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THE IT APPRENTICE

IT Concepts/ Tips& Tricks/ Miscellaneous: 1. Credentials = User name & Password (nume de Utilizator si Parola) informatii de securitate care permit accesul la un sistem/aplicatie/program; sunt personalizate, fiecare utilizator va avea un nume de user si o parola, pentru a putea accesa diferite aplicatii. 2. SLA = Service Level Agreement Acordul intre client si furnizor in care se specifica nivelul de performanta la care se ofera un serviciu (in cadrul lui se defineste ceea ce se incadreaza in standardul de performanta stabilit). 3. Breadcrumbs (Windows 7) = Ajutor la navigarea in Windows Explorer din Windows 7, care inlocuieste butonul de "UP". Breadcrumbs combina optiunile de UP si de BACK, pt ca retine toate folderele prin care s-a trecut; navigarea este mult mai rapida, pt ca se poate accesa printr-un simplu click Folderul Tata, in loc de a urca succesiv prin toate folderele pana la folderul tata. De asemenea, prin click pe sageata care desparte folderele din path, se deschide lista cu continutul folderului (drop-down list). 4. Clipboard = Este un instrument al Sistemului de Operare (buffer temporar) unde sunt pastrate temporar fisierele (text, imagini, documente, etc) care trebuie copiate sau mutate, pana cand ele sunt PASTE in alta locatie. Pe acelasi sistem functioneaza clipboardul din MS Office. 5. Jump lists (Windows 7) = Lista de documente/fisiere utilizate cel mai frecvent de un program (plus cele mai recente deschise). Se acceseaza cu Mouse2 pe icon-ul programului din Taskbar, cu optiunea de PIN to list. 6. SNAP feature (Windows 7) = Daca se muta o fereastra deschisa de windows spre lateralele sau colturile ecranului (drag), fereastra se va redimensiona pt a ocupa exact jumatate de ecran. Cand trebuie consultate 2 ferestre simultan, se poate trage fiecare pe cate o jumatate de ecran, ele se redimensioneaza automat datorita proprietatii SNAP. 7. Shake feature (Windows 7) = Click pe o fereastra, apoi miscat de ea stanga-dreapta rapid si toate celelalte ferestre de pe desktop vor fi minimized. Repetata miscarea si toate celelalte ferestre se vor deschide la loc. 8. RUN > sndvol (sau sndvol.exe in Wind XP) = Native audio volume and mixer control included in Windows. 9. How to Disable Windows startup sound (Wind 7) = Control panel > Sound > Sounds Tab > Uncheck Play Windows startup sound. 10. CTRL+SHIFT+ESC = Opens Task Manager. Pt a vedea cum se numeste executabilul Aplicatiei: in Task Manager > Applications > Mouse2 pe programul dorit > Go To Process. 11. RUN > certmgr.msc - Windows Certificates = Verifica identitatea unui user, autentifica un serviciu, cripteaza fisiere. Se pot crea certificate personale. 12. RUN > services.msc - Windows services = Executabile care nu necesita interventia utilizatorului. Se regasesc in Control Panel > Administrative Tools. Apar in Task Manager cu numele de SYSTEM, LOCAL SERVICE sau NETWORK SERVICE sau ruleaza pe svchost.exe. Pot fi pornite manual sau setate sa se incarce automat la Startup; Startup Type: Automatic (cand se incarca Windows), Manual (cand un program o cere sau userul selecteaza) sau Disabled (nu porneste nicicand). 13. TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol = Este un set standard de protocoale si aplicatii industriale folosit pentru a transfera date si resurse intre calculatoare, atat IBM, cat si non-IBM. TCP/CP permite conectarea unor retele eterogene (diferite) si transferul de date, folosind o interfata comuna. TCP/CP functioneaza prin asignarea unei adrese fiecarei resurse (adresa are intotdeauna 32 de biti) pentru a permite directionarea datelor = adresa IP. 14. Control Panel > Default Programs (Wind 7) = Setari de: programe predefinite pt anumite fisiere/ asociaza extensiile cu programe (sa se deschida cu respectivele programe)/ seteaza AutoPlay/ seteaza accesul la anumite programe. Pt. a asocia extensia cu programul cu care sa de deschida: Wind XP: Control Panel > Folder Options

> File Types Tab > Highlight the desired extension > Change > Navigate to the executable of the program to be used for opening the extension/// pt. Wind 7: Control Panel > Default Programs > Associate a file type or protocol with a program > Select file type > Change program > OK. 15. RUN > mstsc > Type Computer Name = Conectarea Remote la un calculator. 16. RUN > dxdiag- DirectX Diagnostic Tool = Afiseaza caracteristicile sistemului. Pt a vedea tipul procesorului: se poate vedea versiunea sistemului (32 sau 64 biti): 1. The Operating System line will identify if the system is x64 or 64-bit edition; 2. The processor Itanium is a 64-bit processor. 17. RUN > appwiz.cpl = Acceseaza Add/Remove Programs (Wind Xp) sau Programs and Features in Wind 7 (Control Panel). 18. RUN > msconfig - System Configuration = Instrument de troubleshooting/ setare a Windows Startup. Poate activa sau dezactiva software, drivere, servicii care sa porneasca (sau nu) atunci cand Windows se incarca. Util pt a depista probleme de hardware sau software. Pt a seta ca Windows sa incarce itemii intr-un soi de safe mode, se selecteaza din Tabul de General > Diagnostic startup. 19. Un mod rapid de a vedea cate procesoare are CPU: RUN > msconfig > Boot Tab > Advanced Options > Number of processors. 20. RUN > inetcpl.cpl = Acceseaza Internet Properties (Control Panel) 21. RUN > mmsys.cpl = Acceseaza Multimedia Properties (Control Panel) 22. RUN > sysdm.cpl = Acceseaza System Properties (Control Panel) 23. RUN > regedit - Windows Registry = Registrii din Windows sunt o baza de date ierarhica in care sunt retinute TOATE setarile si optiunile din Windows. In si din registrii isi scriu si extrag informatiile Kernel-ul Windows, driverele, serviciile, aplicatiile, programele, setarile de User. Registrii contin keys si values. Keys sunt structurate asemanator folderelor, iar values sunt datele din interiorul acestor foldere de keys. 24. Windows Indexing = Indexarea este un tip de clasificare ce ajuta windows in a gasi mai repede fisiere in timpul cautarilor. Prin indexare se ataseaza informatii relevante pt fisierele din windows, mai putin fisiere de sistem si cele din Program Files; aceste informatii reprezinta carlige pt a returna informatia despre fisier cat mai repede posibil. 25. In ceea ce priveste aplicatiile, se face diferenta dintre client-based/web-based applications: a.) Client-based: An application that runs on a work station or personal computer in a network and is not available to others in the network. Clientul este definit ca un program instalat pe respectivul PC, utilizand resursele acestuia. b.) Web-based: sunt accesate pe/printr-o o retea, fie ea Internet sau Intranet, prin intermediul unui browser (I.E., Mozilla, Chrome, etc). 26. SCCM - System Center Configuration Manager (Microsoft) = Software (pt server) de management al sistemelor de computere din mediul Windows. Roluri SCCM: remote control access, patch management, software distribution, operating system deployment, network access protection, hardware and software inventory. 27. Snipping Tool (Wind 7) = Program care permite capturarea de screenshots (print screen). 28. SAP Logon 720 (GUI) = Este un software de Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) al companiei SAP AG (Systems, Applications and Products). Sistemele ERP sunt macrosisteme integrate de management al informatiei unei organizatii, reunite intr-o platforma unica. Sistemele ERP sunt programe modulare (landscape), fiecare arie de activitate (productie/gestiune/HR/contabilitate/logistica, etc) fiind acoperita de o aplicatie specifica. Macroaplicatiile intercomunica si informatiile sunt interschimbate la toate nivelurile de integrare, ele reunindu-se intr-o baza de date comuna. SAP 720 are: Landscape > Role > Transaction. 29. ActiveX = Prin "ActiveX" sunt denumite componentele software care pot fi reutilizate de alte aplicatii, independent de limbajul de programare (este un cadru Microsoft de definire). Astfel, aplicatiile pot fi formate din una sau mai multe astfel de componente, indiferent de limbajul de programare in care acestea au fost construite.

Multe aplicatii Windows- Internet Explorer, Microsoft Office, Microsoft Visual Studio, Windows Media Player folosesc componente ActiveX. Poate fi dezinstalat din c:\windows\Downloaded Program Files. 30. Intr-o retea, Resursele reprezinta orice hardware/software/date care sunt integrate intr-un macro-sistem si pot fi accesate de ORIUNDE din reteaua respectiva. Cele mai bune exemple de resurse de retea sunt: Printers, Storage (dispozitive de stocare, ex: HDD, SSD), Applications. 31. Mailmon = Este un program de monitorizare a fluxului de emailuri pe un server de Exchange. 32. IM - Instant Messaging = Aplicatii care permit schimbul de mesaje live (ex: Y! Messenger, MS Office Lync/Communicator, MSN messenger, etc). 33. System Tray sau Notification Area = Este sectiunea din Taskbar aflata in partea dreapta- jos a ecranului, langa ceas si data, unde apar icon-uri miniaturale, pt acces rapid. Este incarcata de SysTray.exe. 34. DNS- Domain Name System = Este un sistem ierarhic de denumire (nomenclatural) pentru calculatoare sau resurse pe Internet, pe baza protocoalelor. Functia de baza a DNS este de a traduce o adresa IP (care este formata din cifre binare, ininteligibile si greu de retinut pt oameni- 001011101010.....), ca de ex. 216.239.51.104, intr-o denumire usor de inteles, ca www.google.com. Un alt exemplu: the domain name www.example.com translates to the address 192.0.43.10 (IPv.4) and address 2620:0:2d0:200::10 (IPv.6). 35. DHCP- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol = Este un protocol de retea de tip client/ server prin care se atribuie automat adrese IP unor clienti (calculatoare). Un server DHCP contine o lista de IP-uri dinamice, pe care le distribuie clientilor unei retele, alaturi de configuratii specifice, adaptate fiecarui client. Asignarea DHCP a unei adrese IP este de 3 feluri: a.) manuala (statica) unui calculator i se asigneaza manual o adresa IP specificata; b.) automata serverul DHCP asigneaza permanent o adresa unui client, sau incearca sa-i asigneze o adresa pe care acesta a mai avut-o in trecut; c.) dinamica- adresele IP sunt asignate si deasignate aleatoriu clientilor, in functie de necesitatile retelei si solicitarilor venite din partea clientilor.

COMMAND PROMPT (RUN > CMD) COMMANDS:

1. CMD > ping + [adresa IP sau DNS] = Comanda prin care se determina daca un IP poate fi accesat, daca un site este functional sau este cazut, precum si durata de transmitere a datelor intre IP-ul calc si IP-ul serverului sau unui alt PC. Foloseste protocolul ICMP si transmite/primeste 4 pachete de date a cate 32 biti. 2. CMD > nslookup [computer name/IP/DNS address] = Comanda prin care se poate afla Domeniul, adresa IP, a unui computer.

3. CMD > hostname = Afiseaza Numele propriului calculator. 4. Ip Config (in CMD) ipconfig /all ipconfig /release [adapter] ipconfig /renew ipconfig /displaydns ipconfig /flushdns afiseaza toate informatiile TCP/IP despre placile de retea, fie Ethernet, fie Wireless Release the IP address for the specified adapter = comanda prin care este deasignata adresa IP, serverul DHCP deactiveaza adresa IP pt respectiva NIC innoieste configuratia DHCP (IP) pt toate adaptoarele (placi de retea) sau specificat afiseaza continutul resolver cache DNS (memoria-rutina-software DNS) sterge memoria resolver cache DNS (cea care permite o navigare mai rapida DNS)

MICROSOFT OFFICE OUTLOOK


Summary: - este un Client de email, dar si un Personal Information Manager, (include Calendar, Task Scheduler) parte din suita MS Office - functioneaza in cadrul unei organizatii conectat la un server de Exchange (un server care are instalat rolul software Microsoft Exchange Server) sau un server MS SharePoint - se poate sincroniza cu dispozitive mobile, pt a avea acces la email de pe telefoane, Ipad, etc - este conectat si sincronizat cu Microsoft Lync (Microsoft Communicator); conversatiile de pe Lync se pot salva in MS Outlook - poate fi accesat si printr-un browser, direct pe Internet, prin Outlook Web Access (OWA), dar este o aplicatie web-based bazala, nu are toate setarile, accesibilitatile si folderele personale - poate fi o resursa administrata prin Active Directory - GAL- Global Address List = Este baza de date cu toate adresele de email-SMTP/contactele/ resursele din Outlook. Un contact existent in GAL poate fi setat din Active Directory sa nu apara la cautari, desi el exista (este hidden). - OST - Offline Storage Table = Fisier care permite ca Outlook sa functioneze offline, independent de conexiunea la server (intrucat creeaza o copie exacta a mailbox-ului de pe serverul de Exchange). OST este un fisier de baza al Outlook, pentru ca in el sunt salvate toate setarile si modificarile facute in Outlook. La reconectarea cu serverul, toate informatiile din OST sunt sincronizate cu serverul. De obicei, la erori de OST, se poate repara OST cu ajutorul SCANOST.EXE sau se poate redenumi ori sterge fisierul outlook.ost din path-ul MS Outlook din Windows (el se va recrea automat, la redeschiderea Outlook). - PST Personal Storage Table = Fisier (Personal Folder) care functioneaza ca o arhiva in care userul isi poate stoca si salva mailurile/contactele/meetings/calendar entries din Outlook PE HDD CALCULATORULUI (nu pe serverul Exchange). In Outlook, un fisier PST poate aparea sub un alt nume decat numele din Windows. Userul isi denumeste fisierul PST din Outlook conform preferintelor, in timp ce in Windows, el ramane cu o denumire Personal Folders(x).pst. Pt a crea un nou Personal Folder (va avea extensia .pst) in Outlook: File > New > Outlook Data File. Marimea maxima a unui PST: pt format ANSI (versiuni 97-2002) limita maxima de 1.9 GB; pt Format Unicode = Outlook 2007 si ulterioare, marimea maxima e de ordinul Terabytes, insa pericolul de corupere (corruption rate) a unui PST creste drastic, odata ce depaseste 1 GB. Pt a repara un fisier PST se foloseste SCANPST.EXE din path-ul MS Outlook din Windows. - Cum se poate afla la ce server de Exchange este conectat Outlook: Tools > Account Settings > Dublu-click pe adresa SMTP - In Outlook, pt a gasi si alte mesaje de la acelasi expeditor, intr-unul din mesajele deschise, in partea din dreapta a Ribbon > FIND > Related > Messages from sender: apar toate mesajele trimise de la respectiva adresa de mail. - Pt a sterge si reseta adresele din Auto-complete in Outlook, navigat la %APPDATA%\Microsoft\Outlook din IE sau Wind Explorer si sters fisierul Outlook.NK2

- Reoccuring calendar appointments in Outlook cannot be archived. This is a limitation of Office and is by design - Delegate access in Outlook = functionality to make it possible for one person to give another person access to their Inbox and/or any other Outlook folder, plus Calendar and Task. Ownerul contului de Outlook alege la care foldere sa dea acces delegatului. Delegatul nu poate accesa insa PST. Delegatul poate astfel crea sau raspunde la solicitari de meetinguri, poate crea Tasks, etc, in numele managerului.

COMMAND LINE SWITCHES IN OUTLOOK (TROUBLESHOOTING) RUN > outlook.exe /[specific command line switch] Switch Description Creates an item with the specified file as an attachment. Example: "c:\program files\microsoft office\office12\outlook.exe" /a "c:\my documents\labels.doc" If no item type is specified, IPM.Note is assumed. Cannot be used with message classes that are not based on Outlook. Opens the VBA program specified in otmfilename, rather than %appdata %\microsoft\outlook\vbaproject.otm. Creates a new item of the specified message class (Outlook forms or any other valid MAPI form). Examples: /c ipm.activity creates a Journal entry /c ipm.appointment creates an appointment /c ipm.contact creates a contact /c ipm.note creates an e-mail message /c ipm.stickynote creates a note /c ipm.task creates a task Prompts for the default manager of e-mail, news, and contacts. Deletes any custom category names that you have created. Restores categories to the default names. Starts Outlook and deletes client-based rules. Deletes the logging records saved when a manager or a delegate declines a meeting. Resets all Search Folders in the Microsoft Exchange mailbox for only the first profile opened. Clears and regenerates free/busy information. This switch can be used only when you are able to connect to the server running Exchange. Removes invalid profile keys and re-creates default registry keys where applicable. Clears and regenerates reminders. All previous roamed preferences are deleted and copied again from the local settings on the computer where this switch is used. This includes the roaming settings for reminders, free/busy grid, working hours, calendar publishing, and RSS rules. Starts Outlook and deletes client-based and server-based rules. Starts Outlook and deletes server-based rules. Removes all RSS, Internet Calendar, and SharePoint subscriptions from Account Settings, but leaves all the previously downloaded content on your computer. This is

/a

/altvba otmfilename

/c messageclass

/checkclient /cleancategories /cleanclientrules /cleandmrecords /cleanfinders

/cleanfreebusy /cleanprofile /cleanreminders

/cleanroamedprefs

/cleanrules /cleanserverrules /cleansharing

useful if you are unable to delete one of these subscriptions within Office Outlook 2007. Overrides the programmatic lockout that determines which of your computers (when running Outlook simultaneously) processes meeting items. The lockout process helps prevent duplicate reminder messages. This switch clears the lockout on the computer it is used, enabling Outlook to process meeting items. Deletes the subscription messages and properties for subscription features. Restores default views. All custom views that you created are lost. Used without command-line parameters for standard OLE co-create. Opens the specified message file (.msg) or Microsoft Office saved search (.oss). Opens the Advanced Find dialog box. Starts Outlook as if it were run for the first time. Opens the specified .hol file. Opens the specified .ics file. Starts Outlook and opens/imports the defined MAPI profile (*.prf). If Outlook is already open, queues the profile to be imported on the next clean start. Opens a Help window with the Help topic specified in assetid displayed. Provides a way for the user to add an e-mail name to the item. Only works in conjunction with the /c command-line parameter. Example: Outlook.exe /c ipm.note /m emailname Starts Outlook without loading outcmd.dat (customized toolbars). Starts Outlook with extensions turned off, but listed in the Add-In Manager. Starts Outlook with the Reading Pane off. Prints the specified message (.msg). Loads the specified profile. If your profile name contains a space, enclose the profile name in quotation marks (" "). Opens the Choose Profile dialog box regardless of the Options setting on the Tools menu. Starts Outlook by using an existing Outlook window, if one exists. Used in combination with /explorer or /folder. Starts Outlook and and initiates the following commands on the default mailbox: Upgrades colored For Follow Up flags to Office Outlook 2007 color categories. Upgrades calendar labels to Office Outlook 2007 color categories. Adds all categories used on non-mail items into the Master Category List. Note This is the same command as Upgrade to Color Categories in each Outlook mailbox properties dialog box.

/cleansniff

/cleansubscriptions /cleanviews /embedding /f msgfilename /finder /firstrun /hol holfilename /ical icsfilename /importprf prffilename /launchtraininghelp assetid

/m emailname

/nocustomize /noextensions /nopreview /p msgfilename /profile profilename

/profiles

/recycle

/remigratecategories

/resetfolders

Restores missing folders at the default delivery location. Resets default folder names (such as Inbox or Sent Items) to default names in the current Office user interface language. For example, if you first connect to your mailbox in Outlook by using a Russian user interface, the Russian default folder names cannot be renamed. To change the default folder names to another language, such as Japanese or English, you can use this switch to reset the default folder names after you change the user interface language or install a different language version of Outlook. Empties the form regions cache and reloads the form region definitions from the Windows registry.

/resetfoldernames

/resetformregions

/resetnavpane /resetsearchcriteria /resetsharedfolders /resettodobar

Clears and regenerates the Navigation Pane for the current profile. Resets all Instant Search criteria so that the default set of criteria is shown in each module. Removes all shared folders from the Navigation Pane. Clears and regenerates the To-Do Bar task list for the current profile. The To-Do Bar search folder is deleted and re-created. Opens Outlook and displays the remote procedure call (RPC) connection status dialog box. Starts Outlook without Microsoft Exchange Client Extensions (ECE), the Reading Pane, or toolbar customizations. Component Object Model (COM) add-ins are turned off. Starts Outlook with the Reading Pane off. Starts Outlook with Microsoft Exchange Client Extensions (ECE) turned off, but listed in the Add-In Manager. Component Object Model (COM) add-ins are turned off. Starts Outlook without loading outcmd.dat (customized toolbars). Starts Outlook and opens the specified folder in a new window. For example, to open Outlook and display the default calendar, use: "c:\program files\microsoft office\office12\outlook.exe" /select outlook:calendar. Specifies a sharing URL to connect to Outlook. For example, use stssync://URL to connect a Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 list to Outlook.

/rpcdiag

/safe /safe:1 /safe:3 /safe:4

/select foldername

/share feed://URL/filename /share stssync://URL /share web://URL/filename /sniff /t oftfilename /v vcffilename

Starts Outlook, forces a detection of new meeting requests in the Inbox, and then adds them to the calendar. Opens the specified .oft file. Opens the specified .vcf file.

/vcal vcsfilename /x xnkfilename

Opens the specified .vcs file. Opens the specified .xnk file.

- ACRONIME1. LAN Local Area Network (WLANWirelessLAN) 3. SAN Storage Area Network 5. NOS- Network Operating System 7. HTML- Hypertext Markup Language 9. BIOS- Basic Input- Output System 11. SCCM- System Center Configuration Manager 13. PCI- Peripheral Component Interconnect 15. SMTP- Simple Mail Transfer Protocol 17. IMAP- Internet Message Access Protocol 19. CSMA/CD- Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection 21. PPPOE- Point-To-Point Protocol Over the Ethernet 23. USB- Universal Serial Bus 25. HCI- Human- Computer Interaction 27. SIMM- Single In-Line Memory Module 29. MMC- Microsoft Management Console 31. IOS- Internetwork Operating System 33. DNS- Domain Name System 35. RACF- Resource Access Control Facility 37. URL- Uniform Resource Locator 39. RODC- Read-Only Domain Controller 41. PLC- Programmable Logic Controller 43. VFD- Variable-Frequency Drive 45. RSS feed- Rich Site Summary 2. WAN Wide Area Network 4. TCP/IP- Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Prt. 6. HTTP- Hypertext Transfer Protocol 8. OSI- Open Systems Interconnection 10. MAC- Media Access Control 12. SQL- Structured Query Language 14. GUI- Graphical User Interface 16. POP- Post Office Protocol 18. SIP- Session Initiation Protocol 20. CMOS- Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (bateria de pe Placa de baza) 22. HBA- Host Bus Adapter 24. (I)MCH- Memory Controller Hub (Northbridge) 26. SCTP- Stream Control Transmission Protocol 28. DIMM- Dual In-Line Memory Module 30. RDP- Remote Desktop Protocol 32. DHCP- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 34. FTP- File Transfer Protocol 36. EFS- Encrypting File System 38. DPN- Data Packet Network 40. ETR- Estimated Time of Return/Repair 42. CST- Central Standard Time 44. NIC- Network Interface Controller (Placa de retea) 46. ICMP- Internet Control Message Protocol