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SORINA POSTOLEA

ENGLISH FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE SCIENCES

UNIT 1

UNIT 1 LIMBA ENGLEZ


THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Page | 1

Limba englez reprezint principalul mijloc de comunicare folosit de locuitorii din Marea Britanie, Statele Unite ale Americii, Canada, Australia, Noua Zeeland, Africa de Sud i din numeroase alte ri, situndu-se pe locul 2 n lume, dup chinez, n topul celor mai vorbite limbi de pe Glob. Din punct de vedere istoric, engleza face parte din grupul limbilor germanice i este nrudit cu limbi precum neerlandeza (rile de Jos), unele dialecte germanice sau germana modern.
SCURT ISTORIE
SHORT HISTORY

Engleza are o istorie veche de peste 1.500 de ani. Specialitii au mprit evoluia ei n timp n trei etape principale. Prima faz este cea a englezei vechi, numite, n trecut, anglo-saxon, care s-a dezvoltat ntre anii 449 - cnd triburile germanice din nordul Europei au invadat si ocupat insulele britanice - i 1066 - cnd insulele au fost cucerite de normanzii de pe teritoriul actual al Franei, condui de William Cuceritorul. Cea de-a doua etap este cea a englezei medii, care s-a dezvoltat din anul 1066 i pn n a doua jumtate a secolului al XV-lea, odat cu nceperea Renaterii. Cea de-a treia faz n evoluia limbii engleze este reprezentat de engleza modern. Specialitii consider c bazele limbii vorbite n zilele noastre au fost puse n jurul anului 1660, n perioada Restauraiei monarhiei britanice. De-a lungul ntregii sale evoluii, vocabularul limbii engleze a mprumutat cuvinte din toate limbile cu care cultura britanic a intrat n contact, de la greaca i latina veche, la francez, spaniola sau dialectele arabe i indiene.
SUNETELE LIMBII ENGLEZE
SOUNDS OF ENGLISH Se spune despre limba englez ca are unul din cele mai dificile sisteme ortografice din lume. Dac n romn, cuvintele se pronun aa cum se scriu, n englez, forma scris a unui termen nu corespunde, de cele mai multe ori, cu felul n care se pronun acel cuvnt.

VOCALE (Vowels) [i:] meet [mi:t] [i] [e] [] [ :] [ ]


fit [ft] spit [spt] ten [ten] set [set] cat [ct] Sam [sm] bored [b :d] door [d :] hot [h t] cod [c d] sleep [sli:p] - i prelungit - i scurt, foarte deschis - se pronun puin mai deschis - un e pronunat aproape ca a - o lung, deschis - o scurt, deschis spre a [u:] [u] boot [bu:t] soup [su:p] book [buk] look [luk] bar [ba:] dance [da:ns] cup [c p]
supper [sp]

- u prelungit - u scurt - a foarte deschis, prelungit - a foarte deschis i scurt - similar cu romnesc, dar lung - similar cu , pronunat scurt

[a:] [] [:] []

Sir [s:] bird [b:d] sitter [sit] after [a:ft]

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SORINA POSTOLEA

ENGLISH FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE SCIENCES

UNIT 1

EXERCIIU : 1. Citii cu voce tare cuvintele de mai jos, fiind ateni la diferenele de pronunie, dar i la deosebirile ortografice:

[i:] Page | 2
weed receive police evening bean field people

[i]
hip gy m steady wanted marries cottage Sunday build women minute money

[e]
pen head any many Thames bread says friend again leopard leisure

[]
cabin talent family travel gas ballot plait plaid

[u:] food beauty move juice June chew

[u] sugar book wood could look would wolf woman bouquet

exceptii !!!

[a:]
garden heart clerk staff class dance after ask bath exceptii !!!

[]
cut sun come monkey tongue country comfortable some cousin flood blood does

[ :]
horse door saw all caught thought war core halt

[ ]
not pot nostril donkey lost economic odd want wash cough knowledge Austria sausage quality quarrel

[:]
her mercy fir turn earth pearl journal word worthy

[]
about aroma taken teacher intention official circus pleasure martyr

memoir

colonel

DIFTONGI (Double vowels)

[ei] [ai] [ i] []

hey [hei] stay [stei] sky [skai] high [hai] boy [b i] soy [s i] bear [b]

- similar cu diftongul [u] romnesc - similar cu [au] romnescul ai - o deschis, urmat de [i] un i scurt - e deschis urmat de [u] scurt

sow [sou] toe [tou] now [nau] cow [kau] beer [bi] fear [fi] fewer [fju]

- similar cu diftongul u - similar cu au - i deschis, urmat de un scurt - u scurt urmat de scurt

Mary [mri]

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SORINA POSTOLEA

ENGLISH FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE SCIENCES

UNIT 1

EXERCIIU : 2. Citii cu voce tare cuvintele de mai jos, fiind ateni la diferenele de pronunie, dar i la deosebirile ortografice:

[ei] Page | 3
fame day pail veil break able paste resume prey bass halfpenny [heipni]

[ai]
bite ice die title child cry by height either

[ i]
noise soil coin void joy oyster voyage annoy

[u]
potato post road oak toe bone soul grow most dont brooch folk

[au]
round shout doubt how sow gown flower

exceptii !!!

buoy buoyant

[i]
hero mysterious beer dear clear here weird pier ideal museum Ian

[]
chair fair aeroplane bear tear care dare fare spare prayer layer

[u]
poor cure pure curious during tour sewer fluent manual

CONSOANE (Consonants)

[p]
pan [pn]

[b]
ban [bn]

[t]
tan [tn]

[d]
day [dei]

[ ]
chat [t] [

[ ]
judge ]

[k] key [ki:] []


ship [ip]

[g] get [get] [ ]


vision [vi n]

[f]
fan [fn]

[v]
van [vn]

[]
thin [in]

[]
than [n]

[s]
sip [sip]

[z]
zip [zip]

[m]
might [mait]

[n]
night [nait]

[]
thing [i]

[h]
height [hait]

[l]
light [lait]

[r]
right [rait]

[w]
white [wait]

[j]
yes /jes/

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SORINA POSTOLEA

ENGLISH FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE SCIENCES

UNIT 1

n limba englez, accentul joac un rol foarte important. n engleza vorbit sunt accentuate doar cuvintele purttoare de sens (substantive, verbe, etc.). In cadrul unui cuvant, accentul cade ntotdeauna pe o silab vocalic, iar un cuvnt nu poate avea dou accente. n alfabetul fonetic, accentul este marcat prin semnul ', pus naintea silabei
Page | 4 accentuate: psychology [sai'k l i], sociology [sousi' l i], listen ['lisn].
ALFABETUL ENGLEZ (THE ENGLISH ALPHABET)

A B C D E [e] [bi] [si] [di] [i] N O P Q R [n] [o] [pi] [kju] [r]

F G H I J K L M [f] [di] [et] [a] [de] [ke] [l] [m] S T U V W X Y Z [s] [ti] [ju] [vi] [dbl [ks] [wa] [zd] ju]

EXERCIII: 3. Citii urmtoarele cuvinte, fiind ateni la pronunia grupurilor de litere ngroate: 1. gnat, gnaw, sigh, right, knight, knife, know, debt, comb, castle, listen pneumonia, pneumatic, psychology, psychic, psychologist, pseudo, receipt. 2. []: chair, orchard, lecture, much, question, 3. [ ]: jam, job, joy, gender, giant, age, bridge, soldier 4. []: ship, mansion, conscience, nation, sugar, ocean, assure, moustache 5. []: pleasure, seizure, occasion, casual, massage, beige 6. []: young, long, sing, king, ink 7. []: these, teeth, bath, birth, thing, thick, three 8. []: this, that, than, bathe, father 4. Citii cu voce tare urmtoarele poezioare, fiind ateni la cuvintele care rimeaz: To your right, you'll see a kite, at a most incredible height There once was a cat that ate a rat, and after that sat on a yellow mat The big bear began to growl when the little owl used his towel

5. Pronunai, pe litere, propriul prenume, ca i cum l-ai explica unui englez. 6. Scriei urmtoarele cuvinte:

[m] [e] [n]

[di] [a] [r] [l]

[bi] [ju] [si] [et] [e] [r] [i] [s] [ti]

[f] [ju] [n] [n] [wa]

[si] [o] [ju] [r] [di] [i]

[a] [l] [o] [vi] [i] [m] [wa] [si] [o] [ju] [n] [ti] [r] [wa]

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SORINA POSTOLEA

ENGLISH FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE SCIENCES

UNIT 1

Humans are social creatures


Page | 5 Social sciences are the fields of knowledge and academic research that study social
groups and, more generally, human society. Any discipline or branch of science that deals with the sociocultural aspects of human behaviour is therefore called a social science. Initially, social sciences comprised five fields: Jurisprudence and Amendment of the Law; Education; Health; Economy and Trade; Art. The contemporary field of social sciences comprises academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups, animals and individuals; this includes anthropology, archaeology, philology, communication studies, cultural studies, demography, economics, human geography, history, linguistics, political science, psychology, social work, and sociology. The origins of social sciences go back to the ancient Greeks and their inquiries into the nature of humans, state, and morality. The heritage of ancient Greece and Rome is a powerful one in the history of social thought as it is in other areas of Western society.

VOCABULAR
1. Recitii textul i identificai definiia tiinelor socio-umane. 2. Care erau primele domenii de interes ale tiinelor socioumane? 3. Enumerai cteva din disciplinele incluse astzi n domeniul socio-uman. 4. Identificai denumirile n englez ale specializrilor pe care le urmai la facultate?

humans oameni are sunt knowledge cunoatere study studiaz/studiu deals with se ocup initially la nceput go back se ntorc their ale lor heritage motenirea ancient antic() Western society societatea occidental

ZI DE ZI
NICE TO MEET YOU ! Mr. Jones: Good morning, Jane! Good Ms. Parker: Good morning, Mr. Jones! evening! How are you? (Bun seara!) Mr. Jones: Im fine, thank you. And you? Good Ms. Parker: Fine, thank you! afternoon! Mr. Jones: Good bye, Jane! (Bun ziua!) Ms. Parker: Good bye, Mr. Jones! Good night!

Yes/No (Da/nu) What is it? (Ce este?) I dont understand. (Nu neleg.)

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SORINA POSTOLEA

ENGLISH FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE SCIENCES

UNIT 1
Please (V/te rog)

(Noapte bun!) Sorry? (Poftim?) Im sorry (mi pare ru) Yes, sir/madam. (Da, d-le/d-n) EXERCIIU:

Mr. Jones: Susan, let me introduce Ms. Parker to you! Ms. Parker: How do you do, Mrs. Jones? Mrs. Jones: How do you do, Ms. Parker?

Page | 6

1. Completai fia de mai jos cu datele personale : Surname: ______________________ First name: ______________________ Maiden name: __________________ Place/date of birth ________ / ________ Current address: County _______________ Town/city:_________________ No____ Street _______________ Floor _______ Flat _____________ Citizenship___________Nationality______ Zip/Postal Code _____________

PUIN CULTUR
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK, or as Britain) is a sovereign state located off the northwestern coast of continental Europe. The total area of the UK is approximately 245,000 square kilometers and its population is of 58 million people. It is a constitutional monarchy and unitary state consisting of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. It is governed by a parliamentary system with its seat of government in London, the capital, but with three devolved national administrations in Belfast, Cardiff and Edinburgh. The United Kingdom kingdom - regat its sa (pron. pers.) commonly n mod curent monarchy monarhie known cunoscut seat sediu off the coast n largul coastelor devolved descentralizate

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