dani.l Jones!lwh.{d]l Jotr must hare lrcard aD,u,. D) oind pronume.le relativ intrebuinlat este rrdl (dat fiind ci nu poatc 1111 precedai fi de prepozi,ti€): Thc nrrse rho, lhcf sclt /o/ $'as on dutv at U,c hoslital ft? animnls ,nar wc show kindncss,, al€ alsav6 graielul jn sine Pronumele ttftdl este un caz special deoarece cuprinde Ei antec€_ 1112 pronumele rel€iar oliicD dentul. l't:l,ar: that tphich, thar lliid anteced€ntul, tiv. 1110

111e

Dacn prepozitia se releri la ani,ec€dent frralJ, ea estepus{ numai inainte. Dronumehi pftdr. dacd se refere la Dronumelerelativ fttliictr' €a poat'efi pu:; inaintea pronumilui rrral sau dupiverb (adici se conlormeazeregulii q€nela1 !i uzantei de mai sus):
IIe ncv.ir {greed 70 i,la, you sugsestld1Ch. Dick.ns, Daeid Copperfield. xP.onumclc r;htve ozilii. ttnr si ai nu sht nrsolitc dc !. 3Cr iltr cu \;^ . 1n Dr o"um d. i r plar : r z " t o lDrt;? lJa vF r donr J ' Fl. I piil I ! L_. o n d l i i b r ' 'r g ! / d- J1 u, l. D ictio nn r lo ne lic .ng l. z il 1- q1r - .

a D b l i r 't

i

!16
p d .n l r - ./o ,} ,, \!hi .h vorr qrrg:pcl oi l' l Pr"n o z ir r s / a . " r Fh rJ l 3 J n -' n,r p u d' a t i lu. i, dF ' i r ;n l i n l p l p ' .r rm ^ l u i r' ' d r' l we do!'i knov ,, rldr lrc rfnned (cranatic'l '!tect, slil loDDal) $J. don't know trna, he rclerr.d tu (Slil colocYial) r. : ' \\ don I I' na' r ' bJt I Pre D o/ i. i L / o bA , . t c rd d , J rn | ' p ro .u ' c ,' n 'l""lr d Ll m" ri . i ..l o r1s:nr ' a pro. .rp p u ' o . n rc ;r' i . i ;.l , n " r l' p. t " d rn "! dupn l Dumclui relativ, iar ln vorbirea curlnli, 'erb

- Fle\ibilitater limbii S 111+ :,) Prorumolo ruLrtiv cu lunctic tlc suhsti,ntiY. cn s r a zr n .I " Fr m ;1..r - d liidF.uri,,.noi rr"t.',. prin . u n iz i' s i " u ro r' in I
W ho , Wh o. uuu r r ul r u m " l o r J a p ' rs o d n " ma " a n l F i t I l atr' p domFrrrr' rc . lc ml rl l , uno' c . r t . i DUb l i '" r " b i s rl r \' r.i u n rl - rtl ' 1 l " nti rr i r 7 hP fi nl " s are o i n rrec s . l pas i: a J p ..\4 :.1 ru b l i i i rF - i n ri rul a i frP W hr' s l V ho af de l E b0bl si tt" rs lV h a i ' tth " " e . li " a" e ' p " r a , u n l u " ; /" ' h ;' i n . ' " trt-s. c t. n" ' t In .td n ! Ba i l t Bo u t o L i n B uild, n e s , l ^ Iot t abL ehi ' In l i m ba e. ) r lpz E " .tp c J r.n r ro rJ I d e ' u b ' ta { i v d3r l ro' ru-rFl ur ' !l ' qi relativelor ln ginete - dovadi articolul hotirit care 1l tnso-te;te: jnt.cbat r,,leritnr la xltinele ;ti.i, a ritsllns: "I slau ask thc nexi Carl Sandbufs3, bana n a n Fdol" ' 1t ; t h. d .l t]" !h u t o t i t l yn a fr . : pedeapsa , c e a rra : Snc gave hnn ,tl,afo. whell he did not eat his lood lcolocv) WlLaxnot, p\. -s : pentru acestea etc. nimicuri, fleacud. tot felul de lniruniiluri; dulap' raft

Tablou rezumotiv :ll utilizdrii pronumelor relttiYs vho' whoso, whom, which, thAt Pentru inl,rebuiniarea cazului pronumelor relative din limba englezd trebuie l,inut seamade urmAtoareledoud considerente: 'r slill,l fo,tuutrJu "u]".,)in! pa'1r. ll sl a'a- E871.872r: .rul n rl t r4"n lt rits \) ' tfti'otird - rtrPid .sra 2J I'rot,ozil:Fi 'li\" p u;"1- InrrFlui,.ral t|2;42 ) 1"\'. ii "t.'l;n"

$ 1115

irl€lesului) (n€cesarn I. Propozitia aleterminatiYar,
Caz
.. ] io nitu ti, A ct..tn. Cu p ip..itie '... Ce n.ilir ...

$ 1116

Anrmab
r Yho. llliat r l] iat j lll, ar l . . p. . poz t ! ' c llhos e

tFrnzi r c ltl trtl . i N hi , . l u \l i ' l /l \hns' . .

lI. Propozilia explie:rtivi (rcnoccsard intelosuluj)
$ ' h o (D r).... w h o ..., r]r* n ri l j c ..l $hJ - ,e o z rr ....(1' hi cl r).tthatl ... .... prcpozi l i e + \!l ' i ci r.. ...rrr ' pr l ,o/i l i d ... . .. f kl ,i " h w ho.

$ 1117

L 7. / | e Zrmp r, AxSsr 8. l9: 8. J ' ag. 22. ii, t i 187s - - ls - 67. . po{ l b i o s r u f $ i $ r i t o ' a d " f n r ' i k;, . en, lr b, , ; . " " : r lu {a dv. "ii,'; cpld liv). ar . r . ult r J r lr v ; a' p r r pt t f \ t : - t M ' n 9 s 4 n d w n e r7 0 r P ' 's 'r r ' . D,ii."t e sreclDrin s t d a s t 0ur r t , ddot ur c r pl. , ' i\ e l " n u a , r d p l l i o r m a ! " P t 'o r r , 0 dativ. .all1 cu ,o sau f,. tn iaz

!t6

Ilezumal loarlo brhomalir (. il 'ol^'\rJl lrblll drlerminati'e sho.e Pr'rpozi!ia \rlri,h I fnanim"r" t' r' uz"ti ri' rr rintoc'ri'p /ldl o onrls"shom, $hi.h nrin i ro'rrilFpri- r/"r/ ornF in '.uzlriL' genpre r"plrbi)o in a' { | alrcrn.rirp i i rle oloieeiomisein vorbire I ol NotiL din 1-oF Propozil,ia €xplirrtif.i. neljjnd eseniiah irllelesului . este omisi 11fE i' rire\e 'uvrrlp ln o a\^nrudl i, birta toirr" aU,"ii' "rpli""tia "p"rrr'i "r a*^iece stilul coiocrial erte format drn propozi-tii scurte' O" i"t*"t" "*i. neavindnici subiect, nici verb' ( S2743)' iiiii"i" ri,i':.S lllN "'" " in,-''"7rr1 JF"i penrrrr pe''osr' proaun'"lrp ln prnpozllia4 1 t' th4t: 'tatn0tird I;" ,i". ,""" o '*t" . ',\ ir,r. 'in l;-tr" 0d' "^ri rm:, ",i' ""-;' . l t . d ' ! : o"lr
" | ) \' f,'

(.Animate

-#'

-f#

(;,";;

A ten lte

"i" "a;.;ori !

..,,-. ii#iiiT;firllJildt)il1.T. !r;'tiru ;,l"iil,, :r'l | r il ro.uAp,les r^ ,am'), o,u " n-,s,!!i u'0.,." lii ,li'1,:JXl,iil",,lilli T,',X'"'i*l:
elcr ootncnv Nav sne is rn; ('-.sr Nornanda' lras'r.

s 1120

Pno\uuEr.ll

lr,{DJxgIl[L'r,

RJlT,lrttl- colllPlls

1) tr'ormi. - Relativelc rft' tvhich 1i what impreund ou ^'tl:lb:l:-1' $ t 1191 "" c*e o'i on cu"actermai general' *r'ti'" qi l";;arlJ".""-" "o"'pose, "oJ; decti formele simplel Unii aulori consideri acesLeforme ca i""i "oltote"rt liind pronume nehotdrile compuse:

ahak'ershesavs . , i'iiiii2i r':.l,li",lpcl o'ricaq- tiep qnieL ( 1122 Fo n€le compusecu so€otl tthosoewrf: (pe) oricinel' rphicl*oepe -ri d o s u e t p " t r o .f ^r ica r - l"i'-rars, ''l I ori'"r sin l lilo rs t p - slnt lntreahdtsae'cr 'iJ"lnei" ihichsoe'er ' vhasoe'c' Si .i'.e'i"t" t " rrga buintal,ein stilul Poetic. """'P;.;-;i; cuprinsin ele: au antecedentul .o-p'* S 1124 '"i"Ii"" careJ otit)e
rhae'er \P{mani ohiche,o l: ari'c tlinld sae luc'u care) (tdrer" l: oflcc ruc'u ca'c, Pronumelp rclsti\.e comDuse au aceeaqi declinare ;i 2) Dcclinare. S 1125 slnt supuse acelorasr regun oa ti formele simpie corespunzitoare: whosoerer /N,h l Nhoe\€' $hosesoever whoserc /cetr )' $ho(m)soeYet $ho(m)erer iob i

""'",:;;iiiii,,t"i,r;'"'*Ll;l'lr,x.:ll$,'i"tl',,';,I{f}, *'o'"* "'""'

q 1126 Cazulpronumeluit'hoefereste cr !i 'rzul proturmelul i"l1' l].:::":.1'"" lr|c pi ie: carc ralativin propo?iti'tlLr) "'--- a" pc'caretl are pronumel' j, i l \ 1' Lr lt d I r " 'a -fU ' Ps PJ / '1 ' l
$" l *_ d \ \ ' An e' l ! r olP, "; r " trtrt ) Th"r s D L' o ! h' r ' r ' nqf t ' l tunt ) o ! t ' ot n) \ p' ' \F r " ! ' f l. v s r ' ol

1lli

oompnse'S t0rrx cu r)ronumelcilrterogatiYe

PEONUWLE

ST

217

Formele compuse cu acuzativul {!Irm sint rar€, {?l,rm fiind tn curs de disDaritie. ' R;tair1lp tr srdl'o / /auo.ingurdforms $ ll2? ahi. 'rl'at 'i 'vh'thNq. Jr Adiecti\elerelciire comlrusc. ^o"rpr, _ Cu pr':nptraform'lnr i'\opJ"r 'i o/'o_ $ 1l!8 pro" nunolo relArirPco"nirFFsinr in r"buinLdrcir ,d a ljP'ri\p: soo,,'r.
Everv article. of ahoLe@ daoiptian. shall be enlelcd nt lhe lcdgcr' pat itc tu.n in Buciarest, Iuilding is in Fog.es! Ithiihqt 4) Constructia cu Eubioxctirul. - Clnd ac,tiunea are ir "speciatun caracj p r n p -i e u r, ph^lnr ir . ir - a l . \n rb u l F j r' I' u . l i ' " ro J u l subj on' ri \ ' ' u ' 1 l r' m , r n p. hi\ a tp r,rp ..b .i o r,i i ru tu i rro n . rr_i r. ,u .t,autd. hnr. L uinl p J;i lor ,?igl'l ctc.): rno4,.f tlicY ,.. shall he p..secuicd TresDtusscrs. tlr'h;lcrr :-o\ anrl s{r. sh! will not lisicn to rou. $ 1129

qndteret thi .a:t I ani Eohs io lrtrr urc camera. |t'hale;;r iit .eo-";rs,his &nduct wrs n!)sl unsrtisfictu.l ii ,\diectirul relativ tlrl'r'.r. prrs duri un Pronumesau un adjceti! S Il32 rl nll o ..,b.olul i' ,r' ...'l ro - ' n"1'o,,.; n",1a,i,,rr" rr oori i 1-lp.rrl cte.: neinsemnAt" ,,odcit de
T nF rp. /.a . ^ "1 .,,t . t hp. , J e, ',p ../ .." o- ol' , r ' i \r,. i ' l: . r' obr ' - d' ior L m "r ' d .ir" "i inlrrr Lp-dl

Jr llte roxstructii sDcriale. lipsi: r'.,h',1 lo D€poitc uneori ,) Dupo fo"n', ,i,ra;c,'r.

1130 -S S ll3t

l,ltoNu]f ti',ti

(oriDL-{TITII

s 11r|3

ronnneEti: S 113{ 1) Forrui. C.,n-qtruc,tiile prnrr l1c (san e glczn ir linlbs tn. se trarluc cn) celt ftre. at)rtl at"la isau (masc.),src trlLa(lent.). th( ane (sau ll,dr) on;cll (rreutru)| 'vi, tnpthar.t I r ', n '. ', r , , dr , r t f . . r , . j. f r tdr,tt,r . .
r" no dn Jrr ),1 r J \ l ' r J lr r ' i' r ' r o '_ ' n Yor lca\'r zs strnrdrd rrl, cnr b! t.iLslcd lot lo l.i yo! down i' i r' a' , He . 4 irtn ' "r L ^1 I rv, ^./.,;, l.ct,r j . n 'r '' 'r 'J r " 'l js dti.I iJ on lhc lrble tlv aut l.r'ntutt Tolr larecl (\'czi si 5 s;9 r

'l 'l l "

2) Pcrsoaa a 3-a Dlural.- Piuralut iccator corslruclii in linba erglezl S 11:'6 suth us \: cel (desuel).ci rltrs. tvir. uncori sir.h Lvha. actuain nu esterreJ 'vl,o
?'l@sedlo liEhi lor tlie }innin$ -ol nnolerr l\rapon tPsls ha!. \ron tr.oad Popular . l,.r.nlv rn ha fc linolr n ie. \ r or k c an t illi a|oul i t TlLc IIN;un rosscs.s leF old mstos. |nt su.i ds tlqt arc ratrk among urf Dest

3) ,\corilul prort nelor corelatire. - Ca 5(iil1 linba romeni cele doun S llSli nronLm' ^r,lJlr\i nu .. " orJ- r'lrp I dF i rr, ' ap8 'a Ir'r\a'l- lorolng ii nun'rrLl.,"/ul In"itr,i d, .rn'rT, d trrr .rr 1,""rr" oilJ'lJirre'' inltnpozii,ir din care laro parte lierare:
I/c d, addressed trs was our lea.ho. I *ant to s-"e nt,z orrs. \ro.k is bfst. \Ie oDenl€d t ]s kho \ad ahrnvs beetr our friend. I shnll Eivc it b hnt ih.nl Yoi !raiscd. :l.tt th's; loha(n)l lou s0ni g..cting cads l. \'cre dwaX

i\rezi ii s s.trl tceste conslruclii sint intr€birin-tate in stilul iormal.

218

$ 1137

4) Pronumelo corelaiye Si stilul coloeyial. prorunele corelative xu slnt. intrebuinfate in stilul colocvial. Aici pronumete personal este inlocuit tn genere prin substantivul corespunzitorl
The inaL s'h. I $.ant io see \\",'!p ,bl"o | .'.lll g ir i, \t tl.. r..,J addrcscd os Nrs our teachcr. *e salttEnt ahase qork is best. ' . r l . l|at s b " , n o u r t r 'n d , t , , , he. t u, ) "at v o. ' , ) "i,r d . "hot.nt . iio J or r . A, r ir , . ' . . , . d5 " L . . p J $ i r .

s rr38
S lleg

T,RONUUNLN REL,TTIV II_I)EPXNDDNT
( NE I IDITDNDENI RII,ATIID }NO]Y OI]\I

Llneod aniFcFdentrn Fnrumeirri relativ nu esra exprimat, pronumele d,!p ir d o tt,l inJFpFnd.nr: 'pldli\
i. n. iF . . r b\ . , r t , . , p r . I . o , F . l r d J s Il:,wt., | " sho \ o- 1. \ , . J d, : , . , \ . r s r f . 6Lou may wrile 1a et.an l: ro him (sau herl irloml lou like.

$ 1140

Altcori anteccdentul este cuprins chiar in pronumele relativ (cazul iur wlal ii al pronunelor relative compusel:)
I doD't kno\L on01 i tt\aL i, ch) tLc Fanrs. Ilthoer.r t, h. Nhol is l,on.si. tirJs lis detjts.

s 1141
S ll42

vrl. PliONrJrrEr,E ITETIONn'T sI _{DJECTIYU|
(IIIE INDIITINITE ANJI'TIIIE ]|XD fII,ONOUN)

$ 1144

1) Iclinitie. - PrcnrtrLtk n.hotiirit li]lc toeui unei denumiri cle tiintn s0u ,la lu, ru lr , i rp .- rFtFri tn r,o.l rag. neprp"ir. un caracter ragr nodefinit substantivului pe care .. .,4djeLtioul nchotirit dFL 1l determinn. 2) Pronume ;i adiectiy. ,, trIdioritated Dronumelor rchotarle Dot ti S 1143 Adi", ri\". {\./i e\pn1pt"te !i ri "r,;p iij" t. lronur,.t. r..p."rir.1

3) PriDcipalelc pronume,si adjcctiyenehotirite sinr,:

( d) . . f r lRinJ . ru i . .i u s rF (1 r.. a n u mj trt ,l { .dj .j r\-?i si S 82l l c af o" ( : : lr e.a rP ) T hp . hidr , n 11 " .".-i \,n l $ o a p p tp ..d ./,. .r ro n.l [ o. t L or - o tp r.-;" .u ,t- ' d t1 ;o i | h. p" o,t,,-. t\d-., " n ,.r"

erery3 [:

fiecare. to,ti ("dj.)l

1J ' y \.rking tufy \ or ling man m .rn l u s € p e ,\o .rt l b rd ry . lLe bt pnds?r e f, !e ' r' y h p l d s o n !!o k s .

ell (: tot, ioat', totul, toli, toate) I had seen il dil belore.lP.on. sA.) ,1ll thc sl,udenis were thdc. (-{dj. pl.) onoa(: unr unulr una, o; cineva, se) (!tg.)
On € ca on ot Jl$nls nP r is lt . { Pr in ) oa P dd y h c \ill ge1 h s dFgr r . . ( AJ j. )

rV ez i s i S I l1? . 1 1 2 0 . :V ez i s i { 811 , 1 1 5 2 . It r , . 9 p" " num a i a d ." .,i v r\p ? i r. 5 h 2 r, tti : . oronr' " tF.or" .l ,rnri tor ti i nd: _. \ : / r , il d2r , 9 i i , 9 4 i , r0 0 5 -rc 0 9 , l l 6 4 I|:i ,.

2t9

anothd l:

(un) alt, altul, alt{, alta;mai ..tncnun(ul)l
( Pr on ) ' ldlr

On . ild r''d v d, or ot l ' s nr l"d \Vol dnd{ " vo ,, l'a\" d@ ' i. -

other (: alt, altI, al-ti, alte) (sg. ti pl.) (sg. ;i pl.) the othor (: celalalt,cealalld,ceilalli, celelalte)
o/ p' ar c r m { , r r d r. n o r n " ,--." r\ (\d j ) h \d n u ,,/rp " .l /.o n . D on l t dk " ll' : . p . , Ther came in o;e alter 7n" o,i4 iPron ) He iech,red on Milton lna olfu. day. {Adj.l

ot l e rs' (: allii, alt elp l (p ro n .) (p l ) r b c o tb or s r ( = ' " ilalL r, , p l " l a l l e J (p ro n .i rp l .l We harer't lisl.cncdin to l.he conccrt, bul orr4r5 ha!. Someol them $'.re late. n l tlE odere ]].adcome in good iime cither, (: oricare din {loi sau doun; amindoi, amindoui) "\Vl,ich oi the tso do you nani?" "t,,nc. \rill do" (Pron) I had a ohild on d,Ael side oI n'e lAdj )

ncither [: nici un, nici unul. nici o, nici una (din doi sau doun)] Tti.! L'oth Aot up. btrt neid.r ol thent slolte. il'ron i rlet;.. siofi' api'cared h prlrt i-\dj.) both (: arnindoi, amtndoLrn) .BoA arc awar. lPron.l B or n c hildf t n { e re a l s c h o o l (^ d j .)

it 3 {n e i ra dus ) ( im per so n a l ) (p fo n .): 1, is Uonday, . rr las go!," sri vc (noi) ( inper s on a l ) (p ro n .): I1', can't $'ork ii d'e ar tired i\jorbntd in g.nQaL)

yo u a (:

per s . a 2' a) (i n p e rs o n a l ) (p ro n .) l-o4 iccl Jour dal has nol bfen \taslql $hcn lDz have dore a goo.l day's worL s e) ( inr pers o n a l ) (p ro n ) ?n€y sai' lie is a succ€slnl ariisi. mei nulfi. nrai nulte) ol l.licin iProtr) in. (-\dj.) $C90 601l

t h e ya (:

sevel:ll (: r,itiya. citeva, lhere Nerc r.t.rai "sed.dl d.n 0rme mrrrh {D r o . s i ddi, ( t a ri

mrrrr (pr^n.:i rd.i.l ( \'",i $6t0 691/ ({, lirlle (pr"n ii adj., rf"7i $ 676, (a) lcw (t,rof. qi adi.) (\ezi S 637) ,a\a ri.rp. turir . fu!i'i. LnL u plp .r ,5r!s. i{it" \ou.rl partc, vreur. vreo. un (o)... oarecatel
,!,D. saY slie is cler!.. 11'ron.l Il. took me s,n, tnne to get l.hc.c. (-\dj.)

ilova.

lathrs, the othns nu sini derit p.onnme. sint o,n€. ij -\djeotivclc corcspunzltoare I Vezi fi S srt. . Vezi $i $ 85i1. a Vczi si { 1168. '\'"zi , t : 1. ll. 8- llc 6 . :4 1 8 -2 !i x . >i S

2!0 onyt [: oricare, orice; cevar vreunj rrreunul, vreoj .t'reuna,vr€uniij vreunele; (cu o negalie) ninic, nimeni, nici unul etc.l
I havc no money on m""r havc rou eoi onu ? lPron.) Il she had aze"iea, rhe wolld sir; nie ionl. (^dj.)

ro'l (: n;ci un, nici o) (edi). Th€re were zo ltoNersh th-asarden. norct (: nioi unul, nici una) (deioc)
Pnticncc lre hril lo. Bl,aL hc didn'l lilic. (-\d j .l 'one ljlror l r\:,r, ol thcnr spohe. so d e b o d r 4 ( so rxe o rel 1 ( : ' r n. \-J ) (fro n .) Tt,oe is yn@n€ al. r.he gate. ,!b,rr.d, rafg t|c b.11. somethinga (: ceva) {pron.) Sondrit€ was Frong thcre.

s f allr lrodl ,',jon"i i

i "\ ir ': {'u o l jariF 'i"rF'l (p'on ) ': ''i

D aaubod! lsit\ anx.ne ) corne? Anlladi coittd ha!. don. it. Ban I don'l riirnf ra ",!t"*,1 see arwnti lsan anubod!)

anythings: re1'a orice: (cLro nosalic) nimnr (pron.) !'d Iou say a,37r,;nsr
Anrtjtlnp \s bel,lpr 1lun ill |.alih. I ..,d d ,i' i s c c ar r r r nr s h tl e d a rl . u ,'h o rl tc I o o | |e c I ( : n1n] . r r) { trri n .l ;\'dl,ol! stoke 1or a l)ng l,ime. rlo ,nc osFerpd Ure door rvhen I rnng. n o tl ri n g 6 ( : nir nic ) ( p ro n .) iV,Di,4 mal,|c6 non iliat s|f l{s gore. cre rrl ,o i lr T I ( : lr P td l e to ti l (p ro rr' ) e'e .j o n c i i T|e lcrturc. spohe lo a,c.!r,ly dter th4 lectnrc. n€.?rrr. Fas Lhere. e ve rj th i r gT ( : t ot ) (p ro n .) I ha!e told Jou cc,/rni,z6,.

(pentru doari obiecte)3 \YIj.h do lon pteterT N.ith$ I: rici imut) tnlur (: ori.are) will do.
I \:ezi t i $ 8 11 , 1 18 7-1 r 96. ! ! 38- 2! 43. r /, .' " m1 i , or , 5pun/ bt o. I \ P 7i $i S 8? 1. tlu z tao4 4 lezi ( ll45 -11 18 . t 205_1206 2q1i -ii 5 \ " . i .i lli'. t , 5 t 2^, j. l! 4b. r r is . $ lt11 0 f -. zi rl4ri ltt8 , lLiu. r : l] J . 19ii. \ i S ? \ F 7j q I I',5. II t1: { r . I t 6t 3 SeDs grnmatical: ',0 aiit liint€, cit Fi lucnlli. ,,4 ,..," S r2l. Il97l?nl .

PRONIJUJ

E FI

!!1

(pentru t di nult de dodiL obiccrei

(orthen) doyou whioh r.erer? r{;?:

{l_;ij::"iill,ii, ."

ILr Frr/ i pF' rrr' 1 ' s . i l a p l fd d. d. p r ' r " r u lc l L rrru ri ' " ' r l r l i i n ' o l ;" o r ' " \ Ver:bui rbspectiv esLe la siflg ar:

nehotdritetu alte I,Ionunlefi S 1145 pronumclorfi al ndieetiTelor 4) ,Leoralul cu '- verbul. tormolF S rlali p."""*"fu" nehotirite de \ingrlflr l" "olc(purrd cu inieics 17' n rsoa-? t[ :' l d . , 4 r-fp' i 'e' ts d a h a s h . /P r. 'e h i'. h ;n .i h ; ns , t f , . r u 'i

.,,,,,,',.';:,'"i':ii,,,:;"ilT''i,i,',L.,;ll;'i1,1'"";';""''':"il," " -s, l , pF. rr.1 h; . iPm i v r "ao1 l:n,1 l o ;/ ,t i ; r " : r , k ' ' m a n g 1 /i eon.s. in trr ohai. lllerul :, ,,1 ....t r""r, ut " er , ! , " ,j

" b; i." '', " ", lilH :# "';,,"r:' , : : ':i, , , g: , ] r " "i' " ,,,'
| ' ' r' , JnI ^' '' ,- :r,,.. .-m'

"

"

o r d-r:' t

a

,t t "t ' r,:F,"',:l:,:l., .' ""d,,rr::,i:.,'1{ "'"".,:""1;:" )'l1l'l:' . [ill.:,:,;:l J,"be. ror''. i,,r '-b "o \irr" t/ il n

t i l tcr..ol l l ' "

ii".,ii""ri:.

Obseroaltt lL':' his hitn i'ilzsef chiar atunti S 11'17 sa sc rxtr€buir,ie?-e .z/ Sc oluisnuiesle -si mae' rrrn ."1" iri,nn lr I'h^4n'Llp.p( cr-t^'i || cir,dI run .r,,-t" r', ho arr rul I pun' ld /l' i-rnin'n de'pt si l1 o,r.obn^ lf'7i "r"rrrl" - 'i' s0u d 1148 ' a't cina pronunelenehotirit inlocui'fr' "u\'tdntiee de grn-hminin nndl' Psr\ar po sFU rrllprrv.'.orFs r.-lr'r. | ' " nr,l , .Lr l'r. ur -1" ppt tb I ti (' )l' dtd olFl, t',1lrtr' r""rJio,,"t,-r, "\'1, " a I ln uonpt" /ir"/. /' ;r', $ lllr rp', r"h,r 'r,." "u in1,r-. ,1" pl,rra13 ;; t., qr pl ri\F " p o'ur'" .. tt.n'..' * a ii 'or"'pr|rr;'o rc tprbul lrrn0 'Jj* 'l'.r la plural:
s"-'; i t ..a Cn xl celelat t epr onum€ i" " t " . n. t , . .t,. m onet "d I f l" ii! , nale. n "r-.i ' a. i f I Atl o '.i bov ) . or ' t r" ' b rr' r ' h .t ' J ' r' " t " P t " r o o . r o rr ' r' d _f | | rp u ' -o 1

i"i;li'l"i"i"

";

lo.nia lo" d" pii.ol. Yerbul pistrlndu-seinln la Finsular:

n e h o i n ri te (€ * /rD o d r, t r i l Jotl P ' dnl bol l J.unttunr' S 111' 0 l fl .rd l . d F .i ." ' c .o m" n di .a prunumFre pprcod rl r p u -p rr s i rc rl a r. s c" ' l ea si nl l ol u:r ad" corr

1151 dl Adicetivelc nehotdrito au pronumcle personal. posesir'5sau reflcxiv $ stau: pe ltngd c8rc corespunznioracordat cu sub"'tantivul tea, mon is oblil.d to do /,is dtriv to ntnef f;ft"" si'l 'o || \i- ? ''onp'rt4r// , // r o a 1r ' r ' r o I n d p u D r '' .
-Lprtl, d orr h in ' . . ' \ r n'/
' Lni-t e r . f i o i , n d 1r. , h s o. h ' i I r' n4r_'onand lo ' r ' 1l r5l r P o itl' :/ 'al d r o l rp 'r\ l". Jlll l ! r!b "!J h a ' 1 1 ".. bi ' "l ''

\d, onro tre in /hr. $ ies gof g I n $or lr - P '' Do on r r b ' b' lo l d . ioliu' l! 's 'd '/l

*it,,'" l'll'il,i'-+iiii'ili, r':"":*i,i*il,i,1,lr',.;1;

:h .

. n r cu r dt . c r , ( f t e o ;r!i rE . 3 cu m fn l i u n l L . l i S rl i 0 s lor 'Ie liia c tposcsrlc. I Si adj€clivele 6 Si adjcctirul loses'v.

pRoNUr{! $I ADJIIC'I M

NllllotARlTE
IIVEBY
i,!DJECTIV ]EIIOTTRIT)

s 1152
6 115 3 "

IIACH {pROrrjMEirr -{nJncrrv nEtloriRlr)

"o

$rua [i.ft]"yri!/-;]''".1r1","" ",,",,. li*rxiil#i,llir,".i":] r i" r " " d .' ;r - d ' , r ' ' l ,';"'il, '1: ; " 'f ' ' i , : ' , ,,. , , . ,
'1ao? L\tctp.Jl

e p a rt ' d ir rr' " n . 'p" ial lr..tip-r- uni'' i" ci c respe'tit' r^ i 'Ll'ituind'unt'oi' r;r; exocJrlre"' 'ite! "r"ir'i" ""i""4 a"'g"'"""rit"r" Do 3cle. \p.si !ildll',:1"-:."1: traducpte o a'l lr """";i';;;;;"i*;a"iii.ii. nrite ori fn ronnneite prii lol: t)'rltt ta1t tool' Ateeu-\L : tn.\t e"rvDodv respir,tive: lcr-'r!.nrc) -"i lo3.ta-l -J/:iUAcesr F,,cn lrp RarcorL "".p""" "t";i,i"r" i; iirra"t,u;: p€sletor, pl.rurin'lenir' iitiii:t Iaqi inleles':

fi " drF' \ ;r d " /' . 1 ' i " J ' 4 ;^ q p a n" i n l i mbr romi nd lt lnt eloo. l n s ;: de o s Pb i re o nLr aDt adc " ";;;.;;"i.'.i" g ru p :

" 'r

-"

) Fiirixil t;:i;"1ir"il". i""1"1N": F* lru;r;;rl'll ..." "..",",.
{ ll55 " Pd'n--tL €'"rv 2) intrebuiniarc. - Pronuntle ri adjertil?j" n-elotbril'e qau rucrurr' rpre frrnle doun dP mai m{rF sint lrltrebuinlatei pentru un numrr tl'hp')t- li tol^'ir 'i \n' zul 0dn'dobia c: deo."L:'"da;./rn".
l: ,,uth p,. t\ tl:,iL t:",J.,: t 1"m "s Ld I lillp | " ar led 11 , i ' u' ' 1, \ , r i ol pin' i "

l;*;l#'ii"ln:':tl:: fi?i'*lli',.:l iff'x'l?#"'l"liii;'"#iiiiil:ii':j

S lltd

de un numeral 31 'Drer1". Alte irrtrebuin,tiri' -L-tel]/poate fi urntat' ri! Ir' r1 rl I ljo s"u ou bmi 'l , 'lp -rrlln,l

jl :,,,ij;,* lll .T ;,";';"rt ;i.",;,i', iF;,j,y :,, jl'l:''"i' ll;;'':-*' l'"i,:1,1i,'"1 :: :'l i"i'ir'.fi:il:l 1i;,1

i'"'* r li :[" "iHilf J"l",:ffi HT'XF;',". il'j'i;":'.? t',?r,,ii[1 'rhe sior. Fcei{csl..shr-n1!ties
lMagazinul de stal ldmclt' tr eN olto dnr hti lrnohed ai thc ornl'cn (O aitii ta Oo.i zjle tra l'lnzul la oanlua )

srar.c

ilJi ,* I

cind sint subiecte sau Iac psrLe 4) Aoordul ou verbr 's 1157 -r-ach Ei et'rl, " din subiecl. au verbul la "(ingular: n ri ' on "L l o 1 rj ' d \i ' l / . . a, l ' r' a b rrnl ' r' r' t l, , r ' \L rd " J " n ' "ttt " o' uf-a, atl c ur i n tu l u i " c a c h " i u l rt' l ' o z i fi c -Lucul pe-' arci l 5) Loc t { 1158 " -"

"

e '" , ' .l n " i m i l pr l "1 e Dc' ; :: ' ' ,"'pr !lll1,p"F i' n i "o - i i i - . "pi rro rJr onum i" L i , i *i ' i , ; ' a i . ;.i r','i" '," n -- f-i '" a u 1, .l' 4' i"t ' ub dnr i\ul
.r'r e,lj* iv'rl po "'it resl"' rrt '' 'il; ld 'nrLr 'r: s'ant to have cotl nis own }all The bo"vs
, f . ?i ; r dm p l l l S l l ,! s i S l tS r' r s pns A r am ;ti c a l : ti i n t. n i t l u rr,fl

PRONUMELE

FI ADJ'CTIVO!

NEEOTARiI

2'3

.:, il3';: li"d;illYtlli ifl,{i5i;:Jliiri :;:ili"T; "Jt ",,,'""i;;"1: ;'o*""'i.,l'Ji"lLJJ:':':.," Jl ,, c ,'i^ \^',,,,
a srdirenl r' r/r"i" o\,' ounl.,,j IT,L (PRo\rDr'l !l'\DrEcrIv

'|h"i

$ f1b9 rtrrloa;\tslr)

lll$*1* ,."uil"^il'J.tlll:",*i"i-:ilt:,
tn""

1160 *.*""' me'ilionate 'sises

r.,lt"'!:"ll,il'1i,"*,i,j1'i\,i,il,''lilil "tot" ".oainirave l

.';j"' " :;": I "';;x;',;: l;li'; -: li set'raduccprin 'inirel"' "inireaqi"- 'lntr'qr"' i'n**I "lrn"t"'U
t*"* ** urmt't de sjngular *eorj re'latd!i prin &ll1r arLicolul

i hot;rii

l;:J;"

i:': #l :l:,.lriii"*)i",,1'ilil' *". "" "Ji'I, ;:;,"'ori :,,"' all ;;::,' day' all "p,.a arlrerbi'rle t,ourtriunile
r' * '| d1l r o - it r F l'; ^ l" T Ii ' ;"'' 1"'' t""

*"" Pli'l;" l,;li;,il',li'"1' .",?;\'l :-*ln*ti,; ",*,il*; ul'''''' brro ;li'1, n*rr'''r"' erpr ;'-;' i' i:";;"
,; i

Iil;.,i'r"::lifii"i)',",i

?l'li; l:1,:ii:i;ll,l$.:,l,l,i:';i";.''J';'i:'""[15':r:"'i]'l *re,";l,1ii;i1ii'1"1 ;ri;i'G
i;

..,,, p .,p r n.cr pch' .Joinr Fr NLl r f l : 1 "i ,", u \ i n ,e ro ,,,^ mp u .-,,

*u iLril,,,i{"#ttjiii-i;is,**
3) forme

;:jI;iI,,,i",

i drr n" h'rppi l':'' ," ,"' ", ",, ,h soFp. ",,.":l', b.,\-ot nl,,ll-,n"j,,1',,i'.1,j'",,. .no,d, ar,. th" otL rorar'I knou: "rt'r\{1"'1fl'"i,eh, ff,Ej:;;":'"::''::,:,

idio'atrcnei !i eo''strnctii allpolfrlnl' au_nerciful' all-embracing,

s11

;".r.f ",,..," llf,)"",."",1i""11#. gi't i'
,x")i 'n {i'l;*,,i'1""*: " ^i**" *"r-""t'

(Vezi S 2J atii anirnalc' cil' ti inanimalo'

224 $ 1103
.L vrnlul , / / a" e; i ta l o a r. d " s u l b rd n ti v ,ru rl " adrerb: , .,1ll )ou l,are to do lor ihc nromentis to 1'atch th." nork of {.hequatiiied turne.s. Hc f \ or k is n o t d l i b a d . { .rd !.]

4) Furctii. - Pe lingx valoarea de pronume sau adjectir: nehorao!,

$ 1161 S 1165

ONII lPrio\.'urltr 9r rDrncrrv tr_Drrorln11)

l) Formn lri irtrelr i[tare. Cuvn]tut ,nr csLeprorume sau adi€crir' nehotdriL si are o singlri fornn - c|e de singular- indiferentde gen,numar

,1 ' ""''. ./ 9.". u rP- n evP. k no\ r

1/

li'",p \'_

r i^

ni, ' '

oll".LJ ,. ore.oulljn,t

roll:

Sh-" was so shy and qllianass.d,

het! icclilg sofur rrr hef.

_ tPronumele si adjfctn.ul in e-tcnplele tu)1i(I))siLt pronutne i ddjecri,) neltaldrtt cn caraeterde nltm.rdl; n e\emplul d," ]a runirrrl tcl nronumele ps r n.l,utari,.. tr;,.,p.t.onat, .,r,,n ti .,l.r trrr .",,:;,"n r.li_b.,:p,manr; cinen, se iri linba iomAnd)1. d,): un oarecare (nccunoscut): S 1166 Ilf introduced nc l. ,a. Prot.Rced.ilron ) 2J Tnfele\. - r-lrp (rmper"o',il) este iul,rebuinlat aproane irtotdeauna S fI07 n.ma' i, r,J ;nr.1"..I o.. t,-rr . qer,-r,r. Jr'on,.ri": "r'rn, "prn.,p"
Onr should ahlal"s go nr n falk alllr dirner.

$ 1168

s 1 169 s 11?0 $ 1 r 7l

/'.l,,d "' ir t-. \ i, ' : , ", , , . i: n ol Lic"r .r, a ,,. . , . n" t , 1. r . p+ . I' r " , , r , t : U.z ilir'I l'. is I { Ft r ins I'eapb belie\a lrin 1o be a sf.ati artist 7/,P! \a l slP q d good \ A' r TI_ mu r J $ . d r" ,\' | nr o. dr at 'r . '\ '. 6 Ite is.sdtd to lc a m an lor aU $eat he$' /ir, irn pn r.nn ar r p. p t r t ir i t r "LLi' , H i r t r r b r , n . : t p z a . F o l o . i r r r . ih-" ^,-. . r J nr . t i, , , q' " . , r 1 , . l e . t i l r',. u i lr un, ' m , . r . r o

Cu cji in,telelrrl der;re riai restrins, penlru redarea idcii imoersonat€ sint t,+fprdre_iltcfnrmc si pron,,men€ho[tirp: t. peiple, thcu, ,,o par..i: ,u . ,u/ ii , Fl n,pi in la '"n p

/,. s/,.. - i r i. l oldd l I nr ' . t - , o- . ht\. h;n. hin,.tl. t, I nr r r z d . d r p "ll ' h.r\P tl. lt, 1 /\. tt* q I , i 1a l.. "bo J ' ."t Jt n n""".,t /,, - a, . . 1 1. . . 1, . 1r . , r . , , , , | -r oe 'l io h c 1 \. , t - r girl t i.nd f olu r "ar ' 1.

J) ,tcordul cu alte prorlume. a) Une (pronune nehotirit .,u l.aloare de numerat) estc intoLdeauna

{ 11?9

,J ,ne (proDune i,npersonal) are fornr -_ rcllcxi!. corespunzitor onrsrf: '[o looL ait.r o,c'.f is ,ri.s dutl.
l Pronrme Drscdin id nominatiy. 3 Pronnme l€minin in acuzatir. a Pfonnmc imneNonnli,r nominal.iv. 5l- c z i s i { 1t il. 6 qlr n. lpl' . old .J u n dL a i d l L i t" n " ,i t . n ,g r ' : rn om pe f.1relF !o!

de geniriv ,n€'s ;i plonumele

FEONI]i{DE

9I ADJEC1NUL

NEIIOTARII

2P,

Notd Orp limppr(onall csr" si pl uncoria.orda. (mdi alcqjn vFrsiunea amFrjcanE ,. ru hp hts him \i hin^41. .tat s'paoru.^nstructie nu esrc :^l'::ll."l,c]:'") A se compara: oa ot ri" wof&'rs.Irided h;n"41o. hisa.ti"\"n"nL. lpron. . numerdt,
uz s d nt ndr oa c u r "r ' t ir ih s dt c . , erwavs p d "s o trs" r y . on ou ! a"hi. g"m n, s . { Dr ^n . i m o " r s o n d t , n ,nd. dF ". d- i. . - t r it . noas , . p. l

$ 1173

4),Futrctii,.- Oze poate fi:
Ue coutrred lrom on? 10 Urree. O alJ IJ T P $ t b u rn i n g . ' ," nehotdrit cu caracter ale numerat: One \'nto night he wenr io ihc st rting-rink. nehotdrit cu 1.aloare de mrmeral: Ozd of them slot e. nehoLirit, impersonal: ona shonld play rair. demonstratir: Shc hnd a gr€en tain ottranl.er anil a s.cv one. Lan yo! sec l.hose womcn? Thc on, jtr bticdjs in mo!.ning.
H. $rote a hrndred and fleren $irh thr.c oids.

s 1174

D, adjectiv c/ pronume d) Pronume
P)

pronume

5) Conshuctiiidiomatioc:
o rP o nd oll .wtya 'P t la t a it ru , , ii t J - l . \ . d r . t i l . n. l . p lo, r . ( - l r "r , lt m , nr : v- . t "

s 1176

SOME. ,lNI. NO. NONN { pno\untr tir -{DrEcrlyD xEE0r,iri 1rE)

$ 11?6

_ Same,ang .i nan. tt'r ii atit pfonumc, cit 9i ad.iecrive.]{o €ste numai € ltZT a4jp.riv loarp !inr i',\dri-bita. ;noir,r"nr Jp p"i*--. "' e."":";-,;;, ,!bn. ot rE wcrc aDsclt_ tDronI ",,"0i.
Hc madc son. mistakesin h:s w;.k. tadi.) I r d \ " " y , I J o u rd r. , r" .. (p " or. H \ to . rn ,J ,.h i td ra: L tt. I travc ,o lricrds ti.re. tidi.l i:,,, ot ihen carc rtr( me: iDhn.l Au', thf.e Ft6 zoze. ladi.t SO}IE

sr178

1) r ar. lnt ples a[inld.ti() qi n ticttu. ad:,ce pune accentul { 11?9 _Inteles. . So,7? i unur nLn. ' r { f-.td n s ) s d u i u n " i , d n I r ti I i I rF.| | i ,rop I , F . r\ rrcn I di nrr.un .nra. i..:r sFlr r d. u, por ir . . r t i rJ r ..i tn ta ...u n i i -r.,L ,n _ F..,..ni .tp-...puri ntdJ-. .. p\ o- .p d rr p*. jn 8. . : l . ,n .,a rts :n r' .L u ;^ 1 3 ru n ,,i ...sub!td' l ti vi ta ntural . m e, ' r ii J dp. r. o L i p n ' ,:.trn rrra s e p o d rp a,." ;u o p..i " j .i 1 ! , lli" ':.,1 . s uD s ra l r\ e t Ds t r ac t c . "u 1 .tY- Foqle\ on. cit,. , Seusg?anatical: attt aninlate, clt
l5 cQnaiicq umbii erslse

ti inanimalc.

228 s 1180

{ usr

2l lntrol,uinFre - -iomP.F'F lntrcbuinldt: p*pl';l'lr:

'J

i"

j;jfi';n'".

.'"', li"Jl h'tTfl' ii.^J:fi: "Tili'''"'' "", c"" " *''"*'' ili;";i:#i '''"' "itt;1".il:91'i1;*' din h'lnza acecar (Dd_ i, te rog'
"ttidl""'I: E?l rcttoiarres' r:eT#Ht*ed?f

,:\,um,r rps,r,m, ," dFsk

menobiecter€ s 1182 i,'l"t"H?:1X-ilfJ"i:::fi111'ilr-, sau dinobiectur
iionate:

''""-#";"t

ci numai pentru obiect): Se spunetnsd (lfun intcrespentru cantitat'e' di 'l i o l a r i p \: oi r ' e r e"o nm "nd' d HJ\' to u go t rr: ' r Y d'n o rqoma ';, ,r'.ii"",i ""r i;: o rugiminte ori se lace o ,'/ tn cares€ otereurt lucru sause adreseaze
sug€stie: sliru I heh Jou to rone cale? {olertli)

ri:,'i';l;;;,

Pl'Jl,Sl' a,$*in'"'

tD 'rmo"r' c'''": b- ) in car" jnrFrofdlia nrr s' rpl'r" la
S ll8 "* 3

iii" '',n','' ,'il Siij'1,#'T0,1"., '' ;";1 n'"/" m"'":l ru
' l ' fi ri e

"

, " ' ,""; nu n il..ltui'uu '--'

r'aves4P " " d: lirl ' o ' r ' r \l d r) o l ' m " c g a ri ! i nl eroeal i l e In ' 6rP ' " , . / in pr opo T i rrrl " n ' c a rr' \i ' a o b io ' L u lu i: {r'ii) a

ci numar nu iniereseazd' Dar se spu'c (ctnd nurt[ru] sau cantitatea oliectul): '
I nerer bur dnr lio$e$ lNu cumli1i nioioda1e llorr') A s e c om pa ra :

o:'.\i J,".!'l a,, i s';,: 'nrirr{ii I n"' - eL l,T';'i]",'' ", ilx ''. '. ::"1,q* " "ji; \ J J u lr o_ar l\r.io olla '"" " ' ""

'

.?i;"'e14'* i; ;"i;' ;i*.";i,r 'i; :l'l' l'l'"",'':: l:''JI;";l"'

\ro u n rrn o ) rl s P r a rra b o ' i l i l I s ' | | m" -v J o r' ni P i rl : \' u I $L' l " rr' _ ri ' r ' ' " o l r' D l r ' \i ' l ^ _ r-' b aprori rr" n: i n " i n re a u n ' ri u r' rd r' oD n' ru a ararr , i f lv er bi" l s l1 8 { \trnd ih. : ; r - { n( ns r" s ta d i !n i rBn c l L a ' e s tc a n s ' n " 0nooI' eopl e!l ucsonP ' 00n0 t'* xo 000in licioat "i3lxut""', ,,* ,t,,r'st" dir Bu0urcll'iale s0 00ir'le loruri' I)lrs "'o I' r" :l o l o' m' b' aarrl usj i l :r' i rr' L rl : l) P r onunl i e ( ll 8 :t ,' o " ' " rF ni i u "l" dp ' bJu i nl cl Ful ar" pnr us r; l s h tr " ra ri ' ,'."" pr1rn ' :;r;' " ' ;' " -1" i af' b a ' " d rn r| | ' ' "'Ll" ' F\' ar" ni or^" nar t e: I or m ls l ""1 i el" . . , DU! ini" ,,' P' L ti n € " : I rn l { m e . r m l s :tl ' " ' ( ot r l" / m o i i In r" frJ ' n rmb I l ' rr s i ' u ' ns l ar' i r di ri dual ..r p o J ! ' l" " , *' ; olJ . u

PEONUMEIE SI ADJECTNUL NEITOTARIT I $ 31 se srp b oig l' . s dnr t alpt eo { . . r pv a. 4i. t . . r oF, p J $T- pau , | _ lni. t p, 'r.tie,

227

4) Funotii..- In alari de pro umc $i artjectiv(sau numeral)1 nehotnrit, S 1186 som€estesi adverb(S 1{84). A.ITI - An? (: r.rcun. wreol. . . lt lo.t"ln..

s 118

rominFd-ca :1i;:,'"i:til:*,it,:l :;1,i,,'*Jj:1,*.p "d;.;";';;;;i;, 2r
Inrebuiolarc. !rJ Fsta Intrebuinla,. a/ ln p'opoz4iil" dfirnarirF r- oricrre. ori""l:

1188 n, c, u nsr es lp nehoa,i t q i . c , " , " " o , , ^ , " " l " " " i,ily" ji;;f,;i[,' "il:"$ ,? ;i;;

inrhe wrons frl,*:l,lil,i,j*,lxi*;JJl"ifil"*'Ji"" .,lny man could do this.
(Otice btthaL ar lut€a tace nceasl.a.)

$ 1190

s 1189

AT",;!i,f"

," "i1""t*"i:'lh*rl'::fill;,:""i:,"*"ive aDv news? llnre'osatirr
,, in propoziriileiporerice:

(dupn o nesari€) cuaccentur $ 1191
rc'ends. (Nesariv)

&".iXf;.,g;j,,T,

Tt I h r d d, 9 t - - on. | .' ru d a i v p \ ,u ., .r . r!'a cJ ns a\ ea lanni. i i a . ,1 1

$ 1192

$ .' an!,he be,'o to, t:i:X:J"':,1""t;,"ii;ii,""jii,'1i",,",, -\a\,, ",;.lil,xj: lt;ijf i:Ti', deroc maibinedupadocNONI]
(ADJIJCTIY $T IXONU}IE IYEHOTIRIT)

s (pentru timp) sau anv 1194 + s ,,r."".l illrf" ?f':JL"#ii"JJi,1'lil;gli'.r,liiie' "'"' ': ' ,.:;;,. lli,T:iiFilfl,'*"" j:,"," ;,;J,: ;I#,, l"Jj"j;, , ' ' 'r t r" r"; .i I\i" "i; T:l ,,1li" :ry 1.,"": i;" ,li; d"J + un comparativ,an, nu so traduce: $ 1195 , 9""{:,*l'#;;,," f";"','l? , i,"yt,::jj" '1f" ":ari d-) the nL comparariv:
+ + 1196

dJ ca adverb:

u ", 'i,0" , :':id.fiy ixq ;'"li i,i""li:,t::r:::":.1 ,1;;J."r.i:'. "

rr93

Nt)
(ADJDCTIY Nd{OT.1.R ITJ

$ 1197

1) No este: ( = ni"i un. ni"i or aru' i,in.t J",er'llini dn suh.rsnri\ scu ,,.:!),dd!"," tir etnrldlentul aceslDra. !1.." "_" ,"" .r, , ,s rri., r'o , m r'.'.,s: in -lo,-k Cind verbul ro be san ta lmre clc. €ste urrnat de un substanti\.. negativ tntrebuinlat €ste adjoctivLrlno care precedd sutstant;vut. cuvintul bace'inii
1 V€ ri q i g 130t . , V.zi S p. 195 adj. not a 1

s 1198 s 119C

MORFOLOOL{ 2!8

- FRONUMEI'E

e''c)' mch enough' *j*'i"*(ans'

t*:t',ilii"iqtr*1".'u.9;uti;ll
s 1200
"

*,""",, 1';:*,," tiii:i"*irqi' u,il".''" 4r*, ":r'n.
i) e ad'era cind n.ut€tLrnci
sd \e r! : q n ,o k .o r,i m no$ )o u n ." J

compa unui ilx"jli*"*iil il{:'ituX,'"1";iit""roi,,1ot r,."int"u cu funclre de a
ln genere'no

pc ju b s t s ' t i{ L : arerr r o e rd

u " , no,'""'', " " -'-" ::^

-l ';; r'i :l;'ii ,'""'"': ;;i ]::."""

l :";,.;l i l

li?t? ," ';;iTff;.i; l';;,:i;ll;ii,

pr ) siuncr s lii:islili']J ii:t;i$:"ll'nl"l;"-'"sru "on","u'/',.l"il"1ll:h mFr'Ds li\, l,)i;i;",1."X:=;"".i,"
;1; ""r1,

"'ilii,;:. "' llrir ;;"'"n?""

dPlPrmi cind pr r €run'i '"" "" lil";l

"'''lt'l'ir'; *i:iit;lti" t "";;;;
" 'r ,.. ,.,

ii,.o,T",ra

A'ii

**ti$ffi **,i*:t*l*il:****Jl''1n'ircb i 1 1 . q i i ".,;;.;1'1
(sg) i1 "r","," no otrc(: nimcni) ri. or. ""n'emba-dt" " ".i"u d".-mi,,i, un alr ad\prb:

p n , rp u, r . o a n o : , , , , r np ci

s120b ":':"*i:;;ru::fi.;::^::;;"i:"i"l ;"1:,1:i;:l.l '
':{y.li;;, ili:;;' "'ir'"' "' ' ,:i,",:," ',:;':,';'" i;';:ri ,+,r1" " '"' ,1i11 ''i" '" l:41: ";;';; , ,,,"",,." " l"l' ",",lli'i ",,
''oon,',"0 ou', oro'*r;i '"b'l,7 "inl "ino''imlv ez i 1.

h T:"X'"Iil-i".'";'"..*"n li"Ji:::

s 1206

j:';,: :;""#';; r ;;;;,i :;ii1 ; ",' : r::,'r::;l:i" i :Li; : ii 1 ,";; i;,i
"l]'";';i;:'

rl''olurn'"3lc

NUMER,ALUL
!!5 231 7201 931 1208 ,31 1109 231 M0 23i t2t7 t31 l a26 233 235 :t35 1249 9J5 12i0 235 t2i t ,35 7252 ,!5 1254 ,36 t257 ,36 7262 237 1266 231 \267 237 r1268 23' {tti 9 2t, 1279 239 12S l 239 7282 il39 r39 239 240 1290 241 1291 241 1292 2L1 r2!a 241 1296 24\ tt97 212 t3a2 242 24t 1306 !43 7i t0J 2\t 1t08 i243 1308a !44 190e ,t4 1310 2t\4 7t15 444

s,

I. NU]INR-{LUI, C,\RDINT\I,

N U ME N A LU L
(THE NUTIER,{L)

CONSIDEN,{TII GENENALE l) lretini!ic.l- Nun eralul cslp parreade !orbirp , arp F)iprimaun nunrdr Sl20Z absrr€.1.D Jorprrninare numFric6a obiFntplor "0u ordinca obie.tFlorprin
Fie and leclee Thjs is the r,r.4d ol the monii.

2) Clasificare,-

Numeralele se lmpad in urmdtoarele catego i: numerale cardinale numerale ordinale numerale fraclionare numerale colective num€rale lnulriplicarivc numerale distibutive numerale advobiale nurrerale nehotdrite

$ lg08

I. NUUER,\I,TTI, CARI}INAL {luD 0aRDINALNI]TNXrIAL)

s 1209

1) Delini,tie. Numeralulcardinal exprimd un nunir Jntreg alstracr, S tZ10 sau ur numir determinatde obiecte:
,Ttz, and s?'€nkez arel twentFsi\. 'fhel' brought r/';r9 chairs iiid,.e ta),le

,

2) tr'omrd,. d) Unitnlile (Thc Units)l
rought, ona.1wo, urrcc.lotrr, iire. si\. sclcr. eighr.ninc.

s 1211 s 1212

ln

Notd Numfalul O (zero)estc nrnit noagilr inLJnbi Lurentn(forrnata)..zcro q rgIS r::nl" rti/i . .i O rpr^r Lnlut loul/ ta ,atFton.h TV, -r..t
30:l (thrtc norshl lFo sad th.. linndr.d .rd g.i a ,o,gir in ler ex.m. i-qhc l1 d. g.e€ s a bo ve :..,, 10 d. gr €es Lr ek r r . f r , hrol

,) Cu exceplia nunorelor ele|en _!i I'vflre, oelelalt€ nu er&te piI,A ta 19 | lgl4 se lormeazi" adnuglndr se terminalir,1..n ]a unitdli, cu unele modif:ciri orrogrance !r roner,lce:
thii.e€n, Iourtccn, iiileen. sjrtern, se\rnlfor. ejRlt.a,r_ niiaicen

Nurncralele t€rminate in sufixul -rcenstnL accentuate pe anrbele silabc € 1216 cind stau izolate: aight.:enL etrl nl. ln propozilie insii si;t accentuate pe Dnatp st,un , .i;s, no^", , r iu "1r n|, . ) - n orh 'ns |, m r : u. oi. " t o "t - t h, .^d r i , !,,,i, , " , i!1 " 'S" 3." a tt;,e ta nou|h! a

"

9S2 singurc 9i pe prima cind sinL urmate de un subultima silabi cind se gnseso siantil' sau un numeral: shr is .isrt?.{ [ i ti nl

1, r 0,Lin 's' , :ii'i'' 1",u', ,' nrtaDd ii"": i;'l;:i;t.; i;"3' PP " r a n ' '' } d I ur oat v
'\;r'^ r ne ^ p $' n lt t

td50 sa iormeazi a) Nrtn,rc|"L "oL. rfino ' '!' tth' tns) d"to 20 $lS16 " rrr /'r lo l"rmin€1ii sdausindu 'l;Lr: 'p iwenty, t\irti', io;lx. lillv, si!lv. seventl' 'ighll' nnietJ' Arenli.e Zecile si L legaLe de unitnli printr o liniald de unirel E 121? breniy one thirlJ tno' iorlX Lonr, nincil s[ Notd !i unitnlilor' Uncle pcrsoar,eilverse'lzn modut de numirare al ztcilo.r. s 1218 rhirl) -"i\'€nd -l$o dnJ r""n't a".t"' i;"taln 'na ''-'" "1"nint-on" "i i" ln.j- .rr"rrrr o,,p . -rl'irr\,$o : -ror')- r\"' 1...''nP o'l; cu i",i": ",.. rl"su'rl in lrmh; cnol'25 o nir"nla 'nnrdrrlofHr'ii pot avea fi formi de plural: zecite erprimJ care Numcralelc 1219
some dns ol mnsl"erli'ces

''i l ',, ,i "",",".,1
4,

, r r P 6r . r iq

.

.

. i, r ! . i\ '
r.11r.,.,

s 122rJ

qi niliounele (Llrchunbed^t the li1rrsdndr' lhe nillions ): rrtitLe d) Sutr.tc. hund..d. tNo hnndNd ur'ce lundret' etc
n 1 . n. hur dhd . "' . ""' ' . ,. . - i", r ' i" " : llr il lf o r \ " s r ' l ll"^ I nr li r' lrr' '_ d n d n: l o n 5 0 ' I m 2 m 3 'l

s 1221
{ o 1222

Ca si z€rile. :l.,csienumeralc pol aveAiornrd de plffll:

""1i;,ll,"rl'i,.,;;i"" .. '.".. Ji', ";,1,"..l.o"i'0.

inrre Ple-pflr Cilrele care io.iicl sute]e' iiliile ;i milioJncl' eie se 'li 'patL i ilb 1r mai'ri'-rp" 1;rrlor inrrru r ur p'ir r ||inrr '' ' ,irputo nu Iun l lii 'i" r'ru l,. l; nol "r'!1""'r i ' ' t ::' ""ii|i*' "i"' J. "'J f" la 0 2;'":ti^, '0 In -u.r. N atncrtLlccu aflo1rafi': sl.lialnr: S 1223
liv c

,\a

nor

l',, tt :

",,

l, r iijt

;:-..

U ite .l I (saurn4 liliior i'beanrni bilbn (saumiliard) tn Statelc 'le E 1291 " Briianie in lldn'a Americii. iar triiion

' '

o :':',' ';,,lll-"'

;,,rt

i'l,lli!'i'l1i:ili",:l'::ier't,1.9": .,*-1- ,^**li::ill*lil'i'";".fil't ln r , , or lll
/i /," " -/"
s' rlrrril" ,.etr t l4 ,' r ! hr e€, . , , S/ ' l{ ) r r ez i f r r ur m ir ntin' ln /'rr r..t ' I \ r c u 1n |o' t !

";::, rir;r,';., ri1l1 ,;,, ,,ir t ,il;;t.,i;i,;i,";ii

283

MtLrea Britanie ti alte ldri ewopene

St i
1 00 : I 000000n00 1 0r : I 0000000t0 000

$ 1225

.billionlsl

: :

.r/oneqtradrillion ./one qujrtilliOn

10b .= r 0000000000000oo , l r3 1000000o0o000000000 :1+ r/rzcfou.i :l F30 zl rouri

Cifrele de la un trilion in sus interescaziinLrmaipc specialitl.i. 3, Formo ..i ronblnr.lii .ne.intc. { t226 aJ \urn,rrl"lp arotf.,,,',li //,FF ,.u pu, or,.,r c,t,ctanivalap.nna a \ZZT s r f rr,.,-pJr; u pron,rnli..p,,id'd..F" u^u., .uL,.rrnti drn rrm. ;"tiind " a hallpcnnx Io'herynti
lson n q ,'4!"$1 . s on"n \ . 4. Ln ree tF,,cFt ofrlr ns J ; , ' ."p t"n rr.4Ji. ., 0np nr t . J b- \ . rdr lrno np dr a c,h r l Ir,r . I . t ur : I rn.da ,!.i.

l) NuneralLrl huniLreiL este intotdeiula lcgat prio and de numeral€le S 1ZZ8 .ar A JFn rm p. . z ailF s au ,i n i tn ri l " , x ,a d . J .q i . , rrd t,rndrcd esLe ' " e r,n,i subinteles: two hundred a,d siat1.-four a urousandtlirce nutrdred anl sir s.u l.hirteenhund.ed and six oDc l.housrndond t*cnir ser€n lnnndrcd r&ri,r.&s). c.,) P_entru simplificare, se obisnuieste ca miile sn iie transiormaie ln g 1229 a l.holsand oni Inndr.d and fir! sau cleren tinndral und rire i - . nl ' , 1s 1' J J d rttJ * i \ .i ,i s t,, a ,t , t-si \ d) N u m" . al, le hundr" d . th o .t" a n ,l .n i tti a n p tr. srnr i nvi ,i eLi ,F ta pl urj t { tZto clnd sint lntrebuinlate adjectival. snu cind stnt. precedate de un nu'maral " ,! rdin rl o ri ',+ dil' l" " s c r . , lp. tl u r.l 1 .1 . . :(:u e /a tct| .). cu cr.]epl i a adj ec $1239 [.tp ( : . t llr t . ,rtF \a J : ' lT-" n16 lo.r ni nn,e e,, tznrl., S.\e|nI hLldred were at lle nfrtins, Sone hun.lred, wont)\ in rhc lactoB lLrd n.t ti,. set ot qn.tps asjgned to ihcm.

\,-. l, pt,rrat,.ind E t23J I,or li in.. ir ,rt."ttuti,F. rr ntit,, dF.i -, slnu:rnj' . JF ,r'r ru,,,,r.1. . nJ .i ' ,|'n," -.t" 1i"1.^zirrr/ 'rat'raFJBr. sau fttunci cind au un irlclcs nedeljnjt:
. ' Lnrt ands )in ] r.ad lh e i , if lP rD.onr colrntry tli! rumlcr of !o.ls lu|lisli rr.nl.htJ anirnrs ta huntlreds $

.,,i;ir"i.u'"' }iii"i lliHj:(r"j,l,/jil"itt'.iihij :il',:## i;if;,T1,,,r"i p .ri,l, r"

'the rlolc aurtrled ,^ Ti, . . , 1 r sa

lo $,tc hu,dreds. a. ha . a. t . . at ^t . . .

(Yrziii S 1!21.t:la,sl

ppq, p,.c o$ '.ra, I' . n. d. obu. t bJ nr.o"n" rilp, ..srd.t,A . o s rl rl' ; t 1' rpr 'turtj I srksDJr ! l I hDDr n! 1. ...1 .:. r.. .. .mt.o rlt ir rj i. - r . . ". . v . , ". . .mbotrt no . Ll n . n t ror' un ,ri rbr , ' a. , , . iplu: ip t,.. r,, .da,t. . ,, 'r'J. . i 5 .lol.l in d ld r "r t d r " r . , r . t n r r o i i t.n ' t t . , t J p timoul 'r ' or.tJl " ^ .r' rlo ", i i i lo . l l] 1, n . , 1- r m l t r . r e t r . . a L r t n i '\" 1' l-os,l ir. n li , , r ", r , . , , 8um . .\o | \ t t N n t n a h u , d , . . . 't , " u - r n d " l/r!rl c uop/ / , , r r ". 'l : \ 8"1 lu mFr t oo^: . s o m " . h a . . , a r t t r u . , jdJ'r ,.r'd ln | 1 lri, . t u- d) - hut at . d, t hi, t . r , d. ,.t.t \ i_,,.a ,.ii,. sl/d de cAr1i, rreo nl. de rersoanc ctc.i, riutln nrvarjabile.

s tsSt

!tt

,,,imPr'r"rF-,l,'rrlfl crn,r ;'il:.'il;ii"r'#Ji s r2ilduah ': irfrlli "T':"'*;l,u,'l' er"frimPi' ,,ousJn.l
TJIili';l:,"" l. on in mv po'kor'
i i't L"'a*a" ' '"

e''|",sineuful r2r; ./ uirriod s *::i',i' ".T;'J#':"1i.1;'ji#l'Jll 3J"i: ' de rvea si forrnd Plurai 'u 'uuu
ii" ".;'"; i""i"''i unui dlr numFral:
titree nl:l/;dn reolrc lirc nillior t{o hurdred \" /i $ 13l i ' J h d " d ,p ,1s n .t l t' u a tto % sr.rl i ng s o ( pLinc ln j ;j

' ^ "'ilitr' ;''pTilll'T' i{"{"" i,"*"t'#"i

;l/1p,""'l:--,!-n-ririad :f.l' 'l :i{liii
T Pn \ o f ' a r iltd r

5",. "llllld.i;i,,:,i",:i,"" -, ,,o ",..

€ 1236

ilor'uo'd: ('ilul \rrl "" 'punc $i r"ldliv la numaralul ^olrt ln 'olo it' f o"
I ndld ' wo

"x ' dnl' thausand ti millio' /) Numeralele hundted' !- 123? al sau one' ! t r. R O ne s e jnt re b u rn rc d l r:

sint' precedate de nurneralele

B ffi
S 1940 nor:

1'l'"in'.t "' "';l:::::,;.'::";";;
f"l

) ^" olli qonn'J'in 1\"orr)'ror' Ir'n ' o ""' num6r 6upeun gdse'sLc nnP sP de cind inaint'eanuner uiui precedat'

d..p'nu,'d-, nu,dq,p

onehund'eilatrdsirtJ: d lhousntrd ini: / "1 la Ja'" numai PFnrtrr

*'i lim b s "ncl'r ; 'onremp^ rrnr' t n s ru o cd e rn '"'' ^ " -^ " . ; : : ; ; ; ; ' i 'anur e numdr'rl n , , 1 s*l J+purlir'du 'arr I'iii i".*"'r, 'sr" '1"'emn€azd

ii"^' u" !l'""ii,l"il";*t " ""'-*"*r"*il**'11*'",1ii1$"" "n""
''n '' n \' J nP si i l co oi u l

iil"fl.i'.'li.'$T'iKi*"Jiiil;"u

" '-

rive' and hun{tftd u'"*-u nine

:i;i; .:: l j:1,,* ll," al,;'",:ir* ro._r o,.": li ::i"l::':l. i' , 'jr "ii:::l il'l ":'i'"i':'"lli1-,' '""""r
1n r ' r ' ^

s l2ll

fdra dcoscbl l e d s 1 u a n l ' p i nl rabui nl earr ^ ' " l a l''Ie ' J l u ri rr' peopl d rq) tr' 5a n e " $ ' r' r' " r u ' I I' u n ' (Vezi !i $ 541' 55il)

.J:l""l.Xir'{;"',r'j1T"li,"':.:il"f"'^" .r""i'q"r F,rm, 12rs ' tit, $ r: " rrtrL c o ' u ' d c t r Lf l Dr ec e d s ti ' d e
nt, indurisinsuri
ilti'p""'i"['i pini" tn;nt"itui iru 5eani un

A tcn lic

l

-:k{ai:.}s#LHr,i,.,.,rutiiir:ril
'r'&sdn4i'-'"'"' mllr maP 'i;; 'i

laicn strpedot,
numfil

r&i Nu se spune:
lrrndred and i,serl.\' I0ur lhous and t iir f c hr nd. Pd illi(D lonr liundfed , Iund.ed atrd t$fniX{orrr d thorsand lhree trllnd.ed d m,llior nrr hundrfd

t it . , ind ! le j F rm i n i u ,, .u ,,rrJ n i \ : oa. hrnp or $rgar js fnough. ' fh .re w c ..,n ,. l e o l tc o n rne ro]L su bs t unt ia. c jnd a re v a k ra re d e s u b s ta n i i v . i n care caz poat€ avea !) !i formd de plural: Wdl. elelen $iih tm ,nes I soon pnt l@, and lpo 1oge1!pr. js oD thc wrols sid. oJ She /orrvr. . t hpr ( " r * d tL i n tj .. I,J i rq o rrh rp :- DJ. \os,r.r r_-/ ir c r s ri n rs rrc l rr' € \" . I $a ,. rn -,,;tr" .r ,' d I n , . nr .ry. o) odj lv c z i i i S 3 3 a . 3 !i , 1 !3 3 t:3 6 t N u n r or alul onc p o a te l i q i p to n u m e . (S 9 4 2 943, 1005. 1164)

4) i lrcbuintare. - \rezi g 1257-1261. 5) nunctii. Nrrireralul cardinal poate fi:

$ 1243 $ 1244 $ 1245
S 1946

.l

s 1247

C a q i ru m pr J . l" . s , r i i x u l -/,.,? p o c tp r\,,, \e l u € rpd.aJi e.ti \.au dF sub- q t248 s ls rl r\: I p- 1pl. ) r r p ro ri r.ra i rr i J n l .F " -n ri \" d i ,d i orJti ra,ed ani tnr,u numa t! .p rn I nJ r " t n - / , . r . tn trF l j i .: Io d n i i " rtu b i rJl f he. ho' f . on .s p d o l p q o 6 p ttp i | re,,8% :ubqt.,l t ie r s s f llt r n t' rs l € ? tu oGu . b n .l " ...o ..) js Ile Jb, olt .l ljis teers.6 {sunst.) Ile is o.r of ,,s rdab.? Lsubsr.) ij r Nu mr r nlul . ar dina l i i a rl i ro l u l . - N u r,.e r" t ut poa F ti rrF.eLrr ,tF € l 2t9 Brli h olar il . r , r n, h.l Ari r ' E .r8 . i ' l l ::i :. l 2i 1 t2i zt. ^ l l rl

II. NI,IINR-{II]I {)RDI.ITT, (TirI oltDlNAl, \_IiltxRAL)
1) Delirilie. Hc .amc out rccond ii liis cxrlr. She lut on lfr t/.t.d b.sL (d.essl i ,t ri 2) I'orm[, Numeralele ordina]e se lomrpaza ad:uqindu se terminatia n .rmFr r l. lF . r r di' pl p s c u I. F ,h i v rl ,n ti i l o r: loudh, sixteerth, lweniy s€rcntl,, l,udredth: the Dt), lower 'I = n bccut dc painzeci de aDi. : Are ftslf nDtze.i d. ani t t h ri f i, s ol t i, "t " , ,h. c , tu " ! n ,^ a n i J :.as , s e j nrt,\i L: rhsi rr,. n/r? ..,-nr iellt ,.h tu "r:lnLt e anii t Cr i o s i l 9 C 9i n l l u s i \ ! : Ctr ri late din Dal,!e: tcolooria|. r , rr ,^ ,i re a ,' i . Jd.r" i. ) . - n" i! . : g u: ,t I -,,r. - -\t,r aa nr r , linil20 d r J n i l r. , dt de 20 de in i . ': -\

s 1250

Nrmcralul ordinai indicii nnmeric ordjneaintr-o serie: g ttsl

\ 12bP

986 E r c e p I i i: primcle irei numeralei precum 9i nunreralcle oompuse

thsl. second. lhird thiriJ seoord. sixiv third' i'i;it-ii".i. 'tc primeqt€ termiralia'lll: La nu leralele compuse. numai ultimul termen

s 125a """ "

s^n tanl\kn Numeralcle orLljnalecare con-tincuvinLcle l4n(beit'-thausand' poi sa nu sau (ci 1237)' de a $ deeit de nurneraiul on. .sinu .hi;";;;,l"te "" aibi decit ariicolul nehotirit:
, .n p o ' o' r ' d d eigh'h' ni'th. . nd t L r v - t i- . 1 i' r ' r ' l id L' l 6 p 'n n o i{cl/lh twoiii'th'

..0'n',,,',0'., ll: :H liliif$l'"tl"J;"IJi'ii'J1'

\udcrale
li/ih,

tu ortogrdic spocial5l:
thjrli'th'

etc

s 1?pj t 1265

:' l ormo :i coo'lrur!ii b0c:iclc'-itre doui lirorF adnuglrp ou uLrirnctp d.,/Nurnff'lcl" 'rilrnrLe srns
4[h , nd 3.d 63rd 100th

s 1266 $ 126? s 1258

a) Nuneralul ordinat prec€danumeralul cardinal:

; lTl]""iJ:" ;; :l[:ll'ii':ii, lriil ' ll*l*:i:.1;*:;:llr
-:i

The tfs, llD xea.sol tle century:' rsrdiolle nurnerAlolor ,'il lntrobuinl,rrca

I rolor ordionlo'-

h ir ilu l oln'!idl: Jur'F r :d:n:14' rln Fl"'ial ln.rr ru l. s rrb s t o n riv " 'ro s'r"r" t\ irP E I 26 9 r p n u n rrrr p f -" d ' e i' rF U:d o ' d in 3 l "ii;i 'i ;r "'" nu"nnrol" t r-\rr.-r,,n.i "' -" " a i .i ,i,1"ii"'* "i "rn'lcardinals: dl numeralul i;i.J i""e -lnur" the t""d $'ortd \\at (Wa14 tr Tqo)
the 1/"rd Rooh (\la( Boah Thrce) 1 t ') ar I nt r h' v od Pdr l t 'r t Los n l" I nt \ 4t ' I Ar at sn r \ ' t dt t t utL r r r r ' . \ . p", / , I c l t r a- " t I F / ut r \ ' l\ t lr /
thd , .' n 5in il' " ( ?P {'r l

'61tl"'i'Jl'Jr'" .n"", the r'hird orJ n') "n cFplrm b ' r t s rl\ p ' lirsL

10"' l*,j:x'ld'"X;Li:Hl,".'?l;xllwl;t*:]:,$iiiftl;:"11"i"

"t

tle -ir-i''ft ra'agraph lt\xr P astdph nlhe) r h", l"r "d r ' "r o \ ' t dt ; t "4 ' t n r " t .. , $o- J i' ar Pa3 " ' 1r a : '" " - s r ' t h " t hd ltaor 5 t uor n 44 u4 lr i 'd

*'*iil,i+lii+:*:r'r'#rliif';*;}lt"{:}i

; , ilrll',,111 ** ;1.1 sl1;',i{lil* n'r tP ord r: ;r"';li':t''J;Jili; """ 'L '" -,:e;iilititti l,-,fllliliil*Jli'i';r;:l

2C7

nata

capilor unui stat, ni bisericii' ai un€i familii, expric) ordineasaccesidni{ de nuneralul ordinal: gitliam the aoorl'i Popc -!crode. tlie Att& Borgiai Quccnlt];abel.hthc rtsr, Joln Smith lhe Zrtd tL, ) numitorul unei frat:\ti ordinare eBLeindicat de numeralul ordinal, iiind cxprimat prin nuncralul cardinal ($ 1272). numdid,r.arul Numeralul ordinal poato avca valoafea de: 5) Functie. o) alieclitt Henrv vTtr \Lasihc first Kine of lhe houscof Tudor. b) suibstanri,': ' tnil puero a$r ambeJe articole ;i pluralut terminat in 's: He 0amein an casy/ts,.
\!e r J \ r s ' J ou o lJ / ; J . . P. / ilr " n. - ol tao secotds'zlo !]raiov. \\'€ boohed ( Vez i t i S J e5)

S 1260

S 1261 $ 1262 S 1S63 $ 1264

Wlicn I l'sr camehe.. I sas a olild.

s 1265

6) NumoralulordinalFi articolul.- Num€ralulordinalpoate fi precedat $ 1266 in mod de ambcle articole,articolulhoteril tiind lllsn acelacoretl insot€qte objlnuit ( $ 517).Nuneralul ordinalpoatesta Si ntarticulat:
He Ieft tor the seasideor the t,.lrlt ol ihe monl.h He llas the ,,tt..t to oome A ,odf,n innovalion wB added 1o ibe othc.s. Slakcsleare's comcdy 'ils \ou Like It" ws pcdormfd on Night "esfd

ITI. Nf]II{ERALUI, FNACTIONAN
(TED TRACTIONAL ]IUUNRAI)

$ 1267 s 1268 $ 1969 s 1270

1) Dofinitie, - Numeralele fraclionar€ exprimn fraclii. adice una sau mai rlulte pn4i eqal0 dintpun intreg. 2) tr'ormi. - Ffi1c\ia (the Fraction) esie de doui feluri: lraclie ordinari sau tractie zecimali a) iraclia a inatd (Ihe VuIS(irn'rutrian) Fraclria ordinarn are doi ter'

nnmitarul (he Denominatur ), un numir intreg cale araLd ln clte pirli pqole s-€ impdrtjt rin ditsA; - nut,,d4t;rut(Th. \unrolar). un n'rr;r inlrpq.nrF srJrs .i Fdin e.A.la sini tn lractie. Dirti - -Numlritorul estedespdrlit,de numjtor pri tr-o linie orizontald sau oblicd, S 1271 numiritorul aUindu-sed;asupra ei. iar numitorul dedesubt:
'r tu S.^t* 1t,,,o^;,- 4 ''' Frd, lia s^ po"r" pxprini ii ttin 'xrin ": lr linba engl"zi n,m:ri orul lag,t pin liniuln de unir6 de numiLor,care S 1972 constddinrr un-nuoLertrl-cardin^l esie ur numeral ordirel, eu semnul pluralului cind este caz : 3 : (iive+ightIt : : ) r r m J' 1 lJ\n P!a - l - .t\

lth.ee qlarle.s s!u

llrcljon

hsl

t (a thi.ix lirst) 31

J

ll

10

I sc citi "Henry th. ScvcDlh". t -{ : donr:rbilcl,e de t.cn la chsa a t-a.

t38 S 12?3 determinatde o ftaclie ordinaril se aftd la singular: Substantit)ul g hatt atu hou sau a hau-hou'l I n "" "a*"' 1 l"e .itette,three qudteis ol o nl:/el a' ^it" determinatdc nwn(r'tlul 1 (one) .jft compnn€recn o, fraclie Substantieul s 12?4 ''' ' dar pcl. .,rir lic la "ingulsr.tnd 3eciteltPdupa ..ai.-"i!. olu"ulin ., " ":1''r. 'is. dupi fracliel se citqte plural cind tntreg, fie ia
1!, n* t | 1^"1" loz anil three qnafteN sau ane and tttteequartErtot)

ot a ptay 1o""i"a dc, dnd a harl sa\ ane dnd a hdtl @ts) -x plural qi compus cu o Substantirul determinst ilenn numerai cu sens de \ 12?5 p l u ra l ' trd rl iF or dinar a oe 0 II5 l a (secirette: iln and a/onehau /ruotur"! sa! rea kitbwt'^ and d hdtf)' t0 + ftilnet*' complicate: :1r E sau ait:r6: :; 30/et 5;; se citcsc: /ozf ae{ fi'e -1@ai'; seren reslectiv: ,,{i/rv okr nlnetlJ ttn ;n o t F ru a i on ) l ' unP l ' razuri fra' Li a s" r ft' bJ F r u' lio. . ' t n o d $ 1 2?6 pdrrea p ri n rr.u n ,a ' rmd r r" ' i m a l ( f h" D " " i not V nn" r) er pr ina rl ma i p6r ' . puttl prinlr-un paftea zecimal; inireaEa a numarulur lxno ocsldr-titd de pr ir r r rn m i ;i ' o \ ir g ' tl l i " c \n l i mb i nu ;i ' o t5 s; citeqte: (noushl) deci!tral rsat point) ser'n li!c' o ii ""u point) two Fraclii mai
ejght.

/saa ?#i";'i#.;;'11";;':iil:i,l"lH,i,'Jl",i'l'ii "!ei,,cinn, '0"

six

Obserrlti.e Nunoratelc rnailte Jr' purrri 'qeciLcscca un singur.numnr' 1Y!i,p.li-"] a 12?? -rcl l{inutele se ciicscca un smgur numar ;r ouprl ' lj".o'" cifra se lite-stP 'r;t
'. Ir.l5 lr l\ il P l- '

A se colnpara: poir! No lonr trrce) anil eight]'_scven 18t!s3 (s; tirlire: ode hnndred ard loi'v' and eis}iv{er'n and l'wo hundrcd . ,1, nP ,'d, }r,ndred 13;.il ths ilirce thousiu'd

12?8 '-'"

la singulardaci Substantivutdeterminside o iraciie zecimal; se afli partea intreagd I dace plural qi la (zero), irac,tieiesie 0 o""t#i"i"""sll iractiei ester:rnalt numeral:
n.J" nn r ' 2 J d t's \n a Al, I p ' r nl " n i\ p at a ^a" w " ' \ ; Poir ; l s o ii\ ' , " " 1

$tt*nntn*tuxuu fi

!80

3) ALte nnmcrale fta.clionare sintl
q u d1 rr' o ' a r, r. t, .r J n d aqr-ri dri r.r' cu....ui , aqr d l "ro l '1 1 hoLr i h,rl t d. ro$n '. h J r adoz " n: t o, r ' n d d ' .d -l : " n o o u rd sa n d a r,4.t." n :r' .dJ nrtt po rnds; H o ff a l. al is beller t h rn n n n r. a good-hall ot ii.. t_he ri.sl hnll oJ i]]e year. one hau ol it: the rwo hahes oi an apltc; to go halvesi to do things iI hnh-es. Ate n !i e ! Numeralul naffho:f] in compuncre ru subslantil'ul penna este pronun-

s 1279

quarel;1 taharr, pr.harvest; 4+ (rour i t" "*t, ". ' a , lr r eF

tat I herpn4,. Dxp&sii matematiee0urcnte
+ + : + : + <

S 1280

$ 1281 A' X rekslsouared X3 x feksi cibed It X lelsl i.o lhe powe.fou./io nl n t€nl lrctorial the irtegral ol i

llus/aDd mtnus/takeawav rlus or mitrus/aplru.imlklv - iy/ti m a isda b1 i i s ) m ! lr iplied pentu drm4srulL) (is) diaided bv (is) eqnal io/equals t not eqtral to/doesnoi equal is less 16an

pi lpa4 r fol : radnf oI ci.cle % Pc_.lent O is an emlty set

ts lerDendiculd

to

an a.c) ' minutc -acsrei {or ' secondlor an uc)

rv. Nulrl]|t lr.ul, co[Dctrv
[T[Iri coLLtrltTI[I] NUtntjlt.,{r.l

s 1282

riv orprim" id""" nun pri"1 ,lp plural in s 1283 I Dofinilie. ),lumFrslul "ole, ^ Jufmd,re srtrguj i,r. 2) Formtr. Numeralele colective sint: cauple,lair, brdce,span, team, s 1284 yolrc,dozen,score,grass)qaire etc. a) Numeralole coulle, pair, brace, span, ledm, yoAd numesc grupe de $ 1285 do; astfel: couplel: doi (sau mai multi)3 (neasorta.ti)li

pair l.: tol (asorta!i), perechel:

a aupl o sen ,nd -. a.N u. I " al d- inls : ll' J oLn; , , , r , 1. r : | | g1\4 v^u d .,,rk aptLP, ( do .r . ^r

.n.o,p!poi"Jt\

n !at, oI gloves, a lat oI trorsers, ctc. \,. a o: / . ) , al I or " " l . d .d r' i " 1 ," J rd t.;r 1f . \ ' t r 4 t@tvq P4tl l'hey wuiked in pai6 Ior couples):.,perechi, pereohi" sau ,doj .lle doi". a ,/a.. oi dor$. of ristols a,.a.d ol dLoks. of rhesants thlcc ,.d.c ot parl.idsis

(termen vtnitoresc) brace i l:,J.oi (neasortari)l

t helf a ctuen:2 s 6.1.anodc onetnrl terimrtai,ln ci.culalie irri',ter introduc..ii :is t em n l )i d . . im al ll9t lL 'Ve zi ti $ 1! t 7. ' 3 Cu aceastnacceptiuneeshr nxmerahl nchourit : oilira. cttera. caupte: tifua t*eche ($o.tati), sinolin cu rat (e\cep!ie). lauls 'the

!40

boi el'c inhima'ti (ressran l< Alrica de Sud: doi coi. catlrj, ci-tivfl ' lmPreL'ril: p;.ri\' inJugrli, ' ' rinixgaLrimpround: pprF"he: ecbipn teaml: doi " i. boi . ". lnh,m8li rln labri'rl plcl: (de sportivi .i.r, ""1'ip" r"u noriun"': '"l,ipa doui animale lnju.Eate; Perechc): live sol, oi oxcn mai mari de doi: b) dazen, scarc.gross'quir(t numesc grupe do.zen iJnzin; (12)ll lokc (:
h 10 t c q hr "lq ) ^ L ' l{ r J o: somo .lD:eu eggs, ctrj TLev verc selling eggs in twentY lczm oI catile tcdm. 1tc rv0. \ve .fc ^ a s?d. ot hoNes, bto sPdr ol o{er

s 1286

) dozen (: a lon{ (san rcunrl, Itoker's, deril's. pnnter's
rio:aE

t3):

'alt€f's [: 12 grosuri(144duzini)(ternen qross [: gros(12 duzini)];sredrgr{'ss comtcial) (ahe1' g. gr')l:

$ic bonshl srx g.oss !e6. Slie rvante'l fit s'fss ot but!'ons' li g.oi g-* is tir:elvesrossoL144 dozcD

scarc(:20):

qair"e[:

s 12E7 $ 1288 " 'u' ' "i l ' i , . , *, . , u ,.,F f' ,r ,- r "r .,' tp: ,,.ro r" ,r,\. ,L d o L., , s 1289 ;;,'i;.r - .i ,,;;,.-l-'.,1. n r'-r ' li I " -' r' F r' o r; ' rr" p ' . n n ' ro rro .n,, r' r' rn in lriP
.',''""i ii- '..i" 'i',.r' .'i d" i r" p "rF r' ' r"in rn " " .u dpos ' bir F ln l rmb i \^ L n rrn :
cieht .,url.fsJ .l dogs

coald (nffe, de 4 sau 24 etc foi) de hirtie]: The Paler \tas 'n tzrl'r' col€ct'iveau valoare de 3) luncji€' NuDix. - Nlajoritatea ntmeralelor

il'h'i ili,:ll*'r ffi r?";r;ia*

l' r1

-"

s'Ine d4'" hmdk*'hiels
l.am old

tr,,;t ?::ixX":l;iF1,,:i"
He * as

ln. c c s . , f .

\ : |jnl

,,p li,,T"r",:.iiil"il'.*lid" "",,,

tiv coleotiv nr.sinl' ltecedat'e z]) ci l numdalcle fu.valoarc des )ita Irr'rr''ad' frrmoqr ti'. ttFpozrLr'ro/ J ' 'r'r^u'.'"r ' 'ir deun/ru -al. I .i ,jub'" : rrrol" obirt"'t1' r i.i"i',.,1i" Ln ctqks
'I'he gxcsts l dkd i 'o uie dining room Thev sto't1 an l tr P'rr'

i--ria-i'i.:o t'i' re'rite do:'ns !I li'rfs

loflra.terminati in s;-c) substanlii'ulquire arc Ia p\Dal runai plurar ca -' 51 ru brht:, vt'ss sVin .'i 17okt acerali fornn la ai "''""."r"f" la siDgular:
lhree ,rd.e of Pn.s{!rl's two r.ors or pen.ls scvcril ,ole or oien
at t t "an" d^?n

|lll:,.,'", lri":.ilif, s*:iil";-l;;:lll

,

.-;

' -\ se

i:, . l" 1,:

o..pail

,

tJ

t",

;

r"

rJ :r

\

Ju i

"

'acl 6

rlv

Fr cE!

DIsrBBUrrv

241

Y. NUIIER'{LUL
(TEO }TULTIPLICATIID 1) Detiri,tie. Nxmelalul

}IL-LTIPI,ICATIV
OII' }TULTIPLTI]Ri arate proportia in care cresle

S 1290
q 1291

NUIII]NAI'

multiplicatil'

o aclrune' sau se indeplineqte o cani,itate mulLrresl'ulnumeral€lor 2) tr'onni. - Cu excepliaprinului numeral "-;l:,"-"; cardina]e; la nurneralele .Jai'gr"a'-"" sufi:rul -/old p["";i";
single. dou|le /so, t\tolold), irille l'nfold' fsad treblc' ihrcelold' lou'1old' a huD-

formele laiine: Cu func!,ie rlc adjecti!'e sint lneori tnt'rebuirlate li quadmPle,quintrllc, serl'uple scptnplt' octuple' elc

siilul $ 1993 lormelet'erninatein -lo&l se int'il cscastdzinumaiin Ca adr.erbe, pin; ;ti;ial. ln lnnba curentn,€le au roFtlnlocujLe n,"";: t";;-;
tiBes' a Inndr'd tim's {as onoe, twi.c, tnricer .saa .threc time!, lou! times' te! g.ear €rc as nanl. l' as muclr,

cu exceplia S 1291 ultima grupx ( $ 1293)' multiplicativedin aceaste Numeralelc (: on) ri,1'r cu.|intul punindu-se rftrlc4,setormeazn ,,",'"c, o"i'r"ii.l"al,"* dupi num€ralulcardinal. sau dc .{ 1291' 3) Functii. Numeralui mr t'iplicativ are valoare de dlj€tli' 0J'eiti !i .le rdbsldnli': atL.,erlt.
T he snilra qF lrrl a 'lo r D'

; ,,. .. , 1r,';l ;;; i,l'9j l;ll ""i"-l lr i,f',':l;'i l r\/ a o r' ' ir 'l' ti tr i - Lr La'
\i ,,; r t hr , , 17" I U L r' r (\u h s ri r& r" rrb l' , s" r" " n' '

|ot t um

iiljl

'lI. r-UMIIR,\LUL DISTIiIBUTI\'
(TTTtrI)I STIUBU'flTD NT]III]RAI') grupe egale d€ obiecte'?: ]i nnrcrnlut ttittributir arotiL repartizafea in
1r ' oreaL rr; ". "r.in 'r lip' . 1h, ". bj " o, bv or'". r* , bv pl' ds dJ ' n' ov L" .,- u ". tt 't'" .. : nt r nJ , , . . I p ilr . r , . i . ;1 i;-,,,,,. . b.. '

$ 1t96

nr '| "' i i ,.,r" t r " , ' n l rr' " ' l o n , r ,, j l 9 ' i i ;:. r , . ' . i iy . ' ' h r' " r ' " . \ " J ' \' o ' . :h n i "',0 ,..' d a J n tn nJ ! s cr.i t ' , 1 f s dr " \' .v .a , b r tv .! o ,o \F ,i .' " . . I.; t , " ; " ,, r \ ds d t a ' 'P l'i l ,,i Shc ran do\Ln Dr.. r/4r {i a mc' \t'-" N.re sivcr /lr4 fouos edr' Tnc.e lt.ni ionr sfotrls oI str der €4"'

r Le pr' L' r' l r' ' ' I- to:' d

rJ ti " ' t

rd' r r

l Ntrmerahl ,irl.t cste .ar nrhcbDintat tn ii'rba cu'cnti tstc inlocuiLprid Dnnre'alL't

'i""

j?;""

s",t"'"ti""rl'.,i I !)

AZ

s 1297 s 1298
S 1290

VII. NU}IEBALUL AI}YERBIAL
(TFX ADVBBBIAI NUIIIIiAL) Nuneralul adverbial indeplinette functia de ddr€rD qi arard: a./ lrecventa sau periodicitatea unei acjiuni; D/ locui ocupat inir-o serie:
a t at". t ha" t , M . . - at h- ic ; h 8, , t . n"s . a t t u d - d t i n " . . os a. r , t ". p o, [ ^t t os o. t ik ] . c r , : . P"opt , 5 Couo. i' r . r r h: t d o i r a r n . r e r t r q o v . a r s . Th "l".rion s to f Uy .l'iJirpn .s"J r o I . av p un I : nCUlh t Fs s anr n r @ I . p , a ; p p t i . ' I I' rv" ro l I Jn u a hu, d4d t i@ , not u go t he r e . tti',

S 136$

Notd. Oncq twicq threetimcs eIc. Eint ti numeruIenulti) licdt;re. Deosebireadiatre num€ralele adverbiale ti cele multiplicative std-io inl,eles: Ozc€bitten, ,at.d shy. [On"r ".1,r.rr..,1 adverbialpFltru.a arald frc$Fntd atiiullii. r+rce oste numeral multiplicativ pentru ct aratd mssura tn care a ;esou; prudenla.l _utir.lly, eigh y, etc.,in rhe iirsr (or second, S 1301 ;hird, riiln, , ,, rirsi.,lirsily, sccoritly.
e i c.) plac c : Ladi-"s lirsi.l Satetv lirsi.l Tle o,,lt, quesiiunsu,r rhp agcndaweft itfs,ftrl, ihe rotrre to be followed,s@.dtg .. th e DLm ber oi m en t rr..q I. 1 o d l d ,4 9 th , tmn .p ufl ol th" Frp.di ti oD .

5 1302
$ 1303

ITItr. NU]If, NAI,UL NEUOTIR,TT
(TII[ INDEflNITN NUIIER"I.L)

Nrrmeralul nehotrrit eqrimd un nunXr nedelinit de obiectes.Numerale nchoii!lte sinL urmatoarclel
:p! " ' dl a oa !. /o i h- 1, s an u . ", , 1 d . , o t o '\ , , -. troacr . a Beotle.ad tnnalt', i4pntqr, .Ir. S&trdl oi the bo$ in the school had Fo! scliola|shits. u!,-.|d n r s r . n. . L- gr i. ' . , , r ot adJ . lr'f4 a t,d {c o t o . \ . J ,

I shaU be lack nr a /e@ davs. T ,j n .r\" | , r' n dJ F 1t - t t ' s dr . ho. , t so a . m o n t i , s i o w , A ru ab ,.afth pajdnr - r r d b. n t , o", 1 t o n . p 4 5 p n r r h d , o o p d r a r i v . a , conleren,,c.

A " out b al n i s p -p :l r,d J y i ,,t." ru ,. 4lo o/ lhe u , m n k -rp q ,1 i ri ..t $ o .k 1 5 . Itls of rreopre had come to rhe Ineethg. l30l

,.r' t.

l -' or m A lpdp " in 3 ,r,rc u n o rJ d i n trc d .p s re nu.ta" al " , \ anump: (harl "o lp tg a d4 n u .h f u) 1; t t |" .d d B , o l o t (o l o v .), 1,,{. r/pnl r/ ,prveso l a exD ri ma r.a . dnr ir ; r ii in" t.t , c z u r n ,rm ,l o r d " mJ t" ri i l a u al .i bsl r;ti vel or absrrsi te: yo. hd\ no iJ " 1 t" o ,ttu u .r..r.i p rro n s . h a \d roti + r,.d. Th" r p wr . v r r . n r" n ," 1 trr i i ,t" a ,d o J . A / t lllr ' m oneyg o ,: a l u n q Bd r. Hn . dd 4, , . i_b s t o j r ,,r t,-i ,t r,. a 1 t .p - o t r .5,..
T . l,ol

A lo, ol iris assuianoe was du. to ihe su;port his conrailcs Aare him.
r,nrt., estc dcsuet, sau lil.erar_ s t . , ! r s idr r at e 'rfo nn a fiatla Sc^ s e rdn ,ri .r l l3 , l 4vczi si b8s . $ U{1 ,08; ' pr et ioc d.

',1|

o !p 4 t

e .,a d d o l a t

tr a + .

i t;;tJ;

I \ czi r i S 0! 2, 2 5 4 6 .

u ;";:",i;:,,/p

J'p,i (e , 2 8 5 ). { oo.doua ".m'rd,co.. ' iv

?43

Sens nehotdrit au ii:

ii"i''i'""iliii"'f*;ai.;le, aprorinalie (r€zi S 130tj): r s 1308)

car€expdmd etc) insolitede cuvinte colectiYe
ciire nari (rezi

S 1all5

Wc stopled there fo. o'olt t'"nig minntcs D) nuneralele (cardinale. colective €tc ) care erprini
Thcv came in nudlelr to the meetinS-

prrn srrrrxul t rlo: "n . o n . ut 1! r u. t no, . th r' r' o r n Ptr-. s a u . i n ' " 1' rl l l ]rnrl rar' -irl adnugai la num€ralele scurte: lve s'alked zror,/ua.iy a mile tw -n " tv n i n u tp q Io o k i n s rot a rori - . i' ; ; ; : i- , i; " ' N i l l ' ;' [ s o a ' rn i rs i i d tq o hL' dred I i er Lili- i" r , . " i Slie was manied src fiYe Yearsback' o D " r i i !" p ounds ir iL *r r . o' L tti n s n ' " l i t" papdr ) l?e a{ lt " . a n d i d a l ,e s h a d a l re a d yfi n i ' h Fd15P A t pN ,i L o t" l r! L ' n o l l -P 3 !d i P n ' " (1Fq LIF I' ay t laur hht suror o d d l -r0 0 00 bi l $ p trrv th o u s a n d r s , " . *i" iil LFvd ro r: l n l ' r p :o ul" nd i r u ! ur 1 j1" br r d t or il l $ " n ' v o d d U ro trs a p ! . , u, le l- . ilr\a ) o l o u f mP n a l n d a \d n rD q ' ras$ p a l 4" pn 1rutr t lr dv ' rlold io r d o F 6 o l i i m " s n o f l o ln is \ n lih p h a d p u b l k h o 4 N \D b a f d o ' n l ott po^K s q r o r ru o lnev t ir r l b" b a ' ! i n a d r l p a rn J o .r ; n * ta n tn ' i q q u " tri ^ i p 4 ro iii . i , . no. l, ,0 mp ro .l d o n a n 0 !n L -' .ad" . or , v ' , ' u d d y jin, c .h .. r^ :4 ' l 4 tn - \ \ i, - l ' -h, | { n se €xprjm;: aeer' marc than' dntL nore' eifre 2) Depitirea u ei //o/rn.le) ahorc. u|,"a s (of) en.: Ile is ote. sirlJ ,qhelost ordr tilenty pounds in weignt. n o ur' \ u, n- r " ar l h e fl .h i i . l ,b ti " ) 4 u " ' d p_ on oF r l a , " 't; k'o r d .la t"n 5 r L lp t' r fl s l' r l h ' i' r ' e i ;i . o l i g ti u d D o P r' rh " ' r' oi r' 6 n a 6 ' a ld n i s
Tnf s rr v bn or'

SPECIAIJ FOBIID $I CONSTR,UCTII ouorcd.i s, ":*frirr; prin: |ltaut.qlnost n.artv.sor'' S 1306 1) A0rorimxlia .lneal,erc 1iA". o kq. rcuthl oLout. lJ oplrr tnotd.!.nddd "aupt'', son", rhrne

\ l3O7

'' inriabitants ipi.,a"' r ' ]d of t*o minion ii'i*"i-ii"t ii"i" cul inrPle S 1308 se tai'Fintrebuitrlindu_se 3l Dmrimareacitrolormn netletiDite

h,tn,1"d.riousond,n''tttodt,nttt;on.doz"n..or"pl' .,rppra'pdalcdpnumprJrP qi de celemai mulie ori in forma lor de ptrral:
TIct F.nt iu /,endre.ls lo the conlcrence H t;rea : .n d ' t aLs d- dr nJ r h' l r al ' " r o s r r m . 'j;";"";i' "d hPappeJ l r '1 d \ I o r l d 'p" r , ' s olds s r g ''/l tt.o u'"to !: na YO o r n r ur r m ong"t ' : 4 th"u o.d rqa]'o:i : A th'""and l nr' o4a lhin- s lo r l' ilu I n a\d o rh ur t r l4nd ^ P o i 'd L o n 'r r '

"..j,;;,lt:;,ti / ' p r ise n r c s ! l !.a cP co n"* Tl( o ' ttfir s l llm d a zPn l"o ' < I na\c m' th d i4 4 lL IJ n "lo "" r h fh;v fP l lf ' a Ps ini g lor L $ p i l rd
r a nyria.I : zece mr.

ru,addr or .'.". n',,

@s or p,orr.

'l orm r" ga.l l a i" ; o * or n .-.' t They had ioitrcd the cooperaiive it ereat numbets

214

S 1308c

4) Plusuls u nirusul fa,ldaleun nunir dxt se e\prinri asifol:

on. (t,o. tt|ee, cta.) ko ,tun! t: t,c\) nlui (doi. |Iei etc.) mai Dnll, trntrl {doi. lrei ci c.) in r l, , s l ane (nb tu, elc.) ko t4r l-. l.n) unul (doi, t.ei ctc.) mai pnlin, wnl (doi, tli eio.) ln mrnusl lhcre js,ne ligurc ra. ud,r to. a lhone numb.r.
llr g \F In i' Iillin " r o o /.r .

$ 1309

5) Iorme ialiomntice. A se obscrva urmntoncle forme idiomatice:
14, ,tr, on. (: pdnntioull set nd best I j de lort-A zild') (eorocv.) Hc's fire foat hnlhins. (: exactly live loot ialll

$ 1310
S 1311

rcr, rnt-^h i|| d d fFnrr, . Lor: a.) nunirul unifitilor de numirul zecilor cind acesLadin urmi esLe yecedat - dtt nu si urmali de primul ( g 1217 1218):

6) futrchuinlnreaconjureti.i "and" cu numcralele. - Conjunclia dnd

S 1312

a, nun drul unitn,tilor saual miilor ($1228) denumirul Eutalor : ;i al zeciior
three hrndred dad onc cight thonsand dnl Utirtr iwo nine ilousand lou. budilr-"d dnlt fifi.y-seven

$ 1313

c) numJrul tracliilor de numirul intregilor:
tso ard Urree qnartos a poued azd a l)alf li{c hon.s o,l lortv minutcs fou az.l sirpence liar tn eaftircd curentd: lotr dnd. si\)

S 1e14

Not d In senere irsiL. nu se htrcbuiiloazn conjunctia and ra snlcgo numnrul uniinlilor de nnmnrul subdiviziunilor aoostora ln (azLrl ini\urilor ale ciror denumiri difern de acelca alc subdiviziunilor respeeLive: \ po. nl l, l :n a .1 ' r ' i .. p o u r ' l nl n , no' r nd ' o rr ' l i o n o ' rn I i ,, -. 9. i] 0 ( nine lhir l rr) (re l .ri to r l a i i rtrp ,l i d b a j ol i ci al )

S 1115

flonot{ tn Marctl Britanie
100 pen. e[ pen s ]l 1 0 0 p l:l Iro n n ds l c rti i g l paund ' stJrr!] l rl nsl tserliid)t ealonre tu)neda t oihlf on, \ .p rtn r.,.J l a d ' d l !- nl l l , ' onrl lt i ! F , , ny I r r n ,l . f.o /o ^ .I r! twolclce I l^jrrt, two prnc.. f.,1,,r..1 l.wo l hi:l - ".
a i$opcrDl I!1,!n4 ptc..

t/on.:

l hi l

ra' ' !9r,L.-"'
{L a | ,,,,l. /s/ , ?! ) | quid f k $r ll ti, ttn . !10 i\. P G n, lq; r r . t !orrds, allala, fivr/i,,r/trventy a^f iv . r / L€ n / t w . r l J po!nd n.ie, /rla,s, a

t3.8t

lhre€ potrnds .ighl,y two p.n.'

'Sa\ hatf past nine ln litubr cnrentli.

,At Monete tn StaleleUflile
r00 ccnts lscnta] {100i) : I dollar t dclol (gt) (tun. : dola!)

1131C

toi ten cenrs 25c lwent]{ive cents roi }all i dollsr. fsia'81

a nicke'l I nlkll a dime tdarml a ]ialf'dollaf

a dollar ltll $r a doltrf, /ildDs) a bDck [b^]tl a riYe/ten/twenty dolla! bill $5, $10, $r0 live/ten/lwentY ' dollaB: 1sla,r, rivr/tFn/l.wfltY S3.8! in.ee dolla.F €iBhly_two cents

TERBUI,
tit
CoNSID ER A T I I G E NE R' { L E
ndnhiliP

*t'

"

i ".l i ,' o" . j' i' t r t r b rr rra n z ' rr\ Di a l € zd. . . . . r : ,: , Prr,o a n a Num & l' r n f ' ^ u

i'i-.i, J"i'":pot.i v'.b au\lia' -." -{srco1 .

"

'

t!18 25t 131! 255 1329 236 {333 251 t58 l J43 158
160

\RI.t CUNJUU C . \ RAATERI S T I CI G E NE R A L I' ] ' ' Inilicslji Detoitieo .. l Tituputi (ind;catieut) irirr\l l'ormo r eiltsle '. iNSi
13ii6 t:6i

260 -.160 161

1368 26t 136! !6! 26t tS i i
ltlGUL-\T ila dilt'za a0Dva ' 1it I { 38rl {3 8 1 ,64 iJ6a l6i

\_!RB CO,\JUGAREA SI]\[PL-{ 'q' LNUI

DIAT]'ZA ACTIVtr.
NTODLBILtr PT']RSO\'{[N I. Indic.titnl ?tc.entul snnPlu . 1382 t65 1384 t65
,138i 96i 1386 t66 t66 138t 1388 !6t 1110i !69 :t0 tI]06 1t0 {4 1 1

;. ; "i;",i',;' f,l"il"'".:;";'"
' lrl.: ,.-". .^: .;. i"j,J"',ii'i-;ip,''."',rar,niu' p'.?"1,, indi. r"ddu,"r"d lll jl, i:^-1.;,, continur iiliJ,ii,lilii,lii;i;'Jiiili cr prezertut
I're.:utul srm?ut

1412 270 .,]70 MN ti o t\14 74t1 271 273 tLlB 7429 213 7431 t74 214 t43! t15 211 2i t 2i a 215 !76 277 :78 2i, 2r9 28tl

Evet \i ,ct|, ftenn! | .i lo u liuni' -\ l!";b.

adv r Lir lp d_

1445 \t 46 1447 14q8 lt'35 1461 ltrii2 1463 1465

T n , t ut t

Dt

r488 t(8!

!S 7 i rst

' r4!4 :r88 1495 :88 119i 1 289 1501 l 5r2 150? 1l )l i 1528

290 :9D :92 ti 4 197 :99

t110 tlt0

!0t
S u l , j d,f ti! ul !.e ^ Jrt.

' t5i t liit r i 5i r ti B tiilr liiio r t61 1i 6U

l',
T .t ,."
: r , , r' r i. l tr,.l

:' ln '.
l u a .s i r , ' . rir' .l r_ l '"s

3ni t1,j3 N 03 iln'

3U l 3r)' 1r6i i tr3 1:,05 N l r4

,\ rAY . , . . . ..- .. .
MI GHT ......

sI l ou L D. . .. ...

.

F orme .. . , . . , . . . . lnle l e s .. ... . I un ctr...-

! 1591 15!' t5!3 15!4 1595 { 590
1611iJ

w au L D. . .. . . . - .
I n i i i i livul

!15l 308 309 309 309 310 310 llr
ll11 312

1606 160,.. .

Indicatirul .. . . . R cca p rtu ta r e- . . -

.

IY. lmpcr&tiYd Delini!ie

.

1611 1614 161i i 1bI," 1618 1619 ' 1610 t6t1 !tzi l 1621 i 625 l ttt 1630 ' 163t 76tt, {6i 15 t6t6 10t, t6t8

att 313 313 314 314 314 3l ' ,l 31t 3l i 31i 315 l t6 31i i 3li 31? 31t 318 3tt 319 31! t19 :l!0 3rr0

Iorrna ao0cntuati - . T ra .l n o e re. . . . . . . . Sllicctll im!{rl,in]ur.. Nnrniaea iulerallvtrrur I]IIIERSON-{I,O ]IODURIT,IJ I. rnfinitirul F ormJ .. . n 'dL' , J . I i, f . i; ' 't, T r rI r"rP.. l un "l rr . . . l, , i ;ru , i' or np I rb ln :n l ."l . . 'li :\ \ ru r'\u l ' r n ni ' 5 r b r d i ' " r p r4 r -, ," .,,.tr. " ' No n r,i 'rul ' u al" i\
\ L o rl, r' lr,'r''\rlu:

163,.1 1640 16r3 16r6 16Li 1658 1666 16ri 7 n r' ri :
l(itii 16t9 16.q3 1681 16Sa

3r: 31rl
:126 Jti 328 3!! 3j1l 3j 0 t30 3t1

n t alr \ | ,i . "'rl II. ta icipiul . Caatilialii seletutc

?6ti.it i1n $t\b.l)
llama 'Iinil. tn 'ing Djatczi Ee tun' 1i! \ l .

'1 6 s 9

ucn n m'rc_. . . . . , . . . _.
P ottait' ntl Pt.z nL 1691

:l rt 331

t:t2
. ..
ltilti

. O .l, r)gldrie ... Particir)iul t.ezent + ger n n d i v n l..

r33

L'd.ticipiul pre.eat

Caracter 9i lun4n . . .
{F rb .. . A dj' .' irel" I,"u \"n r. dr n p"r |dpr r pt dz pnr ! :1

Conshuclii !a.ticiPjale

ru p'lr Tip ' r ' ' .\.!/ari\J' \on:nali\,.1 .r 0d rL \ominativul alsohrt 'Pr u

i 1100 ti 0l 1i 02 1109 . _ t7r4 17{i t tt6 7721 7,.2:l t1!t 1,426 1i l 7 17!3 ti 37 7i 44 ti 4i 1.1l ra 1750 171\

,14 334 334 334 335 336 336 336 t31 338 3lr8 338 339 340 310 311 3'+2 3t2 iti:

l'nrlicilntl

aisohl .

. .

G.rtullirut

.

F o.ml .. .

a Trr" l' ri. l 'I i iu n.'ri \ 're l, ' !ii I un. ir sin l r.l1 r rrrl' . rl- :i !o-'iva P " q rmrS (nd r\ul

-.

..-

Lierundi!al DPrlect l nt i,Lii r. Pa .tiuilix !r z nt

|;au
1i t4

C' r r n' 1r !

Jn' t : . : r

.t Dtt4d

l.o.nn. Diatezl f nnc lii 1 n i ,.l c". ln i o , ,,r a t , 3, t l'iliulr r i I ' ri P .r c u l a rtrc rl rD l Pani.itiul pdsie - .- .

It3 7136 113i ti t9 ti 6n 1t61 3\t 1162 346 1t63 1764 346 1766 3n6

CO^-JUG\REI

SI}IIL;\ A U\UI . -.

\-]!RB RI1GUL\T (IA diAtEZA

rr-68 1t69 3t1 trir 1t7t 348
1)i 2 ri i t 171tt | i ,.6 1t80 I/-81 1t 82 ti tT
3i8

1)-6i

Dcl i n i l i e . .

DiateT a actili,............ Di. t eza tJsir"

_.

34il 3/,9 3i 0 3i r 3i 3

L, n "a i" h\ r " l .' r' n u l 4. ' , P oL .. l o .m{ren c onlr gi la s rl e ..r \.b '' : : ' om Dl.n r 1 r llFm ' nlc \f rbul xciiv 'lt,u;

"

dr ic,.i! r'.,j,i ,iii.. o, ratoare

CO\ JUG-\RI'],\ CONT]NU;\ A UNUI {ERE
Canit t ldte d . a r t t n l d

IIIGUL-\T

(la diaLczaactiail

-

l i 9l l

3i 5 1 , 1 9 6 355
1195 tJg)-

; ;;;j;*;";;;,;;; iil'## "i;"i.T,T;l#1'iii#;; !:T;ilti';,,'i":iil,$ill"

3tn $6 1 8 0 6 3i 8 781)1 3i9 1 8 0 8 ?ii9 1 8 1 6 361 365 t8t6

lr99

!51 !

Formt lreevenbtirn . . . . Forml
k , ,n .ri i

-

tarl t 828 18r9

T r d d -c" t P . .

(1osithsrcs cotrjrgdrilor'
CLniugar' a 5labd . Co n j ugd. ^ la t P Co n r ugarP dm xL A

r'orbe r.gulrl. Fi rcrb' n'rerulilc Prln.i l sl .h ,Pr bc t r er r y ur trre
C4 r o ti@ : ... . .

oc.b.tarnercsltlltc \t"abe1i p,;";p"t ii^p",ii "t" Verb€1.nrreg'Iale .ompr3c
. -

:

1. .

r-l,.la' rc ' ; r lo' P O b -, r' ltt ^npd Cibra absc\alii to.eri.e asuPN adbaa' nercSutnb ' .

3ni 365 36i ?65 1832 366 466 1838 1819 1840 36,' 784t 1843 36tl ta47 368 l 8rru 3i3 r849 3i 3 l s l g a 381
1850

DNTRTTI] CATNGORII DD ITTiBTJ

AUXILL\nD

1851 185' 1856 18,8 I861 1862 i ,i 63

3S 3 38:l 383 383 183 384 3E /r 38i

' 1S 65 386 1 8 6 6 386 38,' l|l6t
'r 868 1869

388 388 3rJ8 488 t90 3!0 390 390 l rl 391 392

T O B! A. CoDjuseo! silnprn..
Diokza a.tita . '

r870 18tl 1372 18?3 t8?4 t8t6 1380 ' rN 81

-

Fi , nr!ii . .

.... Ca ve rb Dr inc ipal ca ve rb aiailia. . . . . . . . Ca verb colulativ . . . Ca verb modal lixprcsii idionatice.. Ioniele .ontase TO H-\\'Ij A. Conlug&et sinlti
Didt.za actieil

1889 393 1891 39n 3!4 1 8 9 2 394 396 1 8 9 i ] 396 1860, 1867 3!; 1 8 9 1 , 397
1S9ti 3!8 . 'l90il 19!5 {9 0 6 3!9 39! 3t9

-

'

B. 0onjrg&€3 conthun D hL .a tchpa
C. Formcle ootrtrd$e ,'

I t rn cti i ..... . . . . C., vcrb prinripdl ca vFrb anx r r r dr . . .
ca v. ct mod dl .. .-.. Verbul .,to hare', ti inrerogatii !i ncsa\ii D {l zero ,S ; lol"s'ir' J',r,1'iru l D O

TO DO rdDclii . . .

t!1il 1914 1915 r916

p'q 400 400

TO LDT
Funcl tl . .. ..
Cd Ycrb P.i.,iipal .. , C" vcrb aux iu rlu; a ' 'i "n i LI T . , 11l"F "n Ci / u o r. r ' l. l i i \ u dLpl \i rb I , ' oL_'' l-o' m | I : .t; D O d o+ ' uJ

,t)2 tga, 1921 4!1
1924 1925

1926 1t2J 1928 1,)29 ]\IAY . ,' 2074,2088, !02t1

442 LO2 l u: 403

SHALL, !fILL, pr r n*e. . ... .

tL vliltB]n,E DErri(lTlv!] IIOD,{I-E.... .-

19311 40E tgill lgllt 1t35 /!03 405 r,06 406

(I,) C ^ \ Considdstii gen€Bl. For m. . It 0, iu ri l pn n i r ' . r . or r Rlc : r r n' ltro n a r' . . . P r onu n l rfe Intetusrlia !i rcgalia I un. ,, (II I C O U L D Considcrllii sL{enlo
Forrnel. con'lnse

19/12 tlrril

........
{-q:r{ 1!ll5 11J!6 t!5?

4lrS

ll,\N S lud i r "o rl r' F lir
Tinturi .i .a\.xt' tLta

CotlLD

Bn \BL1i

1(]

t1158 410 i 10

(',{ {

..
l- t
| i" " d

t ur t.1 '
totl. l L at

lll nt
. "' 'l

l6 L L

l n ..

1902 410 1' rt1. 11tr t!ri 5

To l|ltliAli[

bt

tntt

r,,

-tl'\tt,l.7o...

..

1!67 1963

.. \ ,rJ r' u rifl /f'\'f ir 'ii rlr .Ar-LI) l r-

a,OOl-D in stilul irdif{|. Coniuqa.rr Inodduhi C.'l-\
dc tftcu i. ,.. . . , . . . . . . .

ti .onditionaltt. . . . .

.
. -

1!60 1!t0 ti12 ti i 3 L91L \9i 5 19ii 1987

411 41r 411 4r2 4\' -) t' 1! 413 t't3 41n

. O ( L D . Tn. r ut F im plu.r o trJ i l l o n a l p rP /" n l i r' contrastiri lractice) CANICOULD fi lnlmdilodi rNpcctiYi- -" BE ABLE TO. ' ' . MANCE T O . . . ' I JSEI' M . . . . . . TAGET. . . . . - . LD . . . - . . . . - . . . . . . . . ZERO CANICOU . . - . B E,]IPP O S E D T O , . . . .... lnpcr.tli\'ul Poliielrr Co n cl u zi o. . - . (IIl .) II]IY /IIIG l IT Consiilerstii gencrnlc . ! 'orme . .. F or r alr t i im n ' .5 n n a U od L L ri luDjpeB F lnierogal.ia,"inegalia . 1\l\Y luDo ti i . . . . . . htrcbuintare . .
L] ! r\ rjd r mod1l .

-..

! 1989

t99t 1998 t0o1 !008 2009 !010 t011 20i 2 ,013 20'J4 ,0t0 !02{

476

416 417 417 41t! 418 41l J 419 419 tL2O 4:10 t' 10 421

!0rt a024
!02(i 202; 2ltl

CJ -, r, " Ju

,J \ili"r"

u A) .ttlcHl

t0r, t0ll4 411 2037 L' '
1038 t0/t5 2046 lr P' Ll 2A4! 2li2 ti-r5j 1055 ,053 1049 206i .!2il (t3 42L !21 t!)i 12t i25 426 4:6 416

.. . .. Fn r0 h . . . C'N]J,D: N'IGII'I' .r[1G9" : c.ndilional
P rLo' rl J joo "'r 'i \:r' 'r fa .; ' l !rli;-ll ]'

llt .I i o r ot r lr u. tr n V l I

(lv ) liusT
.. Fo mre . . . . , . Fonnele comluse

. /rFa ( .! lll:r at 4-4tI ML-sf in controst rlt 'l io "not-.t ru \tf,
'11t.\ f

llL.'t

t06r ra (v ) ouGlIT
106' 20611 L'-),.
,1168

4),i

!061

4r!

BU V:ARF . . . . .

(lu o r H . . . . . . . .
F of m lL .. ...,

xIF:THl\Its ,. ...

-

v L l SfI \L L

11:19 ,0t1 10r_! 429 1rl 1i l r29 !076 ,!!9 419 20i ) :0i 8 90711 4!9 2080 430 !08r 108( 43i

IntercsaiLa9t negnlra Fu n cl " . . C a vcr t au lilju.,.

..

Cr ve rb m odal . .

(vrL) s]lOUI,D Fxn.lr . . .

954

w IL L {vrrr.)

!
:088

L€j

43r
431

431 43\ 432 4,t2

{rx.) woul,D
Fu n cl i i . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . C a \"r b p' in. ipJ l d" r c l v C a rux it iar m odal ,SH AL L ( S HO ULD) . W IL L l rtOU L D )......,\l te tn tr c luir t i. i .... ................._.. , .. ... ... . .... ... ......

tlo?
,104 2,Oti :,ori 2rr4 211a r1t8

433
4t3 43r 414 425 433 43J

(x ) To rr\Fx
Fo rme . F unc iii.. . - . . . . . . Ve .b lex jc al r egulat.,..,... .. .. ..... Al xi l i a r d€lec t ivm od a r.. (xLJ TO NErtD Fo rme . I nnc lii p\ i. c l t r L, z it r v rg L l a t \a b m od a l .. ....... . ... .... ..... .. .. ............. -. -........ ....... .. ...... ... .. ..... .. .....

2t:24 437 2r2i 4X 7 2126 4X ,2rg4 4A j 21.1j 2t46 j l sJ ' I4!166 216)' 2! 68 1169 2ti 3 2lia 2179 2180 t181 ,l !t 2192 t193 rt9i ' 196 ,200 439 43s 11a 139 141 4tl 447 4t4 444 444 417 4t8 4\8 448 448 449

{xIl.] usDD l'o
ro"md .. Ji.p
l. lele

..

. T"Jd .i Prr

I tL. \_ERBDLEREFr.t\tVt-:......

....

Dp" inil: P ....... .. Trddunprp d o ir liob a .o 1. 1. i. . . . . . . . . A l^ ! . . b, rplp rivF t1 lr m bd . r 5 "/ 1. . . . . . . l v . \ F RB E LE I OVPl.CXC. . . . . . . . .. .. V ericlc co mple ae ou pa r t ic nli adr er biiu. . . . , . . . . . . \a L" lP p rrpo ziL ion al" .. . .

.. .

V - V ER BEL E I ] I P E RS O NAI,E SIU U N IPD R S O N ,\L D .....,... ... ......, ,.... v L \ iERtsE CA RE S E CO \ FU N D I..... ... .. ..... ...

YNR,BUL
(THE VERB)

GDl]anALE coNsIDEnATIr

$ 1317

"

1) D€tinitie.- Verbul erprimh o acfiunesau o activitate' o stare-sau $ 1318 un'i lnsuiiri o a'irudinp .ri,i"ii".""p",lfir' .u''it*i"r"'" s"u modifi'ar"J

.impliti.ar" n" leicri ln "onlinustp n'rmai Pcnlru -.. 'o1 prin a'Fa'r0 si cclelalie notiuni rprb.'ubin dc un ori* "lag\nd "il, punct "t*"" in definilia vcrbului la acesi cuorinse tranzitiY rorb inhanzitir. - Ve.bul poai€ li tranzitiv sau in- S 1319 v€rb 2) -si trimzitiv nen,iilor;rssrpra unul oJ verbul a .JrLi a' liunF sp 16"h1ngP nt dir' t a'l' lranziliI' ( TransitirPun obir.l, nuFil 'ompti

Verb )'.

M.g ts! ta1€reil d', ga.den\\.e 30{ lIa c.mrng

Frcd js ltriting d l.,l?. Tlrey ere enioXiDs d.ns'Ites.

S l32o \:erbele tranziLive pot a|ea iliate.d po-tipd\ $1i74) obiecl esie asupra unui bl Yerbut a cdt'ui actiune etc nu se risfringe (Intran:itioe f erb inttaixi\i\ ):
He rral^s slowlr' And i]liiv ll'd happilj cver alter' l S2 l i r6 r !l n i | .| r' l i .i !p \ crl ," le inp, t s onc t " a r u n ;l to n 4 l " | 1 br,.' rr ' InLr 0u nprpnr \'.rb € le inir anz it ir " n u ru ,ttr' , :n p rt' d t r' anzi '''1ti i l c I E lJ 24- 132 8 ). \ e rb u l l r' rn z i l i t p o " l " ri i n l rpb i nl ar ssrl ' l ' i 1 i -npa r' " ' . ' l' " ur il. i rr" i nl N " ' d' ' l ' l, ri sr ru " e r " s t r ins r r ' -p ra u r' ri o h i F rr' J D ^ " rF ' a_t' lrri pre" r' ' n b h l u l J ' u ft' ' F ^d l n a' ar ' i ' a, li u n ".. \, r bului, r u di " ;' u r' intranzitivt: veibul devine He sroodtlie mirfo. on a lablc. (Tranz) He s,oodthe.c siarins (lntr') llr $ a 5 l n r" tu rg I l o d r:i l l T ro m - l I s . r\rh i m p t;,r' ,6 ' d r n L s' a s i (Lnrrl llia/ / ' L o \v ri1 1 u . ra ri r l T .i n z I o '' I I ' dr l L I il .i rr'q
, ' ld ' ". . l' ' m '" l l T 'r 'l 1r, tRr ! r - l' npp r l lh r 0 o' ' ls - n r r ' J d \ r l r r ' 'l - , m f t , m ", . l; , , r / r "r a. ; / ; t in dr - r alolr F r p '0 r r , r i : dpr it in l^ tn jt'J

s 1321 s 1322
1393 "a

I-'n relb d) daed este urmat de un Pro unre rellexiv:

s 1324

D) dacneste

s''u 1,1;# il,1'J;s;ll^x""iti"'ij'"&!iJljiib'ui ,ff
v p- oul n "" lp Ln ob! 6li. il- ali" trp . p r ' vern lranziliv Inhebuinlal

t P:,fr i,""i,'i"tr";, r."u,, !1;H,",*,r

: Lnii x ,,ri ,o nsio"r t . " d "-t- in, r n mo, l db"o /"I, -oj.J

250

MORIOLOCTA

_ !'EREI''i

prepozi ia urmitoare se intesreazd atit de mult verlului incit devine o parttcald.I'erbdld. care transformd verbul din intranzitiv in tranzitiv:
t:r.r r on, . y dseo. "s t u lp Dv nJ Do S D o . r i p a r k . I n t r . l 'f1F t r al. ld i^ , . ; ' r / . . . x an: "n ed 'L i ; n s . rTranTI \\" s o, t Lns r ! an, r hJ d t s aDd$ic h . I n r . I \\" 6! l o. , ; oLr . . r pr r p, ( Tr dz .

interJr.(Cagnate $ 1326 . , c, dari.ar€ un complemerl,lL Objrcr./( S2603), care reperi roeea vernutur!.
Ee was r&e rinf $it h on. c v e oDen. llnl. . l H.p \1 - !""p,n i t h" J . p ot ilr dan k ho l, dd d o n " d g o o d d 1 . v s $ o r k . ( T . d n z . , Th" , h ld $ b lou"i; ne a Ldr py lau|h. Tt \ n t . t

s 132?

Nunreroasewerbe pol li uneori tranzitieej allcori, intanzitiae:
II" to .u "4 inL a s or Ll' , , p t of . ho" r . oai". . l l r , D z d , t r L E\' ur.ro n a i. - " r aa t o r n gov on - r r d , r v . . T r d n r . D a . v , 'l-t p .d" no r,r'nt r' B r ' br \ t J m i. ; s an I oLr . I i t " . , Tlr ,.sn "r ot , p pr dt d iun , ' o", t pd Li. t abo' ,r " r , v " n t d r d . T r d n / . i f l \ ll"y u p." /, rj or - r ' "- "", . p6iv , t t r r , ". 'j-l F mb ' ),'nr HF ra -tiag har I I nr : is , \ am q. ' l t r . -o. Fred rpca&s Enslk]! iTranz. rcuyl Spanisjl is s?,ft.; a gie,ri dcal in Latin Am&ica. tT.an,. rasilt rle lookcd oD without sp44ii4s. (Inh.l He took her arm and besan rl d,aln her uD Lhe hilt. {Tr.rnz. activ} She las Dd€ara,n..t otl hei lcgs sholping toi tlc hotidat:s. (Trnnz. paiv) lle rds last. (Irtr ) -dll;?scan s?d.? twehe pcolrte. Ti,is coltagc iTranz.) Slic Jldqs like a top. (Inl...l

! lB98 . . Uneleverbeisi schimbncu totul inletesuldupn cum sint rranzirivesau
a lace a culalal: ,",i" I ll,iHir - d i d eF ,' .n .: She did uie roonr. - ot, Ihl t !.,t dr.

t" h"rd { ll;iTi.)
'"

ct,e { llTni) 'o

She sar. me a prcscri. The dike ts atrtzs. I ield the |askcl in mr hand. Mr p.omise still /rld.J.

l( t r m z . l :a s D u n -" : ,^, - , , liLr . . ' z .r : a D o \c i ti : .,,

to r!.a. I llnlr.) I

Il-" rds l" tne the l,ruLl. lhe child;.n a sto.ll .r .r: ;,\,,d T|ci. nords bll. I i ,n r .r : ".,1 | ( inlr . ) - a l i l i n l a v .a rc ae l r.)i Tlis rdlls in yotrr lavonr. I llr . , nz .l :a p u rl ,a : Slie atu (.d.i,s orlrilis.

:

ldasrr.e1in!J a trcce i.cct:

The nighl

ds

r.d/in6'

lo ib end

S 1329

3) Diatezir (Voicel. Diatcza este torma pc care o poate llra un -i'erb pe.nLrua arita raportul dintrc subiect qi cornplementul direct, exprimat sau subinl,eles: { 1330 al subirutul gr:mati,al lonte tndeplini actiunea exprimarl de verb (dnte otti -+ctirt l'o;ce): I rd.n Dnglistr. She rr.r nrr. ,l subieolul gramaticil poat€ sufcri acl,.iunea exprimati do 1.erbsi indeS 13,11 piiniti de conpLement\l d.i.recL (diarezapasiad , P^sioe yoice)l I n,asrdagtrE glish ar school.
Shc /d.s lur (lJ n,el.

rUDii art.ri ljonsid.rn vcrbul tn accasHsjtdrlie inirlnzitiy.

CONSIDtrEATtr CINERAL!

257

rJ subiectul gramatical poate in acelagitimp indepliii 1i suferi acliunea S 1832 r\primatn de verb. carein acest, caz se nume,sre ftrb tcflexie ( Refk rcftl))11
I

1.-..t|. a-.. t. _'"J

?. t.

1l t:|t:1i

4) Pelsoeni. l{umir. Timp. llorl. S 1333 pe a) Persoand Persoana este lornla o ia \.erbul care f"drson./. S 1334 a arita cn ac,tiunea €ste tnd€plinifi de cel vorbe$te (peAoana 1). care fenlru de c€l cdruia i se adreseazn r.orbitorul (persoana a 2-s) sau de un ali. obiocLl aninat sau in8nirnat(persoana a 3-a). (-\ruD0). Numnrul estelorna pe (are o ia r€rbul pentru Sl33i b.) Nundr a arita dacn arliunea exprimati d€ cl nrc un singur autor (nw Ar singuLar.) sru nrai n,urli (numdt ptutat). c) TiDLp (lense). l'impul ara|; momentul sau perioadain care s€ S 1336 potrece actiunea enpdruatn de verb. Gnnaticr englezn.ca li .rea romeni, ounoarste tci,,timpliri de bazi"' ( Prindxl T1trscs)3, pr,:z.nl. h.t)ut -.i riitor. Pe lingi aceasi,a. verbul mai poate oxpriua si nuanle ale tinpurilor de bazi cu ajutoml timpurilor perlecte, nunile Si ,,timpuri secundare" fJecondal, Tcns?::l). (A se redea Conjagarea, g 1354) d) Motl (Mood). Forma yerbald care arati nodal cul]1este conceputii S1337 acliunea exprimatd de yerb este numiia nod gramaticaLIn gramatica engleze se l-orbette delalra moduri: indicativul. subjonclivul, condilionalul 9i imperaln principiu. acliunea €rprimatn pri! inl.icaltu este reale, sigurn; prin subjonctia,iJea16, presupusn; prin cond.iliaml. conditionatn srr dodtn; p n inperulir, parn|ciLe sau sugerati dircct: (lndii,rl,ir) I rp.aft XDglGh. r'is ri{h Lim"\o., p,A?Inq.b,,.i!r rn m.,,1i.," .. -..ion, iv) t'iE.,.n it h" ^""rd. ,.on,tiliunat, |^ "art,t spp.''t English at Ionr lessonsl(Ituperativl ^i?rdl -\cesta patru moduri sint numite nodari pffsanale (Finit. Farns), deoa- S 1333 reco forne,lc 1or sint,legate de persosne.l)e lingi persoani. ]nodurila personale au numlr. l,imp, asp€ct, diatezd Ei sinL pnCic.Ltire. adici pot loma singure Dredicatulunei DroDozitiiI 62:llr. ' tl rt:r' rl' .ro,lu"ilip.rion. l". I'r crlnJri.a engldri re"bul ore;i/or.'r" t l:t:19 in,t r'nnatc(Nun.F;ni1,Forn' ol u I ptl, |\r I tLrl!).ar. nFfiild Ip!irp dp parsoane, sini inwaritrbile.EIe corespundmodurilor impersonaledin g.amatica romene li sint urmntoarele: inf;,nitivnl, carc denume,steao,Liunea, slarea etc.. o\primatn de verb; pdrticipiuL prezent,oare aratl o acliune in desh$urare ori o siare in curs. erprimlnd verbul sub forma de tnsusirelczultatd dintr-o ac,tiunesau arntind cirounlstan,ta(de mod, de timp, de cauzi cto.) in carc se pctrcce acliunea verbului; qt nd,irul, ca.c denumette ecliunea y€rbale;
grama 'rJ ,.1 !it/,, I a. 1, ". , , , uiLt "/ 1r p t p . i . i - . i J " 'd p t ii .,o"' 1. , .1 l,mbii roma np _, L l. n . P. li. , a" r r "f \ . I n pr \ inr d u F . r r d r " , l " a 'r m i " i . r S ens crn na Lirn l l$ 21 . . {,.r' mr,Iil. J. L;, m on, nr u \ o r b r ; , , b m ' n u n F , f dpolr r , l J , i l- . l. p + - r nl. ' r F_. p' , ni, . ' . m o m p n , l . p \ r {i " . " . ti . , 1 ,' , nu" , dtiso lur-. r..;,no , i " 1 '" I . . _ , l n r r d a!a f . _ r o p o " , u1 on dn r p rdrd rr , r ' 6. ! r s au ' i ,.. t r , , : 'j . l, li t . i : - t t r hr . t ; . " ur.,."os,o".. > i I n. . { od nd

958 de tnsulire rezultat5 parliciqiul treeut, care exp me verbul sub forma dintr-o aclrune:

..*. "" o"ili"""Iiu i;"l'l:;:'.:;: -,4 \ l S40Fo rmFl FnF p- r s onalFn u .d rrp p rq o q n a ' a ' r' n u ma r:i ' i ' tnp' t!i a' l i r' il.: i:i
" "'"
sr a rpoc , .

p""."'] i T:,,:l;ll'ill:;lli"l'-I" +:"r,5J"i jlir

p j r i mo no'l s ip s rrr' rp rd rr" r" n r3 n 'idioi"z' iarinlin it iv u l t SZ5r '1 ,..r 0;n
'

rerbul poate ii pnn5l Vorl princip: !i Yerb suailiar' - Dupd funclie' cipal sRu au) iliar' v''6l €rp ir'Lcl"sproprirrrsi ' re al t'*b t,rin ipol t.Th' Pt'n";pd\ { l34f "' ,,rbul rurilia' l' formdrrr'n'oJurilor\i c li'"rpurilor'on'lusp "1u,",',:l" The housew6 to ld'
I ndoea son ihtv ore at ttie ptav' Sho dtd the room' \ f lt l torl l cl ar rrui r' 0 t , ) V , r bt t t au t;ti o r r tl e A .u " ti u F t I rb r uj ura l r " on'roral p' our.i u ti i n i 'r' ' :l ' r ' 1u rsi j i rl : !e rb ale. om pu' e. l rrn a ' F a e ' | 1P' ;;;;J

germooreo

0"r,,.r', \'li,'":l;i" '-;: !,'1")i"10:'*i

l,:%i!!"i;.

ii::j" li,lii'il;:'li'l-:-'
i" nntoo'r r"u:

s"*o """,11.f"n1,1'.J;i.T::'*;;fliiii'"x""J'i*".iJiJ Din punctul de vedereal dura!'ei8cljunD
n,A r P.

N ar d Totrte auxiliarelepot fi ti l'erbe principale/lexicale'

v'rLcr" r i"nnlrr1n,/r'r erprimar". ii'_|,i"']i ,"^",,**us \Pfbe cu caracter o'nr d') [ 1J11

a) Aspecrrll

\)erbclor'

' '''

A,p.a. pain..

;'-:1Ti':1i,1'ri ':'"i:: l,*ii;tt;;i;-lil;l;j;r:ll ':i::;;;il ei: ninnrii
1':$"1'* i:[::+ i:]i:1"* f'"T;

lsl€clJ' care eril)rlm* a"/ verbe cu caracierdrrdlio (y erbsof Dutdtiec d1315 " acliuni sou st;ri ce dureazi: csre au taraoter d"') verbe cu caraclerdubtlr (Verbs of Doable AsPe'l'' da cotrr'\r: sru dura iv 1n fun'{i' -n^pnrin

A 1ir16 '--"

*T),, r"*"''r tl iii"",#;"il'""Ti i;,1'i;i?'i:l
I l?a fd a n ois c ( Nom ent J n)

to' {n ho - " rolv nu"di' !iii"i".? iiin ri" | 'sons He srorrel shorr' {Nomenl'nr rrur '$^ dJrs Durirriv) ii;:;;fi;; i'i l" '!irras'

gmnr'i i ' J i 1' bi i ' J gl r/' *r ' mo l i \ v Prb u lp ti r.;rs l ' ' ." u n porirumi l i r auri'i'-r r"'" "rp ri1.''r ' r - *" i" ' ) i))i.i'l i.iii,ii 1""r;''""uriiii " ^bli p \rd"'"t"'"r l i ra t rbpl \' ?' s r:{u m" di r" ' r' ' u t' 4 rn P t!) "r"tt ijai' iau^ r ! An i j ioi" '': i" " a ajungc lntr'un lunci'

CONSDIN^TII

CENIIALE

Ob se r a. L! { e Lrnele rerbe lii schimbli caracterul din durativ in momenranl prin adnrgar€a part;culei advcrbiale sau prepozitio ale care le translormd in y€rbe .orn p l e \p . ins i. l1nJ u s " . o . t" l c ..i p r" i n .,l u tu l u i . .ti ' .i rrl i .Ju rezut arui -i a . ! ru n rr o r i s t if lr p\ p m a te . 1os.t (: a der.n'r ldlrrativl 10s.t u! (: a sc s.ura) (momcnraDl (: I ii cnlcat, a znce) [duraii'r b tie t. tie &\\,r 1: a se c!i,,a, a se n,lnidc) (!roienra.) t o, nal. (- a l a c f) l d ,' ru ri v l (: a lusi) ituomenianl ta nat'r off (: I sed.al ldu.aiirt ta si.t _ 10s . t d. oqn 1 :a s e a re z r) (rn o n ' e n l a n ) to stdnd l: n sia h ricioar) l,tr.ri.irl to stand up 1: a s. saul. in pi.ioa.c) (monenirnl lg4? \ -

fo s;t do, v n. t a t or d u p a u u n -o ri -i In ,J l -q L l ur.ti r (r-Jp" .ti r a scdad. o s t a i n fi .i oar r ) ln t u. r,!i p d " ro n te \tt o rl o n 4 .u p ral /,/ L b0r sdu bul el la care se mdnlnci stind in picioare); a stanrl-up ieal (: gistare luafi stind 1) ) _ A s p p, t t , u l f - o r,m e L o r u e rl a l c . trIa j o ri tatea fornetor {erbal e , or n rl mo a e ngr c z a at r do u a & .p trtP, h') aspcctal perfectio (The Common Aspcct or Perl ctive,4sr..t). care c\ D r i md € .liun" a i- s iF i d v " rh u l u ;. F 1 i -i 4 ,n a u " " noLi Inad da rl Li rara qi d" S L3{ 8 .a1849

b" ) aspectul inpetfectie (duratie nn nnLinu.ttiv ) (Itu Cantinuous ot \ lJiO Prc'-r s';r, A s p*' ) . . s r c a ra l / .d a , l i ,rn F a v a " b u l u i ,n , ur. .1u .b se " st" r e petd . Acestor doui aspecte le corespund doui forme de conjreare: . ) ftnjuqar.o sinpla (lhc Simplp ConjaEat;on) cind A0liunea verbului \ 13il . I g, hon-" And llc do$n rvhrn I olz tir.d. Shc nas s/P?r\di. I saw t,€. .onz in. ThrX ndd tud such lrnl con.tinud (Th. (ontinuons .c").conjryarca oind acliunca {erbuiui este i'nperiectivn: ot prclrl'.ssit)e Conjalation) | ltiJz

'What d.€ ron.r,inAr" "I am t.Liins at t.hencH jfr air linpr..' t hp ho b, . s l " 1 i ... | ,r ,1 i .. .r Hr ho. t t , \ r" a d " A rl | l " r-, ,.. HoN lorg iar€ yan bkt tchiaq cotds tjke this? (R.t.tililel

A t e n l ie

!

S ljb g

._ \un'"le te.anjutor. "au lonnt pn"ta:ri F.re i'lp"opri,r.,t"odrp.c il limba romdna .progresivtrr"umn, !..ir! .r,,./. sau sFd. /. ar, i rFDt€t - roDu! r :r"s,r. .mr re nu e nazulaii. Fo|ao,ontiiua nLm"tp inLtj.Jr, tn limbl englezeb bc in lrrgrerr insemnind a fi in curs,"tr" in d(:s.fd.turarc, i.n Mnti uare, de unde:,.lrogress;re".
t Ve.belecompl€xe ou oaractd nnmait.rr pot delcni dnrnrivc in htn.lic de cornrt. lt*

!00

t s 1:l;
S lil'r;

CONJUG.\REA
GE\DRAI'tr C.TITAOTUIiISTIOT 1\DIC,\'1,'ll\1trl 0Dtcli

1*!F*$*ff
! 13;1i

i1;, ffi.u+;.{i*rrr,1
TtllPtrRt I\t)l c \T l \' Ii i , Gn,Ir rrczeDl{ttui T i m D u ri l r' .onP us' au ru\iliid,l h !tu:flt l i i tor
'L i r I L urLlrrr '1 , , r u , r r r . i t j .t I l d t . d " f_i!tor ti1n, tlr lrtIl

ig*$fitffil"xi'fst
s 13t7

1
i

trli \ili,r n"Tt,r,t

Im*\

I
tig. 1

l

i:61

Aneliza fig. 1 lqi 2 Conjugarearonlini este un sistem eentratin Drezent{ver; Fi{. 1). pcl,Ltu F\primarFr lre, u'ului tal,l dp p'"rpnl. ronju'tar;x romdnJ arF-trFi rin,puri tl.tutrt impc4-lut. ppt[,"tut\inptu ,i I,"4..tt l ,ompu:. qi ,rn rihp rniFrinr a' P.lofai m4t mult ru p"r[ ftul. Pentru prprim"rpr rii'nr-lui romind are atitorul Ei \In timp alterior acesfitla. oi.itorul anttior. "onjugrr.r Uonlugxreo$glczi esl,eun sisten construit pe doun aft DarulLIci\ezi Fi:. 2\. cisl.mul F6tp oJdr pc rlouj t;npuri: pr .b oplr.p pr...ntu! ( p. *Lt i.rr,. ne dF a|a tt..u1u| (Pn,t t"nv). Redarea unci intinpldri sau a unei st;ri poate li ficutn: l) fie la prezent, lntrebuinlindu,se prczeitul indicairu,Iui; 2) fie la trecut, tntrcbujnliDdu-se t;cntnt indicar.iruluit
He knoc16, aaitt a liiUe and iher ot,ns th. doo.. lPrezentl H. kn.ked, kaited a little aDd l.len oFn.d tht door. iTf4,,L)

( l35S

\ ' t;i.')t)

S 1:J{i0 i fl6t

.\r..bpl" limpuri .int ri'.1nurir;,,r1, Dle au liecaie trcrural si ;iitotul lal distin.!. expfi-late pr;u r;lllpuri co puse. 1) Fati de prezrnt ( Pftse t T,n*). prc.entLl p.rfect ( prcynt p.jrfcd ) I tttjl A\p|lrni o a rlunp "r,t-fluJ15.iJ' r;.totut (Ft, t,) si r,,]ar',tt.tl .t tFulrrp Pcdcct). acJiuni riitoarc: /,,.".d1.1"1 '.'t,'r,. r,.r.riofip....nt .tu Ll t,".r toU Ir

'".-,'l iii', ; , i,

. . , . , t 1 -l ' , :i r , , ., { | , , L ! r ' ' " /,,1

ErentpLu:
Yon Ano$I Lrre."/1l ..r l)fr ard itratt.all asain. !X fir. o',li.k I sl.r'trlre.olLd t$i!e. Atenlic! Toaj.c recsle limpuri. fiind raportate la prezent. au auriliarut respectiv g 1B{i3

,

, r l'n{n de trrecut ( pasl Tcnse ), trccutul pei{l ( past p.rlcLt ) e\prima o - 1J64 . anl,ri^ rd. ),r,' tut loto d" tr.rLrt(t.r,ut tn,l,. t,asit ii't,ttorut -s li. a, p, !4 fuli dt: tecut (Futurc Perfett tn the past_/acliuni I'iii,oare:
I cn u t,i jI

Ir

i . , d , r hd
s no, ld, n r

-

t.cfll

pedect

(acliune alr,erioariL ircntului) 1 acliLDi riir.oarelaliL t 'lc trecrl

I I sno&tl harc I called

viilorul lale dc lreort \'iil.orul terfc.t

E x e n p lu :
I lold l'o! I lail unled .n her and \fodd catt lgdn. You krictr ihri by livc otleck I shorrldbsre.ali,l {s ngrccrl.

)! \

.

T o ,l n 0 , F s t - t im pur i. fi :rd ra to rtx ' .
l n dlc ollrnl lfP.nl.

l d /.p . r/. J u i U \i ti d,l ta r,.p-

ri \"

S l S ri t

Obseraalf.e . Arnlele s€rii d€-iin luri - erupr prezontuluipc dc o part€ li grulo irecu- S 1366 ru ru, pp de olr0 - lormF0Ta rt':t-tbm p. I t! sitr,tlir.

!8i

s 136?

FORME VERB.{LE

lloonotnia de formc tn coniugareaenglezneste extremi. La verbele regulat€, care roiNtituie mdroa majoritate a \;erbclor, o si[guri formir - aceeaa infinitivului prezcnt- stil l^ haz:rintrogii coniugiri. Este deoi suficient se se sLieinfinitit'il unui verb peniru a se afla ;i conjugarea lui, dao{ se cunoso urmAtoarele reguli de bazn: 1) lorm€le simple ale coniugntii dedvn de la tnltztltt ( $ 1639); s r 36q r^ rrll (infir ilir) - .4t1."olls (ildi.aliv prFz"nrr ' .o1r{imperdtiv) .ntl"tl\i",li."ti! lrc.u sLbjon.liv pre?pni. parri.ipiu rrp.uLJ- .dtrir: {participir prezent). s 1e69 2) formele compusese construiescou urmdtoarele auxiliara: WILL (cu trecutul SHOULD si WOULD) + iofinitivul s 1370 n) SHALL qi p€ntru viitor (modul indicativ); sini ciracte stice Tiilorul
I s/d ci1l, .tc. (lersoana 1 sg. 9i p1.) Iou (lZ orll. elc. (persoana a t'a ti e 3 a sg fi Pt l

I iilt,rul faln ,1. lro(rtl I sno"ldc 1, etc. (pe$onn.t sg. $i p1.) you .ro,id .nll, etu. (pe$omaa t-i ti a I'a sg.ti pl.l

s 1371

D/ SHOULD ti W0ULD + inlinitivnl lorneazd qi condilionalul: I sh.uA crl1,.tc. (!eNoa^a1 sg Si Ir1.) a !-a ti a 3_a sg ii pl ) Jox ru.id eauctc. (lersoana

$ 1372

t[turor timpurilor .J to HAVE + participiul fecd ajut[ la forrnarea pclfeote: Prezentulpertect Yiitorul portect
I rnz[ ],r. caued, ett.

l'reoutul pcrfect Viitorul pcrtect fati de trecut
I stoall /ure called, etc.

Co dilionrlul perlect
I sharltl. ha@ .altcd, etc.

pelfeet (forma modernd) Subjonotivul Participiul perlect
qi conjugarea pasii'I:

Infiniti{r

pertcot

s 1373

dJ io BE lormeazE conjugarea continui . pr ni. ipir l pr f ii. il' iul

, o n i ,Ea rF O .o l i nur: p rc z a n l I an ca.lling,ctc. l re .u l .^ n j u !d n 3 p J " i r" I a,, cailed, etc-

r Ac.stn tormfr de bazn esie nuoriti 1n Sfanatictr €nglezil,,Iorma comuni" f?tu Cotumt Iaitu. The Dase)

un Ztdefl

0bs.raalie \o,n0n laiurs rct,,ali ., ,o,,jucr i engleze prezintn acceasi sincirie si S 137: ? .o,]iuga',.. -,. l" o T.a lirnp,||iln r, durilF o/1. i/rrr; or.,olor .i ^r'mic' rrpi linlpu'ida b.zi rrrp,u,. frpzen .lir !ii .fl. iu.u\ ,rut Ir[p] rldu,".I lo n'rr"lp timoului .au -o,l'il'ri r^.fF,.i! s-'1"' too1" 1;' r'i1;1),1. t.n a'.,1
core".punzdtoF: Viitoful Intn de lr(ul Con.ti!jonalulrrezeni p.ezent Slnior.ii{l I n i j r i ti v ul pf z . nl P.,rl i rit ix l pr ,z . nt l)rczcnlul !erlc.t Trecnlul tefL.ct \' i i tn tu l p -a f eL l l rl 1.,l e 1r.1rt L o n o T ,o n Iu r l , rP o Sulriofotirul perltut Inlinili l rrerfect Parlicitiul perleoi S 1375

ll r c e p I i c: Imperathul. € xce p l i o n al. ( V ' ) z i . s162 2 ). .1 te n li. !

carc nu are perlFct decit in nxrd cu totul

s rB7

A se observa ideniitatci de formi a urmitoarelor timpuri ;i moduri. en. r z-. si da i .inpli .,ter ri , -izis ronlrrc.:rrii ',r ,a,. iriLli"rti,'i' pr'rpnr rhnr p"r... .,-a.g.r. d/ lnfiniri\ul t,rpl-nr ,tdr.1 subjonctivul (forma recho) si imperativul. DJ tndicativul trccrt si subjonctivul prezent (iorma moderni). a/ I'recutui portecl ,si subjoncti\ul perlect (forma modernn). rl.,)Viiiorul falE de trecut si condiliondul prezent. ,ri viitorul perfecr faln dc irccut, ii concti,tionalulperi€cr. Dii€ro.lierea acestor lorme este determinatd de .ront.r/. cnrc subliniaze inl.alid vorbitorului.,\ccsi are astiella dispozilie o qami intirriterie,^ubtiliLetti (ooertones.) cu caft.loate jongia pentru a ;i exprima cele n]d ijne nuanle are qrn( n sau srmlrrn. 0onchrzio Sistemul conjugn i enElezecuprinde la modul indicativ: 1) ttei.tinpuri d? be.ti aLercnj\gdri.i sbnpLe prez€nt. trecut ti viitor care evrimi o acliunc pr€zenti. trccutd sau viitoare. nelimitatii la rllorn€ntul 2t trci 'tnt)uti d h:d ot .q iup,.trt; ,onttrr" ptp7. nt ..a1tinuu.trF.u .onrinuusi vii,o' o.r",irrn, tn, u". ld n mom' rt, -'n'inlnr, dat prezcrt, trecut sau viitor; "i"c:r1rim.j Jt tr i t,npu t,,rl .,, ,tt. ,onjd;dti; r;,/,/./ - n-a/-nt pprtF, ', t,a.ul p,rf.,r si \iir.r p"rh" -,1p Frprimr 0",itni ,.rmina , nt"riu.rF unui ". m^manl dal pxpri'nrl prin prerFrr, trerut adu \ tor: 4) trei.ttnpwi perfecleaL conjryd.rii cadinu. - prezent perfect coniinuu, lrp,r'l I,Frl""' .ontinu r Fi \iir4r p-rlF.t ,.,,tinuu ..r" in "xp"i.r, i.!iuni r urs pina lo Dn m01.nt dar prFz;rr. rrp.ur :au rri or ."i.o-tin,rlnd .au nu in r oduri du lo l. ur trpzF.t ii un p.rla.t. pdrri.itiul J\ind in , Cplplelra prus ir un rrmp rrecui,
I DennniFa de ,e./c., are. ln rclasia sil.lr}tie.si sensuld. polcctat, iermina!, deci anterior !nni alt timp: !|cz€ni,. lrecnr sau viiin.' : Pentru atrolunaarea accstni astect al limtii €ngleze, rezi Y.rbele defe.tire ,odale

$ 1377

s r930.

904

s 1373 s 1379

A UNUI 1ERB nIEGUL-{T CONJL{,i,tltE-{SIIIPL-4. TIIRB) Ol' A rLnGU[-\R (sllrPlll coNJUGlTrOr DI,\TEZA ACTIVA1
(ACTTVITYOICE) TO N,ILL {A CHEI{A)' I \r I \ITi\i r?r\?l\'1?1 rz,

l)rr,zent ( I'res.:rLt)
lo c au ( : a c ] ' c m a l I'ARTICIPiL

ler{ect ( perfecL)
l o h a tc c:rl l ed {= a i i cl ' emar) (! ATTT]C]PLE )

Prczen\ ( Pftscnt)
(alr;ns i: clemhdl

Trecut f parrl
calld (: ohen3l.)

Peficc't ( perfcct)
hdenq .alle'l (: chenlnd)' L .V tnD ;

\l r' . l :L l N n l L \l l \ ( Prcsent) Pt.z$t I otll l.= chcn) rou call i' " I sre I caus

tl .\l rl a A i l l

i;' I'-- '
wr c{ll rou oall il,cJ call

'Irccs\ ( Past le se) I called (: chc!!am. .hemai, am chemat) You cnll.d h"| she I called

ir J

Fr called vou c rll"l l.iieY calld

Pfffed) Treeut lrerleot( Pusr PerfIt) Prozet pefc0t ( Present
I havc call|d i: am clremrtJ Iou ha{c ealled rlms.a llrd slr {'e harc callcd rou lave callld ihcr have eallcd

I hrrl callcd (: .rhematn)

Yiitor
(Futue )

yiitor pertcct

Viiforul perlecttati Yiitoml ta$ do trccut dc trecut (Fuhtre in the (Future Perfedin
Pdst)
I snolld c l l - v or c l 'e m '

the Pdst)
I siodld hale calted \"i li 'h p m a l , , ,

I rn,ll hnlc callcd I s/d/l i,all J, \ ,i.,T.. I I "oi . i ' fo-\ il|.'l\o]si'|''"\"il"J \ ' o' $oU|d' a|L

i." . | ,rr " I l$ir.,'r ;, iljft

\ii

r . . h //,.d l

, t .-,, "i'l .l rl' " \ ' $il.d

',r"r \o . $ilI ' c { ' ll"J ". . r . i. | lJ \ " ' llqJ

* s j.// r,av.

I woLrJ li_ I $"urd hJ\" t;.,ii" -'e i",i; i;" .lr, r" . 1

h.

*.

,,t,
'i l l l

ii"

{ ox " l l, ' lL' J { ull'

r, ,u ', rc dra h"J'\.'m 'l " d )! "r l h 'y $ o u r o r J v r 'd r r P o

",

l Y c z i q 1t7i- 1 7 7 3 . l nl l Fs \' rb -r ' , i . , i , - otr ' ..r" . " . * o n ' p rl i ' ," ' In l u ' ra r" Jd- dt" un hi ngu_ ' l l un.l ' l ui j*t , "ir r" ie ,, ,/, . \ " t " .,d ' r" J " c 1 ,.i u n i : a s rri g ' r. a xumi ,:r \i /i l a/l r.-l D '' tcu sersut ,,.tutii ce a chcnat" lcesi tinp liDsefl,e in gramatica limbii 'omane (V.z i S 1r 0r ) .

,6; tl0LlliL suBJo\cTIV forma Teche ( I ndependentd. dc linp ) I call (: sn chcm) slr. I call (,ttj B.ttiNCTtvE ltooD)

Forma Doui Ptezet\t ( prcsed) Pertect (p.4.d) I cancd. (: se .hcmj I l,adcalted (- s,'L fi ct,cmatj
Jor falled |eI she I call.d Jou had caltcd t re l she I had cdteo

'rJjrl

]\IOIIUL co\DITtoNAL (CONDIIIONlL MOOD ) lrtzeloI ( Present)
chena)
I'ri I

Perlect ( Perfect )
I s/pzld have cdl.d (: ns ti ctt.Irarl you wonld h.rvc call.d nct slic l ivould halc ,ralled ri I we sloLld nare onlt.d Iou wolld |ave oalted Urcy would }ale callcd

ir, I

lloDUL TMPDRATIV(I]11'DFATIt/E trOOD ) ( Pcrsoana a 2-d, sg. ti pl.) &ll (= oheane,.henali) {Yezi9i g 162!) OONJUGI&XA ACNY.I CO:{TINUI (vezi S 1te1)

DINTEZA1 ICTIYA

(acrrvu Torcx) XiODU R II,E P E R S ON AL E
i ! tN l T ! IOR \IS OF _ {V ER Bi

s 1380

5r 3 8 1 5138

I. II\DICATIVUL
(T H I] IN D IC AT IY N )

pdltif'S.

exprrma ta ije ler b Lr r , ,' a t, rr{ a r" d .

sau eristen,ra .trlodulindicatjvprezinreacliunra,si,area S 1]8s
PX,DZENIUL
{THE SIIPI]N

$}IPLU
IIiESE\AI)

s 1384

1 ) De fi ni, lic . I n pri n c i p i u . ti m p u l g ra m d ti .a l r umi t..trei ,i r. e_rpri nr.r ! tB S b o a, l i u n e sb u o s r s r c . o e ri i q l rn ,li n p rp T r' , . l n t, p t i r,.H . p.fl ,,.,,t. de Li --,ol .- , aresFrp f"rd \ pr bul F " , n " l i m rrs ts ;l n ,a p " i n tF ,u t -i dutr0/.. ri n ti i tor. ir , . 1u.i v mo m c nlul pr pr p n t i n .J rc F . \' o rL i l o nrl . "ild rVe zi S 177t - 1t 73.

266 a , r:hB sroeulitr' - Ptpz"n'ulsinllu:'"::": 2r [nr,n;. Poreoarra:r:l-i'l :r-d'ingul 'r' '"re ,or'" p".-""""f"-", ,',-pi;" n^Fodn;i a ,., si i ni:-r iv.rl. t. "']":-' , ''rrinllio di 'in' r'ra: .... "" "

a 3'a Or tog r a fLtL persoanei t " l' ' : : r: T : "iu ' i rit ' A"t i ' 'o """r".i - -" "ilo'.i'"'ai" l n 'r u ,r ' .i'u "r i.' i 0..".rr .h"sri,rn' t " :S o' p lt"alu lu i ''o ' " ' " ; ' t i' " e r a t i'r i i v p rb : p F n ' L u '"'""l '"" ilu't'sri\" c\emplc i i - " 1u"."." r r r m;roJrolor

i,'l:i'|"!il"' i;i'iI'J"l5ti"l'"",i";"li:' s in g u la r'

/a) (S el):
lo looli to r.dd l. bcar -

hc looks h. rcads lLe bctrs to i'o lo

lsl lzl Lzl take lliSueclrcte -

to s.ow - hc sro$r lo iaai - he ta\Ls ro eve - he cXes he takes tsl
nc ne he Pledges he lursos to blil,z -

trl tzl lt)

(b)( s sz):
to laoD to .o[gc -

sn'" laces she .orges

l,o plcdge to turse -

|o l.eezc -

iL fee?es

(cj (6 s:r):
to d.css to mir he orcsYs hc nnte_' to lnsn to icach to match -

iL blitzd

he Pushes he r_"achct he maicnes

rd, {s95):
to l'Iy

ro,ar-J _h.,ar,tr
xe saJs
ne gods -..-"

to say
io go

($ e6):
-

to to'r

-

he loys

(e) (S tot)' -^ f/) ( S10 2 ) l

ro do

''

ll l;1""-i" llrnl"

;:i:li"r Hi":f;""

lt',i"::'"*."* r38? 3)Porbotoa +,2-i:'^::r"*; s i"i racr Ji'$iJ:, mutr " rormi , o it ta p"r'oan? 2."u""il};l a.Ac€ii si bun-bunl
dinrre

.iTl"iTiilo";llili,""lil"lil'il,i'i'T pa"$q*1 p""'." ::';lt" i. ,,"'i"i."i p"r.oan"lpdrn ongrndr' .1
i""i.,.i
i-i " -How oo 1'"' i"oi';rli"r- u ^ ( s auti" m Ji r o r r nal
: hltl) : aslc'iai asoni (llsrd !h'o (onomalopce 1t o a P o l c o r' lto r : - " 1, c ain c i rl l a i p"..,,iTi,m ari {rialectahsntrliLfarir: o&.4ll*' arhaic,-I, !e,s. n r a ss. c- r.Lu lormi

'"i'",i;i"," io,rre i;," ensrcze d irmDrr .cra.leris1,.5 A.€asru i',1.'Yll.li-1"^-.r;.i,,i."r rctar,iiru

r' i""^",,..*".".s"a". orisin'iul:"qhi a""^rn!'IliJ dP jc x ru r F I'ii1q.",l:1"""1:':T ' g ra z :1 9 )' " ' ' rY ' lnrrch"rih din i'""itir" 'r 'or "r "l polirctiima c a z in-\ : vhal cn I do

r"r;o,ri:'ir ^i:]."i..-,,, ,, r,....-rs ri;::' ::f;il:'r :;: ii :r ri:i' '" i'"Ji il i" "i' i{itl"l,.jtil'i;ifl 'ii'iii obr'^""r:a ':ri'aIl:il

'"',,.;T't\l;;ir,:j;i/,"r,,b,irr.;.1,,'il":ll,',,lJii :lXl,ii:l;;-."; . orr fl Lurdr'oFn' I't

!67

lor lou, lladaml" La rcstauranl,: '\lhat \\rili lrou have. sir?" etc. stnLtraduse cu .,Ce mai /acl?', ,,Cuce t€ serrescl".,,Cec'rr:i si iei2" in loc dc: ..llespectete mel_e". In magazin:.,Cuce rd pot serlil'. T,r restaurant: r)oriyi sn lua1i!, ,.Ce 4) I trebuinlaruri pr€zontutui simplu. - Ilrezentul indicatirutui esic { 1388 lnlrpbuinlrt penrru pxpri-.'. ir. lun.lic dp,.nr,\r. drj in.pul pr.zcnt. frI 5r Irmpur trecui- \iI 1ur,or.

z) Exprind f i,npul prezenr. $ 13Bg PrFzantul 6implu.cind InJJ ri'npul prpzFnt ,^.r r'ai hc,rpr ti tntr,. bumlnrp a sa €xpnlnn: ( an etttnul rr uii J. f; ra speciticarei ijmpu \ 1t90 dJ un adevnr gen eral. u ]ni:;ersal ' lui,rumil ln a,e. rrz sj ..trpz.n etrrn-1. loar'" ii..li,"t in prorcrbe: The Earth rurn.s or lts dis.
jn reed i." a hiend jndccd. lP.oterbi -{ i.iend Tlii, sun.;rs irt the east ad se1si! $c FesL. TNo and iwo {"3 ion.. Dab'es u., lery sNeft. "Thc child is father ol the nd."

,/

o acliune sau o sl,are care cartrctcrizeazi subiectul:
The lanulc flor! into lhe Bhck This tcni /Mlds lonr pcople. II i ,r \e N qui, k $o. 1. . r cai\ slim ' f os i. He laees ltr canp out. l. b bt:d \F sle ju. . t l, \ Ps t aot : : . . c . ue h os a tbm . Sca.

s 139r

cJ o ac,tirne sau o staro permanentd care cons|ituie un obicei sau care q 1392 este repetatdl (adesea cu arlverbe sau locut,iuni adl.erbiale repetiti\.e. cn: ' al*alf, often. seldam.usuaLll. ca.r, neecrl trhen&er, erent rlult. on qe.hends
oa, liles and lca.ns. lProv€rbl s,nls hlr lltiers brf ai. nail. -qherlccpi iir) litlle. doisn'i nc. Hc , : , . s \ ilh "L on d n fdllin ; n' \ .

\\i, /isnr 1o. r'cace I

r "r l.

r '" . . 1

,.1 \r"

rl,,

j. ! \fF o lnrIr o. r - r r ' on 1""1, - . , p. .-J ,s o/r a $r. seldom ltsr.? in t. hilk'sDoesit shc u a ! statl ut kde? It' \at er.r r.,7cnr.f whil I sa!? Undc u t-.r.r tl,c tt o.l.l I.r5 on lb. T\i. ",r€f t,\ttta cd,ls, sh0 brings cran.ie rlo1i?rs. Wheher| r a. i , / l.r - l i ?). n u n ap .l-., r',n i i ", 1. , ' l. i",. J r J. i : -\i,,1 \'-l . I . r r . . t '. i , . . t 'r r . i . . / r . , , - i " l \p \ s e li,rh, nkro u ;ma inl, , . . 1L. t t o. t r . . I n , r ' a,p: -t l.!1 . h,lo ut,fu ,r / . , c . r b. r , r , . . . . r p . t . : . . H / 1 . , i r \lrdirdi o \-.pl d p "ddu, , f lr ^r dt n, , ". n. n. . , , ; . ara, irs.,:.t I\ rr1lr E d t n p A tlaon,pa "u : r;/ru\i.t,lo r ' r r r J . ai, t , , . "; J t r..Jt .l_,L!\..., n io tr.J " b i m1 ni" t u_din a r"ili",l"1 1.p . r J ! . luilor . . . \ ' 1 / p/ n, / , . - t L '- . t b " . , t t , rt t t,.i--.1 d i n ! p" uulanl. Pd "ld st,-rr: . . \ m n' in, r ' , , . t i, r " L , . l . ', t ) ; . , t , ', . a t n . o J , r t u n d a r, t , n &,toftl ttun E. L. I . d. . . . . . r 1, iun iu, r . a . r t p r ] J . , ta.dat,t. :.\cor z"a .,1o I ' r , t l", . r . d 1- r' rp ti t.. sp "\r r in' n u m c r,i rire:e ar sno nrc (ra anlt 14! , nt ) IJn lo. ' n p lu"r'.-Ji,/p ! ^ nai pud! . r , L " I i". , l , "7 , i r . . s . , , r - , t . r , , aFo.mil ninild h sramatic{ ,ic,ent iloatie (ttetutiee Prcsent). s"Innl.on Ca ine" a: Vorleiti Londral este nlrmele iransmisi.i TV a RBC.nlui.

268 q 1e93 d) o rcljune sau o stare cnre are loc ln momeniul vorbirii, dar care no qrr_.urrrp. ci nrrn,ri ra "ristind: an'tr' ' , I riin.l In ,1,
_\ o .-r" rrL o o 'r l " ' |/ , 4P 4. " r o lr r o - - \ ", 'ni. 'c o l l 3 n d Sl,p ra:",1(rl l,Jn-ds uid-,o/is su rasL that ihe oihA sirls in her teanr cdn hnrdlv ke .]l ur) $ 'th bc r . "Y.ur sist('. /ts / in?" "No, s hc ' s out " natuicd. l)aphnc ts l,apll h.''t d. ttt^t.l Yon d?rrc so l6t. \\'a o.ltnanl.ng. re.cipt oi lour leiler oi cvc! date

q 130{

.l o art;u,,ein curs sau o stare erist€nti in r'.rb'i' nu y'"r . r!"r fo'mH , onri' ui { S l8{6J
'fhey /,.1 old and {oul{i like io see thet grandsi,n

ronentll vorbirii, cind

I remnbet ihe incid.nt no\t Urai lor n.nrtdz it. Tl,cy a.e shd Xou'!€ cone g 1395 /J l'rezentui se mai tntrcbuinleazi cu verbe de mi;care. care se referd l a u n iapi c e ar e l o c i n P re z e rl t: Herc .oma the ,tnzaf of ihe CuP. etc ) de eveninent'e corllentarii, interviuri, descrieri (la radio, tele;ziune sporlive; exclamalji (cu sau ltui ordinea subiect verb inversati): Thcrc r4lfts n, ld.l as'a1l th e .l ' a i rr.d n to I r od. c ur l, ' , po n Hcr' ('. a,tu a-carollinglr atuitt ga.s yab cdb!
'ttrre a.a th."rtnne. beli ! Tlerc apeats anothq Napal@t ! Hcrc c;mcs m! fdtlet ! Lct\ sneak ouil:

gl Dc asemenea, prezentul simplu introduce un citat in mod djrect sau E 1196 indirect, cir,d verbul irtroducti' aie un caract€r momentan ($ 1344) fi nu exprimx o aotiune in desfigurare ln momentul vorbirii: on actingi.(: "Do not sawthe air too much " l{adletr'sadvice
Jo hr's l"ll' " ia y s r t i" . u ' f ' _d ir ' a' . ! r l. "l Dl , ,pllr nr. J o r r ' nr s n br r m p r . " o P

ul pir sclor. sl filii a.rp in reb rinlar ln i.dicaLiilp!..nicF, in rezL'ma S I39? ' lologrrijilor mal^rii pov^tiril^r. la rillurilp arli.ol.lor.lin ziar.. al legendelor din ziare etc.:
Oli\in e ,, r u o "t ds t , \i"r.o .* , or', dr I up qr . r dd d";rl. slulvry.

t: trec 9. Erptind fitupuI $ 13$8 - H isloriN ar N axratiaePrcscnt S1399 a) ( Pr.zcntulnal alir saai^rtoric ) - P en' tru a'se da mai nlulte aioiciune stilului, tntlmpl6riie trecut'e sini porrestite la prezent, uneori ohiar in continuareaunui tilnt tr€cui, ccea c€ contribuie la r€liefarea faptelor P01'estit€:
I qenr ir MC, clovd lhe doo. Snddenly a voice .alls oul .l the dalk dd srart'cs flc. I tcel iainL atd .aD ha.dlv waur' i ji au il,c Pacnls ri that d'll1 I rcmemhc(d one flridlr': Noihe' ir in the silliltgjoom' in.o,tt raiii to l,tr lii a 1\hilci bnt nll the ti;ie I /.cr th{t atl is not as il Ot rd, and yet I datu roi asir r,cr aboll lhe doctor's visii. slould -,'"

Prezentul narativ cste loalte rar lntrebuinlrat in engleza vorbitl A 1400 il ln cazul unor Yerbe care se reterA la informalii. cat ta forget, to hcar " to tt'ritcela'j 3e l:n dlh). io l.dnr (: r 8lla). 10ldl, ta be told, to uniLcrstand, intrel,uinjclz. do prchrintr l'^pz€nt(l simplu in locul pr€zentuluipedecb:
I /o/3.r \rl,{t diy iL wt6. (t\nr ur.iat Ne zt .ttr) r Pe o il$lfatiL de !t{im Nor: .,In1.,1-n.. ,,n ea tt aL t: .a pt .-A.nul c r ! e t u' jt . si ri colindim."

t /.,"drrc\

1.i; "ji

t

1\

'

: rr ;,,. r, J,' - 5r ',n \,,,r 'l\o r. r,-surIn ",ad.,onJr '

bF j d .

o n \ ir $

ar ' - J t r ' d . BL, l' d- "r

lrrr"r'

n " l l r 'r '

r"r'rizore

I 1.2., vou !e {on the Pdze l,1m ali.tL t'.\ ai ciltisat Prc iul.) \u lr" J r/r m J' \'-eol y uur . d"g- ' n\ r iar J i: . i . r oinlom ' n'i.d ? ; I \ .d-;v " I rn tal.l rau rrp \.rv rr!\Y Llli s-, stus ' J .rti to rrte o.npdt l 1 unlerctand. l\e is a mathemati.ian ol rclulc . iDupi olt om i4leler, esle un matcmrl'c'8n repurirl, ] rlv[her u.r,p s o \ " r '" n l d lh' ' . d. n l ot ' r o\ li a. , . . , . \Irmn rdd :J\Fr . 1lLa1a l\ l r r ' i uo r r nb. r Jl r d p ' p " n i J " d '.

riitar s r10r 1. E a pr i m d f i m pul d) In limba vorbitn, clnd exi.itaur adYelbde timp aiilor tn propozilie' .\ 1{02 simplu erirrnnnuneori o aoliunesau o starc viitoare. a.steptatiori prezeritut un obrcer: proiectatd,sau care constriure
'l'otuia* is J!lt-. 2i Term beiiiDs o^ Monddy. The past;nan doesn't eall on ,S,nda?

simplu esteintrcbuinlat ln specialcu referirela prograne' s 1403 D) Prezentul etc,: avjoarlelor orare! nlersul trenurilor, al vapoerelor,
\1hat tjmc ts ihe nnsic lesson odar''1 \re razd at. livc this allnn on The York trnio is duc in al 11 am. thc mass d€ntonstration is at 8 a.n shulp Lolnonos' Profesor Morris is dne io lecture on Frrdag oe.k. ' ' \ ! npn da,c , . r Sun do ! , iil, t s BBa p"o; - or F. . lL du, 5n . . l, s d n a lt ; - ht . on- . . at b, r , t . as t . ' nd: r ' lt do! lnLv rr \" t-'ra 't""-.lo l t r aa' ann"" Tt " ir is o ,a to H'oth' a; . t ; ' p. t t lt t , all hnur '

D" fapt, 'a.i in limbr rom-n5. programarpdplanilicor"rsau inlerc'ul eri.ld in irc/"n1, i'le'Fs.si tn rraful. !1, r'alizarFain \iilor'
Uo rh "r 1. , , - io- r ' r r " J i d p D ' { l \-P \. te.r,po.l Pr"z A n. Ll s im plLrp ' l A l n l rF b L i r,l i l i n p rc p o z l i i tP si undot. ql rrp \rrl ocrp care r ale. a u cu nJ i! io' J le - p p n ru a .x p ri rn a o o c L ru n r s" u a p l o . .a n. init , nt , F a u rp ro € p F (o n " o n ' i l n n l . ' u oLti tt l un" tau state Ritrs me un as sooa as he ga,t lome (Telitoneaza'mi oe ta ros, rc'r.si.) hr J , s l ]o u to . D o r' L 3 u nnlil t'ndatn _

$ 1104

viitoare (S 2E52):

indicatirului prezelt ilin limbi romeri, ilr limba cnglezi' s 140 5) T:raaluoerea asupra traduccrii urm:ii'oareloroazuri cu aL€n1,ia lndeoscbi - Se'atrage totul sp€ciale:
t ,.o.h -.v At.ron p.'p , ot or u, t 1r r . L, nl, , .

\ nu I o' "/ P", \d l.ou _ o nr'P | .ha Lu v,, T\ ." s h"n I c n, s , oJ al, , / p in. . ' 5o"t nol" m odal" r tV , i " mdlrd i,n "l'\/o- ' i Il Virian crues on llondav, I'll look him uP iDaoi Vilian ta cd't luni, am si na duo sil vad ) no longr t b d l - r l o 4 i i l . I nra. . \ our,d lh t, - . ' lonof los . ' ' il m r ' l - ' lll m in, nr n Jr 'r n L p a d b 'l ,frr'r-, D-cJ nu,, r \\ I \ ' hi a . np ' D ' $. ! )h" \ ili lo ol a r /;P d" \\J\ F " \d v'r;rrjJ '

97n S 1,l0ti al lndicotivul rrr€zent din linlba romann tradus ln linba englezi cu ' ;nd; ;;"ut r,.ut s;npll' $r,ontin,'u { S I4ll. 2838):
i"t tl) i / 4"1"' iil rl:.', d.p .6 laot " r n t uds do; ag h"r I ' om \ \ . r \ dd c o , l l a r " o n " ' -h .5!'d .he

s 1{07
q 1+0S '

,) IndioativLrl prezent t&tl,\s cn |iitotul fald de ,'ed'.tt( $ 2838):
.t," rn," , , p / t - , u, . ' dt x-t n, m r o c o m p . l

e./ Indioelj(rl prezPnttrdJus cr prerentulsau cu ,;iordl cantinuq reJind iiiton,l in .rilul familidr (S 1521/:
\la: dzc la llinbttre rresl. o o.d: $al. iD ar , ho I d rl t + :"'& tr " a s alk I n J n hn r ' l ll i" A:t' E . u \

,ll lndi.atilul prezeot tradus cu ttfrrldl sau cn eiitoruL fald dc tecnt S l{0$ " nntinttx. r"drnJ 'iiao',,1rn s ilul fr nrliaf \S li2Jr: o oIe A spusotl se du.eta plimbare Peste
ir. .b rd p -' - tl ,.,id h"d

q 1{10 '

€) lndicativul prezent iradus cu construclid idiomatici to bc Soing to (enprimd c€rtitudine): Vrcmease s.ilrlnlrA.
1- The rveath.r ;s g,iig ,, .|aDgc l crnhesl,e-l'. tievi l.enulI
r' t | ou l : | : ' ^: p' ir ' "? s i, ' "! t-s l nL dn d;'_Pl. r ' r a' da r r ' nr r l J n " n u " " " r " b p '" i". i . n"got ,'eo I i' I r ' r J in i r s l P d t d n t t o a l , I r t p 'll lo lJ h".:n l n' d . \ r n r ' Sind " o J u ' 1 6 ' d ' f\l_imi \:tn go rn9 bio nlr t r ' l

sJL _, j?Hf or n$. lk ; nanI . o. r ) qoos or J \ v 1l k i d "; ut ! , I

h o 't . l

continuu. cu prezentul - Vezi Conjugarea 6) Prezotul simpluin eontrast 1806. continun S

I $ 14r
€ llt2 "

T&ECUTLTLSIUPIU
iTIItr SLIIPNE IIS'i TENSEI

lr Foruri. TtF ulul sinplrr I'rc o \;n ut,i forud l''rlu loere p'r'ur e e n l , . ,r . r " Fpt i H '.rbului /o At. Tr..,rrul simplu ^l v'rb lur rP!d|ot .c Iat meazn adnugindu-se suii\ul -cd la inlinitiv:
, ., .,!, -" |-i I pt I r l' , : J o L, . "i t J : I . o lL: l. . ,'J t ", t h. . . r . .J F'n d .l q l :

esle foarte dire$. (\rezi thta verncrclttlate Trecutul s;nplu al rcrbelar la tE47). nercsulate belor S 2) Ortogralie. - Vezi 5 1?;9. S 1i113 tr." rl ' rl .i m p l u . p ri ' o d l i ur,r ' ru n' l 0rp ' unrl l ' l Jr f un. lie. $ 1414 ttaddd d n" A s

rt 1 " . l ' .rr;n n ,o n ' ,' ,, r.'mi na -nI ttttn t' " , . ir " in\ ul ! rs z u ti l lr i JnD d In o ' ' e ne1t u t J n' ;Po td . ' x' r i rr' 4' l i ' tu" F sts ti n p re l ;"1 F " lF , onl/ , - po ro tu d 1 " . F t t,t t tt tn tnt t\' ot ' 1' l tr' p. i ri ri p ' rl , l ' ,pr I F' r" ri rnr" rl ;n r-l ,ui ntdl D" l t iinJ ir ' l l c ...l .a u $ 11 1 5 " t,-, l e p o r " . Lir . a inlr n ' p l a ' i l o r t;p ' tt- t It ,' tu t l totot ' a| t ;snr" ' [)orroti v" or Historic Pdst)l: Georsc,,a,...d ai this rnd !rr,,d.l ac.oss{i lhe Chicl I'ligincer' rle ,tird himscu togel.lie. and rhtt ontLnued
IPrpn r,r..,jLn rdir e J F m r l J "Dd r ' ) : r r |\ 6 1 ^ r d r r r i 'i d r : n . d F 'r r r l p p r o \ i t r '. l" f^e T"a* 4n u' ii A"a^di. ip i ' t udi i n i o u l n . a I r i c" Lc tciusi 'nln Lrin lJr . ir DomFnrls_ . r i {\t l" ndr dp il T tn Dul ). i' f l". 1"i ' ' 1 u " " 'o n j r r C t r 'i e n g l P T a d i,"r .nierna naortaia tr lndareJ de fJli.

2?l

'limpul ln (Jrps 0.per.erutactiunps€xprimati de verb poate fi precizat S1416 " rn urmaroal0Le modun: a, prinlFur aJ\prb da ti'np pr"ri. sru prinrr Jn rJ ati\. a1:u.st,r.Jor. \llt7
t t x a d otc.nA ' A.d fn'!J.dr$ er.),,- 0. t d. t ( Np"t : , nr t t Lj, 4, ". . t ; , n"c ' c. t . ' r k p n . , v\ . n p' .. s3u p rin n r i. p 1lt p. . t v . f bp or i t o. I J iU, ; I,l\erbilte rafe Dr€ci_ ; n 19. 35 a. w' 4 a. ji ut t t r t , t t t . , 4 1 t h n l t i n t . a t t h e z " a 7 l limoul ln lrp , ., ': n u m nt. Jus ro r l ( ad inFaur i/ ; t h. t J o. t b, l, r , , t h" o t t t . t t l o . t . , t " da t Lelorc . ! s b " do. t . t..A. r . " n, l: t , t hi( d. t t t as t , t . 4r F l '. 1 ' J 't.tdo ! I called i.here z.,sr..da,. IIe srw mc fi; nizL,.: aq.. She lolt lor thc Cort.int\ir tdsl ucut. \\:hcn I $ng u!. sr€ rlr9 out. /. .... d s'3DoLc . I f l+ oc r iz r d hm I mat r'm r1r , , a. , i, ; |J You s€r. hir.e the otte da1t, r€reD't !on? '.\l ."b-lh $ as r ir . D ll. iil rn tr-;. \l!.rmc in ar ll] . r 0 t odr l \. d ,.,7 , I rsal ot p1 t o . r f oo J J r u. I so i trie te er nn t v pdne, k i. I didn't sl.cl al thdt Li,li. :,a a ula 'da u'.r ^11 b. c r n r o - , r , c r , ho ue hl tl,p t i. k nt , ; 1 Tr \ , ! t o lhp ahi . The Houses ot P{rliae€rt ir Loridon wore l|llitt d,,atiars petiods.

.^r, printr{tn verb la un timp tuecut (care aparline grupei trecutului g 1418 1356): {
'thet s,cte sains rhcn we ord{e{t. 1t f . t t ! had ! " n " r,.n ry d
li, . ' , . I . 16 \ ?t . oat d: p " it II- totid to th "' . p. . r n' r $niUw"' s t aoid Dointtnes. p ^t , h" .h p , S' said tir ' . 1 1u- n - - t 1ii" I nus i. . J . { S t , t i n 4 : r ; t , . o n f n r m .^ rPrlon d, nr, I m t r r lr or )

h o o ntcrpd thp room

_ c.) prjn orice alL indicator dc timp trecutpreci,s,care se nu tie adverb de S l4tg f rmp cdu.onqlruLllptcmpori\|5: L!i,fp. (r..th,t.tosaV.totell,togp\tabutf, to cost.to payj to LastEtc.l
h'tuN ,]id yor sa this buruundvl T t r y did ni. . a " h .r u r; ^ ;r /ra ," . lvas ,nar ihe nilknm ivho rnls? lvho sa'rdso? Who ,old yon inarl 1 bauahtl\is ooat ar lla.rod's. What dtd your teleajsioncosrl Hoh m u. iJ , ]' o u r,r4 r.r rh . As ta c .l s (tt.? HoN lons did tie 6h;q /dsr:

d) priq context sau numai ln intenlia celui care vorbeqte:
lt'@ she a! home?
He .ane cv.rv dav lor $c€ks. The rlay pd; teii sed,.,t rou hea. that noise? ,'d.e'1'0u aL the nartv? \\'h1 l d d Jo . - aJ / | ; av n r h"J r d ) ou Yor d/d, I sc. e tn ttte .lub. I ner him o, d fntt night: he $as a regutaf ti$t nignhr.

s 1420

.

4) ,Ilte luncfii alo trocotuluisilnplu,- Trecutulsimpluinlocuiefte urm{- g 14Zl
,u ph.,nttt p . 4 p 4 t g t i 'r .

lor . , i . Ld\ . "b. t r l D . l nu )iJ" ' int . , , . r r t r ui . *th" t n"t',..., ( L r, n' t ^. ; , , , d. t - . \ nlr id, 4 n g l . r i. , . ' iLf \i r/r. p ". r! a I na. "n : , , . | , ; t , , . . , o-

"u a F r n t . t , u 'r , t J r c u r c t r t d c

27t
$ ff:.:f o t tlt -.nt).t tl'o 1r.r1 .rr l: intlell;rI ''\Yhai .,x -1 "\l
\J'' ' i

it t t t t t

l- ' i

nr ' ir ' r ' i 'o

r i r n 'j '

T " l i i 'o 'a

itr

I do lor )ox?" r n' d, to '

o

'. '

:What illd YonwnnLio ialli to me aboutT" fDfst)E .,c i,tat ( ' lrcji si\ni \r,rbrsti?l (eu niperfcclul in louul prpr'ntllui) pro.edcLr Cr. ill tirnbalomAndacela'(i scop.ilustlrt prin rrdJu efle din pnr'nicTtlP I e rnal tnlrebuinlaLtn acelalqi Sll:3 " ..1.ln locul cnruiaesteuneorilrtr€br tul /rf I))tr,t ou 'r.r.irnpl:li'ar" i"ntr.r "'iarpi unFi r"peririi: pen,L8t

.'.\' i o L o r r i r '_ u\" l. 1l 1,, / . r r , ". / l!. L ho .r I l! t r ' , 'p a .,.t.r d t-. ".r a 't s t u l e 'l r L d a v Shc hn J |.cn {l lhe lui s inoe \ i, ' r ! 13v Thr s n o \ i t r t r n \ : loll"l I L\ oJ ' J s Jr'l / 1 .'a \bl dl ill.r la cab rnll dc hr i. \ ir s oar c a / , . / / , r w i L l o ur n l u l a s o 5 r r e r lirt! ' ' de doni zil. l l a d m e t l H a 'r 's " "sh r srill sh.l,r d l. hr o$n u, e bun do\ n t l, r r c b e n '. s l c ', r r i ltfu.ea cli rom l.ic cliill aool. inairtc de a't fi ittttttnia'l intllni lE llau's) iYez i t i $ 14811

{ll9l '

'ht,tt 4tp, in 'ilul indir- rinrr'o prap" ti'nr'lu 'n'n-i,l rinp,lin gr"!d r'"''r'rlLri' au ulorm; zitjc.p.Lr,l 'r;.Jur1 ,n r:hl'r' s:nll): J; r re.,r.3t,^nf"rn' r'i,rlii ur'0'nd.r'l"r rimputilor t:') (dn|il un tecut si.mpltt)3. S 1{2i} I ntousht Yot nad a sisier' ci a, o sor,'' lcredcam l
Ilc dsn.ll nit jlsr row ho\t Iotr 4?,r' J r'/ IIJi'n br ' 'r "dr r ' .\\'n .tr to ,, n" t.It fl,,r I J,,. t r , , ^t , t . . , o, t u, l i. lu .. \ "r l : i..t" r"J '...\b 5n \ ' l lJ \ r s l' " "lr "r ' 'd "ldi' dr l" 1 d '" '" n lio r ' l\ ' m r |I ' J ,:'lr'1 /.

5 ' r+'16

." ) (dupn eiitoruLfdtd tu lret:nt ) conform regulii coresirondenleilillllu($ 28314: rilor
\l'e rre.c told lNi s'a stus .h 1, "i,r, r.ra ' T "\' p:x, \.r"r'F li t,) wait xnlil thc lus .rdr lhcrc. sii {sl,eptlm riDiL .t ta srsi allobuml l r _"" oll1 l' i ' . r ia "r ", n 'r ' n lo. . l ' l l: r ' l , , / l n ' o " l i 'r 'l 1 . r nDt t J . . |at , r s ' p s nat J n' ir , i- ' ir ' r l " '

S 1{:}7

ti")

(dapd u

i !ftozldl,rcd.1: sir ho ntuiic (asijsJ Adr' es / t \ d. . ) lCrcd .a r nn n.ie ':i

condili.ottul )t :

I J.r(. ,lcrome, Thtee)Iet d a R.tl :\'l . l ur: ' l d' .i o' -' 1. ,..' i .u ro \ r'..,:, 3Df r ; l I ' " ld l _ -q t r' rrL i ' . rrl i l - n;l : I' l ' rl l r' /nr ' rrrrl uro 7r' i .J u,r' , :. \- l r' r.: ' nJ' -l .' ,i .. p r' r I r | .:t n t ; , nlJ io' . r , .
noln nl b | " : i- t '..d | ' t - b' r" l in | ' :r rnr ' r ' r | ''r " i t r v " "m n trDl. r,tlnrla carc iusLil'.i ' 1nl, o iTf,u l. nr r, oui , r ' l. J ,jmr . i r b. ", ' ' \ o '! d d ' li- n11" I i: '.r.'1, ' . ' i,ut i.:riro t.o,r"dio nd: " t i . " r lor ' r \ d' L l 'r ' / o .n s.blo .' :' o ,J 4 l' l g . n r-. ' '5 F.n nJ ,,o llc v ialf . \ 'l u r l d p r ; / p - r ' lund' ru uljo I n 'r d d r ' r r i 'u

2t3
\\:e riotldi,ro&ldr liltc lo i.lierc Ic @a."lbr a poct' (\_e'ar |],-i.ca si! rriilfm .ii esre Poer"l

: )) Sl i h rl c oloc r id. - Pi n .i c ro g a re d rl rr" g u l a ' ofesl nr' rl rl rtP rl i nrl ' urj - S 1128 ru 4 0 .rr F r 4. prF/oni ,\rq-Fn 3 rn t ur : . in l ; rr,o \ , r Lir ' : - i t , - .r' . ' r" " :,r' r p rF rnr' r\urrrl r' n l p d ' n , , \ . r l, .; n, r."l ,r: fn ,' 'l | " .rl r' -' u i . ' rrl i i 'l ri n' nur di n r' r' t' ozi l i e oruoo l i i { . " u . l r . / d t" i t,, t., t::t t : . , i, ,,t-* ." r li, . . r,t/ mc she Is gting to bc o{$ied so.n -!lri I /rnlt stif,s
d ll' fh ". rl ||I r , ^. . d' , , l, nl , ' ,, .!r', ll" ,.. ttf , tt .i de ltr I !S!l lgI'2. jlrl44l' raria!1.1e c\cnllol.. 1t.zi Desjsur ci rella lea u no r ac f iur li s nu s L; ir i t f c . r iie e \ p r i n a t e l n s t i l l l

direct

fiitoare pislreazi toLuli forma de lrt'xl conlorm plin prezeni,fnrn il1rplica1,ii timpurilor: iesulii corespoDdeDlei
H'o,t
. r.t.

' t:tP -a ?

ro

F\

' r \ "'

s

ld1 'r

'" a,,

J"
$ 'l ' g'.o " ''

Din schemclede la ! 1356 qi 1357-se { I'129 6l Tmihcerex in lirnbt rorne i. de lrecl]t esteexprilnatl in limba noliurca i,'djcrliv. la trodul con.iiit:i ca. qlF/d n,inrr .,4n r" rorn ' .prbrb' -'i rnrrm' I'in inlli"1ri 'rl rr'ul ' ^ j.. l:{.or. iar r' li nhr I 'n;": lti' / l l'r'rrF \.ch 'l' drlprrrp: t P)!1I t;s ) I inr'.ri t.i,li:. Ir:6 ln lr"r. irul tr"' rt p,j.",ii 7.,1 t't a,-!., .i ".,p',,.."-1"_i -l 'lr'dL'F'1 'rr'r ''lph r p r 'rrr , ur",.c.'rpe tr linba romeDe.astfel: t ' ";ntt,' 'du 'I p4t thl "otlpu li rFd'r'" inrr'lpbril r t ll:lll ot-'tp (s l:44 rrF.ulp d n, li'r ", t\orr',', d dp \p'l' " ' rb 'r num-nl 'r 'r 1347): 134r:
il t . t ' |J t s t t ^ ' 1 1' lh! ' p d ' , .11 1.1 t li . _il ,',,-. , . 1, s "al" " -' \\c a ,nl to { lli"r J f s r er dar ' 1Nc 4,, .l4r ifri la ttalrrr.)

b) crl inperfc.tul ln cazul acliuni]or sau stirjtor' cu cal'acter duraljv (li 1:145) sau reprititiv:
Hc sd1 ll,cfri i ' aiLins lDur aliv i /.se&a aiolo aitrflin'l l l fL P\L 'l ' l' ' ""P fto r 'r_ '/ L je :r'\.' \ ( s],. ;'16 i Llcrei N.avcr lDu.aiivl / Era ,r lr.1 1o . { c Dr it . n r ' l

S 1431

d

., D rpTFnul \arr \ri o' ur' s u! I { l 4 l l . li2q, . dlil -n "l rr\F l i rn p rrrrl rn e fal : I om i- i t radu i c l n ir nb llc "-"ij

\ l'r'rrn \\'' ,,.i1, / 'rl' llri l' 'n i 'r'dcum s-r ardtdt,rnJi S ll32 irecutul sinplu e\prinliir'1. Pe lins; aceasta. 'lrrpa q4

urri .s1433 saustari anterioare unci ac-tiuni ii,,i; ,,,"tt ,,"?'.rtcrril tn-cazitl monlenl "" "'ii" dadtrecut(S 1423): ni,iiira' r)rcztnlcind noliuneaestede prezent(in cadnrl cores- S 1434 "i t;mpurilor) ($ 1424); ponddnlei
rr',.n i rol, ' \ , ' Ilnir r- i i r P r c s sin
:\!'.i I,qd..(

l" at td ttt." .t ir ' r - lrn d '
1r:0o1.r, ,' .i,:,r ' .

'n i n'' d i n l r" i
I l- "

rr" , i 'l l " r' l o d " ,,' ,,
. S - Ji

i i _' ^.r^ ' Lrai ri . r4' r' i r rr4' u\rorr

3 1 r.c t , t 1, . , t , , " r," ,1 anterio. unei a.tirni lleente.

n

'n

" ,,

??4

143, .
{ 1438

c)..cr t'iitrr uL_ t:n\d noliunea €sto de viitor (in carrul cljle.,ironrlont€i
( $ 2834).

Atcntte ! ,{ nu so confonda trarulrt silnptu cu subjoncrivul prezc,rl cu care afe formd identici. (Vozi $ 1553). dc mni jon .oi!in subjorLl;ruj sr xu treLurul(dupn r c,.iu,,Llia . .Exemplele ,.d/r ii1 .^r,. rurr i.-, a\pr ,, Irqt-ri,.ra,: It\ linc Llnlil ron qe',r fo rr1.
llr fi tirilul si Lt i.ut:i. la r\tjNa!. Ion nrd ,ef.. sav .r.s,. /lIa i l)ine d i s pr ne _dr . - i: TLey \vish llhrrl ih,:J .,r sr. von. /-,1f l,.t si i. toitr-l redfa i 1 1. rath c . her ) ad t . t ] , f . g. . rll rv (At ',o pt.fira sir s! ' ia, insoarc cn ca d{it sn a. destflrti.)

5 1437

7) Trecut Di riitor.-, Din Fig. 2 () 1357) se vede .,n in.i;.j4liiri?lrrecut, ocupa prtrul .jstemuluide tirnl,uri care apartin trecutului.r\sadar.pentru ' rednrcu unpi ,rcliuni anrprioarc iceteia exprinat€ prin i dicati\-ul tre.ut. vcF bul cF lunp l\.!r. rt.t pa[!"..t pa\t p"[..tt.i"tp.n.u.F.riun" vii nar.raia d" d.cF1_"xpri dr! pfln in.t q rrrt rrq ri r"16,rt ... pur. t) t;! ut [afu tJ? trecut. (Ftllurc in the Past)l
lt".bllm ) 160. . . a , r \t -d st'r. .i o r ' : , , . J ttp , |". t . t r ( \ t i. , .n . " tt. .,./d.F" r. l\iiror ," o ,T f,d.d../

S 1438

5lf39

Obsereq,lie l\it trecnttll anterior indicatiyului tracur. cit ti riilrr..,l fate de acesta slnt l,impuri constnrif,e cn ajnrorulforn.i tecute a diriliarctor lesiectirc.lotme irnpuse de coresponden,ta tirnpurilor, care cere ca un \erb ce se'&t''td in raport temporuI cu un tecut si aib; tot form; de trecur, ( I 2838). 8r fompnr0tieiotrc irocutul bimplu .i trcrllrrl.ootinu||3. FormasimDla r indi,irivului r".ut i\primrj o drliunFsau n starp,,.m/ral.itn1.un mumFnL dai.irecur;lor_ma continua snger6f.ze co tinuitdtca unei ac!,iuni sau a uner stdri_trecute. deci ii Japtul ce ac€asranz, a fast desaitirgiti. Dacd intreabi cinovn: "Dd lor hEd.abort Lord Nounitatten'$rragic deaUiin Ireland?.' Se poate rispunde cn lrecutul simphr:
"Yes. I /kd.d l.he Dews on tle TV.',

"14 './r'r : ,r-eJ dlJ lr _ da. . i \ _o"biu"LI "" g r i j I l d m n m " 1 u t d " n t d u t u : b a r "/, r I d" id l l L. t g nd, , t . , . . 11 . , , v r , . r i in^ r o z i o d . r '. r , ht|-,..Tt,v,v.r, ns rlo ,( il r ',. . r , . t Rool r "t J y . _"u\ r,rt., t"" inr;rpr. iorbirorului nr' : t . ,.1 :1 .n ? .i a . r . . t a s , dor , o . , , luJ r ; . d d., - .,,i.".it.

R;spunsul suqereazdrd informaliile auzite Ia TV sint suficiente si cd vorbilorul .on.idFr; Lhestiun€ain, his,iSe poate lnsi rnspunde fi a,r trecuttl conti.nun:

$ 1410

t) Douna{tiuni simnltAne. - Dcui saumai multe actiuni tre0utecarese dcsfaso8ri ln i.olasi fimp pot f; eriprimate prin indicatii,ul Lrecut, conrinuu.
d d .; . F ^1 . . . r I |t c rF s F J T i, s . a . u n I i | , u i | ., p d lor l " u^ motuent drt:
\,"/.la,In l^ ,tt) t ,1 1 ,' o . " lu \, co q r t.1 .) .,1 . 'E t,.,., T

!?6 []rfn I tuned in i.o ihe lilc o'clockne$s, Ure annoDncer,asrcddt,g the nalncs ol tlrp njrriirq teams. whilc oo{'ds eere ctucrits and musio 44s LeingPlalen. (Cind anr pns radionl pentru sinilc dc ]a ora cinci, crairicnl r.'zvrn.a nun€le rclripclor cistigetoaf,, in timi c. mlllimea addnd li se au*a tnnzioe.) Foartc adoscori ins[. una din cole doui forn}e conlinue este iniocuitd S 1441 p rin 'r'.u ru l . i. lt ' lu I nc ^ i d p u n d ,l L Arh ' ? t. F \p ri mj ' unri nui l al F- ' JU /,ci .o n ri n ri r ,rp o j . ,r,/. \ :i ' nLl ranpi l i aar pr..: i {, r t t.."i 'Jr"J lrere tn laft-comets Pourtng -\s thc slrow ntuceetlen. He ou.ed,an, illrIc thc noist outsider@ sro"B in Yolumc. Dacd insn nu cortinuitatea acliunilor intor€seazd. ci simplul fapi c{ S 1442 omcnt dat. l_erbele respcrtire se pun la trocutul acestea au avut loc la ur silnpln (N.rrftrtirr ar H^toru: PtLtt): Th-"1 /ear do$n lonnr and 1 cam€ ho .. a,t-;& dar in oras. iar eu d,' ,.,ir acasi.) \itc. tlc livc o'claok ri$s. the enouncer /add the mo,es 01 tl,f cdsi ir the pdpt it t l l o . l a _ lo lo n n {. so il n'u :. r 4. - l' r ' L s or r n i l - l l i . s '- P 9 , . P 4 1 r l r " l r l n t h . " i ': . " u / , r , fl1 ; J ld o ra.r ", ' r ir J r r . r l r . , , t 1um . 1. tlup. i: .dl r /"1 r " r r ' ' / ' \ " r r _ - n' o ,o h . : n:. ,^ urd n'

PREZE\TUI,

PNIiIJIOT
MECT]

$ 14.re

(THE IITESDNT I

r' Formi
|'rol.n|U|p.|tFc.''a' :in''||r|U|.ompU.di|||inl,ar"r'r"nJ nun r. Ja ,sern'n.'r". -" torn,pdr". u rruronrl rndi"' i'ul.ri prcr^nr il su\iiiarnlui 'o f l.\\E. lrmr dc p.tt:;piut tr-rl "l vcrbului dF.unjucal:,
I hale callcd: fou hdt! .alled; lhey la!. called, calledr he. shc, ii h6 callsd; we hale calledi you IaYe

$ 1441

D. Functii

s 1445

Din F;g.2. S l ,iL. q. or..'ori a prezerlulpprfr I la'e parle,lin srupg ,lF 'i mpuri , arp rn ""rrrrl lor 1,r':,nt"t indi ,ltitu't/i si slnr ' on lruir" ' u "u respecLive. auxiliarelor rr,"r:.nlul Prezeniul perfect,erprimi asadaro acliune sau o stare treeutl, anterioarl \arbului FqlFin ,.. yntp1y;, lar alll rlp "lrin. l"qrr" do a -- r In'll lnlPlFSUl t.tpt Jc tt"z"r1. pqz.nlLl Dorlpil li:nd 'r',anri hiar lr-d'r. u prF/rn ul ln ]inlba .omend (S 1475 b). PrezenLulperf€ct are l,"ri tntr€buintiri /rrincilale. Dl fuaLn: l) mterioritRtec unei acliuni terminate insintea altei ac.tiuni exprnnate $ 144ti prin prezen',:
on i, nJ"i". \h n 1 p 4as / , nd bnak d r , n- al{ d' . . d " '" 'h l J p e r ' m r . , l dd_U. j 44. ? i1 _ 'l d J u n a " i " r F p . D urnin ,,l . ,lu r,1 oi \ or l. I s r o l i o r a ! u p o l \ L liv.. , .n I h t!" ar ", t 'Jp .a:ca "r , r lr l' "u, . a t b a 'r o , bu' d lir p. m lop r . r ' e tlut',t " on l, * l, r' ',1 tic| n, ) 'd

1447 2) rezultatul in prezert al unei acliLtni anierioare. de cele rnai mulle ori "r cu irnplicalii ulterioafe, l}ronentu,sivlr*rii acliunii respeotivencfiind india deaarace n intereseazi:
D.ry has broken. IS'a cr{pat de zi. l: Esle zi, dcci ne tutem scula )l

ln di mull a LiPr ic nni ' E \ orsie um s ar .Pd" 1 , nur n l ; . , . o , r , r o 'i n bt t o. : \ t at . t dd ' ,' it o' n,w 'l duri iitlu). inspj.at{ din bltsDele 0clc mai cnDcscuie ii o e constiLuic cvenimenhtl lradi_ liohal a1 s,lrlriloril{tr d. ialni'L-

276 Whal ,rs Dfozsn,vou here? lce te-a a.lLs aici? (De cc ds,t aici? Ce nei de la minc?)l lvho nas l,tu,\e, the l.caD.t? Icire o s??, ceainicnl?[: Ccainicul.s'. sra.r, deci nu putem fuc. ccai.)]
| l"nr. .""t n , In .,n L d JU' .1 p i u r p

n tallou m nunJt. (Nu stun.,nd anr vtzut. iar)loul. cioi nu iriereseui tltu d .r,_ f F 7. 'a.ut lld ul ln f r ,/" n r: ta r,.u l, i rl r.n o ... . r i ,pl , al i a .d j nr ,nLU ,i d.rnrr.I
wl{ Drf

ctrd aios t des c his di d c a s L .a .c i l a p tu l c i l e rc a s i .r'adsr€deschi si i i j cl deaceea.srrcr. letter?" "\o. I h.eca't ben dble La get a stnmp. tlecryihing "IIarc lan pastcd.l.he p,ts ctosed." ]{ cutie?- Ntr, n an lutut gi6i tinbrc. Pcst. tot cra ltrchB., { Ai lus sc.isoarer "Eao. lot ne! t\ti Flcndnrsra" "No"_ "I'd like votr to rnaci ttiem.i' ( cd;Drri fa'nilia l lemmint?- \u. - ni vrea i[ rc ,rcztr.)

ld,. 1 o u o j. o Pd tt n \i \h .\. 4id,.hi. ( \to m F .,r t"t"d ' t^ a

x' l

.!r..t,i ni r'n

rr!,.a.d

$ 1448

3) o acliuno sau o stare incoputfi in txecut care durcazi pinl ir prezt'rlt (sau pind intr.-un moment,trecut atit de apropiat de prezent incit se confundi cu acesta)jcontinulnd sau nu ln pfoze.t sau in .riiLor. Se deosebesc urmitoarele a) durata perioadeide timp in care s a petrecLrt, acliunea nu e:rtearitat;, se subtntelegi;e cuviotele j,pi;[ in prezeni": Sheids redD all a.long the scacoast and nos.,.a alt ihe new buildings. a losLpe iot litoralnlqi a vezuttoatenoilaconsh-uctii.l t(Pi l In p.ezent)
H. h d " b " c n t + or 4 to $ ;d , n | l.m d s

S 1449

lse qiic cA (piDi in prezlnr) a iiitisai ri zecereprize srccesiv.l Thi ooncertnasa'l ,eszn. ddct nu te sribi.l lconceriul nu a lnceput (pine ln lrezcnt) Adverbele c/cr si nerdr accentuoazd ideea, nu sint deci obligaiorii: Have rou (r,er) sP€, a sazelle' l A i r J z ut ( ! r eu ,l a l i ) o s a z e l i l l I Lav . f oer c r ' l/ u d . p o p p o rtu n ty . l N, ) m dv ur ( ' ijc i o d a tr) t;rl :j u l l : ,/ durdra acliu]lii e\primate de verb esLe aretati prin adverbe sau lo5 1450 cu l i u ni adr F r bidlc a l c € ro i | rl e l e s e s L el e g a t de prezent asau attt de apropi ai d€ prezent incit se conru,rdd iu acesta), -ca: jffi (: tounai, abia), laielE', o/ lal., fecentlg3. d.aring thc I tlle:e l.rst three yeors (feo q'ecks, LtrJo montht eIc.)1 this last Aear, tlrcscllhis t|entlJ minntcs, oa Atr, Uet elc.l He ttds irgt dt:iecd.. lTocmiri (acu, abia) a sosit.l SIe /dsn'i ,c,u !vel1litsly. (Nu s-a simlit biDe in uliima v.eme.) l2ur ioclbr lb. so l d .l IF U !F s n I' F l d s n r,/ m u . l o l pJ.n, I n ul im ii doi d n , a a v u t m .l tft d n In \d l d t.j \- ft, hr.d u rF.r.h Jou tbi! rhcsc ro y mioutir. , I n. T dm d pd u re .r 0 e m ' n u l ' r' d a o d ti n..l cJ duraia acliunii exprimate dc verb esLe o perioadi de timp indicata { 1451 de un adverb de timp nep;ecis, sau de o locutiune-adverbialn (precedate sau nu de prepozilia /d/J : (far ) sone tine. some iieelis. sercral !ea6, a fart ight, an h,aur or tpo. a fctr minutes, ([ar) alang rine, ha',long...2 eIc.l \\c haeeb.at Daflt.l (lofl o week. /.tinkn cisiloriti de o sntiiLohi.)
r r\ 6e obrlna t.arer-'{ saDDilicai,ive d. ia 0..retrLdi nerfeci la trecnlul sjrnold din ultinia !tupozilie, ca.c s. fcrrfi la ur mooenr Dri;is din rrr;trr. : ncrfect vdnbilc si: "//dr? vou ir.D;L sazell{i?" "1 ldrfl''r /,ad thr olro|iunilv." "!lnt ' xrcd,tttu a;:Leun droib cxr. sicdnsLrtri.,ii; ri eu ir,curul simplu {S 1i6i r}.

!?? tt In"' l \ou: I / dt ", l ' J or ' lor r c ei' i t r r I nl' n. s i l \ u r " d' t : : ' r | ' t11 . 'o l '1 long? Itd.c lon ArorYz the (li .rtold dc iult?) {on long nat. lon beea \rith tsl lDe .in l cl,t la Doi?) . 1r pr - u t . "r a u l r ' l i u r r " J " \ n r i - d r d dr ln,"lur'rl t'.'i ,d lP: J - li' nP; ulr ' n x! l ! 'r l r d l ''1 r '4 \ l n r . a p rrn t' r nt l\ "r b' duolo { l a ! e rL, c" le r,' ';/d : L" ( :r s t t t " " t 'P c h ' t luhlu! ! jin l " r 't o t l9 ' a L i n o , rl r' r. . i-, A: \i

$ ll52

ii,,i'ini'ii,i

"f

ftan 1e50ftum t",, (:t'c).tron .Lhov (froin his chitdhoott'

1957' n Br ' ' 1 ^ \ t 4 b4 . ' "L"i ' ir " lui: n Fur fi ' li "a u.h ' home rrom o lle has liaed a\tal- lro 'hild' era coril-l a(Dl) tfnicete delarte de crsr'r d' cind tale agail thrt dlX sh. nds nele. beea f 'n |l]ni accn zi {ia) nu a riai ttlt.idr niciodai'i l

Atcnli.t! je alrlL" in sncrill al"nlid rt nu ' intrcblir'1:" r/'hddld ln lirnba en"ltz'' ind, ,1t",ttiftz nt i t]n'i "|nJ un v"rb e r" \n'olil dr u-n udvcrb do r' rimn lr".rll p""""d"r d" 'i. , ( J..in l Jp Jtu-.i da. 't tn lar' lron {1'€ii,si s t4;;, 2361). er incerulul perioadei r1etimp in cate s-a petrecut acliunea crprimatn $ 146t un \Frb la rr ut'tt 'tmpl u: <lo '"rn...1" "i)r' "rrn,
tot hdr. b*n lrY ldtnd evo since I w!! born' (tni .f/i prielcn_dc citrd n am ndsc!t.) she .anc h$c as a .hild rnd nos bftn \titl us erer since ai'unct') lr\ venit aici de copil ti sd la noi mereu de S:n1J.. I la- m r t lL r d l \\'e /,, . ,, trnJo r nd ian i1 ; ln l u l m a o d - ' l a L .rrr up lJ I J " \u a ' L P itr I97' \tp l F I .4 n- r " lr or r ls o y ds nol "\ Fr s i n r F 'n t r I n l 9 : 9 r . d' ; r n' t i1p J n: ./l@ ai" ,\ ' 4 ' "a '

p $ 146{ rJ d r r , r " r io- l. i i n c e r." Ip ' l rF ' u L a rri u n o ' F rp ri ' nrrdd' tFrb,F percrerol i ' i ' uno o rr'' l or7t p n tu t r/.' . \ ' " r b lA n d i t, d .'i n; t t r: ' b r" ' " n He ha3n't {orPel i}pilg since hc lrss Deenin this room ia n'a-:inade cind 3e afla rn aceasfi caderd ) il'-. l'""t.1 Ji "c"id disatpointedir hcr sincc I iure knolr! her' I iatd neler rzdn (Nd m-a d""zanegitniciodat'l de clnd o / l 'z@t' \1'c rat,6edn jn nish spir'ilsa]l ihe tnne Ne heYcrrorled at tho barage -entuzintti la La'aj dc clnd lucfta ) (Sltiten mnur loirie \ t n / ioi Dp " rJ r ra ,l .\.i n r" \" h u ro I' ccn mrrri P d oi i ' r r d . rn I i ,r" ' a " -.r 'rn fo I '

oerlec co lr , r uu " . c " n u, i rJ i ' l " " " d A n n ' i n -i ' r" d u d" Jurx' i iernrinaie in prezmt sau lnir un treoul' fo t'e recenl': He h.s b..n ,a.ntq llrglisl! (lor) l$'o veaN (.['t..li. eielrza .tc d.r am ) ri .fo rn ll. ' v 1r ' ' , r " ' ,
LD, ' rtd In o lPll,T i

$ 1455 d. Prezontulletfect simplu Si prczentllller'feet continuu , l L x |cr b.l " lu r ' r\p 1rpla 3\"' t^ ma'o in u ' rs lli: ' p " ' z " n lu l s 1 4 6 6 d' r' ur' r
unpr

l:li::lllii;"':i'":ii:l;'i1ilix"l-i;ilT n:nhxli:ill',,iiii'l:jir,il;:l:;fi

2;E
i..' '|:'':'].' ' ' ' | ' ' ' ' | i' ' i l^ , . ' \| ' ' l' a -'t',: |a" ||''j ''|'' , i d t r t 1 , . t i . , i , ri .m tL, rdt 4, ^. t on'h5' n ut.:mr.c

f I

S r157

ll L eori ffi.rna continuii t, trez,,rrutuj p€riclr !\pfl,,ra LUniirLunrea unci_aririuni lir pr;rzcrtjcv,jriunt :r 1,, \jitur. i!,!|lrott eu prezerrt!1 rrertoct. simplu.car.c nrat; o acliulp termilrti in prczrrLt:

l1 r , \ , . r J r , . a t l a . tm .,t| " , I\ou-tJr,rl " b p ,../ t t ir r . , ' . r - . t . T i .a n r,.rL ,r ,d t " ,, , n " ,r " Li ,t_ t.i z .. rr.r rpl r' n,r-o.J I uD ai.aid I /,ard .o/an 1.our lunotr. lTi ani niin(rr lrinzul {iu a nai r;iD$ nnriol.l P r ez eit ul p e rfe c t c o n l ,j n u u rl \e rb e i o r n,oD entai e (g 1344) edpri mn $ 145 8 .... / a.,, urr reperaie: r . 1or , t . " ,-" 1 ,/.r l l l ,:" \d\ r, th.i a..u" j .. l .t d \' r.,r, ,,i t, .,, .tr. r" b i .a , ,,, r" -" ,,t, . \\c hdt. l,un :lapprrs erfrl r.rtnan $e met ro rclt him thij ,.s5 ot ouf trrigadr.s , 1l{},,frn.ID roli mu.rjr.o.ii l. carf i am nitilrtit. oi sri lc spur.D rcsL€alealizrrli , o " g da' n. i r ' l S r45$ d./ PrczeDtul pertect lorrinuu drl uneoi te\rLrtui o nuanln emol.ioratd:
\,r L .1.. g, r , g I n I i. i, iiLr r . J . r 1: : nd , Lr ". ! - b ii.'rr', iarrp i o5la, : \:i d:r d, t.ziu,j ll. Lo t."- . it. ; , B ut r , ddinA , I dt , , , r . s n {J i n : (i J Lr / iu n, . . ' t r . , , . Do d.; J , . o b o , . i . l ".d -1,titp n1

\ se corripara in contra"ct,: : tte hasatut n a svmDlionv. ,1 sartu o snnronie.
\r"a -nru t a ,,iLni , . ! n npr . r . r ilbr . , i, . ' nu in . ; , p s , : r , . i . r d a r . r '! s i m l o n i d . \ , unul r - e, ut . _ t , e n, . , € \"r \mphont.ta.L \Io n".,ul a,'iL I r , j. p"e, . i/ J ' . an, r t t r Lr". . ,1 . -.. o s,n on: p dnr . t bi. r t , , H hos r . : t . " , d s r n , r , h o i . 1 . i , r r a r . I \i u Lr i .!pu t d . i t pr m nai, t r " J " . t dn l p , , . o - i n | , ' F J n u I a' ps , i. lt - / r bp. , . . r t; t , , . g a s J l p r ! J , . i . J F r r . -j i \i ri n . d '.nro pu, J in a, . p, J n du"pr / l . i . n F r p l " r , 1

$ I460

D.narcLe pfuz-nr,rl pc pcr e\primi ideeA de anterioiralefali de Drezenl J1r " i.tJainr;icuitutc';I.ri\in,d,o,,riru.,ii r.;";, r-";; ""1i,_"ii \I o". F.l' LIF Jo fll . J ba I nlit ur p a. FJ . r i, r , , iio u r u n t i "",.h;trai; ir,rrFbuir tind||-satntdt_ ,1t.lina p.'tttn indicarea contiD!itnlii acljunri lerhutui ttztntut retel:t confinuu. care aduoeprecizareaneccsari daci aceastanu reiesenici diir cbricxt. {cf. { 1455). r/. Treeutul simph si prezcntul pertect

S 1.161

Deoscbireadintre trecurul sjmptu .sjprezentul l,FrIFrt prerinti mdri difi_ ' .1.r i ferrru .r,,.1-,,rii In,,,;ni. obi.rr.riir ,,.ri,g"rc" i"manl. as"ln".o. "u .Lcl-zo :r I a i.'ii ,imi, fu"rrp n , ,lit"rlri J" pd. tje a, aFr. ru,|'r! I ", ,r r. , Jb.tr rr_ dp rin,pufiJF gran,Jti..,toJin lrn bd romdna. s, r" .,urJia ,rr.,I ltru,-lr]rJ orjulrlii e',slpzc in Fis. 2 S 1J57.avindu_"(e tn .!,edere irif /.r'i/ \ Dr!utuI d|l,.rop,.2,,ia, pr,a.tin timoarumina. rradrr, n, Fzi. ri niridncrrr:r . . U c',mparair"intrr rrrcnrnl simplLt .siprezentr perf€ct va lnmuri mar bnre intrebuiniareaa(l*tor rimpurr. a.l.t:tdratul linp netut 1n limbo engleza.lll exDnm.ro . Trecutul simplu est,e d.lrllnn,Jrp r arut lo. tntr un tuot\..t prec^ 6du in,ro p r;oaddprp;isddin tfc.r?r!ar_trune ternrn.ltd atnnci s\ fdrii nici a legdturd.ct1, prez€ntul-

2!9

hczc tul pedoet €stc esentialmenteun tinp prcz.nr' El erprimii o nciiLl si c e a losl s;t'irliti indr un r?,/rtnt it urd cn prezerLtul ne trecnLA, crie aJ".l..g ""ffl"fl*t simrlu inrlreaptn aten!;a asupra no rnllthu rr..ur ir ca.e s a ,<nvirgit acliunear prezenhl ptrfec{' nrn|ra rr. ltatttlui acli.u.ttiiin ft:tnr:
I 1,s, mY look len da$ a(o, ,,.r, \" .' u,ri rmrj, r r ' . d, r - , ; ' . r ;, /l . -q ' ,r r,i. -l r' ,J ar, I " eo r' -rnl .l r , d, . ., .t I n . . t , , , . t m . ,r" " . ." r 1 tr" r,ru rd p , ' .' t,.r " I nd'€ lo'r n'v r'ook. p" P ' 7d ' ' i i nr r' 5' ari U rn r D- c . d- -r t r " ' . \l o n r, I l ;rJ .i i n r " .i \" ' p rl L i i Io " J ,,.-' i pol l -n ,d ,tr r lo! d r r l ' ' ' i " _' Ir' al IIi .. s o n D o dy/d sr' r' / / h r' ,o, arri l | :.i .h p a - lt - l^t h " rIl " tt,b ri lir n n i, no "c (\ I.l " ' ' r ' l d r \' ,1 .l .,r \d a api n' o i I L'as in Bu.Iarest last l-.tr. l,\n lost anul trecul ta Bicnrllti (Tjmlnl prcciz.rt: ldsr !dr' ,\cl'nrneallII ltgli tndi iru lrezcntulr n! nai sint aon, in Dncurciii )l i haac \n\{ beenin tsucharcstllorl . ycar. tsjnl (acnn) la Bu.urciti de ur an. {Aaliune lrecute carc ocnlinud in plezdli ti !ro!abil in !iito..)l ds a .nttdl" "No, I .iil''l.. I onlv r'.4t lo Hun_ "rtd you er€r go lo Czcobosloraltia S t "v \u. ,,, a,n r,sr. \m ,.i "j e i r " . t v podd' a r n r" h !s r, \d .." ..td p tr: ,o p t: nnas o d d ta r r Lngr id t lrn l l a c L !r' a r7 1 l d p ,u \i n l " l ' d., ' nl d ). 'tl .r. \ l -7 1 h o .l o \n l i a . \o , l /d ' u 1l ) r' P o l l ungi rJ ' ' - \ a t " . n lo N " a m l L i . ndi rr' I n d" i a rs out' i " _ v r , ] d d n C " h o s l o rt,a l \i loL In tctege ,,pin[ ]rr€zent-11
l l i.d l.r Init,u , ra . . r ' r ' , " J " r ^ ou. P i- r n"m alo g , a l ? ( T i n 'p u l d r 'n r l 't P n _ zat di cuvjlltele befate coins ta tlE lictLtes )) dard lou d,rc vour norka Lncreea €ste sata {in prezent) (Sublnieles: ,,Dac[ inat"lrcraree?: tTi'ai'ter €ste saia, poli acum sn te distrezj.")l I h. d,d O"h oL . n i Bh, ' r s d / in Dlu; , , . ' t . n: ! oua lF . a n . " t ( \ I o m n l r q 'r t D ''i z a l lA muu,il ..lla D oo id 1 lb; . r , d: d lu: C"t . ! $ilipr i' onr Fr t de cN'intele Pi€'dd?/ at the .otu41 ,i fad hstttcd .u Pterentut.)) LdJ" ,{.."d riprsh{in; "ll dnsodv in lrluc_ /;r, ( t r n J i n p r P z e n l '. r t l o n. i,r i d I , a! . a- a l . i c pr . h\ in d" f';nPs traDsod rlr , \ mlrn7r p "r io. oa o" Lin, p or . I "eot u, o " p e ? ^ t n . ) l n p n l u t 0 tlu l: ,"/;-i.dr. "Ilate !\it rcad 'Hamlci'?" "No. bul t hnte seen it I sao the pic\n.e duing the l- tpt 4d t n F* . ?n! t " - Nu, dd l d m \ t z u t t l t 'o t r P r P z P n t ) | -A . icit:t lliil ot )1 t n"t pt ulu: t t - Vow ! t t q r ' l r i i A m iizul t ilm!l ra .:mpr' f ". l: \ alt lui She d,, u! to lhem and !s/'.dr "Why nd€ you c,ru: Whv dn lou sdv vou rveren't rp | 5-a roro !:dl d " "'s a nt ^"bA t t r eu ' a, at ir t : . , D"c F a r i r . n r ''. '. D r "tnrpli ai ; . t , a p*,p"t, ,,Dp rp a lis pus lnlr un anu4: t r nom pn( s r b r r '" 1 " s r d i n / 'P . u l ) c i 'u ! e n i ti?' il
Diu r" L oo 1ou" \'^tl b .[."P L a :,A to ttP p i tu "P

In urma to r r nl. s d\ er bF d F i ,,Ip n p rP " ;. d a r i n s i l ui l i i

alotimD inhcbt riato atit cu trccutul simplu' cit Di cu prczentul $ 1462 Aalyerbele p.rlP l p o r li i' rF h u in t a lp .ll )i prF/pntut tr o uiu l -i'nnl.r, Ar i l D c r l c r l.
di l eri l " :

1) erer $i nc{er, recently,slnt, folosite cu: S 1463 gubinle le g t re c u t " : c u v in t e le cind se simTlu, , , in a ) Tr e cn tul
"rid vou crcr /tnd o,, the nanc ol the goal kecpcr?"r "I dtd'- iusl relorc I Lfr lhc st{diun " mcade le stadioD.) / rt;i,rJ drn se 'r"tia lortarul?-Da, chiarlnainte dc plecarea She was lh. rreitiest girl I or0r rad (Era cea mai arrgule rain te carc (fl pd:,t_o .odail:r') 1 (sport): parur {la lotbul, ho.h.i {do.).

{i0 Hc rcrf..er?{kd tlr. o/I,,& tor $tji.h Ie tad n{rn c.nsurcd. (Nu a /cprr, ri.tdd.d grei€.th telt.u ca.c nrsese o.iiicar.)

Sr { 6 {

b) pr e ..n tul

. b r,,a n r { . . io ot h b. , p \r!'r.. i\-, /o., r . 1lr':r,, / "U | . r iI co ir ,rt t . . t . ; t .' . qnt t ! . .. /

p fe ze n- u- : }1{r, }ru crer llrilcl l.he ller.,itasr llnseun, nr Lrnhsmd? (.1i ri..inr rreodaldiluz.ul Emitasii din LcnilAfad?r I i. . ,n I.s ri n : | !l !s J . ' r h o r\n qrJp i of d i n., \.,tr,,L . r .rd re .1 l i ri ,o t,r .- ,l n o \.' i. t." " ,. ., l r,tLa r,rc4,to)
r DFr.r r", I/ olh i d i, ll);u ttn fast niciaddtil h i\arc.) $",, Dd,r ,.a or / pr ^ i. " / , , . , . . . / uf lr a to O,bcor. /\, tdn .. | . . d", , , t t - , n r / i J L t d " o \

t.rIr/:1.

t)tfi sc s L rb in le ] e cg u riirc t e , , p iI i rn

$ 146i, . . 2) -ldrerhele li locutiunile adrcrbixte de tiDp neprccis care cxprine iileeLr de..pili:i la un nlorn€ntdar trcrut sxu p"c,"nt.. ci: dtt,dtl.lJ. stiLL, uet, .ot t.,,t. t tn.\. I tt ) ,t'l ,s tt,,. ,luJpt...,in r'uto-itc,u: a) Tr.t: utul si,LDl .. cin,l sc subrrreleccurint€lc ..ollrdnrtr U, '-. ,r ,,iiJu. :,, ii,,.b.,,^mi.:, , rr irnpnrt,, ruir:
lle Lyardlr€ldX tircd. /,4.o deji obosit.) Trrere p.fe articlis ltill not irfittcn. /E.aa attiole lncn ncscris€.) -fhere ,e/a iobs not vct don.. atra& sarctri lnce neildellinite.) So nu lhinss gr.. al] ris[t \iLh lhe ,,e\Lhjrcddcd corn]e. (Pin,'L atruoi noii instr{iei se tnrd,a4 t}i.e.} I p lo nor pv " . v tl ' n A r .,a " d o i i c .I J . n ,i ro r l p d -, g r" r.r . P r ' . 1ar L) P r . : nt u t r,n d .p .,,L,nrFt,s ,uri n el , ,prna rn I. r[..t. .ot.r,d.j p r.zrrr r ' r r J us in l i mL a ;n i ,r r.4 .., t . . . . r' b ri ." ' o Pr' .."r ar l rc a d r. f! fi rd;u r .xrozitia.) Hdrc yo! boughtuic tiokets r€t? [Ai cumpnrat bi]etele (ptni in lfe?enr)?l Shc still ,usn't aond. lTot n-a e.ni1.) SIc n6,'i .dne xet. {\n o rr"n nrcai.) Up to no{/Bo Irr tl,c experjmert lds De'r a sucoess. {Pini h prez-"ni cxpcricnla a ac"r succcs.) 14tj$ 3) Adl.erb€le ,siloculiunile ad.!'€rbiale care arate o pe oaili, dc timp DeterS nrilafi, ca: tadu!, Ihis tr.iehl /nonlh I gear I matuing,-a.tt tluy, all n{ght etc. si n t folos it e c u: t ul s i rn p l u . e n rd p e ri o a d a d€ i ;np sau acti unea €rpfl . ).trt. m.rr1 cre \ er'IJ s a lern.Du1t: I / / . lJ f . " o . th n o rri n ( (\:orl.so dlti1-amiazn sau s!r0 scare). (N-am bliut oldra azi djn' n nealli.) lt iiinerl tune!. plaud a n.) -{ tlouat. rzl. (Xu "tui r,,!' nu si, I.l.Ia numal l.r p.czrnt. dar ia nn Donx,nr dat r.eclq consider.ttca ii Ir.z-;ni .F rtro or. z ta !h^ ,J.q!= pilt.\7i: tu rna, lay : pjnri ahuei.

981 h.rc lor a lerv liours this $cek, He 'ds aici cileva ore slltin]ina aee.rsta(da. a plccat )l [{ lost pcrfe c t. N i n tl p e ri o x d a d e ti l )p si rtLarl i urea v€rh ) p rcz ent ul

hcn: bului dureazn
I hdeen'L har) corlcc tbis nosins. (\-am beut calea azi dnnjnea!{.) {vorbeso dimin.a!^ i 'l'odrr nds ,c.i a line dal. lrzi I tosi o zi lrtrnmasa.)(Esle sca,d !i inci rrumos ) \on hdrc been here onlv onc. tlis weok. fN-ai lo6t aici dcctt o dalI (plnl acud sipfinlna ace,tst r In a{ard tle cazurile menlionat€ la aeest punct. ur1de iimpul verbului r€sDectiv esto imlrus de necesiLatea clarificirii nri,.elesu\ri, r.tunci ri d situaiia r p ip. r l i rn p "lr J in " on, pr l ." l F d o L d l i " l p u ri ,n ' .4 "..nti fol osrr" l ur' d" o*bir ", n . m ai r " r . r , lndu s e d i .ri n l i a d i -rt, ' l F .l l bi l i r" r Ji ,,' . A ' f-l se spune in mod egal, tn,telesul fiind acelagi in ambele cazurj:
'l-e hnt a l l d .\. "artpd 'd .r . s | e hd r r t e n t L , ' r i5 \' / \ _d 'r .\" i1 p lt"

rad t. p, n" , o' t J - u. . o * i a n n l ' :j . | -ttl o tl t. ,j u o ttr. tt, q\.rttJ. t' '. ! ' n s , ipt + ol t L i ' n " d t' | ' ,q o tn . n o t or t 4.q' n. L ' t JLtt. .: t d" .a n . ' -" s . ". oJi ni oar,r pe tr' n' uti . .t . r. t ,-h fu rn t. . r ' r y [ o n!1 ,' ,.p t! I v x , t.-. n r" , 1 t m t t \. ti a n rl t' l j /r' i ,acpLi . srnr l ol o o dJ l. ) . n. t \'.'), o t.. ' 1 t""r ' c i n d s o s u b l n -te l eg cu1-;n' .el c,.i n treeut" I s inl l [. a) l re cLt t (trecui indicat printr un adYcrb de iimp prccisl): Our lolk danccs grout lrcque.nttl toz g.eat alplans! dron Ne pertorned in the

contiruttirc slrnrepetitire' S u67 dc timp ,\i loculiu,rle adv€rbiale 4) Ad\,-,rtel6

,o ' r Pd rard Jl i l J\' l o l i i s L;l e I :. { "tu F

[.

i ra rl r' e o ri l L d l ' dl l Ll d J-Jm !r:.h :l a nos r r t d" dan r,r, I" l u l d ' r" l s pF r l n ,,l c i n labr ic j. ) In mr cbllillooil, tle olten s"rn, thc holida$ at. trrc scasid'r' (ln cirpildrja nrea, petrecea adGeori lacanla 1a nare l As e b o r . I lom pliDcsttr+ d tn th .rh o o o n l b n l l I dn " -; i n ' r' i | n a l " d l d " ol i i 1 u ra ,-lr im , opr . . iur J " rr Shc ,st.i to tite in ilrh honsi once' (Locuia pc lrcmuri in ace'rsil casa) pe rf e c t. c i rtl s e s u b i l l l e l e g cul i ni cl €.,pi rn l n preh) p re z e nt ul I ndr. olrlrs _ tftorqrr slie 1'.s shY. nn d .sn1ar.r tindda l {A oczut. lnto tdaan He llds olten ,a.z hoe. (.! v€nit adeseori aici.) I lar. r.dn "Othelld' nonJ tidres. (Am lazut de mnltu oi ,,Othcllo") She ids ,,,2 here only otre€. (-\ iosl aici o sirglri dati.) i:) Since (adl.erb. conjunclie sau prepozitie) se intrcbuinleazd cu: c i n d a c l i l rn e a s a u sl arca l :i cate sf r€feri s; a) tre cut ul /l a -. (lat drn 1,"..r1: rre loc tntr un nonent I ta,.r't scenlini slncehi.aru hcfc {s a child {Conj.) (Nn lam v,"rzdtde clnd a lcnii aioi, trn oolil ) r" l b L . C o n l . l r'! r'," e J d\ . qinr p 'c. ; In a o " . -i ,t tr - r / i J , . r n, d to | .! ' rl r Sau prin fohivileniul tui, n,liri o loculiure adr..biali. o propoziii. (nrrnslanli{ll €rc. -\..sf te.rr este nun,iL iknri' i;at rcp.li1i,

S 11168

2 !S Tlis line buitdirs ozs a ruin noi lonlr sincc. lAdv.) lAccastt irxmodi cltdire .ra ntr de ;rnr o niira_)

b) p, c . en t.u t,,'

in pre, .,pine /, i;T].-.;'::'ri,'pr"g .eri.,:;''u"

!(, nos tuld a }rrof.ssdship sinoe 1$0. {prp!.) i t ) eline o c at . dr i Ld i n 1 .J 5 0 .1 . Ravei's "llolcfo" \'as irondcast last Selrcmt.r, Lut ndr not tc.n ftp.atetl ci\.e. (_{dv.) ( .tsolefoxl' hi ltar.l a loEt dituzni la radio in settembria,dar n! a lost retelar de . P , , , , 1u, io" , t , { s .n .,? b l l .a l s a n d b o u n d s (C orj .) s i " c ea!totuati on w asi nrroduced. 'tr oJ . , d as t or, i -i re i n o . t. ,i n ,l .r ro dL. durondt,rdl I lr r . t , at t 1s ," a -.i p 1 t q i o rc I t, rd b rrn ,n .i . o.,i cp.rC ...i . /\r n ir \ " . . r 1 m u :, J " .n l s i n . t, b ro u .J ' -. just 6) Do$ poal,ri a1-eadouir i telesuri clnd s€ retlri la o trf1jur€ t rccuti:1 S 1469 c) adiltainri; acliunea petrecindu se intf-un auumit morncni, dir trecut. '.impul eramatical i n tre b uinlai es Le t r e c u ru l s iDt p I u : s lic r d' lr nF uD i u s t n o n . i u i a i. , ir , nr r ad ;e d ,.i ./ L) : tomni. cltiar actLn: acliunca arind lLrc i]]lr un momcni care se corfundii cu trezentul, tirnpul p .rfecl . . q ra ]n tr t ic nl t nt r ebui n l a t e s te !rc te n tu l Tl,cI ndrE jusi loF &nc in_ I\u irirat .iia, r.z ./ Obs er uali. .o n ' i n tr.cutul b;rnl J:du D ' cz( tul f, r ' ' p. - r bil c . r, !" o p o /rr h ,d t, S Il70 j ' i " i u q rd !,rb p -n rfp r...r 1n' , \ i. li n rl i cdrpa ti mpurui rn." r" ' r.,l osrn;o a rd ac liunc a v er bu l u i , d a r d a c l rn n i n t, J \ o rbi i oruLur aceal tn,{cti ,rne este , l- r 1 . . ur enr . u ,i " a p .r:o ,. l d ,ri 1 r. " u pl rd r r.bu;nta h.r,// l .ca s tn p tl 1. . r t jat i s o g i ' rl l e q tel A re z u l l a tu l a c l i uni i l n prezent, va i ntrel uh!a pr...ntul 1rt4.(toD€nl trecdt You raid rou Itdr't liLc il.. \rnltt dni ih."r dri lor Urat ],al? [:here dtl J.u .{.a urem? Tl,. raj! sropcd r0r ten njlutes ihfn E Son agair. Ilorv dtl rou sroil your dress? I 1,,, 1cn lrl "Did -\an n!rc. and
,{cliurc l,.c.utn lesdn de l'lezelt Iox'r., said ii. t\yicc alr€ady. \liral na-s sh-" ds^./ you? Tcu look so

naplrx. The rain lzs i/rpcd, I an so glad.
\ 1\nt ha@ sou dane! fo!'r.

I'rc sc.n them sad and l'0e r€etr l.hem

s!.ih you

h.at ab.ut llelen?"

u.te6 \on brcasht 1t t)ackl I hde;\'t h%rA \on. _S l eL (: /,d\l -\\ rt abort l fr" l ,r tl ' € t s.l " rl arbhilr, or Lon,l nn "

I @, hcrc lor a weekc ,1 rn j o"nlru o p. o. , t , . r r n '. i - J pl m . ni. t - la J t d. \ dr l, s 4 p- . t u! g r r d in v j i t o r . ) lluO a s e. A. (Staro trccut.i, legafi d. lrczent)l LSini aici d. o si!tlmln:i.

herc tor a wock. ''dsto6l di. o r.plin ln". I ' l1r r ua' un' . Li' ind\ d. .1n lnLr r n t r d c u t d e n i f L i l d . D r r T Fn t i , ,nL, o tp ,roa dA iP tiq,r ' , l- r : ' dr " n' dm I nr or ; . I

I

'linpul grrmaiical pe care tl alegc volbilorul ir ac€slee\errple - si nu neapnrat prez€n,taadverbelor dc tinp - este cheia inteniiei sale. 'O neiodd simptd pentru allarea iinputui gramaticat nicesar prezent S 14?1 simplu. prez€nt perfeci s.lu trecut, sinlplu - consLi ln folosir'lja crior d0ri tntrebdri indicate mai jos: a.) Ere npln: ,,E1est la mare leni.ru o lunll".
lntrebarc EsLea.rm la arc? A lost s,i tz 1.€.&rl l?ds?ens - Da. - -\u. prezentul sir.tlu

Sc va intrebuinla deri uu simplu prezent .arc se prelungeste ti in wiilor). He n .t 7llcs.ar.ld Ior a month b ) Ex:enpl. ul .,Ijl .s,. l.r m.rr. d! dori hrni."

(prczent

luri. A fost ti ir rre.zt.' Da, dou;-L Se va tntrebuinta ur timp trecut, care are legituri cu prezontul
Hc has ben aL tl,c seaside fo. hlo inonths.

nsle d',m la mare?

-

D a.

pr.e;en-

c ) Ex en r tu:
.,I.ll a /,s, la inare in iunie." lnttebote navzns Est€ a.,n la are'1 - \u. :\ l.tnLiL lrccut? -- Da. in iurie, deci un timp irecut care nu rre legiiurn cu prezentd He,.a r n i tl rc s e a s i d -" in June.

So va lntreb[inla

?. Alte furclii :{e prozerhrlui tc ect S 14?S perlectlnlocuieltcliitoml pcrfcctlin Prapr.il;ih src rdof€, I U73 1) Prezentul in special in celelemporale ( S2853): si condi,Lionale
I shaUso to nil oflicc w]ien I haeelod locr. {u'1 voi dncc la birou drpi ce coi fi luat ma.a dc prinz i U t hdeeseenho lcfore roon, I shau ]eare ai jira. IDarii o rot /t rdr,,'o line la prtuz, roi ll.ca la lora) .inci-l You can'l go ard play till ro\ haved.one 1ou. nonreryork. (Nr t"" poti duoc sI ic joci pin;1ce nu li lci /t it.a,1 1e.!iile.r 2) Constructia idiomatici haio got 1: frare). deli a'ind forma d€ plazent perfccl. arc tnleles d€ lrc:enl. dcoarece vcrbul ld ge.tnu indelhrette nici decit rolul de a interi ideea exprin,atn prin |erbul t.i idr'.: I.ndre so, a rvatch (- I nalc n watch). (Posesiunul t nm un c c 6. l I I p 4, 9. , , oD 1 /,,1 { ( II /d ., r-.1 .-\ . (OIl i ..' !' ( lr abt r ies r r nl " L trd s c al c x m .) ,\oeftstn construcirie nu este intrcb nlatd.lc.il iD sli1ul colortial.

S 1474

284 1475 3) Tredoccrcs in limba rome i. - Prezentul perfect se traduce in limba romAnn astfel: pofectnLrom! s in toat€ cazurile ($1446*145rr), 0u cnreplia a) ^ g 147,irb $i c: punct,rlor I hnce \1:cfrarejust n., thcn. fhishe.l \ti\iot4. (,7m teminar.l,. scris.l ll-an izdlni, adineaud.) bt ,u indirc itut pr . n'in nzul 'rrrpis,tiuni in epul. ln ,lur,"/x plna In pr "z,n li probcL:l;i in.ri ur t I1448':
I haoekLoen hcr lor a J.arHoe long lare Jou Dcaa {o .L@s. de un an.) c) cr ';'iirarul an,€r;orl ( S 2853): Yon Filt f(l ielter Nher you /,a.. beeD he.e r Ne€k. (T€ \'ei sinii nrRi Line dup{ ce oti fi skt aici o siptiminar.)

s 11?6

Prozcxhl perfeet

1) nllrimn o d.iinne all$joari piezdLiului {-\ 141ii) :l) llontri ine.lt nee.-Fimat ' r.zultatrl in treze.i inteFseaz:', i1r int,lirajii rltc.ioar) G ]1 lil. 3) Actnhetr rfti lo.ini,r-o riordi do iimti ire(\li-i .trc durerzn z, lirii adrerl !r !trLnrirhsc Ild'ia lon r.d, 'llrmirt"? ( \ 11ii4) , .lnrn in l(^ nNr .\ar cliltrned i, .n erei, ner.r {S 1a!i) Ente lri ,1; .i/i/ ..lltrnlet l ^ Te-rt -rrldi liici l{r {lrcrdX l0id rlc ]li-dt ,id,, n$ rd,"i trcoiluli I I 'e i

i cr. r.",.'t' .;"ut" fS rlll,,i i
../ or n rdYfrn rFrc sn!s..rz,i Iuu id.ea do ,,f:ni ia lrez{r:.t : al.q idL r€ t, s6lo r c ic ( S 11r j; ) ld!

I
rreoditii I N_ruslov.stoa

lori Ml DJsifrcr Xtl? -{i .u,r.rl'o

linn u.!d

!_. t.lgf.gU
ut tnal) iltrol

r.r:ll I
i snr risui dc

I,lde slill sotrDollet l/d \-rm.rul

i i cn l ri l ei al .

d, (tr un ndrorb .rro o^-lrnni T h ' ,b rn l r,a s i q tl .. r" N n. Trenul d s4sii chii. acrn, jrs1, ltlciL ll0s{ !(/dn: tscnty Dinuies.tc. {i! 1116iYe ld/ . r f i , ! L J ou l i t i l l .

Nn tr-d, !.i;d h nliin!

..) d' u rdrerb crre rrrt.i o TodxX ldi |ad r lnrc da-r. ,\lnri z I'sl o zi lru!!'rsi. tirnp reierminrti: t..ioadi rLe lods!, this r€et, ill daI eir. I ldrr uorlrd lPrv lrrd -.1, |(rrl ioarte ntrlt (! 11ii{ il, )

1i. r*'nr,t^1i,' rl tltrl I

$'Iet dsJl

tu& rou t(n

dl Unde ni /r!, lorln ziut?

t Viiior'n rnFrior jn liDla ronini. ca si riil.onl D.rlccL ni linba rnsle7.i. ru cste d' laLr,l., l-n imr,e, d, . dt . , dl. lnl. . . il r nq n, n nr in n i / r n o f i r , l r - ; r \ i i r , r ', l n i \.l. l li id \ o, L, i' . ir . d . r i j , . , t r r , L-... r i . r J , " , 'l d 'i . \ l nr opoi, , l "l'. ,'u, da- . . 1, j. ., d' lrhir"rou p," r , l a ' , r a i i '. . . \ u l I . o I r u " .td. i. r ". i . ! i r r b i r , r r " d r p , , . . . i !1 ror,,' 1. . , h. . \ i"a

!86

f)

((n tar) u a{lv.rb .are anti o '(srn Dcriondli (lr fi'nr t!ri! rorriNlird) rrinaii pr.7ontj Niic ! rr lrt.i (\ 11: )1);

She ldsn'i trN' Irere ({or) (!ar Il'd /4r aici de un 3n. IIol1 lolg ldE votr ,.4, ir fo. so0c ten$ lie irds ,e., Tho gtdcn /Me ir?r,r.l

I Ile cl*d .iii in Buourciii? De cllirs mi Gl) l,{rd?d I Crndinr s, /d".u/nri Innoast iledl ln oprili€. I'icsa r nrrl succcsde l&

4 / i nalxtrl frrii'JJrj d P tjm P t. rmrnxi lscx Drcz.ni este ]lr.Lt4l do nr

idvrb {.susll:

TIle tlrv /mr re.! a .uces

l(]l

Treortnl sin,!\t \ 1111
\\'o nrL lirril lifr sin.e Ne ,,.rtlr mo!tui il lalr Jas)-'. ii.i do ii'rd n!-rn

l J i ne! ri' 11 tcriu ad "i d .. li' nl, t P ru rnJft (srtr (o0 rrnn nr nl 'r !r.20trt. este pr..rzri de ua i r!,ni sn,,p h i\ 1 11 11 : i./ m {a lrmrr lreriert. an,bele lofu. dc trczsrt pcrlP.t e-F ldn!'i DriFird tarar.L.

Iis hetltl ,ds ,.tr botter Sinitotea lui $r a,r,liorui sitr.e h. hrs b..n t*inF do .ird hee Qia I. tsiile the Ml.rs al tle Slirnic

jl

is r151):

.n u ruati! olle& ci ., l i

xd v or bd. t im ! . o n ti - LaE dhr.xs l,ln!.d na -.1,r .r.a4 inloldeinn| ol san rcretitir: 3l${r\ somrii ei, urDi tiD'es \\'c ndf. olton l.er to the ,1m fon od*cori la nrt. 1{ iib) ; 1 4( i?,

- cr.r,ai",tiln*.,t
!i l]{jr-i

t rtal I
l

I liar4 r..r "Ila.r!t"

s.rc.

!,

rii{l.,Ilanlot"

de Dri

TRTICUTIIL P]IRTNCT irflli r'1sf rnRrxc! oli rll;PtrtuEt'rl

sr1?7

e;le un ijnlp ,omlus iofr,,nt cu sjutorul S 1178 Trccutul pcrloct. 1) Forni. lrmL Ul li d'l\il:1rL'ui to H tl L ur'. rt J- II i' ipirr lr-'ul Jl \arbulur de conluEni: I l,adcalled; f,ouhadcallcdit., sle. lt lad cau.di se hadcalled;vou llad calledi
r r P t r ' l p o r l " " r " \ p 'r t "r t t d l lt ' 1\ 1 . CA. s i ai' qi I' g l Am, ri d ro ln;n '. ',.a / . t i4, : , l' r l ! . lr nr lr ! . J osr slr r rl ur m0mpn n, a ,, r. ' iu .o lra.r',: ^ 'n'

2) lutrebuirtare. IrircutuhiiPerleetdin gran:rli.3 'nqiezniiro''.punJ€ S l4i9

fre.rt. si se tr.rduce in ];]rbs romeni ln acest caz cu rnai muli ca pedectul' cu perl6ctui sinplu sau cu perfeciul cornpus:
I kneN Cuv. hl. I idd not r.en l,in s'nce mJ Inar ase. de la cnsebria m.a) {ll cunqrca;n !e Cny, dar nnl 'a!zs.,z ll' 1 r : l. ql on l^ | ' I {'t o t i \\l, en tl,.i /../:d rd lo oior p, J |' onr r r uJ l J r L | u l !..ItLot i J r' , t " . ; , , t " p " t d ''i . r ',,.:i

Trecutul perlect irLr-o plopozilic cere trecutul simplu sau contjnuutn S 1480 cealalti:
rher h.d a aL e b"lot I . d, r ' I roia 1,,u nt tn,t been iaillin! rdr@ so_ :1. .\. or luiprotr'u ' I n I 11 s ' J Z\ or ' l a! . n' in " r 'l p ! '' L u : r l l F l" \dl" mro-rJl" "' "1r u Lnr u 'l Jpe ial{

an u

't

r86
S l48l

3) Trocutul perfect si treeut[l simplo. - Trc.utui pFrfpct .1re, fatd de trecut{ simplu,rolul pe caroI indeplinette pr€zentul pertcctfat; de treze'rtul simplu. Ca atare, cl nai are urmetoarele functii: a.,i tradus tn limbr rcmAnn, cu rfrI,r/p.ral, ?.r[,etul sinLlnu sar !,:rfc(rul S 1489 armp[srarati ci o actiuoesau o FtaretncopuLl] irrintea un i dnumit nroment trecut, indicat prin trecuiul sinpiu. a durat o pedoadd de timl pini in acel moment (cI. S 1448):
H" ,o id h" h ad 0. . / t nF- t f o" $a l. , r r b . , a r ' oh J . doJ . rq pu ncdrp u5 . a 5o- , , l

S 1483

bJ tradus tn limba romAnn ctt t'iitorul antcri.or,inlocuie,(teviitorul pe.fect fald do trecut ln propozitia subordonatn ( g 2856):
Thp \ pr, lfrs;ou :rd Fp ,l r hd\ r , o. ld iom . s he, , lr d\ n 4 d t ; n ; - h e d \ , L r ) t . .r L o. i, n , ir , l \ or lt k n: ni \ d 1 : a - L , a . t , a t t , t r '1 . rrlt d d$d\.

"-"

$1181

., estelolosit cu adverbelejast, srt/i!i g./ (cf. S1448. 1450.1465. 1165b):
\ . r he $r Hd /kJ iu ar ,i, . n / lp, ' , lns ih" nld ri .'r s t ill nnl^ ;' J ou. She told me slic lddn'l s,., Xou -rei.

A se compara urmitoarele lllze pentru a se v€dea rolul trecuiutui parfect fa_tdde rrecutul simplu. identic cu rolul prezertului perfect fald dc prezentul sinplu:
She @rnds sh€ has bcei matied llor) a rea.. ' {scric .e csrc mddtati de un a;.) She orcr. she had beet nuDicd tar lctrt. (Soriah scris c[ estc,'era miriial,l ^ un an.] de n.l ,s ro nl d"n' ) - , ill bp ar n a r b k h n h . t . _o' ,, t -t., r '. t I . t J , r u, , t . - r , , / , /.;",f.. ", rd lL,a n."tp siJ ",. 1 i"a\ io. ' or l' r ; b" Dan rd s ron d nl l' . - or ld L. B. - , r ior L. t ,. r n d n , / - 4 r t s 4 i ; r . . (Dan € ra sigu r ce i s c v a da o s lt r jhJ Ll! p I c . , r i , , t i l | . f , r , i d r i . t t s , u m f n u t d c s r a t . l

A s e r em ar c a e l a s ti c i ta te a c u c rre l i mL l e nql ezd spdrge Li D Jr€l e.Luntorn 'i n d u . " " loJ a 1 l o r c l n l l n ra ru l : Shc ras,ni,ntzb,on lic. wa} [o lhc oemttcfy: "Ioddy her cl]ilil /dl r.ez dcada y.a.,,r

S 1{85

4) Trccutulpeficct in stilul ixdircrt. ln strlrrl irrdirc, i. dupa un r.erb gruper cu lornli de trecut.deciapartnri'rd tre.rtulujr,lrcLutulpe}fe,rinlocuicstetrecutul simplu sau prezentulperfc.r dil stilul direct:
I.a id:'l ,r a - |r es enl , 1, \ F, r lh. ld. r \ \ , " r P , , | I h oJb&' J r , oa. nldir . n , i".r.r , lh l- . : " \ \ 'r l J 'o L 'ril Sn€ asl&'t tue: "Hdt. tot seen todal's !a!e.i"' askcd mc wlictrcr/il{ I nad scen ttiai dar's later. -qlc ;:

S1486

5) lnlocuirer tro0utului leriect cu treriutul iimphr. Pcnlni s; rplii;cire. ln unele sitra,tii trecutrrl perfect este lnlocuii ou i|ccutul snrplu, spre eremplu lnaintea unei propozi,tii secundafe iltroduse prin conjurclia ,rtrc sau ln propozitiile secu dare in care anteliorjtatea dcliunii c-\pr; ate r,1 mod normal prin trecuiul perlect rezulli{ ciar ti fdrn lntrebLrin!arer acestura:
T l, e nr . r nd / , / , ( h .t l ,.tr) L . ..1 6k - ..,. ,.. tr, . n,.fl \rj eI he obroitrJ ( . hid obtdincd) liis ii.it.lt.s, ne spint a \r..li s holidar ir rhe Shc.tLni€d the tarcci Fiil, Lhe doll I lorsl,r (: Ijad lorChtj ii,'r. (Y.z i $ S 1 /, r3 1
rvczi \ 11 :t., v eli s i not a. 'The Ir,nqe-t "torr,.". LiL l0Nl.er. 3 V.zi q 11 56 !nhcthLr - un.al lr.analifal, dar iorDal: 5ltn lruG.C.f. v ez iir ! g. 3r i0, f ut { i.

i/

!op!lar,

dn. cln,nt.

! S 1' 187 . . - p a' " " .i ,u . i .. d i q u b .n " ' ;ru l fF,h. r . a,e p\n' i ma rtu l p |r , .i " u ,, r" nLr ' -:rbui e p ro o ,7 :i d ,o r' ,i ' i o n 1 ir " 1. , 4ut , . , , /l r ^ t . rF . u tu ',o F "' coniundat. ln linbr r'.,Lline se lradu.e in ace.stn situalie cu cordilionalul . tl x.tt1 l ie T rn

( $ 276 2 ) :

I naCs.€n liin lcto... brt I didn'L knoir his nnnc. lTrecut Dert.t ill rnai rd:k.D, dar nn stilrn cum i] cheamri ) it I h. J . , p, h m l ., ., .' \ts l o ,u \o u rc,bton.l r\ p/r' .1
lDJ, r I j , i . - .l+ r ' sp u .

i\rezi ii g 175:lJ

TLTPUTiILTTIIRTtrCTX (f!n Prxr!.ria. rir\nEs)

s 1488

1) Fcrn[. I'imporjle perfect€ se constniesd cu aiutorui au\iliarului g 1,tE9 to IL$'E, la modul si timpul de bazn, icspcotivi urDat de partioitiul trecut al lc'rhlui hrieal dc corjuEat ($ l:li2 l3?8).

Obscrealie Inlre co sll'rclin liilo.ului periect.a liriurului pLrl€cllala de trecut.si S 1Jl,O h " 'n:r:ron,l,rlui Frr"rr p"J"opi,fl-.si ,o."rr..riJ\,ILF'rrFte!rr!.,,oJdl. urmal.e.de un nriiriliv pertcrt iJ. dc alta. e:ristn identitate dc lorme, de;i sltucturarespeclirl diferi. Cn alle cuvinte.in cazulde la1! se suprapun doue irterpreterj: al confornl hqulii de formrre a timpudlor pcrl€cte, viil,orul perfectj S Il!)1 \-iitoflri pedect faln de trecrt ti clrndilionalul pcrfeot sint iorm|ll,e din .,iilrrrril (respectiv ,ttrrr l fdlri de tre. t sarl ':ondiliaMlul) au\iliarului to IIrt1D ]parli.ipiuL trecd al t',:rluL,ri. l,ti.taLx: / .pl . l-Fc'rr. | | I'o'1 Io, { \ir' r /o hotl-,o.t \r rlor p! lp l ,,, .,,4 rir tr,. I or/a t.4) ) -:t.,h.n ip"rr. r""xr1 | I'rr' I tiilnr l.r J r. .' o tnre|!st pl tI-',,] ,!.,r1. rra Ur/ \ ii or p"r'll felrl de trocut l rou l.Jr. (., \'iiLor ii!,i d., trrrt|l Lahaee)+*en 'rarld (parl. I trecut) | :hould haoe (: cordilional to lLure) + wtLlkrd lpatt. Conditi.ndl (rruld I'arc (conditional to haa.) -: rutr (patt. perlect -\o', t!acut)

6/ pe de altn parte. cin,l trebuie redatd ideeade limp perfect,verbele g 1492 del'e.ljIe nlodrle. deci Fi SHA[,L ii WILL. sint urnlaie de un inlinilir ?erl€cl:
I sn"l, (dcl.cti\. ia.l6t) haft.att.d {n'liniti! pcilcci)ron ,,i/i {den 0tiv nodnl) /drd s],ot n tnrlhiaiv reriecl). l rau lJ\4 ,.\ r'r. Tol' / "/ , r ; nt ir i \ r . r . . " t . , . l: dr ini jr t " r " c ' , J, r Jorl/ t i"r , ' , n, l. ' l l. ' "

Ideniitatea lormelor de la $ f491 cu formele de )a S 1492 €ste pcrfectd, cu toati structura lor dilcr'itn.
l,,Propozifia coDdi1iona1."' \:stt: subo aNta catu coniine if In lraza cordilionale g !t ir . :!'r zcnt . t r , , ut : ad \ il t,rr (S r1 .:!l
t r r .i .t I11ri, i. '" , ., dr' t l l . L " nr d z.ve r h r ll"\i.l,D,s,l,' r n h d lir .n r u d j' .,n.t1tJ i . . , t d ,4 d F to .r .,p tn 4 e lip r fe ,.t m 4 n l' onatp. r, t , r. gr t , r . t

s86 ln lucrarea de la!d, paliru coisecvenle !i o mai metodici. pred-are. coriuqarii \ erbului tn qeneial, se vorbe;te de utilizarea au\iliarului to HAVE 1.. .Flilal rcpe,l dl c^ <tru.l:pi cprute ls firr;ar.a /x/l/ror ri';nijrilor ppr[a, de ver!€le SHALL !i \''ILL liiird aratat ln caJrul verbelor del€cLi\e modale. Tirlpurile per2) Timpurile perlocts eonshuite cu auxiliarul to BD. { 149:1 (prezentul perfcet perlect) Yerbe intranzitive llo irecutul ale unor si fecle /; do L io tini.\/. tn pr.to.o. tn gnrl la lt e t. to n'|t. t4 'rt' b*om ,,o -n,, au utreorio form; psraleli.in curerrrxiliarul to sit,to ftst. to return,lortseeLc.l padicipiul trecut pfimind aslfel aproalle lnlocuit cu to BE, to HAVE esle valoare de adjectiv. Aoeasli oomporlate eiiisfi Si tn limba rornnnn:
She $\e Tte The h&s .on.. lEa a aenit.) is .one. Ea a iuit. {: ,'sie taatr.i, de.i poii s o lczi ) sun brd .:.", . . ljodr c t , r as a- . e. ) /,tsdrit. dcci nu mai lut.au sun 1r$ ras.n. suuele r\J.isc. (:trd

ve{ea

rnsitilul).

ConsLrucliato BE + participiul trecut, tiind in getlereintrebuinllta ctr verbe crre exprimi in mod obignuihaoliuni, arati sLareasubiectului rezultatd din acliunea verbului respectiv. Astfel:
Ue hs soue. lEI a ptecat.) (Al€nlia estelndrellati asupra acliunii in sine.l He 13€one[D tlecat. (: tsr.rl,.a,. nu mai esterici.)] (-{tcnl.iaeste irdreptatl asup.a rcarltntului acliunii vcfbnlui. ,,!l ntr nri este airi, aia ce nu'i poii vorbi"l (irandlalhe. sas gmr'4 otd Grardlatler hril s.otD old, (Buni.rl tu {),trl;.) (tsunioDl trDdrtn6?.,

mai rechi il] limbi Formele de periect construite cu auxiliarui to BE au reusit si se;entine irl oarecaremisur5. alitud de lorm€le noi de pe.feci constrriite cu auxiliarul to HAVE, prin laptul cn, deli uDeori aproapeperfeci sinonime cu acestea.poi fi intrebuinlate penLru a rcda totu;i nuanle care contribuie la o €rprinare mai subtiln a gindirii. .\sttel:
(V-aii ' odihnii?l {SInteli odihnjl,? }'ulcn tleca acum?) I travc hea.d he has /crrn€d. (.^.m alzit cn s-a IntoN.l I have h€a.d hc iN t.rurned. {Am auzit c'1 s-a lntor6.) i: Esi€ ai.i, il put-"n redea acu .l Tl . bxtier h.s aelr.J. { U n tul so tot,i t.l the buti.r ft n..J''d. {Untll es[e l.o!it.) ( \tr silli dau dc nt'oar.) .|ne1.harl jn the sircel. t r, l ,e stradt.l -dt I L \e ,nt i ns' ,/ T l i s N Jq thE .asc th' \ scn m , to I lAcesta c.u onzul p.ntN discutafta I druia so intrdnisari.) I | 1 I t

s 149{
S 1195

YIITORUI, SIUPIU (rrrE slrfrr,E rur[nD)

\'litornl (The b'uture) etpri,ni o acliune sarr o stare care l) Delinitie. vorbirii: va area loc drpd momenLul
I Lo os .h",',/1 , . h' _d u l' , n (Siiu c{ ra /t aici ]a ora lira i.r

289 l) Formi, - Viitorul sirnplu se formeazii ou ajutorut auriliarelor SIIALL S 1496 (lq pcfsoana 1 sg. qi pt.) qi WILL (la persoaraa 2-a fi a 3 a sg. !i pl ). urmate d.e Lnfinitieul lf€;e"t al vetbului de conjugat: I sIaU otrll, rou Flll cal1lihe, she,ii will call. we shsll calll rou wiu oall; they will call. 3) SHALL. TIILL. - .\,ieasti ut;lizare tradil,ionali ;r auriliarelor SH,{LL S 1497 (f.f..L g.sr pl.r'i\\lLl lcrs o2"'sia3a'g 'i lt' I r" forn rrea vii'orL'lui in sltltl larntut(ncflqqru \.orDr'). ,.rorr-. la n..nclult2t.,t" at\ d etontat,,dt irc m"'u'a L''s il ,l toloc.ral t-' ri ',u torbili, \\'lLl d irlo'u:r rr l^Jtlr propriu-7isa \\ll at-nape"r'Iuiv si a..,rli.,rulSll\LLin \nsli ,,din'e" i'. :co'j0. lrlardd. \\'r1".. rr nro'ir fiF.i lr torirorirlap\ -dbtilani.^r!3 cE Britani" r.chi -qin 'r SU \. \u"lr ali3 ;i Con.n'unseartbul "nd" 'agl'za esle a doua linbn a-orbi$. u 1ll.i sohr'i- prr,onizr" l" 3r,'"-rsti'"ni n"n ru :a'ire" 'rr "i cui de iunslaaLi ,l.conluz"{ s prob)an;.- 'tFl pdP.FJ n'"i mrci -.,e.:n . r0Do' .r sll\l.L/WlLl. 'nodrc5 " ;n rpbuirr,arFl Iorn'lor ti. r" ul 'on'ras' foartc penl,lu erpedient', ambcle auxiliare. ,{cest I't.1. ltou'Il ;tc.. l.alabile lri qi r n irrim'rl ri J" 'lorr rPrPbralrrp'".dr n se,lLrLr'or nrir .irnrli ''i'lausor, eraLicqu" c.rrl,ri rur, o nou" su'',' ,lF Pf li.uiLeli e"-Anr;'e ' r' Iflbui d tir'^ddla l-olL rlF i rpo^ts1la'5rr'irp a li^ bii ltinpi"td"t"'nrrrlui numnr de nuanl,e inlplioite ln contrastul S}IAI,L/WILL. tinii eramaticieni mafcheaze aceasti schnnbare prin iotala e\clndere a .'nili"rului Sll\LL Lrp.n .li! SllOl'LD7 'lrrr lsb' l" 'ulilro"rii -\irii u ddupld' un "o-,promis 'n unna divar.clorFn.hplo,lo lifrrl a.pl-iA a I'i Il;r'in . .i au ins"rlsin !r.m r i"i pr"z"nla €rnbFlur au\ir rr ordincr Ir! \'Fr -f. .o't.t r 4r:t''hott t i'tr illrebuinLarF. i"rt.l: Isnarl L"i JA 'tt ri irrari aliii. flrile dezaventaje adusc de ac€axti schinbarei lnscriu: irind drept oiteriu I shallliiLL atll { Lve shallltvill call, nt\ mare numer dintre aoeltia inregistrtnd cind. I I we shallI wiII call. cinrl 1,/ oc tpill I shdlL caLl ltun , S au lircut toarte nafi eforturi!i pe scar; intinsn cu rezultate,.coDsiderabile" dupli cii se pare6. pentrr prclucrilr€a masclor in vederea menlinerii raportului SI{\LL / WILL traditionai. In aceasfi situa,tie,granatica de f&ti adopti tormele dc r-iitor t; de oondr" lional tradilionale, araiate la S 1496 ;i $ 1618, ca liind singurLrlpuncL d€ ple care posibil pentru expuneroa clard ii metodicd a numeroaselor subliliilli semttitice (oiertonc:.)care apar odati cu oric€ nlodilicare a raporlului SHALL/ WILL, relpecti!' SHOULD/WOULD, rimlnind sA se indice terior separat, modilicArile apnruie gra-tie interl'cnliei stilului colocvial actual.
ir ' : fo1,, Inl t hat ntt' ,,t6 , m. \ " 1, " r r l |"r ' o1. . nxmxr i <lilu l Do,t r s . L r c lir ios grp n, i, ' t F '6 r , r " l p . e r,.:/;o I . at a, . d l r" 'r -\ Lrl" d d \ l ', l - . ) i . , , , r ' 1t ", , . n- t o, . n.mliD-r s.J., in: Lt : i t : 1ot b r " , : . ) , "u , ' l - r 's p l i r . dbt lr "F' r l I ' . t ' l t nt t "d i ' n; d n/ DA,t " l l, p , 'r , S 'o l '/ \ \ b l d K : ' cd a' a l it "t I nt n o' d \ ". " "n / , , / 4, , tt ,,,r' i.\n!lia protau./oj. I 3l. d !t , , . . , , . . , 4, a/ . t " 1 . t aJ, \or'.1 .a., O./j. D. OxL ttrd t,tr,x l! h Dic r inl r \ r r f 'r '" J ls.Ir' r ' dlr on- n" ' \\' . l,ll " a l l '' 'l of E.slish is evcr c.lled oD to oleni a Nav through " "M.dcn r\nerican l\igP " ilf . I L NIitl,i'rsct {lj{ . , 1r t dc , r . . . .lt en 4S, pag. 9; r t lt nn{ r . . d lia. I $ ii: 8 Qlirk.1 . " 11. I ,' . 1 ?i r ., 1 .

200 5 1498 $ 1499 4) lnfsles.- Viitorul simplu este inirebuin,tatpentru a exprimai a,,l o acriunesau o stareviitoare fatd de un momentprezent:
I-sha l.vill see Urcm on Fdilay. (li ,ot ,cdd !inui.)

s 15oo

unei ac,iiunisau si,iri ln prezentsau ln trrecut: ,J probabilitatea

Cononclo..llease, that rtll Dd St. Thomas's? (Ta-\ai.., v1i rog, acesta esre!rcrdrtl spilalul St- Thomas?) 1vh.t a hollahal.o at thc doorl Tbat t,il, bc the children. cd stz, copiii.) {Ce t{ritroi la us{l P.oDoDtl lr anv nr lhe h ;\s h rs e a l e n l h e i a m. rl a r h 1Z Lc JohD . r O 0. i \ r F U , . ' L J ;." b e i " l i a ,_ n i d l m d m " l J dJ, l ral A rr.rt; sa /i p l on I A s \ r u , , i/ l air ra d v 6 ,,, tu o m h rr l p .l " r. s he aoi s l o Jb31. " , Lt upr c . 11 t r ob o L i i ,.i l i r rl ,r . " ' s o a rF a ;:.r l ' a,; Ia l d:.1 :torul u; s 1501 5J \ iilor ul pc rre c l | 7 h " I' " tt,' r" p rl i | .o Iorm1a7b ru aj ul otul a u r;lilr ulLi r o il. \ \ E u rn ' a l d e N t.;p ;,1 /f, al al vprbul tri de conj ugal r: 1 shall/$ill hare called; you will lavc cailedi lie, she i[ Nill ]rave called; we shall/sill lavc ca.llrd; you will have call-"di they \iilt have called. Yiitorul perfect exprimE, ca gi in limba ronind: d) o acliune sau o starc aiitoare: anlertodrd, altei acliuni ori stdri Yiitoare sAD r nni m om enl d a t v i i to r: Lo_, J on, " : L h o l l l !:x l a r [i ,;.l fd t _ ' b o roruprp' . r \ : ' a I nF 4r T t lA n .a t.p 4 :n sd b " L l ." J i u l I' i r c. L.i " osi ri i .) tle ial\ lLd'e dor€ ihe tanslation bv this inre i.omorros'. (Nu ure sd. terminetraducereapin{ mliDe la ac€astA orI.) l ; t a t,o n r" a l i ,n i s d u .ri n r " " mi nrtp l i c l n r r P cuL.l j a i n vi i l or' L 1 l r obobi fn 6 r p" i ar z \ iit or u l p " rrp . t .a l -r' l u rn l n l rm bl ro" r;na uu \i i l orul rnl eri ^r gi esle de ohicci lnlocuit pr Lr o construclic ln care apare adverbul t/obaDii: 'ton oi haectuald ure nane: it is so lanoxs.3 (t'.aLdLil.cd ai d&.i, acest rnner este alii de celcbru.) Ste eilt ha@ tin6?d.i nr nine o'ctocli.l (r.ababit .d e; fi tc.ninarl'a r€rntnd phl la ora noui.)

s 1502

Patt analFuture krfect in the,PdJl.). - Acesteasint doui timpud, inexistente tn in limba romAni, care au aceeaqiconstruclie ca ti viitorut faln de prezent, ebirea ci sint form at e. nu cu prezeDtul,ci cu Itcr dlri auxiliarelor SHALL cu d eos \\iILL: ;i Viitornl fdld. de hedat (Future in the Past): I sliould/would cau; you wouldcall; he, slie,il sotrld calli \te shoxld/rolld call;
you would calli they ilonld tall.

6) 'l-iitord f&,txdc trecxt fi viitorul porfoctfa.ti de ftecnt (ltutur..in the

'triitorul perfect ta,ti de treflt (Fntute P:tf.ct in lhe pd\t): I should/would harc caltediyou, he, she,ii wouldhavecalled;tte s|oxtd/$ould Iale callediJou would have caued;th€J would hale ralled.
S t4 e0 - 149r . 'zVed zi ! 1 ,!t5 s i not a n. lr Das , t 84 ,Cln io.mtl il.t.r\ 1; i, . 1. ' d o . Diobi, bil, r x r . - . r iilo , . l p " i l p c l l o x l d F r r ', i n a ,tri . ldl r t , t ot . l - . r . o ! - a t a 7 : o t " p c ; ! a : a" liun "viilo.r"an '"lio "la. n, , inom ' uh qdedb de tinp eiitot precX. rln u .rNLr Dr oD"/ i b. \ ' : r or I D"r 1, r r . , . , e". ! " i l J r o . 'r n r , , , , r i n " , r i o , , , r r 'a i '. . o r u l I n l , ', t J d ''n ': t.;:i- ' t . ' r , i nbnq, r ' ". r , hlrd .",,-.u ! '\ i i n{: ,.Vd l.ermira llni la ora 9'. i9 ti01 a) lVczi

2$1 In lirnba romAnn,acestetimpuri se traduc cr riitarutl dupn cun urrnazd: $ 1503 ltulure in the Posl cu viitorul, tr'urte Perf.ct in lhe Pdst cu riitorul anlerior Ce.ledoun timpuri €rprim& o acliune considarati c riito(tre l*.i, de un $ 1504 momeni dat din lfrclrl s&u rillor':
r ' ' or , I ioid / ,l lho uld snr|l - lp ln \ lolhr r . r \ t,, to, {re , nam c r . l sr". l .{ m h. b, '; (\i nri \ lv nl. da \' o \ o r . , l 6 j ''. rio ,,/ . m . . or I I Fhould/ r oul' l ".o. a d", a ?: o ilr 'd t, " r lut.l) , \J,rn J lni , 1.".-o. She ldl arirreu shc'd/wonld lrc 6ble to come on th. Iollowing SundaX. Niihr pe cct) (3ois6e ce ed pLrea r.ni drmirica urnatoarc.l ilt appoinf..d linre. (\'iitor I rol.l Jou l'd/shouldi rorld l&yo t'dltlled IlrI tdk |rlot ' rTi an .\"u' ci it\i tai tnd.epl.inisarcina nuinie d-" ertirarla I llbueht ron woutd b&le ro'rd his books. lAn e:.ezrir cir li rpi ii oiilt (probabill od.!il.l iernenllui acordat.)

Viitorul perfect {a!i de trecui c\primii probabilitateA ti fdri prezen-ta unui ad1'erb de tinp viito precis: likc going l,ontc bI ihc tine you'd (- Irol, Ted,as sur! Jou'd(- toDld) bcrctliDg
,T " d.fd l: -rur,d ab s o l v im a uni{!Nitltii.) v r l, , edor , l", c . i, r ' , 1 ..\''r: .dl \ 'i l d J dip-o.1 ,l

In limb.r ,torbitaL dsl.i;1. cstc curenti lnloeuirer au\iliarului SIIOUI,D ctt \{OULD la pers- I sq. Ei pl. Periru a se evita problenele gramatioale cc se jvesc astiel, -se inrrel,uinleazn in gcncre forma r,ontr l'.J l: I shouli l q.,/J./ si "Fppciv r.tI ^sn -lo.\iJ nun1i. x "houtdl^Ltdt i,,I h,i,.1 rinrorbi .",i"r'i.. (.1.,It,t'.)!r! .n,p/, \'rI 'ri .r.r '.r'.1. "^nr'a.p //l 9i e'll ( S 1507 volitiv). ,{vind acerali fomi .tl Si candilionaluLcele do,,i iimpuri riitoaro sc deo S 1506 sebescde e1 nLrmaiprin inteles. Colter.tul ne va arita deci tlaci avem de'a face ou viitorul sari cu condi!,ionalul,viitorul fald dc irecui fiind corelat cu li!io Jul l.1.i zrrll ,l,.o proporirip u. tt..,tt:i,nr1,t d.."rp d"prndF,i'r,. g ""ititi nadt., i;[,!q., /..{piima,j.a,r -,binl"l",s;. \'"t,.,. fr""Fl.,ifdindi liitntuL pofect fatai dc Ltecutto oontrast c\l undiliannl L petfetl: I lnde.sfoodrot'dleouLl..onte at orcc. {Viftor) (Dutr .ir d,' i' r.l"-, .; s, u;i ;n. d J . ,r I 'o',ll rrnsro'r ,,r'.Juu,//ro,r/ or" d .n'.. (. i d
D ' ri , p. "1 e . o ,i. a , ,p , ,1 .' l' d

I li nll S 1506

rt,rr .,tt t h. , ; li- ' . ' ll; n " s . o r T q , L rra ,,i ' l r r' r' ' ' \. [ .uoi b:l l i l cu adverb de liml precis) (\iitor p.rlect). b) I kne|9yot'd.lqohldft6s over Dickie il Iot got r chancelliilorul rali de tfc.ut cernt de un f.c.ui simllu (ttn.tr). sot fiit\d tol u irecul.l c) Un t:ondili.onal !rd:.nl corclat cr un saDjon./i(, tr!!nt. f t lnct i e i l e s it Llat ie s au de i n te n l i a v o rb i i .o ru l u i : ,J.'].pnif, ii

.\ sc cornpar'ain contrast: a) \or @iU ha'. re.eindn"yg..ctings in $!ilc ol th.l,oliday rush (I'rolalilitale-(Yijtorpprl'ctl. rlc tir p prccisl I.(r d,h.erlr

// the letl.rs 49, a lake ihey ./ cdtainly not Deadd.ess.d i.oyou by nan'e. "vourIret r,,,',,' m iinfi { { io !r z i i s l .i ll i i .ra rl .

(i"';13y'" s"o' u, iJiil$"if"}i""'i .oli"l1'ti,i$"T$i*.ili{'l'Jf"51"K.i;;
Yiitorul laF
I shail call ie. she, it shall call

r9r

MOTI!O'OGIA

_ !'ERBUL

Prezont 'le In L e n i i a .e l ui ddftsdtsau
c@ese firbel.e .lespre I $ili call' he, she, it will call iney will call

Viitorul fa.t[ ds trecut
i,e. shc. it sh.uld call
iie. shc, il wo!)d call

ihey wonld cau

riitor' o-idee modald3in Aceasti tormi exprrma le ling6 noliunea de pl.|l": intenr,ic, aainld, holdtir;, pronLisiune' ordut' amenlnlare' est€inlre' inten,tir sau hotarirea o ar€ rcl carc Iorbe e' SHAI-L o, Cirt,1 { taOg buinldr ld Loate Persoanele: $c stn r'a'd tomorroit (lnieniie)
lfotu ,lecd nnte )

exp.lple sint Lipi'epenlru tloua "i i"ii""iiJ J.'f,"'i,.r*. on'irg't"ic rprimel" etc ): oii'"-t""i oii"l"l", initrucliuni, obligalii lornale
r om ' ADDli""nl. 5l'll r ' 11 r " J - . { O r lij4i"' u | , . lCa _n did alii,.eDt i' ' n ' o' "Pr c k :

F ' a to : r , d / i ' E a J c o l ' l a l i mp n u _ l ' .u tp o rr' n ) J rl { ]-ru r' ' i ' ro ' ho n . ' aLl ttt \ mP !l s p trl rn u / l o l ri ro . o r l e' r o& dd, i' v r o r ' j, ll go t , o r a r o n c " l l o td :n i / / t s d ! 1. . i a c a s Jrr!' d ra !1 ) l n ' J ' Sn b :I' r ' l m" n i n dre) t t p " t ail bP P u a i s h Pid d a ' l' F J d I t P P 4&P s tt i n u 0 5 ' u trI J l c to' te pol soar' p]" mai cxpri mi lr or m a de \ ; ; lo r c o n ' (ru i ' 5 c u S H A L L e noLi uni " \i sti nd un.cl eman' ^ rr' i e rc l n to a l e a ' c ' AL, : oli" , p, *; ; un '

il".iil'i' I'" rx,, ir'i"l';:,;i,il'':l :^il''":' ...- . liil'111""' \it'il'ii.'3i'#'"1 li' 'ili,':,, : :yl'03:,,',1 ""i' i\ c , l, ll / l a -, i l i m p . d o n I s o rrv l (P t ombune)

$-e'srud -r'u1r ":i;li':;;i'):i;:,!l) fxl lvom ..uii cu sigurarli (la

o:.::Ji'."i":"'l: i" d,.," ;,1',,,,:.: l;1,"1';;ll,':l "i.,1".1ii;; "'''" " "l ir;-' r ;l-''"liliLl: i",'l 1"' l."i;,1 ),1.,'li';"li g.' rft'oesr,
r

se to t l r ,,i l l .n l i n c.' hi crre i or| ' ste' : I * i l l tal t rt t V ez i ii nof a, l , c a res c re l d a L

993

La persoana 1, deosebirealorm$li rnt.e simptul riit0r hreeulurat)si cel $ _ 1609 etpLr. cici st; in faolul cd. in .crul de tr1d,rto.l estcroloral modal,a;r"ntuat sau nul, pe clnd la simplul viitor nu este nici accentuat:
| r on" oo\ . qim llu v ' i , ' ..htlt ljt . m.l t r n, v r nl, u I., t , uI . o, i. lot t Hot J 1 r ,l ..tu r . " . 1, 1. , ,I.,,.r . . vr'.,

Viitorul constmit eu SIIALL intrcbuirrtat la toate persoanele se E.is€ste S 1510 ai jn_propo/irI.p "'ru^,lorrrF duo., r-"1 pl" ,au con.rru,ljite .ipcirir" ' ".1" hotdrirc.inltn1tc,e,ti li, un anlhI It hdsbun de.ided thrt Tetstars,sha te usedIo. flie transmission of TV progra'nmes ac.oss the Allantic. Y,ur wil ir.rr"z,i,pd ttst y,u .l,tt t,,.. a rtlns h.tidrv tr', fFar. /o,-.,., 0r!1dI L"pn.x,ponr",,r r.;^,:w \\,,\; rru.i: rdl/ ,,.pr,, ,h. .jf"l,i,,* ,, Cind intenlia dt,arlinepersoanpi edroiate adresezi sau ilesDre carc sc S 1b11 vorbc\fe.auriliarul ,1,r, b,rin:at \\ ILL la to0te pprboanptp ({ 1507): ^"t. Y u s.'yJ U ;//sp-,k,o l,.r,n.ri -ol,v,r\r':ns rHotArirp 'sou'., .l /.o,a., \o"b,..i. nc,,..rJ..tori: iml'r"(.au oi.i,-"artrdrrta.l " I nnor \v',t,pr j, ". J n p
d .linsloL h. t pr . ", t r t $n . l|p f r ritrh"to mp. r\.oidra r\ rI i. lrp l ,lJ.: p od l. . , i l, ar r pa! J mj J-,rtr.l I know ll,p) .'.'/ nLL r hpr r iLk s har o\ Fr t ho d i f f i . - t [ F s . t t . r s j . t f , n t l l 'irr.L (5 , u ,1 vo" p .,"","!a p - nl, . a. i : ndF. ' , r i - ar , or r J t d . ^ d i d r I i g r u i d i i r p ) ' na

E r c e p !i e

r Pn r rH . norir flrFr. o. t L. o r or p r or b. l| : I sill tell him $tai I thirk. (Inl.n1ie) {-\cccrr treuiru) (-\ intenlia se,i stln ce siideso.) r ..ra, I go .rrL no \. 1o |. " inoi"t inS: ( Ho' ) "t , c 1 \ u vrrau sl ie s a , u D, d' c . a|a s r . ir ur t J 1\ Jll1 r,.o u Lr ol d . - , on J , s . r r , La, L, lPr I nt : J n " l i ., \o . J d | . r i. - I d, , id . r r F \ om , n b l o i a r ( A r r 4 n ' n , u b u , II\i loB ndt:n

td p . t e o n 4 / . e \ f rin b in - S t s t z I,p,urr,t p.tp ] " , P, i l 9p e r su "n ,1.|rin insust

Notd La persoanaa 2-a $i a 3 a. deosebirea formali intre simlrlul riitor necolorai S 1b1t si viitorul coloral modal erpus ]a acesr capitot std in faitul ci, tn cazul ale " fatn. \\rILT, este acceniuab,pe cind la si;plul liitor nu este: Yr!'llr'rtu, se. 1,e.. (Snrllu riilor)
L rr !e r v e0ea. ) IIe /l /,t?t under s t and. l S i d l l u ri i to ..l a |d irtelegc.) Yo n sa y y o' r , , / l s p. d L 1 H ,,t.l ri re l lSu u i ri i r s r i j" r l- ir it s - Ll o rb p .l r' .) I 4 o n l , k' uL( ihpt h. r I n ,,. t u r o to th p l i r st ni sl ,l , r\' !i n| 11 ' is r\. ri u dac r r 1 lr o" r " .ru n . ,/,d -o r' ., ." " ' r p r,mi .rJ.j "i
. . oJ ti .,

", 2 : . i : ,:;" ' saielili (le ooniunicalic xliliz{ti in traDsrisiu.ile tetefonice si telev;alc 'ftlsr4's: tla$atlani,ice. ,. ..4 t n|u. ) , io Lt o n oa. t u1"i dr p J" "in".,,ti .ri,,.7i. a.r ,\"u lr',,. . i mrf l rmns, rl' "rt,,'t ! r ' n anar h: . n . i, L, uet r z t i I ' o r . o n t o 'm i " r n J p o u p r r t 1 , , , . ' r n r q p . p5l ul,l,/.,tr.'lF q 'rJ l. . nq. . ur it o r n t ! i e , t u a t . , r l1 Lnr l. "r , J , /

\ i ln , , , r , i\ e t F r , r onr r r r 'd : , o r 1 . r r a , n i u a , l fetl jl. ',.1.., I.,1 , , 1f p . , f r . ! his r t r r . . ir nr uar d . t " , , . , , a " . a o . d u " r ; " " , .

2S4 q lS f f ' ro l ;t;J tl l ; ; t Id l i ' r ul u i i ro .' e\ pu. r r nai s u s . .' r d " o .a b i ' r1 ;i 4 tr" tsl -ttrm.t-da ' ]t 84 tr r.nr Ir l t' :u' {i l l OI' LD .

IIe said it slarl,? be as rve would (P,onrisiuDc) n.utNl (Ne ldsdlut ca va fi air cun von !oi.) (Accexr: n h p ' .u.r' -. rH ol i r:rp, , , \ nn L, r m e ' .^ tl .i g s h a -l d \i n i .l ' ' r l l t rJd r' p' I A-; o l rr' \,a n i m' -l n o | D i q " (A nam . r . pt (Il " /l ' i r' ) T hev s ad r l' " i J o 4 d rl ' mb ro l ' rrrn r. (A u' s p, , " 1 ; d ' /,.d r;/i s 1 n u I d i c o rl i a L ' u.' i I krle{ rou odzl.l hare lour oM way. {r'e.sisienlil) ($tiad ci tet !,.rtrid sn laci ce v..i-i (P enl. u c om pl e l a re a a c e s to r i n d i c a l i i g cneri l e, 1' czi qi 51517) Trotluceret in limba ro end. - Ace*te formi dc viilor colotat' modal, S 1b16 --' neeristinrl in limbtr romani, este tradusit cu rirlorztl. la csre se adauga adeBea cuvinte ce redar.r ideea adifionaln. (Vezi traduce le la e\emplele de mai sus ) raliti'J (Voliti()e Future). dat acestui timp penlruJaptul Nurnflc .le 'iilof ln maj l]rar. s.|L nrai rni.r-r rnnsur:r' o nrrrllest'rre sugereaze, toaie lormolc c{ a voiniei celui carc:'orbeite. cnrria i se rorbefle .\rr desp|c calr se aorbelte, este aplicat in gerere numai urmitoarclol] innn'": trc till call I wiu call von sfall oirll ron sliall call they shall cdl iie. she, ii slall call c s tc i n c o rn t' l p tJ . p c n trtr ' ; I u ti n" scdmd deJormcl e int er l re i a re A oc as t i n e a c c eir t uat c .s s u' n :,i mu l i o ri n d i p u !,i n a l : .et l uate. consi fui tc cu S H ' \LL L. ' i rp ' u ' l q' r rnl ' rF r3{r p -r.n e rd l a p . r - oano I . i \ \ l L L l a "2 oii ' \u-" l " dc rJ-' " 1,/ P ' ru' t' i ' r," J a :i , " . a u ri l i ,r,i r' ' ri tp t oln' ' " . : l sl u t ti i ta r t uI it it ' t r ebt l\ e d e c i c x ti n s p " n tru d ,,4 ,ri i i ,l e. i rr rno,l ul -crpus" nnt ' us. S t

WO U I , D ) :

' u v i l i rrpl

€ 15fG '

x.Licl'rr lu,rdrer de rt'JJ 1et $ 1i0?)' ir",""t" .*;", ;i este intrebuinlar 8) i[odalitnli de oxprimare:l viitorului: S t517 riitar fald dc viil,orpur nu cnntim niri o inlli';!h rtod'slA\: d) (i.leea riitarul r') letfect ae piizt:"t tlrpdnat' prii viitorul xntplu lsinvti 1:tti ti (Futue Perfd):
I rna .dll \'otr whcD lic comes. lTe eoi ch.nu cnni va reni.) Hc q,tll lat? ndd his balh }r the tinc lou gct ur. l1!' fi fAa,lea /ac€ baia pln{ c. tf vei scula)r 'd S 1518 tirlrl tuld de lrecutc\DriltraL prin aiitorul f.Ltd de tftcut (Fature in the Past) tl , P a.* t): Pc4q ,i ,;i t; r ; 1 p. t l. . ! t o td d " tD .;! tF n tu t 'n Lre nrc iir teould t\erc. IIe iold (ui-a slns c;"1 ra ft tuolo.) I kner' I sbtld liee gone ortL lclore they camc{ltiam ci ,,t /l tl..d,in orat hainie dc veni.ca lor.) i.teea de hotbite. promkianc e!,;) exprimat prin tiiloral $ 1619 b) /t,iitor " ( S 1 5 0 7 -1 5 1 3 ) (c o lorat modal ): r'o l i tii ( t ' olit it . F i tfe )

laln l.c r rc:r/n:
I ',r | "" \u f" ,.r You slzll ( t'.i ao.a

lo lr " m nl. h ) Pt . il i' "' r ' l "ddl. s lp i n . ; d ,/ , t t d a' um li m 4' i ' F -rou ,;ll. (Stil lo.mal) /dt" \vhat 'voi, L.r cc vei !i-o iag{duiesc )

d d L 'r n e l

I liitrtut pahct dla |tibtr romannesfe,ca ti in lidba engle'i, rtrmar un tlml grdna,t.{, ii !sLr ad$ca nrlocu't c\ tiitorul. si}n|ltt.

295 fald d.etrecut.:
l, ' r l' r "Tr ' 1 { nlj ir ( r s s l i l l d - l ! , I sa id I "oL lr, 1 s o l\m spu r (d x r , t pou i4, 6 s a r lt r I r m , c ir e s t e d e v r c m c . l j lromt d 'y "hotLJ hoep ihat thpr |aut.t. {Le'am lngnduii ol eal aka re @. @i,)

$ 1620

c) (tiitolul

' I hp- , / " / * lor td 1 1 n " \L T o d . t f Lo. o x l: , t l x n d \ri t.{ On Mondal. I go to Itxcterl add t?r., my wire back. (Luni nir duc l.r Djcter s{-ni ddrc sdlia acasa.) tn sp(iciaL Ia dtte. orarc etc., Tomo.rorv ir l.hc .igliih ol March. (ulirc cstc 8 Dartic.J The uptrair .on.s nr ai livc. lTrenul de Londra soseiie la cinci.) What lime do.r U,c down-train leaye? (La oe orl tlcuci trrnul care vine de la Londra?) Intrebninlat in no.l cLr.nt in subordanatele temporale utilitdt

cert sar lrogramat) exprimat prin prezentd simplui

s 1621

2752): 1s2717,

s.u

candilionalc

You won t be readv ieforc we t dre. (N-ai sl lii sala lniinle de Dlecarea noastrll.) ilrlal shall I do iI ar4 6t bach bv dinnei time? -rou (Ce sd fac ilace ntr ic Intorci pi 1la cine?) d) viitorul (viitor ctllocaidl - al)liune ptuieclatd) exprimat continun: we d/e dtztrg ont tonight. frllncdn b oras astil sfa.e.l \lhai d/c yo! drins o,r Slniiay? lCe Inclti dndiDioi?l I shdll Le coine to the scasidcon Fridayel.c llneri h nafr.l Y.u ,e !.ci,g liur 'rrll re.i fiit\c.) (Ai sd-t pdn prczcntul sau S 1522

prezultoL continu ref€rindu-lc si la Drez€nt. un adverb de timD viitor este necesarin acest caz sprc a se deosebiviitorul de prezent:
Tha r'.. rhp e.r l \ , r ot , laal; , 1 f or . lPr F/ "n l {litd ld lr !i f dc { ( an! jl) qg l. , r np\ r Tu". d d y s . | | t \ i i t o r r l n tao h,,; p . ) r . d r o ""l v ; d d. r ar li (L '. tl .. pl- . "r e s l le r nt r o s J p r i m r n " . )

Fald d,e|r':t:Dt,viitorul acesta este c{primai prin trecutul continuu sru prin ,r'iilorul fale de trecut continuu: Hc saidl,c aas.?aalrn€lis holidayin the corntry.
(q .J,.s ii i i , J , , r , . , \ d. anJ la t dd. ) Tlr\ \rurp ' r . ic Bai' g r olh; m ouj' t J ins lo r t l . $ ? . k " n d . ! (.\u 'ri. ,t ., J ' " n nt unl" s d. r i p. bpa. i b l r ) i t . l d s J n r d m l D aI I $ . ..1. . . a bp t . . . , i, 8lor \ - nic e on I l , n u - , . "1 ,J luli I-a Venetia.) l-{ln stus cii rl..nr H. pro mis, i - . . o. / . / r . , rtorso.,Colo,ar moddl J ir d d np \ a' ll p F s r p \ r o j l p l a n : n d . ) t\ llga d.:l ,.1

q 1523

ID genele. prezcntul (respectiv irecutul) eontinuu si viiturul uuntinuu ar : 159,1 a,cln.r.s",r aproapra, inlel".. ln n.la birupriie\i"t; in., o,Jeo."hirp,l'ra,"i. sens subtild inlre aresLedoui formc:
1Bar,sale tr.r! ln SdrcFcl., Anglin. rpnumji pcntiu restigiile romaneSi pentn apclc t' Devon,,\nsrja: fl.trd caled.ah dafind din sec.x] ri utriverstai|

t",,l"it1"if./195f..,i

?96 Pr.:.nlnl (rcsDecliv :'ecutul) cantinuu erprinri o d'lix"d holiiritd nai ic Iii.torul cantiiu rr tr':spec\i! iiil.'til [d&J' 1t' tl1cunin n) dlnaizre, tn "rerire cd indepli irca ncliu';ii exprinr'rF \erlr nrc rnrnlite nnplicalia oon!,ine 't' consecLnle:
l{olhcr tomoh$. we arc .li,,i,tP (L uim a ia";ra 'iih 14 m dm r ' r Pr ' er _r r r ' n_dr l r " o r 'r " olo. , ( r m p {" wt \h rtL tJ" o:' t , e \ . r ' 1, llolhd' r . rr rirgLi r i' is l t r u r ( { i4 ir . s r t a niam a n riine o air il,ulm " I nlrc lodav. \ve are haein! a reheaBal at {A,i avc'n rderitie la ol:r 9 ) {l'rosran i\ofirili we sholl be haeint a reher.sal in a mirlle g t 'l a r l l

! a ! *r

ll:Pectr.ind ]}L ai 9aif unai: ) L] |ll|. ] ' f PiUn. la||' \ r t . ' ' l | e. t lni..n '"in ]''1"'|p'j|-'liF' ' ' |' ' ' ' ' ' ' r ' ii"' : a n pJrle ' plu: r ' ul; l ;,mnin l ltor " ahase'al.enl'a cii el ntr conside.I nicid.ctr'n chcslimft {f5 o '2 " -5 " o. , o ") (t;;\,t,n -'oi"oi'"'o d; , ' 1 - ". ) "f ; t nt \ t ; lt ' I ! ' t , ' a' i" . ,' , , d; n "

lel)l llnanicalii modale) rii"i'i-i'"p'"Llfi" r,i:'t" iii"i:i mi"L". (Deci.pres.trcrt" :lmus b"o.-^tona noJdl -1 4r..-p.. , oo.: l 'r'li
trn nrrt'istill " l t u . \ ''^ t i | : l o t a ; 'r r ''f u i t 't r - i 't r a 'e ,e '' l" n "u 3

1t t ; 4 t " t a " r 't " t pt

goirq,-urniail de infiniiivu] \.erbLtluide coniuglL!:

I - v- r ' n u l i l qo: ' 3t a t \ " o' n- lr ir S.hele,r -f: \r eh En s4 ltlnr a ' 1 L rl , "' "r ' r r | ,1t : ioq 'o4 E,: ' 'o J '. ' r ' s "ir i r' r r " . d_P l' bir ' lr o' ' ili tq n-J"in a (Coloril rrodrl r You,'erd soi,A tr sat sorncthins. (I.ltrti') (f.i@i sd s?ui Nc\r ') dodrl i She sa. gtirs /o n@e lier onn wrl (Hotirircl (C'l! roir.l dccit ce n" l@&titij tti faii lEn :f D,at.li nt"" l dt r 'r l r " 'o l o r ' r " o J i l Pt ,d, , blt , 1' / r el (Nu rfd L r 1 ,l8ul"ht s ' rr,',td' ' In Iiolidi,i.s a'.e g'rg ro /]. llPasatrn'r ftr' h'rr l'ldoriit noddl){Sitdalie -\t hontP. ' -(\ cd"\''I'''' n' | / 'I t\ olu r t t r 'I " r r i J n n e i f r o l 'n z i f i i

6lt 2S '

c i es te ' i n l c i c u i tc u rr:i rn ru l\n n tt' t l l i ' ttntLI ' ' ri l d-nn(ce Y rrbul "o ra lrnr i" 'ir iar . ",.. || r , ' ;n ' p i r-l i i \ i i rndr ' i .i ru l !i " . rl - i r .r' r.,r "J 1l she doesi1]ui I saX,sllc ll ri{n/' me I{). it. noI u lt llit l r ro t,,)r' i l ' 1 r s ta b ;t" a n t ti ' t ' n' l rtt ' j Lrr' nrl r-tl " d p l ' i r,r; i rr\' rr B E u r' ,," 1 fl p ' ^nl uE ' dr rtrao u ri iiar , , lui' 'or ' ' S .r" c d+ v o rb a ' ..u rrrrt a z .r b .l .-, r €!ri ' Jr i na .tL" l a "' p" i' i . i*t r ; " " . , , e 4c:i l cn)eva rt:l ,rrri o se b ir c { le r iit or Lr l v o l i ti v , a c o a s tn ft]tr,,i rrrt; ur vrLt,' r cu alicineva'lnlelcssre in dc aceasla p"".";",' care rlorbestc, s:lu ;;.;;;" His noll,.r t"- ro ,,om.tonorro\' {lr ro.l,a .{ nrma lui sd tt'd nlnac i Tcaolicrsiid re (.'e ,o Degtrrt oncc i edrat l (]'.onso,rl I slrrs cA t€rii. sd,t"!"r 1'he lloNr "l,ightning" (as r, r/arr lirst (Calul ..l rlger: €rd ?r,s.dnal si l.fre.sci lrimtrl )

YiitorL tl

/, t.

loins

t a n' r s P LDir l' r r inlPa z i

,'.,r'-

297
I aas ta tutat thc ne\fcome.s. turma (c.a sarrin{ mca) st ,6/^Liesc pe Doii veniti.l T h.t \ 4rp \'r) h r,t..\ , . ' , $h 1, . ,L"t t - , r as . oon r , d F r n l r F - D h o n t e l \ $ d r 1 . r . l { . , d, j aodla I n , , , r / D o , d l ; : r d j r . : : j { \u io" l i -ia ri o .r., . J ar , ' r ", J

g.) ( Vittar in.tliar) to be ahont + inliniriv complet:
He ii a,,rr ,o la,(e n)r S{iorlrnd. (Esti ric lunctul ne a !l.ra h Scoiia.) \o u .e .e aLout/ o s , u s ' ,mrt,rrs l l l r0 ; p . pur , . ' I l . ; .t| r . \., . l o ,mb i \!i d r D J 5 p i ,p\d, V;i to ru l un. dior , $t . . \fri mc r i n .ri l ,,l , n o .ri AI pri n torma to Lp poi np + i n linil i !u l .om plc r . ii \ r " n " .F t,tn a to b r,rb o r; i i nti ni ti vul -com" D l et €ste tntrebuin,tafi mii mult tn solis, in slilul formal si se reIerA la un viitor j i m a i a p ro piat ( - pe pun c tu l d e a ). (C f. s i S1 5 2 5 )

5 1527

9) Viitorul in lntrebdri. al SH]\LL la pcrsoana I qi a 2-a si $lLL ta persoanaa 3-a exn md uDeori ti dorinla vorbitorului de a afla ce gindesie interlocutorut (Viitof I tind ]j.r in ji I so !ow? ^tnall Mall Iou bc jn time il r6u hurry? fr, i1 rain do rou tnlnk:

s r52e

s 1529

,, tn lntrebiri sc lntrebuinleazn de obiceiauxiliarulpe carejl arcteptim S lSeO h respuns:
_Yps v or . r . / / . ' -tr,oll I so L!m" io$ ioip., l t \ i i t o f v o t i t i \ { , . 1: colorlrl t ,dau "Lpr r, j,op Dou ../-11 \, : . - \ n, uF. / , a" r \ , r or Lolo , a r "-S l,//.Lou bp ibl l,, lq . r pt om or r oLL, \ Fs . l"nou t\ jjror colorarl j , , ll { . . \ ' r ", , u- r t v iit d r \ o j j r ; v "I4; / l rou sF"dl, iL. nn$. - .,norxtl 'o ' J-,{ dIi6r' pJ n , nFfn"(dr , 5s ? I o. s , . . . } dr / o, . ' ( , , \ r - i d a r v o i " . - , r \ I 'u r r o r 'i v _ 'Iltil she tut oD lrcf ne\r dress?" "\o, she por'i.,, l,,Nr vrea ca..J (\ jiror rotitiv-

i.i linA. J . < he s / d/ / . . t v r i, or lnt i t ; v _ c o J o r a t _ . "S ft,il.,. rom""_ ,\, "lt:i4!h" .or ,.otonl) "' /1 'd ro s FnJ . , . nhp, , ", , / . r ' t \ ' or vo t : t i v _

_ . . Actu Fl m c nt . in\ a " F t i l l ,l p . m.i a l c c tn l i mb a ro rbi tn, si s€ cl i t€ acesre { t63l dr F lr n , r i n inlr abi' r i " i s ' In rrc h u i r.t' ,a . r,.b .l . a LJi l i i ' , trr; di s.ri mi nar€ ' ( e u p r"h ri n -a p" n r r \ \ ll.l , i n s ..,i " l i n .,g l p /r a m p' i .d,,.,. .0rc sp bu,urd d e o, n crp i nll, r aniS i' , ^. ' r a r1 ri l , u r.J p q p \,' b p :' 4 s .,us, tn\ori ti mba,,,gh26: "WiUhIoU !ar be n' Nl,fD I .all i0morrow-?'.-"\ps, I tr;1tirhd\." (Vcz' ti S I r3i) .l SH \ Ll. i, , r , LUi !. | 1 a to . ' c 1 ," * " 6 n p 1 , s ptr.grp fpntru a se a a r n t en !r3 t, r. ner pr , ; r " r 1 i r " .1 , d ,l '' F ,..l i l n tr-b 3 rra : ,tftoll Lool se.ts lor ionislil.: (SI.uNlrri. nihie lentN :6|:iscaril?) Sltolt ltit! .am. io iho mccti|g? ( S liv ini ] a, l c d i n l i ? s rr l a i a n s i v i n d l a i ed' nF?) ,l/'?l?ror ,, in tonorro$? (Ai se'iii nriile ac.sI?l ,Sftali she /atl ine table for li!.? . (sa luna riasa pent cinci !c^oane?) Mall \e ,'2..n nn lor rou? ' (Se-9ispilir, 'r;ele?) rVe zi !ag. 418,5 1014 ,n o l a B. g 1b32

2SE

s 1633 "'""

i ,r frr" lolaylneldll Do dou . \ a ^" th t c td b l e ? ) r lt ; ll \ in l ' J {Yczi ti ! t8t6 !9ilJ} c ' 1 rru rr" x/// p rs /s e ftp l q t l) lv lLLt d r " I 5i! 4 l :(,..t r din e" r r c " m" i rru l l i n rrrb u i n ' " 1 ! Iri " " rrd

oficiuli lin SUA De lapt, tn uneteliri in oarclimba €Irglezt'(rc-lirnlr0 p.rP sH\IL ln cdr' dp a commn'rw"allL brirrn,,r. t"l;J,i si qr"nnim' "i i -cruolul r ru srrr \\ lLl fijn,l inlo.uir ..4"o 1n dqsi,"ruaine 'i: tonigl't? t'r Po&ldvon /ild me l.oioot seats {-.tna, I bookseats.l')

ur?//P l i rl crosd' ' u S H {LLdr' p" re: "

lr , / l I dol I frl,ir-t"i, ,ttr, tt" to fte opera?""lYi[ I conrt \iil\ ]ou? will l? ol cou*e ""."ca o relctare a lnt€biirii l$e ) Flll." (ercla;naii\'.

la irce.put ca acceltaAcestea sint dou[ din putin€]e cazuri consideraie lorme s-r exLrns acestcr bile in eramatica tradirrionih. Cu tirnpul insd uzarta ensreza

i"".J'i"tf

cu coniirln)ltare actuil, nai ales.prin r' tii"l':"i colocvial cst'i preleratnconstruclieishallI i tvt: ".i'".i"".,r '"a" W lr v Plll I liar c io s t ll' la l '?
\Ihin @tll @e move i3? Where @tli I take Your siuli to? \ V, d, , i{ / . , r , y il ir l l. lr ill u, " \ . . hn, N , 4 m . . .

dcprirnant Aileseori,a0easLiconstruct'iewill l / rt cxl)rimi un scnt'im€nt llc neajulorarei ll so.what rtl' 1 do? /r reach\i'i in tincT How "il' train Pt'r a! lake?r What

t LL.\\'IT'L Ilaci 1rr unele cazud inlocuirPldurili'rulni SHAIJ' T i1'tl minnrc sc po;t' rrt r''tr; l'r 'rrrrrLuu serrrantire consecinle ca 1n: -e,iii-;"i;a Pentru ln1,eles. Sna zo! be iD tolrorro\t? II,i &z b. in tonor.o\r?

sau ln:

,Sldil ?o, see hcr at 5? lYill io& see her ai. 5?

jnrl.,rl'rntc ca tn: acerslii schinbare crceftzi insi adcsca anlbieuilrili \.';.','.,',1"i'i; ' s,,1/ r"pv.on" ro rridmdbrins ," , "',, Ifill thPll ra$e to I I meeong' 'rtj ",t sau neccsiti lunginli ln exprimar6. pertru cl'rriiioarrll intrelcsuluifvezi $ t0r9, t1l5 'retnplele) 1'or": inlelesul dc .J WlLi, la persoanaa 2-a sau a 3-ft (intero-crltir) are "r S 1535 I trke a btr:'" "Itjill rcu trke a tram?""No, lrNo!sllc 'tll 4ro4'r'i' "iriii itre spmtrto me?r' pur ( S 149a) La persoara a 3-a WILT, poate cxprima !i u siuplu viitor ! 1636 2074'

20E8' 2115' vczi 2099' li Vr,t i t t aa"it" l"mitate m potitel':, $
r vczi ,i unele exemlle prccedentc.

399

II. SUBJONCTIVUL {THX SUBJUNCTIVE)
suBJolfcrn' sau II{DICATTY rREcur!

s 163
$ 1538

Existl o atitudine conl,emporani destul de rxspindiG, care evite problemele modului subjorctir iie ignorinduJe, fie ncgind tnsdli exisien.ta subjonctivuhri tn actualitate. I-n mod Jrr.na i.l in.,. J" o rli' dc mar. irnnnrtanla..arp.\primd ireotitdl"r. ln .ontra:t , r t ntit.t,,t' 'ndotj de modrT ir.1icali', - cele dolri aqpc.l" f'rndam.rldr. dl, , \i.i.1!,i urndn. - psla cu nFpulinli sc dispard. mii ,u,".'t,.,.npt4.din,.,, tijnd 6xarp 1rco,uparilein roarodomcniiie, pe descoperirearrecunnstutrrlui. a raportului realttut.lircalitate, a.r \evole de in-qtrumcntc .Lo c-\pfiirla'. adcovate. Este crrl cn wdriLrl subjonc'"i{, a,(t:rzivetust adic; forna BE la toate lirnpuril, 9i l" "." ,r" l-. :i li1,-. suli' rlur ; J.,per"s6nxa J-b .g.. .a iodicaror . a ,,,prr tir',r L,r,r.rIn nnu- r n nrpmsii lirp rrrditional. si ruhjnr,,ri\,1 tn limb:rjul lormal, livrfsc. stinl,tiinr,juddic, gazetiiresc etc., unde necesitatea preciziei fi clariiilii datc do subjonctiy esl.eesenijali. Subjonctivul trsi nu a dispnruL ca /riodgrarnnrical.El si-a schirnbat, numai veqmtntul cu altul mai timl'li.t ,i n,ii l"rnili"^, .',liprD.l r .- noilor ,pflnt. da qimplili.rrp.un,, pute qi dituzatn6" 4," p,a, in tt :4 ' .i,l t\as. ,t1d;o. A , apa ar i,l. pri', , rl prol,riuluisiu fp,r, \i rn-.r!4 .r r^n.r lingti li . u'r I.r . t'| -,i)1t l,r 'i t';Ltrtti .nu r'tl .t, nut, 'ir purrlnr ".,.,'r0ii'"-,'nforn.om.pold'rri-i SingurJ"rFlii. , to r i-rLut ro Blr. il .srui subjon.tiv nraipn . a toll,. I cu auxilicnrl r'rF. Frlin l.' toatp persoanelp. pcntru simplifinrre. Ac€stcforme nu mai slnt astizi substitute pentru subjonctiv, ci ru del'eniL tntru totul stbjonctivul modern colocvial al liuturor verb€lor, inclusiv al auriliarelor modale. Numai aceastx concellie poate rezolva toat€ complica,tiile te se iv€sc continru in interpretnrile invariabil necoDclr.rdonte ale u or cob^truclii suh jonctiraLe c?ra, figdduite ca aI'JJq d.pd.renla trecutului simplu, ddl na.ei , a) inlel"*ut at stu;d. sinrd:.n,. \.rl'e'. ^x You ll3il rcrer go noN. aasrt e hc Fent to lcd. t |tod/alnel.eiun jn a diy or tNo. I roxld sooze. you c&me $ith me,elc. (Vezi 51548)

conBiderateoa lorne ale indicatir'ului, ar trebui si cr.prime r.alitalca unor ac.tiuni xra&|r. intcrprrLifi care nu rezisLdla o analizi gramaticah serioasi. deoareceele se referl ]a ptt.ott san r;llr,.. ,{cel€a;i patternuri sint pe ect consecventeti glllmalicri forccte daci sinl ini,eryretaie ca expresii subjonc r;!alp.p r"Jr,r /,pdrrl. (\--l; j l5-,4J De{id!n', - Sprc d.oscbirc dc indicatil'. care exprimi o acliune sau o S 1639 sLarer,!al.i, subjonclilu] crf ni o acriunc sau o stare ;r.edl.i,realizabili sau nu, carenu existai decil ir eindul trlui rc vorbest€:
...r, .t, ", , 0. ' "r . t 1J . I nli"J . \ ) , ' i. l \ r,,. : 1. r ", ' 1. 'i I $ish llic n,.r, r,c€. lsubjonctiv) f-1,s dori sii lic aici ida. nu este.)l

"*t -'rcnre

0uardire' r'rrezenndsurrjon'r'ilur' iar cu'silere comlr€-

800

$ 1540

A. TDIPURT

ii#l; Xliilll."ii i:.1::lH#,ii"ll:1;;li,'li",iiiii J"ni"'"f ,"'5f ::i,1;
L[Ur r0Rll]I l-llcl{x a suBJo_-{o'r'll

s 1541 s 1542

T" x::xil,Hll"i,""' ,".,l.i,xlili*.I"ii"i'"]":ili.' "":'*:::i"""11#
,""""{ l,!i"',i",".l,"i1l,liiiii,' il'!i"' ,"'," { l}i"lil""'";l"if}J'i1.""'
ObserrtLlia

' "-',iili" ::if fi :#I'll,'"',.1i s'r*' f;l.t,i l;W ;:**i l*l;tllliillt san rtLtor:
tinp, lrr,tl.l. Prczcnt

mod ( 'onfundnfornat tu ltrut l' s'rbionc'i'n r dr" '"r'l'rn -' i' i " - 'i "g"r ''i "a e

* *"T;;:]#"1:;,';,::i': abstraclie r-se Ficind

:::l$fj""1'"':."""i:i'l

(:, on.,,,,,,\dr,b,l : i l-;,",,,,. ;"." "',' ","-1,;:,L);,1 ",",i1. d\" \"or 'ic':' ,l': l t ,:l':'; ',;;"';:"f i'";;"':" ''
''"'" rr.'li'ltiiJl"'l?' " Lnor"tieror') ractrrsa aiitoa'e iir l,rre sr!riimina

jl:i:)-iil'fXt: I " ;; ".lli' r":"1:ll: ;l ",".'","' l:,i";;1" l,,,i,,ii,"

- F',l.''1 Inrere". ';iH*lrf i'l"+lil"l 1544 3) € )::l:"i i"I " rri ,r' o . , lr " d" l u .ru n p ' .:,: ; s4:;:-" ,r. . " I" r' ,' , s/r' 4 "",lJiX::'il|*: \ ol ' rt' t v f o' o n 4 i !; ' ^ :n ' l n to ti " ,' " ;.. ' ,i * ,r p, ' , " " o rA in, o llr ur P . o d a rtn l a : -"i;"1.'.:;'if'rr,'"*ru#&Hliiiff:iiiilJ,.:lli"'iiiii"lxi"
atil de elicicnt )

''

:l*,1*,i:".:T,',1'li; l::lfl![)-"',,"'. t;ru*k*"t; ;ip"ffi': ",$'l;n "
'.'""i,'li 1.

rr"

condiliona r"* ou l,*"lit"ll"'::"tl"i".Tl"'*q.'f"';,T.fl$'i::,i!{li'i; l I rpa-rn In r'rtn'r a'lirrImrn

t(Noi) am cerut s's',tn'i armde trrlclearc l

{:i": ilji': *;' l';'l: j:iil:i"i"),ii; Ii:: "'T-il;,, ' -"'" ftr';l ';l :; li\Llili";li"l';:;;:i;; l;;' ,. . . ii.:;",;lt: "l:i:i';, *".,iI":;;i:,r;,:',lJ;;,,':,;Xi:l,l:" ,,,., *; /,,, \i. .*1,
(co!rJu'

"'

;i'"fi" l::# ;iii;';i:ii: ;Ti **d$li*r=lt'ti*,*ivi{:ttn#','r'rilli'

l rl: :i;rI' li i l il"ff";li'l llll'"li:':,111"r i. l';:l:l'.:;;l'i ."', ll,i"{:;:.}"i"'l:li";'1" "",,,

SUEJONCTIVUL

3OI

4' lnlrcb inlire. - \'""hF., fur..ld c subior.tivului enaliT a(tp DL,t;n { lb{6 f^lo.ir" in liml' pnsl' 1s mod,rn... Ejra IrF.rrnrd in.r :n S arele Uniie it" ' \ merieii. )t:.st subjonctit se tnenlin. astaiziiD englezabriranici in urmdroarele si. a) i stilal oficial si in ge*re in limba lormala rrnrd (frazeotoei€ iuridiod. { 1646 limbrj ziaristi ;i narlan'ont pro"Fs^li\-rbitF .h.edi,.l"lor, in Stiinla si 'r. ,:i. '-hnr.i el..l. prerurirJ-ni undr n.-asar u tin I.Jj Ior.1atpreii". .1"i, {dre ambiguiLdti:
T ho judgp dFa d nd s rIal ll' Lr . . , 1pr r " l' "ou" . t n i,ur ar r . i . p i r oo. s . l lJud, . A rnru l.dre .l If ih$e Dd all w can muster, ii were lctter to teavc thc scutf,tLr.esgatterics emtty. ___ siil ziarjstic) l"Tl'e Tine6" p. , aje, "t , . L- m " d u n a . d r l : l Ddr4arpdA o rir'..o d.Jot t oa1el. t "t - ' mirbi!"sd lI s l m R {l. riil. de scu l!tur.i g oalt s . l

I rnove that an apDcal rd madel,oi,he ra lcsconcerned. (l'ro!u sits. /dc; dt.l l{ tirrtilc in caizir.) b) in loezie ti tn prcza Literard:
"T'.l rp " $il$ill I l. : L ' o " " l , /d r. rR r" o n ) Tl o u g h sl' c b€ s , , 1! u, q, I \i l l .o n l i d o i n } e i .

s 1547
$ 1548

c) tn unclect:preiii firc,

ca.

{Savini ia a, ci vd lnriLlacl sh latineze.) s4l,.d it l.osaJ...(Esled; ajunssi spun...J, €ic. in ixLIcniri d) injtioase, imye1lii, proteste achem.ntesan n|..
Clfse voul ,.d, tlte iellowl (irire-aibiestemat sI lii l) (Firc-ai sd lii de indiri.l l) ' ilxpclscs Ddhans€dl (Dii le incolo de €helluielil) 'fhat ,e hanq€dfo. a talcl (Ce niscocire nnst.L,inicil)

il need Dr {: daci csle neroie) , a i i so s . t u s o Dd it l: a s as Afi e l b€ihal as it n", (: oiicuni ar lil ,, ," i r r' o, n , , ; , . . . r . ,, t," .,:d m i i , ;i J u tJ . J ...) / " ,.ro i d $ l\ o. m . J in q o b p r,ru " , l ;" p , \-1 A \i . a s r.r. 1: c . rr r \ l r n J ..' j .a ! .u r a r l r) 'L *haL malt (.- rie .reo li, odoc s'ar Intlmpln) catue \ t on t bJ i ." n t i r" ,tc L n i u n a ri . L )'-r ',D . u i'r ' t F r r nil hr $ tl l c a rn l r s k rte

.' i un" nor.i rot

S 1b49

5) Troaluccro. - Forma r.echea subjonctivuluise tfaduce ln limba ro- { 1660 | . n a p r i n . onju n .l i '. p r in condilionsl s0u printr-Lnin , lira lir , u o n u a n t a ( \Fzi r r ALl d" ,,.reapv mtlplord. ld $ 11 4 4 r. ' "r i . c n l i .
SItsJONCTI\'TIt, MOIIEITN SUBJONCTIVUL Pt:tXZ}!NT (rnDSllNl svtsJtNcTtrtr) l) Fo rn ri. - S uhj^' , ri ru l p r' z n l € r- o s i n g ,r r. r' ,n,d r'uj n p l p . a r i' 1. s i|' r . , la r. .l r (i | , l l u rp l : t. , ^ ^^, , j L . t e l : \o ' r. L h ,s tr.:r ..,t' ,1 ' " " - ' 1 " " " r.0 , \,,r " ,t" .t. r.y ,,I^ t. r" * h" J r ! - )o ' r\ r.r.l ,..r.p .i ' $ .r. I s e - d re r,o . \," ;trr\ $ r-. prnrrJ

s 1551 s 1552
loate S 1553

t,n u ,rr estelorma vechca lcNoanci a t-a singular,astdziarllaici sru poctici.

m9
ObserQd!te

,,,,'',,,:i:i,;'ii'l;;;':;;1,;',:'l::l"i-"j;l"T"""i;ii'; ri J' rr"uL' qi a J a 'inslllrr
u'uot ;":hi:*,';"*"'nffi;t"'*ri eTl"}"i: '"".,,i,i1*:':i ';;]j.l;:il',;;,iiriri;11" "' ""'-' ii:ll::; :['i :ii":1, ' : r': il i'll'n"i'i'ii'fi"'' ll""'n:|,"i il:i;l :lli;;";
N old Cit"i lq**"

- "'!!rij'' lhiT;'il;':" "i€ar'i' " ):':!:;"' \ll j: ;*,""" .". ostarc sau
'lif' indioatilui : corespundereatte-iii' se inr'rebuint'eazi

E 1556

i)

' Ii,:i:: 'i*: ni"t;,1*':l'.;lll'll"*ltfllilTil*-*"1r iiiJi,liT'i:li'" sif iilil,lJfi Yill'J estetntrebuinlat atlt in stitulformal'
prcz€nt Subiouct'ivul ^"4*-

'.;:i,:;";qlr-i::*lr:i,.:,"f1"""'*ffii*x;'" i,iHiHl;:il.'Ki' i,,* ;'1 " ';;i; iniica,i'u, *as; re"ur
;i:'ii '"1,'i:\'Jlli$tJ'i

ll:,:': l'tlr,t;'i|"]:lr"i; '11"::"1:"
r n Hir r nr n i wistr 1'o ' l n t oc dc * r ' ' r r\rAlt rlori iid 6l l tA.s lo' dn r aPi m P s sl" / a Sl' t'r "n

ii"lijlr'l;i:;'xi'irJ'Yr I":l':" :' ihlilli:iritl;ir":rr'':1 ll"l'Tii'^ ''""' :*iii:il.:": il;n *:*,ii'j:l;ii"i ""#;::';'::l;lj
€ 165? Limbajul 'ulr. p"''"'o'" '--i"ai' "'i""t 'n"' $o!' disrinclia dintre inJi'dLi!ul trtr'rL l.''l

"' :,i I::,:";;,1;l;r *'r' il,'iriill:' :Ji:;'l:;',', ":f:;,i

nrr l" podLFrFda:

/firfi lllJ'fl: :{.'. itl,:r#"li;*l;;*t ":lJl$"ihl'J1"il*i'i ".,"
Obtervdlie
r t I h" $ur c a o , 1 ,d trr) rPr" u P" 1 rI t r / le ns s Y o " (i n rrc e l rJ D r)

i1i'4,11l;.l' i:r:,i':l,"'l'l:$lil[ ,;;;"

t:ilgll' ",::,';l "'" rr,;ili*lrr,l.j,;:: "i:: iii:j

"* ""'-""' il*;:*:r*:"'?tffi[r::i;iitY!*is$"""''
diferile: dar .tr tntelesuri Corect,

;i*n?::ft""*# fxffi,i:l'ltl"l'r$r*

o?resqzne ri.6rt liupoai'e

a0s
Traduoorc - Subjonfti\ut prczFnt, sF trs,lu.p In lin br rom6nd prin S t6i8 -.4) conlun.rrvul prpz.nt sau p'in .ondi{ionstulprarFnr: I wish I pft vou. (.\t dori s., fd rn rocultatu.) (Conjuncris)
S.!!pore he ddft, / (tnchilui€ste-li c{ a' dnt.) {Conditional) r l' pr Df we . ir l g r rIp s .b j .c r' { c o l o c v i a l ) { t - ^- art i s t ic h i m u m s u o ,.tL . j ,p " o n u n ;" " . n." \, SUBJONCTI\'LTL PERFTC'|
IINRItrCT SUBJUNCTIVE)

s 155

l:iTlt;: t;:1,.)i"t:ioji,;i;; "" Jlil'i:"lil;''":lJt,{ -;i;;a;;;';;"i;
. * { i"}X13"fl;1i,\ltT#ir;}iiiii, ""' il}T"}f
,^-,.3,.1ot"'"" Ea poatefi:

1.1Formn.-

Suljonrtir.ul lpttrd t-r n sin-ur,j [ar,.,,tp"ntru todtp p.r- { tSrj0

'

t"*n{ j"}Xt jX'l:f"hlgi,li,." j1l!jir,ih"}"ilii1iii"""

Subjon.ti\.ulpFrtectexprimdo adlirn?rdu o,tarc contratd 1561 \

rc!iunii rcu s jrii exprimo,"prin r,rb.rt din propozilid _^.^o)-antptiaMd J'rrncrnals:
I I" rL rr.. t , " I ad - ot , , . / s ^ .,r.t" " { o h i s d .tr. A- d o fi .,1 , :i ,L { l ar a l ost.), " r , . 4 I / o. r a. i, J e D p c l ,j ,n t.nIn d .o t,n " i r.d b-) cu un verb ta un timp perfect. din principali: .simultand. I l \d h o d 1e- . lll , 1r qur J ,s h o p h." @ " l r h a r. t,4 p .d \o r. Da ra o t h t , . 1 I n r r " t . . -, re .d r i ,,;,,r,1,1 ,r, ; ti ., L i i i " , ..,,

3j lotrebuintraro. - Subjonulivul De attt ln stilut 5r1562 formal sau literar, cft si in cel ,"-u,;.,""""1"1-!,'j,."''"ebuin!at 4) Trad_uccrc. Subjonctivul perfecl,se rhdu.e trL timbr rumdni cu g lb63 u rj rn . r i r u l p"r f,r ' ru cor,,tiqiona,u, p,rr"",: ",r u
I wGh I nad Dd,z th.rp: (_{r dorj rd lt /os, acolo.) {Corjutrcrivperrcct) Ii he tdd oru, he s,ould ha!€ como IJ,acn b ^u fi ttiut, ar ri venft.) (Condiiionalpcrfecr)

. .r r. Arp rl l l r o pr es ul, un,r.. F t, u i n l l i " a ti ru t tr ru t, i , x,e ar Ii un nonsens-

0 b s e r e a lie D L l , €4 In p r o p "/i l ia.on,liLionald. sFIntr.buir: F a zs bu ! . io n . u , t rt r. t lu l mo

B. t) tT RE nurNTA nx $r INT x L D s .1) lntretrriDlare. Suhjonctir.uteste intrcbuinlab duld urmltoarele S 1664

ii.' ,|X;lili,'".ili," 1,,9iJ';:",:.:,,:,'\':i:t
6i dupnverbele:

" '; "i,, l"llJ '"tr" ";ri:"''iJ':; ll: , l"l:l i;: . " l;;:,,'ii::'";::i':t ,:',r:r
s,ru,se {: a lrBslprncl fi ro /tst
I V ezi pag . 3 14 ,

( ",i"I;.q i'":, f tl.,;,'f,i {ht, h;;i,";:,;:I:jiitl .1;l,f;j;,*i;::",11, or or .':rt.,,i;,';o'nr".
(: a dod).

m4
S 1565 i tsC C 2) I[{elos. - Subjonctivulexprimer: irnala'rrr o pt"r"tintJ{ d u p ; . a s . i/ a s t h o u g l'ra t lt ' r n .l o "on p a ','i. l ro p o /rl rrl F c omparrl rvej : l h o n , t hon t l, t han 1 l ' a t
"cYin \ olnpr r , P dt c , 1 a I I r-P 1 l i | l r d ; l l i ri ' u m a r " i o i p l i l i l) I aaa n, l lr alF 0 z i" Ilother used id hert me 4s hoqh I hn'l ben n l:trtle girt {ltama md tral, ca fi cum a'i ii iost o ietitl.)

dupi eren i/, (ercn) thauEh,lncveocr'whaleoer'whichewr' bJ o concesie, t 156? ' phaeaerei,c (in propozi,tiile concesivc):
m' rd l ' e' f " - r t ' agh na h 4 ,1 - s o -l d rJ v " ' " n z ,,,l J it l : !' n ;t d .\ | q i r" , !_ d r m r: l i g l .i l _o ' r c hilr , la' " d jt ; r m . n . r , . . " n rl " /5 1 rr & p r. j . s J . D o l rn k i n ' r r.\rhdi . ( [ , lul lur o. a p rrl J . d " \i ." \P ' n J " rd l rp bt d ' l unat' re i ". E*n if iL qnc ao, this is no eaFvmatier. rchim dacil ar ii asa.nu cstelu u utor.i , . $ rs n d v p .J I h o m r o d n y o ne. (A fhai c]. i/ r , " r . u " v Da . a ' a s i n rrro d ctipo nrmenr' ' ( O , ; c inp s r li r a i F l d p " i me a

W L^ -s h . lrF. ' dppi4, ldn , / oe l; uPdLv him c F r i rng!f tlr Doi sF s nlr m r i i. f ; ' il dec i' dad dr lo' ur f dr lP ' n' a s o 1 o T p d s i sl'ou ldrq oirJ I: l- l" lr J r a "t ur s r m ar S r a r P a l r un r olr , r 'tonr dF ( ,^ ?p F t"_J "a r. ' In cd s orrlln '$, r it "o' "' m por t anLlr ' al J o " h o u l 'l b F l o l d l h € t t u l h r a r h " r d ? t / l/'/h o ^ l' l L in is nor an" tla t t haa \or ''" ar]pv$u dqir ir i"' PUn' ; ' p""r "n rl;,r,r, d; b ";1 ,. '[ ! i s p a s ^ u n d d "t ""n"i

r,t.i ia ti"lt

So D. il I

(Fiecc'oiil)

Conte Nllal mag !

s 1568

c) o conditie ireal&, realizabili sau nu (ln propoziliile condilionale):
$ o u l d s o o ns " l m ztL" Bri gl l ' ll v our m ol, l"r d & // " o n p .5 rrr l r Dic n m am ' rt a d f p rl " d v ' n i , a . d r.rrj a ' m d r 8r ru' rurrLP ir v our $r t " . *, ri rl rs , ' l ' F $ o u l d s a pro !F.Jrhi ns' ro a l " r { Dic r ' olir t a d r ., l d n o i . J r a v ra g ti j d ,1 " lI r ot h" d aP t ttP r, J o u $ o u l J h a tP l i k e d l h eo ( O ; c l i- s i t i e , n o s c l t. l i _ a rIi l l i c u l , ) I sish 1 @de a student againl t]\q do.i sn fiu iar sludent.) Don t \ ou Lv islfo u l o d 3 s o n ? ( Nu r j \ r ea s ; i a i u n ti u ? ) 'lhev I iilpd thFI iod not .on? so iatr' (Doieau$ nn l, vcnit aia ltEid ) shr disne./sl( l,dJ 04, o d)nc.r' d o ri r s dl i ino' ' , " " r i t o" .a " " .r' - s o u ArIi .J o ecxlama,tie, o iormuld retoricii Otl ,Dr iL 4dlc lossiblel {r\U Daod ar Ii losibilii O[ | /l'r hc lldd .oae yesimd ] l { \ l' l S J t i lF niI e l i e rj ) vehemente l/ irnprecal,ii, proieste ,.dl lhc fello}'l "pi''"iiii

s 15G9

dl o dorinln (in propoziliileoptative):

l n' J dr)'

$ 1.;io

! 157r

sau nu: lio,g it alll. ..

(Lrs-oIncolor)
allabetiL pPnttu a fi nai

"" "Ltt
1 Dil€rihle tntelesurialc suljonctivului slnt o'donrlc consnltate Iesne _'' I : His matner. ihoush slerq was noi unkind-

.3{5 ai,.sd tr,e manl t/os/ l,im! (li.'ar blesiem.t si-rficl)
1;o da wil,h \'od!

Confaund lin\l {Duc{-sel. naibalj

iLns - oballil s a u C u m rn s n c ffd a q ac e v a l )

r./ o indoialn:

$157?

I doubt if he l,d ir. iArlrii.l {[Iii lndoiascce .rr li ic.si.) Cl. I don't think he's in. Ulxlicativ)l Ih "J,l u nor b" r i, v er ld, I ' p p " ,' ri u s6 " g ._ .i 0 .. (\rr d i " r r l i n u L ( il r . - rlic t ur a dr l i o ri-c i n d l i .) i...ts g e iuine. ) ' ( I ndic { t i !l l I, o presupunere (in propozi-tiile condilionale etc.): .\ 1573 1/ l.his ,e true, he iB a clerer man. lD"/ d ,, J . l" . a, dr ' + r .-b J v l r,' l rd ,,p :,u tu 5 p .' . ! rnomJrsl P Ii l .l .P rpl pnl 1 D. e\ pf lm a o ' rr| su !ro n L l|\ r t r n ,tarrose shc dalL.i hereI ' n , ilielipuicitc li ci ar leni aicil) I1 shc ,c/' you, sle would go in lor mediciDe. lD.rcnrr ii ia locultnu, ar siudia medioina.) S/rrl .5 i a gt his r J . l t dit 6 " p av o ,8 , u o J : In l J o r h d \F bppD S l dd' {Pi ,u p ui: ad c " a- i" J . rr fi l !..t .1 ru ,n al J . n J l i d r i i p l rut bi np?) t) o propun€re, o sugestie, un lndemn, o cercrc, un ordin: Il " mrveJ / , t orr h" m . - r , n gr/ i i l tu u rn p l . (\rh d i c ) (.o l o cv. " b,l depl t (El ) r l r opus s d s e dm n e l e d i n l ).1 " .s o n .(\' h a i c) (.ol ocv.-sfrorU g;' ,, Ir \J" srggps r . J , ld, - e g ,( l s p p c i mF ln (n .J p ro pt ac ' r n s d l, n4 i ,l e c l i e d e p ro l r..) Soneone.omd Irde and stag/ (Sd vine cinem aici sI cint€l) rcsularly. (Formal) (colocv. I t is requcstcd rior union memberc r,oy uteir subsoripiions .d .l i a .h i rFc u rp c !l a r: l rl r cor' .1l i i l e.l (rr"n i b i , " : n, 1, dt , - luis ln t ru ' rl i j,) un scop (dupi rnai, in afiar that, that, L.st) lln propozi!,ii]e finale): 'a /d, Mafy re accelled to ereningclasres. Hc lut in an attlication {Arhaicl (colocv.: I \ Itr!t' o. p" . i c r \ 13. ir s d f ^ rr' rn i r5 ' d .u " s ' rl5 ' " ' 1 . l ' " ddrk (soLd/n; T..\ so uonlI t l r go,/,-/a J ," l ,p n a r$ J r 'n ... r' i IU rd l J . a rb d u r' ,.- p' i t r ' i L -\- \,r'u. - ol. " r " , l, l l l o."

s r5?4

S 15?5

lil o tenrcre l tpn lcst,for fcar, ro bea raid, to fear).
She le.rred14, she D€caught in the stonn. [(co]oir'.] $l,e lcas al.aid she u,g/,r le...l {li era teaoi r{i nu o pdndl lorltrna.)

.|i1570 Sl;it

lJ o ttrare:
l r' ' ng Dc d. l!!tl l ( S ,i iir rou lli n rri letritrl ll

In afarn de cazurile mai sus citate, subjonctirul sP mai Inl,febuinleazi; a) ,iupi .un.lru.liiiF in,t"r-oncl" i lr' lu.p trir 't: 't ;s nP .-nr't t li;6 : ,1"1,. potibt t. ir is d /,i/a r.ru,/ ls ru s.,r,,a.7. ts F,LtLt rslr unfoftunat.).tl ts /tgrt (sau wrcng,proper)2, shaner,fattLlnut.rar
I i!' ?" . rq ' tr,b. i ,J
rli, r

l' - r ol' J r u 'l h "u p "ld , , ot "- ' o s-.r.. . ttr , .
\frame-. ,,t 0 ,' ,,..

.j

- oPiar . t / a' or t 'I a t l d b I
lll.,,/ a t,tl oshna":,f

,

. / . r + . . "u. ir r i''. . .j"l'l rlru a u n" d nn, ln llr -u,h ot ahjng". , i, , nr i ln a . . sr. , ' p q ha mp irp sho ul 4 I ' a. go L n lo r hJ nl. n". r n.r kiDon"$ ' w h d t d ! i.v "o , T oll;A ' esle "o rrr'..ii c "r . ' r bt li\ ul , , "oar . . s r nl L r m . l F d P . o r t u l l i d r l d '. exprimt;1 satr snlrinleleasl 1$ t!641.

d oitf ,/

pf1

.

400 Notd It A (hi\h) tims estc urmale de subjonctivul prezent: It is (hiEh)tine (tlrar.) you /ere in bed,Nan_ lAr Ii t.ehit (dc nuli) si te culci.Na .l
lin t lt rine lou sro,,€d Dlavina? \.d r li r md .l . . r ; ; m idi , ir t ; d, d r It is hish tin z \ hd / pd qr oLr n up. \', f o Jil.s ; ai m h; , iull, 1 ; ni, r l"l. ' \ , r s r , d .

S f5?9

n, in construcliile idiomaticc iarl bctt.t, had mtller. wauld rather, \pould. sooner,verbele had,Ei oould tiiDd aici la modul subjonctiv:
You nzd ,€ir€. srdd,,i io ],im. (-{i lace mai bin; sd i vornc$ti.) \lt "an h d.J Ht , r plaa t - dt / it . . d | . , rT,rt m"d Jr fr , . t pr " s d 5" jni, p"o. dq r,./" I eauLl, ntho \\e acckand..t at $iDdernuc.l (At ptefetd sii pet.erctu sthliiul d€ srlptiLninn la llindcrmcrc I !4 tA..o."r \ ' ou "dd" v r n m . (At ptefetu sd rtt cu minc.)

)

$ 1580

sulJo^-cTlvui,

yENBELop, ,\uxtl,tiRli IIoDALI cL Dolrl foli\lE ct1N . ttty . EHALL.t ILt,

P€ntN studiul complet al verbelor auriiliar€ Inodalc, vezi g 1930-2178.
Prc ztnl (modal ptezent + i]dltniLiv prczF,rl,) nas call ( toil€ trei srd call I p.rsoanele atl/ call I

(nodal trct t

1r.cltt irrn,ili! prez.'rl) ntgnt call I toan]tr.i rr,rld call { Dc.soanele

Conditrioral fi sulrjonctivprczcnt i pcrlect
(modal trecut Prezent I infinitio prezent) could .d I miqht.dll I lo.ric lrci should call a D€rsoanele sauld .u lt | -

P.|fect (modai tr€cut + infinitie yrfett)
<\n\ti ha calletl. mighi do. .alLzl shonlil /Dee .ared vaxld hd)e catted I t toai,e lrri I pcBoande I

O bse r e a lie
'S f681 . 1) A so obseNa cir modalele au aceea,si formx la indicativul trecut, subjonctivul lrczent si c.n,lilionr!rl prczent, dec\ o singnrd farnd.la tr€i nortu { 1582 2) X{odalclean rn limp prezentsl .ut:, tint t.:cut, tleci difnenla rle fonn,i: apare la mod,ale, care sint urnato la ambele timpud de un infinitiv prczrnt: (o sineurn formn).
t t l d- r ' p, j Ibr ,- \V ,,n LaLe r' ; h,t,o.-r 'F nii ' . ,r' ,ri n \.;l J n a l i. , n p.,,.u grLt td. po.ri fo.,i i rrhl . nr o. . , " h b -,n " ,,t1 ,p ,ro ,,. tfi iom 'aI'hELak ' ,\chool". in regiune: " .,i to stabirili ll'tr)i a;h ftJ1tt 1350\:.ra;nlet l.aulal cale dse 11712.18141!, Rabe soklttu l11i!t-ta4t).

,07
l" s, h i mb. , " n, liLi" nr l u l s ; ,,h i n ,,, ri \u l 0 r,n d Ln l fpr r., I v p t1.,1. rbLtL,i i rp s s ru rre , u ru l r n l ]Jte l a !.(, tut ,lil- rrl ,!s d " f ur f ls r r nl, ', ' i n ri acelagi in ambele cazurj, ca arcn disi,inclerical. auriliarul moclal rlminind ti\ . i . a .e sl , or doui m odrri : e ,"o , . I s l, ouldi: d r { re"b ' u i l -\o"n l d t f i ' ;' i ttt rr " Jrr ) ; i, ' . . . " ir i ")t ' r-' l I PP Prt c ! p i ,' .d F ,i , ' rP" " ' ' d I L, " i ; . E l ; (: . l re " n !i )- $ o n l' d ..",j ," r , II n, ould I4t:i ,i !ur prt:ha\" t: ; : , ' " . ; , 1 r,

.. 1 p ,

1 ,.,1 , .r gi.

., r, p. ,,

., l ' r' , 1 , 1 I i ' h n .

I'ou 3no"d r,ll thc t.utl. (-{r trelni s:i slni adealrtri.) I wauld ntlt. talk to vou than dance. {-\i lrcrera sa siau de vorba etr line decil sri dansez.) -\o onc .olld haeedone1Lrnore competentlythan rou. (-\_ideni Du .r li tul.ur. Ia.€ .u mai multe comleienld dccli tine.) You 7rtsn, Idre .one soonerl (,\j tj pulut sir rii mai dcucd.ll Pertru r n parre . celelail,e auxiliare modale a se vcdca situ€-iia la liecare rnodal

(] . C OIS!R UCT I I I , N

C ,\R N

IN I,OC U IN SC

S U R J ON C TI TU L

S 1683

ln iimba englezn contemporani, cu erceptia celo. citeve cazuri aritate la S 1i44, {orma leche a subjonctivului e""tetnlocui€ p n construcl,ii formatc

LUT, ll-A.Y,NIIGHT,SHOULD, WOULD,trccunr cu ajutorulauriliarclor: qi pri'] infinitia sa\rindicativ. lxr
LllT + infilitivul incompletl lormeazl un echi\.alent al S 16Eb 1) nornl. subjonctivului prntru tostc persoanelc - singrrlar si plural - cu rrccllia persoanei a 2 a'9:
n r''ll,IIIi., I ' ' , il .v ^ ! ^-,!| ! , ' , I l.l tp t u s ra |: lcr f l, L, n c . L ,l

! 1684

.

O b s c r r a lie LDT esie ur ai de un pronume\n cazuldcLt.zulitl

Lel n4.and,,, go lor a *alll llon't lct a€ sceyou again: Don't lct'r st.rft yet, v'iil you? s | Ld's noi slaft yet, rvill Jou? 'r 2) inteles. Consirtcl,,ia Iormdtd cu ajuto|ul auxiliarului l,El esie S 15EG lntrebuinlatd pentru a exp lr)r o propu ,ci ur lndrnrn. un ordin indiect. o concesje: o presupunerer
Let Be sp.att no$l {Protuncrc) (S,'irorl,cs. cu acuml) ,r, rs so lromcl (tndcmn) (tlai si ,nlrsrn acasall I,er'r /d, bysonesbe iysones! (lnd€rrn) ( f l{ i s n l i H rn l .c c u tu l l ) l lnfiDitivul incomnlet nu arc l]arti.nla lo. , La peNoanaa )r-ase Intt.:|[int:a7i] itur)edtirul, CaZI deoarece ac€s]a exlrili lrl

l0ii Jtt hin statt \vork ai oDce! (Ofdh indi.c.L) inr,eapi luoul imediail) 1Si1 r?r her dft'c thc motor boat an.t lle.e rvill b. u rilidenl {&csnpunercl trn aocidert ) (Numai rd .onde.d ea baroacu ,noior Ei se !r i,Li,irlr)la l ' \.rr t d npadpi1) o ' | t,) ' i rnn' ti l ' r ' { ,Is o ,' r,l n jro 1\r I dr' n' 1.. \ u ' r c d" , r : , d. 1 -d ,p /" 0 ' .o u l ' r" L o l' ; alit prin jlnperali\', persoana a 2'a U ordin adrcsat dtfecr se ertrrimi

$ 1687

(s 1 6 2 2 - 1 6 2 4 ) .

$ 1588

(H b ." .n " S,' ' , " .i 1 \' u r1a 1928) dc (-{ se vedeati exenrlnele S g Iirfl, lorn€ n€gatiLc: are doud 4) Forma ncgativi. -LPl's .Doz] lets (.olocv.) 3 u u ,e r' r z o r... (n a i c o l l l . D,n'r lcr'r wait nn rim. Cft going z.r's not I'ait lor l,im Bttlef 3el g.ing: C ,a s r.l i a l l ri ri s l (ool oci .i D a L ' 1 l e t' s Zdfs ,o, do suoli r l|insl DO selv€$te la acceDluarea ulrni 5) Acoentrare. - Lot's. - Auriliarul S lt1l0 co n s im ! em lnt entu z ' a s t: fo r s u u c r? " " O h l d , i c a sl ' "Sl ,a ll $e har e c t nli i s l t' :

3) forma contrasd. Let's. - Let rls por1,€ a{ca sau nu forrni contrasa duDi inlelpsuiDe care il are in intentia lorbitorului: ' ,/ .;n.l ."ilul principsl /, 1.r are toati lorla sa de 'erb lcnical (: d al ,..'p a..pnluJl ;i r,. Jr^r'. br.a lorr j' 'or'lrJ i: p rnii.. o tnso.1. 'l'ea.her. llease, l.i a6 go on a trit bX ourschcs: subjonctit'a11, D./ cind Lllf este insd auriliarul unui cohiYalent, .de'i neaccentual, tornla contras:i cstc aproope cirligatorie. acccntul cdzind pe vcrbul lexical: l ' ill f" on rrrl

$ 1591

. l tr, ] ,u i ,. ronJ Yo . r 1 -.,,n . d r," r' i r' Ia Inrl ' : rr' i t Dinr r - d: 1 d i ' v -d " , r' o d i . b o l n \' ' ,l o temere sau o sDerrrnla. de ccle mai mulic ori dupe conjunclia llal, s au s ub i n l e l c ;s i . l r tra d u s o u m o d ul conj unctfv (marcat d€ con' "\t'i 'nE t i j u n cfia s d) : I r llraid wc nar nir* lhc sisnpostin lhc dark (Uic tcamn cl ru aotn pntl,t ved;r indicaloNl futio lc lntuneric ) Don'l, so (1orlearls lou ?,av r,.urri, ii thc stomr' {Nu pleca,sd nu ic lrindl n'ttnna ) I hopeJ ou nay ,t l i g h i . ( s pDrs t ai dr e pl i tt.) c_,,rn scop: I lravecomeso l.J'atXou nay r.ll rie thc ne$s{\m votit ca sii-di slui vesi.ca.)

lrAr cthivalonte M\Y -f infinit'ivulinconpletesteinltubrrinl,itin 1]onsLrucliiki cu subjonctivul,pentru a expima (cu o ruanli de forrnalisttt): a,) o dorinln sau o urare:

1e28, 's 1585, 2ctdyfi.sh, sg. qi coleclivilrl. .rasltstus:.a.'
z (fo. t€0) ncs@r il con{frdlF

3{19 .1, o concesie(dutn ftrtt.re,". trhatercr etc.) saLrabsenla ei:
Fo'..,-m'r,,r I anJ l: t F \ a. . Lant . , rori il d. .rn , . , I np. I ol , r t oo \ t o " ,.tdt,." I t.,1,

Construclia cu \'tiY se mai intrebninlo xr:l : .../ in comparalii (dupd as tl a: thaueh):
Shc lo.ks,s i/16 lbulh st\. nda t:tu (,\re acNl cti fst' sata !i plin8i r

it is trcbul)l.. it iN liLllt|: /J dupn constuncliile it i: rossi.l)b..
tt i pofiblelptobableitiiel3l l[ar. he /,dsr &. ttr.re. lrhte losinil/prohbil ca cl il lic arolo J ( V . ui s i S , 0:6 2 o l l )

rtrcHr
\{IGHT ale acclca;i I|n(l:ii ca Si}1.\Y ( g 1591):.+te insi ftnosili,r frazele ln careverbul di trropozilia principaldse afln la trfcut. sau ttsrl,ru a suqera o starc de lucruri loarte problem$ticn. 1i c&recaz rre rol de,qubion.ti! dutn llat erprimat sau sublnl.lcs: Shc sl,enisld nerer kno$ ilhessag.riD. {Do r1,'.1 'rtrn€d (Dorea s(inu mai itic ni.rtudaii cc e tlorla.) L.t il.did \^ ,"i.s ,'" r,.. : h r',rk I.m," (lti".d lJ , "pur . d. l "ij, p n l . n r ', ;c i ' "/ L\ ' ln I . 1, . . , r ",e
1 l.p 4l \n n, t t t l , r l_r "" n, i (Sd rdm'rd a i - d, pr a t ' i ' 11, I al- . lDr pl n o , o r Hp ,to"Fd llFsl' u' "r . . , I L \ ln" r o!lo dD. . , , , . l n. : , , n: t , , al1ir , - 1 , , , Ii oas lossiblc (Uratl hc /rigir trc ihere. (D,'!I n is ld$iil, (S€ lute a sd lie r 0olo. l lc.o! ,nar etc.)

s 1502

Obser"a!ie d) MIGHT intrebuinlat intr o irazn a circi profozilie princfualn conaratl circumstanle a ciror realitlllo un prezeni un€ori chiar si ud trerut zare este foart€ problentrlici: I kn.w Jou are rer,! busy.bnl I Nishyou ntgl,.rrd hcrc. .l
(il:. ." r . , i, Lr . . d rod, r . , ular . 1. , r "n rl" e ,6 itr.,id s . , r i8r l 8- t o"t in I , p L ooJ - . (li p-a L4 JmJ , - . n4 . ' n t uld, r "' . 1i i i. t di. . . ) \,,ri,j.

6J N{IGHT { infinitivul pcriacL exprinra o acliune ner€alizati: Shesishes.shemiaht hae.seen \ai. lDorcitesii le li vezuf. k].r nr 1.;a vii?ut).] Atenlie ! Ca auxiliare care formeazir construcl,iile echivalentc cu subjorctii-ul, \1.\1' .i ltlGITT ii-au pi"rdut ruprin."l no;io ol l npri r I a tural/ :i. ,la .r lp nai mul ori. r irr r u sF ridu. jn alr,, limh,,. l, rin,Lr | ,^n;nd c\r.r; " a' rpda ,lr l r',,1i" ,1, , onl-\r sau !l- in tr .d poqibi li d. d "lFd "n:iJ \ ^rbirnrul,ri) nub.tpl' .ubti1. .u sue.. ii i'r6i"1c ",rbjonrtirului. :nrr.r"." - cbi. ruhri modale. chiar ;i tutenlii n€r€alizatc atc. (Vezi traducerile exemplelor.)

sHornD

s 1693

g 1594 1) l'orllrtr. O alti etr-lrcsieechival€ td cu subjonctivul. dar inrreluir colocvial, oste formatd accca cu ajutolul auriliarului SHOULD la tatn ti toate persoanele.si timpurile. ;i la ambeie numere.
l sau s.: te li prtui vode.t".dn!d siftalic sau conntrn int.nliei torlilordri. ,,Do.et1e

310 Se folosescurmitoarele corNLructii: pentru a se exprima prezerrttil sau viitorul - SHOULD + infinil.ivu) prezent; pcrfccl. Ienim a sc erprima treoulul-SIIOULD+inlinit;vul qdbjon.li\) ('rhar' y hin /".t Ir 6" rnl") no ' ,lisob
{ \ u , i n d. . . lt 1 ' u r' c 4 n u s F s r' l Prd Don't djsolel hin les, hc shouti be an]ry- (Prezent){arhairant) (Nu li ne$cJllntor, rd nu se supc.e ) lt I s lt uu E ! " 1 e ry . I l F s p ' rn (l i i l o rl |' ( Da. a \ a u m' r. i \.i " \p l i '" " , pd rd ' I r , ! inloo. \ ibp tl h d tt y o t s l ," rl d h o .pb .-r b n gry.(T-.ur) r' tl ' a l F r' :u p rr' a l ,l u + ,u p It " l" c , innulinla (rJ I' $1695 -

ln lirnba cneleznmodernii, atii scrisi cit Ei TorbiLS,con3l I'onctii. S 1696 L; forrna veche a sub.ionctivuluiln urmxtoarel6 str(Lctiacu SiI O UL D i nlooujps

2) inteles. - SHOULD. ca auxiliar utitizat la formarea unui eclivalent' al subion,iivului, esta intrcbuinlAt uDeori pentru a arlta cA o ac,tiune sau o stare este problematic{, dar nu,si irealizabila: ' t l \ r . 1lhaLt rttu. " t l ti n . i l l l l ,i ,ai o ri rE m " u p / r r' o 8i \ p mF a ri n8 ) d l In l i n p t' i . s p u npI sl _mrl ' l pronezp ( 1, ' d + r ' nUr l ,l d .u 1 \d '

S 1697

a.) dupi il tcst,far f.ar, tiLI, ut il,

Ifbt stouLl cane,t.thim lino\t tlc news. (Presu!un-".e) {Daol a. li s, ainn, slune i restca ) c c s ir l. hc " d1.c /. p rro tl ,J l a ' ! ' J n .(S' ^p. ImerP ) ^ lJ '\' , ' n "n l l L L . f " / i l o r r l " s.r ' ' 5 ' J si ' iJl (shavlt 11 (Scof, tc'ncre) Lest Ne ) torset (Ca rd nu uitim l) wc dare not sli. /of /ed. she sno.ii, a'ara trp {Tcme.e) (Nu tndriznin sd ne m\oin dc tcanl cit arc sI se lrtzcascitl

d r1 i 4 a r , B hil . l, r . _ mr' , p n r.p i i \ i ' _ JrF ,) dup[ fsr) r/ul, peniru a cxprina un scopr un ordinl o propuncre sau S 1598 o suges hc : I rm rvrilins thG so rloi rou shoulitact accor(linElJ lsoor) illd ) {iti sc.ju aocaslaca 3n prooedeziin conser Tiie olrre6 s{re o,d€r$thnt tlie nrines/rtld ,. floscd (O in) iPlt..nii a! dar ordin e7 se ii,tiide rnina l a' i i ' ) l opn" r' p rn i .r" l l -1 l I or ol " s ; " 1 l b .l rh ) iPior'trn , JLts l'ed, lsili ) ." I " : | ri nro Lbi rc i \p i l upi for' r' r € l59C ' tp ri ' r- !" ,rrr ' . i ir t r " 7, l" " t.2l etol ts.us^t' !a\ p im a l r s a u .rrb i n l J -r... i u n " ia t f r at i ,rF .- J l 5 J-: t t. i c t.) t o sl nn t . r, r tt .1 )' i t ts not l rtt ,tt,ts , ' nni1J 1 . su rp r iJ ' .t r prnbobl i ' t. i ,ri r: r""".ttct, fo r' J r' ,tP J ;1 ' nt:nt ' i r:. po' si bt p\r' : "nit 1 ' t! t' ,' i ' r.r' ' nn . tl ' t t I'A ti, nll at t t , . q rt" l i u n ). tt t. tn : J an iorry (rhrt) lon slould sal/ so (rkgret cii st,ui accasta) p .h a 4 d I' a ' s " , p S u. t ,a p: , t lh' | "p i no n!l u otl ,hJrrl on.l ' i l rl ;J r'l'" r" pronri L:) ( Le 1. . 14: 1 r l n u lar l it t , r " ' . ot u rl l , r, y o u /L" l J ,r,o! l } l ru lh i ' rF \' ,u l l LE . t " n. r ' J i ; ' u n o $ LJ $e| p. re r_ou t ! x o! iI pa" r , l" ttttd . s h -" h .u tJ 1 " ,\. " ,.,r\h I t , a. u r ; r r ljD l ;" , e d ., Ii S i j r " n l ' " ' l l r l IDsdiptie p€ nonum€rlul eroului necnnoscut "Tl). Ct'Iotalh" de la Lor{j"!

311
h sds olt at te qa6ti.n (Ll,atl sli! slould ({i& ihe.e. {Era crcl,,s si nea.ge !t jos linil acolo.) l, is th;a ht tin " ( ' hr ' ) l' . . r . z / d. p i^ bq . i, " ' l' m ul n t', . l{ElJ r, b uJ

"Do vox tike it?" "1 shiull thint sol" ( li i; r ac c ?- c re i l ;i e d l ) \or sh.attt hae lEdtd them lraising lLinl (Sd-i li auzit lludntdd l!l Iesterday in thc $lfeet, lvho ./,dl I sce}ut llJlll (Ieri. r)estradl, !e cine eo ved? Pc Narial) €i in unole Dropozilii sccundarc condilionale. in care ac{iunea ardtatd 5160f .e po -i i l ,i l l in r iit nr et e c o n .i J ' r" t.,.l .o d rl , p ru b l F rn r i ' i ' rpropozi l i r pri n" i pal a p ndl" ,o l l rn F r n r nlr ' 3lr v . u i ' .o n d rl ro n o l s P U u n l m pD ra l fi : t l . t ps t oul, tL .t.tp d !tn p o t.q t ,n d I ti l l l " tr" ttta\ ( 1J . l\ J f gan .z 1 ,a " o ' J rl l .rJ p rn L p o ngrl l ShnlJd, he @ccpl to t.cture, theJ Nauld be inteteste.t (Dacn ar acceptasd li i o conldrinll, i-.tl inier€sa) r hn 4d h. r t r C L p . p ,t L m tt,r^ u ,. t , l h . s , .rpl rr)l ., , r" 1 ru n ..,.J .r l pg5urd.u" " rr l a" ul .l Db, . J s ' \ J t ; t m o l ' r (]litodre: $ 1{i02 f) pentru a ar{ia o conccsic, cind subjonotivul exprimd o acliune ,h ^ u th aL n" . \" I th o rl d l rush ^ N l . I $: ll s De. Lm v " .,1 1lo, " pln" , " i ..' ,o s r ' ' rd d ., " 1 fi .i r./, nc r. i n .r Hor . / . f hat d l ' ^ :to ttJ h o r ta r!d " .h $ i l l n " vrei vp I ( u" i. . r d' T . it .' r J . d d " s u o i : . ,;l n u ' a r ' nLr I . ni :odJ ' W hok t e. D a t n ts ./,,r' /J o v .s h .$ rl l s .n m il l u | ' i rde' ti ' n ( O r r " s . s ^4 pun" p ;" i l i .i . d ,^ v d s p n " l u rJ" i rj ; l or'

d,/ in stilul exclamativi t€toric: like tnis: Th{i sherno,U D,nd'e {S.ise poarteca astielll

$ 1600

g,) h unele propozi.tii comparativc, dupn as if' as lliorgh: niss otlr train. I[ lools o' ilwe snoz,,, (Ni se pi.e oe arcm si lie €r, l..cnnl.l

s 1603

S 1604 n) in ulele propozitii conparative introduse de cuvinteie lidn (that): an so It is bctter sl,e inozd..uit:, hc.Iailings now rather tltun (that) yon sl@utd nuttitrc no wilh ihem. i Es"bmd i b' nF . , r id" d s J T .' l p i i u i l r ' I b .u m d q rl ,.onl ;nui 1i l d l ol drd) d ; - u . hi Th Frpi s nolhinsir . d s l' k a . n ," .,/td , /h a rrl p o t l p . h a L l ,J ^. r\i mi cnu. i di- plJ ' " n i In , r,1 .. r' " \n " i p a s ' .J " ' p re pl

ITOL]LD

s 1605

1) Formi. -,A.uxiliarul NOUI-D esl.r intrebuinlsi iu lormarea unui $ 1606 e.Li\J"nr rl.uhjon.rirului nun ri Ir1'-rrorne '2-r;i c: J l8 dmbdc nunera 9i la toate timludl€. f \\OUf .D- inl;\;tirut Ir'"Lt -\f irn" pr"r"r lu' 'r \ ior'l ir['n', r'' t rl .t 4\o,i,nd rr'ru L]. 1 \\,'Ul.D
I $i!h rou mald stt doFJll {Prezenl.) f De c c u s la i j o s l { : It d .ri ' t s l a i j o s . )] I wish she trozil .otu tomorowl (Viiiofl lD€-ar veni niincl (: Ii dori .d vin{ mline-ll I vish you ,"ozd na'e rdez himl (Ticcut) {sill Ii Yiztrtl) l conjunclia ,nd, nu pdte li omisi aici 0a b ctempld pr.oedent

nt S 160? $ 1608 2) ink€huinl€re. duparerbu] in stilu]coloovial a) $OULD estefoloijt I tnodobi$nuit
l o tti. h ! - nlr u . , , rp ri -r o d o ri n l i r, d l i T d b i l d: I s ; h r ot r ( , & l d ..ti ' e a rl rl l c c e n u v i i d e rr€I,c?)l t ( f if e) ; r dor is d l i i d e v re m e (D

S 1609 .

suh6, Cind insn dorinla exprimaln Psrt ireali.abib. se inirebuint€azn

l o n cr r v ur pf ez enl: I Nish yotr tel€ h.rcl l tAt dori sd lii aioi (d&r nu es.tj)

Ob scr e a lie exprinn o dorinl* o dorin-t5, dat ai,unci el insu-si rr) NOULD pcatesugera S 1610 fiind ffmai de un subjonctiv: ireali.zabild,
I Qoui.l I ('€rd Xoul 1-\s dori sli lju tn locd tau.)

Woul.t, il hatL mL bce| sol (De n-ar li lost atal)

s 16rr

€xprime !i voinln: ,i NOULD cu valoarc de subjonctir-condilional,
Wnat ,odd you nd'e me do? (Cc-airrea sd lac?) Look at it as I r'ruld, I could not see thc ditferenc€. todcun al fi p.i'il'o (: at Ii uui s-o piYesc), nu lutcam vedeanici o deosebire.

s 1619

IN !' IN IT IV U L

1r iimba engleze modern[, infinitivut inlocui€Fte adeseori subjonctivulEl se traduce de celc mai multe ori prin conjunctivul din limba romAnl: I s \ J llapt up 1 -\ l ' , | ," Ia r.. (S u b j .i rn a t ,.trnJ (!er' matl I bhdll! up p l rl \ ' o l ro b " Ia l -. (In .i n i ri v l ! oi s c uh e \fe n r. c d & t n u l n i i rz rr' ) 1U, 1 i 1 ," d o l l d .p ' ' H n I r ' l^i" , r n l 1 : l s u L . p_/nl ) (-" rn' dl r llF i' ll ui h , .,,.1d ' i t to s r.o k . { In ri d ,tv ) (" o .nr1) l. ; ul ui, h ' h a nI d . i t h F ;d 4 ? d c u l ' j . p -7 ,ro.!" ,1 1' ol o.!dl ) (RidicaL nina oa ti cnm ar li voit !d vorbeasoil ) : " " n, uLs oul tt.a t. o m o 9 l p p d td .l [.]' i tJl onl : bj ]l toanal ' S lt f s nF ik sliud r4 b pn e d rd .(In l i n i ti !) (Volbiile tarc ca .".ilie auziH.) rle closcdone evc that he nfsnt i.d beiio. {Dchiralcnr subj.) (tormal) H. c los ed one q t' c ,.." .e b e i ta r- (l n l i n i ti v ) 1l Inchis un ochi ca .sdaadn mai rrjne.) Thc childrendesovc thai.thex.n rld 8o to the licturcs {Echiralentsubj.l (lormal) The ohilitrendcreNe i, so lo tIc piciures (Inlinitiv) {Coliii ru.riin sd se duca la cincmatogral.) ohl that I sn d D, youns asain. (nchi le'li sulj.) (Iomai) O hl / , Dr loun g i s a i n l (l n l i n i tj v ) { , \ hl id liu iJ t ti n rri )

s 1613

estepreferati initivului pentru a da o nuanlndifeUnco subjonctivut ti inlelesului:
ireale) ore milel {Prcsupnnere rhe distance@d.e SuDpose (lnihipuielite-fi oe distania .r li o Inild.) cerlA) lhc distance,o ,e onc nile. (Presnpunere SuDpose (sd p.csupunem oe distania esr. o nfle.)

318 IN D ]C A T ]VU L

s 1614

Subjorctivul, a!'ind majoritatea lorrn{rlor moderne idenfice cu aceieaule indicativului, este inlocuit de acestain loartc nrulLe cazul in stilul col.ocpial: IrvishI (aslrou {ln loc de l d/,Jou"). (ir locde "]rcrele yonrlatho"). Sulpose he easryonrlaUrer I shalluphold mI loint ol vicwwhcther hei on my sideor not.(ni lo! d! r'wheth{r he ,, on rny sideor not" : pcrinal.) He does not lo.L poetic altloug[ he is a loet (1n I o. dc "allhoxgh hcr. a !oel" == I am ai.iid heotll r.lale to. theoreninS .iglit (i n I o c d e "l ad airaidlcst lrcbd perirnarl late_.." n,dicativ tiind irsn l ndrmentald in g 1616 Deoscbirce dintrc subjonctiv -si irr care subjonctivul e preierai, iiind ceea ce prive9te tnlelcsul, sint cazuri rec.saf prntru clariistea stilului (S 1557). n I:rfttITtrLAxx In aftrrn de .rechiul subioncliv. c'1reare o singuri fofrnri. areoa a irlini- S 1616 ri!ului incoml let, 9i cares-a nrerlinul in unele cazuri in lin$a englcznmodcrnn. subjonctivul modar,, arc dou; innpuri: prez.nt Fi pofect. l'ouna veche a subjonctivului cste pu,t;l folositn in limLr englezi actr.raii; rd esie intrebuinl,atn mri nluli in Statel€ Uniie al€ -\nrlrricii. h stilul r:olocvial. scris sau lorlit. cu e\cepiiia cjton-n e\presji iiliomaricc. a disprinrt aproape cu to1xl. S-a cnli,rut 1n hnLa scriEnin diferite donenii (literaturn, t)oezie. qtiinln, tebnicn, ziaristn,n) si 1n slilul olicial ljuridic. l,arlam€ntar, ln nroccsc-v€rbdle. dnri de seamnetc.). Fiind iidcpendenii de tirnp, forma reche a subjonct vulrri esle jntrebuinlati in propozi_tiile carc so reiori la rrl.. timp. prezpnt. tNcul sau. rii.tar. Subjonctivul prczcnt fi subjoncl.i\'ulpcdect nodern sint folosite in mod r',rrent atil ln stilul colocrial. riit qi tn stilul formal sau oiicial. o jn scris. ln aIarl de oilera caprcsii{ixc ($ 1518.1579),rrnde"qa menlinut, qi de ronstrucl,iite cu unele corjunclii las if, enz, if. lest sat'r:,,rdrirg,. ridl etc. ( i( 1564)l care cer subjonctit'ul, acesta e-steinlocuit: a,/ fie prin ind;cattu. c\t care are forme comunc, (onluodtrdu-sc adcsea: suhjanctiaul tre.ent at inilicatiaul trec t; tubjoncti.rnt,perf.ct cn trcctttt pttfrict: i,) {ie prin construotii fornaia ru ajulor!1 auxiliarelor LliT, }I\Y

{\rroIIT), sHotir,n. $.oLrr,D:

() tie Wn\ hfinitit. qi o subtililalii do i,,lclesearo IDtrebuintflrea subjonctivulLri dd o precizie nu poi fi oblinute prin indicativ. subjonctivul liind preferai peDtrLr a erprim,r irnprobabililate, rctic€n1I, indoialir, r)esiquranln, presuturere etc.
s u b s l .a l d a .d t(n , u i i x l i l i z a t ad.s.a .l i i ar fi i n l i i fbaj ul S 1i56. Cons i d o a t ,-a e (:ber or ! ) r dr aio ,r,o e ri oL 1i s,-r.' ,1 nrl ai i r' 1 :i o rl c { rj 1 :d e l e aml str" . z,rntsi destul de fo.nral: .{d... sa,tas i-= excetrt. Iul f.ri 1: n' aiaft-r liu €\l!p1jrl i tii 'lc. 1 \'e zi s i

314

s 1617
{ 10f8

r ll. coNDrfroNALuL
(T IIE C O\D IT IO N _ {LJ

prczcnt f/i." Presnl Canditianal)se formeazi cu ajuto1) Conditionalul r alo rSHOULDrl..p-r .o-n,,i | :-. : i t l. r ii \ \ -O t ' L n rl" p , r u l a u xr li. ' . o J ' ra a 2-a !i a 3 a sg.9i pl.)' urmatedc inlinitivul prez"rrtal s€rbuluide coxjugat:
I should callr you lvouldcaUrihe. she,it wouldcdl; calli lou worl(l call; theywouldcall. w€ should Condii,ionalulpreze t se traduce In limbaronAni cu acela;i timp fi nlod 2l (ronditionihrl pcrfecr (the PerfectCand.itianal,sc formcazi cu ajut.,n aurili"r.tor sHor LD,ls p, r. I sJ. !i Dl.r .i \\or LD rl" par". a 2 i -i x.l r sg. ti r'1.r.urn a " de jniinitirul p"tf" r ,l \"rLului dp .onjugJr' you,he,she.it wouldlavc callcd; I should haveealledi
$B should hare calledi you, thcy s'ould have cal€d.

S 1619

Condi,tionalulperlect se traducc tn limba romend,:u acelati tinp ti mod3) Conditionrlul rerbelor dofectirs Inodslo, - Condii,ionalul vcrbelor 1620 ! CAN si I\IAY aro s(ccsli formn cd Ei tr€cutul lor: COULD, respectir-l{lGlIT, urmai de infinitivul prezcnL p.nLru condilionalul prezent. sau de irlinilivul perfcoL p.ntru r,ondilionalul p€rlect ( S 1580 1582):
Lo u'J,lll. s h" it.dlt: J ou c , . lt . , alt : . . p \co,.o o"_,, '.,, lr ' ou . onr . . a r : ) I .orld halc califdi Xou conld hale c,lleili ) h . , sl,/. :l . oin, l h . d i ld, l \ .o, t. D4t4l $",ou l,l.h"r".dll d: . ^u, u ll , , d, , I . d . " \ " o . U l 'a \ o J . l. . .1.'.s1 i.:u r s ' ':'. l )" . -", l o L n ' i .l l ' \ I I m is hl } ' t . .1 l l Al II miJl'l .1ll:. ) ^L. , iel . . il r i. ir '.crribl \C-.,.-,.",,

mrr

I i{ I

r ' r \ . r r r lu n, ghr hr \ " c d l e d .j called

' .1 -J h" .Jr. ' Ti S l ' l .l l : .I S r;.-\'

I \ co,n. D tl e.t I ulrnat l )erfect " .-.--, ," L I

OUGIIT redi el insr.rli 1.1e", dc condilional al modalLrluj I'IUST. d a i n f iJ , ir i' ul pr c z e n t p e n tru , o rL l i l i o n a l u l p rc zcntr sau de i nl i ni ti ' ul pentru condilionalul porlect: lI ' ughl / o o J l ' : J o u o u c l " o ' l l . ' . J . . i r ougrl l o ' ,l l l .^. I \ - o. qhl lo r J Il : J o ! o L " \' l o " l - l h e ' u u g \l l o 11' l o u sht l I oughl ' o h J \, c J l l " d : y o u o u g r to l ,a \' .Jl dl h ..1" . i l I ougt . L' o t1 !. ,1 ,re r I \ | na $" ox ght lo L d \e ' .l " d : J n I L x g h r ru L J ." .1l l eJ: In.y uugnt J | t 10 nale .allcd { Ve z iti S ,0 5 i )

S 1621

4) Condi,tionalul moilestiei sau lolitelii. - Condilionalulprezental verpentru exprimarca belor delective modateesie adeseori intrcbuinlat, .ondilt.> nalului madesrieisan politelii:
CouA -ti\ tett me lhe tin.". l]leasc? w r ,i tl r w a r, . rl , g ,,. r uLr' l V .erJ. ' me I' I-o l u Io u .a " l o ' a c o w In ni sl ,' ? You sll;zldD't.do ihai, you lino*l O&sn,you lo go lor fl Falk in this wealher?
t tt..u u lJ,r d s r d t om r t rnmoi ir slihl r ne li. . \ q. "! . nt r r r,.r. i 2 a - ! - . f o , i . 1 r n t r b , r i n : . , r 1 1 , 'l / i

CONDITTON.ITUL

316

A se compara ac€st€forme tn conirast cu form€le indjcativului:
Caz r.ou tcll me the tiu,e, please? ,"s ivalch the gane on 1'onr TV (set). Do yo! oare lor a shor ionight? M&s, you go lor a walh in this aeather?

IV, IMPERITIVUL lTirE rlrPnRATlvD)

s 1622

1) Doiinitie, lmperativuleriprimi dile.l un odin, unindemn,o sugestie,$ 162t o conun slat. o dorinli, o anenin,tare) o rugeminie,o urarejo recomandore, subrecL. iesie €tc..motiv D{intmcarcnu are in senere
gaee jt your oinL wirl tr!. l,he .hild alonelr

N ota

1

Subjonctivul ate. printrc altc llnlc!ii, ;i pe rcelea ale irrrporaiivului$ 1694 (Sl'',14. 1547.l5be. li i3. l-,;;r. Aratar' ldSlClJ. dar nr aJr"' l"d,r'rlpers.ranr a 2-a. oi l/di€.l. la persoana1 sau a 3-a ( S 15814,ceeace il deos€begte de imperativ. 2) l.otmi,. - Inperativul. pr;r insnli Jcljnilji ltri. nu poJte J\eJ de'jt S 1626 ., a., idnJli, i.ir d, Fp, a inlini pprsoonq o 2 asingDl0ri, rtutot. o rr.il"r tivului incomplet (dpci tiri alr):
Diel nln Ha!. a cup ol lcal ntalp- ro1'l ]]. 8oodr, all oi )0uJ

drla, LJJrpbai lrprqoin"i0 2-?i ti $ rn tntt"rutt! indi., r { "lres-t t"rr^dn, i I si a 3-a). ,q.ceastIinteryretare ru torcspunde lnsd nici remnilicaliei moduri]or rcspp.li\n limpprdti\ul F\p'in,inJ un ordin d/r',1. i"t subjon.rir,rl Ln urdin tnitft t). nii Irddll'-'ii tn lrn br rom;nJ. 3 Nota Yerbele defective modulc nn au inperativ. nici nu funclione&zi ca auri liarc ale unui impcrdtiv. 3) Timp. - Imperativul nu are decit prezentl trecutul lipscste, iar fnrma dF pFrt'.1 '.re un idiom rar. ." ;n: a'\llr il) (l'erminliodatil) Haeedan6

N o ta 2 S1626 inrperativ lorna de subioncti\con' ca si tlnii eramaticieii consideril auriliarului LE lr( s l5b4)s i \ ^ rh p . d u n ; 4 ' t z rd t t r s t r u i t r r u i m pe r a li'ul

$ 162? $ 1628

1barc the chitd.alone ! s l.ao. I lct llk chihl b. ! : las{ colilll In l{cLrl r looi ?rr, I : asculi,-Ll^! ! poorru lr5".rTn .r:, ' l, d"auni. b n- . i' 1", - 1"m l . r d 'r . ' l r , n , . . u i m l '" o r i . r| 1;nd. I.a,l9 B"G..d. n, id r or l, lon l' , . , , bun_ - p luDL li"d "il'l n i !lp-,i, ' r dl u , . d6 de. . , . . . a ; o o d , . b u n '. inlF: ri t tul u' . i r';6p ,uma .r5u i - . d r _idL. : . . Coni 1 b l,i r - . m ( h 'l , J r a^at r . 1l"i: aBadnn n . hor" lau b"n o .r s n. ir pu r, unl-dr. 1"l-,Ll'Do l. '.

310 S 1C29 4) Asleft. Diatezi. lmperativul nu are asl,cci continuu, nici diatezd pasivn do(,lt ln cu totul exccplionRl: 'r1od
\.n ,, "i l dinnpr qh"nl' 4c "r '. Id ,- at r t t ' s lhd u I | , . b; d, , ; s pr . r . i( h, E lT. Ca . . - l rc !rcpa.e.l1 I i |. dfescd ] n ""n*u..d' I bc scated I be oomtoriedt I nl

I'asi!

$ f63O

5) Im iratiml ncgttil se construieste cu auxiliarul DO urmat de hfi nitivul inconrplet, chiar in cazul \erbelor to be ,s]to lwrel D,"l Ddso sdtisl,l ,o no,so homet'etl ,o,L nareher in nowl Dan't do thrl!

ln stilul poeticsclntilnastcsi torlnafdri DO, carede azitextului o savoare voit arhaiL a: Crll no, thysell a slavcto manl Fiel Charitll .Vezfrn,, in sliie.i O heart.los, no,th1-mhreF r\tun.i oiud in propozilia imperrtive se lolosettc o altii negalie decit auxiliradverbul nol. la formarea constructiei negdtive nu s; inirebLlin,teazn rul DO: l'.r.r say diel ,Ioua ol you goesa\a-!l NabadsiNa ane sl.aJsbchindl Formclc do subjonctir construile cu auriliolul LET, !i considerate de uDii scriitori ca inperativ, potj sau rlu pot, sn pr'im€asri auriliarul DO lft forma Degativi: do not/don'l.lei rr .all sdzlct me nol call. ctc. Formele negativc conslruite cu auxiliarul DO silt, ccle ilttrclruirlate in lllod normal aiit, jn limba scrisn, cil Fi in rca lorbit;, chiar pentru verbele 10 Le si ta harr: Don't hr n. ke.p you lron your Forkl
,oa', ld,'r so liomc yet! ,o4'l l.r her De a bLfden io ]oul Do natldol't tct theni la,e their oirn {.yi Don't lets do srch a thingl &r's nor do such a thingl

Formcle nesalire conslruile idrll auxiliarul D0 sint iDtrcbuiilate iD Iinba literard oii in stilul formal, oficial sau oratoric: Let ts nat *ek ralD areuncnts.
lheN uo, Z,d lnkind lo her. -I-c, ,., s normissseejlg rut exilaordinarJ si.unimana.

S 1631 $ 1639

6) ,q.ltoint'rebuinFri, - Inperativul mai est€ lntrebuit,tat: o, penlru a eliprima o sfidare,o ameninlare:
JT Pr p n ^ \' . ' f 1 o u , d n Go i,r r .b n llo u . ri q " l ,.t,l e..

rCitaicdcIt. QniL, A Crunmat of Conlenpatat! Enslilh, i.)2. sW. shakeslearo, Iting HeDy W. 3W. Shakespenrc. ndmkt, Ptince.t Dentuatk.

317
n ) i n tr o. t r f ot ! ' z it ic .,.u . nr ri .!",.r/]/, . pr r oo/ r r r r i L rts l fs .u n d i l i o n a l . i i n al sau concesi v. artesea ( t6JB fl ,i t.,1 r" ,d r-c u p ri r ,l - ,rn i Iti ." ti \ .a. un i m_ '

l-df Js r',, n r , u , , . . . . r oJ . h. . n ' .r .r . (u 1.r r o"t i , . , , \ "r , . on. : ng"c r d i

r r . ! " r , . ' an r,.| . ... rd tp ,n , . tp ro rerh "n L , l, , i I . g" t , r t.,. ,.i J t{ r, , In i ., . to, fruit and keo! ltt {Rectalnn) (Mircafi lrucrc c, si tifi sentitot , abne ud se! mr toior..Flt Lvlro sli r. !cr.n !)iinctl I I \ or k / P\ {i v " rr.l ,rl h s ol e,l ri ,i I di c r r,,n ...,., 1 .i \ ' J ,p a :, d , ,gJ.. m;nru , ' r ",
o J \!-r LliL ",.J.,ot-,!,,r tLt ,..

7) lormr acee hratl. l ornla accenlurta a imperurivutLri se L,rnst,ru_li l6J,t _ ielt ,u.,"r'.,.', Do,,,r,., r; I.201:
l)D stoD snireltinsl ,o h a * a otL* ;rkel
,o l.t lrc s-a-" you homel:

8)'I'raalu{rere. - Imperativul se iraduce t lirnba romendtot. printr un \ l63b
S,or ihrt noisel(Nu mai taec zaomot!Taci!) IJeWier) (1ati ! "ttai t)rinjntc I Jrat liristil.| ,,nl $orryt (N!-Li taoo grij ) m^,,i,nrr td Qrb2.r, Lr,ij qJr;J6 . ".9..:.ul'ic,rul_imt'crxli\ului. bup,,Irn,-0 r' .n, nu irr ",trvul tI !ubiF.t. spnFr. 'rotrnr:rp L\i.t" n.i .i ud,ir ", , tri.,n.h rn , d|n .ubiF.tLt. tiinJ (o, ,si r, -"sar. s a m{]nlrnut puternc afcentuat: d.,/ pentru elitarea unei conluzii; ,, pentN fl ie atrage at.rlia persoaneiadresate: .i mai / r' ,.,/ul r, l. | .r .r.t'r.r. Fnrt./, i ,rn,i .:nJ "r.,"teri.ti. prFz.r,1 .'rr)rF.r.rtulFmn,lp.rzio nudnli, ih" ivd nFcxprims.i _ rs.,.drp. nerrul um.r n.:Lrttr,,r" sru ,li.,r,ot'ivi. r-nJrr!... duiosi. "r". SuUi"":-i ",r," .na,rr 2.a:pro

; : : :i, , il1;l ;il l l ,"
E r e m pl e:
. . i L ).h :t . o)

r'-

u ner" a , z u n n u "e p r n r r iu

r.dseIA1d ; 'o , ',il;T,jl",i',1q"l.j",';:' 11,1,:;;,.'l;;:il 'r'e '' h a t p'd,?-'r', rp o n rre s r' v o : r ', 1 ' -. r r r . . r r.. .\,.r l p. u ,\.. . ,r...
,""0
i I Don I J 4 r

4 ,- t.u "-t ut

You r , - t

&lr h

. . , , . J . d$i , t , , . ,

rnd uod.

Lehz. tne

"i"r,,?l;,li"
L o .r d

r\

,i^\ ", \Fvtsr ,nr n ndt \u 1 6 p, . . . r d r

r , 5e, ijl: t \ . ,.,p ' m r,F .r ,

\.TJ

\n w

g o j on,

.\.-r..;p e (J l i ;L

rol i a,al r

t.d,s.L

ljo I av , h nr J t o n r' D d ,',' ls r t , I noa, " .rJ f rl n l u crul) ll
L l:ezi si g 15 83 .

y, . ,' " ' r." p i ,]I, ,Yj .;.p , :,arpr.j au,i n r" . i d " s p u . :, y o , try th l t d nd Jo. l t se" l 1 l .,..,i .a ru r,r ,ri ,i _i .z: ,epi 1..i i

iil,:,,,p ,trv.r o, / r ". . . . J oJ H. t 6h. . . . f . ". . it t . t SL,l n .. " t arur,ara, . . , t ru .omporra ri r { A n, h ,ilrlrri rl&o lt u; s , t d/ . t ils , . . niuhf i U. i1 a ] . o o t .

Iozi,,i.i..

318
1.,!t, ll' ,jrld Jjo n. , / o/ nq lr. : cLDlu lrnn "c".,1 dr ' olo{ l. , ; lrl \ov a", r. r r'o, e '. 1 ! i s oolbor : ' L d"r '.,-ii:"r m in ln' , ' -: 'lAi slat dcstdl)j , il 1, .' '. '', " I n - : p : Hdi. n 1 " : 1 / - , d o - m i l \' 5 \p7r . b n' ll l1.e l l' / : ld' rul: l. "1". ,u , 'd " I . n p 5 r 'n " , ili te nriiti dc aioi.)l

r \ ''

Confuzia lJrtre subiectul unui inp€rativ ti subicctul unui vocnl.il' poal' li evitatn dac6 se considcri accentul lor, preiulr ii locul pc care tl ocllpatfie ' ", In p"uroz;!;cc lnP r r"g"lilur .tn ', tI J.r in or.las.nr pr- 1i" , ur il r,". noriria 1n : norm"t, .uLi,,.tut "J reguh resp€ctatnt,r.." in cdzul imperativului: enunliadvnl, Yo& conc herel DtzDY,don't be alraidl Subiectul \.ocativului are un aoccnt distirctiv - /allrr*c9i, ca;i ln limba romAni neavlndo topici fix;, Irndtr stn la intPputul,Ja nrijlocul'ru liind d.spdrliLfrlrr rirguh d- r;st! l, ,fir;i'Ll proporiLi"i. n,r, comeh.rcl
C^n' . ' pr P. f ?. / . r l or r p Co. r r . r - . 3 or . d, Bo. / I'oz urerc, where are you lrom? 'litddtes, let'6 have iccc|cam no{ i Let's hrve icecream now,' .'niddt€! I

lG37

10) Nu [taret imDerltimlui. - Im]raraiivul neadnd decit o "(insuri formn gramali'caldsi oiingurn persoand.'a2-a. este u ul dintrc modurile cclc rnai suateptibile de a fi.,coiorale" ln cele mai subtile nuanle printr'o multi tudine de mijloace. Cel mai des intrcbuin-tat este inlanalia, care. asociati , r prir:r' r si gp"tiLo.po.lF par.urJe o In'r^dsJ gurrd. d" Ia lorrul '!l ,,,"i prni ta mri noli;i.o;. ,lu d ."u s,,"\: aspi,r.Jur;i ""mcrin1rior. -thukrxrinaslons.'sy.uli\er Youtl! r'. "r, , d, I . Sr,p com, I do a rvar I r\',rd.

d o y ' n l 3 c a d fr !tl ,l ' L l ocl ' tsr ,ui ndJoufo$i ' bcl nr\\r i h rt a gainrand_I ' llk n o c k" v o u ,ltttzd rour headl 'itind the step! diminutivc, ap€lalii afcctuoase elc. - carc Cu asocierea uror cuvint€ sd temper€ze duritatea imperaiivului;: \' $' l : r,,/n; 11' " doa-l H. . . / idJ ; " . $.s h \o rr rJ ' p s : H o ., \o u " , d ' i r, pi !" ,sh' rl " l l d l i l o m .,h 1 l /)oL.' i l o' l Juu i o rsrl loL" . dr lf I J , . . ;ru l ' " r" a n o $ rn do$l - I oi, Lio, it d o th a i d g d i n l

Dispozi,trii oli0iale (:

must, I'o BE -r- infinitivul ctc.):

Tiese books d.d feqzif.d teading. Thcy a/" not to Dd ,'t4 awaY. , ^o s m ok ' ns l No Par Lin s : $J lk r ng on lh, Ar a, 6, a t a l L o . . , J : Park\ng ptohibited in ihjs arcal

IDperativLtl este forma ideali pentru provcrbe li recl rle dati fiind concrzra acesiora: Lov e m e' . I o* n rv d o q l l Pro re rb l Ttu b.for. 1n iust.- {Proaerbl Lo; . m t at 1' " l i r6 l i o o i . (P r!!p rl , Eor huit drd AP?,lltl lRtclamll , i" . o, . / lhe $o r,d 5 ti l i s rb s r,.i n .i :d r. ." . {F.,j ,r' 1, P il z p t h" r ' o i v rr d n d J o .1 16 " 1 rl ; I d ! .vr,J' \orr ri r ' (l .e'l dm!) L V eli ji77, p ro l o z i ti a e n ,rn l i a ti \i . rVrzi $ { , ) 7 \o rrl i \,1 . 3Cu\ i1r , l , u, 1 rF - d i u l ,rl .l ri ' Iri .ra l " Iorr. r : it v ou s au .. (D ro n o z i tiu eo n d i ri ,,r,a l e ).
' \n;.'ip

o

-

lL yon lore Dre l!.op. condilionali'].y.,' r,usi love n'X dog too

m p ; o ,:,:

p ;"b d sir p

d

H. Q,i"| .

r'

1 t tadr

n- . -.:r

81t

XITOD U R ILE II{P E R S ONA L E
IN0N-FINI'I'I.J P1]TTSOF A VERB. VNRBAI,S) I. INFI\ITIVUL
(T IIII I\F IN IT IVE )

$16s6

$ 1639

1.).Formd. llorcd irtjn;ri\ ului erglezestcparticula,or, care Dr€ced{ q l$4O . opocpDr' d.l as'rpl dp .pt-tr ^ ior-p r"rbale
prezent I /a chc al Infiniiiv I ro have .altod perlccl 1 (a fi c|email

Nu toale verbele au in"q! i,rtiDiriv. \erbc {Jrd inlinirir Jeri si /.ir.d p.o.rli. rn..rIin ,r -:.rr i ttt.tar r,ttitiotp ,,o,,o/". \,^i.a. Ji;t: 't!1 \9 CA\. \lAY. \ll :)f. OUr:H f. sH \t.L, \\ .L, ct,. nrlinilir couplpt:iinfinilir iU.olnptpt. - Intjniri!ut prp.ad,, .t" parri.utd , ro.. p nrllnll ,nttL, |,.ortrt'/t., Jr[initir.).ln."n,rr., .,r r;rinr ivLl rt,!e Iard l!-rl.ulr to. ntmtt ,rl,rtt,' :h""npl.t (In"ahpt t" tntin;tit"),. 2).Aspect. Diat€z[. Timp..- Infinirilul arr aspeLt arir perfeuriv (!onju. girFa 6impli\,.ir .i impcri""riv {.onj rsrrea, ,mL"l;,,,i. r"?" .i ,l;,;;' ",,ri..J,,,. rrmnurr: prcrpnt.sL D€rlc, t.

t 1641 "' q t6{l " { 1643

Diateza aoti\ri Conjustea simph
10 c an. onl. lr e z e n l ) L: r . r em ij to t,a re cdl tcd{ rnt. r.ri ect) (: a ti chemat)

Conjugarcacontinud.
io b. callnig (InL lrezcni) l o J a \e b,r' n .,l l i nA Ll nt. rerh(t) ( L l i .rcmrtl

Diotozopasiytr
lo I,n ,r pd {l, t t J l.n prn it t r ^z . nt , ' o Ldvp b p e n i d p , t ( rfi i^.1 .hemar, Inf. r,.rtdctJ

"prc:.nt,erpr.ima r. , $r \'.rD ur c ir e il pr pc P a : 'the! nake (tud,1e ar qilt mane . ) hcr taueh sa! o voi ta;e) se ridi.l to fao (au fiLcut-o I can (coltd or shal be dbk /o I rde clearjv tPot (am tuiut sau loi pnrcai sil riid cta'r.t

d ) Infinitiwl

a,elasi tjmp (prezent,trecut sau viitor) g 1644

,\p ri -a .i o l l ,l l i n i l i\ ul r' i ,todr, , _pr pz , rro a t. ^ r\i n n a v er D u l u r ca r € il pr ec F d r: we nr?d ro .aA tomonorv. (sperlm ce rom p!t.a reni mlin..) 1 ptutuis.d to tetutn L\e book aL oDe. (r\m flgndtrit cI voi rcstitui jmediai ca ea.)

Ll i

d" sn" os s

,nf.ni . 'R Fg r"im J , l4. i I , - , , " 1 p ! l n r1 ,mJ ,ra ro m tn .1 .u D d rrd' l ,tas,qrFrd" . :D.n u { ir d" . . inlin iv . l u e . .i n.omp' ,..1ntr" i ui n,o m p tp t ri ,,i n l ,n i ti \,L r rt r r |r . I' rm p t.i r. .,,n ti n ri r l u n s - d F p nntno.In grJi ,r.r 1 romdn).
' ,o .' - ", r t",.,, a \t,

;EO

S 1615

b) Infinitit'ul petcct exprimn un Ii]fnl) ankriat aor]uia la .iarc st rclc.: r!rbril precedent:
Ite habes to hdee done well i. his work. l{Lll spern6I li oblinut }ezlllate blne in mun.a sd.l Sl,e ldl, roo eariy ro hare tu t tl\cmt(na) a plccat prca dcrreme oa s{'i li lnlilnit.l xor piu eant to haecfiai..,4d l'ou lessons bpn)regoinqio bcd. (Vei roi rrobabjl si ti li teiniiiral.itdnini lcctiilc inajnri de r te du0c]a c!lcrr..) r: 3) Troduccre. - Infinitivul lro traducc tr linba roneDli i lrd {rnrofa a) in[initieul. 1n timpurilc si modudle in comp nerea

$ l(i4(i

(s t64e) :

b) ittini.IieulIa timpul corerpunzntor:
?o dD js human. (lnl. prezcnt) (r\ gr?!i e6te omencqte.) She is loo sho.t sighled70/,ar..(..r xou. (lnf. t.rl( ll (n$[e prea nioale ]rertru a tc li viz!t.) ($ 16i 1): c) c anjunc t ir t l a i i m p u l c o re s p u n z a rto r ! want !, gire rou a lresoit. (vreru sll-ti d.! un cadou.){Conj. trezeni.) Hr scemsro ,14re ,old vou the tNtlr. ( P . r e s l t i li s r ru s rd e i { N r.) (C o n j l.e d fL r)

d) gerunziut:
I heard liin! clos. l.hedoo.. (L-ain auzii ,n.l..,i,i ufa )

e) supinut:
There is much ,, d" in lhe hoNel {Sint aiii de nulte de ln.,t ln castil) f) un eerb la un mad persrnal lnlr o propozilie subieclirn sau rcnlfll,r'iri d i re c t , ir : j' r r i" :ur' ' ' f' tti l l tt tt 1 r" v ' _ r r' ,, 1,. ',d / " . 1 1 f., I, 1,.n. ' i S , dpur p. : I .i .l ,p o { . .' 1 ;. ' n " r' \!. Lno\'l,id to hdrc rereieed a bonu! lor l,is Drrils. ico,nll'litil (elj priniL a trili1it. o LSlim cl lenirtl mqin,le s.l..l $ 1r;l; ii l{il6 4) Funolii. - Intinitirul esle /o/,rd d, 6.r:d a conjugirii erglpzf. fL,miii ,si.,lorna comune" (Cotnmon ltorm, Basc.). Ca atam: a) gesin timpuri si moduri idtnli.? ca iorJn:i cu el: Indiatieul pterentt (i.oatcpusoanclc, .u crccllia Irfrsornei r !'a sg I I 'r{11,Jo Intnqatiuul lwrsot\t^ a t a sa. si Dl.l: Calll I'o;tua @che a sutjoLctilulet: lao)ie lersoanele)I call, hc call, etc D, pr€cedflt de un auxiliar, ini.re ln coiJrpunerca urnnlia nor rorme

S I {;40

I sliall .oll; yolt. he n'ili .oll, ric. (Viitor) I s l\ a\ lhar c . a .d : X o !, h e w i l l /m r..a l l .d r..lt' 1\' i i torperl ecl ) I s liould. dI , . r .u , h c w o u l d .a U , c i c . i v i i to m l fu l i l l e l f& uL fi .ondi l i onrl ul trreTP rt) L s loul' l hn' p . a l l ./, y ,,,, h e $ l l l l d rd ' a .a l l .d l , fl .. i l i i torul l .rfert al l rc.ui ul ui ri co edit l, ' nJ lul l, er l e .l )
l iol 5p' l_/ , o. 1' d:d a h": . - , bi ' (Complcti''i dirccti.l I \_ ezi $ 14 !0- 14! 1. rTlo lo.i! ln l, n. " ,'l - lr ilao' \J q [ '1 1 1 . rrt tt.a .lp a L I t 'h " t - - '. d a 1 pt.d6l

B !l

c., + un suii{ formeazi urm:rtoAreleforne verbale:
-r pt 'Pl ,r -, , s calls t .1 rd ', alt€ --le d a ,dll,,6 lDe rso an a a 3_a s g indic at i l ! . c z ent a l t u l L L 'o r v e r b t l o ' iir er.cDtia {uriliarclo. rnod. e} s inp r ' \ ' ' o lor ' g lbl". u ' " ' 'r i r r n ! " / pnl dl v ' r bpo' r gar 6r r ,"-!r'n ,ra"i'.:D,ul - , ur "l lr _b"o. . gul, 1"' p r i n l 'i a n s _ r;d, :',i . on' ", , . : i g- f lr r ' d. Lul l, r ur or \ P r b l 'r 'r lra r.lor rio oar t s l

S 1660

.Jl inlocuiefte subjonctivul( $ 1612 1613): I askcdhim ro orrz the door. ula.) {L-ad rusat sd iieschidn ln loc de: oPetthe doot I asked him ,nd,ie (shoutd)

$ 165r

ca Bubsiantil'(Noun Infinitive : infinitiv substan- S 1{i52 e,,lestetntrebuintat, tival)i
?o ndre 0 senscol hunour is a grear qualitX. (Sulicci) {A avea simlul umorului $te o mare calilate.) pro' is,, /&. 4 {numeprelical'iv) ecotromic p.ofuot?(suticorl the new technique 9"""' "a €oonomic a conhibui la progresul ) (-l l.o-ot. t"ltni"u nour tnseamnd

Infinitiue - infiniliY adjec- S 1653 f, estetntrebuinlat,ca acljcctiv (Gerundial tival):
thinss t 'a"ru (atdbul) (cveninenteleviitoare) tn th e non, m ot | . " r ' $ a q n o o n F l o l a l &l o l \l ti b u l ) p" tru n p l rm r,o ri n u e rd u ' m" n i uu ' 3_psi t" I 1 l o co m pa" t im " nt u,

rJrp vorba)

(Gerundiallnfinitiee: .. ..g, esie tntrcbuin!,atca ad-/erb:t brar):

i^titr.iti\ ad1'eF $ 1654

cr infinitiv" ( $ 1667),cu variaota preinfiniiiv" (S 1675-78) sau ,,acuzativ (S 1674): cedat[ de pr€pozitia frr'
T/,e , $ p, . r ' Do{ pd t o l ,o ,?r.o th a drh d r.r' i IF go n ' l \nmi nJl :\ ' u ' l i ni l i \' l n l rn u l ' rj l F rrrl r.p l S.i s.L nlr l ir ar un s e s " r" inririti!) Wt ivant€d nin ro ioiu our basketball tcan (Acn,ativ (Doreanl ca el sd it'lre ln echjla noashe de baschet) i n " n i :t It i s to r uaut a b" s t ' rP a d n s .(l o r' ,. /a ' i l " (n ste nnA d t il i I n ,rl i s r c ,tP :ti) i) esLe tntrel,uinlat, intFo construcli€ incide L{ lolosit5 ln mod absolutl: , ,r,d r l ." b u l l ,n ,. l L $ a s . r o, , ! r h" lF 1-1\' {A l o bl. . a; r ' u s t , r n m J i m u l l o m a r. n Sl i j n l J ,i i n parr'J ILi ) He becanF.so r, sp.d . a ltchnical adr'ser to all his lriends consill€tulichnic al lultrro! prictenilorsli.) {,\ derenit, ca sI;pu a,ca, l FaII relalii sirtaotiijt !u .cstul proloziliei.

I calredon her odv ,o ldofn she lvas a{ay. (Idiniliee af R6uh) M-am dus la ea ca s{ aflu (: ii an ellat) cn era plecaF l \1'e $ent into the resraufant,o s", somelood fQbarietunt cilcunsianlial de 6cop)' (Am int.at la restau.ant ca sd luem ceYade mlncare) I w3 s sor r y r , €o. ic om p l D " n l .' R U ms l J n l i l l J " ' d u ?r) {Mi .a plr ui r lr c a pl.c .) She ivent home ,o s,zdy. (Conllemeni circumstantiald€ scop) (S'a dns acasnsI studiezc ) parte construclii speciale numite ,,nominat'iv cu $ 1655 din anumite face /r)

$ l6;{i

822

! 165?

jJ introduce o construclie erclamatiad:
?o ro!,rsuch a thinq to youl r S a-l i l p u n a a )s c .;a ro ,hnl that Bhejs olly a clildl (Clnd i,esirdeiti c[ nn a decll o copill!)

S 1658 S 1660

5) htinitirul incomplotse lntrcbuinleazd: d, dup6 werlel€ auxiliare9i delectivemodele,cu excepliaverlelor to BE, to HAVE1qi OUGHTTO :
I do ,hn* tlis is wondertul proaress. lntr-adever od acesteesteun prosresninuDat.) lGesesc Ze, cveryoncd,rdzdto his work! (S[-ii vadn liecare de munca ]uil) The nroiect .ozld Deworked out iD thc DcsisnincInstitute. (Proi;ctirl ar lxt€a li elaborat la Institutuade Proiectfti.) I tuh, se, thcm at once. (Trenuiese'i rld imediat.) They decidedth.y poeld ifo! exp€riences. (Au lotarlt sI lacA schimb de experi€n!6.) t d d .p :s d , s o to rn y l a cp. Hp w o u .d n (N'ar lndrlzni sd'ni spund aocasiain lai{.) \ ou ,,.d r n o l g d ,l p ri n l h p .ro !,)et q As k l n g l i i ro col ta ) ( \ u .s l e l n rd n p v o i p

S 1660

Dupe verbeleto BE, to HA\IE 9i OUGHT se intrebuinleazilnsa infimriv.ul complet'.
TheJ d.d ro 6e na..i'd ne\i \roeL. sdtinmha viiioar€.) {Urneaz{ BI se cnsetoreascl I nd J ",o 8 o 1 lr,. fi b ' l r i n 8 i n rh " norD i ng. ( T r e b u :-s r m r d u L a .o l o d i s .d * d i ni nprl J.) You o,Bftrro d..ct' thP prolosal. ll- r € b u i p /J rtrp b u . .i J " + p l r p ro p unerpa l

s 1661

bJ dupn verbeleta maheqi to HAVE, clnd au senscauzativ:
Thc nees ndde ho ./y lor joy. (\'estea a leculo sE puDge de iucuri€.) I'1l ndq. him a,rq.r lor his carelessness. pentru neslijentra (An se'l tras la respundere luj.)

S 1662

c, dupe verbele care erprimi perceplii senzoriale: ta fcel, to heor, to see, to obseree,to perceiae, ta tratcll, to behaldj: I /c, him s,@,wh.n liis tramcs'as uttered. (L an sintrit tesltind clnd j 6 a lronutrlat Dumele.) T uu n .d ' d t.p r.r.a , u n i h " .rb J ecr. ( { i a u z i l -ov o rb :n dl n I g )i -ra " - a . d l I .l pJi unr.) She sas him .,me hoDeI(xa) l-a rAmt renind acasl.l \1:c rdrl€d hcr pin the mal,cx. {Im umtujt o eu jDt€res cum a clrtisat meciul.) I ,enerds thc sun .isd f.om thc sea. {r\n y{zut soareleresdrind din nare.)
rto HAVE este urmat al.il, de nrtinitivul comll€t, c1l ii dc cd incomllet. (V,"zi ii € 19 03 ). ' !Cln d ,, do l. , , o . . od r S ! li - 2 1 5 : r ) s l n l v p r b F r " $ r l , t " . F I F s p a r { $ - 2o- : 13, !rmd tpd "in inilifL l'om pll. Ai. r dd. . i. d"a5r s ilLd! ip! if or m F l e l o r . o m p u s . - l n t u r r n d " lol d p in iinitiwl co m plEt 3 r,6p l,/.1p srp un \ pr oa"ndiTdnr ! ili/ d' ji s lilu l n , . m a l , l i h E r s a u . o l o . \ i a l glum4, clnd e slus pe u i.on cniatic: "ael@ld the bddcl", "tcfirld my maste4iecel" (el.c.: ,,Iai.{,

privifi..'.1'

393 d, dupx trei vethei to bi'li tu lrl l(verb l€{io.rl) : Dfueori 1o helpt l
She bad, hnn lc{r" IIs lessons (l-a spus se-ii invcle lecliile-) The ohittu.n woxl.ln'l ldi me g, odt (Coliii n au vntt sn mn luse sit ies r He nrr"dd m. .",ss oter' {M-a ajutat sn iuversez l Form.r pasivri a v€rbelor Jc ld h r662-lLi63 ,si a verbului ( $ l6 6 l t p st e inc d ' r r ' I t ari d . i n l :n i ri L U l a -,a i r: 'thea ode bi.l.den! ft,1 l€al, thcir lessons She sds heat.l to sin|. (A losi auzitl cintlnd.) { r , ii- a s pus s aL t i inv ele t ec ! i i l e . l
He 9ds sc& to @tu.

a lerl, a pefnitel !i S 166r

to ndkc

\ 1664

{\ Iost !6zut venind.)

In my childhood 1 eal nelcr ler /, so nl oien sal {ln collill,ie n-ari lost niciod.li lesai sir lltc ce rotrm l

Ane eat tudde to.on*,n (A lost licut,-r si consnnia.l p ) Ju p a ho4 l. ^u n L rl 4 ) td tt!t h o ' b t ' na' tl d su t' r' r dt h.r th a n . s aanprt hdt , . n a t" th o n .,o n t4 ^ t) b D t. L o l h;nt btt -\" 1 nlthi s,ov in tonighl.. S\c 'ould si sica acasi rsii:rsead ) (,\r trelera I hntl,b.lter gt noN, it js gctting latc. (-.\l racc maibinc sii ll.o acun,,s-a li-lcu! tilzil l
in J .. . aa, ' ". ! d/ olhilq '!,t ,".; I.F t,,t .i r , r 1, ", , .,. -r t\.IeaLisr' aottd so.net Ruth- thdn -*flr,I 'e. lDecii 6t s,Ii.. mai litic miL d,t0 li dcDtist ) t .dzu,r ,tu, lFric@ J.t. rvoNls. (\u t ot dc c it s i m c d c r s PUi. ) H"

rpt " rr" rr S l ti fi i

6) Inlinitivul 0u rilYerl intercalat (Split Infinitive). - .t1,lt lnltrntfe S 1666 dat ln limba englcziintiniti'uLui intre d. iriiruitnr!i componente astenumele s-a intercalat un ad1'erb:
rol i la', on lru ip 1 l. Intinili!rl liinJ ^r'ri'lrrd " 'r. i , 'd'r' .'r n-:lii.n . "n li baj'rl'ri ul .urd.,- nrLd in -p.,r .J tii' | 1r"prr" 'rnJa .i ..rp 4" t r;-, \, r'' . : rdn.e, r.1u- i'i a' '. 5 'lu.i" r" oI,rt..b,rintarFa 'rr mrndar; cra a!.zr|n" ,.i .ih.lur i .ir,r-' .JU ir. 'r,m.' r' i ilr\'rrur. o'rt,l:
dwn 10 s.I

Is n o i to s i i . L ,i th o d i g rc a i a rsl ment. ll n t s .e l tl J ,, l i n d q n a m L i ' r r sl .a$...; dc \.erbul in c e despnrliraa p,{r'tittrLei inhtitivului Exisie inse situu-tii n ropri u .zi s es t p i, ' , \ ir ' br l ;. ;n .p .i 0 l J . ,r' i ' rn d i n fD i ri \,rl r' rp u' n,-r dF ' rn i oni p l "-r.n r dir p, I r . dr " . d rp , u m ." ..i -. r" r n n -l ' tr s p" r-t r" r-chu1 r" ' l Formcle comlnse ale verbllui rd riJ shi umat{i dr n,rn,itir nol bid us t rrdt \rcrk vel." "T}e .rllilllrir rvc.c l,idd.n ta .ank in to d e i D l n ,i 1 1rul n tl .t: c ! r o, l/ . ; s lc n ' n a t l n to i d c a n n a l , . rt l . co mrus .nc ,o sno&r." "lle I S io.|idd.n d. ro .,m. ag{in " , ,o ndD noaic fi n.nat ri dc nriinjiinLl conrlet: ",,/.1, tt b ia 'Cu ciccltia verbelor r; dar& \ita 1.h. , tata sirt n.mrL.. la Da.ticiDiul trr!7crt. ' a r"o . i J " . t i, t , r ar ,n ..\ r,u t,.r' l t,J r., ,rf r J . . ,, i .t'rJ1'. //d , J i . ,/,a ' . t" ..n o d .t o' r i. r on ' I r . o n l rFl : 5W. Slrak.speLre, ttnntlr. t'r; ..l t)enn\rrit. conpleli .,Hr nds supper' \'f.bul ro ' H c sP !sJ,0 /.d),l i Lh. roon " di{tez.t p3,riral.dr r, i .ul ,, i , . l , t r' ,t :t' ^o

... .. .. ........ .nis|rur-' lo re grt.t,

r€allil to lnt

/"119 lo aplreciil.e

421 Dectj\. :., clun i .inJ. prin s:, /"r"0 "JLF'b"lui lnain ' s J dupr i,lliniLiv' :-ar .omtr"mi . .ou s-ei lngrruia lnl"laopr'd r"\tulur' Spr- a{omplul to e\lress Urcir alpreciaiionThey mei "8din FfLul d:/t, pullrd" sF rolni'le.ul ac"sr"i .on6lr,r.lii nu""l".lar. ud-\ lpri IiA la tFrhul ,,a, Iic ld infirili\ul to "Lpr*s. ln '07u1'lrrd dPa;, 'p tplers la inliniliv, tn linba engleznmodernn, numero$i scriito preferd conslruc,tia cu adverb intercalai, inhturlnd asLfel posibilitdl,ile de ambiguilate: Thcy met lo sgsindzP,rrsl.hciralpreciafion Tot astfel: to lorwardl[c lrrce] IIe sLed me Al4.t7! dpt"r' ProDoziLia ert" Lresirr Dent"u.d: rl psl. aprbi4ul,Lir,d/y p'rrrnLl irJi rc cr il'spsr b,,l l, b./ ad\ /o a minx .,rr t'";bul arAid.; r si intiniLirul /"r,'rJ ; Cat' tt)""ia' lcrb'rl drld ,le o. plaman'ullri J;ra'r //o larlLtrd thPpunlt ' corectdeste:
He osled !,e t, LindlX /'rd.d lhe pamcl

Alt€ exemplc ,Je Split Infinitiee: ?b sloslx rrd.t thc lorcst'sshadl S0o€r

\t1 I . L5"r ha I uo\ F" l, s r r ir t ! i/ r ,. r t r In\ , nrn.or' I I'i. l, r o eien , , "/ ol r i' ' q lu l : o n "l:nfcc$rrx .J, r, Iufi€r tris, xlon lh€ sx}j€cl" Ir is Dot ^ Hc had becn kno$n ,, morc thor .o?,P.nsdrdlor it lattre'

britrrjcd icl,udL'' l'oarte frec\'€nti in erglez:ram"ri,dri ,\i jr, en!la?a.nr.rrrcli.' inti',i'it"li di in Fr,"l€r c .aparal 'lrpp il'. "lSranip 'd\'rb d. unii di'llrp ' i m"i Lurri 'criirori. lr|cpind 'hrar 'u B)fiinJ rnLIebLrinratd infiniLivuhri cu adverb ini,ercalat" Roberi Browning St ron. numit si -tat posib;riralil. d" cxrrimbrFm.i .orF'r5 -'i ^ai clJ15.sau mdi a;;,p;.i"i 'iiii grameirr"lo. r-gulilc inier*ants "parglnd 7) -A.cuzstifi cu infinitir' - A se observa in contrast urmdtoarele doui 166? Dropozilii:
ta ) | rnn t tr !"it L nn t h" 1t ' t t Il tLo r \n nt ' r ir ' l llr nt nt ) .

Propozilia
(b)

^re to sritdt on l,i,e lgnt | qant liet (Y.eau ca e0 s; zrftdi lumiria.)

c.rre au dcelaii subiect' do d ?crL'e

ln acesi caz avem aceleati doui verb€, fiecarc cu subiectul propril' lriire v€rbul Dredicat raantsi infinitivul to stritch care urmeazA a intervenlt un dira ' ,,r" idF.i in €.uzali\) al t"rbului predi'"t. "omplprrelt "om ulomenL csrn Fslpiotoddri qi subipn'ulir tini'ivului urmdlnr t/o $it.//. Nu cu //,) r.liun.a intinilivului ta s.v;t4 '\ ca (1, ") iodAplincs. A"."srd ' on.lr""li" cperit;.i limbii "ng "/- nrrmi5 d.ur11r\ 'u..rr I' I i'jv- (,1..u.dtir " th t;[;nn;r' ] ;i i"rm"r' dinrr un "rnpl'|-cnr "di'Fr' care estF tolodird si .ubi."'ul un"i inliniliv urmiror 1/xs dr':t trJtntlt( ar' llrl.Ii- LI. nLln" tr"lt ot;r ob; ,ti lObj "l .onpl 4"nt\)Alti-autori ,roniideriicn infinitrLul djn actsislaconstrnclieI!'e 1'n|te r)irect compk:x (Conplex Obiecta rl|Jrt tti complement ). wavelength I wa L herto ll'e ta to the railio Bucharcst lvr€au (0aca) sI punalostnl de radio Bucureiti.l
r G.G. Bvrot. Poens. Sh;rrili and V€.non Bat\retr, tobneu's End. 'n.C. ' num " D. d, (a ri v -a o o rr.,' d J " ,o m n l F i rp o di rF r l D i " , ubi p r : 6 2;26. f n Candina .i \ \' rl i l " \s L d \i . I n L l l h C r' " no- \l ' ' \' r' l C -1 p rrr'

B2t,
. . \ , b. . r ' , 1' J r Lc r . Tr'"r/ .t. 'IUr' ' t , t L. l. is dalJ , , r . r d, n , i r " . 'r , , , . '\-"-au d tld l , ' t { ; / . l $:e asked lor r/€ s,tc l, ,e btuught .n aI.we 1ln ce nd c. ic l. gi, no s d lic adN{ inc diat . ) His ca..l.$Dcss $ill calse ln, b be tupore.l. {\tslijcn-ta hi ii va ado.e nustrliri j

.|, pIiti.,|rFri cutui\i \.,izdti\ul ,u inl,,.i 'i\- "., i 'rpbu;nr"r.p,n 'r rr'.. in ro,ur un"i p'uouz;!ii.",',pJ- rr Jir^, r.. , "u bniu,,,r,r lhat urr,dl.i,l tn '\ljar'1;, ;i rl .er,i .rrb,-r' ,lihr,',l-.,1.i".,,t *L-11'";t s" erenrplrr F erri^n. I mdi .us. ln ",".rrt r.i , r I,,, I rrimul "onsr,lpr, fi redat prin lraza neidiomalicn 9i greoaiea eir.i construcl.nr este mai ipropiatn de limbE romanni "l \"-aut tha.tshe shotrldt nc in (to) rhc Buchale,li rravclength". Propozitia subordorat' "that shc shauld.irfu in._." este rrans Iormai,i jn ,,acuzaliy cu infinitiv" astfel: sxbieclul propoziliei. s.t€ (noln.). dcvjne nir (ac.). con,plenenrul dne.r al rcrbxlui regeiieii pr'orljfatul ei. rhaul.d. tunr in. (lerjre iniinilirul /o ,/r, in: iar conjurciria /tal nu se ,rt,ri erprjmn. Se obljlle astrel forna nraj concnn !i rnai alefii:
I Nant /Er ,o ,r,c itr...

ln a.elaqirnod. propoziljtiufllel(,nre: T}iJ didn't c\tccl rndrni! rd.r".rrlorll i,. $ol I sn.c.ss.
Tncy d idn l, e \lt r r il lls t 6. r r s / , , , s nlh l s ! . c c s s .

-{ce Rsti . ons t r ' u. ilie e rtr: i n r,r.r} ru i ri l ,rtnd u p i i n uneroA se rfrLe, di nrre S l $68 c are p ri D ci palele, qint : d l vcrbe c ar e c - \ pr ir rl o rl (]r;rrn . o p e rn i ri u n e . un ordi l l : l o dcsi ," €.1a erpett. t.t tv(nl b trish: ta &lb(v. to let, to p.rniL ta sDffer (:ta permil); k) recomn.tul. to .a,tn.d d. to ardi et|.l t .ati.:.rctl. ltou /, n&'r m. n.tt.r lhd urat. l\Iil ailepliDr rle l. tirc sti mn cunosii mni bine.) Slrell .".,r |ra,i1 .ltaut., totue lra.:k. (curind a.e srl lrea !. si te Intorci.) I nr'| ntton lhbts t. so o, lilc i.Iat h tliis lrouse. i\n t.i. l.rnil.e ia lui,uilc sl contjnueasttcth accasu c!stl.) LIe t4inhe,itd ntepttior tt, I)elaten in tlc eienn,g. { i | o i i tn ' c r s l l n l n a l i s e .rr.) 1\ I ) r es ( r is Thc rianaAcr .tdct.d atr .rquir r. Dcmala inro thc marter ( Dir c t oNl , d a t d i s fo z i !i is ,l s e rn c l rc tc z !ri hesti uD ca ) , ) ve rl re les al, c do s n n l u ri fi s e n ti n e n t!: ta ft.l .to hear. rD s.r. 10 n./ti ce. g 1{i ti 9 to obs.,t'e. to p.rttirt. b trutch: to hate. ta d.isl;Ar. to like. to pr.fu et,c.: Thcr f.11ht .hr.tt. to hetselt. i\u simli|.o ftind pe iniunlrte I I henrdthe Leb! .r!. ( \ D r uz it c oli l a s u l tl i n g i l d .) \]i so(, iim rt,s o/I rnd Ld,? Urc form. iL-an rezut puDiudrec.1]iorulJI lurcd ii pl..ind din c.mcrn.l Th. .rlt.l aaxhal the ,trd /&r€ iis Desl lcopilul u iri cu I,rirhea lnslir.a d.ii lrr.ilsea clibul.l SlE d hatelotr rat to trtite oltan. (l-ar dislli..ea grozav sil nr i soii d.s ) rAror nr ' i. ' ir ' , . , . ' I . . hdl d i k t l" nn, . ' . t r p t. l .,u l l .,o $ l i (p ,., ru rr ,t.,! L ,,I .rn i ,' ; t.i tt,n L ubi ,r: tr: \./,ri " ,urn.L

E!0 I'n ule the foar) ta be hot. (lli-a. pucea ca tnincareasi lie iierbinl€.) \\e shrutd prcf.t lpJ ro 6, less sensitive. tAm prcioa lca eal si fie n,ai pulh snsccpiibi]n/sersibill.l to.onsider, cJ yerbe care exprimn acdviinli mintale: ta essunte.ta beLieae. S 1670 to decktr?. to find, to gu.,ts. ta imagi t, to intet|].. ta ju.d|., b knotri to near' (: to intend). to suppose, to suspect. to think. ta untlttstand ctc.l Tl\.y b.lie'ed him 1abe s\nAle. (Crederu o'i este neimurat.j
I a1 .td', c ' /oi", pr , , , , nJ J d- l , r ' dnl. ((:o n id , ' ,n i. di ios ' ' ^l ndi L' r n p"i . n ' I opcncd tl,c erlelope and faunn it b caltai \cv tear's g.e.lings. (.\n dEcliis plicnl ii ad gesit in cl lclicited dc \nul nau.) I haoe t\c\er ho6 L hn arol ,. slaok it her rvork. t\u ttiu {c! ei) si li losl lr€oddtil ne8lijerld in mnnc,-rl \\'.'l' . I dn n"a. J h"' . "t ", t p, / . .'''o i r r . r '. . l l d l l r ..,r",c r . r di av (rt .-rn '1 . nt "n. i1 . r t oni, . r 'l - l \ , , r t p n n 'r n 4 r F n t . p ,u 0 5 .

1,671

Hc unde,:1aad ia ,r ,. i ddnce.. {Dutd cit n4elcscsc,ca c.a dansatoa.c.) d) rcrhe de nfbmdlie, nerylie, d.eclarulie etc.: to at:Atto$Ledlc,h dctl.[e. to dent, to lmna nce. lo stdle .1c..
D\ct)nne ddlavd hnn ,o i,. quililied ior l,is joh. (Toii au ali,rat .I csle .alilicai. pentfu nunca hi.i D Le danr nL. statement b haee ban hisl tA fieeduii Iell cn alirmali{ dr a lui?l T\c t)rii.ics ,tunounce,l the nlur la haee b4n s\:.n.*. rL r'ti. JU rq l r . ' l , . 1 , : . , ir . ". " - r s u" ^

5 1672

.l unele verbe ca: ta b.ar, tn pta"e1 ta repatt erc.l
Srbscql,cnt rycnis p,orld hin t hdte been wrong. tEvenihrntele unnitoa.e dovediri cl (el) nu avusc$ ,Lrcptate.l The srannnar \aok rcp. ed this ntistahe to h. tt\rltc cotnt@n. lGramuiioa s,"n!rla aceastd sreEealll ca loa.te obiinlit;-L )

1673

fl unole rerbc u,nalo ,le u complen€nt pretozilional. A: ta bclan?to, to carefar. to count an. ta dep.nd.an, ta laok for, to looh t.. 10rcII on. ta send fot, to uait far etc.:
tt beLnes to HeLL Lo d<ide jn ure matier. (itlena lrrb!i. si1 d€cnll aceasli chesliuc.l 1 .l.n r care fat thit.len b,cndr€ ljk. thai. (Nu-ni piacc sa se loafii coliii 3stlel l I d P t . h t" / . d ll' " _igl' l r r ir . . (ci,n lez r. cl sa lr c c c dc z c in nod jus t . ) \\. /€1 , "a , / r r ! . 1, e r ! or or 4n, s r r r : d( . ' r 11 . ' r p. l na n. ud o '. s l J f r'. - ir . o\ L on l,'" tSend Fn c n La lie l)toulht roun.I al a\.c: (l\imit-" s,-L in adNi indati nias.iDa.l \\e U Mtit lar h.:r ta tp.aI lirsl. (vo nr a ilep la s i r or lr . as . ai c a ar lnt ir . J

.f.

lltil

8) loJrstructir -.for'r substantir (5Ltu Dronu re) + itrtinitit. - Lonrd." s,u;i, .,,u'"ii' u irrrirr'rr -r- lpa'l ';. dp prrl'^/i'id l* ,r"ru 1' lr';,rr 'l r-rl- r,'t'.-f"ziLiur',tn oL,n"lrnr',"lr.u'rrid"\o'lrir. prepozilii: piin inlermediul un€i Ii ilcterninaie de un ac''zaiirdecil iot
I \oti [at cNrlarc 1, gd a l,h.atr.] ticlift, {Spe.au ua toti si caDct. hilftr de teatru.) r . lghql: a- s a, Th. .ll ' ln5 l , 'r l e ' i . u 'f . "J or '

w
T h"v spre ou itF coDr"nl lot t h. , : a n t a' Loaa li. o\ n L a tr r " . (Llr; u lo€ rtr rlu lldmili c J , ' . 1 ior . i r , l eJ gi "ingur . ,f l p r J r

Pentm obl,inereaunei mai mari concizii, aceasteconstruclie inlocuiegte o prorozjriequbie.liva (cu qdu fard;l inlrodu"ri\Jr arrjLu'i\dr.omplati!a, , tinala. .on.aculivaplc.. si cslc ulilizari in mod obi,"rurr li d)pi ,on-uzeil. sLructiile impersonalecu lfterrl sau i.tt l is (inl)possible, nec4rsarlJ.difficalt, eas1t, right, ercn$ (un)usual, (m)connon erc.l: (Subieotirii Jt iscustomarJ/o. r/rreroDe aDcacursion cverySundaX. 1napozilialni n) (EsteobiceiDl o ercnGiein liecare dumn'icn.) se se organiz€ze gra(s t h re rsi pd'ch,.1 /or ,ru r, iip on.(Alr:bu'iru

rL l i ,ro lo Ln p' : , d i J rb d ! . ' r s J l - l n l i n r.) l'll arrange/or my sis,./ ,o rdft? tou to the conoerl.lComple[iri] (Yoi aranja ca sora mea si 1€ lnsoleasca la concert.) so hill\ly. His innovalionmlsr la\e bec! FrJ importani /o. rneqd\-sa'eu. ta!tuie ),i. ( c i! z.l i ) (Inovalia lri lrebuje sil fi losl loarle imtortantil tenlrn ca Sazela de perele sli o elogieze atlt de mult.) The Itonan mosaic Uoor unearthed irl Consiarla was on \ie\\ lar cqdsaneta see. lFinalel ' (trodeaurde mozaicroman d€zgrolaF ta Conslanlaa lost crlnse pentnr a fi razu[I lr It ti,mefot the.h;Uren to naq, l"nch. (Dupn eonsiructieiBpersolalel (Este vrenea siLia cotiii d€junul.) Tl'ere will bc noihing /of 9oz ,, say. {Dulii consiNolie imlr.monal{) {Nu lci avea nimic de sr)us.l inAc€asin oonstruolie con"q$ dintr-ur 9) Nominativul cu inlinitiy. finitiv care {ace parte din prcdicat Di al ciiei subicct coincide c,r subiectul rerbului predicat,: i 1 -t-i f" ., Th d s:/uds lr , a" d / 4. n 9 IL . : ' -, " ' . l ' i ,'l p]i -l , 'l[J (" p ' ,." f ara i f o " J . /
' "

S ll;75

In gramatica €nglezi. inlinililul arc in acoasli siluatic functi€ de nat?e (cr. S 166?, 2;24): pr.dicatia subiectir (SubjectircCompLunenll d, Construc,tia numirii ..nominaiiv cu iniinjtir" amintette corstruclio { 1676 la dia..acuzatircu iniiniti\"' (g 166? 1673)rcirepfezintnvarianta acestein tezn pasivd.,{sl.fel: ||,p-r n ,n" (\, . .,r i l l\; b a.,i\') orp..tr.d
' in l.in'r. l\on'. cu inl.) (Verb lasil) lfe rre.e e\p€et€dro r, ihere (Trebnin sI lnn acolo la ljnp.J ni,r /o 14 r Silled acl.or(1,r cr inf.i (ferb aclir) Ilrcflono supposeil lToii il considerru u aclo. 1,al€ntal.l \ -, 1 n... t a l. j g ,| " d a .to r, l \u m r' ,9 " $ a s s uppos ad "r (Er' , ons lder r l, ! n a' l o r ta l rn ta t ) Do you ttrfenddts rredsuf. to sdcz.er higher strnd.r ntr Jo',r glodsf {,\,r. c! inl.) -r rr. pp t d . .J nni " ' ti, ft ,o ) J ' o p .)

lsoopul acestei,ni$ufi .sle si !n asjgn.o lrodNc dc calitate !r.ioar{?) lof lonr goods?(Non. cu inl.) IB,Iis n.nsL.e intrnilerl ro sd.r/€ a l,igher sr.andard lAceasu mSsurdare drelt scop 6ir ii asisuretrodnse de orlii{te s,terioarir?l .\sa d a r . r nr belp c , un ,-fJ r- i 3 ! I' ' 3 l 6 ;l " . r, r' l n' l l i u,m. ra du1 a ri , ' u inf ir ir i\ - t ' I fi i n o ,i rF i r d - u n .rrr l i ., ..non,i r. ti r ru i nl i ni . , . i, tiv". bineinleles ru €xceptia ac€lora carc nu p,rt fi inlrebrinlate la diateza

pasrva.
r.\.".r" , n. r . d. li ir ' r r,,ru ,J .,.1 r "i ul ,rrp n ,, ,vi l )urr ,r\.

3!8 i#.\it S 16?? .. _ Traducer|ar.rDllxt predi,:at lirnba roninnd ir modul urmnt0r: a'J cu pasiful:
He r..i to so home. -ds rd:,t duoindu-se atrsi"L.l 1-{ /os,

de arcasri con,<trulj!io se Iacc in

Tt\c! Mte i]..n L td be ntlustdrus. (ENrt cuhrs.u!i ca oan€ni hnrDici.) Tr r -a" " [ t " . p ] . .... / L' - 4 . , e , 'r : t -t.\ ".\n,i\ r

a"/

cu o construclie impcrsonali: (\'ezi ii g rrs t) clin aceasG co st.uclie se t€duce in limtra romAnd cu:
re (l o o r. u\a.l 'Ihe housr iras lell t. hdr( ttenbl,al. (-c.a simlit casa .rtrcnutrndu se.l It \r{s m.ant r, ,i r.dl (D ,a l i nal i i .i crr s.i ti ..nnn.l

Tr, l{.",,/ , "/ i. . . . / lob, . pr . . r , l. tspd td.a r;a,rd , , . , i". J oulJ .

Infinitirul

a', serunziul:

! l' c $ds hr ar L lro o /., r-\ l,'st au?ita l.s?rl:r,,

a" , c onjuncti i ' u 1 : H€ r'asn't erpectd ,a l,. suoh i ., ( Nim eninu s a a ti e ttrt c a c l s n

a"'l

un verb la un n]od personat:
I le t d b f . n k n o $ n r , / , . l c v o s o r l . j. . t i " "1 t1:cp iocrt. ,?t,.,bit.)

shc $ is lrlip\e d r . &, . at abt p. p s , , , . 1t , . , bit , . rj.,rp Je J.;

S 1678

b1 I r alar i d " r-" L ,l p l a d ;a r-2 1 p a .i ra , ,on.rr.r.,i a " at" r- td { tC ;6, ..r unins li! , d i n l ;n Ii !- -,ri p u i l . rn :o l i :i unpl p \prb. i ,, b') iliateza acIl.'e:.b chance, to happr:n: to appear. ra sctn: ra prcee. to twn out \ - t o p ro v e ) e tc -: IIe lr.ppens ,o tzo.e Enstisti. (Din intlmllarc tric cngrezeire.) ftey sccm€dro haeeundererrod the tostiotr. (Pnrcau sh ti lnteles situ.tlia.) ,rne tur!']d oar ro ,e a li.s! class pitoi. ise dovcdi a Ii trn piloL de elitfi.

Iik.lt. unlikela erc.:

___

D" l lr ec u, r;i v e rb u l

c o p u l a ti r ta re u r mat,l e adj ectn e.,,certai n,sure

lld is strro ,, ,. laic as dstrrl (Sigxr cn a.e sn lnilrzic oa de obioei.l Aro ,lav likeix to hare ha-d rhe lV .rnnoutrce,nent? tEsle posibil (ca eil s{ ii anzit anunlul h telelizor?l 5 1679 t0) Acordul infinitiflrlui. - O ffoare destul dn f.ecverte consrd tn acoroui gretit al infinitivului cu subiectul respectiv. Astfel. este gr€sit a se spunei j . n ," s.drJ' , To l h o ro d g hL ,l o $ .,.d c . o" "4 41. .'o t,I n d n \n n h r m o ' r r i. " " an -,,"tr"t . t o ! E nti m.ta 1 atl
-,

NLr .,cuno-stiniele iemeinire de Eramaticd" Lrehuie..sn sclio bine,, si nrci ,.sintul unrorului" nu ..cste intotdciauna vesel,t. Propoziliile de mai sus trebuie ret{cute. lie $chinbindu "ce subiectul verbului prF,li.dl spre a ti €,o'dat ti cu infiniiivlrl respectir. fie schirnbindu se Io.ul inli'ri'i!ului suu lr'loruindu-"e intini irul ,r, o fr.to/iriF sa\,ndhra, astf€l: Ta srite qeu.oneshould havea thorough l$owlcdge .r gr.mm{r.
.A L). ' .\. d l' , on lr ", lin 6r Ft ir , l o' np) t F l r r E l , . f , r : t ', , " . . , s . I".a 3rJ-. | . i]..' np j.ord lt . o- ' , , . , lp t 1 r .' ,,ur , or . ", / " it,.nad , ..in.initr! DF

Il

lr ''5 ,r-

t, i ',, l'. \"

' r or o' r e , s r'. i

. or t d_. , o gr , , . n. .. , r.d." .,,,t. . , u^ t n o\ 1. " t h b . o t j o r . g . s qotu e oe a!qa!/s sa!.

)e .

\ srnsc or huDionr is essenrial iI(e

ll) Ilelel er larticutei infiriti\ate, $ 1680 lltr o propozilie in (ar€ rtoun sau lnfli mrlrc infiiilil.e care se succedd i 1681 -dl !,,, in.irui I utri,"i num,,ipri,nui in:"S.j.":. 'iepdii s,r',.aLi rrnrlrl rste lfcrr,lat d. I'arti,!la /o.. "ir],tare.'t,
lh J,d. ,l",l lo \aI to or , - r , i "no1! rr.i . it :. t . "t - r t o. / , . i 'r' ,n - ". , .

Partirirrla ;ntiriti\ului se rerDtd aruxcr fr|o: d'l i],finiti1.L,1 respe.,riv rreluic accentuatsau conrrastatcu un,atht; . , o.o"r t!rr, tord. ., Lrp t, ., ioajL, th"r,,-t\.s l',r l r, h! /,// I u, n;. r \\.,nr b Lt tu tr..r.n. ' .". ro , . , a. I r t i . , r o- "d. olr . , r Il-t , , n,.!,.,,,.
-.I'u

a"/ lnl.reinfinitivclecarese su(.f€rte inreNin nraj nlulte cuviite sau clnat constfuclia intrcgii propozil;j ertc compticatn:
_ ile islid l)er not cDt) to lo,/i |,rd,gh je !.!os he liad branght. bui also to co'..r $liat srie didr't arlrovi {,t. t , . i, , , ilii ,., i ,, .,.p u r.u ri ta tn rc b ; ri i n &r l IrrI Ira?. .t,,ht, p." .), q t682 . " I n 3' FsFp \rr ; r pt ' . r 3. , . ' r n. r i i n l i n i :\. o .,ti , rti /a b p m Fnti ,rp" h:drJo-d\Fr. b u l li p se fte : " D i d h e Nant io c om eN i th n s ? ,' ..H e .ti d r.i s c e m ,o . ,, ( -{ vnrt sa viri! cu ndt? \u plirea si vr.a.) .' t \a \ n o ,.to(.d /,. "\\ h v Ji dn t J ou s o u.ti .n ,\\ 1 .,,,! r . ) r d q i , p .trp .!rrJ l u i J ;r ml I \-am .\ , voi p.l I-don'i want 1o sit lor the ex{n in Junc, bnt I lare,o. {Nu !.ean sn dan examcn in iunic, d.r ircbuie s,o rac.i I'o u ,l o n I ol. " y r ! ur D a mn rqa . n .t r ' .r,,, o u g ., /,. d . . ut r i t , t , nl i . . i tu ' ,,.i i . I, b ,i r .." 1 .,.i .) ' )u .i r H"J l i k n r o t , ' ! i, I t dr.tro to $ , b .t h n s .s to td L o /4. i r . , i. ra rr' -u l ,,8 i p d . d " i \ . .p u . \1 . nu.," j " \\'h y d J ou I . \ " J " " l r,l a ,\ .' _ \\d - | o o t .u !p o ".t ,o 'i { De .e ii } le. at ir . i?* N u i re b x rJ T J Yo u .., u ld v , s dr of pr J i n i o r b q i n . it ' 6 ru d d . r d n i 4. ,.. i.\r n p ' r t ul s d lF . i o, .i p ' 1 ," t" n ,,r,l d ,.a r ti \" u t.l Pr"zc, !6 pir r i. ul. i in ti n i ti ,J tc ," i n a ," ,.r.i .; ' r" 1;. i ti .d .\r.r" nra unrr| .u mtl rm pnl dr F ni in n r,i p ./ r' i rn ." ri " " ra . d .?rui r" t,.ri l F ," t, .,.,,,t I2 j ID fif f if ir r d f ar o orp ri m i rro p u t.. D L rd 1 ,,, t, \.rb" . D r ta t. q,a.h, S l ti bS , t onurr4 [L p .) . . t a^n, lt . t , . lp .to ,a l l .n .r.4 ,..t^ -u ta ttn l os]o| .,t..i ntt.p-$u;t, I nr , ir r \ it ( d rp F \p fl ; s ,,p u t s e .ra rrs fornrn J_ ubi ,_i i ntrun mod p ' rco n a l. le; el , 1. \ - r b L l fr.rd F r,t l x .j r .u n j J n, l i J ,,r,,/. ,.t,.,.,i . d a .ps T r.rh ps ' e t d ! t or . t " ,In ,tu l i ,,.p p rH r:\ ..,,r r,| | l ,:\dl _n at r," s,ui a -, ( u Ln\ri rl rc. , r n in, lem n p tc .): I'll .all o,d asA him myself. (-Am sii tr.c sel nilrel eu insuDri.l
1 , : r, : tp, t,.: n " i . ' . 1". jr n' 1r , , un . : , , . r r . t i n r i r '. . ;., ". . . . ir . , tgaxd aank11,. lJat hd s,ankd.

330 I'll ,inq lEt ur drd retl her the nc\!s. (-\m sr-i telelonez ca sa'i spun restea.l Cane a l pldy qith theml ( Y ino s I te j o c i c u .i i ) You oucht ,o comea\l see ts. (-A.rtre6ui sI rii si n€ vczi.) Cn dnd eet ronr hat .rnd coatl (Du-te ac-li ia hai a Fi piliria.) IIuttlJ up and./tnrs, Xour workl (Grnbette de-li termin4 treabal)

Esc.p lie alun.i .ind varbulpredi.st Infiniti l .d.p "rpt;nri srrput sc rncnLine I a $ I683: li;,p mention a t e l a da.it.ole " . 1 " all r n o dsuu
It makes !s so halpy $'hcn we so ,o sdehim (Sintem atil dc ledciii clnd ne ducen s Yedem.) 1 cdlled. tt inquire, but ro one waB in. (Am trecut sa mi iDic.cscz,d,lr nD €.a nineni acass) : t t - , , app" ,J u . o s A In " n o \ l $ d ,. ($-a orrlt sn nit inl.rebece nai fac.) He cautd'rcaoneto sPe!'ltnnY il she'dr told hi to. ts-ar li putui duce (sau s-ar li dus) la Fanny dacl i-ar li slN eal l a d n .) 1684 13) IntiDitirul negatir. - Locul negaiiei care caracterizeazi un inliniLiv cste inaintcu i initivului: "' "To be or no, to De,that js the quest-ion I told he. it was a mistake no, to t ll Jan{ the truth !'or you no, ,o hdeednsamd bY a lrosn was signiticaDl. ot nat (to d€cide)oD the subject I|\ ior them to 'l.ecide

s 1685

II. PARTICIPIUL
(TIIE PARTICIPLE)

CONSIIIXBATIICDNXRAIE

t) Pirtiripiul lrri\it .omparolit i0 granlali.s engloziqi [n roa romtni. A 1686 ' cramsti.a limbii ;':lez" dilprd toar'|. l'lull de gremalicalimbii rorina rn ceea.cep,riv€qtemodul de tratarc a larticipiuluj, deci ti a terminologiei res' 5Dre ex€mDlu: Dectrv€, dl ln ercmari:a limbii cnglozot"t.t'enrLi d" pottiipiu ( Port;";pk) i 3c da un intelis mfli l"rs d".il in sran uti.a limbii romcnF,deoare'e "l .uprindA qi.perticipiul pFrh.t p€rl;, ipiul pdrli;ipiul prezcnl tormFlpp"rriripial": 'odlp irecut sub ambele aspecte,pc €ctiv ,\t rmptrfe't'v' bLla ambcle draiezoi ieF in gramsromendara drcpt corespondenL m.nul ..parli"ipi,- din gro'"l.etir" ifl')l rrp"ut' ( onsioza Port Parti nrimai torn.nul ,,parlicipiu tica ,/'in Lr"mAri,r li.bii .nsl-," F\iql - douH lorm" v.'bdlF: pd./i Participli) qi Serdnlianl (GerandJ' care, degi nu se .ipiut pre.'nt ( PTesent
lslc'd: sne ldd (coloclial). ! Sau: ",\sk lim ro ;otu onll s4, me". care este for ula rccomanda6 lcntu e\itar€a r r p F t A r p 'o l u s l lr np r ' r r . L nt u r i 'u h i i ^ l i n i . i \ d l . d pzdLldblpr o, , u5 ^t".tutd ,fon i curc ntu cliia r !i ln sf f k . Vez i ii $ 1633, 1030 Shalresre.re. Hdmlet, Ptine of Dentuatk 'W. { P..nume nasculin fdssnl.

831

deosebesc formal. au lunc,tii dife.ite. Se atrage atanlia cititorului si studieze i, .odtul Ltunolit i.r-l":. unda pJrti.ipr,t pr.z, n. t,rJapti a.prqt; .hFcliunp IAirF lurrriila Hlr;bu;1,L,pr.Lrnri,rlui ror';nF..r qr .6 td,a .t:.tln,rii "u'.;r'a lrrtrn grr;rr'livulr (C tundtpnelrz'.r !i g"run/iul roma'Fs,; , J:rAmAli.1,li'nbii FnslFTp Fr- tn pot.i":t;d p rl.t (P,,[.! Pdtt;.;rl,t. . dJ ln gramatica limbii €nql€zenu eriistd r1rodul.,sup;r,',, ale cirui lunctii lc lrdeplineste gertndilrl. 2) Diatezd. Timp. ,{spcct. ln grarnaiica linrbii englczc.pa(icipiul dre g 1682 dou" dirl' z- l,.ti\d .i pasi\aJ.tr"i timpuri {orFr"nt. trnlut s: oerfe.t, si. tn rrzul p"rri"ipiLrl..i prer"nr. dou; o.p.".i rp"ri"" :' .i i- 1.-rt,rrrr,.

Participiul

Diol.zn

T ]\IP

e,,,."rst,pr,li
(: pornind) {: li'nd pomit)

a

,-, ,
(: lornind) harlng been startcd (.= liind I]ornit)

(: pomirl

0bs.raalie Partioipiul trecut al verbelor tranzitive ar€ tn generesins pasi,, iar par g 1688 ' iiripiul tre.uL 11 rFrbclor intrsnTitivF o.tir. Form, parliiipiului rricur '"ns al verbelor rcgulai.o este aceeasi(irfinitiv + ed_,), in ambile cazuri:
O nc ps @' pd l J rl i v i , th r" o $ a s n o .to p p i n s n,m. ( O dall po- , i,, n ,, I m J i p u t' a o rri n i + n : , . d- ll" d lox s ^, o m, b y p . p to o t rt,. n:6.I rrJi n. -: i t' rd l .r" n .l J ,. n;dp,e.r , Ch. aol J r . t -' t tF p fri ri . . T O T i ,U A IN -IN G

(TIID .INO T'ORNfI

s 1{i89

lr Dotrumirp, ln gramatica lrddilionald. narticipiul prezent, c"run- ( l690 .ubs'anrivul vprbJl Ei ddja ti\ul rerbal au priniL, p.nrru divtl (G rund.1. bimplifi"ar". rumelp .uprinroror: ..torma in ing-. pentru ftp{!) c,i ,osr, !airu au i."Fa!i form6 lerrildta rn sulirul -,'rg,i"r d-os"biriledintrp pla sinl loarte subtile. De faptlnsn, substantivut verbai-era o varianti a gerundivului ( S 1748-1749), cu distinctii Ioarte controversate, iar adjectivul verbal reprezenta o funclic a participiului pr€zent. Pentru ac€st mdtiv, in lucrarca de fali chestiuneaformei in -ing va fi tratati in raport cu cele doni forme prin, , ipJl-: par Lj.;piul prezFnr problena sub.Lantir rrlrriv"rl,at ll !i gFrundi\.u.. d.4pad ddj F.ri!ul ,i rprbsl fii,,d Frp,rsF In i,SdLurd t"rma princip.,lor"i"u pectlvi.
r!iD.o do p' dr n. 1, 1""r , , i, d "dd pr!. C / ' lllei-, ' . 1rx ,, ,t m rr ud ,i u J ! -dod , " .n gl./t. lai u"na ut , ut ' iJ da p a r , o n . 'l'r r. i i.o n t r n L-a '6 ie, . , er lir J iI "o mi l' . ; a"uo ab i .,d.:!1 , und l. gd". ioi, . F. Tr ' n" r . aau i d t u - \ i . t a a l n q - m J i " d r . l i n i . ,ll -i ne r,mbli,d ltd,r/d / t or - p nh. "m 1 r 'i c . J : . d " d r o . a m b . . o . E; . a\ t : t , n

,, Jilfff$

itii:illt

rarln rimba cnsrez{ rnctt ineistent v'zi loatcri considernt' 're

Bt9 lr Tiun. Diatczn. Arir |rrtiripiul prFz"nr..it ri :"rundiiul au dnu; A ' l69t limpul artira si laqiri: qi doua 'li.t.z" frFz"nl si pFrh.'
harinq called (pc.icctl Diate.l actird. calling (prezentl Ditrte\e .lsied-. beins-calcd (piezenl)- iiadns lreeir crlled (perlcct)

s 1692
S 1693

PTi,DZENT SI GTBUNDIVUL P-TBTICIPIUL
(TIIE PNtrSE\I'I P-{RTICIPLI] AXD THD ODRUND)

1) I'ormn. - Partioipiul prezent si gerundirul gind , ." ruli\ul -irp l, inl;ni'i\ :
to see- seeas

se construicsc addu-

5 1691

1) ortogratic.
oJ Yerbele t{rrminate intr o consoani precedati de o si\grd c.ntuatd d,rbleaze consoanaInaintea terminaliei -ini:
to to to to to lo lo to bc'gin fo. gPi Dre ie. ;d nriL olf-"r 'listen de r0u. fc main be 8innh3 lor sctt,"g Dfe'fPfltns id nittrg bflcring listcnl:r4l de vourtrg re'maini"6

ncalii tlc'

In celelalte cazuri, consoanafinali nr se dublcazn:
-

to d.ink -

drinhing

Erceptiel to ivo.shb- worsl,ippt,s. retminate in p umleozn regula de mai sus aplicat' Cuointelecompuse numai la cuvintul firral:
lo h oa p{hi0 ro .o Ji'r - ho_- \ r l' i[ pi, ; - lid. s lr pt r , g io ( "r n' l t lo ' aI i ! o lidnJppi; .' bo ll-adlprr4

DJ -l final €ste intotdeaunadublat, oricarear fi locul acce tului: .,, ,.qu.'t t, L| lil tul''illt.g -- .q rlll,,E
lo roin rFl lo lra l:l r on ll , "' lr . ' \ ;'lli, r a io an nul r o . ol r o l lo , ' n| ' ' - an ndli,rg - '. n 'r o l l t r 8 gamLourrj -

c) to to d)

-ir devine intotdeauna 'idlt: l.o trallic bilouno - bivouackina - hallieLi"s to licnic mimic - picnicktng - mimickiug 'e mui {inal cade lnaintea te.minaliei -ins: io hare - having lo make - maktrs _ ,np. ?n.B
- dyeingr - €Iomg . - srngc'"8" - ting[e)i,g to 0rnoe to hoc to toc qu.ue g dri,sl lXins tting J nJl I\' l s,ndr: vag,ag canoe,nS hnetug snoo.4g totn'g

Exccl tiL :
do dye ro eye tu srtrg. Lu iinsP

to queue c , - ic f inal s e s c h i n tb n i n ' q : lo die to lil' to tie -

- n r.i n l r. , t yP i ts ' . \ - " , onr ar a: , lrl i n g l .l .n x r inl, ndJ ,. u s i 4 g < i 4 s r,n d l ro l { ti rrrn JL []"ru Jl

333 [)'!]

tn"t '' ,,'"nLrn-i',1i'r'" 'rr' i briei ".': lo lhr" to inn.r-' - arDolr,g tlalrag lo obcy obexlng to crl - crXins 3) Portioipiul prczent fi gerundilul. '- Din cauza formei lor ideniice, se $ 1695 ,ont'7ie ir prr i,ifiul 1,rez"l .i g-rur,dit. Di lin.lia Intrn t".e €dpsFori "" e..c rorbi'n inlu,r " i por'snr'1. dFoar'ap de o,".'" 1"rti -1" au ociqini 9i ' fu nctii aiferite. Deosebiriledintrc participiul prezent ;i gcrundiv sint urmitoa-

aJ functiilc granaticale: .q1698 pjr. .t;r .i rb \p,h \ io"tdt r odi u'lt I'xrfiripiul Irrczenl ')" ' ps !crb u \rl^ar gcrundiYul ' Jp -uh.trrttr. " ' Primul s€rvestepentru a calrlrcdun suhstani,i{ sau un verbJ fll doilea aanp,rle acliunea erprimatd de verbul respectir: t ,.. r .a"d .Jt.3.r.ild-.r, (r"r'._it. I t(Ea)tleca tInslnd.l
olr i ' l\r l^ l 'uh " ll' She Fent aNay .rli,s. {l'a.t.r' ad!.]

,' l \ T h, r \ dr / . A n \' rt,,.y ,,/i ,.C ;n tt. 1 " " 1 . Iart r da u ,i In In rl . s l l i b ' J !ri rr I (\. l ' r' Crltzg doesn't h.lp anyone. (Gerundiv- snbst.l (Plinsul nu ajutiL nimdnni ) Il'alltzs is go.d lor lhe herllh. (O{undirl (lleNnl cste snnltos.) a ' a rl " ,g -s ti c k r (C o n n d i rl (: !D l .s to n ) adj.) a (,olntB dictionarX (Pat. (: n D d i o l i o n i r .mb u l a n tl

d

.ml

,J i n trebuir l. at p s t r i b n ti v . p d rti c i p i u t p re z e n t i ; gerundi vul se daosebesc S 169? d e c e l e msi r nult e or i qi p ri n a ! rc rL t: subsiantivul precdaal ae ni p.lrtil:ipiu are in goncre accentul principal, part i ci p i u l r es po r iv I ' ulr ' rd d rp a u ..p n L p r;n .i p i l -a u .' ' unddr: su b sL s nliiul pr " r " dat ,l . u n s tn ,t' J a re i n g " n " r" ar" orrt s." undsr. gprundivul respoctiv arind accentul principal:

Psrtioipii prezente (:

adjective)
th e ,[.i.rt" i nsrvcnus i dtntlne conmenn.lJ r tar.rtg library cotnt tie6'

i\ lbullying tman the dmtng Xear judsment an '€'tns

r /auiq srar

r mrtg s l a i rc a s c lhe pos'us hour a nalch in 'sotzg ronl€. Gerunilivolo (: substantive) a ,adi,rg-rcsort thc _ cdlrgtrg Lriidc ,4rdsrngtoonr ^ a t-^rn8-ro( a lrsng-par a 'ledrt4 cerulio.te (un ceriilicrt ne abetrire a un-;' icoll

Lhe detoetipinel weins

{sraliune 6a:hea.d sau climate cl)
n a t t F n l n r a . r - p p , 'c '. a.rsl C r,Iin i u l " d 'i 's d r 1 I Arlr' u m . r c u L '' "dld. :

rCuvint .t ,,d/ti,r ddo16r F, . r a. f b ".t, d, i; . f u1, 1i, . i: o t t "Llo""alt i4a : n t r ebuinlnL n.b lon Ll. \u rn l r nr plr " l. g. r . i € m nlu;D psl"pin urm'" J dt li\ , ' 1r i n' r ' r "r lhl lotelese tn cxcnphrr ufmi'ort d dictioNtt! that ealks. ! Ttuile ln curs de dezvoltarcx :

334 1698 c, Parlicipiul prczcnt poate fi prcccdat nunai dc conjunclii, gerundirur de prepozilii (91734).

N otd 1699 ln uncle situalii ru se poate preciza iD nod incortestabil functia urlui ourint lermi at tn -ing Si anume, dace este \.or$a dc un parlicipiu prezent sau de un gerundiv: Ll\e Hanging Committeelpoate fi: comisiapentm ,,alegere a tablouri] or" (geru div) sau,,care alegetablourile" (parLicipiu pr€zent); a haruesti.ng machine lpoateli: o masi i penim ,,secerat"(gerundiv) sau (participiu prezenl)l secerd"l ,,care 1n ascrneneacazuri, un criteriu concludent pentru interprel,are astc acceniul ( g 1G97).r\stfel. ln diclionarele engleze,cuvintele citate la $ 16)7 stnt consideratesulstadlive, funclie indicatd dc acoentul care cade numai pe form.I in -inf.

$ 1?00
S 1701

PTIRTICIPIUI' PN,I]ZNNT
{fIIt PLESDNT IAR!TCn )

Cflraoter ti fune.tii.- Participiul pr€zent are pe de o pArte laloare de verb, pe de alta valoap de adj€ctiv 9i de adrerb. s 1?02 1) Ca Yorb! aJ are forme verbale (timp si diahzn): bcins callcd calline haYiDicallcd haYiig been cnlled 6../ poate fi detominat de un adi.erb:
S lc $r nt r $x y l .u e l ti n g\i L rtl !, i P ler , i nz , n I n re t ) Haoing spahel conainchely, \e (Cum vorlise convingnhr, a a

t

succes.)

c_,)poate avca un complemeDt direct: -a1d"zga l.rrge /dntls. she tas very iusy. (Aylnd o lamili€ ntrmeroasd, era loartc oculate.) Eaains l)een aoafi.4l a pti.s, his work was reriew€d in all the paleG. (Posiv) (Fjnid lremiali, lu af.a lui a fosf recclzate h toatc ziarele.)

Avind caracter de \erb, pariicipiul prczcnt cunoalt€ urmitoarelo lntrobuill!nri: s 1?04 o,l lmpreunn cu auriliarul to BE. Iorm0azn tonjugar€a continud: (l'.czcnt] Don't dislnrb l,.rl Shc ir ,eo.lin,i.. S 1?03

S 1?05

( Nu o ddar jal L u c rP a ? n .l She aas hdenq a Nalk wli.n I ncr h.r. {Trec!t) (Se tlimba cind am Inilhit o.) They rir, 6e Elelhonnry \ery soon now. (viiior) tTrcbuio sn tele6neze ioarli curind. (r"-area f.ijd.)l D) dupd un verb Ja un mod personal alaLd cd anbele ac-tiuni sinl, BinrulThc dcnonstrrtio rrrt on. tl,e crosd .nc,ft,s. t\c children stngts. (Manilestalia a conljnnat. tuulli'nca a.lantnd. coliii olntird.) lle slaad laokiry at $lS1.itca pdrindu'ne.)

l Ia innba ronaae, inli.p.ct{ca dat, ln ac$i oar diier-1 de nrbrprclaf.a .nglezn, denlni.fa adoltaii tiind ,.o src"ditoar{" l: a nasiril ca4 s.ceri).

335

( g 1723):

cJ poate fi intrcbuin,tat in construclia numiii

,.nominativ absolr'tt" $ 1706

u b . ' { i N ' sp" ' k ' t' ufv' -stri . u s bel^ir e.' p hsd n o ri ;h l r,' d .p . s . rJ i " r o b i e,l i . S.ri ci rrjr binll" l We havc decidedio reoryanize our dai.v f.lnn' cicuns&nc^ alla@ing l: it allo$ I. .iruNLanocs ' _u i An h o t , lr il i r P u" q a r:z d r i -rn d n o J " ' r' 1!d n ' r drtprea vrri l or J" l aD r" ' pcmite coDditiilel dacr nc vor No td Partioipiul prezeni intocuieqte o iutreag5 propozitie secundard, ln spe- S 1708 , ic l d u p a -" onjun" ! iiJ c ( 0 t )th o u P l ' . Q h ' n . + h ;b e tt-l Prrr I rhoughl " Pw ' nl on ' Th o u i nS air | on t or " i\ lJ n " I ' s ' " J ti v p ' a s ,rr TFr gr b ' ar / i. Jrd {D ;i l l " o $ d . ion ll. dr ol. i n r,{ a P d " ;3 ' w h " n 1 ," p b " s" J (Un ,o ri v int h noi Li n .l tr€ c e !c i i rr' ) She read (ntie dd,tze {: whilc she atcl. t(Ea) cite.r in tinp ce mlnca l $ l ;Oq 2) Ad j c c t iY elepr or on i to d i o p a rti .i p i i -p ro z c o l o s i n' . ' onsi deral F In " di c:i ofl l Frrul .0ntual .l rrnd .d s rmp l p € d l ' c l rv p . /,rP l ' 74 g rd m at i' ilp ac lu€ l p n drF l e Ci ' Ll p aJ dF' l ' 8ra' p_ p p c rrp o i ndeplin' glF un .u !' l n l s d u o .o n q l ru c tr' obig n u i l e : i r s t ic i l e a d i ec t iv elor ---'-

d) poat€ tnlocui o inLreagi propoziliesecundari:

The lili. ,'lj[s out of orde.. I had to Nalk ulstahs. {Liltd liind-deteot, am losi silit si trrc pe sclri ) Th p fo Jd ha\ iDS/ . a w n d .d . p P w l - d b l " -1 " d ,i t" o n. (P d' j v] tSo s.JU.li' ' . d r dt J r ar J . D F ' n p i u l ro n trn u r ru m u

S t707

*'g*a" "I o mu :i nq

de toiparalie dxcdeslecazul:

$ 1?10

sl i mul Jt:ng i n v i ro rd l ' n g lldm ' n B I nL" r p s l i o g r)fl rJ-1S p ra cl i ns s ru s l j In g thaD I c.rn te]I. He is nol, am&stDs (Nu pot spune clt esi,cde amuzant) I lound her d? tust i\tere'ting pe$ol I had ever mot (rrm gdslt o cea nai interesaniil_pelsoanir le care o lnl'llnrsemv'eodatl )

D, pot fi Iolosite la formarea adverbelor respectiYe prin addugarea su- $ lTll

lixului -ly:
He answ€reddzgni4lY (Dl rd:rpunserlzind.) We looked. undcrclandingiy at oach othr. (Ne-aD Privit cu inleles ) c)

pialn cu lunctie de atribut:

partici- $ 1712 au funcl,iede alribul sau pot face parte dintr-o construcrie
ir /rirs vL tl tretine Mi" tn p 6 ..,,,1;9 pl dn" ' i iat J ; " c n" n " tta n ;a g.d" t' r ln" " ; " r ; g r " n rd l o n l h e r, Ir' 8 sun r l i l d ra r t l, F bot ht as Ever:r'thingis in eallt€ order. (ln starc de ruoiionate) 'fhi\ is x! la!€/.ins maittsf. I ne o( t r r - - ' ,;,s !u b l i c h 1 q i r' r.a s ' d .u n :i d" rU ) $ h o s . n i l i n .j j o tu Pl i l 4. i s Inv ,l Jught" r' T 1" Li" . s m i i i rs ' ri on s i o St $ n o b rro g rn gtlr,4I. T l- or pii s om F o D

r Vezi,si echivalcnl.ii adjectivali l $ 7,"5-78?). 1 : un bi'rrbai, cre chclciie. 3:o viziti sriL bita . a: aviorul care aiciza {sar arcrizenzll)

33n
Conqlru",iil"oarli' ipidl, cr,,/;nr ca hor'r'ilr, rin<ih;,/ , // sin aliibul" tiu .0,,r'ri,. d.o;i""; repr"zinraprapoTiliitFt€'ita .lc subi,' r,loi;,ri, r".spi" atributil.e. dJ poate fac€ parle din predicat l: adjectiaprcd;mlie) | S 1713
T lpy dt r t ant i .r In u J l d n .o \J n rd p r" 4 i 'al i v . rb: .l i \l \ \ ' . ' t ound h, T i " 1 \J s o ,.g . \u ma !..J r. i \ oo " " r,\, t 1?11 ll) Ca sdrerli. DalticiDiLrl Dr€zent are lunciie de conlDlement circumsta!" ti a l , poat e t ac . po i te tl i n i r-o -c o n s tru c l i e c u l i rncl i e de i ompl ement ci rcumstantial sau poate determina un adiecdi.: She la! down r€8dinc, icirc. de mod) t v h" n; oil. t - t o th p' t' 1 6 .I' r n ' t i s 5 o n . C i " . Jp l i nrp) -iIo, l,.inq;ode/sd,/ *ii th. subject,ie did n.L undc*tRntt the lectu.e.(Clrc. de ]9eeus ploling n,. b be in the isht, she snould no! hare nsed that to!8. lcirc. . { k i; lv s ! niI t o s , .h " r,.r' $ .,. ,o t l tIro n -i . .. C i r,. d. .onai F T I p , nilk { d" b o i l i rc /m/ (D a l p rn1 :I u r i l ' ' l i \l Pul on yolr heavy ioat: it is liercins rold. (Determin{ rtr adj€ciiv)

s 1?r5

participble CoDstruetii
(Psrlicipial Phr8se!)

s1716 1) Acuzatirul 0u psrtieiliu (,tccus&tieeoith participlc). Verb€le r€f€ritoarc la simluri - to /e.'1.to hear. ta listo, to see,ta laok s111? at, lod.) to nolice,to obs.jee,to parceire,to s,atch,1o srr'?lletc - pot aYea behokL,
ra gi in.gramaLica romend, un complement direct care si fie subiectul trnut parircrpruprezenL urmaror: I trlt re child nenbline. (-\m simlit copild lrenruritrd.)
H n w a l .\' d /. .a a i ,,g . {Ne lrivca eum venenm.) I can smell &e ntlli Da.ntn6. (uiroasc a lalte ars.) t; la \ ' F . r p. , r i. ip i u . .^ ,,.i d a ' i r i ' , g ' " ms ,r d l i ,nbi i rl gl " z" n u r'e pr o. li' " r r t ; bi ' ,i !r { .t. $ 2 .2 6 ,. r" ,r" " " 2; i rnp.ui ;.u o c.rnsl,ruclie echjvRlenlA cu o propozilie compl€tivd direct;: I lelt th. chil.l ttenl'litls l: lhnl the child was t.e'nbling.) t I c s aw het c omi n s(= i h a l s h e $ a s c o m i n s ). I c{n smell sonrdhs bolnlB e rnat sonDthing is burDilgl, a fi i nd un " uhi F,rul l ui

S 1?19

.) ,\ltc verbe urnate de un afuzatil cu paftjcipiu: l, catch' ta find, to to har.. lo imdgine,10 heep, to l,!aa|. Io s.1. b slttt etc.l !:et. \ t ind n pd 4 .i ' l o r )' r o l i d d tj ' ' l p , " i n \" " Jnl i ' \" l'u ga. . l: re 1 ;1 " "' Ind b ' F n l rr Thts]' Iept n. d'oidzs {ror) an hou. ill ru ilcul. sd atrcpr o o .) I can't Isre n?' spotrt,s flJ chil{l.en. {In o rot llsa sihtri rezgiic .o!iii.) l^rgine tue sun bathinc on the beachl ({e vczi rre mine li'lcind bdi de soare !c lhjal) r ln gramalienronnni. in aceeaiiconstrnclic: ..Am yiiztrr. venind", lo.mn verbali .,\'enind"esle considemu ca a,fiDLfuloomllenientuluidi.ecl .,o".

387 , t'n '1" \ , r L" . lin o ,,a .. a .1 rb { o ri e p o ti u ,r,,a,F ri .tc u, i nfi ,,i ti t r $J 6ri n r.d q r , uo" r r bt r las . h i ^ b .r" J p rn r" l p s :i n ri n :ri ru t." ,,i " ri t,o-ci une , b. t a "td . n " t iL, nF . t. u t , ,. r" ;. ,/.' ; " p . p r, n ,l p i rti .i n i u t .,rs,ri s/" " " ..i Ilruo l n tu r s Lu r lan l Pn t d o t: I have ofter scen him .ra th." race. dislnund l= cd dislnta) .rcea-rricurst.t lL am lnzut adese.r l _ \;, rr o*ing or " r . \ r , r" n | .' \' h i r,,,.;" ,tu .J ,. -t. . r
Iirdld\ dm 5r''da':aJ t 1 \ i z . ' dl " r" r . ] , n ,t .,.,sd..1 ,, d" ,..,.,.r.,r._

s 1720

' I heardr''ouJrcdi to him. tTe-amnuzjt rorlriidu i (: cir i-al rorbit.il yousrrdl.,rs I hFard 1oh'o. lT .am ,u/,1 \o"biid i ( ,Ind ii \, ro" 'i .J 2) \ouilrlirul ru parri.ipiu. - 1n i"Fa..d "on.tru...ip idFnri.. ir ti. l.r ro.r;n.].suLi* r,l\crh,rluip|pdi"atla,Jiot'z.rIa.i\'a-"r-,oroJstd5ub:" Il urur pdrrrcrprr prFT!11 .J.a il in.olo.la.i , r'retH.p ! tF din pl..i.it , ar,,r,. pr'di.otit subi .t:,' (, l. S 2;241. L^ns Lia ,..- irtrpbuirt.,r; ,,r r, "bele '-u, pr"ru- ri nare prprim,r t.rpplii spnzorisla t\ l,l,r. "u ctie ,t,ta rerbe 'S l;l9r..i ftpr"tint. !,r strp,o pr.t".t € v"rbuluipredi.. r :n.orit ,taun. ,",rzat;v cu pariicipiu' (g 1716):

s r;21

?,' ?"r,r ss! a eo ord,irC J c hi' l f - , m dr o L. in; t \ on. . u ! . . . . t \!rb od.i! ' O n l lr \-/ul !a lvin d un r olil dp ld . n, ) :om, on" a atr //- Dra sd ' , , g J ihi' d i, . , t r ot r 1inr \ , , u p d , . \"rn , i\ r (-rn \a \, ,r o r rl q dl\. n. 1 n r o! ' l d. d , 1", . , 51" saq [e !nl n . t:a.t. C lo. r r ' am " l\ om . . r I , dr t r \ , . b L . , i \ r \ l05 .. m.1t".nn , l n|m ' , , . l "u /i "; L.a rd h . a? ai, r : "8 i1r \ i. r p' r i nd ^. r \ , \ d r . . 'i . l1" on-

Constmct;a mmiti ,,nominatil- cu DattjciDiu,, aninteste constructia .lnominativ cu inlinitiv.. (Sl6?t). d€osebireadi;tre cete do;6 forme tiiirrl aceea;i ra ti d€osebirea dintre,,acuzativul cu participiu,,si.,acuzativul cu infiiiti1." ( { 1667):
.\ D o d , l o a' l" d \ ilh l- if l e \ s s ... n ,o /.r.? th ta n ,i ,r^-t.' i ,, r\.nr. cr' ^r.l . r' i .r,r.l r \d /. i !l ,,1 J , lO b a .,; in, iF llJ . u " i pF!.d.td,l .brF ' l u -l
. l)rrair, i; 1 a r t i ' r ! ,

5 r?92

l /o ,r to" 4pt (

n r r pp r. \i .
r 5 r o 1 i.t itu .,\,,1 t ltq ...,t ,.,d tL.ot | ),;.I.dl

3) \ominatirul ahsolut (Nominatioe Abtatulc). ln cordructia numita { 1?98 ..notri'rrli\ un prr i,ir:u pr-/"nr.lrtr-Luinrd' i',.pt-nupnt dr ur, ' ^b-nlLr'. rcrb predicat, are ca subieit un norrjnativ carenu este subieciul propoziliei: ;i
\ \ ' . .h. ' ll h 1\' a p.n . nn i1l . r oat . , "at r - I , p, ] . t ! t ,r c . . l im ,i irrb i r.iJ. si , l, r . i , . J , . - r " o. n ':.r" ' fl ht dret. n 4.:n B sD- lo b. , , I n, ' . n' \ , bt , o, pt . ' C ot: ,n I r.1 , pu rpd r , . . a od t , , . ". , 'li. ',rn ' f l,; b,:aCU,d .,q 4l. up p oI o t l" , \ t it , . 1, , , n t r - . , _ " r , J , I \".r.d -", , u 1 . ' t un. l l iilJ n 1 .. b , l1r l, r o J . u , . , ; r n " d. .i '

_.4) Partioipiulabsolutfl&srlaie PurricilL.: ). - ln uneleerpr€siirurelrre. S 1?94 subiectul pariicipiuluiprezcntlipsestc:
f .au.t:rs lra n 4n ..,.r, n . Ii' " p' ndJ rn ii e. m, .ir du. b. p. , ' / I . pr n \ r ,. r t n o L " 4 ..,t .r..t,r.t c. :p "a ttrs. th, r , - ut r .e, 1lt rV'nro nil! tn g pn pi.,r. rFl . t , d, . t p . . nr . r . . . , , 1oa- , His solk j. q,,i],p e oo d..an: i, t . . t \ t L. lu^f dzr I,i p,1 " ro . dJ , d' ii . . j . . i | . .,1".

338 A lte erpresii similare: ,a'.ina aocidents b.sidins \'il\ our nert issuc .ozsid€.t,sr thc circunNt.rnces sains.Fl\\t judsng) bJ apFarances rn.rrd,4a iomorlolv /c.ioztng t.om today .?gdldt';l rour application s.?tn4 that (loculiune conj nclionau) p ," ra ta ) s ' ' i r' r' l - J i< "' ,rh j n s i n ro d '-r" r,,rl ,R i ,," v .o .nr. r..

s 1?2;
172t

GXITUIDITUL

1) Form5. Gerundivul are aceeaqiformi ca ti pariicipiul prezentJcu care est€ adeseoriconfundat din aceasl,i cauzd. 1727 2) CarecteristiciFi funclii. - Gerrndivul esto o formi verbdd.c,t taloare de substantie si, ca atare, are atii caract€rele verbului, clt qi pe acelea ale substantivului. 1728 Ca Yorb.' al are forme deosebite dupd timp E\ diatezd.: I don't mind her se';namc. {Prezcnt {ctirl tNu mI supiril cl1mI ved€{m a vilzut sau Ini1!a vedea)'.] I don't mind ]netharingset ne. (Pedectacl-v) (Nu n6 supanlcI n a vnzut.) I don'i.mind beinssun b\ her. {Prezent lisir.) tNu mi suptui si liuh{ li losi rizuti {le ea.l I don'i nind haoinsbeen seenby her. lPeriectpasiv) (Nu md sulr&nci am losi veznldde ca.)
,J poate avea complement d,irectl tinsins fotk sonss is her g.('atest accomrrlishlient. (In hterpretarea cilrtecelorlolulare sii ntarele ei talcnt.) cJ poate fi caracterizat de rn adrcrb: This is worth dotDg ,clt{Acest luou meritl siL lic fecut bine.)

s 1?29

! 1730

Ca substantiv (singur sau lnclnd part€ dintr o construc,bie gerundivaln3): d,) are funcl,ie de suDi€.1, de nume predicatie srn ile complement dfiect: Her 6etq youns was an assct. (Srbicct) (Iaptnl cn era tinlrl ccnsrjtuia nn {i'anraj.) Se.ins is D€lte'ing- (Numc lrcdicatir) She eDjoyssn,ntns a cigarelte allcr breakfast. (Com!I. dir.J t(Di) li placc si lnmeze o lisad drlii nicul dejln.l

$ 1?31

b ) polte ti i,nsalit dc adj utit'c : Some of Llie books wcte ha .edding. (Une1c cn4i crau srcu dc oitit.) 1 cansi'1.{ihs ftsa tns au d€renjt adevi.ate prepozilii,coNid0.atecn atnlc in dic. ri . Ito o u" r " , , , l, , ut , - . . ^ o o J .,,\u ri r.d .o rt ri l D U ril d bv.rn-qrr.rF.ut:.r\r:ro.l . 3C, . lhlr r , l' lipg ,l u i L r:\rA d :n ." " mrl " .:1 : n ," I :ae,J;trs ,i saoLi reu ti yFtE

330 jn cazul S liZI c, poate li lrecedat de nn ddj.ctir Nsp-eiasau d0 un sabr^lantir
IIis plasiag Ll\eliano alter Jdnd'sr€./ornlzg on rhe riolin ad.led irterest to i.h€ l i p l -.i ld. , nr J t l, p ,' n J d n .t ." l o .n d a p r" .u t ,t o Lu,.h tJ Li od," d tt,.l p r ogra n u rm.r nr ,r . \ anr . )

3) Alte fu ctii.

Gerundivul se mai folos€sre:
An l. or ias th r l 'o o s e , I l o o k c d . o u r L l . ( Par es ind r .r s d . a m I I j \ i t r m p r e t d r I

o) dupe o pr€poziliel:
I am I f Fd o /si? xt,a . (lI.airL srtu rti rlr cln tal. )

.\ 1733

s 1731

i r" $ a j puninha.Ilar b p ;rE a \o r\ Io "' t 1 t . ' r r " nir L rJ s tn ri rz i .")

th d te o ' s r; ,h.ut -aui (S " ri l F l " s . dp ta .;r'ne.

h ri ,l ^ n L , d / o |d. . . { . ep ti a d F l d a " p rs r; r.s u l " a lun.i .tnd p. p D drti Lut,l i'liiniri vu l u i . dpoar . . p ps t a p ri n d ,ti ' ,i l i a u rm a G < tc i nti ni ri v. l n .et;tal ra.1. znri insl, ctnd are fdnclie d,eyepoztlie. este ca insdii urmata de rrn gerundiv: I a m l o ok inglur ( r r d !o s e € i n "ro u . (Arte tl ,, 1r n, r db, Lar e s .t tF 1 :e i .) ;he is used r, sLcrins on the corch. (Dste oi4ruitl sn doa.mli pc dormezli.) Th Pr :s r ' , . D lioi lo r,,u r " ,.^ ;,E i n th i s o , D a -tn Fn .
l \ : m" ni r r .'. o o L ' p t1 t d ;"d \r ci .1 tu ir .r ' . ,.i 1stJ 5,.;d

ll dupn unele rerbe:
abhof .rdmit disconiinue dislikc,

{ 1735

l9'rcy
lqget, sile up (: slolJ omit: lostponc

spend (tine, morev)

suggest

h, LlP , i rr.f, l, a\ c l, , n cl : l L n i s l ' t !rc v rrt can(not) help propos.: Slt P .niaus ka \ins nr Huv can t lrclp lorrns mv sister? C u m p o i s { r i u-i ,i u-n" sisi ra?J t lE il ri plrrP sr n i tr Lhn. z e. l I hJ\a I tn;sl@d m 1 I et t er . \au kap PpeotinEthe samp mrstakr.3 sc,is scr is o, r Pa. l l A , n r,rmln 't d -/rrrrs l f a c , l € re u ., cpratigresei l i l .)
She p l , os pdleo"ur ] plpt jt hinc as r L u a s . lDa a \ ei , lF giDd s a las e t at ut a; a , sc afla.) 'rm 1 rcttuertber h.arh! the aoise. iNi-aduc {minle cA am auzit zgomotul acela.) nai al;rqall

lNi

ir l"...a ,r_0 .,'..ilk at , an1d, p- , J do, r J , r , . . r m i. . n. . j, o . r nrim", -r. p, l 'rrma,i . . \ 1. . 1a, . r at t , ; |a. r to r ^l tt ta tth". i . s o t t d ou_ .. r \.psr4\rrrr,.J.u ftirrr., J . . r . d4r . ndi\ "1. d; . nin. nit i\ . r n : d ( J : l i r e d c d r u . " ro " . rns' . , o s h InL a.p d " I l- 1.r ( . r I j- 2n ' , . |,rJ In .on l€., r A . p a. . r ' - . , _m p- : ' ' Tn J t , ?p.ne x a t t p e . . , n d " , , , . r r " s p . , ..J.., rdi. oda. . . p a r '. i t . . J r n. or r r r . ir d, , hiu, , r . \ rs t7t6 r."b. l ; /. p I d ,t. I: : 0 t ". . , . . ' . i. : . ';l

El0 S t?:|6 ,./
bus!!,l;ke, tuat. qotth.rhile), thd! i:;. tlbre ir, thae i liLtle, thue is nuch, thete is tu, theretras. n is ro soatl. (it is ) w usc, it is usetess, ctc.l The!/ ate busll e.t){itEnting tlie *c mei.hods. {Sint o cu p,rti cu c \ per im ent r r ea noilor m qlole. l I don t lccl ltner 6,i,9 ozr Lonight. (\-rm ehpl sll ies din casn astl scui.) Shc looks Eaf ..ytq. (\r. . ru r.. 5r ' s . r " s , pl' c r ' ll ll d in j r,J, r ""j r l r r r ' - l/ . 1 '. r. r ' r r " r ' d r id r . . ur . I n r ' r , r ' f: llrn. ( tr". u 1 lu q. . c % . v c t o, r r ' lr th t ! !- Ei . ! ''o 'r r iob. ' . . \. ,j id j . . r t i a , nJ plj, ' ir ' u r r ' - . l ', '
Ih-|,t. t, rYo k€ slol?i,g d '|^|,5 Dn l "ol i ni l -, lLc.; Iou shotrld make her talize her mislake. 3 1 g l\| J tr i.r r ir ,r n r ,i4 ,o , ' r 1 ,In r| ..\ ,d ,

.i (trr.ii: 'l rla unale 'u\inta '

(N irrenloiu rosts-ocrli; ar t.ebui$o lncisi inteleaE{ cn a g.eiit.)

S 1737

4) Fu tlii sinttr0tice.- G.rundi{ul (saLr construclia gerundivaln) are in genere funcliile sintrclice ale subslanfi'ului (.\ 347). .{sttel, el poa',e fi: d, subi€ci: S 173t gilit,s is his best .ela\ai.ion. iErcusiil. pc jos sinL !enl..ucl ccamai bnnnree.cace.i predicativ: 1739 D/ nune S Her great,Ast is grtzg to concqrts. tleasure pl;tcere { ei rst. s;is4drcll la crnc.rt. I l(l.a mii m]rre ./ complemont direct: ii 1710
Harc vcu cirPn D y0ltin!? ' lT e ai' li' s ii de rr;rt? i S 174 1 d/ c om plc m e n i i n d i re rt: p. eLLy I c ar ne n e a . rh a ts i rr L h ec o i trp c i i ti o n. {A lipsit loarLe!u!in .a si ciil,iB concuNul.) Do vou nrl iike E,tn! anvilherc fo. the wc-"keod? (li ;. plilcei si ;erBi rndevn li sliryit de siptaninn?)

S 1742 $ 17{B

€/ atribut:
I don'l like his way ol,trizs. (Nu-mi pUce leltl lui dc ljaF.l n ro r ' .1 i . .l ' .' l i mpul. . 1, r 2 '. \ve \\enr ft oittutt riasias i.herrorL-doorI.tl. (Uod.) (Ad jntmt l{rl sd sunlm la uta ditr faiiL.) Oz m-r.?edfttry io [er. she ag.eedai onc.. (Tim!] (Cindan lorbii cu ca, a iost im.diai de {cord.l we 0duldn't say a wonl lor taushits. \Catzl) (Nu puLeam scDatl o r.orbi dc tife f ridcam.) Fol ail vouf sleeDias so badlv. vou rL" elw.lys activ-'. fcorcesivl ( Des id; r m i r r id c " I)ro s t, e ri i i n h fl e a u n i ;c ti v.)

erprimind modul' circ,rnrtnnlialdup{ o prepozirie /./ complement

S 17i1

5 ) Cor undiv ul ti [o s e s i { e l e . - C tn d o p ropozi ti e secundard di n l i mba ro meni c s t e t r adu s i i n l i mb a e ^ g l e z i p ri ftL r- un getufl di v ($ 1752), subi ectul e i € s le pus ln c az L rlg e n i ti v 9 i p re c e d d g e ru n d i vul : Zrl letng late was fcmarked trIron.{^dj. posesiv) (fapt od a Intlrziat.r lost conentat.) I Snocu sdottug {r cigarelie)".l Barundivdlneerp.imat: "I leel ritu a cigarcttot: lik-A

att
'lh "I d i s liA pd . r ?d,s s , e i i ,{ s o m u .h . rS r posFsi ! in (L e !i 5 pr , . ed, . j r oaL- r . n d i r d ,. .,,r.i .1 " 1 ' " /u l " A .o d srd. on\ ' r u. r i. F-tc d h j n t,rt a ,." ..ru ..i nJ.Jbi e.r-1" (" tor . " tu ,r. i d o un \crb e ( pr ediLat s i gc ru ,,' l i r) d j h rs : L u , L r J d. ! . nLl t non h L ,.o d o ta (Po i , i i sigur l c A \ a r r n i ) Th n F i s aor li, C t o V . r\,' p ti o u , ;-;\. i n t,," T o u n ' " i n F . fl nA . I vm'c n u nF , . t r pd, r , 'rJ I,r." t,.J ,, ,l p :rF m,rl Cind tnsd cele doun verbe a ,e l " .i s ,rb i " ,r pu-p.i !,rl ,rpbui e + \rral "u Inarntea gerundi\.uLri: I .\on't lile editin!. (Nujli place si asicpt.l A se co m par al
Ilj rou n rind sl,/,r,,e tt" . t . ! r ( : r h F I i, im , n t r rr Dun ir In.h r'1. urr') D_ot oom inu mt L. bi. ii h d t"gt n. r nor : J ier r r ( T e sup d d acii tn Lt'iL l i, r r 7l l ye st.IrFd lu ag ha g. tSt r br p, r r or nunl nd Fm l {A m lnceta Ls.i ai l"r', q Wc:ronlpd lh.lr'n/,r'8 - "bi, . , dit , i" InlFr.issJ mri rn r , . D , . I . dn t d. , s 1 nu r udr r t d d . ) { LP -an

(continne ;d iiDtit)

-,-1!\'"!': In l n t ea gclu nd L\ u lui I|rm d pos es \ ' "-a l . olrrdn't h elp llI,tEFie t ot ehn! _ ' J g' . ; r , . I Nusint vin okt d ;;d \r . du \Jm ) nJ mavdo p"nd on JoL r r k it t pns . ont nB t , t d\ 1P , , t r1i s ig ur c! d zi yo r vpni n, r r I t ej. l -

*t:, *i". pt o,po 4t 4t po..si! rnumodc rii,,l" crc.,rpri n".. g tTti
pr t . i 5 . o , m i r r n i i . te I riJ./

Substantivele ne,rfr, intrucit nu au cazut posesiv. pdstreazd tn aceastd g 1746 construclie forma comunir:
Nn o n po ppos ed D{ pr d%6 " ;,j , ,.ri .d u ,,l r m pol. r \ , 1 " d l i /i ri tro i € ' .trl o rm.rp . we can t rely oD the ueoth.r rumih! I.fle. I \u n - put p, n biz ui , , , - ta p ru t \., In ,bun\,,1,. 6) Se migenr ndi0ul t ' h " l ta tf.Ge n ,n .J a r F ,L .,rj pdrti nptr). TFn4i ,]. S l ?rz .( I a ac ru a fa a f r m l) r ' englez an rb i t.c s te c a " u b .td n l i !p l p , .h;ar dtun.i Lrnd D oL a ! ca l o rm6 f ' oE c s iv 5. 16 p d .rrp z p fo rma .o m u n ,, inai ntcs q.rundi r rt,i i : . p p 6 u ,Brt,ap ro p o s l ( ot hi . .o sork.rs. f .d o n t u ndas ldnd! ou, .o ttro e ua ( ru rn Frpgopoz r l, a I olF q rtu r L l u td p ro p u n e ri l le l .u rp d a ,.ot., ti eul Iui . to R h s r I s a v . ll.a s.. obl, g"m , hy all o u 6 n d ;n e ( vi ro g a \ c li bundv oinl d s a trl r i u to l j i € rrn l i L F F d c p.pun.) Al p a a !i I c ndinld f ac e .a Si p ro n u m e l . p e rs o n a l e s6 nu ai b6 formd dp ,. a dlpch \ p o sp ql\ . . r c A - s rp5 s tra /p fo rn a l o r d " a c u z a ti v: Excuse tu vdq n,ng. (l a rrd m, . ii am c is c at.) FaDcy nim b?in"'so pa.lvl lci n " "-a r t i 1. r . pidt { c i.i .1 \ n r d )d d p rrp m e tl it s n n u s eas s . in{ t o bed v e i . , N 1 r" .o s l s i n. dJ . pm d " ' p ' d .1 m ta ,,,t,.d ,,,. Their work prFeFntedthaa benls prcsefi. {\u a u p u t r l t id. t dr a pA nru ,J d , rv rr d " l u .r r./

;IX;J

a substanrivero, pen.ru n.minahv,,ob,ed,,{s r!,). ',1"13u

verbali. care aDintette construclia gerundn'ului prec€drti Fo.ma aceasLa partjripirrprczeni.a primit rurrr"lc rle un posesir'. dar care are s-ifitrctic LLe 'l"sn';:n'nd'v. lr,rrFbuirl,".a lrri e.tr '.r,",,,'a 1r',"r, ra-.j"r 't' "or^te de la S 1744 1745 dau o nuar!:i forrnal:lstilLrlui. t7{8 7) Grnrndirul fi substmtirul wrbal ( l'r,rbal lioun). Unii gramati cieni fac deosebireintre gerundif ii subsidrrivul verba), degi ele all aceetli Gerurdivul arc nu uumai caraclerul unui substarti\', ci Si pe ac€14 al urur vcrh. pe ehd stdstdntitul re./6al €ste un simpiu subsianrir'. Fiind o fornla verbald, gerundivul preziDfi caractere de verb, care lilsesc substantirulur I ..ra' ' rL.l r-ruoiu /i.l 0fp lin'Fr': .r d:al"/- d .\j ipi.rr,. noJl' .r' tlrr"" l r, .t",i. i ^,z" rd- LrnidrerL gi poatpar-a,ir, o "r.ln.' "a cile s,rbstanti.\'uluipropriu-ziF (aftifol "p,, si plural)r
ll. l.dd h.r ahoul n,.vli?rnq l.en ,narektl belatc. (,\.f rornc vobal.: pdre.l. ii pasi' l 1 don'i. understrnd htt le@in€ i eath/. I- a'J.\') r ' ^nc ! n c t it s x ro ,l (+ c o m p l . d i -.,

Sulstantirul verbal, ncfiind dcclt substanl,iv. poate avea smbele arl,ic.,le lorrnit de plLrral. poaic fi cara(,terizal de un adj.ctiv !i dctcrminat, de un ge ti n l ti v ( s a- \ on iau p r.to z i i ,i o n a l ) : T p. r , , , . " r , t t" r,.rs p ' \." r.,o fr. r.trp rl tdl i ngol t. I ., nrr.^t..: dj ) , , d { " dl, o l ,i g n i n g .-n tr ,1 .' ... r t 1.,." | // , -/ dui oss, Ir at \ I .' l o l , r l s F nili! r r pp o z i tl o n a\l s a . ,tri . r \ , s " a \ lrl l " r .u D i n a ! I soincq d n J tcl cph.ri ngs.P 'r 1749 Substaniirul verbal a (lerenil, de faDl, un adeviral, substantiv :ri est€ considoat ca al,are in dio,tionare. dupn cun reiese Fi din ur ti,oarele €nenple: lerrin8s r sul'ins l - rcsturi l i o z l i rl tl ) s|rp!'ng nfnxmrnrngs (: letreceri) 1: n{rt) (t{nnn nrnti4 ," rr, rd ri . tu ) bu^-ua.. i dl .: or

$ 17;0

8) Geru dirul cu intel€s pasi\'.-- Gerundivul €ste uneo intrelunrlat . ' r i '.,,1.. to. i\ :
'lhe chlld needslaoline a[l..r {: neing looked alte!). Tl,e room wanls d,s,i,g (: being dustcd). rs ihc ethibition s'ortli s€eins(: being s$nl?

S l75l

9) Trailuccre.

Gerundivul englez poate fi tradu! in limba rontenn p n

a) geutzin: On seclnsUicn, I waled. (rd.tatlu i, le tm liiclt semr cu mirl.) Shc ans\rercd lI nozdtzs assent. (Rnspnnsc d,nd diz ca" alirmativ.) b) suhkLnli!: I€dding is {n instruct\'c pasiinic. jnstNctivii J (Leclutu esle o djstractrie Shc buNt otrt in a lit of ..ytLg. llzbtlcni irtr un dcoes de lltrs.l .) infinitir sau conjunc!.ia: Ann stood wilhoui. roo^i,{ at me. (l nl i c i o a rc )re re am e rni e I I n. r s tl i te .t One o.n't Lclp lining thcd. ( \ ! p o l i s d tu l l a l ti i g e i .)

snmi pti ea* i i .)

a4il d,) ti.mp perconal intr-o propozi,tie principali sau secundari:

There ir no sauins wlLJt h" !d. Lio . r T p pv- ds!p r' or!pu" l l. n 5 l J r" i r . l\d p o d F ni" " n; s il- ' - c . p r.. I rcmcmler ,rrli4s he! Uic storY. (lmi amintescca i-dm ryzs lovestea.l ,i " " nt:prtnd; i G,rundir r l F r a. J o l t tn /rJ i /J rS 1 7 4 i -l ; 41; .. lim h ,' | .a n i o un' l a15 l n ,.' -" r i1 174 7 ) si n t r eds r F {I tri n l r fro l ' ,i 1i e cuvintul in cazul posesiv sau acuzdtiv devine un nominatil': Io!/ dzvrelizs withoul thinkir( $as a nistalrc{Fapiul cI at /;spazs llrii sl te gind.tti a losi o greteal,'r') He wasn't aware ot DaL'' adtahitlgh\m. (Nu -;i d adeas eana oi ,d n u o b rtu a .) I don't undcNtand ntm goiag home so soon. tNu inlclcg de ce f.rl d lldcar ata devremeacasa.l

$ 1752

pertect. 10) Gorundiyul - Gerundivulpcricct exprini o acliune,o exis- S 1753 exprinate prin verbul predicat,: i€nli sau o star€ anterioari aceleia
rl e . ch i c l hnnLllc aD | \ ' I h a ti .s L " P nttt. l (l ri o .i l r J lt ei p: . di' ; . l _ /d p !,/ d " d l t l o s tb o t' .o ra I wonder€dat his iarhs dd the initiaiive. {M-am ni.at ct iniliati,a fwese a tui.)

dintre infini- S 1751 Geruniliv. - Deosebirea ll) Intinitiv. Particiriu Drezont. pr "z"n L ,"g.ru;di! i s" podta ohs'rvrm . j b in od in u rma lo , rp lt iv , p a r l i n ipiu exemplei
io lo. l c bou t I' i m. { l n l i n i ti v ) He sr,p ped {S.a o p d t pt s i' t r ua P r i v i l mu e j u r ) H e sn p ppd,l" ok ine ab o u l . i m J rd c rtl a i a i n s .' H ^ \v r;n" i t i s: (P 1_r.prp/P ^l s e lm p re j u t 6 r " \.l a ml n d : " C f' u m o s : ) {S s o piil u, Undu look insx bort h i ff 6 D d w .n l rL IJ I. (C e ru n di \) H B sto F ped {A l n c;i al d" a m ai pt :\: l ,n p rrj .r ri r l l e ra l l \Ie cdtueta talk to Urcm. {Inlinitill lci.c. dc scop) (-{ venit sii rorbcascaou ei.) se cane talk;q to r\eal. (Part. lrezent) (Clrc.de mod) (A vcnit vorbind cu ci.) I rp m.n' b" r d / o a, t o Emi \t. ,Ii l rn rri \) t\l :-l m rdx q am inlos a m i d J . l " Il m i l i d . I re m"r nbpd s oi. a l, o E' o l v s . tO ru d ;\) l l l r-d m aJ us J r iiir L; c r /rrd a i n I d n l ' l l d l l :i :,. PATIIflPIUI,
(THE UST

TIiECUT
tsINTTCI}LE)

s r?5;

alerb 1) formi. - Particirriul 1.IecrrL du'se terminaiia -ed la infinitiv:

or rqulat. se formeazX adnugin- $ 1756
print?d {: tilil:rit)

nercEnlatc se gftesc in lista de la S 1847. Participiile trecute ale aerbelor 2) Pronunlarc. - Terminalia -ed se pronunln: S 1757 a) [d] la verbele terminate ln total.i sau ln consoandsanardr (e\cet .lnd -d) |
to to to to to carry xang lxalil dire disoover raued nangeo trarelled dined discovered I tre!]dl

l Ye zi S ! 1, not a 2.

&l{ sutdnl (exccptin(l -1, : Dl ffl la r€rbele ternin arc in canso&ttn
to to io t. to tist nas s ar h; \ f-"tch -askcd D a s s .d f" o p . h*': lriched ld:sltil l l E :stl !" .pr . L L rl tle{tl
I adldl i hendrdl I lajtldl lstd:tIdl

r,) lldl ln verbelc tefrniDate ill i ro add
io hr nd t o t at to start -

sau l: addcd
handed ta i l e d slarlc.l

l?ar8

al Cld partiuipjul irPtut a devenii cu aderirat adjdiv, tcrnriratia -.d a,dipcri.ului. pcntnr a se Jiosebi de icirrlinalja lerLului, este uneorr pro un-tatn[Id] oricare ar li sunetul preccdent: an ns.l [ -{d3,d]:nonrn my ,,ror.d lbr ].rldl $ire "l.herl€ss€df'blesnll Danoze1"3
a ..dDDad I lr4brdl iacc nr .rooia, t k kldl neans . .".sed I k.:srdl nuisanec aosscd I dlsldl lersistcncc rJ r
a J ' €s " ao ' ' Lr " ll i hor ' r ' ' ] P"' id lr i the Laicd l'ne,kLdl tru lh ' ' AAt ' , r ' i d i|I lr p1 , , "! Pd nr lr | 1r , 4 pianad lwlk ] s c andal r qretch.d L ft\\dl ir.aiher, inl^phuir ' l0r ^

ctc r-rli i p i i r " l t 'l p l F r r I i n s l 'd

/

"a q" ' " irl" J " m' i ' ' r' ri I i; i .i "o r'ornr--Lrlii r '.""',;!,lrJl. ',,r lle had dlcd I i iLll ,onsidfralh \l\ o .in -ror $"r P' ' . , / r "d I l. r 'F b 'r rhprp o :r,e h ". .ro ol./ k r . k l h. r l, r ' p iin- . '. p " o \ '' lh s l 5 l" k " . l r o ndlJ H l'.tl t,Jd "lio rl..o . do !a", , d t J l i ' \ ' s "or "om p r : r n " n o \ ' r ' ' : t ' or ". "lt,* -i'as ; t '' ; l, e; o " "" il lor ' r l" nl llJ\e t.u l€ oa . / ': Hd \, J t \o . lo, "d ' t ^v d r ; . p- uf . . - ion l: oor ' h 'l h" r ' l Il'.I' i.d """d r r q, i. r it l ln ml,d e \ r eDt ional. in poez ic . at Llnc i c i n d r i n a

Lrrrd a rlna :i

. J { i' 1. . ; nl

h':

uneori pro ninotir -,ri. ,l,iar si atonaa participiuiuitntrebuintatverbal. tsslc gra!': printr accent' un indicatd pr.,nunl"rehltid de obicei nn!t;tJ lr,ll. ", ",'i;
I ilh lw. nt y t f f nc lv d gr t r . s o n h i s l r c a d r .

,l

sari me|l\ll

o ctY ter-

1i69

3) ortoErafie. ac precedrin de o sinsurd tucaLi irlr-o consoane al lerbele l.ormirate (n|aitti tl\tble^?n tdminalioi €l' inainLea consoana
to rre I.f Lo de mit to rc gfet tfe'lcrred de niitt., fc'grctl.d

r \ ' . z i t 91. r o tn L js i r r nili, illli! a .e .a i i p ro ,,ti L i c " i h c \o d n r i s agcd"l ' er.l :rdl ,dal se sl ut' " an
p"lpli ' nli. ''' t" ;, /'t : Ll r €r liiai. ." br llndi. . r f l.m '.r i $'. Shakespea.., 'the Ttdgc.l! of ]Iucb.th

i ',1 ,,'ll":;i.-'.'], ron ,l",or ' , .", . ":,

.t".J-F'

."
TL

i-r ii-' , , , r' : 8
ll-

d t t 'n l " L a l t h o 'd t t a l 8

ro e . ,o o r' l

t45 ln celelaltc cezur;.con"qoana finald nu se dubieazn:
l,o sert t! liang sfat"d hangrd to thickcn -lo o.der io lardod thirkctr€.1 o.dd.l pnrdo&d

Erceplia.
Forshilpcd.

0bservalic C.ui.ntelecanp N t,erminatein ? urmeazAregula de mai susaplicatd numai l.r euvtitrl tin'l:
| r, | or5 Llr ip "ilpJi,, I or - q\ iur a, . d J ipp", r , . Li, t r ,1 p d b u r ', ^, "t , Lidnann,r' Lo||t,:idDp"d

DJ -l final este l,otdeaunadublat. oricare ar fi locul accenl,ului: ru ,o t .o " |ri - "gu.)lt".J i..riJtpd
lo | \bl 1o com rel to t.avel r i\ "ll^, com pell€l travelled t o . on . o to Eimbot to a; rul cul lrotla.l sanibolld r; nnth.,

Er . e p l i c.
un par{llcldd. cJ td d €r ine - t . A l to lilouac - tirouacl€.l to minic - ninl.kcd io trallic hauick"l d) a findl trcraiat d. o consoand se schimbi in -i: lo (,r]' crLtj to carry carricd lt pr.c.tut de 0 roral.i se menline: io llel - play..l io disobcy disobeJ.t eJ -€ mut final carle inaiitea terninaliei -ed: to dance drnced to ii. - tiet to stdlr to dle d"kd -- shi!.1

4) l'unctii, - Pa.tiripjul tr.cut se intrebuinleaze: a/ 1aformarea tirrlDrilar ptftcte ate\erb]lor (dupnauriliarul ro U\YE):
I h uvc secn I had seen I s hat t h a l e s c e n l I shoutd hale secn

! 1780

b) la lonlrarta tunjugdtii Nsirc (it\)n auxitiarul to BE): I am s-"en ! sh.U le scsn I am beinesc€n I ivasseen lct nre be seen I \ras beis seen t) ca adjectie: lhc rrouts..JreFard long-/o.s,rcD memories s,td€d nissil€s iet piapeLledp]rane ^ Cu funclio de ad.iectir. participiul trecut are si grade de comparalie:
decided more (lecid-"d most decided sh.ken mofc shaken- nost shak€n (V c ri q i S 8 0 { -3 0 :i , 2 ? i s ) 5) Tr$dncere. Participiul trecub se trAducc tD limba 4) qt participiul ,'.'.?zt atunoi cind are rol de adjectiv: ir p, , , r / , , pb{ r ( p " g i r,.r.rr" d I " " t ' , d m J nt { u r o 1 ' In ' .,1 , 1 l,arncd {adjc.l.iv) este pronrntat ['1.:nrdl.

romAnI:

.a 1761

b) u tintpuL9i mod.ul tespectiv. atunci cind tri ln compunereatimpurilor perfecte sau a diatezei pasive (impreunn cu auxiliarul ctnd € cazul): I l,aaes.en ],i (: I am ldzut. il lazni)
I h Jtl s , n }im ( : |\ il \ iir us Pm ) Jl '' \ l/ l i" 'l )

-{ se cornpara: lle l,assonc lifiI. (-{ im!lirii i0 dc ani.l H. is s"'s liitJ. (-\Itrgc!c ir) d{i ani )

s 1762
l?68

PAETICIPITIL ItrRFENT (TfIn rEBr,.ncrr{RrrcrP4)

Participiul perlcct este format din participiuJ i) Iormi. Diafezi. plezeni a) au:iiliaruluito II,\\'E. urmat (]e pariicipiul trecut al 1'erbuluide (onjugat. Partiiiipiul perlect are diatezli actil-i ,(i pasil-;:
hrring be.n called lpnsi\)

1?li{

2) lnlclcs, lunctii. -- ParLicipiul perrccL expriln:i anteljodtatea unei , {i rni .: rr'l';,lin';ti ru,"ri..,,rui ;,.um,r. n!i, l l irp. JF pu7, " . i'r-a.-rl ,ra.nriml': r" lnrrr': r'r "\i;r'i. pJ: rrad,r'^p'r1"F-- " tr-un timp perfect trl iDdicativului intr o propozilie temporalii ori cauzaln" sau nDrlr-un gcrunzru:
tttrins liritlvr) l1er \|otk, she $enl oDl. lIr1pd,.. ia l,rnind, Iu:rN!. a iciil. raz Ea a ir,:it deaareu l;i t,ml.d."r lulrd.) :l: 'o, ll' I | .. h , "- . 1 ' l ' o lD .f. ., | .o."d . ir . p. l n b. , I . i. , t , , . , r e4 Tl,f corch hu.ried to lhe stadirrnr. na'n,g rptu r,ld lhat hc $'as wtrnicd. (I'asitl .ri cra r.roie de !1. anLrrorul alrrgi la strdion ) a.tp,rrdr-is.

Pdriicipiul per{ectare ivnntainl rle a da o mai n,are eursilitate siilulL,l prnr faptul cn iilocui€lte o intreaEnpropozilie. ' Llneoli. jn 1705 3) lnlocuirca tarti{riliului prrte(f r:ri participiul prczcnt. pedert se intrebuinieaztpnrlicipiul prez€ntpentrLr.r se locul parLicipirrlui r\pri,n.r o a,iltune cAle a lre,,edat i'nc.liat ocliuner v$bllhri prcdiratl io look aLthe waU :1.rnn,s (: liariis ,rrri*dl at dl oliicp.Nrl.rioli|I. I sl,)rped asuzila l,iNn.n'.omrlril sn lrivfsc sartJ de rer.te.l ls.sindd4\'r.inc
,,rJt;r i ilnirin d n r ,\a jir( t iL 'in dn ir lra ng c nidc dl t he ii. er t r , all. s l i . l o o l , c d t o r | $ r t . sala dc c olc ot . . Anii r n s . ann li b o . l ha ring s aidi goddl, r e. lr ! hI L lhc l o u s c . znr a bun: i. ! l. c i. i

s r76G

r, \RTItPrUt
LTrrn llSSIrD

I .r SI\r

l,lnTrtrrl,|)

17t;'7 1) Timt. --Partiripiul pasiv urlr ilorn tnnpuri: prezeni r"i perfert. 1?08 l) l'orm:i. Parliril,iul paslv esle fornral cu ajuLorul partitipiului pedect. nl auxili rului to BIj. urmnt, de fariicipill tr!.ur trezent.re".pectjr al vrrbrlui dc coiju{atl
],cing callcd (pr.zcDtl (liird chcna ll

haring ri..n .allcd ipideru

Prilr tcmrrnul ,,parlicipiu" st, inyltgc aiLi si gcrundirul, acesta conlundildu.so lormal cu parlicipiul trlzent sau pertecl.atjt le diatczaartirn, cil ;i h cea pasird.

a7 3) Intrebuinrare. - A se vedea lntrebuintarea DdrtrciDiului o&zenh € 1?69 prs;v la S 1700-1708.s prfli.ipiului p.'fo.t taci\ la g l;C4. isr r serun,ii. wului cu lnleles pasiv la 1 1750. Participiul trecut, al verbelor tranzitiye are senspasiv cind est€intrebuinlat atlL l'erbal, ctt si adjectiral (S 1688).

CONJUGANEA SI]IIPLA,I. UNUI YERR NEGULAT
TO C,ILL l{ CHFt\I-{l

s 1770

DI.{'I'I]2,\ P]\SIVA vorcE) {Passrv!
INtI\ITIV (1t?L\'1?1IZl

Prezelnl ( Ptesent) to be caued{: a li chcmat)

Pertect ( Pcrf.ct)
to have been callcd (: a li lost chenrt)

I'IIiTIC]PIU ( ]JANTICI PI,E) PrczaJr\ ( ptesent)
being called (: liind chemat)

Tr€cut fP.rst_/
cRllcd (: chematl

Pefii,ct ( P$f.11)
haring bcen calted (= Ijind chciiatl

MODUL I\rlIC-{TIV

( I ND IC/1TM

]IOOD)

Pfizan+, ( besent)
I dD callcd (: sint chc al.)

Tre1Art(Pa Tense) Lrds callcd i- erim (lusei,fui, arn losu
Jou werc orlled 1 " ,. , " o j l." " wo $ere called woe oall€d -vou ihey Fere call.d Treout perf0ct (Past Perf.ct) I h /d o " p 1 .d l ..J .v ,u I' a ,l b " a nrl l l q n"r s i P,h J l D -!.d l l o we hail bccn called you had been callcd thcy had been odled

you are ralled s he l .s .d r. J J {c are calted Jou are callcd th€X .rre orlled Prezent pcrfcct (betent Perfect) I b .n rdlho ( d , r o " r e 5 m d ' "v p .\ J J .,r" b "-n , 1llF J ' @t s I I/ l n . ' lhd rve hare heer called you l,ave }cen called they hare been {.rlled
lui

i rJ i rl

\iitor (Futarc)
T & o r' oe, r'F,l \.\oi Le' 'alJei ]', . \ h. l sl p l { l-bp,1' l"J Ii ,n "r . r . '

lriitor perfect (Fntve Pcrfed)
I s lr llhav . Lqn. dr lp d l - \oi t:ioJ LU $il hdr p b . n , d l h 'l h I . l- ) s ill l' "f . b "n,alpJ r l '. "

rve sna, bc called you will be crlled they will be called

,u l

'r sna[ have been ca]led \r. lou will hare been called they will havc bcctr callcd

I

348

Yiitorul hli de tre0ut (ltntwe in th? past)
r sn,"l.l ne orll.d (: voi ti oheDut) Itd rrolld le called nel l' , r d -r"l ' Ir l ' , " r r. ../,atu t,. f.lllcrl ron Nould l]c .iallc.l thel \rrxlii bc ialld

Yiitorul lerf€(t lati de lreeut (Futur( Pilt(t in lhe Pnst)
I sl,z/d l,a!c b.rn cllld (: roi li l.st o h e m a rl .!!u *otrI./ |.ve li.etr rall.d hcl I' Is ,u ' | | ' \' L..,,| .J \rf rn,all lr ilf l).rr riilleri r.tr *!uld hir. tr.!r cnll.d ther Fcnkl lrdlc bcfn orLlled

\lOlI_L SLITJO\CTIV (St,RJ{t,\t 't IfE lornr:r \e(he (I llt'?t"tluttit de tlnt) I l)! ,iil].d Fonna |rczc\\t (hesent) I \vo.e r,rllpd

}IOOD)

rnoderni Pttttct (Pcf.ct) I l,ad LJeeic.lled

'n-

.h" I lh

nt' l

,rl ir I

( si fi tusl chetuai.) tou liad |c.n .allcd h") sh-" I hrd been crlled Nc l,ad btn called aon hrd becn o.lled ther hid lePn called

trol)t,I, co\!I1loN_\r, I'rtzt\rt ( Prts.nI) I rl,rl.l bc .al]fd l- ai Ii chemrt)
r"on $rntld |e !,rxtul .IP )\n xld

(co.lDtTlo\.1L

aoD )

|erfrti
I sn,rld

( P.rft,::t)
(.t ii losl

ha\1 boJr 4llcd

hl ,t

Jon \vonld har. bc.n callfd sre | \roultl bire

b

I

'll.d

rlJ

leer

callerl

Iou rLould l)e .alled Nolld rc .alled utl

\r. J/e,/d ]tarc lu called ron Nould have becn orlled ih,.v {ould huvc leen calLd

ODLL IIIPD}I_\TIV (1tr?LB4'lIfE Persoana a 2u sg. bc clllcd 1: liichcnat)

IOAD)

Ptrsoana a 2-a pl. lretalled(: lili chenrili) OOIJUOAR]]-I P,lSII.tr CONTI-\U,I (YeziS 1t9;)
I'IAINZ-{

s 1 771

Dethritie, Diatezele snri catcgorii Sranal.icah s'17i2 raporturile djotre subicct si corDplementul direct.

vcrbdlc care indirn

t

1ii:|

liil

1) Diateza attili (ThL ALtire I'oice). Diateza a.l;/.i arali ci subieclul prop.rzilici esfe autorrl acliunii €rpr;natc dc rerb: Cathycalledyeste,darto seero,,. 2) Diatcza pasini ( t he Passir. l;oic.). Diitezalarir, aratd ci subiec tul propozjliei (subiectul gramatirdl) u estc autorul aeliunji verbului, ci cn El sulern acliunea al cdrci auto. fsle complenr.rtul direft (subicctul logic). ctnd vcrbul c tranziLiv:
The cleciri. m€te. ,ros rudd lasl Neek thr i|e usdal man)-

SIMPI,A.

DIATEZA

PASIVA

(b! the usuaL Complementul m&n). t lr|1r"o|pl,nmt d( dft,r1.Doateii { 177; Fxprindr , nd,.'" inJir pen.dbil .i,sului. dar rn generntipse.i'.:n.p..iHI ' ln limba englezdmodernn:
Thc tracloN nad ,!en o'drnd&Lt in lhe $irter The Io". iso vi. r oF r - r , . r . - a dt t t t . . . ; gt I . Diortls.

3) Diateza reflexird, exist€Dtdin limba romani fmi 5!dt. te in,brdri. se I l7i6 rrde. / rut !n,Jsptft.lau lh.\ (:JouNth hp .tta-. th;;s tl/l..rp arir Jp rara ln li, ,bs -no'"/i ir, i r L,odr^ li .on.rd, .e in^\i: -nt;. r\;zi ;i S Zt-r,, '1'd 0bserea!ie Ilumai tfb( le ,.dn.r;lipd.inchrsiv celeprcIrozilionale(S 1319, 1325. 2195). $ 17i? pot avea diatezi pasivA. Tnrrp moJurile tj tirnturil, tunJulnrii sitnpter pot ar.a Iornre pasivn. S l;78 . Lo fott.t,t.ot o 'onttrua \n.t, numAt rr,- t,t.,l .i tF,ttrl ;nJttat; ,ldi. nrc,_m Fi ptp'"ntLt.ut rn th.t/,ri por at", ti.rmi. pr..i',. \Fzi ,"1,-tut,t" ta i t;q5/. 4) Patternul diatczolor estc: S l?S0 : subiectui i r.erbut predicat a0t,i\. (ev€ntual prca) la diale.a . .dctirai c€dat sau urnaL de complenrentulnrdirect) { ionptementul dircct; q 1, . , b) .su diqrp prs;r./: bdbi- r,rl r-r'but pr,.Ji,."rp..rv {F!, rtusl pre mdar urn.rr JF !o,,Tl-n,anrut i,,diB., ",-n,,,..t ,o"tt.m,n,,,i u. agent. Erenple,. Diokza o.tirdt T\ro lrofessonh.r\f c.nr-" to {clcomethcir toreisn coleaocs. TheI ar€ s],o*nrg(tol' the risjro|s ihe nijw 1,.li.i.ectrnjc'buildinss. pasied: The visitorsafc sloNr ur. nei! Potttr.imicnnildnigs. Diare.a 5) Formarea,tonjugirii l6,sit'c. lreccrca de ta r:onjusarea detn.i la ,_en S l78l p".ira sc to"c in moJ,rl ,ootJ.t,Ft.tttt t rprtului e, riv ,t-rir. 'rrn,lrrorr "l16;../ rin.a,,ul noflri .li\,i.ubi.l.l r"p6r1u; n":r,1.\in. (F!,nru"tl .omnt.m-, 1 (ln cazul acuzativ) pfecedat, de prcpozjtia D4; r.rDrl d.tir esteinlocuit ;u aurii, liarul ,o B-L, ld ac.lasi.tinp,rt )rod, urmat, de Jnlrticipiut 1r€ct at I-erbului actir: ma .r i .,.r \d..r !\d.1. \,r'\ I tnJi.o!: ,alnt I ll .".1 Lj. r.. --"'- ut , L" I I 't.." -,.,,. .,r i, m t...1. | I /'',h \' r \ l t,ai"*. ,, l t t f r v . ,'oLet ' .-' ' _ .' _ * ''' " ' h. \ q T" . : \ . I I ""
| .t , et,r - - - ' - ' - -. te"r"t
|

I \\
| |

, . h- . bt t . t |h
id. t,1 bta,.ht

.n

1\

\.r,\ t du. '. ( - ..ia.,D tt,

I r.,., , "- /" _r . , I '. j ,^ ! '" |

J I t )

p,1" , I v,;,-

T i \t,o tp l .' T ,h a ,/ r.,,t t' .. n" $!. t\, v T ' " . \- h ,d .--.." ." , t., th" rn d L pr" ri < r- ri l / J /l r L p rn l " " (r ' rnr r-\,t:\ | ..ta r b .d u d \t In rh . m n " n: I' bJ ,-. r,a.,

l,: 'ip ,"::: ::l:i: 'j',""b;\ I +:! ':i::";:ri ii, ,r'
obiinuill a vc.Iului. in cortrasr cn ,,corjugr 'roDjusarca , onr p, ' n, r r ' r ldj t olr ' , - , l , Pr.pu/it J n.,1- udr' , ' . . r . . ' r l' n 1, d. 1. $ 1?79

I,,Clnj,usarea simpli" esie ' z(. i' ,ll,tu t bl in dt* !'r "h " a 71 ,omp n "n l .l in lir"l.

s50 I v,.. 1",'t ,t" *,,
I lit , ot ,e ne .t laL I dp tu a;t ot p rcte nt | .oh,j;ian -' ' I 1 I Canditiandt petfect

I sh'd'{ {Md Ihe Fonctor 'linnPr'I \' riv { I l,:,:,,'""Ji d, nnpt Son S @ " r d r p s o d a d p db y h i a i

lPdsivj

I Thev ha, e dueht l h e l o a c h e r b e l o r p n , s n t t ) l l . l \ r l i v l "no&ld bJ do$. rPd.iv, 1 Th; t hi. t , hout l ho, ; b. . n.a ; s , t / x , r L' J r ' it 1 4 \ p l o 'n F J 1: h", r "r ' ur . :'r \ r\' | | "haut d b" ". c u"ed il I e \ n l o l , l e d { P i'\ (had) I'd, i^ iJactot iI I needcd one. (Activ) ha,e cattet a f I, S d.cto! qauld h@c beeD!,n, 10. il hclp had been necessa.y.

I

I {pasir)
'l rn.l '. 1 i i i . i i " ' i ''; .'" ;" ;: ":i"; r tl;;' h r P"",' , | | Fnc li c \\a o .L .d l ,D t (\' r

r

-, .

i,liif;.i;1,;,:,'" 1(,():l,l I s,07, '' p*1" ' { :Jii:::,i,
tI'

t^ p '-i'

- , ''

p . , r:, , r d . i. { ?:o",i i l ,";"'i ;J '):a o , $
1s
r l- c l n, ". "11 pr . ' lA' t : . 1 \ L"t n* 1, . at bd ( bl m r | {t J . i f J \( i\l | \\'. rfe /'e1,in! hrr.

i.rl;-.. I thr -ati! sdb io "!tr) | | I Indbn'; brc:ent

n Lt.' si !, " 1789 6) \'erbul compl6x. - Ctnd verbul act;1'esi,e urmat, de o pariiculd adverb i i l a s au, , 1" o t r e ,p n z i l i " l a d i al aza pa.i vi a.FS l ca si n' pu.e ' o r,' l i l i o n a ' i r. rmet|rar, l:lupa verD I cu ptlrticuLd. ad.aerbialdl \\e sh.uld nu th€n oz first. {Activl \he:i aaukl be tial, an tist by us. (Pasiv) cu prtpozllLe: T hev dB s r ed ti ,s ro v o r. { ]\u ti v l \ oi at e t ' . ins _ a /,.. 6 i P * rr ' p o ' te , h i m. (\c i i { l s he ndl loo& ;/ fle he,t bun tooked. dfto (by hc..) (Pasill r'rb " r F t t ; " r t d a d t rb i a tn i fu t y ,1 ' o -;7 e : I m6i, da awda rtn it. (-{ctivj Il mrlst 6e lo,, aQa! Qtrr. lPasi\a No one oan rz, zp ;rn hci anr lorger. {Acti!) Sh".cn.t beiut ui eilh any lons;r. (Pasi\'t 1783 ln limba englezn sint frecvente formele caraclerislico tle pasiv ale unor verbe prepozilionale al ciror complemeni lipselte: The! eerc ldugh..l at. (Rldea huea de ei.) .\ t,(i /o s s p ,t /," . (S-a l.rimL-dupi un tari.) Qt 't r\e b. spole\ k? (N n i s e p o a i e a o fb i ? ) 'fh€ snm couldn'l bc accounted fat. (Snda n"a lutut li juslilicaul). \te lan beins attended 1ol (Sintcli sovir?l L ]. ,. " o m L l " r' ,:
I \_e zi S 2!9 3.
I' i j.n .d 5 y tt .4 kt;,

I -"', I-

i" b,,,; r";,./ D) L.. ra,:!.

| l n p r,, rc l p t,h t,p ,.,l l rp' .r\,' i \ 1 rt, .,.i t,tr.n rp ;" L " :.s l.! teo Ly

.1 .i p \p .,.i L or l u' ruri -.

tt,;.r"

, ,.

SNPTA,

D:r\TIZA

PASIVA

361

Lds na& an April lool ol (-{m fosr pic{]ii. de I alrdtic.) An agrcemcnl aas arttre.t at. {s a ajuns la o lnleles€re.)

7) Vorbul aetiv cu doui complemeDtc. Ctnd un verb actil' are doun S 1?84 qi celdlalt, complemente, unul direcL indirect,completuentul directde,-ine aileseori subiectulverbuiui pasiv, conshuctieprelerati ln limba lii€rard:
ch" h 4d .d 'l"n { omp l. ind: r . l t h" pt : 1 I , onol. d: r . 1 . l A c r i \ l ' t h. p" t ? $ir l , 1, , oaL r / "a , , o. , ! l: : ndi, . , br | " r . {f i " i r "rb prt \" $ nl //p ,;r,in a rhd - pion l"nr Dl. . r lit \ 4 p, p rn' r0t. ,lir.l. \r ivl "n.n l t . i n d ; . . ) b \ '. . a t t . ,,r p.", L,r.o q I, sJ nt t o t hp n ; , r ; r B, dapi6n To tP"":, l n a"es caz. comp lpm . nlul i' r , lir a t r dm ir ". d jn limhJ p nglpr d B. t ot nql Do' t r ti F. l , nulllil 1 st€rp i|| propo,iLin dr t i r r " i i n u t l . pasiv6

In unele cazuri insi. in special ln limba vorbi'ln. ad€seori si ln stilul folm , cotnplemenlul ind,iect d.e\ina subiectul verbului pasiv, complementul ( Retain.d AccuttLtite) (- acuzain re!in;t): d;rect rdnlnlnd ca ^rarc Thcv \re.e all $anted s./dbBnipr. (Li 's,a acordat-i.utu.or brrse.) The children $ere otfercd t.es. (coliitor li s a drt Inshetra6). I n'as set an inl.ercstingrdsn. {Mi sa trasat o sarcin{ interes.rrtiL.l You hare been atlotted d sh oI money. (Vi s,a alocai.o sume d€ bani )
(h { i r hd / , r aPJ b, r ! j- , 1 , re. .oto. (\.' f s uli , d c it dlur . ' r . n' 'fh F Air ' s o ns . o o lul l ( nr r , r , , 'r L i ,e \,,.n . ,[- ". "LP\ "t

g 178;

' Principalele verbe active al ciror complemenl, indircct poai,e del,eni subiectul verbului pasiv, tn vrenre ce complementul dire.rl estu pestrat ca atarc. slnl: d.coril. dlor. tLLIow, award. c.Lus..cammduL dcn!/. giue.€ran\ leaee, offcr, ot(la, paA. p.jnit, protnise.refusc.sau. shot\,) spare. t.ach. tdl .Ic. 8) \ierbele to bid, to make, to $ee:to $atch, to hear, to feel, to lct, care $ l?SG la diateza actiTi .qint urmatc de infhiiivnl inconplci (: firn particula to), cer la dialezapasili infinitivul precedat de t., (' 1662-1664). 9) lomra iDrporsonnli din limba rornAnn..se spure", ..se Iace",,,secrede" S 1;B; prh acelasi eio. esle redalArdeseori in limba englczii rerb la dialezapasi\n. subiectul nce-rrLiia iiind .romplonren L.ul in;l;rect al icrhului impersonat sau subicclul tropoziliei compleli\-e directe din linba romAn6:
I rar i/roi orer ihe iarm. dc cconomii. I ias stretr a SaliDg! Book. l\furcii.: He *ds dq\t,tuI thc Orilcr ol Labaur. : He rra3 r,L l rrrs here. trinite ceroilc. -= Student$r.e /eqzied to scnd iD tl,.ir aplliIi j d .efur si .i!inm. : We q,c/. art.l lo srng. oiL{cl) rste (un) savant. : He tr Joi.7 to b! a stiolar. ^\i,.?zn? \1 r' l - (' i) . , rJ d Tlt p. \ ' ' p b, J ". 4 t .,\ 1 1 ld' " lr d ptl,j".ie, I x \ a. ' . a . ttpa. J|o,or|" .\, Ihorl I c u f d. sau For dctub ers . nlJ . .t o La !,t.: lilmrl ro Df , oc 8. a. Ttp Rumatri.n pirture ' . i: q I r . , p. l. , lJ o, , r - . i < . . p o.l. d t o lri\p s lh ts Aold m t s dr l 'n f,li s-d orrr,Icfma: Ii ." z dar un oimet I s-a dcotdal ordinul I s u v,s cd snrt aiei & e,e sttrd€tJilo. sn

,q.lto constructiiimpeNonale trailuse{iu pasirul in limba englezi:
Lrtu a tti tu da sedtua alinv€nlia lui este etooald. : h qiU be rcali..d that his i!!.nl.ion 1s omelious. \u sc paate nintni bizui pe er. Sr,. is n,r ta bc Nlied. upat. -

852

I a n ( sa r L du. l t old

CiteuLfanne uzualede pasfu:
(N i s -a spus...) (F{ ce l.i se spune.) l u r ,ni l sd n,a i d dF l d C d,d.l l l l i s r dai a ntcl ege...) iAn lost condus'Dlni la usll. (U-an lacut si jstrpt.) v 6 , b ure .i npl J fl r i t" ton pL. )l i 5 e s D unel al ... I i s e c i e det.i ..t,P ,...ri5on,,D ;d,ndturul La \pn, si ri di up sclsoarea.I (Casa este de inchiriat.l (ce este de l:lcut?)

I aus r'., (at the station) I .ras errtr to rn.le$tand... I (as sn,@z to the door -{or arc &anted (dn the DhoneF l , ) It ts { s au o, as l s ai d ...It ts { s . t u , . s ) r no ? s ns , a u b c L tt,p t... To be callal tnr The horse is ro 6, lzr. Wl\at is to ,e done?

1788

10) \'orbeleto HAI'E, to BE qi to cDT pot ti tnrrebuinlare in unete forme sp€ciale eu nuanti de pflsiv qi Inlelescauzaliv: to H,\Irtr:
\\ l' . \ v o. 1 ,,, y o u r s h u " ss rt," d l o r .n c" . I r , .' lor n'il r J . d ,, i ^ a . o d d .A ti i u .,rd g ,.i psi --i tuJru." ;trtJrtoti i 'r He /dl his tfouseN ,fas€d. t$i-a cilcai lantalonii (h croiro.)., Shc nad a drcss nat . Lqi,a ricut o rochic lla croitoreasi).] Thev Ao.1thrir slo\.es.lcon€d. (l d s p i l a i u a .r.l | ) , . au , ur , lldt n i a n u ..;t" l'l1 nare rou inoo thai l'am a qua]iliedNorke.. Tin sa ttiji cI sint munciror ialilicat)_ Jim nad lis rline /,iia,t d. (Arionul pilolat de iin a tost dltumar.t Adre the sec.etarvdn,o"n.e you. (cer€/oerelisecreaa hi si G/ve aDurte l T h" gn\ F n' n nl l d . to .d d" $ o rt" r. i td t.1 r ,r/j.,l t r\ r r:, Lr.ntfr. ' rr { S ' d, uln, n. lr u .r" :n ro .tJ ,a .d a Ird rri n .n rr,n,,t.,r..!,,' n, r .n.r' o,i .

to BE
Shc wanted hfr dress to be madc nl hone. (\roia sn i se lac{ rochir acasi.) Tlrrr' u"d, md a .1h" to bp Lrculltt. nh$q - to t. q,rot s" t. and p{-t\thng n bp d.4. . o{ ore rtrp (Fd drn g. {At' comandnt sli sc aductl u t.xt. sr1se uanjcze flori ii totul sii lic gata inainte de

fu GNT
cd, lhis done quicklyj

r I\ ' h" r p do . 1o. x p r \o J r s \o p sa e " d e d t0 rc p a rJ ti l lUnde it i ildr g h e n i te Y ou n . s t s pl r 1 F ttd .to r o . r.J < d to (Trcbuie sa te ocupi 5i se rcpafe traotorul.) c v onr!1 " . a .1 i n -i ,r p s re tn d e p t i ni r6 dp subi prt, , i Je fl l l .i neva, . .l r r s + . r " ' .ti a D a s i !i obi snui td..i dF compl enrentul Sr n r' r r ulpnlJ ilr e l .d i I| .o n s tru d i 'p .1. \ , ea. ' u t or m e d p p a s i v b a rra d u c a !u : ..a Ll ar sd-i tacA ., ..a D us oc .i ncva s5 .i f€. d" r h. t ( e ) [o ;rp [a i r,: \re tf;,.) rn o ,h p n l o.s.n.

(Da si se laae aclasta rep€det)

Obserrd!ii a) ln caz:..{leacesteade pasi\, inr€rogalia si nesaria v erbutlti to EA\E S 1789 ir lrcF cu ojulorul auriliarutui Dr) (( nl0 .l9lJj:
\\'l'ere /id you lrlc }our drrss made? T het dt dnl ha!r tl ' e i i s l o re s c te .,n e d .

SOPTA.

DIATEZA

PASIVA

35C

ln urmitoarele propozilii:

b) \erbul to GET n1ai poate fi utilizat li cA auxiliar al unui pasiv: S 1790 IIe !o, &t/ld durinr the $ar in nn air rajd {: waskillcd). 'r'.p-bo\ s, .,tl.{/,;,o", nc ,rJin I th".ie!Lr I \as Lruenrl. T t ci'-.tupt;.t,-;u ai"a-.y smrn't' \/r; shipsr-,hedl. lItr,buinla'Fo ir lo, rl cux i"rul,ri BE aLlucc, cum e "u\ilidrului GEI Iir"s., In plempnt mri Llinami .or tF\'ul,ri. 11) Verhe activo cu yelorro d0 pflsiv. - Unele verbe intranzitive, degi g 1?91 forini activi, au waloare de pasiv. Ccle mai caracteristice sint ardtate
Sn ,i l \ 0hy s on . r | . ra n n u l b p d rL e J r. ") Hd m. , r ' q; r l w, lh m u s l ;tu { i s e o o d$ h " ;4 /ta n $i l ' r nu,rJrd). Your skin /crls smooth {: is smooth s'hen lelt). \e l o n s don l ; / o, { . (a n ro l n e :ro ^ fd These piuN don't pal casily (: canrot be peeled). l l :. a c uT c lr lhil r," ./,ra ' $ l l I ;" rl u m e Jr. ," Hi s p opm. r i, ill " lq .l \- s o u n d ;,' l' l..n "is h l i u h .o i r i . " " ddt. Tlre rottery s€//s$eli l: is .asilv soldi. T, i i ;. l" dt . inFds r . . rr{ l d r ( r b i h " \i ," n " \tAI,. His coat had a collar thal lune.l d,oq't l: qas ium€d dosn). The silk is suaranteedt ,rash (- can be \i']lshedl. You wlu lird the dressped. $ell (: witl be wom a long tin€). (Ve z i s i 5 tt8 t) D/ Unele verbe au adcsea \ aloare de pasirla{orma contiDui a ver}ului: Th e c ot t as eis hildn ,a l - i s b e i n t b u rl t. th ".r . { ier . a? bt.;:" I a rp -L " j n J b ,u " ..,. g / on g i s b i n g d o -n " . l Th "rp- ir ol. hi' H n .a m d r o s pp aha r ro . d a trc I trd s b " i n s d ^ n " ). u rp a l d, s . oe" r F sup p L mtn i { . a - b ,i n s p -!;rdr. Th e book ir r r i, / i, j a :l s l .fn g !.i n te i l .

$ 1792

! 1793

CONJUGABI]ACONTIIUj. A UNUI VDAB REGUL-{T'
TO tX CAILL\G (A CHEILI)

s 1794

DI\TIi]ZA ACTIY,A.
(ACTIVE VOICE) I\!-INITIV Prer,ent (PNse
to be calling {*

f I]Y,FI,YI?'1r4

)
a chen.)

Peficct (Perfect)
h, have beencuUing(: { li chenat) (INDICATIfE MOOD)

IIOTJUL INDIC.\TIV

(Present) Prezentr
I @a calliDg (: chcn) sne I t! calling are callins "1'ou

Trccnt ( Pdst Tense) I @ds canins (: chenam)

t to ctoss dinst theligh^ : a trare.sa pe rqu Dereglementar. / g 'Pentru studiereaacestnitenomeng.amaticat!e?i 1796.1805

854

MoRFoLoGIA.VERBUI,

Prozelrt Pede't ( P&.1 Perfect ) ( Pr.scnt Prfecl ) chemasem) ohemam; (: calljng becn am chemarl I had (: cnantl caxtng }een t hale becn you had "allils Joniave be.ncrurng

Trueut Porloct

r""" ",rrns I r,"" "nf;" *ru"s il-"rl"* r*n Ie e n c dr r r ng
v ou ha t. i n ey n a !€ b e enc ar nns

l ,uuo""n"""ot "ni" '*" L"a l*" *'r1e cqlrlnC
\ou had b€en ihey had bcen caNng

\litor (Futte)
le cal)irg (: voi chemo) I sluati you {ill be caLrrng sle I {ill be carrrns

Ii cl'€mat) voi l,iKiiir:#"*"lf ""T'l'l:
*iu r,"o"r""" *tti's "ni"\ i,-",Lrr n"* r*n c'rine

Viitor Pertoct(Fut rc Perfect)

ll" ,ja.irn" *ui"e

lou wjll be calltng ihey qill Ie callrng

Tjili'""s {f},*l';""f"T:1"

Viitorut fatS'de hecut ) (Futur( in thePost
I s/D!/dbe caring (: loi chemr) Jou wouldbe callng sle I s!!rd i' car|ns le *1" carl g "L,ia $odd be""tti"e vou ilev Nouldbe carnng

talii-do trecut Viitorut Perfgot ln thPFost) (Fature Perfect

jjr*f .'le'f; lff \"J#i:'|.'{oitichema *ui" 3f;" | *""tun.'"'*"
li,.i.,ra la'" u""nc'tLL'g

';:1"""":iiH' ifl"\Tli.'iJ;.
( Peiect)

) (suBJUNCTII',E MOOD tIoDItL SUBJONCTIV

lormo recho dc tLmP ) ( I nd.ependentai
I be calting (: se cllelnj

trorma moil€lni Pcrla trcx9nt ( hesent)
I werc oaring (: sa cheml

li t had bee calling (: sl Jou l LU dbeencal rrng

3,i" ir"*'';"
*" * *t,''* iheJ be callilg

s h" I $er P dLr f i8

!i', I r',rt r""" "aling iil
ii" r'"0 I'e"n oattlg
\ou I'cd been caLL'ns inFv had bern carlBg

NODUI, coNDTTION-\L GANDUIaNAL

MnD)

) Prezent' (Present
a) I st@lld be calling (: a'1chc catltng be vonld Xou

ri"r'""'" "u 'f .l"Ji;il'Tf'r!; if f l""Yf
I'f" | **ra r'*" t""" ""'ins

Pefiec\ ( Pofecr)

ff" | **ra r" *li"g
ihey sonld be ' alr'tg

iJ""t"u r" cdrrlng voLr Nolld be""r11.g

"x'l*' ;ft:**":+*:t?tt:

(IMPERA'IIVE MOOD) trIODUL INPERATTV lE callins(4 cheamar

CONJUCIFEA

COMINUA

36;

DIATEZA PASIVA
(PA SS IVI V O IC D I IIODUL INDIC-\TIY (INDICATIYE MOOD)

5 1795

Prczout (hesent) ( : s in t c h c m rl ) I d u b e i ngc dlled_ r o u a rc b ong c aued beilc caued l,s we are iejng called vou are beins oaled ihey are b€iis called slle IIODUL

TfiC].tt ( Past Tcnse ) I (cs being called (: €ritn c]'enatl Jou \rere being called slre I ,ds beins crllcd we $'ere beinEcalled 10u 1ee.cbeinc called ihey wue be,tis callid MOAD)

SUBJONCTIV (SUBJUNCTIVE

Prezerrt ( Prc.sent )
I wcre beiry caUed {: si liu chenat) fou were beinc called ie , sh c, i t wer i beins c c u e d wo were b€in8 callcd you were beirg called Urey werc ben'g called

CONJUGAREACONTINU-A.
l'OBlr) (TEE COXTIT[-0US OB PBOGRISSIVEI

$ l7s6

ll Formi. - In limba cneleza, spre deosebirede limba romAui, existd $ 1797 : car" eiF to0tpmoJurii" Si limpurilenonjugirii numitE,,coolinud o coniusdrF parlicipiuluir.prerum qi .rLavdtorme dlP.onjugdri;pssi!'e a.tiv6 riu excep!ia cu ajurorul 3u\rlrarulu'lo tiL la ({ liqi,. Coniuqarea conlinuas- IorrnPazE toa'c limpurii. ai modurile,urmal de puticipiul pr"z'nt al !mbului dP !onjuqal,:
r was gonS I should be going, cte. I have beer soing (vezi tabelul conjugdrii continue la ! 1794)

!o be soins I an' soms

to h3ve been soins I nad }c€n soing -

2) TrBd coro. In ljmba rom;n6 imperfectul fiind singurul timp care $ 1798 0re,spp.L ronlinuu. loate plplelrerimpuriSi rroduri alF.oojug;'ii ronrinuc pnslez; .onjugariisirrllo. dupi "um urmrszi: s" Iraduc.u timp,rrila "i ' ,odutilf Limba rom{lnd Limbs englezi Canjugarea actiod Conj garea uctitd continuii

'\ ' , n' "1" l" Pro ero csie.lor onu po' dl tt..,, " f ,1n4 l.,g-,, ttt1 p"ae^"o: i. r { " t FIa r '. p nA"e.r\1 rod tnd 1, Jnb. , "" 'irl ' ? rrld- r . r \ I li t l. a I ns l"7 | , t o L" . r p oS ,, r r o d r o c . ' ' , . rsl;,A,liln 14 r n dld. " l d a l i t"tl J . oni, q. ' r , i wl / " . us.F sili .lrJi,ai r-srr"Qpd. r

d oJr46. ltl ' rr' ra.trrn/3rn ld:r 1d i ' de\[i1!urn.e,t4

Limba englczi Canjagured actied continui

Limba romentr Conjueueudctioii
Prlcct !mpl r IIai mult ea lerle{t

Viii.or fall de h.cut Vrtor pertcct la!.l de rrcrul,

Subjonctiv- lorma veche

{ {

cun,ritiunrr I i;;i#

J Indicativ lrezent lasiv rasi"I { Il$i::11; f.."""Ti' { Diareza I lndicaliv imperl.€t pasiv

ilustrare a se vedea traducerea ex€mplelor ce urmeazi pind la - .(Pentru rapilolului.) eflrtilul 1799 .uolinua .orp lnbpbuintatd pFnrru € pxprima 3) Fuorlii. - Conjuqarca o arliun" tptipohtrd ln dpsfo-luarc lin /urs, sau o starp t;mparcrd pr;st.ntd ln mom"niul vorbirii sau lo cursul unFi pFrioade datc: A tia. I, atu qtiting t letlrt.
tD4"L o sc.Noare,) Sh " h od 1 "P, l ai, s ir l r or J \ . . h. tzd.da lolna\J d; o s6lthini )

Pasi.v,
The tracio. is beinE oeethaaled,. {Tracio l .s,e ln re'aizie.) A p arlv ni iorp ilr "r s / , r / D. iaa r lr o, h t he ilnl - . {Unu i g.u p dp alr J ' n: is " d. r id nr d: . ul. l

18 0 0

Tin p u r ile de bo:i ale conjugn rii (p re z e n t uh l,e c u t u l c o n t in u e vjjlorul) cxp nd acliunea ln desl5qurai.e-la mament (prezentr w dat lrecut ti sau viitor) sau il\lr-o perioadddatn (prez€ntd, irecuti sau viitoare):
A C t LA . Lookl It ;s ro;ntna. luirel Ptaud.) S r r ns as I ' nr n in i .o l l a n d , l . I s ," i s ,," /,.s n ]-hrourh: noN . I S r nJ s 'ul ln S.o 1 :d d 1 ' a ' u m l d -.r? d l a P v B oLt\.t Whcn I cane in, llrey kele its,eDtnsto the wea ier lorccast. (Clnd am intrat, a!.irdz buletinul meteolologic.) S hp x or / li, s p a p p rsrl t d l h ro o o n . t lD. | d o. d" jdi h i r' i i h .n d , s d r" l o d rad d p d -a mi rzr _ He oi b. t.aeellinsla Deva at live tomorro\,. t(El) ra ii ln drun apreDeaa mline Ia ora citrci.l I thdlt b. rcadias in the \ibrarri lor a iew davs vet. (I/ot mai ctt la billioiec{ incd limp de clt€yd zile.)

1 ll!ruu hL p lt6d9l u I ) ^- d. r i r , or r J u m t r , bar a I d ! d t r . , r mdi ! r cii o rai fon da l dp, oloni. lii . Dgl"z i t TheP; ls - n I a t h q s ) \ n ia i620 i f.l veche m dLr de aulom nbil

DFvon. AnctjJ r, / cel M r s i , \ c - . '. . , i U A ,

CONTGAREA

CONTINUA

85?

Pa si p . \l e e p l" J ir s c os t s . , r d !r!n s u b s rd n l i rl r. /o l ri r4 o F du, pr " 6r b s ra n l ri ti d tr ru ri ,J r,o s r.r I n 1,he schoolthe clrirdrs) q'ere beinE NalI laak.:tt \ttar . (La icoali, colriii e.du blne tne,iili.)

tr'oartoimportelt :
A sF,ohs pr r s f i odF tu to t.\l ti n tp p r-.h t rs tc i n ,l;" oti \)Ltt pr" ztnt conti nuu . fl uu rn d i c at lv ul pr €z c n t s i mp l u : \yldt a./ .)or d,ins th!e:
Ld tr ' r li,g a s$ "J' e r . l!P id , i Jco ln . tin sfcsr m o Dext,! th Ph ks u l JPt. u .l

Cbi"r da.a rimpul prpzpntconsl4 dinrr o r, rio0Ja mai Indetulrard {ca ln F\Fmplul,lp lsta). daco rFlprimla momcnLtt pr. r,r/ v.rbLl !0 ar Fa forme ',. prezenh ui conti,nuu. "Look at he.l $rhat is sheloing?",'She ts doi,s tap dancingr.,, lntrebuinlare a indicativului prezent (vezi S 1806) are cu rorul alte impli, . .. calx. (o.nt.in-u. Tinpitr,ile. p.rfectc erpdme acliuneain desfe_ S 1801 , fn ursur dp trnp ontqtadr"|dnuimomen'dat: lurar. ].pnaad. 'Jnpt a) pnzentnl perfcd exprimi o acliuno sau o stare inceputa in fec.., !i S 180tt conlinuAr;pind In lr -.r/ sau pir., intr Jn .r-, Lt 1,it Jp re,| | | in"it poateii consroeral cd prcz.nt:
. hd he" b4 " wrl.tqg o n. ' r dt r , b , or qur t " , $hii. n! $ (Lu, rp,,/: do dp sru r dp I nut , i L^ m e ja pr oblem l , . . i -., In.r.din,rt.) H os I nne ldu p ro. 6""f . udn, , c t o- , , s . , i ? {D P clnd re a i&pI; Jici ?j ( Vez i t i S 145i* 1. t 60)

.

.Acliunea sau starcR c)rprinati de v€rb poate conthua sau nu in prezeni

b) Trecutu.lpeiect e-\primd o acliune sau o starc tnueputa tn trecur si q 1803 .onlir uJl; pini inlr--n momFntlat tr,.tt'. I\t,ti/xt d, un rirrb, .n,r de u; " vorb la indicativul trecut,:
r r ladt . pt b t" i rE t1 o mo u n .,rb fo r i sppl Ir: l o rd m " rL l ml , ' ipur , a ho. L n r." p ri n mu ,l i d . o .,,tt,m i na, She ilcnt lo see a doctor )ecarse she ndd not b,.n /eln,s Neu. I(Ea) i consultat un doctor pcntr cI n! s, st,rl?a binc.le"NitaL\a vreme.l , A , ti u n FA 5du s l€r F J F \p ri rj a rJ J F r,j b p L " tc , o nri nud. s-u nu. )i dupd S l8M

c) perltut arrtJ o actiune sdu o stare care continui pinn lnt.,un .Viitortd m omFn r o a r et ' r or qr c ar p n ra l p o fl l c d u r' -. s a u n u , d u pJ a.pFd: B y l "n nd of lay . I . ld l l /.d r. b .e 1s to .t;,.s v o u ,torl si r morrhs. rL J i l i rr ul Li m J i. : " fo r l mp l i n i F A e tu o r d-g " .i n a l 6 t aI td \o,.1 In a n o l h ' r lupnt J m ' nu rc r$ p ,fro l t,u ., k p 4 d l l ..i ( rror si \ horrr. (Pp srFl 0 de m . nuh \ o r f: ,d :e u r. d . !tn J u mL ta m.. I rz1 dczctns step ldarsl. , sau de echiyalcnti adverbiali.

358 Cottjuqareri(:ontinui ! 1806 .Acliun€ I I temporarn in desiiiurare lu un mo'nent dat sru intr-o perioadA

rimDireb3zr ror s contirul I am callins
I shall be callitl8

.{c!iune anterioare ln desf65uraretnt.-o perioade de timp

--",";----],1

rauing hrre bee$ r r'aorren carrinst shall I 4r foniuqarce a 1806 :i 'oojugdrca 'iirupta' - 1n1'lcsul rcrbului la ' 'oulioui pJrticul6rilili 'drp il dpo'rb"'" J' lnlpl'3ul lul douJ 3r" coniusare. "o"nlinui Ia coniug.rea sirnpl,i: tcmlJorard momenlandsa1f, ; a ) actiunea sau starea er primat[ de verb estre uner in cursul dai sau la noment ur se alln in rcitinuarc Ji ."ii'*^ perioade de timp. ' ea va li ,ll^a".. ctnh acliunea lerbului nu la inlruni acoste element'e, exprimatd prin oniugarea simqld:
I Jl ment rt I'I an Lo din ! Shuk P, D"d. " I n Ens l- r , it" p" ! , t r "- 1, u. ' t pl' J lpz . : r i p ot " l.tmL no . r i! t r i or r . r no ll f.dd Shdlesre*e in Inalish c ; ir l; k ; "p , ' , . n: . nit . r , r t ". '" \m' 'r r " n mnr' o r 't F f i n a '? n t M '

ir tor "lub, 'iri rF "c*L,i"i'ii,i,.,"ii':'".nasinir"'.r','narmi:mp In englez.ite.)l spcarc nu se In ex,rmplul hr care s a tntrebuinlat prezentul simplr. ac,Liunea i\ ac€l moment 2r. .rl,r lcrnlrrdrd. d.esfd-:aard 'si Alte exelnple: netar.)l
l'o DlF rl p $l n 1"Y 1r ' lir r l r ' r nl, o"il r f inl O":n ltl. d;r'4 c r nl n lnr i t " . J lixni' r " f 'r J r L U n 'p L go-

N. 1n, .d

nu o r:rbc rn -, In mrn, s\dke-

11 3ri is i/-?i f , 3 f.Ua;ia doa,,k. ldltLuntd cslc ir cuN !i tenpofa l, tnllul liind linital la momcrtdl prezent: Urria se poaie trezi odclnd.)J \\.e.., . rrlurrr I : Fnc . al t h r ni\ i ". it r . r 'r 'u a p - I 'r S r l i : , P' r r n, dl u r i l l i.ni r y d la I niv ' Fr ' l l ld dn . 'u l r u n In Prezen t.)l Hc ,.rr il!.r lFs f er dav .

i'-

{', lia" .a r r . r \ n l r 'g J r r i l l ,,^ o ir . ' . n J 1, , ' r : ' " o l l r . i L o "i"-. t t J : a p t.. ( lo v . J r ' . ll. . f !,' . l lh, . ^ lJ o slarc trslti rr ner*ts fl.dztc'l! iNolo ilc"tfei {ni: liinindouJ flrnrelf se 'eterl conl'inuarea in l)rezctrt' ideea dc coniinuitat. ii Fecizind t d;'i.;,iccnruhd lihaitr 'i poa te ti viito r S 130t . ) agarn' \tho rvas wcll I nrct rnY ooulin: he told me he na4 a,..sr, his bror.he.. i;iiinjt pc ' "; in, l m eu! m i- d 5po, ! il : i i t r ? 3 , r i r h d t 'l e 'a f t e r a r r u m s r n a ' fL ;; rerurn l rf r L' . onP. ! ?a\ 4n' o t \ t nt lat r \ Los. l1.ll'l 'n 'i 5 l 'r " l u

Ha ' d r " ' " r l h r" -n p l r' r' l h i rr' dJt l r!trtl l c l ml ]-a l l' i n ti l n rt { \ri i u n F t 2.zfs l r ' rr' nroment f S " a, - , i " 06 t" p i) lr r Pr h t li,Pt r hp, p i

li.'.,.,it,, i"ii Gii"iir

iern'inatnsiiviriiri lntt un donrut t"cut deieminat)l

coNJuG-{nnA coNTrNv,1

350

I mll nry c.dsinr he tdd me bE haa laer nr.stng Ljs bnriher Nho was slill Iar l.om [L-anIntllnitpe vIru] men; ni { spnsce"ii trs.tjeu tle citra limp) iratel€. care era Incd dtprric de { li silnlios. (Aoiii,ne tr.oufi !i ,-"fdrnindr,i.rnicrioara altci acliuni trecuter ide€a de ca.ti4uitatc este accentLlatil.)l I ridll ldd Jou tonionoN. lTe eai eedeanline. {Actixne viito{rc.)l This fime Lomorro* I shattbe suinc some lricnds. lNrine ra ora aceasia'ot 'ededldh sd.ed.t nitte prictcfi. (A!!it,Fr ra li ,, .rB Ia dat ajitor.)l uD 'nomcnt I tlDuld sa there jf I werc you. tM'dj.izd€ acolo dacl af ii ln locDl tlu. (Timp trclimiiat.)l I 6nodd d go;ngthere it I w€rc you. LAs.fip e d. un lnlF r . olo d 3 .I a i i i n l o c L l l i u . i T i mt l i m,l b l amonrnl ul p.cz eoli 0 c1 ,u ne8 r n c uls a. nn. l j

pi Ptrfecliv ti imperfectiv. -.Conjugarea €Dglezd..arealadar, spre d€- \ 18{}7 de conjugarea romAnil, doud Bpecre contraii: oscbire astccttlL Iierfect;t (conjnr:d.ratdn ii.) i aspecLulimpertectiv (conjngafta conti.nad )1 I6n! I oxistr I know, I uDde$tstril, Elnt,lomreverbale carc exprimi ficcare o singuri noliune //,rl.ti!/rir, ca o clapn de pian al c5rei unic sunel poflrti in sine clar. holirit, decisiv lncepul,nl sfi$iiul. si ' ln ronrra.t tns;. / or, sirgl,'s. I an eryin2, I .uo"i,,1.;q: I shott b. sp",n: yor. er\primdi",iunp0 rprb,rluiinp rhtt,,t..d uo cr.u: r0'F. l,,np.indp. o sing1lrS.o0rdd de lo un "rpar la c"l;l.ll oblinp o gp ; in'init, d, 'n-uri nuan_tatece se siing ireptat. Acestc elccte apa4in numai lormci continue. carc nu sc limil,€azi jntot, deauna la prezentul ln carc so atlE rorbitoml prozenLul actual, real, ln eontrasi, cu prezentul eteln. ireal ci se poato prelungi nu numfli ln trecut, ci fi lnl.iitor, chiar di.colo deviitor. deoareceexpriirr] si actiuni sau sttui fdrd slirsii ce se pierd ln neriunoscut.Forma continui deschide drum lars in.erriruiinii. da friu lib.r.p,, ul0jiilor gindirii. r"ti."nrF,.r. ri.,rrilor. rmini intrriliilor inerprirnabilul|,r n atrn.fpr;.olorara, lirii. r"n,Frilor. -- , repa/,1 Incdrcatd de retin€rile sau de inhibi,tiilc i'orbitoruluj, caro pot fi numaj intuite ti nu crprimate. \o1t aan't gainsa\ray ior good.are yotr? (: I am alrai.l Xou.u.) You adBotng awaylor goori,s wiil you? (: .ngoasacr.scind int.o odatr cL1 ducff.a liitorului -on't In loctl n.ezentuluil.
In F l rrd L r n rt i -. I -o rrh\ n, l goon th" t rrj p:r In s-r"l ho|| t . ho; ; l l -. "i ri , J hr s E nglis l'i r 6 a ,i a s ,u < r\ l .- l l e r' l ' " v , ro .ri rt b rshrg' t tp. G { rp anl b" . J o; " e! \r. I J o ,r a r' a -p d ' ,r } o .ri ,l .l "1'll bc kaitins on ure sea l.lk. Dad (: so hurry)." ' Yn .i 1 lb pI ot t ne I , r \ li \L r.i Irn S !,1 ! .1i .r1nm.bnd hs b c h o o l tn S.p r j \. r.,,rFt.nrtJ qh,n m rdni . '.14 t or pjv .air . t I m v o u r ta ,n ,i d n J l -o \r J n x .,i,, ' .l I py o n k g o n p . S t ir up r he lir ;, \rl l ro u . D d d l

6) lltc caxa0tcristioi ale formci eontinu€. s 1808 a) Viitarul calocrial.carc in limba rornand este e\prinat prirr indica, $ l80e tivul prezelt. estoredat si In limba englezitot prin indical,ivul prezent. 1 se la forma lui continun( S 1522,1524):
She ts dtutns h.rc toniono$'. f{Ea) tu na$ aici miine senrl.r l Vezi extlicare.taeestor te.nr,ri la S 13i]i. :/o . d @d: penhx t , , rl c r,rr !l )i n Tall, , l Clld$c ll, . 4 I n l o s re tu L a ' ..

36{l

te.rriitofl fdld de treout Tot astfel,itdicalitrl hccut contindllinlo-cuieF t 1810 ---post) ' id stilut lrmiliar ($ i523-i524): (tt"Lir" ilt rhe { 1811
o in'"nb) FormJ cunrinur 'o bp;oin.. L un infinili" .omplel-'\.[imi qdu tl tJzD)i at tnpd titlor un liA p.ntru viiLor !rii'ot;nt,n'anall
I on ao; n! Lo $ ," k h J tJ tro m o o r o l l V:i ' of i a' " nl ronal ) J r A n d: es ; nd . a s r" J ;F zs " ri u : d e a c u m l n a rnrp ' Y ou n F rl .d y o u r o a m e \\ i l o r i ntenl i onrl ) " eieo: ne slui rumclr d tale ) (voiar s,r-o,
t€d'in€ fo. ihe seaside thc lollowing dav' I tol.l him Lds li inafc ln ziua urniltoare') Ple. it-i^ 'l',s "t

$ 1812

p ' { p ri md $ o a" l i unP hoLdti tddi noi nt" sA u c ) V i; lot ut r c n ' i F L ,u m a i n o a te ( 15211: 1 5 2 2 ."re ir e loc in nod n a tn o l $

.d n" I l'.ii,:iii, penrr .r .Jt. nnrma r,"';,.ii 'nr,rnjm

l:y;..',. i:l;!.;ij,,i'1''':#iic.ill.lil: ff;::;l ,\",11;:11:lJ':r:,ll'
Whrt rloil rou ,s doi,g tomoro\? mri4p:l .r iacl r"i' * idri in nod norDJrr rL:"ui iii,uirri

\j"i i l.i:^l;,ll5ill';;;l:,

IijfiT;'i;;' i "lili" i l,ui'i ll J li';r :: #1i"9,;:: ;;l,:"lJl iili:l:il sinpl' d"pi1dF l" holi'ind un-i lpf! sdu de r" i"r.a, i" \'."m- ( prPz"ntut
imDreiuriri

N otal A.tit pr"vnt ttl or !t rttt tt., lt |i I,r" 7

I "."1:l:" i,li;"; ll'1,". "i.f nt l \ ; n 1't por ar prima.^'ii"r,i I iilo?-rc'
f

'

obiective:

E t 8fl '

ifi i'":'":" i:"lixii"'H' [|];#irliKf:,":s:.ll "*1'lf*"i"{iiff """ "" "' ! : :;i:it 1: !" i :i:'^,';i i t. ; ;T :;"': ll;ff b1;ii" r 1;1, T:lTm:i qa l or' 1ul b -,,,, mai d I V i, nr ut rc n L ;n .tu p ' L p i n l r' b rri rrl d r ' i ppr' rru €, 'u
5 hp k/rp s up her , ir ips J ' a| hos "r q n r t U o n J 'v t P P a '. t tnptu)

lil,lir;ii;:l: ;:"ii""i;i,"1 Rli.:,:iil:i'.'.''o':'t t p' pnins tPre' ' ' s' rD l " ) i s l i o h p ts o , d ,tr 3 r T his ^ "!':'i\:i:";:'"*'' lAst{-s€a.n; de ser ciu la birou )

l r' I o i l r"l ' d| - U s ' l ' rL Fr! : rn rr lr , . ^n- idpr c li p . d i s frc i i " 'u !r'h€n trill votr Nothe' &d 'ontng b see usi i ,8 Y o u s o ' n ' ' lnall $e D? s € e i\ ' ' i, , ill r o d r b ;v ti b " ,a n n g ' rtS o lons lll b P " a ' n 8 J U " (" o u r ' 1L' ic ! eder e !e L u ri n d .): viiiotul Toate ace3tc tormule sint' mai pulin abrupte dccit d e c i r nai P olib i c o a s e . i e rr b i g ri ' r: 7 l: , r r u Pro P o z i $'c'll 0ori rerl ha'd

simplu si

ji;;il;l; j'; ;r lr ;,rti; rir;' I i,lrlli;:ll:;"r;:;" . .r rifui lr ir r :;; u'"'.'"i,i,i.i:l?"',1,,,11;;;'',:;;;:',li?,".::i:)",,iT
th srlu t ftn,l in (' nPr r niiliz at c olo. v ial, Pl po' lr r ' ' d Lm "D i n l i r o r ' i' *i" i i,"il t. ' . ' r n! o

\'1n n r . ,r!.

. / a. ron. p'.

r' r' : . 1r" r. , ; . r: : .

, ; . . , r. 1 , ; " : , ir, " : ' lil.

"l:;';r:l:i'll

CONJUCARB

CONTTNUA

80t

care poate avea: fe') tnlelesulunui (,;ltrr pud (,lt:
tyor, l&./a toarte se os.l

shall).

dat ri-(e") inlelesul r,iitolalDi eolitit' (,tL: s,itt.)| lstnten hotdililyreh si tuden toarre scrios.l ambiguitalea va dispir€a daci se utilizea_ziitiitorul continuu, car€ nu are aici decll o singuri interpretare: aceead.e a{ttor pur: We'll ,e ,o..(izg very tiard. .;::!d arp caracter rnumcutan ( g 1344),foma conrinui expdmi ^-,, {]. llld aclrunr sEu stAn rppetdte: the t:raat rtF morning. ?, i Yd b"l, noddinE.b!
d rap p,, g t hin$s $r iF I s ns dah. p.

g l8t4

r.l Cu adrerbp ra: dtrq4s. lor ,r t. "an.tin\ott!. .anst,I,ttg. p,ryauolg, S -:,8t6 rLsuolllJ rt,.. fnrmi .nntinua.,.\pri,'l d o rrtiur,tssJU o slnr^ ;...; .; ' mereD, care constituie un obicei: ""p"id you ar" ok,rr ,1r.r"u I,ri ,.4..) ".otd.nc mn.
Don t bp /o. ,,pt luttins oL rru a mtn b rn " r.u .) T\?y aft .ontinurllu atrujls. " A - l n l ru n a d i l c rrl i r' r He x,as cons,anrtggrrinujns. (Era ner€n ncrnnlu;t ) N o td este deteminat de nici-unul din adverbete de la g t81b, nu poateai.ealormd conri;;;-;i;J exprrDa o acl,tune repetati sau un obicer, Nu se poato spuDe : I r nal, . . . ?p l d e Sa rrrd ..\a tL rro o n a L r hLrl av t p , d. B a tn gto th . In s ti tu tp ,,e t! d o ! . " . Daci I'erbul nu arc caracter mom€ntan (g 1g14) sau nu

Se spune corect, lntrebuinlindu-se forma simpll pentru a s€ cy;ta pleo.

n,:"!1,:u,ii{,1'liJl; nT g;' *" n'* l"4f.1,f

"*'""''i";;n;';u#";';:,;;;;;*l!1,,1:J::'",::1",i':lT'.".i!1Ji-;":,1'"u Existd
p F rmi l tn l rFbLint ar ad t or mp l o r c o n l i n u r

.

laro {erbntDu continuu. llr,""lfi': I r ea I nr m F r ,o n }o:rtc aveaaspect In rrFDUU4r
i n u p rr-,a ,6 s c ,i uned ..a

S 1Sf6
stare€ dpnu-

insn verbecarenri pot aveaaspectcontimru,sau situatii carc nu

,o""J)

U""O"t" nu pot aveaaspcctcontinuueind acliuneator nu estetrece_ S l8l?
!@ "'rd m / / ous lr um \ { ea, r o 1"5t . lri u.'t.s d (lear trand.

\\.sr In Eosr ... nicj: , ,,"1 " r. . " ", . . 1 ". ", "i p " " 1 '1 l l ." " :" ^ ;" l ta " ,n ;tron ttpjstrr tng a .tcar hard-. pentru , a r, tiuI|acrprlului nu c"ietem/orarA. 'j
"-!nJ":" "' * *zi qar.k,Acnnna. al cor'.nr,rure rrsrsr e.ir,,ure tuture-as-

30! 5e p o a te lns i s pnnei T l' e .l r' a ,' ,,s l o rta q s mu o l h l Y . H; ; - * i ;i ,e r" n ; i i ,rc * : d ;o ' t ' l r' trfb hi m Dc'rl ru . a ut ubel. a .fi trrri s i n ta mp o r{ r' to ' o n l F\tel e raspP ' ti LA . ii.esie c€reia" tioing?" clnd persoans

d- Jdre.a "r pFrnranenm' uou li''":'r'Lntl nc inleresnrn " nupol dvFtJ'p'cr 'orrrinuuverbclecarPerprrmA 2l Pcnlruaceluirrnotiv E l8l8 inJ"p'nd"n'P d" ninla pt-pti; tnn;rt" "'-'iii"itai,'*',,"," "d" ",,rii,i,". ol poato dP'r a'!'ond': indiidului. equPrac5ror" nu

"--'rti * zj'ie: "where ari uau intrebarease aile inir-un lo' ln mod lrecdtor.chrar dac.a.,qeoere adresati".ir"l dn iooiol p""t"usitx (de exemplupcniru studii ln strdinaiai€) lit 'lv here

, a;"iii.i i""iiiit,'i
0 t8l'J ' 61 8 2 0 { 189f S I8 r 2 -

a l i ne l i c i nev r i a t r c v J l b n d r r c r ' t ' l i k e '! o " l o @ ' ctc' e s4tisfv supa'dl' t=' a {se) ( t h o t . ) ' -t;d t o t F p o s r ' to b t h i n t t t o oe, F. t o b4@ P nt a, o! F b) d.L iritatt r.tunb?t' ti lo'E4 to s4x'' ro*'- @ kN*. to inia4 ta a"or, b tuti r' 10 ,ad".std t' 14J to r'qt " r o 'uiq"i ", "i"tt, p e"iep tii , ' f eel' , 1a h e a \ t o s @ , b s t u t t ' t o s o l \ d ' t ' s eaz ot ; d! . : c) r Ps "nbt P t !6 io aL IiA; \: a 'a ' m dJ "r ) peF tetatio. au rnsutiri c at e de. obiec t e Ie s at e d ) e e,b ete 1" l'td l: @ contoin)', to '2n:i::- of ' t4 belons' tu catup *' ; ;;,L"'. D. s ' s . t / 1naal u a t ; n t f ) r o / e s n ( r n r r 'J {c ' ro po s i"* t . r c , i* n. u ' oit,ti t'o'".. bpead' id"p d J c dt P t u s us pt "az a a tie 't " n P o r d r ': t o """t'" "t t. b aJ t t ,o d" *ita. b. : e, , l: r lo^ ll! ! : p: ! ". ta p tLa 4) se ntin e tut e: " ,; ;it;":; i"l'":',;;i";'", aale ( t P.efet it to the old one I caa't undeitaul what vou are snvtng' I see now {hal Jou nrear' I I r r d ln" dos r J t \ . Io IJlh f ir on r s ir io |1J ; a_m "h' ir : i She aa green eYes: she ts a "witch' o 'g s

N or d la pPt' raler5 v'rbeled" la $ IQ'l0 c-ar€^se modetod, ln eoqleza colo.rialu 6 t8'.fl -modaiC4N: " de aur'rliirul ,"ptti i"nlri"ie, sloLde obi.ciprecedate
l l n l i mD u l u n e i PU m n 6 !il o P rdure): ddn yoir t,e the birds? {Auzi P5stu e?) I .dz src the acacias. lsimt Darlumul salclmrlor.) b"n viu see the lishthouse too? (vezi'9i trr ferul?) | .on und.rslaod \our d(ticulty' (lnlPles dilpma ltr caro te ani )

Modalul CAN, ca orice auxiliar, nu pdstreaz&calitatea de verb no9ional ei nu se traduce aqadar In limba romena ln aceastdsrlual"Ie ' Construclia ait€rnalivd. fd-rdCAN. esLetoLuFilnce preleratauDmrr: Dd you tuo. the birds? t s7;11th€ acacias. too. I se the liShthouse I lndztsland Your diffioulty. ta S l8l8-1822Por d'"afi t?l!4,:1' AproapFtoate vFrbplemenlionate 1824 S drspa' lor l'xii'al se s"himba' ideeaJe i\un, dat atunci sansul "parmanenlS rind: -,p,,'**-,r,-a I ua hatins {d'liun" ind'p o' 1rai"^" ""itli;${# ",;,, nn i4' oIntd noaslra) ; I dn iooi dented-ee! 'l3r

363 to tlcpclrd (: a dcpii.lc tl4 devjne,.aronl,a (le)':
\ \e h e .lepdx lin\ is au u i /a /r,a l l o n rt,u l n r l h e y ,ats. p r ir . ^ r ' r " r L 1 ,.{ i 4, n l t o h a rcpier ( leideea de .p o s e s j u n c "s i d c \i n e d l u d ( . a brtr. a mi ncaei c.): To hdre Lea, a rrfn'k. r wliisla: \lhrt rili \,ou lar., Sir? t o h rr. a I alli, a s $i, i,. a n .!. ,, 1 )rrtI. r s n i o l