Sunteți pe pagina 1din 188

!

P Sd%I]8ZGF[ 5lZRI

!P! Sd%I]8Z X]\ K[ mo


Sd%I]8ZGF[ 5lZRI X~ SZTF 5C[,F TDFZ[ lJ`JDF\ VFH[ Sd%I]8;"GL V;Z ;DHJL
50X[P Sd%I]8;" VF56F HLJGG[ V[S BYJF ALHL ZLT[ V;Z SZL ZCIF\ K[P Sd%I]8;" JF5ZLG[ VF5TL
;[JFVF[GL IFNL VG\T K[P H[D S[PPP V[Z,F.g; VG[ lZhJ['XG4 8[l,OF[G VG[ .,[S8=L;L8L AL,4 A[SL\U4
TALAL lGNFG4 CJFDFG GL VFUFCL JU[Z[P TD[ VJ,F[SG SI]" CX[ S[ Sd%I]8;"GF S[8,FS p5IF[UF[ VYJF
Sd%I]8;"GF J5ZFXYL TDF~ HLJG JW] ;Z/ AgI] K[P TDFZL V[Zl8SL8
lDGL8F[DF D/L HFI K[ VG[ TDF~ S|[l08 SF0" B}A h05YL 5|F[;[; SZJFDF
VFJ[ K[P
VFD KTF\4 Sd%I]8Z lJX[ S[8,LS V[JL AFAT K[ H[ TDG[
;C[H V858L ,FUX[P SNFR V[JL ,FU6L S[ T[ TDFZFYL JW] A]lwWXF/L
VG[ DFlCTLUFZ K[ T[DH R,FJJ] V858] K[P TDG[ V[ HF6LG[ GJF. ,FUX[ S[ Sd%I]8Z TDFZF JUZ SF[.
56 SFI" SZL XST] GYLP Sd%I]8Z G[ X] SZJFG] K[ T[GL RF[SS; ;]RGF T[G[ VF5JL H~ZL K[P
V[ SC[J] BF[8] GYL S[ Sd%I]8ZGL ptSF\lT DFGJLGL U6TZL SZJFGL H~ZLIFT ;FY[ Y.
CTL VG[ VF 1F[+GL BZ[BZ J'lwW +L; JQF"GF 8}\SF UF/FDF\ Y. CTLP VF h05L J'lwWGL ,F1Fl6STF
J'lwWGF V,UV,U TASSFVF[ CTL H[G[ Sd%I]8Z HGZ[XG SC[JFIFP RF,L;GF NXSFGF DwIDF\ VF
I\+F[DF JF<J JF5ZJFDF VFJTF CTF T[G[ O:8" HGZ[XG Sd%I]8;" SC[JFDF VFjIF\P N; JQF"GF
;DIUF/FDF\4 JF<JGL HuIFV[ JW] SFI"N1F VG[ ;:TF\ 8=Flgh:8;" VFjIFP VF ;[Sg0 HGZ[XG SC[JFI]P
;F.9GF NXSFGL X~VFTDF\ V[S l;,LSF[G RL5 p5Z ;F[YL JW] 8=Flgh:8;" :YF5L XSFIF tIFZ[ DF[8L l;wW
5F|%T Y.P VF .lg8U|[8[0 lR5 sICf YL Y0" HGZ[XG Sd%I]8;" AgIF4 VLSI sB}A DF[8F 5FIFGF HF[0F6f
GL X~VFTYL V[SH RL5 5Z CHFZF[ 8=Flgh:8;" A[;F0L XSFIF H[ OF["Y HGZ[XG Sd%I]8;" SC[JFIFP lOOY
HGZ[XG Sd%I]8;"4 Sd%I]8;"DF\ A]lwWDTF ,FJJFGL SF[lXX SZ[ K[ H[G[ VFl8"lOlXI, .g8[l,Hg; 56
SC[JFI K[P

!PZ Sd%I]8ZGL ,F1Fl6STFVF[ o


VFHGF lJ`JDF\ HLJGGF ,UEU TDFD 5F;FVF[ 5Z Sd%I]8;"[ T[DGL V;Z KF[0[,L K[ T[
CSLSTG[ EFuI[H GSFZL XSFI. VCL TD[ V[ 5|`G 5]KXF[ S[ Sd%I]8Z JF5ZJFYL TDG[ X] OFINF[ YFI K[m
Sd%I]8Z D}/E}T +6 OFINFVF[ SZ[ K[o
v h05
v RF[S;F.
v DC[GT
Sd%I]8;" B}A h05YL SFI" SZ[ K[ VG[ DG]QIF[ SZTF\ JWFZ[ h05L K[P ;Z[ZFX Sd%I]8ZG[ ;DFG
DG]QIF[ U6JF CF[I TF[ T[ N;,FB Ul6TXF:+LVF[ lNJ;GF\ Z$ S,FS SFD SZ[ T[ AZFAZ YFI K[P
Sd%I]8;" EFuI[H E}, SZ[ K[P CSLSTDF T[GL DF[8F EFUGL E},F[ DFGJLI CF[I K[P DG]QIF[YL lJ5ZLT
Sd%I]8;" S\8F/TF VYJF YFSTF GYLP Sd%I]8;"G[ S5]GZFJTL"T SFDGL V[SG[ V[S AFAT V;Z SZTL GYLP
VFD KTF\4 Sd%I]8Z DG]QIF[ SZTF\ VF[KF O,[S;LA, s AF\WKF[0 SZGFZ f CF[JFYL TDFD
5|J'lTVF[ SZL XSTF GYLP T[VF[G[ X]\ SZJ] T[ ;TT SC[T] ZC[J] 50[ K[P T[VF[ jIFbIFlIT DIF"NFYL ACFZ
SFD SZL XSTF GYLP HF[ WFIF" ACFZGL 5lZl:YTL pEL YFI TF[ SF\ TF[ Sd%I]8Z BF[8F 5lZ6FDF[ VF5[ K[
VYJF TF[ SFI" 50T] D}S[ K[ T[VF[DF\ J{Sl<5S p5FI XF[WL SF-JFGL 1FDTF CF[TL GYLP
1

!P# Sd%I]8ZGF D}/E}T p5IF[UF[ o


VFH[ Sd%I]8ZGF ;F{YL ,FSl5|I :J~5 H[ J5ZFXDF\ K[ T[ PC VYJF V\UT Sd%I]8Z K[P PC
H]NLH]NL V[%,LS[XG sp5IF[Uf DF8[ JF5ZL XSFI VG[ CSLSTDF ;\:YFVF[ VG[ jIlSTVF[ ,FBF[ PC
JF5ZL ZCIF\ K[P PC SNDF\ GFG]\ CF[I K[ 5Z\T] lJXF/ SFD SZJF\ 5IF"%T ZLT[ XlSTXF/L CF[I K[P T[
lJlJW 5SFZGF\ SFIF[" SZL XS[ K[4 WZGF\ lC;FA ZFBJFYL DF\0LG[ DF[8L pt5FNS S\5GLGF DF,;FDFG GF
Z[S0" HF/JJFG] SFD SZ[ K[P
VgI Sd%I]8Z l;:8D o
PC ;F{YL ,F[Sl5|I Sd%I]8Z l;:8D CF[JF KTF S[8,LS VgI Sd%I]8Z l;:8D G[ SN4lSDT VG[
SFDULZLGF VFWFZ[ V,U S1FFVF[DF\ JC[\RJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P

V[%,LS[XG ;F[O8J[Zo
0[8FA[.h 5|F[U|FD s 0[8F D[G[HD[g8f
DF:8Z VG[ 8=F\h[SXG Z[S0" AGFJJF VG[ ;]WFZFJWFZF SZJFP
0[8FG]\ .g8ZV[S8LJ V[0L8L\UP 5|`GF[ 5}KF[4 ;FZF\X VF5F[4 S|DJFZ HF[J]\sXF["8f VG[ Z[S0" GL l5|g8
J0" 5|F[;[l;\U
,BF6GL OF.,F[ AGFJJL VG[ T[DF\ ;]WFZFJWFZF SZJF\P 8F.5ZF.8ZGF TDFD SFIF["GL HuIF ,[
K[P S[8,FS 5|F[U|FD 5]ZT] 0[:S8F[5 5la,lX\U 5]~ 5F0[ K[P
:5|[0XL8
V\NFH5+ VG[ GF6FSLI 5+SF[ DF8[ CFZ VG[ :T\E s ZF[ VG[ SF[,D f AGFJJF VG[ T[DF ;]WFZFJWFZF
SZJF DF8[ T[DH cc TF[ X]\ cc 5'yYSZ6 SZJ]\P AC]lNXF,1FL s D<8L0FID[gX,f :5|[0XL8 0[8FGL H]NLH]NL
:,F.; VYJF jI] VF5[ K[P V[0JFg:0 GF6FSLI VFIF[HG l;:8D wI[I XF[WJF T[DH VF\S0FSLI U6+LVF[
5}ZL 5F0[ K[P
5|[h[g8[XG U|FlOS;
:,F.0 XF[ AGFJJF\4 O|LC[g0 0=F[.\U SZJF VG[ ;\bIFG[ 2D VG[ 3D lAhG[; U|FlOS;DF\ O[ZJJF
2

SdI]lGS[XG VG[ .,[S8=F[lGS D[.,


DF[0D VG[ G[8JS" DFZOT[ 0[8F VG[ D[., DF[S,JFqD[/JJF
;\Sl,T 5[S[H VYJF :I]8
0[:S8F[5 5la,XL\U
,BF6 VG[ lR+F[G[ E[/JJF BG[ l5|g8L|U DF8[ 5FGFGF\ :J~5 5Z ;\5}6" lGI\+6 VF5J]\P J0"
5|F[;[;L\U 5|F[UF|D SZTF JW] RF[SS; K[P
PIM s 5;"G, .gOF[ZD[XG D[G[HZ f
h05L 5|F%TL DF8[ K}8LKJFIL DFCLTLG[ V[S+LT SZF[P H[DF\ VF[8F[D[8LS 0FI,L\U ;FY[GF 8[,LOF[G
l,:84 S[,[g0Z4 X[0I],Z VG[ 8LS,Z GF[ ;DFJ[X YFI K[P
5|F[H[S8 D[G[HD[g8
5|F[H[S8GL JLUT ZFBF[ VG[ O[ZOFZGL V;ZF[ GSSL SZF[P cc S\L|8LS, 5FYcc GL U6TZL SZJFDF
VFJ[ K[P T[ HF[ 5|F[H[S8DF lJ,\A YFI TF[ WLDF 50TF TDFD SFI"GL N[BZ[B ZFB[ K[P
S[0 s J[S8Z U|FlOS; f
J6"GFtDS VG[ VF{WF{lUS l0hF.G DF8[ lR+SFD SZJ]\P
.D[HL\U s ZF:8Z U|FlOS; f
SFU/F[ :S[G SZJF VG[ 8LJL H[JF N|xIF[ DF Z\UJFP
0FIFU|FDL\U SFI"S|D
G[8JS" 0FIFU|FD VG[ ;\:YFSLI RF8" H[JF V[SALHF ;FY[ HF[0FI[, lGXFGLVF[GF 0=F[.\U AGFJJF4
lGXFGLVF[ B;[0JFDF VFJ[ K[ tIFZ[ ,L8LVF[ HF[0FI[,L ZC[ K[P
SF[g8[S8 D[G[HZ
lJUTF[4 GFDF[4 ;ZGFDF4 D],FSFTF[GL DFlCTL ZFBJLP T[ 5;"G, .gO"D[XG D[G[HZ ;DFG K[P 5Z\T]
J[RF6GL 5|J'TL DF8[ lGQ6F\T K[P
Ul6TXF:+
U}\RJF0FEIF" Ul6T G[ ,UTL U6TZLVF[ pEL SZJL4 R,FJJL VG[ l5|g8 SZJLP
J{7FlGS
CFIv:5L0 Sd%I]8;" VYJF ;]5ZSd%I]8;" 5Z JF:TlJS W8GFVF[ G[ 5]Go p5;FJJL T[G] 5'yYSZ6
SZJ]\P
D<8LlD0LIF s U[d; VG[ lX1F6 f
D<8LDL0LIF .g8ZV[S8LJ U[d;4 V[g;F.S,F[5L0LIF VG[ TDFD 5|SFZGF VgI ;\NE" VG[
X{l1Fl6S VeIF;S|D DF8[ U|FlOS;4 VJFH VG[ lJ0LIF[ pD[Z[ K[P
Jl8"S, DFS["8
A[\SL\U T[DH JLDF H[JF pWF[UF[ DF8[ BF; :J~5 VF5[, 0[8F V[g8=L4 SJ[ZL4 V50[8 VG[ lZ5F["8P
T{IFZ VYJF BF; :J~5 VF5[, sS:8DF.h0f J8L"S, DFS['8 ;F[O8J[Z p5,aW DFlCTL 5wWlTGF 5|SFZDF
;F{YL lJlXQ8 5|SFZG]\ K[P
J[A A|FphZ
c ;O" W J[A c s J[A;F.8 H]VF[ f lJ`JDF DFlCTLGL ;F{Yl DF[8L HF/G[ D[/JF[P VF[G,F.G BZLNF[
SZF[ VG[ DGF[Z\HG D[/JF[P

!P$ Sd%I]8Z l;:8DGF EFU s W8SF[fo


5;"G, Sd%I]8ZGF EFUvCF0"J[Z
CJ[ TD[ Sd%I]8;"GF OFINFVF[ VG[ DIF"NFVF[ HF6F[ KF[ V[8,[ 5;"G, Sd%I]8;"GF NZ[S EFU G[
VF[/BLV[P
v 8F.5ZF.8Z H[J] B}A H ;DFGTF WZFJT] W8S SLvAF[0" K[P

v l;:8D G[ R,FJJF AF[1F H[J] DF/B] H~ZL Sd5F[Gg8; WZFJ[ K[ H[G[ l;:8D I]LG8 VYJF ;[g8=,
5|F[;[;L\U I]lG8 (CPU) SC[JFI K[P
v l5|g8Z T[GF GFDYL H6FJ[ K[ T[D SF[.56 SFDGF 5lZ6FDF[ KF5JF DF8[ J5ZFI K[P
v l;:8D I]lG8 G[ 5]\K0L H[JF JFIZYL HF[0TL 0LJF.; DFp; SC[JFI K[P DFp;G[ C[ZO[Z
SZJFYL lJ0LIF[ l0:%,[ I]lG8 sDF[GL8Zf 5Z TLZGL C[ZO[Z YFI K[P
v VF 0LJF.;L;G[ ;\I]ST ZLT[ CF0"J[Z TZLS[ VF[/BJFDF VFJ[ K[P VFD CF0"J[Z V[S PC
l;:8DGF TDFD EF{lTS W8SF[ ;DFJ[ K[P

!P5 ;[g8=, 5|F[;[l;\U I]lG8 sCPUfo


HIFZ[ Sd%I]8ZG[ 0[8F VF5JFDF VFJ[ K[ tIFZ[ T[ 5|F[;[; YFI K[ VG[ VFp85]8 l0JF.;DF\
5lZ6FD N[BFI K[P 5|F[;[;L\U ;[g8=, 5|F[;[;L\U I]lG8DF\ YFI K[ VF BZ[BZ 5|F[;[;DF\ ;DFlJQ8 ;[g8=,
5|F[;[;L\U I]lG8GF[ W8S DF.SF|[5|F[;[;Z K[P ;[g8=, 5|F[;[;LPU I]lG8GF[ VgI V[S EFU VFPTZLS :8F[Z[H
K[P
VF\TlZS :8F[Z[H s ;\U|C f
DF.S|F[5|F[;[;Z p5ZF\T CPU DF\ 0[8FGF ;\U|C DF8[ HuIF CF[I K[
12
HIF\ BZ[BZ 5|F[;[; YTF 5C[,F\ 0[8FGF[ ;\U|C YFI K[P HIF\ ;\U|C
lJ;TFZG[ .G8ZG, :8F[Z[H SC[JFI K[P T[G[ 5|FIDZL :8F[Z[H4 D[.G
D[DZL VYJF Z[g0D V[S;[; D[DZL (RAM) sZ[Df SC[JFI K[P

D iagram of R A M
2
D ia

H]NFH]NF PCDF\ .g8ZG, :8F[Z[H ;J,TF[ V,U V,U CF[I


K[P ;FDFgI ZLT[ SF[.56 Sd%I]8ZDF\ &$____ S[ZS[ 8;" VYJF JW]G[
;\U|C SZJFGL VF\TZLS 1FDTF CF[I K[P

Sd%I]8ZGL 5ZLEFQFDF SF[.56 PC GL ;\U|C1FDTF AF.8; DF\ U6JFDF VFJ[ K[P H[DF\ ! AF.8;
! V1FZ ;\U|C SZL XS[ K[P VCL\ V1FZ 4 SF[.56 D}/F1FZ4 ;\bIF VYJF VGI lGXFGLGF[ p<,[B SZ[ K[
T[YL COMPUTER XaNG[ ;\U|C SZJF ( AF.8GL H~Z 50X[P H[D JHGG[ DF5JF U|FD VG[ lS,F[U|FDGF
V[SD K[ T[D ;\U|C G[ DF5JF AF.8 VG[ lS,F[AF.8 (KB) 56 K[P V[S lS,F[AF.8 V\NFH[ !___ AF.8
;DS1F YFI K[P T[YL ! KB VPNFH[ !___ V1FZF[G[ ;\U|C SZL XS[ K[P ;\U|C1FDTFGF[ VgI V[S ;FDFgI
V[SD D[UFAF.8 (MB) K[P H[ ,UEU !___ KB ;DS1F K[P 36L DF[8L ;\U|C1FDTF ULUFAF.8 (GB)
DF\ DF5JFDF VFJ[ K[P
AFCI;\U|C s :8F[Z[H f
PCGL VF\TZLS ;\U|C 1FDTF DIF"lNT CF[.G[ 5|F[;[;L\U ;DI[ S[8,F[ 0[8F ;\U|C SZL XSFI T[GF 5Z
DIF"NF ZC[ K[P VFD KTF\4 VF OST V[SDF+ BFDL GYLP V[SJDZ PC A\3 YFI S[ VYJF JLH/L A\3 YFI
S[ VF\TZLS ;\U|CDF\ ;\U|C SZ[, TDFD 0[8F U]D YFI K[P VFGF[ VY" V[ YFI S[ TD[ HIFZ[ PC p5Z SFD
SZJF .rKF[ tIFZ[ TDFZ[ 5|F;
[ [;L\U DF8[ H~ZL 0[8F NFB, SZJF 50[P 0[8FGF SFIDL ;\U|C DF8[ PC l;:8D
;FY[ AFCI ;\U|C lD0LIF JF5ZL XSFIP V[S:8G", :8F[Z[H G[ ;[S[g0ZL :8F[Z[H 56 SC[JFI K[P
PC ;FY[ A[ 5|SFZGF\ AFCI ;\U|C lD0LIF JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[s H]VF[ 8[A, !P#fH[ GLR[ D]HA K[

v O,F[5L l0:S
O,F[5L l0:S V[S 0[8FG[ ;\U|C SZJFGL 0LJF.;
K[ H[ RF[Z; VYJF ,\ARF[Z; %,Fl:8S JF[,[8DF\
;RJFI[,F 5FT/L ,JRLS s V[8,[ S[ cc O,F[5Lccf
D[uG[l8S :8F[Z[H DL0LIDGL AG[,L CF[I K[P O,F[5L
l0:S4 O,F[5L l0:S 0=F.J VYJF FDD YL JF\RL XSFI K[
VYJF T[GF 5Z ;\U|C Y. XS[ K[ sZF.8fP FDD
8}\SF1FZF[GF[ VY" fixed disc drive SZJFGF[ GYL
SFZ6 S[ T[G[ IBM NJFZF hard disc drive DF8[
JF5ZJFDF VFJTF[ CTF[P
ZF.8v5|F[8[S8 8[A
!P CA
ZP X8Z
#P %,Fl:8S CFp;L\U
$P 5[5Z ZL\U
5P D[uG[l8S l0:S
&P l0:S ;[S8Z
v CF0" l0:S
V[ D[uG[l8S l0:S K[ H[GF 5Z TD[ Sd%I]8ZGF[ 0[8F ;\U|C SZL XSF[ KF[P CF0" XaN ;F[O8 VYJF
O,F[5L l0:S YL H]NF 5F0JF DF8[ J5ZFI K[P
CF0"l0:S JW] 0[8F ;\U|C[ K[ VG[ T[ O,F[5L l0:S YL
JW] h05L CF[I K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[ 4 CF0"l0:S
!_YL !__YL JW] ULUFAF.8; 0[8F ;\U|CL XS[
K[ HIFZ[ DF[8F EFUGL O,F[5L GL ;\U|C1FDTF
!P$ D[UFAF.8; CF[I K[P
V[S CF0"l0:SDF\ ;FDFgI ZLT[ S[8,LS
%,[8;" CF[I K[P NZ[S %,[8;"DF\ NZ[S AFH]V[ A[
lZ0qZF.8 C[0 CF[I K[P NZ[S ZL0qZF.8 C[0 V[S
V[S;[; VFD" ;FY[ HF[0FI[,F CF[I K[ H[YL T[VF[
:JT\+ ZLT[ OZL XSTF GYLP NZ[S %,[8ZDF
;DFG ;\bIFDF\ 8=[S CF[I K[ VG[ TDFD %,[8;"GL
VFZ5FZ 5;FZ YTF 8=[S ,F[S[XGF[G[ l;,Lg0Z
SC[JFI K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[ 4 PC DF8[
5Z\5ZFUT ($ MB CF0"l0:S G[ A[ %,[8;" s RFZ
AFH]VF[ f VG[ !_5# l;,;g0Z CF[I K[P
;FDFgI ZLT[ CF0"l0:S O,F[5L SZTF VF[KL C[ZO[Z Y. XS[ T[D CF[I K[ KTF\ N}Z SZL XSFI T[JL
CF0"l0:S BZLNL XSFI K[P
VgI AFCI;\U|C G]\ lD0LIF SFl8"H 8[5 K[ T[ 0[8FGF[ lJXF/ DF+FDF\ ;\U|C DF8[ BF; SZLG[ VG}S}/
K[P CJ[ lJXF/ DF+FDF\ 0[8FGF ;\U|C DF8[ CD-ROM, DVD VG[ D[uG[8F[vVF[l%8S, l0:S 56
VUtIGF lD0LIF AG[, K[P

!P& DF[lG8ZsVDUf4 lSAF["0 VG[ DFp;4 VgI .G5]8qVFp85]8 ;FWGF[o


vDF[lG8Zq lJhI]V, l0:%,[ I]lG8
5F|[;[; YI[,F 0[8FG[ J5ZFXSFZ sI]hZf G[ NXF"JJFG] H~ZL K[P VF SFD DF[LG8Z VYJF VDU
YL YFI K[P lJhI]V, L0:%,[ I]lG8 8LPJLP :S\LG H[J] CF[I K[ VG[ T[ ,BF6 VG[
U|FlOS lR+F[ AgG[ G[ NXF"JL XS[ K[P l0:%,[ a,[S VG[ jCF.8 VYJF Z\ULG CF[.
XS[ K[P
DF[lG8Z 5Z D/T]\ 5lZ6FD 5FK/YL HF[JF DF8[ ;\U|C SZL XSFI GlCP
SFIDL VFp85]8 DF8[ TDFZ[ l5|g8Z HF[.V[ H[ 56 ;FDFgI VFp85]8 l0JF.;
K[P
SLAF[0" s .G5]8 l0JF.; f
SLAF[0"G[ .G5]8 l0JF.; TZLS[ VF[/BJFDF\ VF[ K[PVF SF[d5F[Gg8 SF[g;F[, 002E

8F.5ZF.8ZG[,UEU D/T] VFJ[ K[P SLAF[0" JF5ZL PC 5Z SFD SZTL JBT[ TDG[ VDU 5Z RDSTF[
5F[.g8 N[BFX[ H[ S;"Z K[P TD[ HIFZ[ SLAF[0" 5Z V[S SL NAFJF[ KF[ tIFZ[ HIF\ S;"Z V,5h,5 YT] CX[
tIF\ V[S V1FZ N[BFX[ VG[ S;"Z V[S :YFG VFU/ JWX[P SLAF[0" DF\ H]NFH]NF SFIF[" SZJF H]NLH]NL SL
VFJ[,L CF[I K[P

SL

SFI"
H[ ;F[O8J[Z JF5ZJFDF VFJL ZCI] CF[I T[GF 5Z VFWFZLT BF; SFIF["
F1-F12
SZJF J5ZFI K[
sO\SXG SL f
Enter sV[g8Zf VYJF lSAF[0" DFZOT[ NFB, Y. ZC[,F 0[8F VYJF ;}RGFGF[ VD, SZJF J5ZFI
K[
lZ8G"
caps lock sS[%; ,F[S f DF[8F sS[l58,f V1FZF[ NFB, SZJF J5ZFI K[
shift slXO8f
HF[ caps lock SL A\W CF[I tIFZ[ SF[.56 V1FZGL SL ;FY[ NAFJJFYL T[
S[5L8, V1FZ K5FI K[P VG[ HIFZ[ caps lock RF,] CF[I tIFZ[ T[ ;FNF
sGFGFf V1FZF[ KF5[ K[P SL 5Z KF5JFDF VFJTF p5ZGL CFZGF V1FZF[ s
A[ GLXFGLVF[ JF/L SL f NFB, SZJF 56 J5ZFI K[
VgI SL ;FY[ NAFJJFYL T[ Sd%I]8ZDF\ BF; ;\N[XF NFB, SZ[ K[
ctrl
alt
sS\8=F[,fsV<8Zf
Backspace sA[S:5[;f S;"ZGL l:YTLGF 0FAL AFH]GF\ V1FZF[ G[ E}\;L GFBJF J5ZFI K[
Num lock sG\AZ ,F[S f gI]D[lZS SLAF[0" s VF\S0F DF8[GL SLAF[0" 5ZGL HuIFfGL ;\bIFNX"G SL RF,]
SZJF J5ZFI K[
Home, End, Pg- BF; SFIF[" SZJF J5ZFI K[ H[GFYL TD[ VeIF;S|D NZdIFG 5lZlRT YXF[
up,Pg-dn
S;"ZGL CF,GL HuIFV[ V1FZF[ pD[ZJF J5ZFI K[
Insert/Ins .g;8"
S;"ZGL CF,GLHuIF V[ V1FZF[ N}Z SZJF J5ZFI K[
Delete/Del s0L,L8f
Escape/ESC s V[:S[5f V[%,LS[XG 5Z VFWFZ ZFB[ K[P ;FDFgI ZLT[ SDFg0 s;]RGFf G[ N}Z
SZJF J5ZFI K[
Print
Screen :S|LG 5Z H[ SF. NXF"JFT] CF[I T[G[ l5|g8 SZJF J5ZFI K[
s5|Lg8:S|LGf
l;:8D lZSJFI0"4 V[%,LS[XG 5Z VFWFZ ZFB[ K[
Sys Rq
v DFp; o
DFp; V[S GFGL l0JF.; K[ H[ ,F\AF JFIZYL l;:8D ;FY[ HF[0FI[, CF[I K[P VF ALHL V[S .g5]8
l0JF.; K[ H[GL C[ZO[ZYL l:S|G 5Z 5F[.g8ZGL C[ZO[Z YFI K[P ;FDFgI ZLT[ T[G[ A[ S[ +6 A8G CF[I K[
H[G[ JF5ZLG[ I]hZ l:S|G 5ZYL lJS<5F[ 5;\N SZL XS[ K[P
v l5|g8Z o
lJhI]V, l0;%,[ I]lG8 sVDUf 5ZGF VFp85]8 sN|xI fG[ HF[JF DF8[ ;\U|C SZL XSFTF[ GYLP
SFIDL 5lZ6FD DF8[ TDFZ[ l5|g8ZGL H~Z 50X[ H[ 56 ;FDFgI l0JF.; K[P l5|g8ZG[ JF5ZLG[ TD[
SFU/ 5Z 5lZ6FD D[/JL XSF[ KF[P l5|g8;" B}A h05YL KF5JF DF8[ ;1FD CF[I K[P PC ;FY[ ;FDFgI
ZLT[ J5ZFTF l5|g8;" 0F[8D[l8=S; VG[ ,[;Z l5|g8;" K[P
0F[8D[l8=S; l5|g8Z
85SF\VF[ s0F[8; f YL AG[,F
V1FZF[ KF5[ K[
;[Sg0 NL9 Z__ YL Z5_
V1FZF[GL h05
!#Z SF[,D GF[ SFU/ :JLSFZ[ K[
lAGBRF"/

.gSvH[8 l5|g8Z
,[;Z l5|g8Z
;\5}6"56[ NXF"JTF V1FZF[ KF5[ K[ ;\5}6"56[ NXF"JTF V1FZF[ KF5[ K[
lDGL8NL9 $ YL ( 5FGFGL h05
(_ SF[,D GF[ SFU/ ;JLSFZ[ K[
DwID lS\DTL
8[A, !PZ l5|g8;" JrR[GL ;ZBFD6L
8

lDGL8NL9 $ YL Z_ 5FGFGL
h05
(_ SF[,D GF[ SFU/ ;JLSFZ[ K[
BRF"/

v VgI .g5]8 l0JF.;L; o


v :S[GZ o
VF l0JF.; SF[.56 0F[SI]D[g8 VYJF l0JF.;G[ ;S[G SZ[ K[ VG[ T[GL l0h8, .D[H SF[d%I]8ZDF
AGFJ[ K[P
v 8R l:S|G s lSIF[:S f
vHF[I l:S|G v U[d; ZDJF J5ZFI K[P
v VgI VFp85]8 l0JF.;L; o
v %,F[8Z v GSXFVF[ KF5JF VF l0JF.; J5ZFI K[P

sZf CF0"J[Z VG[ ;F[O8J[Z GL ,F1Fl6STFVF[ o


CF0"J[Z o
CF0"J[Z SF[d%I]8ZG[ H VF[/BJF J5ZFTF[ XaN K[P TDFD JFIZ 4 DF.SF|[5F|;[;Z4 .G5]8 VG[
VFp85]8 l0JF.;L; VG[ HF[. XSFI VG[ AN,L XSFI T[JF VgI EFUF[ G[ Sd%I]8ZGF CF0"J[Z SC[ K[P
Sd%I]8ZGF TDFD EF{lTS EFUF[ CF0"J[Z K[P cEF{lTSc V[8,[ V[JF EFU H[ HF[. XSFI VG[ AN,L XSFIP
;F[O8J[Z o
Sd%I]8ZG[ .lrKT SFI" SZJF ;]RGF VF5JL 50[ K[ T[YL Sd%I]8Z[ VG];ZJFGL ;]RGFVF[
TASSFJFZ GSSL SZJFG] H~ZL K[P Sd%I]8Z NJFZF ;DHL XSFI T[JL EFQFFDF\ ,BFI[, ;}RGFVF[GL
VFJL l;SJg; s`F|[^FLf G[ Sd%I]8Z 5F[|U|FD SC[ K[P SOFTWARE XaN Sd%I]8Z 5|F[U|FDGF[ ;[8 K[P
RF[SS;56[ SCLV[ TF[ ;F[O8J[Z V[8,[ V[Sl+T 5|F[U|FD H[GF[ C[T] CF0"J[Z DXLGGL 1FDTFVF[ JWFZJFGF[
CF[I K[P Sd%I]8Z ;F[O8J[Z +6 S1FFVF[DF\ JC[\RL XSFI
v l;:8D ;F[O8J[Z
v ;FDFgI C[T] DF8[ GF ;F[O8J[Z
v V[%,LS[XG ;F[O8J[Z

ZP! Sd%I]8Z G]\ JUL"SZ6 o


Sd%I]8;" T[DGF SN VG[ T[VF[ H[ C[T] 5}6" SZ[ K[ T[GL N|lQ8V[ V,UV,U CF[I K[P VFBF[ VF[Z0F[
ZF[SL XS[ T[JF Sd%I]8;"YL DF\0LG[ GFGL 5[8L DF\ ,. XSFI T[JF Sd%I]8;" CF[I K[P VF Sd%I]8;" DF[8L
;\:YFVF[4 ;ZSFZL VG[ BFGUL ;\:YFVF[ VG[ JW] G[ JW] 3ZF[DF\ JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P ;\:YFVF[ J{7FlGSYL
JFl6lHIS 5|SFZGF lJlJW J5ZFX DF8[ Sd%I]8;" JF5Z[ K[P ;F{YL jIF5S56[ J5ZFTF Sd%I]8;'G[ 5;"G,
Sd%I]8;" sPCf SC[JFI K[ H[ ;FDFgI ZLT[ 8[A, 5Z ZFBL XSFI K[P
Sd%I]8;" H[ 5|J'lT SZL XS[ K[ T[GF 5|SFZGF VFWFZ[ T[G[ GLR[ D]HA JUL"S'T SZL XSFI K[ o
V[G[,F[U Sd%I]8Z o
VF Sd%I]8;" EF{lTS HuUF V[8,[ S[ TF5DFG4 HyYF[4 NAF6 JU[Z[G[ DF5L XS[ K[ VG[ T[G[
;\bIFSLI D}<IF[DF\ 5ZLJTL"T SZ[ K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[4 YDF["DL8Z SF[. U6TZL SZT] GYL 56 T[DF\ ZC[,F\
DZSI]ZLs5FZFf GF lJ:TZ6YL XZLZG]\ pQ6TFDFG DF5[ K[P V[G[,F[U Sd%I]8;" J{7FlGS VG[ .HG[ZL
C[T]VF[ DF8[ JF5ZJFDF VFJ[ K[P
l0lh8, Sd%I]8;" o
VF Sd%I]8;" l0hL8, 0[8FG[ R,FJ[ K[ VG[ T[GF 5Z UFl6TLS VG[ TFlS"S SFD SZ[ K[P l0hL8,
Sd%I]8;" lJlJW 5|SFZGF 0[8F ;[8G[ VG[ ;}RGFVF[G[ ;\U\C SZL XS[ K[ T[YL T[G[ H]NLH]NL V[%,LS[XGDF
JF5ZL XSFI K[P
l0hL8, Sd%I]8;"GF 5|SFZF[ o VFHGF Sd%I]8;" VFBF VF[Z0FG[ ZF[SL XS[ T[JF 5|SFZYL DF\0LG[
GFGL GF[8A}S SZTF 56 GFGF 5|SFZGF V,UV,U SNGF CF[I K[P T[DGF SN VG[ T[DGL ;5L0 sUTLf4
;\U|C1FDTF JU[Z[G[ VFWFZ[ Sd%I]8;"G[ GLR[ D]HAGF 5|SFZDF\ JC[\RL XSFIP
v ;]5Z Sd%I]8Z
v D[.GO|[D Sd%I]8Z
v DLGL Sd%I]8Z
v DF.SF|[ Sd%I]8Z

10

_ ;]5Z Sd%I]8Z o VG[S 5|F[;[;Z VG[ JW] ;FZL 8[SGF[,F[HL JF5ZL JWFZ[ H05L 5|F[;[;L\U :5L0
;FY[GF
VF
lJXF/
Sd%I]8;" K[P VF Sd%I]8;"
H[DF\ B}A VF[KF ;DIDF[
lJXF/ 0[8FG[ R,FJJFGF[
CF[I T[JF CKFDFGGL
VFUFCL VG[ p5U|CGF
N[BZ[B v lGI\+6 H[JL
V858L
J[7FlGS
V[%,LS[XG R,FJJF YFI
K[P
;]5Z Sd%I]8;"DF\
VG[S ALU CF[I K[ H[
V[SH ;DI[ cc 5[Z[,,
5\F[;[;L\U
cc
TZLS[
VF[/BFTF SFD SZJF
;1FD CF[I K[P VF Sd%I]8;"GF pNFCZ6F[ CRAY, XMP24, NEC500 , PARAM s EFZT[
lJS;FJ[, 5|YD ;]5Z Sd%I]8Z f
_ D[.GO|[D Sd%I]8Z o D[.GO|[D B}A DF[8F Sd%I]8Z CF[I K[ H[DF D]bI D[DZL s IFNXlSTf
;\U|C1FDTF B}A JW] CF[I K[P T[ DF[8L ;\bIFDF\ 0[8FG[ p\RL :5L0DF\ 5|\F[;[; SZL XS[ K[P VFD T[G[ DF[8L
S\5GLVF[4 ;ZSFZL lJEFUF[
JU[Z[ NJFZF JF5ZJFDF VFJ[ K[P
VF D[.GO|[D Sd%I]8ZG[ G[8JS"
5Z GFGF Sd%I]8;" ;FY[ HF[0L
XSFI K[ T[DH T[ lJXF/ ZFQ8=LI
VYJF VF\TZZFQ8=LI G[8JS"GF
CF[:8 s IHDFG f TZLS[ SFD
SZLG[ CHFZF[ I]H;'G[ ;CFI SZL
XS[ K[P

11

_ DLGL Sd%I]8Z o DLGL Sd%I]8Z DwID SNG]\ Sd%I]8Z K[4 H[ DF.SF|[Sd%I]8Z SZTF JW] DF[\3]
VG[ XlSTXF/L CF[I K[P CSLSTDF T[ D[.GO[D Sd%I]8ZG]\ GFG] AGFJ[,]\ Jh"G K[P VF Sd%I]8Z V[SH
;DI[ S[8,FS I]h;'G[ ;CFI SZL XS[ K[P VFJ] T[ D<8L8lD"G,4 8F.D X[ZL\U l;:8DYL SZL XS[ K[P VFH[
JFl6lHIS ;\:YFVF[DF\ DLGL Sd%I]8Z ,FSl5|I 0[8F 5|F[;[;L\U l;:8D K[P DLGL Sd%I]8;"GF\ J[5FZDF 5[ZF[,
5\F[;[;L\U4 5|F[;[; S\8=F[,4 .gJF[.;L\U s AL, AGFJJF f VG[ HyYFGF lGI\+6 H[JF 36F p5IF[UF[ K[P VF
Sd%I]8;" D]bItJ[ DF[8L ;\:YFVF[ 4 ;ZSFZ VG[ DwID SNGL ;\:YFVF[ DF8[ lJEFULI Sd%I]8Z TZLS[
JF5ZJFDF VFJ[ K[P
_ DF.S|F[ Sd%I]8Z o VF ;F{YL GFGF 5|SFZGF p5,aW Sd%I]8;" K[P DF.SF|[Sd%I]8ZDF\
DF.SF|[5|F[;[;Z GFDGL V[S RL5 5Z Ul6T VG[ LGI\+6 V[SDF[ HF[0FI[,F CF[I K[P DF.SF|[Sd%I]8ZGL
SFDULZLGL lJlJW S1FFVF[G[ VFWFZ[ T[G[ GLR[GFDF\ JC[\RL XSLV[ o
_ 5;"G, Sd%I]8Z o VFGF[ pnF[U !)** DF\ X~ YIF[ HIFZ[ V[5,4 Z[0LIF[ X[S VG[ SF[DF[0F[Z[
8[A, 5Z ZFBL XSFI T[JF\ Sd%I]8Z G[ U|FCS DF8[GL J:T] TZLS[ VF[/B VF5LP 5|YD I\+F[ DF\ ( AL8
DF.S|F[5|\F[;[;Z4 DCtTD &$ KB D[DZL VG[ ;\U|C DF8[ O,F[5L l0:S J5ZFIF\ CTF\P V[5, Z4 V8FZL
5__ VG[ SF[DF[0F[Z &$ ,F[Sl5|I CF[D Sd%I]8;" AgIF T[DH lJ;LS[<S :5|[0XL8GL X~VFT YTF VF
S\5GLVF[DF\YL V[5, ;O/ Y.P VFD KTF\4 !)(_ GF\ N;SFGL X~VFTGF JQFF["DF\ J[S8Z U|FlOS4
GF["Y:8FZ4 VF[;AF["G VG[ S[5|F[ H[JF\ V;\bI J[g0Z s K]8SlJS|[TF f NJFZF JF5ZJFDF\ VFJTF Z80
5\F[;[;Z VG[ CPIM VF[5Z[l8\U l;:8DG]\ ;DU| JFl6HI lJ`J 5Z 5\E]TF :YFL5T YI]\P !)(#
;]WLDF\ CF0"l0:SGF[ J5ZFX X~ YIF[ 5Z\T] CP/M VF[5Z[l8\U l;:8D .lTCF; AGL U.P
_ 0[:S8F[5 Sd%I]8Z o 0[:S8F[5 Sd%I]8Z :JT\+ 5;"G, Sd%I]8Z K[ H[ BF; SZLG[ 3Z VYJF
8[A, 5Z ZFBLG[ JF5ZJF DF8[
K[P VF XaN D]bItJ[ VF
5|SFZGF\ 5;"G, Sd%I]8ZG[
5F["8[A, Sd%I]8;" VYJF
,[58F[5 YL V,U 5F0JF
J5ZFI K[ 5Z\T] PDA H[JF
VgI 5|SFZGF\ Sd%I]8Z4 ;J"Z
VG[ D[.GO|[DYL V,U 5F0JF
J5ZFI K[P
CF,DF 0[:S8F[5 JWFZ[
5F[QFFI T[JF VG[ ;J";FDFgI
Sd%I]8Z K[ H[G[ JFZ\JFZ
J[5FZ4 XF/F4 3Z VG[ VgI
12

;\:YFVF[DF\ JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P ,UEU NZ[S VFW]lGS 0[;S8F[5 Sd%I]8Z DF[0I],Z K[P V[8,[ S[ T[GF
EFU ;C[,F.YL AN,L XSFI K[ VYJF T[G[ V5U|[0 SZL XSFI K[P H[ Sd%I]8ZGL 5[8L VF0L D}S[,L CF[I K[
s ;FDFgI ZLT[ DF[GL8Z 5[8LGL p5Z ZFBJFDF VFJ[ K[ f T[G[ 56 0[:S8F[5 Sd%I]8Z SC[ K[P VBFJL
5[8LVF[G[ 0[:S8F[5 SC[ K[ VG[ AFSLGL 5[8LVF[G[ 8FJ;" SC[JFI K[P
VF JUL"SZ6GF[ 5|SFZ H6FJ[ K[ S[ T[ X\SF:5N K[P OST RF,] ;FDFgI ZLT[ p5,a3 l0JF.;L;G[
;DFJJFG]\ ;FDFgI K[P Sd%I]8ZGF[ h05L lJSF; YFI K[ H[GFYL Sd%I]8ZGF JFZ\JFZ GJF p5IF[UF[ D/[ K[
VG[ CF,GL jIFbIFVF[ h05YL H}GL AGL HFI K[P CJ[ JF5ZJFDF G VFJTF W6F JUF["JF/F Sd%I]8;"G[ s
H[D S[ l0OZgXLI, V[G,F.HZ f ;FDFgI ZLT[ VFJL IFNLDF\ pD[ZJFDF VFJTF GYLP cSd%I]8Zc XaNGL
:5Q856[ jIFbIF SZJF DF8[ VgI JUL"SZ6 5wWlTVF[ H~ZL K[P
_ CF.A|L0 Sd%I]8Z o V[G[,F[U VG[ l0HL8, Sd%I]8;"GL ,F1Fl6STFVF[G[ HF[0LG[ CF.A|L0
Sd%I]8Z AGFJJFDF VFJ[ K[P VF Sd%i]8ZDF\ S[8,LS U6TZLVF[ V[G,F[U EFUDF\ VG[ S[8,LS U6TZLVF[
0LhL8, EFUDF\ SZJFDF VFJ[ KP[ pNFCZ6 TZLS[4 CFl:58,DFP V[G[,F[U l0JF.;L; NNL'GF\ C|NIGF
WASFZF\4 pQ6TFDFG VG[ VUtIGF lRgCF[ DF5L XS[ K[P VF DF5G[ tIFZAFN VF\S0FSLI D}<IF[DFP
~5F\TlZT SZJFDF VFJ[ K[ VG[ :S|LG 5Z NXF"JL XS[ T[ DF8[ l;:8DGF l0lH8, EFUG[ VF5JFDF VFJ[ K[
H[G[ 0F[S8Z DF[GL8Z s N[BZ[B v lGI\+6 f SZ[ K[P

ZPZ 0[8FqDFlCTLGL ZH}VFT q 0[8F 5|F[;[;L\UGL ,F1Fl6STFVF[ o


Sd%I]8Z .,[S8=F[D[S[GLS, l0JF.; K[ H[ 0[8FG[ ;\U|C SZ[,F ;}RGFSLI SFI"S|D s 5|F[U|FD f GL
DNNYL VY";EZ 0[8FDF\ ~5F\TZLT SZ[ K[P
!P 0[8FG] Sd%I]8Z NJFZF 5\F[;[; Y. XS[ T[ :J~5DF\ ~5F\TZ6
ZP Sd%I]8Z NJFZF 0[8FGF[ ;\U|C VYJF 5|F[;[;L\U
#P I\+F[ NJFZF DFlCTLG]\ 5|F[;[;L\UP .gOZD[XG 8[SGF[,F[HL jIJ;FI DF8[ 5|YD GFD 0[8F
5|F[;[;L\U JF5ZJFDF\ VFjI] CT]\ VG[ CH] 56 T[ D}/ 8F.8, TZLS[ J5ZFI K[P X~VFTGF lNJ;F[DF\ T[GF[
VY" 8[aI],[l8\U DXLGDF\ 5[R SF0" NFB, SZJFGF[ YTF[ CTF[ tIFZ 5KL Sd%I]8;" VFjIF\P
$P 0[8F 5|F[;[;L\U o BF ;\NE"DF\4 T[ BF; SZLG[ jIJ;FIGF BZ[BZ 0[8FGF 5|F[;[;L\UGF[ p<,[B SZ[
K[ s ZF[ G\AZ S|[XL\Uf H[ VF[5Z[l8\U l;:8D VG[ G[8JS"GF VF[JZC[0GF 5|F[;[;L\UYL V,U K[P 36F
lS:;FVF[DF\ VF[5Z[l8\U l;:8D 5|F[;[;L\UGL ;ZBFD6LV[ Sd%I]8Z B}A VF[K]\ 0[8F 5|F[;[;L\U SZ[ K[P

ZP# DFlCTL VG[ 0[8FGL jIFbIF4 0[8FGF D}/E}T 5|SFZF[ o


0[8F o 0[8F V[8,[ VjIJl:YT sZF[f CSLSTF[P TD[ HF6F[ KF[ S[ Sd%I]8Z VF56G[ W6L AFATF[
SZJFDF VG[ D]xS[,LVF[ pS[,JFDF DNN SZ[ K[P 0[8F V[8,[ GFDF[4 VFS'lTVF[ VYJF D]xS[,L pS[,JF H~ZL
SF[.56 lJUTP
DFlCTL o 0[8FG[ IF[uI S|DDF\ 5|F[;[; SZLG[ VYJF 0[8F JF5ZTF ,F[SF[G[ VY";EZ CF[I T[JF .lrKT
OF["D[8DF[ 5F|[;[; SZLG[ D/TL DFlCTLP Sd%I]8Z 5+F[4 VC[JF,F[4 IFNLVF[ VYJF V;\bI VgI lJUTF[GF
:J~5DF\ DFlCTL VF5JF H]NLH]NL ZLT[ 0[8F 5|F[;[; SZJF H]NFH]NF 5|F[U|FD JF5ZL XS[ K[P
0[8FGF\ D}/E}T 5|SFZF[ o
5\F[U|FDL\UDF\ SF[. BF; 5|SFZGL DFlCTLG]\ JUL"SZ6 P DF6;F[ H]NLH]NL 5|SFZGF\ 0[8F JrR[ TOFJT
;C[,F.YL XF[WL XS[ K[P
_ .g8[UZo JW] ;FDFgI VY"DF\ SCLV[TF[ VFBL ;\bIF s5}6F"\S fP V[S ;\bIF H[GF SF[. EFU CF[.
XS[ GCLP
13

_ O,F[8L\U 5F[.g8 o NXF\X ;FY[GL ;\bIF4 pNFCZ6 TZLS[ # 5}6F"\S K[ 56 #P5 O,F[8L\U 5F[.g8
;\bIF K[P
_ V1FZs,BF6f o JF\RL XSFI T[J] ,BF6P

ZP$ 0[8FqDFlCTLGF[ OF., TZLS[ ;\U|C o


U6TZL NZdIFG JFZ\JFZ 5FK/GL U6TZLVF[ DF8[ p5IF[UDF\ ,[JF DF8[ JrR[GL J[<I]G[ ;\U|C
SZJ ]H~ZL CF[I K[ W6F Sd%I]8;"GL SFDULZL D]bItJ[ T[ T[GL D[DZLDF\YL J[<I]h JFPRL VG[ ,BL XS[ K[ T[
h05 VG[ D[DZLGL ;DU| 1FDTFYL GSSL YFI K[P D}/E}T ZLT[ JRUF/FGL J[<I} DF8[ D[DZL JF5ZJFDF
VFJTL CTL 56 !)$_GF N;SFDF VF ZLT[ 5|F[U\FDG[ H ;\U|CL XSFI T[J] ;}RG YI] CT]P VF 5C[,[YL
VFH[ J5ZFI K[ T[ 5|SFZGF 5|F[U|FD ;\U|C YI[,F 5|YD Sd%I]8;"GF[ lJSF; YIF[P

ZP5 8=A,X]l8\U s ;D:IFGF[ pS[, f o


8=A,X]8L\U ;D:IFGF pS[, 5|SFZG]\ K[P T[ D]xS[,LGF 5|Fl%T:YFGG[ 5lwWT;Z XF[W[ K[ H[YL T[GF[
p5FI Y. XS[P l;:8D V[0DLGL:8+[XG s ;\RF,Gf VG[ .,[S8=F[lGS; H[JF\ W6F\ 1F[+F[DF\ 8=A,X]8L\U
JF5ZJFDF VFJ[ K[P ;FDFgI ZLT[ ;D:IFGF XSI SFZ6F[G[ V[SAFH] SZL GFBJF V[,LDLG[XG s N}Z
SZJFGL f 5|F[;[; J5ZFI K[P ;FDFgI ZLT [8=A,X]8L\U V[SFV[S SFD SZTF A\W YI[, SF[.S AFATG[ ,FU]
5F0JFDF VFJ[ K[ T[YL 5\YD OF[S; VYJF wIFG X]\ A\W YI[, K[ T[GF 5Z V5FI K[P VFD KTF\4 SFZ6GF
BF8F TFZ6 5Z G HJFI T[GL SF/HL ,[JL HF[.V[ SFZ6S[ SF[. ;FY[ ;\A\lWT CF[J] T[GF[ VY" C\D[XF T[
SFZ6~5 CF[I T[ GYLP

14

#P lJg0F[hGF[ 5lZRI s DF.S|F[;F[O8 lJg0F[h f o


#P! VF[5Z[8L\U l;:8D VG[ lJg0F[hGF 5FIFGF l;wWF\TF[ X]\ K[ m
Sd%I]8Z 5Z NFB, SZJFDF VFJTL s ,F[0 f 5|YD 5|F[U|FD VF[5Z[8L\U l;:8D K[ H[GF
JUZ Sd%I]8Z
lAGp5IF[UL K[P
VF[5Z[8L\U
l;:8DGF[ C[T]
CF0"J[Z
VG[
;F[O8J[ZG[
;]IF[HLT VG[
GLI\+LT
SZJFGF[ K[ H[YL
T[GL l0JF.;
O,[S;LA, 56
VG]DFG Y. XS[
T[ ZLT[ JTL" XS[P VF[5Z[8L\U l;:8D I]hZ VG[ Sd%I]8Z JrR[G] HF[0F6 K[P
Sd%I]8Z ;F[O8J[ZG[ A[ D]bI S1FFVF[DF\ JC[\RL XSFI o V[%,LS[XG ;F[O8J[Z VG[ l;:8D ;F[O8J[ZP
A|]S;CLIZGF DT[ cc I\+GF J5ZFX DF8[ BF; SZLG[ VD]S SFIF[' SZJFGF 5|F[U|FD WZFJ[ T[ V[%,LS[XG
;F[O8J[Z K[Pcc V[%,LS[XG ;F[O8J[ZGF pNFCZ6DF :5|[0XL84 0[8FA[.h l;:8D4 0[:S8F[5 5a,LXL\U
l;:8D4 5|F\U|FD 0[J,F[5D[g8 ;F[O8J[Z VG[ U[d;GF[ ;DFJ[X YFI K[P V[%,LS[XG ;F[O8J[Z ;FDFgI ZLT[
Sd%I]8Z 5|F[U|Fd; JLX[ SF[. JFT SZ[ tIFZ[ VF56[ ;DHLV[ T[ 5|F[U|FD K[P VF ;F[O8J[Z I]h;" DF8[ SF[.
BF; ;D:IF pS[,JF DF8[ l0hF.G YI[, K[P
ALHL AFH]V[ l;:8D ;F[O8J[Z JW] 5FZNX"S VG[ 5Z\5ZFUT Sd5I]8Z I]hZ NJFZF VF[KL
wIFGDF VFJTL J:T] K[P VF ;F[O8J[Z ;FDFgI 5|F[U|FDL\U VG]S}/TF 5}ZL 5F0[ K[ H[DF\ 5|F[U|FD;" T[DGL
H~ZLIFTF[G[ DFOS VFJ[ T[ ZLT[ VD]S V[%,LS[XG AGFJ[ K[P VF V[GJFIZD[g8 s VG]S}/TF f4 CF0"J[ZDF\
p5,aW G CF[I T[JF GJF O\SXG 5}ZF 5F0[ K[ VG[ B[%,LS[XG R,FJJF ;A\WL SFD SZ[ K[ sG8 !))*fP
l;:8D ;F[O8J[Z Sd%I]8ZGF CF0"J[Z VG[ Sd%I]8Z R,FJJF I]hZG[ H~ZL CF[I T[JF\ V[=%,LS[XG
;F[O8J[ZGL JrR[ S0L TZLS[ JT[" K[P GLR[GF[ 0FIFU|FD V[%,LS[XG ;F[O8J[Z VG[ l;:8D ;F[O8J[Z JrR[GF[
;\A\W J6"J[ K[P
V[%,LS[XG ;F[O8J[Z
Sd%I]8ZU[d;

:5|[0XL8

J<0"5|F[;[;;"

0[8FA[.h

l;:8D ;F[O8J[Z
VF[5Z[l8\U

CF0"J[Z
l0:S4DFp; JU[Z[

15

I]l8l,8Lh

.g8ZG[8A|Fph;"

VF[5Z[l8\U l;:8DGL +6 D]bI HJFANFZLVF[ GLR[ 5|DF6[ K[ o


!P
lSAF["0" DF\ YL D/TF .g5]8 sD[;[Hf VF[/BJF4 l0:%,[ :S|LG 5Z VFp85}8 DF[S,J]\4 l0:S 5Z
OF., VG[ l0Z[S8ZLGL lJUTF[ ZFBJL T[DH l0:S 0=F.J VG[ l5|g8;" H[JF 5[ZLOZ, sVFG]XF\lUSf
l0JF.;G[ lGI\+6 SZJF H[JF D}/E}T SFIF[" SZJFP
ZP
V[SH ;DI[ RF,] 5|F[U|FD VG[ I]h;" V[SALHFGL ;FY[ NB,ULZL G SZ[ T[ ;]lGl`RT SZJ]\P
#P
;F[O8J[Z %,[8OF["D 5}~ 5F0J]\ H[GF 5Z VgI 5|F[U|Fd; s V[8,[ S[ V[%,LS[XG ;F[O8J[Z f RF,L XS[P
EFZTDF ;F{YL JW] J5ZFTL VF[5Z[l8\U l;:8D DF.S|F[;F[O8GL lJg0F[h VF[5Z[l8\U l;:8D K[P
T[DF\YL PC DF\ ;F{YL JW] J5ZFTL VF[5Z[l8\U l;:8D lJg0F[h )( VG[ lJg0F[h XP K[P DF.S|F[;F[O8
lJg0F[h Z___ VF[5Z[l8\U l;:8D G[8JS"DF\ J5ZFI K[P
lJg0F[hGF[ 5lZRI o
lJg0F[h :S|LG 5F8"; s :S|LGGF\ EFU f o TDFZL :S|LGGF\ D]bI +6 EFU K[P 0[:S8F[54 lJg0F[h VG[
VF.SF[g;P
0[:S8F[5 o 3Z[qSR[ZLDF\ TDFZF 8[A,GF p5ZGF EFUGL ;DS1F K[ H[ TDFZF DF8[ SFD SZJFGF[
;\5}6" lJ:TFZ K[P TD[ VCLIF\ VF.8d; pD[ZL VYJF N}Z SZL XSF[ KF[ s H[DS[ TDFZF 0[:S8F[5 5Z OF.,
VYJF S[<SI},[8Z D}SJ]\ f VG[ VF.8D VCL\TCL\ O[ZJL XSF[P HF[ TDFZF 0[:S8F[5 5ZGL VF.8DG[ EF{lTS
VF.8D ;JLSFZF[ TF[ lJg0F[h 0[:S8F[5 X]\ K[ T[ ;DHJ] ;C[,]\ AGX[P
lJg0F[h o TD[ SF[. SFD SZJF DF\UF[ tIFZ[ TD[ T[G[ TDFZF lSAF["0YLqDFp;YL l;,[S8 s5;\Nf SZF[
KF[ VG[ lJg0F[ s GJ]\ AF[1F f B},[ K[P VF OF.,GF OF[<0ZG[ BF[,JF q A\W SZJF H[J] K[P HIFZ[ lJg0F[h
X~ YFI K[ tIFZ[ 5|F[U|FD D[G[HZ lJg0F[h NXF"J[ K[P V[ GF[\WF[ S[ lJg0F[hG] GFD s 8F.8, f 8F.8,AFZ
slXQF"SGL 58Lf 5Z CF[I K[P lJg0Fh 5|F[U|FD DF8[ 5|FU
[ |FD D[G[HZ D}/E}T LJg0F[ K[P JF5ZJFDF\ VFJTF
TDFD VgI lJg0F[h 5|F[U|FD D[G[HZ lJG0F[GL H[D JT"X[ VG[ N[BFX[ s HF[S[ lJg0F[hGF 8F.8,GF VFWFZ[
lJQFIJ:T] V,UV,U ZC[X[f
lJg0F[hGF A[ D}/E}T 5|SFZF[ K[P V[%,LS[XG VG[ 0F[SI]D[g8P V[%,LS[XG lJG0F[hDF\ TD[ R,FJL
ZCIF KF[ T[ 5\F[U|FD CF[I K[ spPNFP V[S;[, VYJF 5FJZ5F[.g8 fP DF[8FEFUGF[ ;DI TD[ V[%,LS[XG
lJg0F[HDF\ SFD SZF[ KF[P0F[SI]D[g8 lJg0F[ TDFZL V[%,LS[XGGL V\NZGF[ lJg0F[ K[ H[DF\ TD[ SFD SZL ZCIF
KF[ T[ 0F[SI]D[g8G]\ lJQFIJ:T] CF[I K[P NZ[S V[%,LS[XG lJG0F[ NL9 TDFZF TDFZF V[SYL J3]] 0F[SI]D[G8
lJG0F[ B]<,F CF[. XS[P VF VtIFZ[ V858] H6FX[ 56 5FK/YL TD[ V[S V[S;Z;F.HDF TD[ VF
,F1Fl6STF HF[. XSXF[P
VF.SF[g; o lJg0F[hDF\GL VF.8DG[ VF.SF[GYL NXF"JFI K[ SFZ6S[ S\.S ALHL VF.8DGL T[
lR+~5 5|lTS'lT K[P VF lJg0F[hDF\ VF.SF[g; GFGF lJG0F[h H[JF ,FU[ K[ H[GF 5Z a,I]
8F.8,AFZ CF[I K[P T[ VtIFZ[ RF,] G CF[I T[JF 5|F[U|Fd; VG[ 0F[SI]D[g8; NXF"J[ K[P
VF.SF[g; T[ SG[G[ NXF"JJF AGFJFIF K[ T[GF VFWFZ[ V,UV,U CF[. XS[P

16

lJg0F[GL V[G[8F[DL s ZRGF f o


CJ[ TD[ lJG0F[ JFTFJZ6GF D}/ TtJF[G[ ;DHIF\ KF[ V[8,[ 0FIFU|FD ! GL ,[A, VF.8DGL
lJXLQ8 AFATF[ H6FJLV[P A8GG[ RF,] SZJF DFp;GF S,LSGF[ ;DFJ[X YFI K[ 56 CF, T[GL lR\TF G
SZLV[P CJ[ 5KLGF ;[SXGDF\ DFp;GF J5ZFXG] J6"G SZ[, K[ H[ lJg0F[GF EFUG[ RF,] SZJF s V[lS8J[8
fGL TDG[ 5|[Sl8; VF5X[P CJ[ TDFZ[ lJg0F[hGF EFUF[G[ ;DHJFGL H~Z K[P
8F.8, AFZ o
lJg0F[ V[%,LS[XG VYJF 0F[SI]D[g8G] GFD VCL\ NXF"J[ K[P T[ RF,] lJg0F[ 56 NXF"J[ K[P TDFZF
0[;S8F[5 5Z V[SH ;DI[ W6F lJg0F[ CF[. XS[ 56 SF[.56 ;DI[ SF[. V[SH lJg0F[ 5Z SFD Y. XS[ K[
sV[S8LJ lJg0F[fP lJg0F[ 5Z DFP; S,FS SZJFYL T[ ;lS|I AG[ K[P
lDGLDF.; VG[ D[S;LDF.; A8G o
lDGLDF.; o lJg0F[ :S|LGGF GLR[GF EFU[ VF.SF[G AG[ K[P
D[S;LDF.; o lJg0F[ ;DU| 0[:S8F[5 5Z KJF. HFI K[P D[S;LDF.h A8G V[SJFZ NAFJJFYL T[
RestoresZL:8F[Zf A8G AGL HFI K[P
GF["D, o VF A8G D[S;LDF.h YI[,F lJg0F[G[ T[ D[S;LDF.h[XG s DF[8] SIF" 5C[,F\ f 5C[,F\ H[
SNGF[ CTF[ T[ lJg0F[DF\ VYJF VF.SF[GJF/F lJg0F[G[ ZL:8F[Z s OZL :YF5J]\f SZ[ K[P
S\8=F[, AF[1F o
VF TDFZF 8F.8, AFZGF p5ZGF 0FAF CFYGF B}6[ VFJ[, K[P s X]\ T[ OF., 0=F[VZ C[g0,
H[J] ,FU[ K[ f VF A8GGF A[ SFIF[" K[ o
_ T[ S\8=F[, D[G]G[ BF[,[ K[P VF D[G] DFp;G[ AN,[ lSAF["0YL TDFZF lJG0F[G] SN lGI\+LT SZ[ K[P
H[JL ZLT[ DLGLDF.h VG[ D[S;LDF.h A8G SFI" SZ[ K[ VF O\SXG DFp;GL V[S S,LS s ;L\U, S,LS f YL
X~ YFI K[P
TD[ S\8=F[, AF[1F 5Z ;L\U, S,LS SZF[ tIFZ[ GLR[ D]HAG] D[G] AF[1F N[BFI K[P
_ T[ lJg0F[G[ A\3 SZ[ K[P VF TD[ H[ 5|F[U|FDG[ JF5ZL ZCIF\ CXF[ T[G[ A\3 SZX[ VYJF TD[ H[
5|SFZGF lJg0F[DF\ CXF[ T[GF VFWFZ[ 0F[SI]D[g8G[ A\W SZX[P S\8=F[, AF[1F 5Z DFp;GL 0A, S,LS SZJFYL
VFD YFI K[P

:S|F[, VF.8d; o
TDFZF lJg0F[GL T/LI[ VYJF
HD6L AFH]V[ VF VF.8D XF[I K[P :S|\LG
5Z lO8 G Y. XS[ T[JF lJXF/
lJQFIJ:T]DF\ C[ZO[Z SZJF s G[JLU[8 f
VFGL DNNYL TD[ SFIF[" SZL XSF[ KF[P TD[
17

p5Z4 GLR[4 0FA[ VG[ HD6[ SZL XSF[ KF[P :S|F[, VF.8d; GLR[ D]HA CF[I K[ o
_ :S|F[, A8g; o V[ZF[ s TLZ f GL GLXFGLJF/F AF[1F
_ :S|F[, AF[1F o TLZ JrR[G]\ AF[1F
D[G]AFZ s 588L f o
File

Edit

Format View Help

lJg0F[h ;FY[ SFD SZJF lJX[GL V[S VN|E]T JFT D[G]AFZ K[P
lJg0F[h 5|F[U|FD DF8[ ,BFI[, V[%,LS[XGDF\ D[G]AFZ CF[I K[4 T[GF 8[A, ;DFG CF[I K[ VG[ T[GF SFIF["
;DFG CF[I K[P HIF[ D[G]AFZ 5Z SF[. D[G]GL VF.8DG[ lS,S SZJFDF VFJ[ tIFZ[ T[ D[G] B},[ K[ H[DF W6F
lJS<5F[ CF[I K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[4 D[G]AFZGL V[S VF.8D OF., TDG[ V[%,LS[XG A\W SZJFGL ;FY[
N:TFJ[H Save s ;FRJJFf4 Open s BF[,JF f VG[ Print sKF5JFf GF lJS<5F[ VF5[ K[P s
TDG[ S\8=F[, AF[1F VG[ V[%,LS[XG A\W SZJFGF T[DFGF lJS<5F[ IFN CX[ f lJg0F[h TDG[ V[SH SFI" S.
ZLT[ SZJ] T[GF VG[S lJS<5F[ VF5[ K[P

#PZ I]hZ .g8ZO[; o


I]hZ .G8ZO[.; V[S DFwID K[ H[GF J0[ I]hZ s Sd%I]8Z JF5ZGFZ f Sd%I]8Z ;FY[
.g8ZV[S8 sDFCLTLGL VF5v,[f SZ[ K[P VF[5Z[l8\U l;:8D I]hZ .g8ZO[.; 5]~ 5F0[ K[P lJg0F[H XP
I]hZG[ U|FlOS, I]hZ .g8ZO[.; (GUI) s lR+F[GL DNNYL VFNFG5|NFGGL ;J,T f 5]~ 5F0[ K[P
lJg0F[h XPGF GUP lORZ VG[ DFp;GL DNNYL Sd%I]8Z R,FJJFG] B}A ;Z/ AgI] K[P UNIX
VF[5Z[8L\U l;:8D GUI VFWFlZT GYL 56 T[DF\ SDFg0 sVFN[Xf ,F.G .g8ZO[.; K[P l,GLS;
VF[5Z[l8\U l;:8D V[ UNIX VF[5Z[8L\U l;:8DGL GUIVFJ'lT K[P

#P# DFp; JF5ZJ]\ VG[ VF.SF[GG[ :S|LG 5Z C[ZO[Z SZJF o


DFp; 5F[.g8L\U .G5]8 l0JF.; s S\.S NXF"JT] 0[8F V\NZ NFB, SZJFG] K[ fP DFp; VG[
GUI ;UJ0 s .g8ZO[.;f VFWFlZT VF[5Z[8L\U l;:8D[ BZ[BZ Sd%I]8ZG[ JW] ;Z/ VG[ ;DHL
XSFI T[JF AGFJ[, K[P DFp; V[JL l0JF.; K[ H[ lJg0F[hDF\ J:T]VF[G[ R,FJ[ K[P TD[ DFp;G[T[GF 5[0
5Z R,FJF[ tIFZ[ DFp;G] 5F[.g8Z\ :S|\LG 5Z VFDT[D OZ[ K[P TD[ HIFZ[ DFp;G[ O[ZJF[ tIFZ[ :S|LG 5Z
OZT]\ 5F[.g8Z s TLZ H[J] f GFGL lGXFGL K[P
_ :S|LG 5Z SF[. VF[aH[S8 s J:T]f G[ NXF"JJF DFp;GF 5F[.g8ZG[ ;LWF H T[ J:T] 5Z NXF"JF[P
_ TDFZF DFp;G]\ 5F[.g8Z H[ VF[AH[S8G[ NXF"JL ZCI] CF[I tIF\ TDFZF DFp;GL ,[O8 S,LS
NAFJF[ VG[ h05YL T[G[ KF[0F[P ;FDFgI ZLT[ TD[ J:T]G[ SDFg0 VF5JF4 5|F[U|\FD X~ SZJF VYJF
VF[aH[S8G[ 5;\N SZJF S,LS SZF[ KF[P
_ VF[aH[S8G[ 0A, S,LS SZJF TD[ T[G[ NXF"JF[ KF[ VG[ 5KL DFp;GF 0FAF A8G G[ A[ JFZ
NAFJF[ KF[P HF[ TDFZ[ VF[aH[S8G[ ZF.8 S,LS SZJL CF[I TF[ T[G[ NXF"JF[ VG[ DFp;GF HD6L AFH]GF
A8GG[ NAFJF[ VG[ KF[0F[P 0FI,F[U AF[1FDF\YL SF[. VF[aH[S8G[ 5;\N SZJF VYJF V[%,LS[XGG[ X~ SZJF
lJg0F[h S,F;LS 0[:S8F[5DF\ 0A, S,LS SZJL V[ TZT H AF[1F A\W SZJFGL :8Fg00" D[Y0 s 5wWlTf K[P

18

_ VF[aH[S8G[ ZF.8vlS,S SZJF 5C[,F T[G[ NXF"JF[ tIFZ AFN DFp;GF 0FAL AFH]GF A8GG[
h05YL A[ JFZ NAFJLG[ KF[0F[P TD[ HIFZ[ SF[. VF[aH[S8G[ ZF.8 lS,S SZF[ tIFZ[ lJg0F[h VG[ W6L
V[%,LS[XG SF[g8[S:8 D[G] NXF"J[ K[ H[ T[ VF[aH[S8G[ ,UTF SDFg0 sVFN[XfGL IFNL NXF"J[ K[P
_ V[S VF[aH[S8G[ V[S HuIFV[YL ALHL HuIFV[ B;[0JF 5|YD T[G[ 5C[,F\ NXF"JF[ VG[ 5KL
DFp;GF A8GG[ S,LS SZL NAFJL ZFBF[ 56 T[G[ KF[0F[ GCL tIFZAFN4 TD[ H[ lNXFDF\ VF[aH[S8G[ B;[0JF
.rKTF CF[I tIF\ VF[aH[S8G[ B;[0L HFJP HIFZ[ 5F[.g8Z V[ l:YlTDF\ CF[I S[ HIF\ TD[ VF[aH[S8 VFJ[ T[J]
.rKF[ tIF\ T[G[ ,. HFJ TD[ HIF\ VF[aH[S8G[ HF[JF DF\UTF CF[J tIF\ DFp;G] A8G KF[0F[ VF[aH[S8G[ GJF
:Y/[ B;[0L ,. HJFGL 5|lS|IFG[ 0=[U VYJF S|F[5 SC[ K[P

#P$ My Computer VF.SF[G o


0[:S8F[5 5Z My Computer VF.SF[GG[ S,LS SZTF\ My Computer lJg0F[ B],X[P My
Computer lJg0F[ A , C JU[Z[ H]NLH]NL0=F.J NXF"JTF VF.SF[G T[DH l5|g8;"4 0FI,vV5 G[8J"SL\U
VG[ S\8=F[, 5[G, H[JF\ lZ;F["; s ;FWG~5f VF.SF[G NXF"J[ K[P H]NLH]NL 0=F.JGF\ VF.SF[G NZ[S 0=F.JGF\
lJQFIJ:T]G[ V[S;[; s RF,] SZJ]\f SZJF NI[ K[P l5|g8;" VF.SF[G, l;:8DDF\ .g:8F[, s pD[Z[,F\f
l5|g8;"GF\ S,[SXG WZFJT]\ OF[<0Z K[P T[GFYL I]hZ GJ]\ l5|g8Z 56 .g:8F[, SZL XS[ K[P NZ[S
lJg0F[hDF\ p5ZGL HD6L AFH]GF\ B}6[ +6 A8G CF[I K[ H[ lJg0F[G[ DLGLDF.h s GLR[ ,FJJF f4
D[S;LDF.h sDF[8F AGFJJFf VG[ A\W s S,F[hf SZJF\ JF5ZL XSFI K[P D[S;LDF.h SZ[, lJg0F[DF\
D[S;LDF.h A8GGL HuIFV[ ZL:8F[Z A8G VFJL HFI K[P GLR[GL VFS'lT My Computer GF[ lJg0F[
ATFJ[ K[P

#P5 lZ;F.S, ALG sRecycle Binf o


lJg0F[h N}Z SZ[, OF.,F[ s 0L,[8[0 OF.,F[f G[ ZL;F.S, ALGDF\ ;FRJ[ K[ H[ 0[:S8F[5DF\
VFJ[, CF[I K[P TD[ VS:DFT[ 0L,L8 SZ[, OF.,F[G[ 5FKL D[/JJF\ VYJF JW] l0:S HuIF D[/JJF\
lZ;F.S, ALGG[ BF,L SZL XSF[ KF[P

19

HIFZ[ TD[ OF., VYJF OF[<0ZG[ l0,L8 SZF[ KF[ tIFZ[ T[ HIF\ CF[I T[ OF[<0ZDF\YL N}Z YFI K[P T[
OF.,G[ O[<0ZDF\YL ;\U|ClJ:TFZDF B;[0[ K[ H[ lZ;F.S, ALG TZLS[ VF[/BFI K[P TD[ TDFZF 0[;S8F[5
5Z lZ;F.S, ALGG[ VF.SF[G TZLS[ HF[. XSF[ KF[P
lJg0F[h XP ;FJR[TLGF\ 5U,F\~5[ TDFD L0,L8[0 VF[AH[S84 OF.,F[4 O[F<0Z4 XF[8"S8 VG[
l5|g8;"G[ lZ;F.S, ALGDF B;[0[ K[P HF[ OF., VS:DFT[ l0,L8 YI[, CF[I TF[ TD[ lZ;F.S, ALGGF
VF.SF[GG[ 0A, S,LS SZLG[ T[GF OF.,D[G]DF\YL Restore lJS<5 5;\N SZLG[ T[G[ T[GF\ D}/:YFG[ 5ZT
DF[S,L XSF[ KF[ VFD KTF\4 HF[ OF.,F[G[ l0,L8 SZJFGL CF[I TF[ T[G[ lZ;F.S,ALGDF\YL 0L,L8 SZJFGL
ZC[ K[P CJ[ 5KLGL VFS'TL ZL;F.S, ALG lJg0F[ NXF"J[ K[ T[DH ZL;F.S,ALGDF\ OF.,F[ D[G[H SZJF
OF.,D[G]DF\ H] lJS<5F[ K[ T[ NXF"J[ K[P

#P& 8F:SAFZ4 :8F8"D[G] VG[ D[G]GL 5;\NUL o


8F:SAFZ o
8F:SAFZ V[S 588L K[ H[ lJg0F[h XP 0[:S8F[5GF Tl/I[ D]/ :J~5[ NXF"JJFDF\ VFJ[, K[P
8F:SAFZGL 0FAL AFH]V[ Start A8G CF[I K[P RF,] CF[I T[JL TDFD V[%,LS[XG 8F:SAFZ 5Z
DLGLDF.h0 A8G TZLS[ N[BFI K[P RF,] lJg0F[ NAFJ[, A8G TZLS[ N[BFI K[ HIFZ[ VgI TDFD
V[%,LS[XG p5;[,F\ A8G TZLS[ N[BFI K[P ;lS|I G CF[I T[ V[%,LS[XG A8GG[ S,LS SZTF\ T[
V[%,LS[XGG[ RF,] SZ[ K[ VG[ T[GF lJg0F[G[ RF,] lJg0F[ TZLS[ NXF"J[ K[P VFD4 8F:SAFZ GLR[ H6FJ[,
lR+DF\ NXF"J[, K[P

20

:8F8"D[G] o

Start Menu 8F:SAFZGF 0FAF K[0[ VFJ[,] CF[I K[P :8F8"D[G] lJg0F[h XP 0[:S8F[5GF :JrK
N[BFJGF[ V[S VF\TZLS EFU K[ SFZ6S[ T[ TDG[ TDFZF 0[:S8F[5 5ZGF S,8Z s V,UV,U VF.8d;f G[
DLGLDF.h SZJFDF DNN~5 YFI K[P :8F8" A8G 5Z S,LS SZJFYL 5F[5V5 D[G] s ACFZ VFJT] D[G] f
B},[ K[ H[DF\ Help, Run, VFN[X4 5|F[U\FDGL IFNL T[DH TFH[TZDF\ V[S;[; SZ[, 0F[SI]D[g8|;GL IFN L
CF[I K[ H[ V[S S,LSDF\ RF,] SZL XSFI K[P :8F8" D[G]DF\YL TD[ lJg0F[hGF\ N[BFJG[ VG[ V;ZG[ S:8DF.h
s ;]WFZF JWFZF f SZL XSF[ KF[4 OF.,F[ VG[ OF[<0ZG[ XF[WL XSF[ KF[ VG[ TDFZF Sd%I]8ZG[ A\W SZL XSF[
KF[P S[8,LS VF.8DDF D]bI VF.8DGL AFH]DF\ ;AD[G] B},[ K[ H[ 5;\NULGL IFNL NXF"J[ K[P

#P* V[%,LS[XG RF,] SZJL o


V[%,LS[XG RF,] SZJF 5|FU
[ |FD lJS<5 5;\N SZF[
VG[ TD[ H[ 5|\F[U|FD V[%,LS[XG X~ SZJF DF\UF[ T[GF 5Z
S,LS SZF[P VFS'lT !P5DF\ NXF"jIF 5|DF6[ 5|F[U|FD lJS<5
;AD[G] NXF"J[ K[ H[DF\ 5[8F lJS<5F[GL IFNL CF[I K[P
5|F[U|Fd; lJS<5 ;FDFgI ZLT[ Accessories s
V[;[;ZLhf4 :8F8"V54 SDFg0 5|F[d%8 VG[ lJg0F[h
V[S;%,F[,Z4 T[GF ;AD[G]DF\ NXF"J[ K[P
V[;[;ZLhGF
5[8F
lJS<5DF\
Games,Multimedia,System tools,S[,SI],[8Z4
S[,[g0Z45[.g84CFI5Z 8DL"G, VG[ JS"5[0GF[ ;DFJ[X YFI
K[P
VF lJS<5 H]NLH]NL V[%,LS[XG X~ SZJF J5ZFI
K[P :8F8"D[G]DF\ Run lJS<5GL DNNYL 56 J[Sl<5S ZLT[
V[%,LS[XG X~ SZL XSFI K[P I]hZ[ Run DF\ R,FJL
21

XSFI T[JL OF., V[S;LSI]8[A, OF., f G]\ GFD H6FJJFG]\ CF[I K[ VG[ TZTH V[%,LS[XG X~ YFI K[P
CJ[ 5KLGL VFS'TL Run lJg0F[ NXF"J[ K[P

#P( lJg0F[h V[S:%,F[ZZ4 OF.,4 OF[<0Z VG[ l0Z[S8ZL HF[JF o

lJg0F[h V[S:%,F[ZZ ( Explorer) My Computer YL JW] VFU/GF[ lJS<5 K[P lJg0F[h


V[S:%,F[ZZGL DNNYL TD[ ;C[,F.YL OF.,F[ VG[ OF[<0ZF[G[ B;[0L4 GS, SZL VG[ SF5L XSF[ KF[ VG[
SF[.56 OF[<0ZDF\ X]\ K[ T[ s lJQFIJ:T]f HF[. XSF[ KF[P
V[S:%,F[ZZ X~ SZJF DF8[ :8F8" D[G] 5Z S,LS SZF[ VG[ 5KL p5<aW lJS<5F[DF\YL V[S:%,F[ZZ
5;\N SZF[P GLR[ 5|SFZGF[ lJg0F[ N[BFX[P
lJg0F[h V[S:%,F[ZZGL 0FAL AFH]V[ TD[ TDFD 0=F.j; HF[XF[ VG[ HD6L AFH]V[ TDG[ 5;|N SZ[,
lJlXQ8 0=F.J VYJF OF[<0ZGF\ OF., VG[ OF[<0Z N[BFX[P :S|LG A[ EFUDF\ JC[\RFI[, K[v 0FAL AFH]V[
0=F.J VG[ HD6L AFH]V[ OF[<0ZF[P

#P) OF.,F[ VG[ OF[<0ZF[ AGFJJF VG[ T[GF GFD AN,JF o


OF[<0Z AGFJJ] o
_ H[GL V\NZ OF[<0Z AGFJJFG] CF[I T[ 0=F.J VYJF OF[<0Z 5;\N SZF[
_ ;O[N lJ:TFZDF\ HD6L AFH]V[ ZF.8 S,LS SZF[P
22

_ New 5;\N SZF[P


_ Folder 5;\N SZF[P
_ T[ OF[<0Z DF8[G] GFD 5;\N SZF[P
OF., S[ OF[<0Z N}Z SZJ] s Delete) o
_ TDFZ[ H[ OF., q OF[<0Z N}Z SZJ] CF[I T[ 5;\N SZF[P
_ SLAF["0 5ZGL Delete SL NAFJF[P
_ Delete GL 5|lS|IFDF\ ;\DTL VF5F[P
ALHF OF[<0ZDF\ OF., B;[0JLq T[GL GS, SZJL o
_ TDFZ[ H[ OF[<0Z B;[0J]\ VYJF GS, SZJ] CF[I T[G[ 5;\N SZF[P
_ OF.,G[ B;[0JFvOST T[G[ H[ HuIFV[ sOF[<0Zq0=F.JDF\f ,. HJ] CF[I tIF\ B;[0L HFJP
_ OF.,GL GS, SZJF (Copy) - edit 5Z S,LS SZF[ H[DF\YL Copy 5;\N SZL s :S|LGGF\
p5ZGF\ EFU[ ZC[, D[G]DF\YL f 0[:8LG[XG s HIF\ B;[0JFG] CF[I T[ HuIF f OF[<0ZDF\ HFJ VG [edit
D[G]DF\YL Paste 5;\N SZF[P
O,F[5L l0:SDF\ OF.,qOF[<0ZGL GS, SZJL o
_ TDFZ[ H[ OF[<0ZG[ B;[0JFG] VYJF SF[5L SZJFG] CF[I T[ 5;\N SZF[P
_ HD6L AFH]V[ OF.,qOF[<0ZG[ ZF.8 S,LS SZF[P
_ Sent to 5;N SZF[P
_ H[DF\YL 3.5 Floppy(A) 5;\N SZF[P

_ TD[ 0FAL AFH]V[ 56 OF.,G[ B;[0LG[ (drag) O,F[5L l0:SDF GFBL XSF[ KF[P
OF.,qOF[<0ZG[ O,F[5L l0:S VYJF VgI 0=F.JDF\ SF[5L SZJL o
_ 0FAL AFH]V[ #P5 O,F[5L(A) 5;\N SZF[P
_ H[ OF.,qOF[<0ZG[ O,F[5L 0=F.JDF\ SF[5L SZJF DF\UTF CF[ T[G[ 5;\N SZF[P
_ T[G[ B[\RLG[ TDFZF .rKLT :Y/[ ,. HFJP

23

OF., VYJF OF[<0ZG] GFD AN,J]\ o

_ TDFZ[ H[ OF., VYJF OF[<0ZG] GFD AN,J] CF[I T[G[ 5;\N SZJ]\P
_ T[GF 5Z ZF.8 S,LS SZF[P
_ Rename lJS<5 5;\N SZF[P

#P!_ H]NFH]NF lJg0F[h BF[,JF VG[ A\W SZJF o


TDFZ[ HIFZ[ SF[. SFI" SZJ] CF[I tIFZ[ T[G[ TDFZF SLAF[0" VYJF DFp;YL l;,[S8 SZF[ KF[ VG[
V[S lJg0F[ B},[ K[P OF.,qOF[<0ZG[ BF[,JF A\W SZJF ;DFG VF SFI" K[P
A[ 5|SFZGF lJg0F[h CF[I K[v V[%,LS[XG VG[ 0F[SI]D[g8P V[%,LS[XG lJg0F[hDF\ TD[ H[ 5|F[U|FD
R,DJTF CF[ T[ CF[I K[ s NFPTP V[S;[,4 J0" VYJF J0"5ZO[S8fP DF[8FEFU[GF[ ;DI TD[ V[%,LS[XG
lJg0F[hDF\ SFD SZTF CXF[P 09F[SI]D[g8 lJg0F[ TDFZF V[%,LS[XG lJg0F[DFP CF[I K[ VG[ T[DF\ TD[ H[DF\ SFD
SZL ZCIF\ KF[ T[G] lJQFIJ:T] CF[I K[P NZ[S V[%,LS[XG lJg0F[ NL9 TDFZL 5F;[ V[SYL JW] 0F[SI]D[g8 lJg0F[
B],F CF[. XS[ K[P VtIFZ[ VF SNFR V858] ,FUX[ 56 V[S V[S;Z;F.hDF 5KLYL TDG[ VF lORZ
HF[JFGL TS D/X[P

#P!! l;:8DGL DFCLTL o


l;:8D .gOF[ZD[XG TDFZF l;:8DGF SgOLUZ[XG s ;[8L\Uf lJX[GL DFCLTL V[S+LT SZ[ K[ VG[
NXF"J[ K[P TD[ :YFGLS Sd%I]8Z VYJF H[ Sd%I]8Z ;FY[ HF[0FI[, KF[ T[GL DFCLTL HF[. XSF[ KF[P

24

l;:8D .gOZD[XG X~ SZJF


Start-Programmes-Accessories-System tools-Systom information G[ S,LS
SZF[P
VF DFCLTLDF\ TDFZF Sd%I]8ZDF\ SIF\ 5|SFZGL VF[5Z[8L\U l;:8D .g:8F[, YI[, K[4 Sd%I]8ZG]
GFD4 S. 0=F.J 5Z VF[5Z[8L\U l;:8D .g:8F[, YI[, K[ VG[ Z[DGL ;F.h X]\ K[ T[ NXF"J[ K[P

#P!Z CF0"J[Z 5|F[OF.<; o


CF0"J[Z 5|F[OF.<; H]NFH]NF CF0"J[Z SgOLUZ[XGG[ :YF5JF DF8[ VG[ ;\U|C SZJF TDFZF DF8[
p5FI ATFJ[ K[P TD[ H]NFH]NF CF0"J[Z SgOLUZ[XG DF8[ CF0"J[Z 5|F[OF.<; :YF5L XSF[ KF[P :8F8"V5 ;DI[
TD[ H[ 5|F[OF., JF5ZJF .rKF[ T[ 5;\N SZL XSF[ KF[P

#P!# S\8=F[, 5[G, o

S\8=F[, 5[G, X~ SZJF 4 Start A8GG[ S,LS SZF[4 settings S,LS SZF[ VG[ control panel G[
S,LS SZF[ TDG[ GLR[ 5|DF6[GF\ lJg0F[ HF[JF\ D/X[P
V[5LIZg; VG[ YLd; s lJg0F[GF\ N[BFJ VG[ YLD f o VF lJS<5YL TD[ lJg0F[hGL YLD s A<I]4
%,Fl:8S ,]SL\U4 S,F;LS JLg0F[h VYJF VgI SF[. 56 YLD f 4 0[:S8F[5G]\ A[SU|Fpg0sJF[,5[5Zf4
:S|LG;[JZ VYJF :S|LG Z[h]<I]XG s N|xIG] 5ZLDF6f AN,L XSF[ KF[P
Network and Internet Connection s G[8JS" VG[ .g8ZG[8 SG[SXG f o CF,GF\ .g8ZG[8
HF[0F6F[ NXF"J[ K[4 V\NZ VF5[, OFIZJF[, s Z1F6 VF5TL NLJF,F[f X~ SZL XSFI K[4 GJF .g8ZG[8
HF[0F6 pD[ZL XSFI K[ VG[ CF,GF\ SF[.56 HF[0F6G[ SgOLUZ SZL XSFI K[P
Add or Remove Programme s5|F[U|FD pD[ZF[ VYJF N}Z SZF[ f o lJg0F[hGF J{Sl<5S
OLR;"G[ pD[ZJFGLqN}Z SZJFGL T[DH TDFZF Sd%I]8Z 5Z CF,DF .g:8F[, YI[, 5|F[U|Fd;G[ N}Z SZJFGL
K}8 VF5[ K[P
Sound,Speech and Audio Devices s VJFHG[ BF[,JFGF T[DH VF[0LIF[ ;FWGF[f o
:5LSZGF VFp85]8 JF[<I]DG[ AN,JF4 ;Fpg0GL .g5]8qVFp85]8 l0JF.;L;G[ SgOLUZ SZJF VG[ :5LR
25

Z[SuGLXG s AF[,GFZG] ;DHL XSJ]f T[DH 8[S:8 8] :5LR s ,BF6G[ :5LSZDF ;DHL ;\E/FJJ]f ;[8
SZJF J5ZFI K[P
Performance and Maintenance s SFDULZL VG[ HF/J6Lf o TDFZL 5;\NULGF ;DI
D]HA VF5D[/[ RF,[ T[JF SFIF[" :YF5[ K[P T[ l;:8DGL DFCLTL VG[ cc :8[g0AFI DF[0cc s YF[0F ;DI A\W
ZC[J]f DF\ HTF\ 5C[,F\ TDF~ Sd%I]8Z S[8,F ;DI RF,X[ T[JF JLH/LGF JLS<5F[G[ GLI\+LT SZ[ K[P
Printers and Other Hardware : T[GFYL l5|g8;" VG[ T[JF\ CF0"J[Z pD]ZJF4 N}Z SZJF VG[
T[DF\ O]ZOFZ SZL XSFI K[P
User Accounts : JWFZFGF I]hZ V[SFpg8 :YF5JF J5ZFI K[4 5F;J0" AN,L XSFI K[4
BFTFGF[ 5|SFZ AN,L XSFI K[ VYJF lJg0F[hDF\ I}h;" H[ ZLT[ NFB, YFI K[ s ,F[U.Gf T[G[ AN,L XSFI
K[P
Date,Time,Lamguage and Regional Options : lJg0F[h NJFZF NXF"JFTF ;DIG[
AN,JF T[DH T[ H[ :J~5DF\ NXF"JFI K[ T[ AN,JF VF lJS<5 J5ZFI K[P
Accessibility Options : BF; NlQ84 `|F|J6 VYJF C[ZO[ZGL H~lZIFTF[ DF8[ SFI' SZJF
lJg0F[G[ SgOLUZ SZ[ K[P

#P!$ JF[,5[5Z VG[ :SL|G;[JZ4 TFZLB VG[ ;DI ;[8 SZJF o


TDFZF 0[:S8F[5G[ VG]S}/ AGFJF[ s S:8DF.h f

26

0[:S8F[5 V[S :SL|G K[ H[ TDFZF Sd%I]8Z 5Z Sd%I]8Z X~ SZTF\ 5C[,F\ HF[JF D/[ K[ VG[ tIFZ[
TDF~ Sd%I]8Z ;\5}6"56[ X~ YI] U6FI ( Booting)P TD[ TDFZF 0[:S8F[5 5Z ZF.8 S,LS SZLG[
5|F[58L"h 5;\N SZLG[ TDFZF :SL|GGF[ N[BFJ AN,L XSF[ KF[ VYJF
_ Start-Settings-Control Panel G[ S,LS SZF[P
l0:%,[ o
lJg0F[h XP GL display properties DF\ 5F\R Tab slJS<5f CF[I K[P
Desktop :T[GFYL TDFZF 0[:S8F[5 5Z A[SU|Fpg0 s lR+qJF[,5[5Zf D}SL XSF[ KF[P SF[. V[SG[
5;|N SZL4 Apply S,LS SZF[ T[GFYL T[ S[J] ,FUX[ T[ NXF"JX[P TD[ VgI V[S lR+ 5;\N SZL OZL
Apply VF5L XSF[P JF[,5[5Z ;FWFZ6 0[:S8F[5G[ VFJZL ,[ K[ VG[ TD[ 5;\N SZ[, SF[.56 5[8G"G[
VFJZL ,[ K[P VF AFATDF TD[ ;H"GFtDS AGL XSF[ KF[4 HF[ TDFZL 5F;[ :S[G SZ[, T:JLZ CF[I TF[ T[G[
TD[ .BMP OF., TZLS[ ;[.J SZL TDFZF Sd%I]8ZGL C:\ windows l0Z[S8ZLDF\ ;FRJF[ H[ TDG[
JF[,5[5ZGL IFNLDF\ HF[JF D/X[P
Screensaver :lSAF[0" VYJF DFp; YF[0F ;DI ;]WL RF,[ GCL TF[ :S|LG;[JZ X~ YFI K[P
H]NFH]NF :S|LG;[JZ p5,aW K[ VG[ lJg0F[ )5 DF\ D/TF\ :S|LG;[JZ p5ZF\T W6F A3F TD[ BZLN SZL XSF[
KF[P TDFZL 5F[TFGL 5;\NUL D]HA T[G[ jIlSTUT :J~5 VF5L XSF[ KF[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[ Lines and
Curves :S|LG;[JZDF\ TD[ ,L8LVF[GL VG[ J/F\SF[GL ;\bIF GSSL SZL XSF[ KF[P
Appearance : TD[ H[ Z\UGL :SLD JF5ZJF\ .rKF[ T[ ;[8 SZL XSF[ KF[P T[GL A<I] Z\UGL
V,UV,U KF\8YL4 U],FAL VYJF lJg0F[hGF :8Fg00" Z\UGL CF[I K[ H[GF OF[g8GF SN :8Fg00"4 lJXF/
VYJF VTLDF[8F CF[I K[P
Settings : HIFZ[ DF[GL8Z .g:8F[, SZJFDF VFJ[ tIFZ[ VUFpYLH ;[8 YI[,] CF[I K[ P TDFZ[
SNFR VCL\ SF[. O[ZOFZ SZJFGL H~Z ZC[X[ GCLP :LJFI S[ TDG[ ,BF6GF SNG[ V[0H[:8 SZJFDF SF[.
;D:IF CF[IP TD[ DF[8F S[ VTLDF[8F OF[g8DF\ N[BFJG[ AN,F[ tIFZ[ &$_2$(_ l5S;,GF ;[8L\UDF\ O[ZOFZ
SZJFYL J3] ;F~ lGI\+6 D/X[P 5Z\T] ;F{YL VF[KF ;[8L\UG[ 5;\N SZJFYL S[8,LS VTL;]1D 0=F[.\U
lJUTF[ TDG[ H6FX[ GCLP

27

TFZLB VG[ ;DI ;[8 SZJF o TDFZF Sd%I]8ZGL HD6L AFH]V[ TDG[ 3l0IF/ N[BFX[ VG[ T[GF
5Z 0A, S,LS SZJFYL GLR[ D]HA Date and Time properties lJg0F[ N[BFX[P
TD[ TDFZF Sd%I]8Z l;:8DGF TFZLB VG[ ;DI AZFAZ G CF[I TF[ AN,L XSF[ KF[P VF
Properties, Start-Settings-Control Panel-Date&Time S,LS SZJFYL D/X[P

#P!5 ;Fpg0 VG[ VF[0LIF[ ;FWGF[ o


S\8F=[, 5[G,DF\ ;FPg0 VG[ VF[0LIF[ ;FWGF[GL DNNYL TD[ l;:8DGL S[8,LS 38GFVF[DF\ ;Fpg0
VF5L XSF[ KF[P l;:8DGL W8GFVF[GF S[8,FS pNFCZ6F[ v SF[. Sd%I]8Z 5|FU
[ |FD SFI" SZL ZC[, K[ S[ SFI"
SZJFDF D]xS[,L VG]EJL ZC[, K[4 5|F[U|FDGF lJg0F[G[ D[S;LDF.h VYJF DLGLDF.h SZJF[ VYJF O,F[5L
l0:SDF\ O,F[5L G CF[I tIFZ[ SF[. OF.,G[ O,F[5L 0L:S 0=F.JDF\ SF[5L SZJL K[P
8}\SF AL5YL DF\0LG[ ;\ULTGF[ GFGF[ 8}S0F[ T[JF V,UV,U VJFHF[ CF[I K[ TD[ TDFZL 5;\NUL
5|DF6[ l;:8DGL W8GFVF[G[ VF VJFHF[ VF5L XSF[ KF[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[ TDG[ GJF[ .vD[., ;\N[XF[ D/[
tIFZ[ lJg0F[h ;\E/FJ[ T[JF SF[.56 VF VJFHF[ VF5L XSF[ KF[P TD[ TDFZF TDFD ;Fpg0V[;F.GD[g8G[ s
5;\N SZ[, VJFHF[G[f ;Fpg0 :SLD TZLS[ ;FRJL XSF[ KF[P 5KLYL4 TD[ l;:8DGL W8GFVF[G[ ;\5}6" V,U
;[8 VF5L XSF[ KF[P VF :SLDG[ GJF GFD[ ;FRJL XSF[ KF[ T[DH TDFZF ;[l8\u;G[ AN<IF JUZ H}GL VG[
GJL :SLD JrR[ 5;\NUL VF5L XSF[ KF[P

#P!& D[G]GL ,F1Fl6STF4 C[<5 D[G] JF5ZJ]\ o


,UEU NZ[S V[%,LS[XGDF\ TDG[ C[<5 D[G] D/[ K[ H[GFYL TD[ SF[. BF; V[%,LS[XG DF8[ DNN
D[/JL XSF[ KF[P

28

lJg0F[h V[%,LS[XG l;:8D4 Help and Support lJS<5 VF5[ K[P DNN D[/JJF4
_Start-Help and Support G[ S,LS SZF[P
_SF[.56 V[%,LS[XG 5Z DNN D[/JJF DF8[ T[ V[%,LS[XG X~ SZF[ VG[ T[GF Help D[G]DF\ lS,S
SZF[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[ HF[ TDFZ[ Notepad DF8[GL DNN D[/JJL CF[I TF[ help-help topics 5Z S,LS
SZF[ H[GFYL TDG[ GLR[GL :S|LG HF[JF D/X[P

Help D[G] DF\ TDG[ Contents,Index,Search Tabs slJS<5F[f D/X[P Search lJS<5DF
TDFZ[ H[GF DF8[ DNN HF[.TL CF[I T[ XaN 8F.5 SZF[P

#P!* DFp;G] ZF.8 A8G JF5ZJ] VG[ XF["8S8 AGFJJF o


SF[.56 OF., VYJF OF[<0ZG[F TDFZF 0[:S8F[5 5Z XF["8S8 AGFJF[ H[YL TD[ V[SH S,LSYL SF[.
BF; OF[<0Z 5Z H. XSF[ VYJF SF[. BF; OF., BF[,L XSF[ T[ DF8[ GLR[ D]HA SZF[ o
_ My computer X~ SZF[ 5KL H[ OF., VYJF OF[<0ZGF[ XF["8S8 SZJFGF[ CF[I T[ l;,[S8
SZF[P
_ T[GF 5Z ZF.8 S,LS SZJFYL TDG[ GLR[ D]HAGF lJS<5F[ HF[JF D/X[P

_ tIFZ 5KL Send to-Desktop 5;\N SZF[ s XF["8S8 AGX[f


_ CJ[ 0[:S8F[5 5Z HJFYL TDG[ XF["8S8 HF[JF D/X[P

29

#P!( lJg0F[hGL V[;[;ZLh v GF[85[0 o


lJg0F[hDF\ A[ J0" 5|F[;[;L\U s ,BF6 AGFJJF DF8[GF f 5|F[U|Fd; K[ o Notepad and
WorldpadP NZ[SGL 1FDTF D}/E}T 8[1F V[0L8L\UGL K[ 56 V[S V[0L8Z SZTF ALHFG[ VG]S]/ CF[I T[JF\
SFIF[" CF[. XS[P
TD[ V[0L8Z 5;\N SZF[ T[ 5C[,F\ TDFZF 0F[SI]D[g8G[ GLR[GFDFYL SF[. V[SGL H`Z K[ S[ GCL T[
GSSL SZF[P HF[ TD[ Notepad 5;\N SZXF[ TF[ TD[ U|FlOS; pD[ZL XSXF[ GCL\P
GF[85[0 D}/E]T 8[1F V[0L8Z K[ H[G[ JF5ZLG[ TD[ ;Z/ 0F[SI]D[g8 AGFJL XSF[ KF[P GF[85[0GF[
;F{YL ;FDFgI J5ZFX 8[18 OF.,F[ HF[JF DF8[ VYJF T[DF ;]WFZF SZJFGF[ K[ 56 W6F I]hZG[ GF[85[0
J[A5[HL; AGFJJF DF8[G] ;Z/ ;FWG ,FU[ K[P
Notepad OST D]/E]T OF["D[8L\UG[ ;5F["8 SZ[ K[ TD[ V;, 8[18DF ZC[JFGL H~Z CF[I T[JF BF;
OF["D[8L\UG[ 0F[SI]D[g8DF VS:DFT[ ;FRJL XSF[ GCLP J[A 5[H DF8[ HTML s Sd%I]8ZGL V[S EFQFF f
0F[SI]D[g8; AGFJTL JBT[ BF; SZLG[ VF p5IF[UL K[ SFZ6 S[ TDFZF J[A5[.HDF BF; V1FZF[ VYJF
VgI OF["D[8L\U TDFZF 5|SFlXT J[A 5[.HDF N[BFX[ GCL VYJF E},F[G] SFZ6 56 AGX[P
GF[85[0 X~ S. ZLT[ SZJL o GF[85[0 BF[,JF start-programs-accessories G[ S,LS SZF[
tIFZAFN GF[85[0 S,LS SZF[P
B]<,L GF[85[0 :S|LGDF VF56[ GLR[ D]HA HF[.V[ KLV[P

TITLE BAR
Display
application with
file name

MENUS OF
NOTEPAD
This includes
commads and
options

RESTORE
CLOSE

MINIMIZE

TEXT AREA WHERE YOU TYPE

STATUS BAR
It displays the
inforamation of
appropriate command and
file

30

8F.8, AFZ o T[ RF,] B]<,L V[%,LS[XG VG[ T[ OF.,G] GFD NXF"JX[P HF[ CH] 56 OF.,G] GFD
G NXF"JLV[ TF[ T[ Untitled NXF"J[ K[P
S\8=F[, A8g; o
DLGLDF.h o VF A8G RF,] B]<,L V[%,LS[XGG[ DLGLDF.h s 8F:SAFZ 5Z ,FJJF f SZJF
J5ZFI K[P
ZL:8F[Z o VF A8G RF,] B]<,L V[%,LS[XGG[ OZL :YF5LT SZJF J5ZFI K[P VF A8G JF5ZTF
V[%,LS[XG 5|F[U|Fd;GF lJg0F[h GFGF AG[ K[ tIFZ[ Restore A8GGL HuIFV[ Maximise A8G VFJL
HFI K[P
S,F[h o VF A8G RF,] V[%,LS[XGG[ A\W SZJF J5ZFI K[P
:8[8; AFZ o T[ ,F.G VG[ SF[,D ,F.GGL lJUT NXF"J[ K[ VG[ 5;|N SZ[, lJS<5GL DFCLTL
NXF"J[ K[P
8[18 V[ZLIF o VF JL:TFZDF VF56[ ,BF6 8F.5 SZLV[ KLV[P
GF[85[0GF D[G] o
GF[85[0DFP 5F\R D[G] CF[I K[v file, edit, format, view and help.

file D[G]YL X~VFT SZLV[ P

!P New : GJL OF., AGFJJF J5ZFI K[P


ZP Open : VUFp AG[,L SF[.56 8[18 OF.,G[ BF[,JF J5ZFI K[P
#P Save : RF,] OF.,G[ ;FRJJF J5ZFI K[P
$P Save as : RF,] OF.,G[ VgI OF., GFDYL ;FRJJF J5ZFI K[P
5P Page setup : VUFp AGFJ[, GF[85[0GF N[BFJG[ AN,[ K[P

31

GF[85[0 0F[SI]D[g8DF\ Page setup 0FI,F[U AF[1FDF\PPPP


_ SFU/G] SN AN,JF size GL IFNLG[ S,LS SZF[P
_ SFU/G]\ 5|Fl%T:YFG AN,JF source IFNLDF\YL 8=[G] GFD VYJF OL0Z 5Z S,LS SZF[P
_ 0F[SI]D[g8G[ pE]\ KF5JF portrait 5Z VG[ VF0] KF5JF Landscape 5Z lS,S SZF[P
_ CF\;LIF sDFHL"Gf AN,JF, DFHL"GAF[1FDF\ 5CF[/F. 8F.5 SZF[P
_ TDFZF l5|g8ZG]\ ;[8L\U AN,JF l5|g8ZG[ S,LS SZF[P
&P Print : RF,] 0F[SI]D[g8G[ KF5JF J5ZFI K[P
*P Exit : GF[85[0DF\YL ACFZ VFJJF s A\W SZJF f J5ZFI K[P
Edit D[G] o

!P Undo : UndoG[ S,LS SZLG[ TD[ K[<,[ SZ[, SFDG[ OZL ,FJL XSF[ KF[P
ZP Cut : 8[18G[ SF5L VgI HuIFV[ B;[0JF J5ZFI K[P 8[18 5;\N SZL Edit D[G]DF\YL Cut
5;\N SZF[P
#P Copy : 8[18GL GS, SZL ALHL HuIFV[ D]SJF J5ZFI K[P T[ DF8[ 8[18G[ 5;\N SZF[ VG[Edit
D[G]DF\YL Copy S,LS SZF[P
$P Paste : TD[ S8 SZ[, VYJF SF[5L SZ[, 8[18G[ Paste sRF[\8F0JFf TDFZ[ T[G[ HIF\ RF[\8F0JFGL
CF[I tIF\ S;"Z D}SF[ tIFZAFN Edit D[G]DF\YL Paste S,LS SZF[P
5P Delete : 8[18 0L,L8 SZJF T[G[ 5;\N SZF[ VG[ tIFZAFN Edit D[G]DF\YL Delete S,LS
SZF[P
32

&P Find : RF[SS; V1FZF[ VYJF XaNF[ XF[WJF J5ZFI K[P

_ find what DF\ H6FjIF D]HA V5ZS[.; s S[5L8, ,[8;"f VYJF ,F[VZ S[.; s FGF V1FZF[ f
GL 8[18 XF[WL XSF[ KF[ T[ DF8[ Match case G[ S,LS SZF[P
_ S. lNXFDF\ XF[W SZL XSFI K[ T[ :5Q8 SZL XSFI K[ T[ DF8[ Direction DF\ H[ HuIFV[YL X~
SZJFG] CF[I T[GFYL p5Z XF[WJF DF8[ up VG[ GLR[ XF[WJF DF8[ down 5;\N SZF[P
*P Find Next : K[<,L XF[WG[ OZL SZJF J5ZFI K[P
(P Replace : BF; V1FZF[ VYJF XaNF[ XFWJF VG[ AN,JF J5ZFI K[P

_ find what DF TD[ H[ XaNF[ XF[WJF .rKF[ T[G[ 8F.5 SZF[P


_ Replace with DF\ AN,LG[ H[ 8[18 D}SJFGL K[ T[ 8F.5 SZF[P
_ 8[18GF AWF pNFCZ6 V[S;FY[ AN,JF4 replace all G[ S,LS SZF[ VYJF V[S pNFCZ6 V[S
5KL V[S AN,JF Find next S,LS SZF[ VG[ 5KL replace S,LS SZF[P
)P Go to : SF[. BF; ,L8L 5Z HJF P
go to line DF\ S;"ZG[ H[ ,L8L 5Z ,. HJF DF\UTF CF[ T[GF[ G\AZ 8F.5 SZF[
_ VF VFN[X SFD SZL XS[ T[ DF8[ TDFZF 0F[SI]D[g8DF\ ,L8LGF G\AZ CF[JFG] H~ZL GYLP
_ 0F[SI]D[g8GF p5ZYL X~ SZLG[ 0FAL AFH]GF CF\;LIFDF GLR[GL AFH]V[ ,L8LVF[ U6JFDF VFJ[
K[P
!_P Select all : GF[85[0DF\ TDFZF ,BF6G[ 5;\N SZJF J5ZFI K[P
!!P ;DIqTFZLB o TDFZL OF.,DF\ RF,] ;DIqTFZLB D}SJFP
FORMAT D[G]o

33

!P Word Wrap : ,BF6G[ lJg0F[GF SNDF ;DFJJF J5ZFI K[P


_ 8[1F Wrap SZJFYL T[ ,BF6G[ ,L8LDF\ NXF"J[ K[ 56 T[ l5|g8 YFI tIFZ[ 8[18 S. ZLT[ N[BFI K[
T[GF 5Z V;Z SZT] GYL P
ZP Font : OF[g8GL :8F., VG[ SN AN,JF J5ZFI K[P

VIEW D[G]o
_ :8[8; AFZ o status bar G[ RF,] A\W SZJF J5ZFI K[P
HELP D[G]o
GF[85[0 VYJF T[GFYL p5ZGF\ 5|F[U|FDGF SF[.56 VFN[XGL DNN VF5[ K[P

#P!) SDFg0 5|F[d%8 sMS DOS Prompt ) :


Windows XP :JT\+ VF[5Z[8L\U l;:8D K[ H[ MS DOS 5Z YI[, GYL 56 VUFpGL
lJg0F[h VF[5Z[8L\U l;:8D s lJg0F[h )5 5C[[,FGL f :JT\+ GCL 56 MS DOS 5Z YI[, VF[5Z[8L\U
l;:8D CTLP
Disk Operating System ( DOS), GUI JUZGL VUFpGL VF[5Z[8L\U l;:8D K[
T[VF[5Z[8L\U l;:8DDF\ TDFD SDFg0 OST ,F.GYL VF5JFGF ZC[ K[P VF56[DOS GF[ I}hZ >g8ZO[.;
HF[JF .rKLV[ VG[ SDFg0; s VFN[XF[f JF5ZLV[ TF[ SDFg0 5|F[d58 RF,] SZLG[ Windows XP DF\ SZL
XSLV[ KLV[P
Windows XP VF[5Z[8L\U l;:8DDF SDFg05|F[d58 V[%,LS[XG X~ SZJFP

34

_ Start D[G]DF\YL 5|F[U|FD lJS<5 5;\N SZF[P


_ Programes-Accessories ;A D[G]DF\YL SDFg0 5|F[d58 S,LS SZF[P
TDFZL VF[5Z[8L\U l;:8D H[ 0=F.JDF\ .g:8F[, YI[,L CX[ T[ 0=F.J VF5D[/[ N[BFX[P GLR[GL
:S|LGDF\ TD[ D: 0=F.J HF[. XSXF[ SFZ6S[ VF[5Z[8L\U l;:8D D: 0=F.JDF\ .g:8F[, YI[,L K[P
SDFg0 5|F[d58GL propertiesG[ ;[8 SZJF SDFg0 5|F[d58GF 8F.8, AFZ 5Z ZF.8 S,LS SZF[
VG[ T[GL properties 5;\N SZF[P
properties lJS<5 5;\N SZTF\ GLR[GL :S|LG N[BFX[P

VF ;FY[ TD[ SDFg0 5|F[d58GF option,font,layout and colour ;[8L\U AN,L XSF[P
VF[%XG D[G]DF\ TD[ S;"ZGF SN4 SDFg0GF[ .lTCF;4 l0:%,[ lJS<5 VG[ edit lJS<5 ;[8 SZL
XSF[P

35

font ;[8 SZJF DF8[ :S|LG D[G] 5Z font D[G] 5Z S,LS SZF[P
OF[g8 D[G]DF\ TD[ OF[g8 VG[ OF[g8GF SNG[ ;[8 SZL XSF[ KF[P

layout ;[8 SZJF :S|LG 5Z ,[VFp8 D[G]G[ S,LS SZF[P


,[VFp8 D[G]DF\ TD[ :S|LGGL AOZ ;F.h4 lJg0F[hGL ;F.h VG[ lJg0F[GL l:YTL ;[8 SZL XSF[P

36

Z\UF[ ;[8 SZJF :S|LG 5Z colour D[G]G[ S,LS SZF[P

S,;" D[G]DF\ TD[ :S|LG 5Z ,BF6GF[ Z\U4 :S|LGGL 5`RFNE}lDSF4 5F[5V5 8[184 5F[5V5
5`RFNE}lDSF VG[ ,F,4 ,L,F[ VG[ JFN/L Z\UF[GL J[<I] sSNf; [8 SZL XSF[ KF[P

#PZ_ 5[.g8 A|X o


5[.g8 lR+SFD DF8[GL V[%,LS[XG K[ H[GFYL ;Z/ VYJF lJ:T'T lR+SFD Y. XS[ K[P VF
lR+SFD a,[S VG[ jCF.8 VYJF Z\ULG CF[. XS[ VG[ T[G[ bitmap OF., TZLS[ ;FRJL XSFI K[P TD[
TDFZF lR+SFDG[ l5|g8 SZL XSF[ KF[4 TDFZF 0[:S8F[5GL 5`RFNE}lDSF DF8[ JF5ZL XSF[ KF[ VYJF VgI
0F[SI]D[g8DF\ RF[\8F0L XSF[ KF[P TD[ :S[G SZ[, OF[8F[G[ HF[JF VG[ V[l08 SZJF 56 5[.g8 JF5ZL XSF[ KF[P
TD[ lR+F[ 5Z SFD SZJF 56 5[.g8 JF5ZL XSF[ KF[ H[DS[4 .jpg, .gif or .bmp OF.,F[P TD[
AGFJ[, SF[. VgI N:TFJ[HDF 5[.g8G] lR+ RF[\8F0L XSF[ KF[ VYJF T[G[ TDFZF 0[:S8F[5GL 5`RFNE}lDSF
TZLS[ JF5ZL XSF[ KF[P
MS-Paint S. ZLT[ BF[,J]\ o

37

CONTROL

TITLE BAR

MENUBAR

TOOL
BOX

HERE YOU ARE DRAWING


A PICTURE

STATUSBAR

COLOR BOX

Paint BF[,JF start - programs-accessories G[ S,LS SZF[ VG[ 5KL 5[.g8G[ S,LS SZF[P
5[.g8GL :S|LG BF[,JL o 5[.g8 :S|LGDF\ VF56[ titlebar, statusbar, control buttons,
menubar, toolbox, colourbox
8},aFF[1F o

Freeform Select

Eraser/Color
Pick color
Pencil
Airbrush
Line
Rectangle
Ellipse

Select
Fill With Color
Magnifier
Brush
Text
Curve
Polygon
Rounded Rectangle

free form selection : TD[ H[ lR+G[ AN,JF .rKF[ KF[ T[GF :5Q8 lJ:TFZF[ GSSL SZJF free
form tool SFD VF5[ K[P TD[ SF[. VFSFZ 5;\N SZL XSF[4 lR+GF VgI lJ:TFZDF\ W;0L H. XSF[4
jIlSTUT ZLT[ 3]DFJL XSF[ VYJF N}Z SZL XSF[ KF[P
select : VF 8}, TD[ TDFZF lR+DF\ ;LWF B}6FJF/F lJ:TFZF[ GSSL SZJF4 C[ZO[Z SZJF S[
AN,JF TDG[ ,\ARF[Z; :J~5DF\ 5;\NUL SZJF NI[ K[P
Eraser s .Z[hZ f o GFGF lJ;TFZG[ E}\;JF DF8[ J5ZFI K[P CF,GF A[SU|Fpg0GF Z\UYL TD[ H[
Z\U E}\;JF DF\UTF CF[ T[ V,U CF[I TF[ S,Z AF[1FDF\ SF[. Z\UG[ ZF.8 S,LS SZF[ tIFZAFN TD[ H[
lJ:TFZG[ E}\;JF DF\UTF CF[ T[GF 5Z 5F[.g8Z W;0L HFJP

38

Fill with Color : SF[. lJ:TFZ VYJF J:T]G[ Z\UYL EZJF S,ZAF[1FDF\ SF[. V[S S,ZG[
ZF.8S,LS SZF[ HF[ TDFZ[ HF[.V[ K[ T[ S,ZYL RF,] VFU/GF[ Z\U s forground color ) VYJF
5`RFNE}lDSF S,Z ( background) V,U CF[ITF[ T[ lJ:TFZ VYJF J:T]G[ S,ZYL EZJF DF\UF[ TtIF\
S,LS SZF[P
Pick color : V[S lJ:TFZ VYJF J:T]GF Z\UG[ VgIDF SF[5L SZJFP
Magnifier : l5SRZG[ DF[8] S[ GFG] SZJ]\P
Pencil : VF0LVJ/L SF[.56 ,L8L NF[ZJF\P
Brush : A|XYL lR+ NF[ZJF\P
Airbrush : V[ZA|XGL V;Z pEL SZJF\P
Text : ,BF6 8F.5 SZJF VG[ T[G[ :J~5 VF5JFP TD[ 8[18AF[1FDF\ OST V[S JFZ ,BF6 SZL
XSF[ KF[P TD[ AF[1FGL ACFZ SZF[ KF[ tIFZ[ ,BF6 lR+DF ~5F\TZLT YFI K[ VG[ TD[ T[G[ OZL ;S|LI SZL
XSTF GYLP
Line : ;LWL ,L8L NF[ZJF J5ZFI K[P TD[ ,L8LG[ B[\RTL JBT[ lXO8 SL NAFJL ZFBLG[ ;\5}6"4
VF0L4 pEL VYJF $5c B]6FJF/L ,L8L NF[ZL XSF[ KF[P
Curve : J/F\SJF/L ,L8L NF[ZJF J5ZFI K[P TD[ J/F\SGF[ V[S K[0F[ HIF\ NF[ZJF .rKTF CF[ tIF\
S,LS SZF[ VG[ 5KL 5F[.g8ZG[ B[\RF[P VF 5U,]\ ALHF J/F\S NF[ZJF 56 OZLJFZ EZF[P TD[ NZ[S ,L8L
DF8[ OST A[ J/F\S NF[ZL XSF[ KF[P
Rectangle : ,\ARF[Z; VYJF RF[Z; NF[ZJF DF8[ J5ZFI K[P 5F[.g8Z B[\RTL JBT[ XLO8 SL
NAFJL ZFBJFYL RF[Z; AG[ K[P
Polygon : AC}SF[6 NF[ZJF DF8[ J5ZFI K[P 5F[.G8Z B[\RTL JBT[ $5c VYJF )_c GF[ B}6F[
AGFJJF XLO8 SL NAFJL ZFBF[P
Ellipse : ,\AUF[/ VYJF JT]"/ NF[ZJF J5ZFI K[P 5F[.g8Z B[\RTL JBT[ XLO8 SL NAFJL
ZFBLG[ JT]"/ NF[ZL XSFI K[P
Rounded Rectangle : UF[/ B]6FJF/F VFSFZ NF[ZL XSFI K[P
D[G]AFZ o
FILE D[G] o

!P NEW: GJL OF., AGFJJF J5ZFI K[P


ZP OPEN : CF,GL OF.,G[ BF[,JF J5ZFI K[P
#P SAVE : RF,] OF.,G[SAVE SZJF J5ZFI K[P
$P SAVE AS : VGI GFD VG[ VgI 5|SFZGL OF., TZLS[ ;FRJ[ K[P
39

5P PRINT PREVIEW : l5|g8 SZTF 5C[,F\ RF,] B]<,L OF.,G]\ l5|jI] s h,S f HF[JF
J5ZFI K[P
&P PAGE SETUP : 5[HG[ ;[8 SZJF J5ZFI K[ H[DS[ CF\l;IF[4SFU/4:S[,L\U4JrR[ VG[
pE]\qVF0] ;[8L\U SZ[ K[P
*P PRINT : RF,] OF.,G[ l5|g8 SZ[ K[P
(P SEND : OF.,G[ .G8ZG[8 5Z D}SJF J5ZFI K[P
)P SET AS BACKGROUND (TILE): TDFZF 0[:S8F[5 5Z l5SRZGL V[SYL JW]
GS,F[ KJF. HFI K[P
!_P SET AS BACKGROUND ( centered) : TDFZF lR+G[ 0[:S8F[5GL DwIDF\ D]S[
K[P
EDIT D[G] o

!P UNDO : OST UNDO G[ S,LS SZJFYL TD[ SZ[, K[<,F SFI"G[ OZL ,FJL XSF[ KF[P
ZP REPEAT : K[<,L V;Z VYJF VFN[XG[ 5]GZFJT"G SZ[ K[P
#P CUT : ,BF6G[ SF5JF VG[ VgI HuIFV[ B;[0JF J5ZFI K[P,BF6G[ 5;\N SZF[ VG[
tIFZ AFN edit D[G]DF\YL S8 S,LS SZF[P
$PCOPY : ,BF6GL GS, SZJF H[YL TD[ T[G[ VgI HuIFV[ RF[\8F0L XSF[ T[ DF8[ J5ZFI K[P
,BF6 5;\N SZF[ tIFZ AFN EDIT D[G]DF\YL SF[5L S,LS SZF[P
5P PASTE: TD[ SF5[, VYJF GS, SZ[, ,BF6G[ RF[\8F0JF J5ZFI K[ TDFZ[ ,BF6 HIF\
RF[\8F0JFG] CF[I tIF\ S;"Z D}SF[ VG[ tIFZAFN EDIT D[G]DF\YL PASTE S,LS SZF[P
&PCLEAR SELECTION : 5;\N SZ[, ,BF6G[ N}Z SZJF J5ZFI K[P
*P SELECT ALL : RF,] OF.,DF\ TDFD lR+F[ VG[ ,BF6G[ 5;\N SZJF J5ZFI K[P

40

VIEW MENU :

!P TOOL BOX : :S|LG 5Z 8],AF[1F G[ K]5FJJFqNXF"JJF J5ZFI K[P


ZP COLOR BOX : :S|LG 5Z 8],AF[1F G[ K]5FJJFqNXF"JJF J5ZFI K[P
#PSTATUS BAR : 5[.G8GF :8[8;AFZG[K]5FJJFqNXF"JJF J5ZFI K[P
$PTEXT TOOLBAR : HIFZ[ VF56[ ,BF6G] 8}, JF5ZLV[ KLV[ tIFZ[ 8[18 8],AFZ
VF5D[/[ H B],[ K[ H[ VF56[ 8[18 8},AFZG[ K}5FJJFG] CF[I TF[ VF lJS<5 5;\N SZF[P
5P ZOOM : lR+G[ ;FWFZ6 DF[8F VYJF DG5;\N s S:8Df SNDF\ H]VF[P TD[ Z\U ;FY[
jIJl:YT V[SH[;D[g8 SZJF lU|0,F.g; sK[J8GL SLGFZL f 56 NXF"JL XSF[ KF[P
&P VIEW BITMAP : N|xI lJ:TFZG[ DF[8F[ AGFJJF J5ZFI K[P TDF~ lR= ;DU| HF[. XSFI
T[ lJ;TFZG[ EZL NI[ K[P TDFZF VUFpGF N\xIDF\ VFJJF lR+DF SF[.56 HUIFV[ S,LS SZF[P VF
jI]DF\ TD[ SF[.56 O[ZOFZ SZL XSTF GYLP
IMAGE MENU :

41

!P FLIP/ROTATE : lR= VYJF W8SG[ 5,8FJJF VYJF O[ZJJF J5ZFI K[P


ZP STRECH/SKEW : SF[. VF.8DG[ B[\RJF VYJF ;\SF[RJF J5ZFI K[P STRECH
lJEFU C[9/ TDFZF lR+G[ VF0] VYJF pE]\ B[\RJFGL 8SFJFZL 8F.5 SZF[P SKEW GLR[ TDFZF lR+G[
VF0] VYJF pE]\4 8}\S] AGFJJF s SKEWf l0U|LGF\ G\AZ 8F.5 SZF[P
#P Invert colorosZ\U p,8FJJFf lR+DF\ TDFD Z\UMG[ p,8FJJF J5ZFI K[P NZ[S Z\U T[GF
SMd5,LD[g8 sGHLSGF Z\Uf Z\U VFJ[ K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[4 ,F, Z\U Cyan GL AN,[ VG[ E}ZM Z\U 5L/M
AGL HFI K[P
$PAttrulrute TDFZF lR+G]\ SN AN,JF J5ZFI K[ T[DH Z\UGL HuIFV[ `J[T VG[ xIFD
JF5ZJF J5ZFI K[P
5PClear Image VFBF lR+G[ E}\;L GFBJF J5ZFI K[P
&PDrawopa Opaque 5FZNX"S 0=M.\U :5Q8 SZJF J5ZFI K[P
SPOpaque 5;\N SZJFYL 5[.g8ZDF\ RF,] lR+GF 5;\N SZ[, lJ:TFZDF\ ;O[N A[SU|Fpg0 KJF.
HX[PBP Opaque A\W SZJFYL 5[.g8ZDF\ 5;\N SZ[, lJ:TFZGF A[SU|Fpg0DF\YL GLR[GF lR+M HM.
XSFX[P
Color D[G]ov
!PEdit color DG5;\N Z\UMG]\ ;H"G SZJF DF8[ J5ZFI K[P

42

$P J0"5|M;[l;\UGF TtJM q J0" 5|M;[l;\UGF D}/E}T TtJM sMs Wordf


$P! J0"5|M;[l;\UGM 5lZRIo
J0"5|M;[;Z V[S ;MO8J[Z 5[S[H K[ H[ TDG[ N:TFJ[HM AGFJJF VG[ T[DF\ ;]WFZFJWFZF SZJFDF\
DNN SZ[ K[P SM. N:TFJ[H AGFJJFDF\ T[G[ Sd%I]8ZGL VF\TlZS D[DZLDF\ 8F.5 SZJ]\ VG[ T[G[ l0:S 5Z
,BLG[ ;FRJJFGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P SM. N:TFJ[HDF\ ;]WFZFJWFZF SZJFDF\ HM SM. HM06LE}, CMI TM T[
;]WFZJFGM VG[ XaNM4 JFSIM VYJF OSZFVM N}Z SZJF VYJF B;[0JFGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P
,MSl5|I J0" 5|M;[;;"GF\ pNFCZ6M GLR[ D]HA K[P
J0" 5ZO[S8
DF.S|M;MO8 J0"
GLR[ SFIM"GL IFNL VF5[, K[ H[ J0" 5|M;[;;"DF\ TD[ SZL XSM KM P
SLAM0"YL N:TFJ[H 8F.5 SZJ]\ VG[ T[G[ l0:SDF\ ;FRJJ]\P
N:TFJ[HDF\ SM.56 HuIFV[ V1FZM4 XaNM4 ,L8LVM VG[ lR+MG[ ;]WFZJF4 N}Z SZJFs0L,L8f
VYJF pD[ZJFP
0L:SDF\YL N:TFJ[HM D[/JJFP
N:TFJ[HDF\ V[S HuIFV[YL VgI HuIFV[ OSZFVM VYJF lR+MG[ C[ZO[Z VYJF SM5L SZJFP
H~lZIFT 5|DF6[ 0FAF4 HD6F4 p5Z VG[ GLR[GF CF\l;IFVM 38F0JF VYJF JWFZJFP
,BF6GF OMg8 VG[ :8F., AN,JF\ P
SM. BF; XaN VYJF XaN;D}CG[ XMWJFP
HM06LDF\ E},M XMWJL VG[ T[G[ ;]WFZJLP
N:TFJ[HG[ H]NF H]NF OMD["8DF\ KF5J]\P
D[., DH" JF5ZLG[ N:TFJ[HG[ KF5J]\P

$PZ J0" 5|M;[l;\U 5[S[H X~ SZJ]\o

J0"G[ X~ SZJFGF TASSFVM GLR[ D]HA K[ o

43

8F:S AFZDF\ Start A8GG[ S,LS SZMP


Start D[G]DF\YL Programs lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
DF.S|M;MO8 J0" lJS<5 5Z S,LS SZM sH]VM VFS'lT !P!f
VFGFYL Ms Word X~ YFI K[ VG[ N:TFJ[H lJg0M NXF"J[ K[P lR+v5!
DF.S|M;MO8 J0" HIFZ[ 56 X~ SZM tIFZ[ GJM N:TFJ[H DF8[GM lJg0M B},[ K[P lR+v5Z

$P# D[G] AFZo


8F.8, AFZ GLR[ D[G] AFZ VFJ[, K[P H[DF\ GLR[GF H[JF lJS<5M CMI K[P
File.
Edit.
View.
Format etc.
VF NZ[S D[G]AFZ VF.8DG[ 0=M5 0FpG D[G] sS,LS SZJFYL GLR[ ATFJT]\ D[G]f CMI K[P 0=M5 0FpG
D[G] lJS<5MGL IFNL WZFJ[ K[ VG[ T[ D[G]AFZGL SM. VF.8D 5Z S,LS SZJFYL B},[ K[P VF lJ<5MG[ Alt
sVM<8ZfSL VG[ lJS<5GF GFDDF\ ,L8L NMZ[, V1FZ sCM8 SL TZLS[ VM/BFTFf V[S ;FY[ NAFJJFYL X~
SZL XSFI K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[4 OF., D[G]G[ X~ SZJF I]hZAlt VG[ f SLG[ ;FY[ NAFJ[ K[P

$P$ D[G]AFZ GLR[GF VF.SMG JF5ZJFv8},AFZo


ToolbarvT[ I]hZG[ JW] h05L VG[ ;C[,F.YL SFIM" SZJFDF\ ;CFI SZ[ K[P :8Fg00" 8},AFZ VG[
OMD["8L\U 8},AFZ ;F{YL ;FDFgI ZLT[ J5ZFTF 8},AFZ K[P :8Fg00" 8},AFZ D[G]GF VFN[XM DF8[ XM8"S8 5}ZF
5F0[ K[P HIFZ[ OMD["8L\U 8},AFZ N:TFJ[HDF\ ,BF6G[ :J~5 VF5JFG[ ,UTF tools WZFJ[ K[P HIFZ[ I]hZ
Ms word X~ SZ[ K[ tIFZ[ VF 8},AFZ D[G]AFZGL GLR[ NXF"JJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P

44

$P5 N:TFJ[HM BM,JF4 Save T[DH Save aso


J0"YL TD[ N:TFJ[HG[ 0L:S 5Z AGFJL VG[ ;FRJL XSM KMP GJF 0MSI]D[g8G[ AGFJJFGF :8[5
GLR[ D]HA K[ o

!P File D[G]DF\YL New-Option 5;\\N SZMP


ZP Blank document VF.SMGG[ 5;\N SZMP
#P Create new AM1FDF\ 0MSI]D[g8 Z[l0IM A8G 5Z S,LS SZMP
GJ]\ 8[d5,[8 sGD}GF~5 N:TFJ[Hf AGFJJF sCreate newfAM0"DF\ 8[d5, Z[l0IM A8GG[ S,LS
SZMP
$POK A8G 5Z S,LS SZMP
GJ]\ SMZ]\ 0MSI]D[g8 N[BFX[P
N:TFJ[H BM,JM o
5|JT"DFG 0MSI]D[g8G[ BM,JF DF8[GF :8[5 GLR[ D]HA K[P
!PFile D[G]\DF\YL Open VM%XG 5;\N SZM VYJF Ctrl+O NAFJMP VFS'lTDF\ NXF"jIF 5|DF6[
Open 0FI,MU AM1F NXF"JFI K[P lR+v5#
ZP IMuI 0=F.J VG[ OM<0Z 5;\N SZMP
#P File riame 8[18 AM1FDF\ BM,JFGL OF.,G]\ GFD 8F.5 SZM VYJF IFNLDF\YL OF., 5;\N
SZMP
$P Open A8GG[ S,LS SZMP
N:TFJ[H ;FRJJ]\ ov
HIFZ[ 0MSI]D[g8G[ 8F.5 SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ tIFZ[ T[ DXLGGL VF\TlZS D[DZLDF\ ;\U|C YFI K[P
0MSI]D[g8G[ ElJQIGF\ J5ZFX DF8[ ;FRJJF T[G[ l0:S 5Z ;FRJJ]\ H~ZL K[P N:TFJ[HG[ Save SZJF
DF8[GF :8[5 GLR[ D]HA K[P
!P File D[G]DF\YL Save as lJS<5 5;\N SZMP

45

GLR[GL VFS'lTDF\ NXF"jIF 5|DF6[ Save as 0FI,MU AM1F NXF"JX[P

ZP File Name AM1FDF\ OF.,G]\ GFD 8F.5 SZMP


#P Save A8G 5Z S,LS SZMP
VF5D[/[ sby defaultf GJ]\ 0MSI]D[g8 J0" 0MSI]D[g8 TZLS[ ;RJFI K[ H[G]\ V[18[gXG PDoc CMI
K[P HM VF56[ H]NL 5|SFZGF N:TFJ[H TZLS[ Save SZJFG]\ CMI TM Save as type DF\ T[ 5|SFZ 8F.5
SZJFGM CMI K[P

$P V[SJFZ :5Q8 GFD ;FY[ N:TFJ[H Save YFI S[4 File D[G]DF\ VFJ[, Save A8G
N:TFJ[HDF\ ;]WFZF JWFZF SZTL JBT[ T[G[ ;FRJJF J5ZFI K[P

46

HM VF56[ Save as 0FI,MU AM1FDF\YL H]NFvH]NF tools ;[8 SZJF CMI TM4 FileSave
astools lR+P5&
;,FDTLGF lJS<5M DF8[ tools DF\ Security Options G[ S,LS SZMP

$P&P 5[H ;[8V54 l5|g8 jI]4 0MSI]D[g8 G]\ l5|g8L\U4 5;\N SZ[, 5[.H l5|g8 SZJ]\o
5[H ;[8V5 ov VF VFN[X SFU/GF\ 5|Fl%T:YFG4 SFU/G]\ SN4 CF\l;IFVM VG[ 5[HGF\
VMlZI[g8[XG spELqVF0L l:YlTfG[ AN,JF J5ZFI K[P SFU/G]\ 5|Fl%T:YFG 5;\N SZMP
!P File D[G] 5Z4 Page Setup S,LS SZMP
GLR[G]\ 0FI,MU AM1F N[BFX[P
lR+P5(

47

ZP Paper 8[A 5Z S,LS SZMP


#P IFNLGF AM1FDF\YL Paper Source 5;\N SZMP
SFU/G]\ SN 5;\N SZMP
!P File D[G]DF\ Page setup G[ S,LS SZM
ZP Paper 5Z S,LS SZMP
#P 0=M5 0FpG IFNL AM1FDF\YL Paper size 5;\N SZMP
SFU/GF\ CF\l;IF AN,M
!P File D[G]DF\4 Page setup G[ S,LS SZM VG[ tIFZAFN Margins 8[AG[ S,LS SZMP

48

ZP Margins TDFZ[ HM.V[ T[ lJS<5 5;\N SZMP


Print Preview
!P :8Fg00" 8},AFZDF\YL Print Preview
VF.SMG 5;\N SZM VYJF

ZP File D[G]DF\YL Print Preview 5;\N SZMP lR+P&_

49

0MSI]D[g8 l5|g8 SZMP


!P File D[G]\DF Print lJS<5 5;\N SZMP GLR[GL VFS'lTDF\ NXF"jIF 5|DF6[ Print 0FI,MU AM1F NXF"JX[
P lR+P&!P

ZP Printer Name AM1FDF\YL l5|g8ZG]\ GFD 5;\N SZMP


#P Mumber Of Copies AM1FDF\ l5|g8 SZJFGL GS,MGL ;\bIF VF5MP
$P 0MSI]D[g8G[ KF5JF Paper 5Z S,LS SZMP
5;\N SZ[, 5FGFG[ KF5J]\P
!P H[ 5FG]\ KF5JFG]\ CMI T[GF 5Z S;"Z D}SMP
ZP Files D[G]DF\YL Print 5Z S,LS SZMP
#P Page Range DF\YL Current Z[l0IM A8G s Of 5Z S,LS SZMP
$P 5;\N SZ[, 5FGFG[ KF5JF OK5Z S,LS SZMP

$P* DFS"; VG[ A[ XaNM JrR[GL HuIF NXF"JTL q K}5FJJLo


!P D[G]AFZDF\YL Tools 5Z S,LS SZM P
ZP Tools DF\YL Option 5;\N SZMP GLR[GL VFS'lTDF\ H6FjIF D]HA Option 0FI,MU AM1F N[BFX[

50

#P 0FI,MU AM1FDF\YL View 8[A 5;\N SZMP


$P Paragraph marks VG[ formatting marks DF\YL spaces G[ lGXFGL SZM q lGXFGL N}Z
SZMP
5P saving options G[ ;[8 SZJF save 0FI,MU AM1FG[ S,LS SZM lR+P &#P

$P(P 0MSI]D[g8DF\ VCL\ TCL\ OZJ]\4 0MSI]D[g8G[ p5Z GLR[ SZJ]\ s:S|M,L\U f
GLR[G]\ 8[A, 0MSI]D[g8DF\ VCL TCL\ OZJF J5ZFTL SL VG[ SL SMdALG[XGGL IFNL WZFJ[ K[P
SL s SLhf G]\ GFD
Up arrow, Down Arrow
Left, Right Arrow
Ctrl+ Right Arrow
Ctrl+ Left Arrow
Home
End
Ctrl + Home
Ctrl + End
Ctrl + Page Up
Ctrl + Page Down

S;"ZG[ GLR[ D]HA B;[0[ K[


V[S V1FZ p\R[ GLR[ 0FA[ VG[ HD6[
5KLGM XaN
VUFpGM XaN
,L8LGL X~VFTDF\ HJF
,L8LG[ K[0[ HJF
0MSI]D[g8GL X~VFTDF\ HJF
0MSI]D[g8G[ V\T[ HJF
VFU/GF 5FGFGL X~VFTDF\ HJF
5KLGF\ 5FGGL X~VFTDF\ HJF

51

$P)P ,L8L q OSZFG[ p5Z GLR[ SZJF s:S|M,L\Uf4 h05L :S|M,L\U VG[ 5FGF
O[ZJJFo

!P 0MSI]D[g8DF\ V[S 5FG]\ p5Z GLR[ HJF Page Up VG[ Page Down SL J5ZFI K[P
ZP J0"GL :S|LGGL HD6L AFH]V[ pEF :S|M,AFZG[ O[ZJJFYL J0"GL :S|LGG]\ 5FG]\ p5ZqGLR[ YFI K[P
#P J0"GL :S|LGGL GLR[GL AFH]V[ VF0F :S|M,AFZG[ O[ZJJFYL J0"GL :S|LGG]\ 5FG]\ 0FA]\ q HD6]\ OZ[ K[P

52

5P ,BF6 8F.5 SZJ]\ VG[ T[DF\ ;]WFZF JWFZFo


5P! OSZF VG[ 8[AG]\ ;[l8\U4 ,BF6GL 5;\NUL4 S84 SM5L VG[ 5[:8 OSZMVMG[
:J~5[ VF5J]\P
J0"DF\ H[8,LJFZ Enter SL NAFJM KM T[8,LJFZ GJM OSZM AG[ K[P J0"GF OSZFVMGF V\T[ C\D[XF
5[Z[U|FO DFS" CMI K[P 5[Z[U|FO DFS" ;FDFgI ZLT[ View D[G]DF\YL K}5FJL XSFI K[ 5Z\T] T[ H[ OSZFG[ K[0[
CMI K[ T[G]\ TDFD OMD["8L\U ;\U|C SZL ZFB[ K[P
,L8L JrR[ HuIF ZFBJL sLine Spacingf
0MSI]D[g8GL l0hF.G SZJF VG[ JW] JF\RL XSFI T[J]\ AGFJJF Spacing J5ZFI K[P T[
,L8LVMDF\ DF5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P Default sV;, ;[8L\Uf Spacing, Single sV[S ,L8LG]\ CMI K[P J0"DF\
TD[ TDFZF ,BF6DF\ ,L8L JrR[GL HuIF AN,L XSM KMP TD[ Spacing V[S4 A[ VYJF NM- ,L8LVMGL
ZFBL XSM KMP
,L8LVMGF Spacing G[ ;[8 SZJF GLR[ D]HA SZM o
!P H[ 5[Z[U|FODF\ HuIFVM ZDBJL CMI T[ 5;\N SZMP
ZP Format D[G]DF\YL Paragraph lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
Paragraph 0FI,MU AM1F GLR[ D]HA N[BFX[P
#P Indents and Specing 8[A 5;\N SZMP
$P Line Spacing GF\ 0=M50FpGD[G]DF\YL V[S lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
5P At GF\ IFNL AN1FDF\YL V[S J[<I] sDF5f GSSL SZMP
&P 0FI,MU AM1FG[ A\W SZJF OK 5Z S,LS SZMP
OSZF JrR[ HuIF ZFBJL ov
TD[ Paragraph 0FI,MU AM1F JF5ZLG[ OSZFGL VFU/ VG[ 5FK/ S[8,L HuIF ZFBJL HM.V[
T[ GSSL SZL XSMP
OSZFGL VFU/ VYJF 5FK/ ;O[N HuIFGL V[S ,L8L pD[ZJF GLR[ D]HA SZM o
!P OSZM sOSZFVMf 5;\N SZMP
ZP Paragraph 0FI,MU AM1F BM,MP
#P Indents and Specing 8[A 5;\N SZMP
$P Before VG[ After AM1FDF\ 5;\N SZMP
5P OK A8GG[ S,LS SZMP
Tab ;[8 SZJL ov

53

h05L VYJF 5|DF6DF\ ;Z/ IFNL AGFJJF Tabs J5ZFI K[P Tab GL DNNYL SFD SZJFG]\ A[
EFUGL 5|lS|IF K[P 5|YD TASSM Tab GF ZMSFJFGL HuIF GSSL SZJFGM K[P Word DF\ 5F\R 5|SFZGF
Tab Stop VF5L XSFI K[P Left, Center, Right,Decimal s5}6F"\Sf VG[ Bar
8[APDefault sVF5D[/[f Tab Stop left CMI K[PTabs JF5ZJFDF\ ALH]\ 5U,]\ 0MSI]D[g8G[ 8F.5
SZJFDF\ VFJT]\ CMI tIFZ[ 5KLGF Tab Stop 5Z HJFG]\ K[P D}/ Tab Stop GL l:YlT _P5 >\R sV0WM
>\\Rf GL K[P
Tab Stop ;[8 SZJF ov
Tab 0FI,MU AM1F JWFZFGF Tab ;\A\WL ,1F6M 5}ZF 5F0[ K[PWord DF\ Tab leader 56 K[
H[ 8[18G[ JF\RL XSFI T[JL AGFJ[ K[P Tab leader V[8,[ ,BF6GF A[ TtJM JrR[ pD[ZJFDF\ VFJTL
85SF\VMGL CFZDF/F VYJF 0[; sVF0L ,L8LVMfP
Tab Stop G[ Tabs 0FI,MU AM1FGL DNNYL GLR[ D]HAGF TASSFVMDF\ ;[8 SZL XSFI K[P
!P OSZFG[ 5;\N SZMP
ZP Format D[G]DF\YL Tabs lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
Tabs 0FI,MU AM1F GLR[ D]HA N[BFX[P lR+v&5P
#P 5}6F"\S ;\bIF JF5LZG[ Tab Stop GL l:YlTGF BFGFDF\ l:YlT 8F.5 SZMP
$P TDG[ H[ 5;\N CMI T[ Tab GL l:YlT 5;\N SZMP Left, Center, Right, 5}6F"\SsDecimal f
VYJF Bar sAlingment U|]5DF\YLf
5P Tab leader GL :8F., s!f S\. GlC\ snonef sZfPPPPPs85SF\JF/L 8[A DF8[f s#fPPPPPP0[;
s,L8FJF/L lGXFGL DF8[ VYJF s$f GLR[ ,L8L NMZ[, ________ DF8[ 5;\N SZMP
&P Tab Stop ;[8 SZJF ;[8 A8G 5Z S,LS SZMP
*P OK A8G S,LS SZMP
Tab ;[8L\UG[ N}Z SZJF Tabs 0FI,MU AM1FDF\ Clear A8G JF5ZLG[ Tabs N}Z SZMP
,BF6G[ Indent s5[8F CF\l;IFf VF5JF\P ov
.g0[g8L\\U TDFZF\ ,BF6G[ VF\BG[ JW] UD[ T[J]\ AGFJ[ K[P Indent G[ CF\l;IFDF\ pD[ZFJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
H[YL ;O[N HuIF JW[ K[ VG[ BF; OSZF DF8[GL ,BF6GL HuIF 38[ K[P
TD[ TDFZF ,BF6G[ GLR[GFGL DNNYL .g0[g8 SZL XSM KM ov
Ruler
Paragraph 0FI,MU AM1FP
Ruler JF5ZLG[ ov
Ruler AFZGL DNNYL 0FAF VG[ HD6F .g0[g8G[ ;[8 SZJF DF8[GF TASSF GLR[ D]HA K[o
!P H[ OSZF sOSZFVMf DF8[ Tabs ;[8 SZJFGL CMI T[G[ 5;\N SZMP
ZP l+SM6 VFSFZGF IMuI .g0[g8 DFS"ZG[ .lrKT HuIF ;]WL NXF"JM VG[ B[\RL HFJP TD[ DFp;G]\ A8G
KM0XM tIFZ[ H6FjIF D]HA ,BF6G]\ .g0[g8 Y. HX[P
Paragraph 0FI,MU AM1F JF5ZLG[ov
Paragraph 0FI,MU AM1F JF5ZLG[ TD[ 0FAF4 HD6F 5|YD ,L8L VG[ ,8STF sHangingf
.g0[g8 H6FJL XSM KMP Paragraph 0FI,MU AM1F JF5ZLG[ ,BF6 DF8[ .g0[g8 ;[8 GLR[ D]HA SZL
XSFI K[o
!P H[ OSZFG[ .g0[g8 SZJFGM CMI T[ 5;\N SZMP
ZP Format D[G]GF Paragraph lJS<5G[ 5;\N SZMP Paragraph 0FI,MU AM1F N[BFX[P
#P Left VYJF Right .g0[g8 AM1FDF\ :5Q8 H6FJMPTD[ BF; 0=M5 0FpG AM1FDF\YL First Line
VYJF Hanging .g0[g8 56 5;\N SZL XSM KMP
$P By :5LG AM1FDF\ SM. J[<I] 5;\N SZMP
54

5P OK A8G 5Z S,LS SZMP


,BF6 5;\N SZJ]\ ov
HIFZ[ TD[ ,BF6 SZM KM tIFZ[ TDFZFYL E},M YJFGL B}A XSITF ZC[ K[ VF E},G[ ;]WFZJFG[
V[0L8L\U SC[ K[P J0" 5|M;[;L\U 5[S[HDF\ Editing Text V[S VUtIG]\ OLRZ K[P
N:TFJ[HDF\ SM.56 ;]WFZF JWFZF s EditingfG]\ SFI" SZJF ,BF6G[ 5;\N SZJFG]\ ZC[ K[P
,BF6 5;\N SZJFGF\ 5U,F GLR[ D]HA K[o
!P H[ ,BF6 5;\N SZJFGL K[ T[GL XZ]VFTDF\ S;"Z D}SMP
ZP DFp;G]\ 0FA]\ A8G NAFJL ZFBM VG[ DFp;G[ 5;\N SZJFDF\ VFJGFZ ,BF6GL VFZ5FZ SM.56
lNXFDF\ B;[0MP
v 5;\N YI[, ,BF6 CF.,F.8 sa<I] Z\UDF\ N[BFX[Pf YX[P
Cut sN}Z SZJ]\ f
!P S8 sN}Z SZJFGL f SZJFGL 8[1FG[ 5;\N SZMP
ZP Edit D[G]DF\YL Cut lJS<5 5;\N SZM VYJF :8Fg00" 8},AFZGF\ Cut A8GG[ S,LS SZM VYJF
,BF6 5;\N SZL Ctrl sS\8=M, SL f + * sSLf NAFJMP
Copy s GS, f ov
!P H[ ,BF6GL GS, SZJFGL CMI sCopyf T[G[ 5;\N SZMP
ZP Edit D[G]DF\YL Copy lJS<5 VYJF :8Fg00" 8},AFZGF\ Copy A8GG[ S,LS SZMP VYJF ,BF6
5;\N SZL Ctrl VG[ + C SL NAFJMP
Paste sRM\8F0Mf ov
!P HIF\ ,BF6G[ RM\8F0J]\ sPastefCMI tIF\ S;"Z D}SMP
ZP Edit D[G]DF\YL Paste lJS<5 5;\N SZM VYJF :8Fg00" 8},AFZDF\YL Paste A8GG[ S,LS SZM VYJF
,BF6 5;\N SZLG[ Ctrl VG[ V SL NAFJMP

5PZP OMg8 sV1FZf VG[ T[GF\ SNGL 5;\NUL Bold s3F8Ff Italic s+F\;Ff VG[
Underline sGLR[ ,L8Lfo
SM. N:TFJ[HG[ OMZD[8L\U SZJF s :J~5 VF5JFf DF\ OMg8 VG[ T[G]\ SN4 ,BF6G[ l:YlT VF5JL4
,BF6G[ SM,DDF\ JC[\RJ]\ 4 ,L8L VG[ OSZF JrR[GL HuIF V[0H:8 SZJL VG[ CF\l;IF ;[8 SZJFGM
;DFJ[X YFI K[P GLR[GF\ lJEFUDF\ TD[ ,BF6G[ S. ZLT[ :J~5 VF5J]\ sFormatf T[ lXBXMP
OMg8 VG[ :8F., AN,JF ov
N:TFJ[HDF\ ,BF6 S. ZLT[ VYJF :8F.,DF\ NXF"JJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ T[ OMg8 NXF"J[ K[P H]NFvH]NF
OMg8 H]NF H]NF V1FZM VG[ lGXFGL WZFJ[ K[P Word OMg8 VG[ OMg8GL :8F., AN,JFGL 36L ZLTM
NXF"J[ K[P H[ ,BF6G[ :J~5 VF5JFG]\ K[ T[G[ 5|YD 5;\N SZJFGL ZC[X[P
OMg8GL :8F., AN,JFGF\ TASSFVM GLR[ D]HA K[ ov
!P H[ ,BF6GF\ OMg8 AN,JFGF\ K[ T[G[ 5;\N SZMP
ZP OMD["8L\UDF\ 8},AFZ OMg8GF\ ,L:8 AM1FG[ HD6L AFH]V[ VFJ[, Down V[ZM 5Z S,LS SZMP

55

GLR[GL VFS'lTDF\ NXF"jIF D]HA p5,aW OMg8GL IFNL NXF"JX[P

#P IFNLDF\YL V[S OMg8 5;\N SZMP


$P GLR[ D]HA V[S VYJF JW] lJS<5M JF5ZMP
A8GG]\ GFD
Bold
Italic
Underline

GD]GF ~5 5lZ6FD
OMg8 :8F., AN,M
OMg8 :8F., AN,M
OMg8 :8F., AN,M

OMg8;G]\ SN 5M.g8;DF\ DF5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P BF,L HuIF4 ,L8LGL HF0F. JU[Z[ DF5JF 5M.g8 VG[
5LSF J5ZFI K[P V[S 5LSFGF\ !Z 5M.g8; YFI K[P VG[ V[S .\RGF\ K 5LSF YFI K[P T[YL V[S .\RGF\ *Z
5M.g8 YFI K[P ;FWFZ6 8[d5,[8sGD]GF ~5f0MSI]D[g8 VF5D[/[ Times New Roman
OMg8DF\ NX 5M.g8;G]\ CMI K[P Word OMg8GF\ SNG[ AN,JF 36L ZLTM VF5[, K[P
OMg8; G]\ SN AN,JFGF\ 5U,FVM GLR[ D]HA K [Pov
!P H[ ,BF6GF\ OMg8G]\ SN AN,JFG]\ CMI T[ 5;\N SZMP

ZP OMZD[8L\U 8},AFZDF\ OMg8GF\ SNGF\ ,L:8 AM1FGL HD6L AFH]V[YL 0FpG V[ZMG[ S,LS SZM
p5,aW; OMg8GF\ SNGL IFNL NXF"JX[P

#P IFNLDF\YL OMg8G]\ SN 5;\N SZMP

5P #P ,BF6GL l:YlT s V[,F.GD[g8f ov


Center sJrR[f4 Left s0FA[f4 Right sHD6[f VG[ Justify sjIJl:YTf
Alignment sl:YlTf V[ ,BF6G[ ;]jIJl:YT SZJFGL ZLT[ K[P T[ CF\l;IFG[ wIFGDF\ ZFBLG[
,BF6GL l:YlT NXF"J[ K[P Word 0MSI]D[g8DF\ ,BF6G[ lJ:T'T SZJF T[G[ 0FAL AFH]GL l:YlT s Left
Alignmentf4 Center Alignment4 Right Alignment VG[ Justify l:YlT VF5[ K[P VF SFI"
RFZ OMZD[8L\U 8},AFZGL DNNYL Y. XS[ K[P
56

Word VF5D[/[ Left Alignment JF5Z[ K[P TDFZF ,BF6G[ JrR[ ZFBJF :5[;AFZ SL GCL\
JF5ZJFGL 8[J ;FZL K[P ,BF6G[ 0FAL AFH]V[ 8F.5 SZM VG[ TDFZF ,BF6G[ JrR[ ,FJJF
Ctrl
+ Z A8GG[ S,LS SZMP
HD6L AFH]V[ ,BF6 s Right Alignmentf ov
HM 5'Q9GF HD6F CF\l;IF ;FY[ HM0FI[, CMI TM T[ ,BF6 Right Alignment SC[JFI K[P SM.
OSZFG[ HD6L AFH]V[ ZFBJF OSZFDF\ SM.56 ,L8L 5Z S;"Z ZFBM VG[ OMD["8L\U 8],AFZ 5Z Right
Alignment A8G5Z S,LS SZMP
0FAL AFH]V[ ,BF6 sLeft Alignmentfov
HM 5'Q9GF\ 0FAF CF\l;IF ;FY[ HM0FI[, CMI TM T[ ,BF6 Left Alignment ,BF6 SC[JFI K[P
VF ,BF6GL l:YlT sAlignmentf0LOM<8 sVUFp lGITf K[P SM. OSZFG[ 0FAL AFH]V[ ZFBJF OSZFDF\
SM.56 ,L8L 5Z S;"Z ZFBM VG[ OMD["8L\U 8},AFZ 5Z Left Alignment A8GG[ S,LS SZMP
JrR[G]\ ,BF6 sCentredf
Center lJS<5 ;FDFgI ZLT[ DYF/]\ VG[ ,BF6G[ JrR[ ZFBJF J5ZFI K[P ,BF6GL ,L8LG[
JrR[ ,FJJF ,L8L 5Z S;"ZG[ ZFBM VG[ OMD["8L\U 8],AFZ Center A8GG[ S,LS SZMP
jIJl:YT ,BF6 s Justifiedf
VF OLRZ OSZFG[ 0FAF VG[ HD6F A\G[ CF\l;IF ;FY[ HM0FI[, ZFB[ K[P A[ XaNM JrR[GL HuIF
V[JL ZLT[ V[0H:8 SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ S[ ,BF6GL NZ[S ,L8L 0FAF CF\l;IFYL X~ YFI K[ VG[ HD6F\ CF\l;IF
5F;[ 5}ZL YFI K[P ,BF6GL ,L8LG[ Justify SZJF T[ ,L8L 5Z S;"ZG[ ZFBM VG[ OMD["8L\U 8},AFZ 5Z
Justify A8GG[ S,LS SZMP

5P$P ,BF6G[ :J~5 VF5J]\ OMg84 SN4 VG[ Z\U AN,JFo


FONT 0FI,MU AM1F JF5ZJ]\
Font 0FI,MU AM1FDF\ OMD["8L\U lJS<5MG]\ ;F{YL jIF5S S,[SXG K[P
Font 0FI,MU AM1FG[ BM,JFGF\ 5U,F GLR[ D]HA K[P

57

!P Format D[G]DF\YL Font lJS<5 5;\N SZMP


GLR[GL VFS'lTDF\ H6FjIF D]HA Font 0FI,MU AM1F N[BFX[P slR+v&(Pf
ZP 0FI,MU AM1FDF\YL Font4 Style 4 Size VG[ Color GL IMuI 5;\NUL SZMP
Format Painter JF5ZJ]\P
VFBF 0MSI]D[g8G[ h05YL VG[ ;C[,F.YL OMD["8 SZJF Format Painter J5ZFI K[P
Format Painter 5;\N SZ[,F ,BF6DF\YL OMD["8 s:J~5fG[ TD[ H[ ,BF6G[ :J~5 VF5JF .rKTF CM
tIF\ SM5L SZ[ K[P WFZM S[ TD[ V[S ,L8LG[ Times New Roman, Bold, Italic,Underline VG[
Left Aligned VF5[, K[P 0MSI]D[g8GF NZ[S OSZFG[ V,UYL :J~5 VF5JF SZTF\ ;DU| 0MSI]D[g8
OMD["8 SZJF Format Painter JF5ZL XSFI K[P
V1FZMGF OMD["8L\UGL GS, SZJF GLR[GF TASSFVM K[P
!P H[ ,BF6G]\ OMD["8 SZJFG]\ CMI T[G[ 5;\N SZMP
ZP :8Fg00" 8],AFZDF\ Format Painter A8G 5Z S,LS SZMP DFp;G]\ 5M.g8Z 5[.g8A|XDF\ VG[
I ALHFDF\ AN,L HX[P
#P H[ ,BF6G[ :J~5 VF5JFG]\ K[ T[ 5;\N SZM ,BF6 VF5D[/[ H GS, SZ[, :J~5DF\ AN,F. HFI K[P
$P OMD["8L\U 5]Z] YFI tIFZ[ Esc SL NAFJM VYJF OZLYL Format Painter A8G 5Z S,LS SZMP

5P5 OSZFG]\ .g0[g8L\U4Bullets VG[ Numbering s85SF\ VG[ G\AZ


VF5JFfo
,BF6G[ Indent CF\l;IF VF5JF P
.g0[g8L\U TDFZF ,BF6G[ VF\B[ JW] UD[ T[J]\ AGFJ[ K[P Indent VG[ CF\l;IFDF\ pD[ZJFDF\ VFJ[
K[ H[YL BF,L HuIF JW[ K[ VG[ BF; OSZF DF8[GL ,BF6GL HuIF 38[ K[P TD[ TDFZF ,BF6G[ GLR[GFGL
DNNYL .g0[g8 SZL XSM KMP

v Ruler.
v Paragraph 0FI,MUAM1F
Ruler JF5ZLG[
Ruler AFZGL DNNYL 0FAF VG[ HD6F .g0[g8G[ ;[8 SZJF DF8[GF\ TASSF GLR[ D]H A K[P

!P H[ OSZFs OSZFVM f DF8[ Tabs ;[8 SZJFGL CMI T[G[ 5;\N SZMP
ZP l+SM6 VFSFZGF\ IMuI .g0[g8 DFS"ZG[ .lrKT HuIF ;]WL NXF"JM VG[ B[\RL HFJP lR+v&) TD[
DFp;G]\ A8G KM0XM tIFZ[ H6FjIF D]HA ,BF6G]\ .g0[g8 Y. HX[P
Paragraph 0FI,MU AM1F JF5ZLG[
Paragraph 0FI,MU AM1F JF5ZLG[ TD[ 0FAF4 HD6F4 5|YD ,L8L VG[ ,8STF sHangingf
CF\l;IF H6FJL XSM KMP
Paragraph 0FI,MUAM1F JF5ZLG[ ,BF6 DF8[ GLR[ D]HA CF\l;IM VF5L XSFIP
!P H[ OSZFGF[ CF\l;IM VF5JFGM CMI T[ 5;\N SZMP
ZP Format D[G]DF\YL Paragraph lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
Paragraph 0FI,MUAM1F N[BFX[P
#P Left VYJF Right .g0[g8 AM1FDF\ :5Q8 H6FJMP
TD[ BF; 0=M5 v 0FpG AM1FDF\YL Firstline VYJF Hanging CF\l;IM 56 5;\N SZL XSM KMP
58

$P By :5LG AM1FDF\ SM. J[<I] 5;\N SZMP


5P OK A8G 5Z S,LS SZMP
Bulleted s85SFJF/L f VG[ Numbered sS|DG\AZJF/L f IFNLVM SZJLP
TD[ TDFZF 0MSI]D[g8 G[ VFSQF"S VG[ JF\RJF ,FIS AGFJJF Bullets VG[ Numbers JF5ZL
XSM KMP TD[ Bullets and Numbering 0FI,MUAM1F JF5ZLG[ TDFZL IFNLVMG[ Bullet VYJF
Number VF5L XSM KMP
Bullets and Numbering pD[ZJF GLR[GF\ TASSFVM K[P

!P GJL IFNLDF\ CIFT IFNL VYJF 5||SFZ 5;\N SZMP


ZP Format D[G]DF\YL Bullets and Numbering lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
GLR[GL VFS'lTDF\ NXF"jIF 5|DF6[ Bullets and Numbering 0FI,MUAM1F N[BFX[P slR+v*_f
#P TDFZL 5;\NULGM A],[8 :8F.,G[ 5;\N SZMP
$P OK A8GG[ S,LS SZMP

5P&P 0MSI]D[g8;DF\ V[SALHFDF\ Cut , Copy VG[ Pasteo


HM ,BF6 VgI 0MSI]D[g8DF\ Cut sSF5Lf VYJF Copy sGS,f SZJFGL CMI TM GLR[ D]HAGF
:8[5 ,[JF 50X[P
!P RF,] 0MSI]D[g8G[ B]<,]\ ZFBMP
ZP File D[G]DF\YL VgI V[S 0MSI]D[g8 BM,M VYJF GJ]\ 0MSI]D[g8 BM,MP
#P H[ ,BF6 VYJF OSZFG[ ALHF 0MSI]D[g8DF\ GS, SZJFGF\ K[ T[G[ 5;\N SZMP
$P Edit D[G]DF\YL Cut VYJF Copy lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
5P :8Fg00" 8},AFZDF\YL Window G[ S,LS SZMP
&P BM,[,F J0" 0MSI]D[g8;GL IFNL ATFJ[X[P H[DF\YL VgI 0MSI]D[g8 5;\N SZMP
*P HIF\ ,BF6GL GS, SZJFGL K[ tIF\ 0MSI]D[g8DF\ S;"Z D]SM Edit D[G]DF\YL Paste
lJS<5 5;\N
SZMP T[ HuIFV[ 5;\N SZ[, ,BF6 q OSZFVMGL GS, Y. HX[P

59

5P*
Tab VG[ Tab Setting JF5ZJF4Case sGFGFq DM8F V1FZMf
AN,JLo
Tab GM p5IMUP
h05L VYJF 5|DF6DF\ ;Z/ IFNL AGFJJF Tabs J5ZFI K[P TabGL DNNYL SFD SZJFG]\ A[
EFUGL 5|lS|IF K[P 5|YD TASS[ TabGF ZMSJFGL HuIF GSSL SZJFGM K[P WordDF\ 5F\R 5|SFZGF\
Tab Stop VF5L XSFI K[P Left 4 Center 4 Right 4 Decimal s5}\6F"Sf VG[ Bar 8[A VF5 D[/[
sDEFAULTf Tab Stop V[ Left CMI K[4 Tabs JF5ZJFDF\ ALH]\ 5U,]\ 0MSI]D[g8G[ 8F.5 SZJFDF\
VFJT]\ CMI tIFZ[ 5KLGF Tab Stop 5Z HJFG]\ K[P D}/ Tab StopGL l:YlT _P5 .\R sV0WF .\RfGL
K[P
Case sGFGF q DM8F V1FZM f AN,JF\
,BF6GF\ V1FZMG[ GFGFq DM8F V1FZMDF\ AN,JF GLR[ D]HA TASSFVM K[P
!P AN,JFDF\ VFJGFZ ,BF6 5;\N SZMP
ZP Format D[G]DF\YL Change case lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
GLR[GL VFS'lTDF\ NXFjIF 5|DFF6[ Change case 0FI,MU AM1F NXF"J[ K[P

#P DG5;\N lJS<5 5;\N SZMP


$P OK A8GG[ S,LS SZMP
GLR[G]\ 8[A, Change case lJS<5 s0FI,MU AM1Ff GF H]NF H]NF lJS<5M VG[ T[G]\ 5lZ6FD NXF"J[ K[P
lJS<5
Sentence Case
Lower Case
Ipper Case
Title Case
Toggle Case

5lZ6FD
5;\N SZ[,F JFSIMDF\ OST 5|YD V1FZG[ S[l58,sDM8Mf AGFJ[ K[P
5;\N SZ[,F TDFD ,BF6G[ ,MVZ S[; sALHL V[AL;L0LGF\ GFGF
V1FZMfDF\ O[ZJ[ K[P
5;\N SZ[, TDFD ,BF6G[ 5|YD V[AL;L0LGF\ V1FZMDF\ sS[l58,f
AGFJ[ K[P
5;\N SZ[, ,BF6GF\ NZ[S XaNGF\ 5|YD V1FZG[ S[5L8, AGFJ[ K[P
5;\N SZ[, TDFD ,BF6DF\ ,MVZ S[;sGFGF V1FZMG[fV5Z S[;
sDM8F V1FZMf T[DH V5ZS[;G[ ,MVZ S[;DF\ AN,[ K[P

5P(P Spelling and Grammar Check


RSF;6Lfo

sHM06L VG[ jIFSZ6GL

VF D]N=FGL S[8,LS AFATM VD]S EFQFFVMG[ ,FU] 50TL GYLP Micro Soft Word GF D}/;[l8U
sDetaultf DF\ TD[ 8F.5 SZM T[GL ;FY[ Spelling VG[ Grammar G[ VF5D[/[ T5F;JFGL ;UJ0 K[P
60

H[ ;\ElJT HM06LGL E},M XaNMGL GLR[ DMHF VFSFZGL s


f ,F, ,L8LVM VG[ jIFSZ6GL E},M
DMHF VFSFZGL s
f ,L8LYL NXF"J[ K[P

TD[ V[S ;FY[ HM06L VG[ jIFSZ6 56 T5F;L XSM KMP

TD[ 8F.5 SZTF CMI tIFZ[ HM06L VG[ jIFSZ6GL E},M T5F;MP
Spelling and Grammar Check G[ VM8MD[l8S RF,] SZJF DF8[
!P Tools D[G]DF\ Options S,LS SZM tIFZAFN Spelling and Grammar Tab G[ S,LS SZMP
ZP Check Spelling as you type VG[ Check Grammar as you type
R[S AM1F l;,[S8 SZM P
#P 0MSI]D[g8DF\ 8F.5 SZMP
$P H[ XaN GLR[ ,F, VYJF ,L,L ,L8L CMI T[G[ ZF.8 S,LS SZM tIFZAFN TDG[ 5;\N CMI T[ SDFg0
VYJF J{Sl<5S :5[,L\U 5;\N SZMP
V[S ;FY[ HM06L VG[ jIFSZ6 T5F;JF DF8[ 0MSI]D[g8G[ TD[ ;]WFZJFG]\ 5]Z] SZM tIF\ ;]WL 5]|OL\U sE],M
;]WFZJFf G[ D],tJL ZFBJF VF 5wWlT p5IMUL K[P TD[ ;\ElJT HM06L VG[ jIFSZ6GL E},MG[ T5F;LG[
5KL NZ[S ;]WFZFG[ :JLSFZL XSMP
OST HM06LG[ T5F;JF DF8[4
!P Tools D[G]\DF\ Options G[ S,LS SZMP
ZP Spelling and Grammar lJS<5G[ S,LS SZM4 :5[,L\U R[SAM1F ;FY[ Check Grammar
AM1FG[ S,LS SZM VG[ 5KL OK S,LS SZMP
#P :8Fg00" 8},AFZD\F Spelling and Grammar G[ R[S SZMP
GLR[GL VFS'lT D]HA Spelling and Grammar 0FI,MU AM1F N[BFX[P lR+ *ZP
Spelling and Grammar 0FI,MU AM1FG[ B}<,]\ ZFBLG[ TD[ ;LWF H 0MSI]D[g8DF\ HM06L
VG[ jIFSZ6 T5F;L XSM KMP
0MSI]D[g8DF\ TDFZM ;]WFZM 8F.5 SZM VG[ Resume sOZL X~ SZMf A8GG[ S,LS SZMP
jIFSZ6GF ;}RGGL lJUTJFZ ;DH6 DF8[ Spelling and Grammar 0FI,MU AM1FDF\
Explain G[ S,LS SZMP

HM TD[ SM. XaNG[ BM8M 8F.5 SZM VG[ T[G[ BM8M NXF"JJFDF\ VFJ[ GlC\ TM sNFPTPFrom G[ AN,[
Form4 There G[ AN,[ Theerf Spelling Checker XaNG[ K[0[ ;}RG NXF"JX[ GlC\P

61

5P)P 0=M.\U 8}<;GM p5IMUo


Drawing 8},AFZGF 0FIFU|FDL\U 8}<;GL DNNYL TD[ VG[S 5|SFZGF\ 0FIFU|FD sVFS'lTf pD[ZL
XSM KMP VFS'lTVM Cycle 4 Target 4 Redial 4Venn VG[ Pyramid
5|SFZGL CMI K[P
lJlJW SF<5lGS J:T]VM J6"JJF VG[ 0MSI]D[g8G[ HLJ\T AGFJJF 0FIFU|FD JF5ZMP s0FIFU|FD VF\S0F
VFWFlZT GYLf
Drawing 0=M.\U 8},AFZ HMJF SM.56 8},AFZ 5Z ZF.8 S,LS SZMP 8},AFZGL IFNL N[BFX[P
0=M.\U 8},AFZ 5Z S,LS SZMP GLR[GL VFS'lT D]HA J0"DF\ SFD SZJFGL :S|LG GLR[ 0=M.\U 8},AFZ
N[BFX[
Curve sJ/F\Sf AGFJJMP
! P 0=M.\U 8},AFZDF\ Auto Shapes G[ S,LS SZM4 Lines G[ 5;\N SZM VG[ Curve S,LS SZMP
ZP TDFZ[ HIF\YL J/F\S X~ SZJFGM CMI tIF\ S,LS SZM VG[ 5KL DFp;G[ O[ZJJFG]\ RF,] ZFBL TD[ HIF\
56 J/F\S pD[ZJF .rKM tIF\ S,LS SZMP
Flow Chart sO,M RF8"f
0=M.\U 8},AFZ 5Z Auto Shapes SMdALG[XGYL4 O,MRF8" VFSFZ VG[ SG[S8ZGL DNNYL
O,MRF8" VFSFZ VG[ SG[S8ZGL DNNYL O,MRF8" NMZL XSFI K[P

5P!_P 8[A,o
8[A,GL ,F1Fl6STF o Rows sCFZfColumn s:T\Ef VG[ Cells sBFGF\f CFZ VG[ VF0L
,F.GMG[ Rows sCFZf SC[ K[P pEL ,L8LVMG[ Column CFZ VG[ :T\EYL AGTF EFUG[
Cells
SC[JFI K[P
8[A, NMZJ]\

62

8[A, pD[ZJF GLR[GL AFATM SZMP


!P :8Fg00" D[G]AFZDF\YL Table 5Z S,LS SZMP
ZP Table DF\YL Insert 5;\N SZM VG[ 5KL 8[A, 5;\N SZMP
GLR[GL VFS'lTDF\ NXF"jIF D]HA Insert Table 0FI,MU AM1F N[BFX[P slR+v*5f
#P 0FI,MU AM1FDF\ IMuI BFGFDF\ Rows VG[ Columns GL ;\bIF VF5MP
$P OK S,LS SZMP
Cell GL 5CM/F. VG[ p\RF. AN,JF\
Cell 5CM/F. VG[ p\RF. AN,JF GLR[ D]HA SZMP

!P H[ Cell GL 5CM/F. VG[ p\RF. AN,JF K[ T[ l;,[S8 SZMP


ZP 8[A, 5Z S,LS SZL 8[A,GL Properties 5;\N SZMP
#P Table Properties 0FI,MU AM1F GLR[ D]HA N[BFX[ lR+v*&P
$P Row 8[A S,LS SZMP
5P 0=M5 0FpG ,L:8 AM1FDF\YL CFZGL p\RF. 5;\N SZMP
63

&P Column 8[A 5Z S,LS SZMP


*P Preferad width AMS;DF\YL IMuI 5CM/F. 5;\N SZMP
CellDF\ ,BF6GL l:YlT scALIGNMENTf
!P CellDF\ S;"Z D}SM
ZP OMD["8L\U 8},AFZDF\ Left 4 Center S[ Right A8GG[ S,LS SZMP
Cell GL GS, SZJLP
!P H[GL GS, SZJFGL K[ T[ Cell 5;\N SZMP
ZP Ctrl VG[ C SL V[S;FY[ NAFJM VYJF Edit D[G]DF\YL Copy 5;\N SZMP VYJF Table D[G]GF
Select DF\YL Cell 5;\N SZMP
#P H[ ;[,DF\ ,BF6GL GS, SZJFGL K[ T[DF\ S;"Z D}SMP
$P Ctrl VG[ V SL VYJF Edit D[G]DF\YL Paste 5;\N SZMP

64

&P Mail MergesD[.,DH"fo


&P!
D[.,DH" GD}GF ~5 5+M4
AGFJJF J5ZFI K[P

85F, DF8[GF\ ,[A,4 5ZlA0LIF VYJF S[8,MUs 5]:TS IFNLVM f

VF lJS<5 CJ[ GLR[GF\ SFZ6MYL jIF5S56[ J5ZFI K[PV[S XaNG[ OST J0" 5|M;[l;\Us 8F.5f
SZTF\ JW] p5IMU DF8[ JF5Z[ K[P T[ ;DI ARFJ[ K[P

T[DF\YL TD[ Excel VYJF Access sV[S;[;fDF\ ;\U|C YI[,F 0[8FG[ VYJF 0[8FA[.hG[ J0"GF\
0MSI]D[g8DF\ ,FJL XSM KM VYJF ;DU| 0[8FA[.hG[ J0"DF\ ,FJL XSM KMP
5U,]\ v! o D]bI 0MSI]D[g8 AGFJJ]\ VYJF :5Q8 SZJ]\P
:8Fg00" 8},AFZDF\ New Blank Document A8GG[ S,LS SZMP Tools D[G]DF\ Mail
Merge 5Z S,LS SZMP lR+v**
D]bI 0MSI]D[g8 GLR[ Creat 5Z S,LS SZM VG[ 5KL form letters 5Z S,LS SZMP

65

5U,]\ vZ o 0[8FG]\ 5|Fl%T:YFG BM,M VYJF AGFJMP

GJM 0[8F ;M;" AGFJM o HM TD[ GFD4 ;ZGFDF VG[ VgI DFlCTL 0[8F ;M;"DF\ ;\U|C SZL CMI VG[ T[G[
TDFZ[ Word DF\ ;\U|C SZJFGL CMI TM VF 5wWlT JF5ZMP
5U,]\ v# o GJM J0" 0[8F ;M; AGFJM

!P Field names in header row AM1FDF\ 0[8F ;M;"DF\ H[ lO<0 sS1FFf pD[ZJF CMI T[G[ S,LS SZMP
ZP SM. 0[8F lO<0G[ N}Z SZJF T[ lO<0G[ S,LS SZL Remove Field name A8GG[ S,LS SZMP
#P SM. 0[8F lO<0G[ pD[ZJF Field name AM1FDF\ GFD VFJF Field names in header RowDF\YL
l;,[S8 SZL Add Field name G[ S,LS SZMP
$P 0[8F lO<0GF\ S|D AN,JF Field names in header Row AM1FDF\ SM.56 lO<0GF\ GFDG[ S,LS
SZM 5KL move GF\ p5Z S[ GLR[GF\ V[ZMG[ S,LS SZMP
0[8F lO<0 :5Q8 SIF" 5KL OK S,LS SZMP
H[DF\ 0[8F;M;" Save SZJFGM CMI T[ OM<0Z 5;\N SZM4 OF.,G]\ GFD 8F.5 SZM VG[ Save G[ S,LS
SZMP

66

Edit Data Source G[ S,LS SZM

Data Form 0FI,MU AM1FDF\ NZ[S 0[8F Z[SM0GL DFlCTL EZMP

Z[SM0" NFB, SZJF 0[8F lO<0 DF8[GL DFlCTL 8F.5 SZM VG[ 5KLGF\ lO<0DF\ HJF Enter S,LS SZMP
HM SM. BF; lO<0 DF8[GL DFlCTL ;DFJJF G DF\UTF CM TM lO<0G[ :SL5 sHT]\ SZJFf Enter NAFJMP
AM1FDF\ :5[; sBF,L HuIF G VF5MPf
GJM 0[8F Z[SM0" X~ SZJF Add New G[ S,LS SZMP

67

0[8F Z[S0" NFB, Y. HFI 5KL View Source G[ S,LS SZL 0[8F ;M;"G[ ;FRJM VG[ 5KL :8Fg00"
8},AFZ 5Z Save A8G S,LS SZMP

D}/ 0MSI]D[g8DF\ 5ZT OZJF Data Base 8},AFZ 5Z Mail Merge Main DocumentG[ S,LS
SZMP
CIFT 0[8FA[.hG[ BM,JM ov
HM TDFZL 5F;[ 5C[,[YL H 0[8F ;M;" CMI TM J0"DF\ OZL T[ 0[8F AGFJJFGL H~Z GYLP CF,GF\
0[8F;M;"G[ BM,JF GLR[ D]HAGF\ 5U,F\ EZM o
!P Getdate G[ S,LS SZM H[DF\YL Open Data Source lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
lR+ P($ Open Data Source 0FI,MU AM1FDF\ 0[8F;M;" XMWMP 0FI,MU AM1FDF\ 0[8F WZFJTF\
8[A,4Ceuery VYJF JS"XL8G[ H6FJMP OK S,LS SZMP

68

5U,]\v$ o D]bI 0MSI]D[g8DF\ Merge Field pD[ZJF

s!f D]bI 0MSI]D[g8 BM,M 5KL 0MSI]D[g8DF\ SM.56 lGIlDT ,BF6 8F.5 SZM pNFCZ6 TZLS[ OMD"
,[8ZGF\ TFZLB4 ;[<I]8[XG s;\AMWGf4 Body VG[ V\TG[ 8F.5 SZMP D]bI 0MSI]D[g8G[ 0[8F ;M;" HM0JF
5U,]\ v# VG];ZMP

ZP 5|YD DH" lO<0G[ HIF\ pD[ZJFG]\ CMI tIF\ S;"Z D]SM4 D[., DH" 8},AFZDF\ Insertmerge Field
A8G S,LS SZM VG[ pD[Z\JFGF\ DH" lO<0G[ 5;\N SZMP
5U,]\ v5 o DH" YI[,F 0MSI]D[g8G]\ l5|jI] sVJ,MSGf
D]bI 0MSI]D[g8 VG[ 0[8F ;M;" DH" YFI tIFZ[ 0MSI]D[g8GF ,[vVFp8G[ VFWFZ[ 0[8F;M;"DF\ NZ[S
Z[S0" DF8[ V,U 0MSI]D[g8 VYJF l,:8L\U pE]\ SZX[P Merge SZTF\ 5C[,F\ DH" YI[, 0MSI]D[g8 S[J]\
N[BFX[ T[GM GD}GM HMJFGM lJRFZ ;FZM K[P

69

&PZP :S|LG 5Z Mail Merge GL V;Z

;ZGFDFGL IFNL DH" SZLG[ 85F, DF8[GF\ ,[A, AGFJJFP


5U,]\v! D]bI 0MSI]D[g8 AGFJMP
!P :8Fg0"0 8},AFZ 5Z New Blank Document G[ S,LS SZMP
ZP Tools D[G]DF\ Mail Merge G[ S,LS SZMP
#P Main Document C[9/Create VG[ 5KL Mailing Labels S,LS SZMP
$P Active Window S,LS SZMP RF,] 0MSI]D[g8 D]bI 0MSI]D[g8 AGL HX[P
5U,]\vZ o 0[8F ;M;" BM,JF[ VYJF AGFJJMP
!P Mail Merge Helper 0FI,MU AM1FDF\ GLR[GFDF\YL V[S SFI"SZMP
GJM 0[8F;M;" AGFJMP HM TDFZL 5F;[ VUFpYL ;\U|C SZ[,F GFDM4 0[8FA[.h4 VYJF VgI IFNL CMI
VG[ TD[ 0[8FG[ DF.S|M;MO8 J0"GF\ 8[A,DF\ ;\U|C SZJF .rKM TM VF 5wWlT JF5ZMP
CIFT 0[8F;M;"DF\YL 0[8F JF5ZMP Data Source C[9/ Gef Date G[ S,LS SZMP VG[ 5KL
Open Data Source S,LS SZMP Word 0MSI]D[g84 JS"XL84 0[8FA[.h VYJF VgI IFNL 5;\N SZM
VG[ 5KL Open NAFJMP Set up main document G[ S,LS SZMP
.,[S8=MGLS V[0=[; A}SDF\YL ;ZGFDFVM JF5ZJFP Data Source C[9/ GetG[ S,LS SZM VG[ 5KL
use address bookG[ S,LS SZMP V[0=[; A}S 5;\N SZL OK S,LS SZMP
set up
main document S,LS SZMP
5U,]\ v# ,[A,GM 5|SFZ 5;\N SZM VG[ lO<0G[ DH" SZM sE[/JMf
!P HM Lebal options 0FI,MU AM1F G HM. XSM TM D]bI 0MSI]D[g8DF\ UD[ T[ HuIFV[ S,LS SZM VG[
5KL tools menu DF\ Mail MergeG[ S,LS SZMP Main document C[9/ Set up G[ S,LS SZMP
ZP TDFZ[ H[ l5|g8Z VG[ ,[A<; JF5ZJF CMI T[GM 5|SFZ 5;\N SZM VG[ 5KLG[ OK S,LS SZM HM
TDFZ[ H[ 5|SFZG]\ ,[A, JF5ZJ]\ CMI TM T[ product number AM1FDF\ G CMI TM TD[ IFNLDF\ VF5[,F
SM. 56 V[S ,[A,G[ JF5ZL XSM KMP VYJF TD[ TDFZF 5MTFGF\ DG5;\N sS:8Df ,[A<; AGFJL XSM
KMP
#P Create lebals 0FI,MU AM1FDF\ 0[8F;M;"DF\YL ;ZGFDFVM E[/JJFGF CMI tIF\ Merge field
pD[ZMP Merge field pD[ZJF Insert Merge field G[ S,LS SZM VG[ 5KL TDFZ[ H[ field name
HM.V[ T[G[ S,LS SZMP Merge fields pD[ZJF V\U[GL 8L%; s;,FCf H]VMP

70

$P HM D[.,L\U ,[A, 5Z post net AFZ SM0 pD[ZJF CMI TM Insert postal bar code G[ S,LS
SZMP zip code VG[ X[ZLG]\ ;ZGFD]\ WZFJTF\ lO<0G[ Merge DF8[ :5Q8 SZM VG[ OK G[ S,LS
SZMP post net AFZ SM0 lJX[ HF6MP
5P OK G[ S,LS SZMP
5U,]\v$ o D]bI 0MSI]D[g8DF\ 0[8F E[/JJM sDH"f
!P H[ S|DDF\ 0[8F E[/JJFGM K[ T[ :5Q8 SZJ]\= CMI TM VYJF OST 0[8FGF\ VD]S EFUG[ DH" SZJM CMI TM
TD[ DH" SZJFGF\ 0[8F Z[S0G[ ;M8" sSSSFJFZ SZJ]\ f VYJF 5;\N SZL XSMP
ZP DH" YI[,F 0[8F S[JM N[BFX[ T[ HMJF TD[ DH" SZ[, 0MSI]D[g8G]\ l5|jI] HM. XSM KMP
#P Mail merge helper box DF\ Merge the data with the document C[9/ MergeG[
S,LS SZMP
$P DH" SZTF\ 5C[,F\ 0[8F;M;"G[ R[S SZJFGM CMI TM Check errorsG[ S,LS SZMP V[S lJS<5 5;\N SZL
OK S,LS SZMP
GLR[GFDF\YL V[S SFI" SZMP
DH" SZ[, ,[A,G[ ;LWF H l5|g8Z 5Z DMS,MP Merge to AM1FDF\ l5|g8ZG[ S,LS SZM VG[ 5KL Merge
S,LS SZMP
DH" SZ[, ,[A,G[ GJF 0MSI]D[g8DF\ ;\U|C SZM H[YL TD[ T[GM 5FK/YL ;DL1FF edit SZL XSM VG[ KF5L
XSMP

&P#P ;ZGFDFGL IFNL DH" SZLG[ D[.,L\U ,[A, AGFJJFo


5U,]\ v!P D]bI 0MSI]D[g8 AGFJMP
!P :8Fg00" 8},AFZDF\ New blank document G[ S,LS SZMP
ZP tools D[G]\DF\ Mail Merge G[ S,LS SZMP
#P Main document C[9/ create G[ S,LS SZM VG[ 5KL Mailing labels G[ S,LS
SZMP
$P active window G[ S,LS SZM RF,] 0MSI]D[g8 D]BI 0MSI]D[g8 AGX[P
5U,]\ vZ 0[8F;M;" BM,JM VYJF AGFJJM K[P
Mail merge helper 0FI,MU AM1FDF\ GLR[GFDF\YL V[S SFD SZMP GJM 0[8F ;M;" AGFJMP HM
TD[ GFD4 ;ZGFDF VG[ VgI DFlCTL 0[8F ;M;"DF\ ;\U|C SZL CMI VG[ T[G[ TDFZ[ DF.S|M;MO8 J0"DF\
;\U|C SZJFGL CMI TM VF 5wWlT V5GFJMP
CIFT 0[8F 0[8F ;M;"DF\YL 0[8F JF5ZM Data source C[9/ get data G[ S,LS SZMP VG[ 5KL
open data G[ S,LS SZMP J0 0MSI]D[g84 JS"XL84 0[8FA[.h VYJF VgI IFNL 5;\N SZM VG[ 5KL
open NAFJMP set up main documentG[ S,LS SZMP
.,[S8=MGLS V[0=[; A]SDF\YL ;ZGFDF JF5ZJFPData source C[9/ get dataG[ S,LS SZM VG[
5KL use address bookG[ S,LS SZMP V[0=[; A]S 5;\N SZL OK S,LS SZMP setup main
document G[ S,LS SZMP
5U,]\ v# ,[A,GM 5|SFZ 5;\N SZM VG[ DH" SZ[, lO<0 pD[ZM
!P HM ,[A, options 0FI,MU AM1F G HM. XSM TM D]bI 0MSI]D[g8DF\ UD[ T[ HuIFV[ S,LS SZM VG[
5KL tools D[G]\DF\ Mail merge G[ S,LS SZMP Main document C[9/ setup
S,LS SZMP
ZP TDFZ[ H[ l5|g8Z VG[ ,[A, JF5ZJF CMI T[GM 5|SFZ 5;\N SZM VG[ 5KL OK S,LS SZMP HM TDFZ[
JF5ZJ]\ CMI T[ ,[A, product Number AM1FDF\ G CMI TM IFNLDF\ VF5[, SM.56 V[S ,[A,G[ JF5ZL
XSM KM VYJF TD[ TDFZF 5MTFGF DG5;\N sS:8Df ,[A, AGFJL XSM KMP
71

#P create labels 0FI,MU AM1FDF\ 0[8F ;M;" DF\YL ;ZGFDF pD[ZJFGF CMI tIF\ Merge fields
pD[ZMP Merge fields pD[ZJF Insert merge field G[ S,LS SZM VG[ 5KL TDFZ[ H[
field name HM.V[ T[G[ S,LS SZMP Merge fields pD[ZJF V\U[GL ;,FC H]VMP
$P HM D[.,L\U ,[A, 5Z post net AFZ SM0 pD[ZJF CMI TM insert postal bar code
G[ S,LS SZMP zip code VG[ X[ZLG]\ ;ZGFD]\ WZFJTF\ lO<0G[ DH" DF8[ :5Q8 SZM VG[
OKS,LS SZMP post net AFZ SM0 lJX[ HF6MP
5P OK G[ S,LS SZMP
5U,]\ v$ D]bI 0MSI]D[g8DF\ 0[8F DH" SZJM ov
!P HM H[ S|DDF\ 0[8F E[/JJFGM K[ T[ :5Q8 SZJ]\ CMI VYJF TM OST 0[8FGF\ VD]S EFUG[ DH" SZJM CMI
TM TD[ DH" SZJFGF 0[8F q Z[S0" G[ ;M8" s SSSF 5|DF6[f VYJF 5;\N SZL XSM KMP
ZP DH" YI[, 0[8F S[JM N[BFX[ T[ HMJF TD[ DH" SZ[, 0MSI]D[g8G]\ l5|jI] HM. XSM KMP
#P Mail merge helper AM1FDF\ Merge the data with the document
C[9/ Merge G[ S,LS SZMP
$P DH" SZTF\ 5C[,F\ 0[8F ;M;" G[ R[S SZJFGM CMI TM check error S,LS SZMP V[S lJS<5 5;\N SZL
OK S,LS SZMP
GLR[GFDF\YL V[S SFI" SZM o
DH" SZ[, ,[A,G[ ;LWF H l5|g8Z 5Z DMS,MP Merge to AM1FDF\ l5|g8ZG[ S,LS SZM VG[ 5KL
Merge S,LS SZMP
DH" SZ[, ,[A,G[ GJF 0MSI]D[g8DF\ ;\U|C SZM H[YL TD[ T[G[ 5FK/YL ;DL1FF q edit SZL XSMP VG[ KF5L
XSMP

72

*P 8F.5L\U 5|[Sl8; v 8F.5L\U 8I}8MlZI,o


*P! O,Ml8\U SLAM0"s;TT :SLG 5Z ZC[T]\f4 0FIG[lDS VG[ I]lGSM0 OMg8GL
,F1Fl6TFVM X]\ K[ m
TDFZF SMd%I]8ZGF\ :8Fg0"0 SL AM0"DF\ G CMI T[JF V1FZM TDM O,M8L\U SL AM0"GL DNNYL pD[ZL
XSM KMP
0FIG[lDS OMg8;
0FIG[lDS OMg8 V[ OMg8 :8F.,GL OF.,M K [ H[ 5'Q9GL ;FY[ 0FpG,M0spD[ZFIf YFI K[ T[G[ OM8F
TZLS[ lJRFZM T[ T[GM D}/E}T l;wWF\T lJRFZ K[P
TD[ VF OMg8 JF5ZM tIFZ[ OMg8GL OF., TDFZF cache s;\U|lCT OF.,Mf DF\ 0FpG,M0 YX[P
V[SJFZ S[;LDF\ VFjIF 5KL TD[ ;\5]656[ T[G[ N}Z G SZM tIF\ ;]WL OMg8 ElJQIDF\ NZ[S JBTGL
D],FSFT DF8[ p5,aW ZC[X[ TD[ VF OMg8 5|YD JBT JF5ZM tIFZ[ VF 5FGFG[ HMJFGM VFG\N VFJX[P
5FG]\ ,BF6 ;FY[ l0OM<8 ZLT[ VFJX[ tIFZ 5KL V[SJFZ OMg8 0FpG,M0 YFI S[ ;DU| 5FG]\ OZL ,M0
sp5;"f YFI K[P
VF OMg8 ;FDFgI ZLT[ Net scape navigator 4.0 VYJF 5KLGF\ Jh"GDF\ SFD VF5[ K[P
VFD KTF\4 HM TD[ OMg8GL ;FY[ active C[<5Z V[%,LS[XG pD[ZM TM TD[ T[G[ DF.S|M;MO8 .g8ZG[Z
V[S;%,MZZ 4.0 VG[ T[YL VFU/GF\ Jh"GDF\ 56 HM. XSM KMP OMg8; BZ[BZ S. ZLT[ SFD SZ[ K[ T[
H6FjIF 5KL T[GF lJX[ JWFZ[ HF6LX]\P
0FIG[DLS OMg8;YL TDFZ]\ A|FphZ TDFZF Sd%I]8Z 5Z .g:8M, CMI GlC\ T[JF OMg8 NXF"JL XS[
K[ T[ DF8[ T[ J[A;F.8 5Z V[dA[0[0 s;FY[ HM0[,f SFDR,Fp OMg8 OF.,G[ V[S;[; SZ[ K[P TDFZ[ TDFZF
Sd%I]8ZDF\ OF.,G[ 0FpG,M0 S[ .g:8M, SZJFGL H~Z ZC[X[ GlC\P VFD KTF\ TDFZ[ 0FIG[lDS OMg8;
p5,aW CMI TM T[G[ NXF"JJFG]\ IMuI CMJFG]\ TDFZF A|FphZsJ[A;F.8 HMJF DF8[G]\ SM.56 ;MO8J[Zf G[
H6FJJFG]\ ZC[X[P
I]lGSM0 X]\ K[ m ov Unicode R V[ AC]EFQFLI l0lh8, DFlCTLGF J{lxJS VFNFG 5|NFG SZL
XSFI T[J]\ lJ`JjIF5L V1FZMGF\ ;[8G]\ WFZFWMZ6 K[P unicode GF ;\XMWSMGM wI[I CF,GF\ ZFQ8=LI VG[
VF\TZ ZFQ8=LI V1FZMGF ;[8GM ;DFJ[X SZLG[ lJ`JGL TDFD EFQFFVMG[ ;CFI VF5JFGM K[P
.g8ZG[XG, VMU["GF.h[XG OMZ :8Fg00" s ISOf p5ZF\T TDFD D]bI CF0"J[Z S\5GLVMV[ I]lGSM0
:8Fg00"G[ DFgITF VF5[, K[P CSLSTDF\4 I]lGSM0 :8Fg00" VG[ VF\TZZFQ8=LI :8Fg00" ISO 10646
S[8,F\S JQFM"YL V[SALHF ;FY[ ZC[, K[P A\G[ :8Fg00" V[S H 5|SFZGF\ V1FZMG[ ;5M8" SZ[ K[ T[YL S\5GLVM
VFtDlJ`JF;5}J"S V[SALHFGL ClZ lJX[ lJRFIF" JUZ I]lGSM0G[ V5GFJL XS[ K[P
I]lGSM0 S[Z[S8Z;[8V[ lJ`JGL TDFD D]bI EFQFFVMGL ,BF6 X{ALG]\ 5|lTlGlWtJ SZJFGF
.ZFNFYL T{IFZ SZ[, S[Z[S8Z;[8 K[P HM0[ !))&GF\ JQF"GF\ ZP_DF\ !& AL8 s&55#& V1FZMf CTF H[
V5}ZTF ;Fl,T YJFYL CJ[ DFGJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ S[ VMKFDF\ VMKF Z! VG[ ,UEU ZZAL8 H~ZL ZC[X[P H[
S[8,F\S ,FB V1FZMG[ ;5M8" SZX[P
I]lGSM0 Jh"G ZP_DF\ #(((5 V1FZMG[ lGWF"ZLT SZJFDF\ VFjIF CTFP Jh" #P_DF\ $)4!($
V1FZMG[ lGWF"ZLT SZJFDF\ VFjIF CTFP Jh"G #PZDF\ )5!5& V1FZMG[ lGWF"ZLT SZJFDF\ VFjIF CTFP
Jh"G $P_DF\ )&#(Z V1FZMG[ lGWF"ZLT SZJFDF\ VFjIF CTFP I]lGSM0 V1FZMG[ ;\U|C SZJF H~ZL
A|F.8G[;GL ;\bIF VMKFDF\ VMKL ZFBJF J[ZLI[A,vlJ0Y V[gSM0L\U :SLD lJS;FJJFDF\ VFJ[, K[P
HIFZ[ OST * lA8 ASCLL V1FZMG[ ;DFJTL OF.,MG[ UNICODE UTF -8DF\ HMJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
tIFZ[ T[ AN,FTF GYL UTF-8 ;FY[ RMZ ( lA8 AF.8;GL H~Z TDFD l0OF.g0 I]lGSM0 S[Z[S8;"G[
D[/JJF ZC[X[P
I]lGSM0 OMg8; ov
I]lGSM0 GLR[GL VM5Z[8L\U l;:8Ds;MO8J[Zf DF\ JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
73

Apple Newton os
At & T / Lucent Technologies bell Labs Inferno
At & T Lucent Technologies bell Labs plan 9
Be Os
Java Os
Metaphor os
Microsoft windows NT
Miscrosoft windows CE
Next os

*PZ V\U|[HL 8F.5L\Uv5|[S8L;o

4H

5H

6H

1H
7H

JrR[GL & SL GLR[ D]HA K[ ov


!P Ins VYJF Insert A[ XaNMJrR[ ,BF6 pD[ZJF J5ZFI K[P
ZP del ,BF6G[ N}Z SZ[ K[P
#P ,BF6G[ V[S ,L8LDF\ SZJF delete NAFJMP
$P page up YL ,BF6 s5FG]\f V0W]\qVFB]\ p5Z HFI K[P
5P page down YL ,BF6 V[S :S|LG sS[ V0W]\qVFB]\ 5FG]\f GLR[ HFI K[P
&P Home And End ,BF6GL X~VFTDF\ V\T[ 5CM\RF0[ K[P
ArrowSL ,BF6DF\ p5ZqGLR[qVFU/q5FK/GL ,L8LDF\ ,. HFI K[P
74

2H

numeric sVF\S0Ff SL 5[0 GLR[ D]HA CMI K[P

Numeric lock NAFJLG[ SL AM0"G[ RF,] SZM p5Z Numeric lock ,B[,]\ K[ T[GL ,L,L ,F.8 YX[P
SL 5[0G[ A\W SZJF OZLJFZ Numeric lockNAFJMP
SL 5[0GL lGXFGLVM GLR[ D]HA K[P
v c + csJtTFf lGXFGL S\.S pD[ZJF J5ZFI K[P pPNFP Z JtTF # D[/JJF Z4 + VG[ # SL NAFJL
V[g8Z NAFJMP
v c v c lGXFGL AFNAFSL SZJF J5ZFI K[P pPNFP 5 VMKF ! D[/JJF 54 v VG[ ! SL NAFJL V[g8Z
NAFJMP
v c q c lGXFGL EFUFSFZ SZJF DF8[ J5ZFI K[P pPNFP!Z G[ ZYL EFUJF !Z4 q lGXFGL VG[ Z NAFJL
ENTER NAFJMP HJFA D/X[P

v c * c U]6FSFZ SZJF DF8[ K[P pPNFP!Z G[ !5YL U]6JF !Z4 * VG[ !5 SL NAFJL ENTER
NAFJMP HJFA D/X[P
;F{YL K[0[ 0FALAFH]V[ ESC SL K[P
F1 YL F12 O\SXG sVUtIGF\ SFI"f GL SL K[P HM 5|MU|FD F 8 NAFJJFG]\ SC[ TM F8
NAFJMP
v ;F{YL 0FAL AFH]GF K[0[ Caps lock K[ H[ S[l58, V1FZM DF8[ K[P
v
Caps lock NAFJJFYL TDFD V1FZM S[l58, 8F.5 YX[P Caps lock RF,] CMI tIFZ[
Caps lock GLR[ SL 5[0DF\ ,L,L ,L.8 RF,] YFI K[P
v Caps lock JF5ZMP
v Caps lock NAFJMP
v Caps lock GLR[ SL5[0 5Z ,L,L ,F.8 H]VMP
v CJ[8F.5 X~ SZMP
v Caps lock OZLYL NAFJL T[G[ A\W SZMP
v ,L,L ,F.8 A\W YJL HM.V[P YM0]\ 8F.5 SZTF CJ[ GFGF V1FZM HMJF D/X[P

75

v VF CFZGF A\G[ K[0[ shift SL K[P


v GFGF V1FZM 8F.5 SZJF OST SL NAFJMP
v DM8F sS[l58,f V1FZM 8F.5 SZJF shiftSL NAFJL ZFBLG[ SL NAFJMP
v l+HL CFZ DM8[EFU[ V1FZM WZFJ[ K[P
v GFGF V1FZM 8F.5 SZJF OST SL NAFJMP
v DM8F sS[l58,f V1FZM 8F.5 SZJF shift SL NAFJL ZFBLG[ SL NAFJMP
v JrR[ DM8L SL space bar K[P
v space bar NAFJJFYL S;"Z V[S :5[X sV1FZGL HuIFf 0FAL AFH] HFI K[P VFGFYL A[ XaNM JrR[
HuIF ZFBL XSFI K[ T[GM 5|ItG SZMP
v36F 5|MU|FD p5IMUL SFIM" SZJF V1FZGL SL ;FY[ ALT VG[ CTRL SLGM p5IMU SZ[ K[P
v CUT, Copy VG[ Paste p5IMUL SFIM"DFG]\ V[S K[P ,BTL JBT[ TD[ V[S HuIFV[YL 36F
,BF6GL GS, SZLG[ VgI HuIFV[ RM\8F0L XSM KMP GSSL SZ[, HuIFV[ GS, SZ[, ,BF6 RM\8F0M

ALHL CFZDF\ ;\bIF VG[ lGXFGLVMGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P spNFP) VG[_ ;FY[ SF{\; VYJF lJZFDlRgCM CMI
K[P f
;\bIF 8F.5 SZJF OST T[ SL NAFJMP
lGXFGLVM 8F.5 SZJF V[S CFYYL shift SL NAFJL ALHF CFYYL SL NAFJMP
0FA[ B}6[ ZC[, SL ~ s 8L<0 vV[S lGXFGLf S[8,FS Web pages GF V[0=[;DF\ J5ZFI K[P
pNFCZ6 TZLS[ http://www.ckls.org/~crippel PPPPPS[8,FS V1FZM 8F.5 SZM CJ[ Back
space sA[S :5[;f lJX[ JF\RMP
Bck sp V[ c Back spacec SL K[P
8F.5 SZTL JBT[ VF SL YL a,L\SL\U S;"Z 0FAL AFH]GF V1FZG[ N}Z SZ[ K[P
8H

*P#P U]HZFTL 8F.5L\U 5|[Sl8;o


Caps lock RF,] CMI VG[ shift SL NAFJ[, G CMI tIFZ[ VF V1FZM D/[ K[P

Caps lock A\W CMI VG[ shift SL NAFJ[, CMI tIFZ[ VF V1FZM D/[ K[P

76

77

(P :5[|0XL8 sDF.S|M;MO8 V[S;[,fo


VFW]lGS lNJ;G]\ SFDSFH DM8[EFU[ GF6F\SLI 5'yYSZ6 5Z VFWFlZT CMI K[P 0[8FG]\ h05L VG[
RMSS; 5'YSSZ6 SFDSFHGF\ DFlCTUFZ lG6"IM ,[JF VG[ jI}CZRGFVM 30JF H~ZL K[P DFlCTL
5wWlTVM S[8,FS 5|Fl%T:YFGMDF\YL lJXF/ DF+FDF\ 0[8F V[Sl+T SZJF VG[ T[G]\ 5'YSSZ6 H~ZL K[ H[YL
SFDSFHGL 5lZl:YlTG]\ RMSS; lR+ VF5L XSFIP

0[8FGF\ 5'YSSZ6 DF\ GLR[GF\GM ;DFJ[X YFI K[ o


0[8F 5Z ;ZJF/M4 ;Z[ZFX JU[Z[ H[JF VF\S0FSLI VG[ Ul6TLS U6TZLVM SZJL JU[Z[PPPP
0[8FGF\ A[ ;[8 JrR[ ;ZBFD6L ;Z/ AGFJJF U|FOGF\ ~5DF\ 0[8F ZH} SZJFP
V[S YL JW] ;M; s5|Fl%T:YFGf DF\YL 0[8FGF\ ,FU] 50TF\ 8[A,G[ V[S V[Sl+T 0[8FDF\ pt5FlNT SZJMP
:5|[0XL8;YL TD[ VF\S0FSLI DFlCTL 5Z lJUTJFZ 5'YSSZ6 SZL XSM KMP JS"XL8 TZLS[ 56 VM/BFTL
:5|[0XL8 0[8FG[ CFZ VG[ :T\EGF ~5DF\ NXF"J[ K[P 0[8F ;[,DF\ NFB, SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ H[ ZM VG[ SM,DGL
JrR[GM EFU K[P ;[,DF\ U6TZLVM SZJF DF8[GL OMdI]",F s;UJ0f 56 VF5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[ H[ U6TZLG]\
5lZ6FFD NXF"JX[P 0[8FGF ;[8 5Z U6TZLVM SZJF OMdI]",F GSSL SZL H]NL H]NL :5|[0XL8G[ HM0JF
XlSTXF/L ,1F6 V[ K[ S[ T[ HM 0[8FGM ;M; AN,[ TM VF5D[/[ H Ul6lTS OMdI]",FGF\ 5lZ6FDGL OZL
U6TZL SZ[ K[P VFD4 :5|[0XL8 h05L V858F 0[8F V[GF,L;L; SZJF DF8[G]\ h05L VG[ RMSS; ;FWG K[P
S[8,FS ,MSl5|I :5[|0XL8 5[S[H Lotus !vZv#4 Quattro pro VG[ Ms Exel K[P

(P!P .,[S8=MlGS; :5[|0XL8GF\ TtJMo


Ms Exel lJg0M VFWFZLT :5|[0 XL8 K[ H[G[ DF.S|M;MO8 SM5M"Z[XG wJFZF lJS;FJJFDF\ VFJ[,
K[P
DF\ Ms Exel VF5D[/[ 5]Go U6TZL4 U|FO VG[ O\SXG H[JF :5|[0XL8 5[S[HGF\ TDFD :8Fg00"
,1F6MGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P T[DF\ :5[|0XL8DF\ Vg0F VMaH[S8 4 5F.JM8 sD]bIf 8[A, VG[ OMD
0LhF.GL\U H[JL S[8,LS V[0JFg; ;UJ0MGM 56 ;DFJ[X YFI K[P
Exel G[ lJlJW V[%,LS[XG DF8[ JF5ZL XSFIP T[ ;FDFgI ZLT[ GF6F\SLI 5+SM4 W\WFGL
VFUFCLVM4 DF,;FDFGGM lGI\+6 VG[ J{7FlGS SFIM" SZ[ K[P T[YL4 36F J{7FlGS VG[.HG[ZL
JFTFJZ6DF\ ;\bIF,1FL DFlCTLG]\ 5'yYSZ6 SZJF Exel JF5ZL XSFIP
78

(PZP .,[S8=MGLS :5[|0XL8GM p5IMU q J5ZFX o


Exel GL S[8,LS D]bI DCtJGL ,F1Fl6STFVM GLR[ D]HA K[P
lJg0M VFWFlZT V[%,LS[XG K[P Ms ExelG]\ .g8ZO[.; sN[BFJf windows NT
H[JM
K[P lJg0MhGL TDFD V[%,LS[XGGL H[D H Exel DF\ 8},AFZ4 XM8"S8 D[G]4 VM8M SZ[S84 Outline C[<5
VG[ wizard s;CFIS f K[P T[GF\YL lJg0MhGF p5IMU SZGFZ DF8[
Exel XLBJFG]\ ;C[,]\ AG[
K[P
JS"A}S; o JS"A}S Sg8[GZ K[ H[ V[S VYJF JW] JS"XL8 WZFJ[ K[P V[S 5|MH[S8G[ ,UTL TDFD XL8G[
V[S OF.,DF\ ZFBJFYL H]NL H]NL OF.,M HFJ/JFGL HZ]ZDF\ 38F0M YFI K[P
VMl08L\U s auditing f o JS"XL8G]\ VMl08L\U V[S V[JL ,F1Fl6STF K[ H[JS"XL8GL E},M R[S SZ[ K[P
H]NF H]NF ;[,DF\ OMdI]",FG[ ;F\S/L ,[JF VG[ U6TZLGL E},G]\ D}/ XMWJF VF[l08L\U JF5ZL XSFI K[P
OLE object linking and embedding V[8,[ 0MSI]D[g84 lR+ VYJF lJ0LIM S,L5 H[JF
SM.56 VMaH[S8G[ 5|MU|FDDF\ ;DFJJF Exel JS"XL8DF\ VF ;UJ0 K[ VF ;UJ0G[
G[ Exel
TDFD VgI V[%,LS[XG ;FY[ HM0JF JF5ZL XSFI K[P
Data entry formso V[S JS"XL8DF\ TD[ S:8D 0[8F V[g8=LOMD AGFJL XSM KMP V[S OMD"DF\
J[,L0[XG ~<; VG[ OMD["8L\UGM ;DFJ[X SZL XSFI K[P
Large data management capacity Exel V[S ;FY[ lJXF/ 0[8FG[ lGEFJL XS[ K[P V[S
JS"XL8DF\ !&#($ CFZ VG[ Z5& :T\E sSM,Df ;DFJL XSFI K[P V[S ;[,DF\ Z55 V1FZM ;DFJL XSFI
K[P V[S JS"A}S JW]DF\ JW] Z55 JS"XL8 WZFJL XS[ K[P VFJL 0[8F D[G[HD[g8 1FDTFYL Exel XlSTXF/L
:5[|0XL8 V[%,LS[XG AG[ K[P
Data Analysis ,F1Fl6STFVM o ExelDF\ XlSTXF/L tools K[ H[ 0[8F V[GFl,;L;DF\ DNN SZ[K[P
l5JM8 8[A<;4 DF.S|M;MO8 Query VG[ data map 8}<;YL J5ZFXSFZM H]NL H]NL ZLT[ V[GFl,;L;
SZJF 0[8F ZH} SZL XS[ K[P

(P#P :5|[0XL8 X~ SZJL

Exel GLR[GFDF\YL SM. V[S ZLT[ ,M0 SZL XSFIP


Start D[G]DF\ programs DF\YL Microsoft Exel lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
0[:S8M5 5Z XM8" S8G[ 0A, S,LS SZMP
Start run SZL Exel type SZM H[GFYL V[%,LS[XG X~ YX[P
Exel ,M0 YFI tIFZ[ SMZL JS"XL8 N[BFI K[P lR+ !_!
SMZL JS"XL8DF\ GLR[GF\ ;[SXG CMI K[P
Rows, columns, VG[ cells o JS"XL8GL 0FAL SM,D ;FY[ p5ZYL GLR[ CFZG[ U6JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
SM,DG[ 0FA[YL HD6[ V1FZM s A, B,CPPPf YL VF5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P ;[, V[ ZM VG[ SM,DGL JrR[GM EFU
K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[ 5|YD ;[, A-1 TZLS[ VM/BFI K[P V[8, S[ SM,D A 4 ZM !P T[H ZLT[ F-3 V[
SM,D F VG[ ZM # JrR[GM EFU K[P ;[,DF\ 0[8F VG[ OMdI]",F NFB, SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
Menus vVG[ toolbars :- JS"XL8G[ BM,JF VG[ A\W SZJF H[JF Exel DF\ SZJFGF\ H]NF H]NF SFIM"
TD[ Menu GL DNNYL SZL XSM KMP Toolbars V[ ;FDFgI ZLT[ J5ZFTL D[G] VF.8[d; DF8[GF\ XM8"S8;
K[ VF5 D[/[ S[ VUFpYL ;[8 SIF" D]HA sBy default) :8Fg0"0 VG[ OMD["8L\U 8]<; NXF"JJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
Sheets Excelo G[ JS"A}SGL H[D VFIMlHT SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K [ H[DF\ Sheet, Sheets-2 VG[ T[H ZLT[
VG[S 5[.H CMI K[P VF5D[/[ OST K XL8; NXF"JJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P JW] XL8 5Z SFD SZJF TDFZ[ Tab
split AM1F sXL8GL 8[A VG[ VF0F :S|M,AFZ JrR[G]\ GFG]\ AM1Ff G[ HD6[ VYJF 0FA[ B[\RJFG]\ CMI K[P
XL8GF\ 8[AG]\ VUFpG]\ ;[8L\U NXF"JJF AM1FG[ 0A, S,LS SZMP

79

NZ[S JS"XL8 VgI SZTF\ :JT\+ K[ HM S[ V,U V,U XL8DF\GL J[<I]G[ V[Sl+T 0[8F ;[8 ZH} SZJF V[S+
SZL XSFI K[P

(P$PD[G]AFZ

JS"XL8 BM,JL VG[ A\W SZJL


HMJF V[S;[,DF\ SZL XSFTF H]NF H]NF SFIM" TD[ D[G]GL DNNYL SZL XSM KMP
Ms Excel DF\ ) D[G] K[P
!P file o s Alt+f f D[G] GJL OF., AGFJJF q BM,JF q ;FRJJF4 XL8GF\ CF\l;IFVM ;[8 SZJF4 JS"XL8
l5|g8 SZJF VG[ V[S;[,DF\YL ACFZ GLS/JF J5ZFI K[P
ZP edits Alt+ef VF D[G] cut, copy, paste, find, replace S[ Go to H[JF V[l08L\U SFD DF8[
J5ZFI K[P
#P Views Alt+V)o VF D[G] JS"A}SG[ H]NL H]NL ZLT[ HMJF JS"XL8DF\ HeadersJS"XL8 ;F{YL VFU/GL
HuIFf VG[ footers JS"XL8GL ;F{YL K[<,L HuIFf D}SJF J5ZFI K[P
$P Inserts Alt+I f VF D[G] 5FGF G\AZ4 lR+ 4 RF8"4 ;[,4 ZM4 SM,D4 JS"XL8 VYJF RF8" H[JF
V[S;[, ACFZGF\ VMaH[S8 pD[Z[ K[P
5P formate s Alt+of VF D[G] ;[,4 ZM4 SM,D VG[ XL8G[ :J~5 VF5JF sOMD["8f DF8[ J5ZFI K[P
VF56[ VF D[G]YL JWFZFGF OMD["8L\U VYJF VM8M OMD["8G[ pD[ZL XSLV[ KLV[P
&P TOOLSs Alt+T) VF D[G]DF\ Goal seck, Auto formate, scenarias, lJS<5M CMI K[P VF
D[G]DF\YL Options SDFg0DF\YL VF56[ 5F;J0" ;[8 SZL XSLV[ KLV[P VM8M ;[J 8F.DL\U VF5L XSLV[
KLV[P
*P Data s Alt+Df o VF D[G]DF\ Shorting , forms, VG[ sub total H[JF S[8,FS lJS<5M p5IMU
AG[ K[P
(P window s Alt+Wf VF D[G] V[S;[, JS"XL8G[ H]NF H]NF lJg0DF\ HMJF J5ZFI K[P
)P Helps Alt+Hf VF D[G] Excel GF NZ[S D]NF 5Z DNN 5}ZL 5F0[ K[P

(P5P ;[, AGFJJF VG[ T[G]\ V[0=[; VF5J]\o


Z5& SM,D s A YL IV f
65536ZM s! YL &55#& f V[S XL8DF\ CMI K[P
SM,D A YL X~ YFI K[ VG[ z 5KL AA, AB, AC V[D VFU/ JW[K[P
:5|[0XL8GF p5ZGF\ EFU[ SM,DG]\ GFD VG[ 0FAL AFH]V[ G\AZ NXF"J[ K[P
;[, V[ SM,D VG[ ZM GF VF\TZ HM0F6YL AG[, :5|[0XL8 GL HuIF VYJF EFU K[P
Cell DF\ p5,aW DFlCTLG[ 0[8F U6JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
Cell address V[ SM,DGF\ GFD VG[ CFZGF\ G\AZG]\ ;\I]ST GFD K[ pNFP A5, C57, AD7
JU[Z[P
Cell 5M.g8Z RF,] ;[, GL l:YlT NXF"J[ K[P 0[8F NFB, SIF" 5KL Enter SL NAFJJFYL T[ ;[,DF\ 0[8F
p5,aW YX[ VG[ TDFZ]\ ;[, 5M.g8Z :5|[0XL8DF\ V[S ;[, GLR[ VFJX[P
SM,DGF\ DYF/F p5Z OMdI]",F AFZ sHuIF f K[P OMdI]",F AFZGL 0FAL AFH]V[ name box K[ H[
TDFZF RF,] ;[,G]\ V[0=[; NXF"J[ K[ OMdI]",F AFZGF HD6F EFUDF\ T[ RF,] ;[,G]\ lJQFI J:T] NXF"J[ K[P

80

(P& ;[,DF\ ;]WFZF JWFZF o


V[S;[, JS"XL8 J[<I] VYJF OMdI]",F WZFJ[ K[ ;[,DF\ ;\bIF ,BF64 TFZLB VG[ ;DI T[DH ;FR]\
VYJF BM8]\ H[JF TFlS"S D]<IM CMI K[P OMdI]",F AFZ ;[,DF\ 0[8F NFB, SZJF JF5ZL XSFI K[P lR+v!_#
;[,DF\ 0[8F NFB, SZJFGF\ TASSFVM GLR[ D]HA K [P
!P ;[, 5Z S,LS SZLG[ T[G[ 5;\N SZMP Cell reference Area ;[,GM G\AZ NXF"J[ K[P
ZP J[<I] 8F.5 SZM Cell reference Area GL HD6L AFH]V[ 8[1F AM1FDF\ TD[ 8F.5 SZ[, 0[8F N[BFI
K[P
#P Enter SL NAFJMP JFZFOZYL TD[ OMdI]",F AFZDF\ EnterAM1FG[ S,LS SZL XSM KMP

(P*P ;[,DF\ ;]WFZF JWFZF ov


TD[ JS"XL8 AGFjIF 45KL TDFZ[ S[8,LS J[<I]DF\ ;]WFZF JWFZF SZJFGL VYJF N}Z SZJFGL H~Z 50[ K[P
J[<I]DF\ ;]WFZFJWFZF SZJFGL ZLT[ GLR[ D]HA K[ o

!P H[ ;[,GL J[<I]DF\ ;]WFZF JWFZF SZJFGF\ CMI T[ 5;\N SZMP


ZP ;[,DF\ ;]WFZF JWFZF SZJF T[G[ 0A, S,LS SZMP
#P HM TDFZ[ VFBL J[<I]G[ AN,JL CMI TM ;[,G[ 0A, S,LS SIF" JUZ GJL J[<I] 8F.5 SZMP
HM V[0L8L\U SZTL JBT[ VUFpGL J[<I] 5FKL D[/JJL CMI TM OMdI]",F AFZDF\
Cancel current G[ S,LS SZMP Eentry button G[ S,LS SZMP
;[,DF\ ZC[, 0[8FG[ N}Z SZJF ov
! P ;[, 5;\N SZMP
ZP XM8"S8 D[G]DF\YL clear contents lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
J{Sl<5S ZLT[ TD[ Edit D[G]DF\YL clear lJS<5 56 5;\N SZL XSM KMP 5[8F D[G]DF\YL contents
lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
;[,4 ZM VG[ SM,D N}Z SZJF ov
V[S;[,DF\ TD[ ;[,4 ZM VG[ SM,D VFH]AFH]GL ZM VYJF SM,DG[ V;Z SIF" JUZ pD[ZL VYJF
N}Z SZL XSM KMP
;[, VYJF ;[,GF\ ;D}CG[ N}Z SZJFGF\ TASSFVM GLR[ D]H A K[P
!P ;[,G[ 5;\N SZMP V[S YL JW] ;[, N}Z SZJF DFp;G[ ;[,DF\ B;[0M VG[ 0FA]\ A8G NAFJL ZFBMP
ZP Edit D[G]DF\YL delete lJS<5 5;\N SZMP GLR[GL VFS'lTDF\ delete cells 0FI,MU AM1F NXF"J[,
K[P
#P IMuI lJS<5 5;\N SZM VG[ ;[, N}Z SZJF OK A8G S,LS SZMP
;[J4 ZM VG[ SM,D pD[ZJF ov
;[, 4 ZM4 VG[ SM,D pD[ZJFGF\ TASSFVM GLR[ D]HA K[P
81

!P ;[,4 ZM VYJF SM,DG[ S[ HIF\ TD[ ;[,4 ZM VYJF SM,D pD[ZJF DF\UM KM T[ 5;\N SZMP

ZP Insert D[G]DF\YL Cells lJS<5 5;\N SZM


#P ;[, ZM VYJF SM,D pD[ZJF IMuI lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
$P OK A8GGG[ S,LS SZMP
5P ZM VYJF SM,D pD[ZJF Insert D[G]DF\YL 56 ,FU 50TM lJS<5 5;\N SZL XSM KMP

(P(P ,BF64 ;\bIF VG[ TFZLB pD[ZJLP


,BF6 pD[ZJ]\ P
,BF6 s8[1F V[g8=Lf DF\ D}/F1FZM4 ;\bIF VG[ lGXFGLVMGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P S[8,LSJFZ U6TZL
DF8[ J5ZFI GlC\ T[JL ;\bIF 8F.5 SZJFGL H~Z 50[ K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[ SM. DF;GF\ VF\S0F NXF"JJF
DF;GM S|D NFB, SZJFGL HZ]Z 50[ K[P VFJF lS:;FDF\ ;\bIFGL VFU/ V[5M:8=M5L scf lGXFGL
,UFJJFGL CMI K[P TD[ ;\bIFGL VFU/ AZFAZGL lGXFGL s = f D}SLG[ 56 ;\bIFG[ 8[1F TZLS[ 8F.5
SZL XSM KM VG[ ;\bIFG[ VJTZ6 lRgCDF\ ,BL XSM KM pNFCZ6 TZLS[ 55()_ ;\bIFG[ 8[1FGF\ ~5DF\
8F.5 SZJF TD[ = cc 55()_ cc 8F.5 SZL XSMP
;\bIF NFB, SZJLP
Excel GLR[GF\ V1FZMG[ ;\bIF U6[ K[P
1234567890- +/.Ee
V5}6F"\S NFB, SZJF 5}6F"\S4 space VG[ 5KL V5}6F"\S 8F.5 SZJFGM CMI K[P GlC\TZ 4
Excel V5}6F"\S ;\bIFG[ TFZLB U6L ,[ K[P TDFD ;\bIFSLI 0[8F VF5D[/[ H HD6L AFH]GL l:YlTV[
CMI K[P
TFZLB VG[ ;DI NFB, SZJF ov
TD[ TFZLB VYJF ;DI 8F.5 SZM tIFZ[ Excel T[ J[<I]G[ VG]S|D G\AZDF\ ~5F\TlZT SZ[ K[P
VG]S|D G\AZ ;NLGL X~VFTYL lNJ;MGL ;\bIF X~ SZLG[ TD[ 8F.5 SZM T[ TFZLB ;]WLGF\ lNJ;M NXF"J[
K[P Z$ S,FSGF\ lNJ;GF\ NXF\X EFU TZLS[ ;DI GM\WJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
TFZLB H[ ZLT[ NXF"JJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ T[ OMD["8G[ TD[ AN,L XSM KMP TFZLB NXF"JTF OMD["8G[ AN,L
56 XSM KMP TFZLB NXF"JTF OMD["8G[ AN,JFGF 5U,F GLR[ D]HA K[P
!P format D[G]DF\YL cells lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
ZP Number 8[A 5;\N SZMP

82

#P catagory l,:8 AM1FDF\YL date lJS<5 5;\N SZMP

$P TDFZ[ HM.V[ T[ 0[8 OMD["8 5;\N SZM VG[ OK A8G S,LS SZMP

(P) 8[A, AGFJJF\o


TD[ GSSL SZ[, .g5]8 J[<I] VG[ OMdI]",FG[ VFWFZ[ 0[8F 8[A, AGFJJF VF SDFg0 JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[
K[ TDFZL OMdI]",F AN,FTL J[<I]GF 5lZ6FDM HMJF 0[8F S[A, JF5ZL XSFI K[P V[S .G5]8 0[8F S[A, DF8[
ZM .g5]8 ;[, VYJF SM,D >g5]8 8[A, DF8[ A\G[ NFB, SZMP
GLR[GFDF\YL V[S SFI" SZMP
HM 0[8F 8[A, SM,D VFWFlZT CMI TM 8[A,GL ;F{YL p5ZGL CFZDF\ CIFT OMdI]",F GLR[GF\ BF,L
;[,DF\ GJL OMdI]",F 8F.5 SZMP
HM 0[8F 8[A, ZM VFWFlZT CMI TM 8[A,GL 5|YD SM,DDF\ CIFT OMdI]",F GLR[GF\ BF,L ;[,DF\
GJL OMdI]",F 8F.5 SZMP
GJL OMdI]",F WZFJTF\ ZM VG[ SM,D ;lCT 0[8F 8[A, 5;\N SZMP
data D[G]DF table G[ S,LS SZMP lR+v!_*
GLR[GFDF\YL V[S SFI"SZM o
HM 0[8F 8[A, SM,D VFWFZLT CMI TM .g5]8 ;[, DF8[ cell referance s JS"XL8DF\ V[S ;[, H[
SMVMl0"G[8ZGM ;[8 WZFJ[ K[P pNFP TZLS[ B SM,D VG[ # G\AZGL ZMGF\ HM0F6 5Z ;[,GM Z[OZg;
B3 K[Pf column input cell AM1FDF\ 8F.5 SZMP
HM 0[8F 8[A, ZMvVFWFlZT CMI TM .g5]8 ;[, DF8[GM ;[, Z[OZg;4 Row input cell
AM1FDF\ 8F.5 SZMP

83

(P!_P ;[,GL p\RF. VG[ 5CM/F.o


ZM GL p\RF. VG[ SM,DGL 5CM/F. V[0H:8 SZJF formate D[G] J5ZFI K[P ZM DF\ OST V[S
;[,G[ 5;\N SZLG[ VFBL ZM GL p\RF. AN,MP JS"XL8DF\ TDFD ZMGL p\RF. AN,JF VFBL JS"XL8G[ 5;\N
SZMP
p\RF. ov VF SDFg0 5;\N SZ[, CFZGL p\RF. AN,JF J5ZFI K[P Row hight

AM1FDF\ TD[ _ YL $_) ;]WLGL ;\bIF


8F.5 SZL XSM S[ H[ ZMGL p\RF.G[ 5M.g8;DF\ NXF"J[ K[P HM T[G[ _ 5Z ;[8 SZ[, CMITM ZM K}5FI[,L s
Hidden f ZC[ K[P default ZM GL p\RF. !ZP*5 CMI K[P

5CM/F. ov VF SDFg0YL 5;\N SZ[, SM,DGL 5CM/F. AN,L XSFI K[P column width
AM1FDF\YL _ YL Z55GL ;\bIF NFB, SZL XSLV[ KLV[P :8Fg00" OMg8 JF5ZLG[ V[S ;[,DF\ NXF"JL XSFI T[
V1FZMGL ;\bIF NXF"J[ K[P SM,DGL l0OM<8 5CM/F. (P$# CMI K[P

(P!!P ;[,GL GS, SZJLo


Copy (Edit D[G]f vCtrl+C, Alt+E+C
Edit D[G] l;,[SXGG]\ S,L5 AM0" 5Z GS, SZJF J5ZFI K[P VF 5;\NUL V[S ;[,4 ;[,GL
Z[gH4 N}ZGF\ ;[,4 ;[, VYJF OMdI]",F AFZDF\ ZC[, V1FZM4 lR+ VMaH[S8 RF8" VYJF l;ZLh CMI XS[
K[P :8Fg00" 8],AFZDF\ copy p5,aW CMI K[P ;[, Z[gHGF\ VYJF RF8"GF\ lR+G[ VgI DF.S|M ;MO8
V[S;[, JS"A}SDF\ VYJF VgI V[%,LS[XGDF\ GS, SZJF copy picture
SDFg0 J5ZFI K[P
HIFZ[ TD[ shift SL NAFJL ZFBL Edit D[G] 5;\N SZJFYL H OST SDFg0 N[BFI K[P

84

JS"XL8;
copy 5;\N SZTF\ 5;\N SZ[, cell GL VFH]AFH] OZTL AM0"Z N[BFI K[P Copy
5;\N
SIF" 5KL Edit D[G]DF\YL paste command 5;\N SZM TM ;[,GL V\NZ lJUTM VG[ OMD["8GL GS,
SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K [P Edit D[G]DF\YL Paste special SDFg0 5;\N SZM TM copy SIF" 5KL lGlN"Q8 SZ[,
;[,GF\ V[8=LaI]Zs;[8L\\UfGL GS, YFI K[P

v VF SDFg0 .g;X"G 5M.g8 DFlCTL sHIF\ NFB, SZJFGL K[ T[ HuIFf 5Z S,L5 AM0GL VF.8D
pD[ZJF VG[ SM. ;L,[SXG CMI TM T[GL HuIFV[ ALGHL VF.8D AN,JF J5ZFI K[P HM TD[ VMaH[S84
8[1F VYJF ;[,GL lJUTG[ S8 VYJF SM5L SZ[, CMI TM H VF SDFg0 p5,aW AG[ K[P

(P!ZP OMdI]",F VF5JL o


:5|[0XL8;DF\ OMdI],F XlSTXF/L ,F1Fl6STF K[P OMdI]",F A[ S[ JW] ;[, JrR[ ;\AW :YF5[ K[P TD[
;ZJF/M4 AFNAFSL4 U]6FSFZ VG[ EFUFSFZ GM ;DFJ[X SZTL U6TZLVM SZJF OMdI]",F JF5ZL XSM
KMP OMdI]",F V858F J{7FlGS VG[ VF\S0FSLI ;\RF,G SZJF DF8[GL 56 RFJL K[P
OMdI]",F 0[8F H[JF ;[,DF\ ;\U|C SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[[P VFDKTF\4 T[ 0[8FDF\ U6TZLGF 5lZ6FDG[ 0[8FG[
AN,[ ;[,DF\ NXF"J[ K[P
OMdI]",F NFB, SZJL o U6TZLDF\ ;[, SMVMl0"G[8; JF5ZLG[OMdI]",F ;[, JrR[ ;\A\W :YF5[ K[P
ExcelDF\ OMdI]",F C\D[XF AZFAZGL lGXFGL s =) YL X~ YFI K[P VG[ T[DF\ VF\S0FSLI VG[ ,BF6GL
J[<I] sSMg:8g8 sVR,f VM5Z[8; VG[ ;[, Z[OZg;GM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P VF 38SMG[ HM0JFYL TD[
JS";L8DF\ ;\U|lCT 0[8FDF\YL 5lZ6FDGL J6TZL SZL XSM KMP

85

TD[ ;FDFgI 0[8F J[<I] NFB, SZM T[ H ZLT[ ;[,DF\ OMdI]",F NFB, SZL XSM KMP ;[,DF\ OMdI]",F
NFB, SZJFGF 5U,F\ GLR[ D]HA K[P o
!P ;[, p5Z 0A, S,LS SZMP
ZP c = c lGXFGL 8F.5 SZMP
#P ;[, Z[OZg; VG[ + VYJF v H[JF VM5Z[8;" ;lCTGL OMdI]",F 8F.5 SZMP
$P ENTER SL NAFJM VYJF ENTER Current value A8GG[ S,LS SZMP
pNFCZ6 TZLS[ A1 YL A5 ;[,DF\ J[<I]GM ;ZJF/M U6JF VG[ A6 DF\ 5lZ6FDG[ ;\U|C
SZJF GLR[ D]HAGF\ 5U,F\ VG];ZMP
!P A6 ;[, 5Z 0A, S,LS SZMP
ZP GLR[GL OMdI]",F NFB, SZMP
#P =A1+A2+A3+A4+A5
$P Enter SL NAFJMP

A1 YL A5 ;[,DF\GL J[<I]GM ;ZJF/M A6 DF\ NXF"JFI K[P lR+ !!ZP


OMdI]",FDF\ ;DFJ[X SZJFGL H~Z CMI T[ ;[, 5Z S,LS SZLG[ TDFZL OMdI]",FDF\ OMdI]",F NFB,
SZJF GLR[GF\ 5U,F VG];ZM o
!P A6 ;[, 5Z 0A, S,LS SZMP
ZP = lGXFGL 8F.5 SZMP
#P A1 ;[, 5Z S,LS SZMP
$P + ;F.G 8F.5 SZMP
5P A2 ;[, 5Z S,LS SZMP
&P + lGXFGL 8F.5 SZMP
*P T[H ZLT[4 VgI TDFD ;[, 5Z S,LS SZMP
TD[ NZ[S ;[, 5Z S,LS SZXM S[ T[ A6 DF\ OMdI]",FDF\ pD[ZFTL HX[P
(P V\T[ Enter SL NAFJMP A6 ;[,DF\ 5lZ6FD NXF"JFI K[P ;[,GM p<,[B SZL s5M.g8L\Uf VG[ ;[,G[
S,LS SZLG[ OMdI]",F ,BJFYL E},M 38[ K[ VG[ ;[,DF\ SMVMl0"G[8; 8F.5 SZJF SZTF\ T[ JW] h05L K[P
OMdI]",FDF\ ;[, SMl0"G[8;G[ ;[, Z[OZg; TZLS[ VM/BJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P ;[, Z[OZg; TZLS[
VM/BJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P ;[, Z[OZg; +6 5|SFZGF\ CMI K[P
!P Relative referencing s;\A\lWTf ov OMdI]",FG[ VgI ;[,DF\ GS, SZJFDF\ VFJ[ tIFZ[OMdI]",F
GJF :Y/ s;[,f 5|DF6 ;[, Z[OZg; AN,[ K[P
ZP Absolute Referancing sO[ZOFZ G YTF\f OMdI]",FGL GS, SZJFDF\ VFJ[ tIFZ[ V[S S[ JW] ;[,GF\
;[, Z[OZg; AN,TF GYLP T[G[ ;[, SM VMl0"G[8;GL VFU/ $ lGXFGLYL JF5ZL XSFIP
#P Mixed Referancing o OST ;[,GF\ V[S SMVMl0"G[8 GSSL YFI K[P
Excel U6TZLVM SZJF4 +, --, <, < > H[JF S[8,FS VM5Z[8;" 5]ZF 5F0[ K[P HM OMdI]",FDF\
8[1F4 TFZLB VYJF ;;DIGL J[<I] JF5ZJDF\ VFJ[ TM T[G[ SJM8;sVJTZ6 lRgCf DF\ AF\WJL HM.V[P
;[,GL Z[GHG[ OMdI]",FDF\ JF5ZJF VY";EZ GFD VF5L XSFI K[P
86

(P!#P D}/E}T O\SXG JF5ZL[ ;[,GL OMdI]",F T{IFZ SZJLP


O\SXG V[ BF; C[T]JF/F SFI"S|DM K[ H[ 0[8FG[ :JLSFZ[ K[ VG[ 0[8F 5Z U6TZLVM SZLG[ J[<I]
5]GZFJlT"T SZ[ K[P OMdI]",FYL UFl6TS4 VF\S0FSLI VG[ TFZLBq ;DIGF\ ;\RF,GM V[S J[<I] VYJF ;[8
SZL XSFI K[P
pNFCZ6 TZLS[ Excel, Average GFDG]\ O\SXG VF5[ K[ H[ J[<I]GF ;[8GL ;Z[ZFXGL U6TZL
SZ[ K[P VFD4
= Average s D3 : D10f D3 YL D10 ;[,DF\ J[<I]GL ;Z/ ;Z[ZFXGL U6TZL SZ[ K[P
O\SXGG[ D/TF\ 0[8FG[ O\SXGGL N,L, sVFuI]"D[g8f TZLS[ VM/BJFDF\ VFJ[
K[P
Equationss.SJ[Xg;f H[JL ZLT[ Variables sJ[ZLI[A<;f G[ JF5Z[ K[ T[ H[ ZLT[ O\SXG VFuI]"D[g8G[
JF5Z[ K[P p5ZGF\ pNFCZ6DF\ Average O\SXGGL VFuI]"D[g8 D3 : D10 K[P NZ[S O\SXG ;\bIF4 8[1F
VYJF TFZLB H[JL S[8,LS lJXLQ8 5|SFZGL VFuI]"D[g8 :JLSFZ[ K[P O\SXGDF\ VgI O\SXGMGM 56 ;DFJ[X
Y. XS[P VFJF lS:;FDF\ V[dA[0[0 O\SXG wJFZF 5ZT SZ[, 5lZ6FDG[ D]bI O\SXGGF DF5N\0 TZLS[
JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
TD[ ;[,DF\ O\SXGGG[ OMdI]",F TZLS[ NFB, SZL XSM KMP VFD KTF\4 TDFZ[ GLR[GL XZTMGL
BFTZL SZJL HM.V[P
!P O\SXG AZFAZGL lGXFGL s=f YL XZ] YFI K[P
ZP VFuI]"D[g8;G[ SF{\;DF\ D}SJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
#P VFuI]"D[g8;G[ V<5lJZFDYL V,U 5F0JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
$P HM SM. VFuI]"D[g8;DF\ SM. 8[1F J[<I] CMI H[DF\ SpaceGM 56 ;DFJ[X YTM CMI TM J[<I]G[
VJTZ6DF\ scc cc f ,BMP

(P!$P Sums

f O\SXG

Sums
f O\SXG JFZ\JFZ J5ZFTF VG[S O\SXGDFG]\ V[S K[ H[ VF\S0FSLI J[<I] ;[8GF\
;ZJF/FGL U6TZL SZ[ K[P VFD4 Sum s
f O\SXGG[ X~ SZJF 8},AFZ A8G VF5JFDF\ VFJ[, K[P
TD[ 5lZ6FD DF8[ On ;[,DF\ OF[dI]",F 8F.5 SIF JUZ ;[,GF H}YGM ;ZJF/M U6JF VF A8G JF5ZL
XSM KMP

Auto Sum A8G .lrKT ;[, s0[:8LG[XG ;[,f p5ZGL J[<I]GM ;ZJF/M SZX[ VYJF >lrKT ;[,GL
0FAL AFH]GF[ ;ZJF/M SZX[P
Auto sum OLRZ JF5ZLG[ ;[,GL J[<I]GM ;ZJF/M SZJFGF\ TASSF GLR[ D]HA K[P
!P 0[:8LG[XG ;[, GSSL SZMP
ZP Auto sum A8G 5Z S,LS SZMP
#P Enter NAFJMP
87

0[:8LG[XG ;[,GL p5ZGL SM,DDF\ J[<I] VYJF 0[:8LG[XG ;[,GL 0FAL AFH]GF\ ;[,GM ;ZJF/M
YFI K[ VG[ 5lZ6FD .lrKT ;[,DF\ D/[ K[P

(P!5P Averages;Z[ZFXfo
VFuI]"D[g8 TZLS[ D}S[, J[<I]GL ;Z[ZFX U6JFG]\ SFD Average SZ[ K[P
Averages;\bIF !4 ;\bIF ZPPPPPPPPf

Average O\SXG TDFD BF,L ;[,4 8[1F V[g8=L VG[ TFlS"S J[<I]G[ U6TZL SZTL JBT[ wIFGDF\ ,[T]\ GYLP
VF p5ZF\T4 VF O\SXG #_YL JW] VFuI]"D[g8 ,. XST]\ GYLP VF p5ZF\T4 VF O\SXG #_ YL JW]
VFU"]D[g8 ,. XST]\ GYLP

(P!&P 8SFJFZL o
;[,gFL Z[gH 8SFJFZL A[ ZLT[ D[/JL XSFI K[P TD[ 8SFJFZL D[/JJF average O\SXG JF5ZL XSM
KMP TD[ ;ZJF/FG[ ;[,GL ;\bIF ;FY[ EFUFSFZ SZLG[ JF5ZL XSM KMP

TDFZ[ SM. ZSDGL 8SFJFZL HM.V[ TM 8SFJFZL s@f GL lGXFGLYL ;\bIFGF U]6FSFZYL D[/JL
9H

XSM KM

88

(P!*P VgI D}/E}T O\SXG s5|[S8L; ;FY[ fo


UFl6lTS O\SXG
Abss;\bIF f VF O\SXG 5[ZFDL8Z TZLS[ 5F; SZ[, ;\bIFGL ,UEU 5MhL8LJ J[<I] 5ZT SZ[ K[P
pNFCZ6 TZLS[
= Abs(10)4 !_ NXF"J[ K[P =Abs(-10) 4 !_ NXF"J[ K[P
countlfsRange DF5N\0f o VF O\SXG lGlN"Q8 J[<I] Z[gHDF\ DF5N\0GL ;DFG J[<I]GL ;\bIF NXF"J[ K[P
pNFCZ6 TZLS[ HM C3 : C7;[,DF\ J[<I] Z_4 Z54 !54 Z5 CMI TM
= Countlf
(C3 : C7, 25) # G[ NXF"JX[P
Int s;\bIFf o VF O\SXG ;F{YL GHLSGF\ 5}6F\"SG[ 5[ZFDL8Z TZLS[ VF5[, ;\bIFG[ D[/J[ K[P pNFCZ6
TZLS[ PPP
=Int s&o!f & NXF"J[ K[P
=Ints&o*f & =Int sv&P!f NXF"J[ K[ H[ v* =Int sv&P*f NXF"J[ K[ H[ v* NXF"J[ K[P
GM\W o TD[ 5MhL8LJ sJtTFf ;\bIFGF\ NXF\X EFUG[ D[/JJF Ints f O\SXG JF5ZL XSM KMP pNFCZ6
TZLS[ HM C # ;[,DF\ #&P#& J[<I] CMI TM TD[ =C3-IntsC#f G[ JF5ZL _P#& D[/JM KMP
Mod sG\AZ4 0LJF.hZ4 EFUGFZf o VF O\SXG 0LJF.hZYL EFUFSFZ SZ[, ;\bIFGF ZLD[.g0Z
sDM0I]<;f NXF"J[ K[P
= Mod s !Z4 !_f Z NXF"J[ K[P
= Mod s!_4 _f V[ZZsE},f # Drv /o ! NXF"J[ K[P
=Mod s!_4 v&f 4 vZ NXF"J[ K[P

Round s;\bIF4 VF\S0FVMGL ;\bIFf VF O\SXG VF\S0FVMGL lGlN"Q8 ;\bIFG[ 5[ZFDL8Z TZLS[
5F; SZ[, ;\bIFG[ VFJZL ,[ K[P HM VF\S0FVM 5MhL8LJ CMI TM 0[;LD, 5M.g8GL HD6L AFH]V[ NXF\;
HuIFVMGL lGNL"Q8 ;\bIFG[ VFJZL ,[ K[P HM ALH]\ 5[ZFDL8Z _ CMI TM ;\bIFG[ 5}6F\"YL VFJZL ,[JFDF\
VFJ[ K[P HM ALH]\ 5[ZFDL8Z G[U[8LJ CMI TM 0[;LD, 5M.g8GL 0FAL AFH]V[ T[8,L HuIFYL T[G[ VFJZL
,[JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[ 4
=Round s 36.6345,2f YL 36.63=Rounds36.6345,0f NXF"J[ K[P H[ 37=round (
316.6345,-2) NXF"JL #__ NXF"J[ K[P
Sign s;\bIFf HM VFuI]"D[g8 TZLS[ NFB, SZ[, ;\bIF 5MhL8LJ CMI TM T[ ! NXF"J[ K[ HM ;\bIF _ CMI
TM _ VG[ G[U[8LJ CMI v ! NXF"J[ K[P
Sqpt s;\bIFf o HM VFuI]"D[g8 TZLS[ 5;FZ SZ[, ;\bIFGF JU"D}/G[ NXF"J[ K[P
Sums;\bIFv!4 ;\bIFvZPPPf VF O\SXG VFuI]"D[g8; TZLS[ 5;FZ SZ[, ;\bIFVMGF ;ZJF/FGL
U6TZL SZ[ K[P HM J[<I]GL 5;FZ SZ[, Z[gHDF\V1FZMGM ;DFJ[X YTM CMI TM T[G[ wIFG VF5JFDF\ VFJT]\
GYLP
VF\S0FSLI O\SXG o S[8,FS ;FDFgI ZLT[ J5ZFTF VF\S0FSLI O\SXG GLR[ D]]HA K[P
Average s;\bIFv!4 ;\bIFvZPPP f VF O\SXG VFuI]"D[g8 TZLS[ 5;FZ SZ[, J[<I]GL ;Z[ZFX UT[ K[P
pNFCZ6 TZLS[
=Average s10,5,20f !!P&& NXF"J[ K[P
Average O\SXG TDFD BF,L ;[,4 8[1F V[g8=L VG[ TFlS"S J[<I]G[ U6TL JBT[ wIFGDF\ ,[T] GYLP VF
p5ZF\T4 VF O\SXG #_YL JW] VFuI]"D[g8 ,[T]\ GYLP
CountsJ[<I]v!4 J[<I]vZPPPPf VF O\SXG lGNL"Q8 Z[gHDF\ J[<I]GL ;\bIF U6[ K[ T[ 8[1FV[g8=L4 BF,L ;[,
VG[ V[ZZG[ U6T]\ GYLP Counts
f O\SXG #_ YL JW] VFuI]"D[g8 ,[T]\ GYLP
89

Maxs;\bIF !4 ;\bIF ZPPPf VF O\SXG 5;FZ SZ[,VFuI]"D[g8;DF\ ;F{YL DM8L J[<I] NXF"J[ K[P
Mins;\bIF ! 4 ;\bIFvZPPPf VF O\SXG 5;FZ SZ[,VFuI]"D[g8;DF\ ;F{YL GFGL ;\bIF NXF"J[ K[P
8[1F O\SXG ov TD[ 8[1F O\SXG J[<I]GL U6TZL SZLG[ VG[ ;8=L\UGF EFUG[ ACFZ ,FJLG[ 8[1F J[<I]DF\
;]WFZF JWFZF SZL XSM KMP S[8,F 8[1F O\SXG GLR[ D]HA K[P
Chars;\bIFf o VF O\SXG 5[ZFDL8Z TZLS[ 5;FZ SZ[, ASCII SM0G[ ,UTF\ V1FZG[ NXF"J[ K[P pNFP
TZLS[ =Char (66) YL B NXF"J[ K[P
Concatenates8[1F !4 8[1FvZPPPf VF O\SXG VFuI]"D[g8 TZLS[ 5;FZ SZ[, TDFD 8[1F J[<I]G[ HM0[ K[P
pNFCZ6 TZLS[
=Concatenate s C5, E5f YL cc Hello world cc :8L\U N[BFX[P
Concatenate O\SXGGL V[S DIF"NF V[ K[ S[ T[ OST #_ VFuI]"D[g8 ,. XS[ K[P VF p5ZF\T T[ ;[,
Z[gHG[ :JLSFZT]\ GYLP pNFCZ6 TZLS[
=Concatenates A3 : E3f VIMuI K[P
Exacts8[1F !4 8[1FvZf VF O\SXG A[ 8[1F J[<I]G[ :JLSFZ[ K[ VG[ T[GL ;ZBFD6L SZ[ K[ HM T[ V[SND
;DFG CMI VG[ :5[X VG[ case sGFGF q DM8F V1FZM ;lCTf TM O\SXG TRUE NXF"J[ K[P
Len s8[1Ff VF O\SXG VFuI]"D[g8 TZLS[ 5;FZ SZ[, :8=L\UDF\ V1FZMGL ;\bIF NXF"J[ K[P s Space
;lCTGF f pNFCZ6 TZLS[ o
Len scc Hello worldcc f !! NXF"J[ K[P
Searchs8[1F4 8[1FDF\4 ;\bIF X~ SZJLf o VF O\SXG V1FZGL l:YlTDF\YL ALHF VFuI]"D[g8 TZLS[ 5F;
SZ[, J[<I]G[ +LHL VFuI]"D[g8 TZLS[ 5;FZ SZ[, V1FZGL l:YlT NXF"J[ K[ H[ ;F{ 5|YD VFuI]"D[g8 TZLS[
5;FZ SZ[, 8[1F J[<I] TZLS[ 5;FZ SZ[, 8[1F J[<I] K[P HM :8=L\U D/[ TM O\SXG HIF\ XMW[, 8[1F D/[ tIF\
V1FZGL l:YlT NXF"J[ K[P HM TD[ +LHL VFuI]"D[g8 HIF\ XMW[, 8[1F D/[ tIF\ V1FZGL l:YlT NXF"J[ K[P HM
TD[ +LHL VFuI]"D[g8 VF5XM GlC\ TM T[ VF5D[/[ ! ,. ,[X[ pNFCZ6 TZLS[ 4
=Searchs It , Found It, 1cc4f * NXF"J[ K[P
GM\Wov Search O\SXG GFGFv DM8F V1FZM VFWFlZT GYL VFD4 it V[ IT GL ;DFG K[P XMWJFDF\
VFJL ZC[, 8[1F SZTF\ HGM TD[ XMWL ZCIF KM T[ 8[1F JW] ,F\AL CMI TM Excel V[ZZ NXF"J[ K[P

(P!(P R,64 TFZLB4 ;DI 4 BF; O\SXG


TFZLB VG[ ;DI O\SXG
TFZLB VG[ ;DI J[<I]G[ ;LZLI, G\AZM U6[ K[P TFZLBG[ lNJ;MGL ;\bIF TZLS[ TD[ NFB, SZM T[
TFZLB ;]WL ! HFgI]VFZL !)__ YL U6JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P ;DIG[ Z$ S,FSGF\ NXF|\X EFU TZLS[ ;\U|C
SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P l;ZLI, G\AZM lJT[,F lNJ;M4 ElJQIGF ;DI VG[ VgI AFATM U6JFGL 1FDTF 5}ZL
5F0[ K[P Excel
lNJ; VG[ ;DI J[<I]YL S[8,LS Date q Time U6TZL SZJF N5[ K[P Date q Time O\SXG GLR[
D]HA K[P
Date sJQF"4 DF;4 lNJ;f o VF O\SXG TFZLBG[ ;DFG VF\S0FSLI J[<I] NXF"J[ K[P ;\bIF HMJF TDFZ[
Formate D[G]DF\YL cell lJS<5 5;\N SZLG[ TFZLBGM ;\U|C SZJF ;[,G[ OMD["8 SZJFG]\ CMI K[P HM
;[,DF\ Date J[<I]G[ J[ZLI[A<; TZLS[ JF5ZJFDF\ VFJTL CMI TM VF O\SXG p5IMUL K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[
Date (B1, B2, B3) TFZLB NXF"J[ K[ 5Z\T]4 B1-- B3 DF\ VG]S|D[ JQF"4 DF; VG[ TFZLB ;\U|C
YI[,F CMJF HM.V[P
Days 360 sXZ]VFTGL TFZLB4 K[<,L TFZLBf o VF O\SXG #&_ lNJ;GF\ JQFDF\ VFZ\E VG[
V\TGL TFZLB JrR[GM TOFJT NXF"J[ K[P VFD4 TD[ !Z DlCGFGF NZ[SGF #_ lNJ;M WFZM TM VF O\SXG
IMuI K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[
= Days 360 ( 4/30/93, 5/1/93 ) ! NXF"J[ K[P
90

Months;\bIFf VF O\SXG 5[ZFDL8Z TZLS[ 5F; SZ[, ;\bIFG[ TFZLBDF\ ~5F\TlZT SZ[ K[ VG[ DF;
NXF"J[ K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[
=Month ( 10 H}Gcc f4 & NXF"J[ K[P
New s
f o VF O\SXG Sd%I]8ZGL 3l0IF/DF\YL RF,] lNJ; VG[ ;DI D[/J[ K[P VG[ T[ TFZLBGF\
;\bIFGL N"Q8LV[ ;DFG V1FZ NXF"J[ K[P
TFlS"S O\SXG
Logical Functions JS"XL8GF XlSTXF/L O\SXG K[ H[ JS"XL8DF\ lG6"I ,[JFGF OLRZ pD[ZL TDG[
DNN SZ[ K[P Logical Functions GLR[ D]HA K[P o
And (expr 1, exper 2) : A[ VYJF JW] XZTMG[ HM0[ K[ VG[ HM NZ[S XZTM ;FRL CMI TM True
VG[ SM. V[S XZT BM8L CMI TM False NXF"J[ K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[
=And (c1 >10, c2 > 15) HM C1, !_ YL JW] DM8L J[<I] WZFJT]\ CMI VG[
C2, !5 SZTF\
VMKL J[<I] WZFJT]\ CMI TM True NXF"J[ K[P
Or (expr 1, expr 2) VF O\SXG TFlS"S VlEjIlSTG]\ D]<IF\SG SZ[ K[P VG[ SM. V[S XZT ;FRL
CMI TM True NXF"J[ K[P HM TDFD XZTM BM8L CMI TM O\SXG
False NXF"J[ K[P pNFCZ6
TZLS[4
= Or (c3 >100, c4 > 10000) HM C3 4 !__ SZTF\ JWFZ[ DM8L CMI VYJF
Cr GL J[<I]
!_4___ YL JW] CMI TM True NXF"J[ K[P
It (expr, value- It true, value- It-false)o VF O\SXG expr DF\ VlEjIlSTG]\ D]<IF\SG SZ[ K[P
VG[ HM V[S;5|[XG ;FR]\ CMI TM value-It-True NXF"J[ K[P VG[ XZT BM8L CMI TM Value-ItFalse NXF"J[ K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[4
=It (c3=500, OK, Cancle) HM c3 4 5__ VG[ cancle AZFAZ CMI VG[ J[<I] 5__
p5ZF\T SM. VgI CMI TM OK NXF"J[ K[P HM TD[
Value-It False 5[ZFDL8Z
lGlN"Q8 G SZM TM VG[ XZT ;FRL G CMI TM
False NXF"JX[P
Not (Logical)o VF O\SXG 5[ZFDL8Z TZLS[ 5F; SZ[, TFlS"S N,L,GF 5lZ6FDG[ p,8FJ[ K[P VF
O\SXG It :8[8D[g8DF\ D]<IF\SGGF\ 5lZ6FDGL lJ~wW XZT NXF"JJF J5ZFI K[P
=Not (c3=500) HM C3GL J[<I] 5__ CMI TM False NXF"J[ K[ VG[ 5__ p5ZF\TGL SM.56 J[<I]
DF8[ True NXF"J[ K[P

91

(P!)P GFGF lC;FAL SFI" sV[SFpg8L\Uf DF8[ :5|[0XL8; AGFJJLP

Ms Excel JF5ZLG[ .,[S8=MlGS 5[v:,L5 AGFJL XSLV[ KLV[ 5[ :,L5GL OMdI"],FGL ;C[,F.YL
U6TZL SZJF XlSTXF/L .GvAL<8 sV\NZ VF5[, f O\SXG CMI K[P

(PZ_P U|FO sU|FOG]\ GFD4 Axis, 8F.8, VG[ ,[A, Legend, grid)
AGFJJF
RF8" s .G;8" D[G]f v Alt+I+H YL chart wizard X~ YFI K[ H[ JS"XL8 5Z V[dA[0[0
RF8" AGFJJF VYJF CIFT RF8"G[ ;]WFZJFGF TASSFVMG]\ DFU"NX"G VF5[ K[P GJM RF8" AGFJJF 0[8F Z[gH
5;\N SZM VYJF VF SDFg0 JF5ZTF 5C[,F\ RF8"DF\ ;]WFZF JWFZF SZJF T[G[ 5;\N SZMP
RF8" 8F.8, ov VF AM1FDF\ TD[ RF8" 8F.8, DF8[ HM.V[ T[ 8[1F 8F.5 SZL XSM KM RF8" VYJF Axis
8F.8,DF\ ,L8LGM U[5 ZFBJF RF8" DF\ 8[1FGL S,LS SZM HIF\ ,L8LGM A|[S NFB, SZJM CMI tIF\ S,LS SZM
VG[ Enter NAFJMP
Category (X) Axis ov VF AM1FDF\ TDFZ[ Axis 8F.8, DF8[ H[ 8[1F 8F.5 SZJL CMI T[ SZL XSM KM
RF8" VYJF Axis 8F.8,DF\ ,L8LGM A|[S ZFBJF RF8"DF\ 8[1FG[ S,LS SZM HIF\ TD[ ,L8LGM A|[S VF5JF
.rKTF CMI tIF\ S,LS SZMP VG[ Enter NAFJMP
Category (Y)Axis ov VF AM1FDF\ TD[ Axis 8F.8, DF8[ 8[1F 8F.5 SZL XSM KM RF8" VYJF
Axis 8F.8,DF\ ,L8LGM A|[S ZFBJF RF8"DF\ 8[1FGL S,LS SZMP HIF\ TDFZ[ ,L8LGM A|[S VF5JM CMI tIF\
S,LS SZM VG[ 5KL Enter NAFJMP

Legend %,M8 V[ZLIFDF\ ,[H[g0 pD[ZJF VF lJS<5GF\ R[S AM1FG[ R[S SZM
92

Data Labels RF8"DF\ TDFD 0[8F 5M.g8G[ VYJF T[DF\YL 0[8F ,[A, pD[ZJF S[ N}Z SZJF VF lJS<5
J5ZFI K[P

VF lJS<5DF\ TD[ GLR[GF\ A[ 5M.g8DF\YL SM. V[S 5;\N SZL XSM KMP
Asnew sheet ov As new sheet S,LS SZM VG[ 5KL As new chart AM1FDF\ GJL RFH"XL8
DF8[G]\ GFD 8F.5 SZM H[YL GJF RFH";L8 5Z RF8" D]SFX[P
As object in ov As object in G[ S,LS SZM T[DF\ sheet G]\ GFD VF5M VG[ 5KL RF8"G[ JS"XL8DF\
V[dA[0[0 VMAH[S8 TZLS[ D]SJF OK p5Z D]SM TD[ JS"XL8 5Z V[dA[0[0 RF8"G[ .rKM tIF\ B;[0L XSM KMP

(PZ!P Bar, column, (stack), Line, XY PIEs5F.f RF8" AGFJJF


AFZ RF8"4 SM,D RF8"4 ,F.G RF8" 5F. RF8"P

NET SAL

NET SAL

ANKIT
PARAS
TUSHAR
VINEET
ANOOP
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

93

10000 12000

PAYSLIP
8000
7000

BASIC (RS.)

6000
5000
4000

BASIC

3000
2000
1000
0
ANOOP

VINEET

TUSHAR

PARAS

ANKIT

NAME

BASIC
8000
7000
6000

RS

5000
BASIC

4000
3000
2000
1000
0
ANOOP

VINEET

TUSHAR

PARAS

ANKIT

NAME

ANOOP
1
2
3
4
5

Ms Excel \DF\ H]NF H]NF 5|SFZGF\ RF8" ;[8 SZL XSFI K[P V[S;[,DF\ H]NF H]NF H]NF !$
5|SFZGF\ RF8"; K[P SM,D RFH" 0LOM<8 s5C[,[YL H f CMI K[P Excel DF\ H]NF H]NF 5|SFZGF\ 0[8F V\U[
p5,aW lJlJW 5|SFZGF\ RF8" NXF"JLV[ KLV[P

94

PAYSLIP
8000
7000
6000

RS

5000
BASIC

4000

DA

3000
2000
1000
0
0

BASIC-DA

95

)P GFGF 5|[hg8[XG AGFJJFGL D}/E}T AFATM


s MS-POWER POINT)
)P! 5|[hg8[XG VG[ 0MSI]D[g8 JrR[ TOFJT
Power Point YL TD[ TDFZF 5|[hg8[XG GF lJQFI J:T]G[ ,BF6 8F.5 SZL4 lR+M q VJFHM
VG[ V[GLD[XG sC,GR,Gf NFB, SZL AGFJL XSM KM T[ lR+M VG[ VJFHMGL U[,[ZL s;\U|Cf 56 VF5[
K[P Power Point T[GL V\NZGF jIJ;FlIS l0hF.GGF TtJM H[JF S[ Auto Layouts VG[
Presentation tenplatesGD}GFf 5}ZF 5F0LG[ SM.56 5|[hg8[XGGL ZRGF AGFJ[ K[P TD[ H]NF H]NF
5|[1FSM DF8[ H]NL H]NL 5|SFZGF\ 5|[hg8[XG 56 AGFJL XSM KMP TD[ TDFZ]\ lJQFIJ:T] ,BF6 VFWFlZT
VFp8,F.G jI] VYJF l0hF.G VFWFZLT :,F.0 jI]DF\ AGFJM KMP Power Point DF\ TDFZF XM GM
l5|jI] HM. XSM KM4 VMG v:S|LG :5[XLI, .O[S8; pD[ZL XSM KM VG[ NZ[S :,F.GF\ 8F.DG]\ lZC;", SZL
XSM KMP Power PointGL OF.,G]\ V[S:8[gXG sOF., 5FK/ ,FUTL OF.,GF\ 5|SFZGL VM/Bf Pppt
CMI K[P
J0" 5|M;[;Z V[S ;MO8J[Z 5[S[ H K[ H[ TDG[ 0MSI]D[g8 AGFJJF VG[ T[DF\ ;]WFZF JWFZF SZJFDF\
DNN SZ[ K[P 0MSI]D[g8 AGFJJFDF\ SMd%I]8ZGL .g8ZG, D[DZLDF\ 8F.5 SZJFGM VG[ T[G[ l0:S 5Z ,BL
;FRJJFGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P 0MSI]D[g8G[ ;]WFZF JWFZF SZJFDF\ HM06LGL E},M CMI TM ;]WFZJFGM VG[
XaNM4 JFSIM VYJF OSZFVM N}Z SZJF VG[ B;[0JFGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P J0"GL OF.,G]\ V[S:8[gXG P
doc CMI K[P

)PZP 5FJZ 5M.g8 JF5ZJ]\ ov

Power Point V[ Microsoft office G]\ V[S 38S K[ H[ jIFJ;FlIS U]6JtTFGF\ 5|[hg8[XG
AGFJJF J5ZFI K[P VF 5|[hg8[XGG[ 8=Fg;5Zg;L4 SFU/4 #5 V[D :,F.0 OM8M l5|g8 VG[ VMG :S|LG
5|[hg8[XG DF8[ OZL NXF"JL XSFIP Power Point GF 38SM :,F.0; 5Z SFD SZJF4 5|[Hg8[XGGF\ lJQFI
J:T]G[ VFp8,F.G ;FY[ VFIMlHT SZJF VG[ AM,GFZGL GM\W VG[ 5|[1FSM DF8[ RM5FlGIF AGFJJF
JF5ZL XSFI K[P
T[DF\ XlSTXF/L GJF wizard s;CFISf K[ H[ V88F VG[ ;DIGM jIJ SZTL 5|lS|IFVMGL UlT JWFZ[ K[P
D<8LDL0LIFGL JW] DNN ,. XSFI K[P H[DF\ GJF V[GLD[XG 8},AFZGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P
Undo ;UJ0GL DNNYL TDFZL .rKF CMI T[8,F ,[J, ;]WL SZ[, O[ZOFZMG[ OZL D}/ :J~5[ ,FJL XSM
KMP TD[ 0LhF.G 8[d5,[8DF\ SZ[,F O[ZOFZMG[ 56 Undo sD}/ :J~5[f SZL XSM KMP
Style checker TDFZF 5|[hg8[XGDF\ lJZFD lRgCM VG[ S[l58, V1FZMGL ;D:IFVM ;]WFZ[ K[P
:8Fg00" 8},AFZ 5Z Black and white view A8GYL TD[ S,Z :,F.0; a,[S V[g0 jCF.8DF\ l5|g8
SZXM tIFZ[ S[JL ,FUX[ T[ NXF"J[ K[P
Pack and Go wizard 5|[hG8[xFG OF.,GL ;FY[ TDFD l,\S SZ[, VG[ D<8LDL0LIF OF.,G[ Sd5|[;
s;\S]lRTf SZL ;FRJ[ K[P T[ T[G[ O,M5L l0:S VYJF TD[ H6FJM T[ :Y/[ ;FRJ[ K[P VF OF.,MGL ;FY[
Power Point viewer DMS,L XSFI K[ H[YL D[/JGFZG[ T[ HMJF Power Point .g:8M, SZJFGL
H~Z GYLP TD[ lJhF0" JF5IF" 5KL 5|[hg8[XGDF\ O[ZOFZ SZJF .rKM TM Pack and Go lJhF0"G[ OZL
ZG SZM H[YL DFlCTL VnTG Y. HX[P

)P# 5FJZ5M.g8 5|[hg8[XG BM,J]\o


Power Point G[ RF,] SZJFGF TASSFVM GLR[ D]HA K[P
!P 8F:SAFZDF\ Start A8GG[ S,LS SZMP
ZP Start D[G]DF\YL Programs option 5;\N SZMP

96

#P Microsoft Power Point lJS<5 5;\N SZMP start program Ms Power point
VFGFYL Power Point X~ YFI K[P

GLR[ H6FjIF D]HA Power Point X~ SZTF\ H SMZL 5|[hg8[XG v! GFDGL 5|h
[ g8[XG :SL|G VF5D[/[
N[BFX[

5FJZ 5M.g8GL 5|YD :S|LG

97

)P$P 5|[hg8[XG AGFJJF lJhF0" JF5ZJ]\


Auto content lJhF0 JF5ZLG[ 5|[hg8[XG AGFJJ]\
Auto content lJhF0 JF5ZLG[ 5|[hg8[XG AGFJJFGF\ :8[5 GLR[ D]HA K[P
!P 5FJZ 5M.g8 0FI,MU AM1FDF\YL Auto content lJhF0" 5;\N SZMP GLR[GL VFS'lTDF\ NXF"jIF 5|DF6[
0FI,MU AM1F N[BFX[P

starting Auto content wizard


5U,]\ v!P
TD[ lJhF0"YL H[ 5|SFZG]\ 5|[hg8[XG AGFJJF .rKM T[ 5;\N SZMP
!P Next S,LS SIF" 5KL TD[ GLR[ NXF"jIF 5|DF6[ 0FI,MU AM1F HMXM
step-2 VCL\ TD[ 5|[hg8[XGGF\ VFp85]8 DL0LID sK[<,[ S[J]\ N[BFX[f GSSL SZL XSXMP ;FDFgI ZLT[
VF56[ Ms Power Point YL VMG :S|LG 5|[hg8[XG SZLV[ KLV[P

98

ZP Next S,LS SIF" 5KL TDG[ GLR[ NXF"jIF 5|DF6[G]\ 0FI,MU AM1F N[BFX[

step-3 VCL\ TD[ 5|[hg8[XGG]\ 8F.8,4 ;A8F.8,4 TFZLB VG[ :,F.0 G\AZ VF5L XSM KMP
#P V\T[ TD[ finish A8GG[ S,LS SZLG[ lJhF0" 5}Z] SZL XSM KM

finishing presentation.

99

Sample slide TD[ finish A8GG[ S,LS SZXM S[ Power Point TDFZF 5;\N SZ[, lJQFI 5Z
:,F.0 AGFJX[P VCL\ TDFZ[ OST lJQFIJFZ lJQFIJ:T] VF5JFG]\ ZC[X[P slR+ !#Zv Af :,F.0GL
l0hF.GP

100

!_P 5|[hg8[XG AGFJJ]o


5|[hg8[XG AGFJTF 5C[,F\ TDFZ[ 5FJZ5M.g8 :S|LGGF\ DF/BFG[ ;DHJ]\ ZC[X[P Power Point :S|LG
S[8,F\S 8},AFZ NXF"J[ K[P VG[ VgI :S|LGGF\ D}/E}T 38SM NXF"J[ K[P
Manubar :- T[ VgI DF.S|M;MO8 VMlO; V[%,LS[XGGF\ D[G]AFZGL H[J]\ K[ H[DF\ 4 file, edit,
view, Insert, formate, tools, window VG[ help D[G] K[P
8},AFZ ov 5FJZ 5M.g8GF\ ;F{YL ;FDFgI SDFg0G[ RF,] SZJF TD[ VF A8GGF ;D}CDF\YL SM. p5Z S,LS
SZL XSM KMP D[G]DF\YL 56 VF SDFg0 XZ] SZL XSFI K[P
Status Bar ov Power Point :S|LGGF Tl/I[ VFJ[, K[P T[ RF,] :,F.0GL ;\bIF VG[ 5|[hg8[XG
H[GF 5Z VFWFlZT K[ T[ 8[d5,[8G]\ GFD NXF"J[ K[P
Vertical Scroll Bar ov T[ 5|[hg8[XGDF\ :,F.0G[ p5Z GLR[ q VFU/ v5FK/ SZJF J5ZFI K[P
Slide A8G ov pEF :S|M,AFZG[ Tl/I[ VFJ[, K[P H[ VFU,L VG[ 5FK,L :,F.0 NXF"JJFDF\ DNN SZ[
K[P
GJ]\ 5|[hg8[XG AGFJJ]\ o v Power Point GJ]\ 5|[hg8[XG AGFJJFGL lJlJW ZLT[F VF5[ K[P TD[ lJhF0"
VYJF 8[d5,[8 JF5ZLG[ VYJF a,[gS 5|[hg8[XG JF5ZLG[ 56 5|[hg8[XG AGFJL XSM KMP
a,[gS 5|[hg8[XG AGFJJ]\ ov
!P File D[G]DF\YL New lJS<5 5;\N SZMP New presentation 0FI,MU AM1F N[BFX[P
ZP General 8[A 5;\N SZM VG[ Blank Presentation VF.SMG 5Z S,LS SZMP New slide GJL
:,F.0 0FI,MU AM1F N[BFX[
#P IMuI ,[vVFp8 %,FG 5;\N SZM VG[ OK A8G S,LS SZMP

Blank presentation.

!_P!P 8F.8,4 8[1F4 OMg8G]\ SNo


8[1F 8F.5 SZJL VG[ T[DF\ ;]WFZF JWFZF SZJF
5|[hg8[XGDF\ NZ[S :,F.0DF\ SM. 5|SFZGL 8[1F S[ OST 8F.8, 56 CMI K[P Power Point DF\ 8[1F NFB,
SZJFG]\ VG[ T[DF\ ;]WFZF JWFZF SZJFG]\ SM. Ms Office V[%,LS[XGDF\ 8[1F NFB, SZJF VG[ T[DF\
101

;]WFZF JWFZF SZJF AZFAZ K[P VgI MS Office pt5FNSMDF\ HMJF D/TF DM8FEFUGF\ OLRZ VCL\
p5,aW K[P
Tex place holder s %,[; CM<0Zf
5FJZ5M.g8DF\ TD[ Text place holder DF\ ,BF6 SZL XSM KMP :,F.0 8[1F NFB, SZJFGL
5wWlTDF\ %,M8 CM<0ZDF\ ZC[, 8[1FGL HuIFV[ TDFZL 8[1F VFJL HFI K[P VFS'lTDF\ NXF"J[, :,F.0DF\ A[
%,[; CM<0Z K[P v V[S ;[d5, 8F.8, WZFJ[ K[ VG[ ALHFDF\ UD[ tIF\ S,LS SZLG[ T[G[ l;,[S8 SZMP hF\BL
AM0"ZG[ AN,[ 3F8L ,L8L VFJL HX[P A],[8[0 l,:8 %,[; CM<0ZDF\ ;[d5, 8[1F N}Z YFI K[P VG[ A},[8 ZC[
K[P H[GL VFU/ S;"Z ZC[ K[P HIF\YL 8[1F X~ YX[P 8F.8, VYJF ;Av8F.8, %,[; CM<0ZDF\ S;"Z JrR[
VYJF 0FAL l:YlTDF\ CMI K[P TD[ 8[1F NFB, SZJFG]\ 5}6" SZM S[ :,F0GF\ BF,L lJ:TFZG[ S,LS SZLV[
VYJF :,F.0GL VFH]AFH] E]BZL AM0"Z S,LS SZL VF[aH[S8GL 5;\NUL SZL XSM KMP

Enter Text.
Inserting text ( 8[1F NFB, SZJLf
8[1F NFB, SZJFGF\ :8[5 GLR[ D]HA K[P
:,F.0 8F.8, 5Z S,LS SZM H[DF\ Click to add title ,B[,]\ CX[P 8[1F N[BFTL A\W YX[ VG[ T[GL
HuIFV[ a,L\SL\U .g;X"G 5M.g8 sS;"Zf VFJL HX[P
8F.8<F 8F.5 SZMP
%,[; CM<0ZGL V\NZ DFp;G]\ 5M.g8Z ZFBM H[GF\ Click to add title ,B[,]\ CX[ VG[ 5KL DFp;GF\
A8GG[ S,LS SZMP
A],[8 VF.8D 8[1F 8F.5 SZM VG[ Enter SL NAFJMP VFGFYL ALHM A],[8 5M.g8 pD[ZFX[ H[GL VFU/
S;"Z CX[P
8[1F 8F.5 SZMP
:,F.0 DF8[GF\ TDFD 5M.g8 pD[ZFI HFI tIF\ ;]WL VF :8[5 OZLJFZ SZM

102

a sample slide
8[1F 5;\N SZJL
HIF\YL SZJFGF :8[5 GLR[ D]HA K[P
DFp; A8GG[ NAFJL ZFBMP
HIF\ l;,[SXG 5}Z\] SZJFG]\ CMI tIF\ ;]WL DFp;GF 5M.g8ZG[ B[\RL HFJ
DFp; A8GG[ KM0MP
8[1F N}Z SZJL sl0,L8f
8[1FG[ N}Z SZJFGF\ :8[5 GLR[ D]HA K[P
HIF\YL N}Z SZJFG]\ X~ SZJ]\ CMI tIF\ S;"Z D}SMP
S;"ZGL HD6L AFH]V[ V1FZM N}Z SZJF Delete SL NAFJMP
S;"ZGL 0FAL AFH]V[ V1FZM N}Z SZJF Back space SL NAFJMP
8[1FGM a,MS sJ0"f N}Z SZJF 8[1F l;,[S8 SZL Delete SL NAFJMP
8[1F B;[0JL VG[ T[GL GS, SZJLP
TD[ 8[1F %,[; CM<0Z VG[ A[ 8[1F %,[; CM<0Z JrR[ 8[1F B;[0L VYJF T[GL GS, SZL XSM KMP 8[1F
B;[0JFGF :8[5 GLR[ D]HA K[P
TDFZ[ H[ 8[1F B;[0JL CMI T[ l;,[S8 SZMP
8},AFZDF\ Cut VF.SMG 5Z S,LS SZM VYJF Edit D[G]DF\YL Cut lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
TDFZ[ HIF\ 8[1F pD[ZJL CMI tIF\ S;"Z D}SMP
8},AFZDF\ Paste VF.SMGG[ S,LS SZM VYJF Edit D[G]DF\YL Paste lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
8[1FGL GS, SZJFGF :8[5 GLR[ D]HA K[P
TDFZ[ H[ 8[1FGL GS, SZJFGL K[ T[ 5;\N SZMP
8},AFZDF\ Copy VF.SMGG[ S,LS SZM VYJF Edit D[G]DF\YL Copy lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
TDFZ[ HIF\ 8[1FGL GS, pD[ZJFGL CMI tIF\ S;"Z D}SMP
8},AFZDF\ Paste VF.SMG 5Z S,LS SZM VYJF Edit D[G]DF\YL Paste lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
OMg8GL ;F.h
5FJZ5M.g8 TDFZL 8[1FGF\ N[BFJG[ 5;\N SZJFGL B}A AF\WKM0 SZJFGL ;UJ0 sO,[S;LaFL,L8Lf
VF5[ K[P T[ 8[1FGF\ OMg84 :8F., VG[ SNG[ AN,JF K}8 VF5[ K[P A],[8GF\ VFSFZ4 SN VG[ Z\U T[DH ,L8L
VG[ OSZF JrR[GL HuIFG[ AN,JFGL ;UJ0 56 D/[ K[P
8[1FGF V[8=LaI]8 sN[BFJfG[ AN,JMP
8[1FGF N[BFJG[ AN,JFGF\ :8[5 GLR[ D]HA K[P
103

!P TDFZ[ H[ 8[1F AN,JL CMI T[ l;,[S8 SZMP


ZP Format D[G]DF\YL OMg8 lJS<5 5;\N SZMP

#P Effects S1FF C[9/ IMuI 5;\NUL SZMP Effects GF lJS<5M GLR[GF 8[A,DF\ J6"jIF K[P
lJS<5
J6"G
5;\N SZ[, ,BF6 GLR[ ,L8L NMZ[ K[P
Underline
NZ[S V1FZGF\ Tl/I[ VG[ HD6L AFH]V[ 50KFIM pD[Z[ K[P
Shadow
V1FZ DF8[ C/JF Z\U JF5ZLG[ 8[1FG[ p5;[,F VFSFZMGM N[BFJ VF5[ K[P VG[ NZ[S
Emboss
V1FZGL 5FK/ hF\BM 50KFIM VF5[K[P
Subscript
,L8LGF\ ;FDFgI ,[J,YL 5;\N SZ[, V1FZG[ YM0M GLR[F ZFB[ K[P H[D S[ C2o
Superscript
5;\N SZ[, V1FZG[ ;C[H p\RM p9FJ[ K[P H[D S[ 2 5

!_PZ A},[8 4 .g0[g8L\U4 5KLGL :,F.0 O[ZJJL

104

Bulletso
A],[8 l,:8 ;F{YL JW] V;ZSFZS ;FWG K[ H[G[ 5|[hg8[XGDF\ JF5ZL XSFI K[P T[ TDFZF lJQFI J:T]GF
VUtIGF\ D]NFVMG[ 5|[1FSMDF\ ,. HJFGM 8}\SM VG[ ;\l1F%T Z:TM 5}ZM 5F0[ K[P TD[ SM.56 8[1FG[ A],[8[0
8[1FGF\ :J~5DF\ D}SL XSM KMP
A},[8GL ,F1Fl6STFVM AN,JFGF\ :8[5 GLR[ D]HA K[P
!P TDFZ[ H[ 8[1FGL A},[8 AN,JL CMI T[G[ 5;\N SZMP
ZP Format D[G]DF\YL Bullet lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
#P A},[8 OMD" ,L:8DF\YL A},[8DF8[ H[ OMg8 JF5ZJF CMI T[ 5;\N SZMP
$P Colour 0=M5 0FpG ,L:8DF\YL New Colour 5;\N SZMP
5P OK A8GG[ S,LS SZL 8[1FG[ A},[8 VF5MP
8[1FGL l:YlT GSSL SZJL s Alignment f
5FGFGF CF\l;IFVM JrR[ 8[1F H[ ZLT[ D]SJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ T[G[Alignment VYJF 8[1FGF ,BF6GL l:YlT SC[
K[P 5|[Hg8[XG :,F.0;DF\ A],[8 VG[ OSZFVM DF8[ ;FDFgI ZLT[ 8[1F 0FAL AFH]GL l:YlTV[ CMI K[P VG[
8F.8, DF8[ JrR[ CMI K[P
8[1FGL l:YlT GSSL SZJFGF :8[5 GLR[ D]HA K[P
!P H[ OSZFGL l:YlT GSSL SZJL CMI T[G[ 5;\N SZMP
ZP Format D[G]DF\YL Alignment lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
TD[ OMD["8L\U 8},AFZDF\YL Left VYJF Center 56 5;\N SZL XSM KMP
GJL :,F.0 pD[ZM Insert New slide (Ctrl + M)
5|[hg8[XGDF\ :,F.0 pD[ZJF Insert D[G] 5;\N SZL slide lJS<5 5;\N SZMP

!_P# :,F.0;GF\ 5|SFZGL 5;\NULo


TD[ ATFJM KM T[ NZ[S 5|[hg8[XG DF8[ 5FJZ 5M.g8 p5,aW DF:8;" Slid Master, title
master, notes master and Handout master GM ;[8 AGFJ[ K[P Status bar GM 0FAM K[0M
CF,DF\ SIF DF:8;" ;lS|I K[ T[ NXF"J[ K[P
DF:8Z NXF"JJF TDFZ[ View D[G]DF\YL Master 5;\N SZJ] 50X[ master GLR[GF DF8[ J5ZFI
K[P
Title area, footers, date, time VG[ Slide Number DF\ ;]WFZF JWFZF SZJF
5FGF 5Z l5|g8 SZL XSFI T[JL V;\bI :,F.0G[ OZL UM9JJFP
Slide master :,F.0 DF:8Z 4 8[d5,[8GF\ lJQFI J:T]GL jIFbIF GSSL SZ[ K[P T[ :,F.0 XMDF\
A[SU|Fpg0 lGI\+LT SZ[ K[P VG[ TDFZF 5|[hg8[XGDF\ N[BFTL 8[1FGL :8F., VG[ 8F.8,G[ GSSL SZ[ K[P T[
TDFZ[ 5|[hg8[XGGL NZ[S :,F.0DF\ H[ VMAH[S8GL HZ]Z CMI T[ WZFJ[ K[P H[D S[ S\5GLGM ,MUM NXF"JJMP

105

Slide master
Slide master NXF"JJFGF\ :8[5 GLR[ D]HA K[P
!P View D[G]DF\YL Master lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
ZP ;A D[G]DF\YL Slide master lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
Title mastero 8F.8, DF:8Z :,F.0 DF:8Z H[J]\ H K[ 5Z\T] TOFJT V[ K[ S[ 8F.8, DF:8ZDF\
SZ[, O[ZOFZM OST H[ :,F.0DF\ Title slide ,[ VFp8 VF5[, CMI K[P T[G[ V;Z SZ[ K[P 8F.8,
DF:8ZDF\ TD[ TDFD :,F.0 DF8[ A[U|Fpg04 S,Z4 ;F.h VG[ 8[1F VMaH[S8 OMD["8L\UG[ AN,L XS[ K[P

8F.8, DF:8Z NXF"JJFGF\ :8[5 GLR[ D]HA K[P


!P View D[G]DF\YL Master lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
ZP ;A D[G]DF\YL Title Master lJS<5 5;\N SZMP
HM lJS<5 disable sA\Wf CMI TM Slide master view DF\ H. Insert D[G]DF\YL New title
Master NFB, SZMP
106

!!P :,F.0GL T{IFZLo


!!P! :,F.0 D[G[HZo
DF.S|M;MO8 5FJZ 5M.g8 :,F.0G[ V;ZSFZS VG[ VFS"QFS AGFJJFGF\ lJS<5M 5]ZF 5F0[ K[P
:,F.0 D[G[HZGF\ lJS<5M GLR[ D]HA K[P
Slide Layout
Slide design
Slide colur scheme
Slide Animation scheme
custom Animation
Slide Transition

!!PZ :,F.0 ,[ VFp8 VF5J]\

8F:S 5[GDF\YL IMuI ,[ VFp8 5;\N SZMP


Text Layout
Content Layout
Text and content Layout
other Layout.

107

!!P# :,F.0 0LhF.G

:,F.0 0LhF.G v0LhF.G 8[d5,[8


VF 5|[hg8[XGDF\ JF5Z[,
TFH[TZDF\ JF5Z[,
J5ZFXDF\ p5,aW

!!P$P A[SU|Fpg0 VG[ 8[1F S,Zo


:,F.0 S,Z :SLD AN,JL
VFBF 5|[hg8[XGGL S,Z :SLD AN,JF GLR[GF\ :8[5 VG];ZMP
!P Formate D[G]DF\YL Slide colour scheme 5;\N SZMP colour scheme 0FI,MU AM1F N[BFI
K[P VG[ RF,] :,F.0 VYJF 5|[hg8[XG wJFZF J5ZFTL :SLD CF.,F.8 YFI K[P
ZP Scheme 5Z S,LS SZLG[ colour scheme VF5MP

108

!!P5P TDFZ]\ V\UT :,F.0 OMD["8 AGFJJ]\o


:,F.0 5Z OMD["8 AN,JF formate D[G]DF\YL Slide layout, Slide design, colour
scheme JF5ZL XSM KM VG[ Insert D[G]DF\YL clip art, word Art, auto space, charts VG[
symboles JF5ZL XSM KMP VF56[ VJFH 56 pD[ZL XSLV[ KLV[P

!!P& O]8 GM8 sTl/IFGL GM\Wf VG[ :,F.0G[ G\AZ VF5JFo


TD[ SM. BF; SM. XaN 5Z 8LSF 8L%56L pD[ZL XSM KM VF DF8[ Superscript sH[D S[ Z# f
lGXFGL VF5L VG[ T[ BF; XaNGL jIFbIF :,F.0GF\ Tl/I[ O]8GM8YL VF5L XSM KM VF56[
foot
notes pD[ZL XSLV[ KLV[ VF56[ Insert D[G]DF\YL H]NF H]NF 5|SFZGF\ :,F.0 G\AZM 56 VF5L XSLV[
KLV[

!!P*P :,F.0DF\ ;]WFZF JWFZF VG[ :,F.0 XM o


VF56[ slide show D[G]YL NZ[S :,F.0G]\ V[GLD[XG sC,GR,Gf ;[8 SZL XSLV[ KLV[ H]NF
H]NF 5|SFZGF\ VG[ H]NF H]NF ,[J,GF\ V[GLD[XG ;[8 SZJFGF\ +6 lJS<5M K[P
Animation Schemeo VF lJS<5 TDFD :,F.0GL ;FDFgI V[GLD[XG VYJF V[S :,F.0GF\ TDFD
VMAH[S8G[ ;DFG V[GLD[XG .O[S8 VF5[ K[P
Custom annimationo VF lJS<5 H]NF H]NF VMAH[S8YL H]NL H]NL 5|SFZGF\ V[GLD[XG pD[Z[ K[P VF
lJS<5YL V[S VMAH[S8 5Z V[S YL JW] V[GLD[XG :SLD pD[ZL XSLV[ KLV[P
Slide transistion VF56[ A[ :,F.0 JrR[ NXF"JJF DF8[GM ;DI GSSL SZL XSLV[ KLV[ VG[ V[S
:,F.0 SIFZ[ VN'xI YX[ VG[ ALHL SIFZ[ N[BFX[ T[ 56 SIFZ[ ;[8 SZL XSLV[

109

Time & Sound Settings in Slide Transition

!!P(P :,F.0G]\ 5|[hg8[XGo


show type o HM speaker lJS<5YL 5|[hg8[XG 5;\N SZLX]\ TM T[ O], :S|LG 5|[hg8[XG NXF"JX[P
show without narration check box HM 5|[hg8[XGDF\ J6"G VF5[, CMI 5Z\T] T[G[ JF5ZJFG]\ G
CMI TM VF R[S AM1FG[ S,LS SZMP
show without animation R[S AM1F HM TD[ slide transition VYJF animation scheme
VF5L CMI VG[ T[G[ 5|[hg8[XGDF\ NXF"JJFGL G CMI TM VF R[S AM1FG[ S,LS SZMP
Show Slide o :S|LG 5Z N[BFGFZ :,F.0GF\ G\AZG[ ;[8 SZJF VF lJS<5 J5ZFI K[P
Advance slide VF lJS<5YL XM D[gI]V,L VYJF ;DIYL ;[8 SZL XSFI K[P Manually
5;\N SZTF\ AM,GFZ[ 5KLGL :,F.0DF\ HJF :S|LG 5Z S,LS SZJFG]\ CMI K[ P YM0F ;DI 5KL VF5D[/[
:,F.0 NXF"J[ T[J]\ ;[8 SZJFG]\ CMI TM using timing, it present lJS<5G[ S,LS SZJFGM ZC[X[P

110

!!P)P Slide show JF5ZJMov


VF lJS<5YL O], :S|LG DM0DF\ :,F.0 N[BF0L XSLV[ KLV[P Slide show D[G]DF\
Setup show lJS<5DF\ 5;\N SZ[, lJS<5 D]HA slide XF"JFI K[P

!!P!_P Slide sorter


Slide sorter NZ[S :,F.0G]\ GFG]\ lR+ VF5[ K[ VF View JF5ZLG[ :,F.0 l:YlTV[YL
ALHL l:YlTV[ :,F.0G[ 5;\N SZL 3;0L H. XSFI K[P :,F.0 H[ S|DDF\ 5|[hg8 VF5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[ T[GL
5]Go UM9J6 SZL XSFI K[P NZ[S :,F.0GL HD6F B]6[ T/LIF GHLS :,F.0GM G\AZ N[BFI K[P
Slide sorter NXF"JJF View D[G]DF\YL Slide lJS<5 5;\N SZMP

111

!!P!! :,F.0 VG[ C[g0 VFp8sRM5FGLIFf l5|g8 SZJFP


5FJZ5M.g8DF\ :,F.0G[ H]NL H]NL ZLT[ l5|g8 SZL XSFI K[P
Page Range. 5|[hg8[XGDF\ NZ[S :,F.0G[ l5|g8 SZJF All lJS<5 ;[8 SZL XSFI K[P VG[ HM 5;\N
SZ[, :,F.0G[ l5|g8 SZJL CMI TM :,F.0GF\ G\AZ 5;\N SZL XSFI K[P
Print what VF lJS<5YL H]NF H]NF l5|g8L\U DM0 ;[8 SZL XSFI K[P
Slide V[SL ;DI[ V[S :,F.0 l5|g8 SZ[ K[P
Handouts V[S 5[H 5Z V[SYL JW] :,F.0 s;[8L\U D]HAf l5|g8 SZ[ K[P
Notes Page : GM\W ;FY[GL :,F.0 5[5Z NL9 l5|g8 SZ[ K[ H[ GM\W I]hZ wJFZF PPPPPPPDF\ 8F.5
SZ[, CMI K[P
Outline TDFZ[ 5|[hg8[XGGL VFp8,F.GGL SFU/ GS, ZFBJFGL CMI TM T[ OST :,F.0
8F.8, KF5X[ VFp8 ,F.GG[ N}Z SZX[P

file Print

112

_ Handout printing

113

!ZP
Sd%I]8Z ;\N[XF jIJCFZ VG[ .g8ZG[8
!ZP!P Internet ( International Network)
5|:TFJGF ov
.g8ZG[8 V[ lJ`JG]\ ;F{YL DM8]\ G[8JS" K[ DF6;M V[S ALHF ;FY[ H[ ZLT[ ;\N[XFjIJCFZ
SZ[ K[ T[DF\ T[6[ S|F\lT ,FJ[, K[ T[ CSLSTDF\ VG[S G[8JS"G]\ G[8JS" K[P VF DM0I], sTF,LDf GM pN=[X
.g8ZG[8GF\ D}/E}T l;wWF\TM VG[ T[ S. ZLT[ SFD SZ[ K[P T[GF\YL 5lZlRT SZJFGM K[P
VF ;+DF\ .g8ZG[8GF\ .lTCF;GM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P T[DF\ World wide websJ<0"
JF.0 J[Af GL jIFbIF ;lCT .g8ZG[8GF\ S[8,FS OFINFVMGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P T[ .g8ZG[8 D[/JJF
DF8[ p5,aW S[8,FS A|Fph;"s ;MO8J[Zf GM 5lZRI VF5[ K[P
.g8ZG[8GM 5lZRI ov
.g8ZG[8GF\ SdI]GLS[XG 5|M8MSM,G[ J6"JM
.g8ZG[8DF\ V[0=[; l;:8DG[ ;DHJLP .g8ZG[8 S. ZLT[ V[S;[; SZJL T[ lXBJ]\P
World wide web G[ ;DHJL s wwwfP J[AGL lJlJW ;[JFVM ;DHJL Serch engines.web
5ZGL I]lGJl;"8L chat rooms. Electronic SMD;" H]NF H]NF J[A A|Fph;"G[ ;DHJFP .g8ZG[8
V[S;%,MZZG[ ;DHJ]\
.g8ZG[8 X]\ K[ m
.g8ZG[8 V[ VFBF lJ`JDF\ H]NF H]NF G[8JS"GF\ H]NF H]NF 5|SFZGF\ S[8,FS Sd%I]8;" JrR[G]\
VF\TZ HM0F6 K[ T[ VG[S G[8JS"G]\ G[8JS" K[P
.g8ZG[8 TDFZF I\+G[ H[ lJXF/ 5|SFZGL XlSTVM VF5[ K[ T[ VN=E}T K[ ;D]N= 5FZ
J;[,F SM. jIlSTGM ;[Sg0GL U6TZLDF\ 0[8F DMS,JM S[ T[GL 5F;[YL 0[8F D[/JJM T[ .g8ZG[8GL XMW
5C[,F lJRFZFI T[J]\ G CT]\ .g8ZG[8 ;DU| DFlCTLGF\ ~5F\TZ VG[ ptS|F\lTG]\ 5|lTlGlWtJ SZ[ K[P VF
5lZA/MG[ SFZ6[ lJ`JEZDF\ DF6;MV[ .g8ZG[8G[ T[DGF\ lJSF;GF\ ;FWG TZLS[ DFgITF VF5[, K[P
ALHL VgI SM. lJlJWTFYL lJ5ZLT .g8ZG[8 ;\N[XF jIJCFZGL XlST NXF"J[ K[P .g8ZG[8 DFlCTL
5|F{nMlUS pnMU 5Z DM8L V;Z SZL ZC[, K[P DF.S|M;MO8 AT&T, Intel VG[ IBMH[JL
S\5GLVMV[ .g8ZG[8 J0[ T[DGF\ W\WFGL jI]C ZRGF 30[, K[P
.g8ZG[8 5[S[8 :JLRL\U G[8JS" CM.G[ 0[8FG[ GFGF 5[S[8DF\ ~5F\TlZT SZLG[ JCG SZJFDF\
VFJ[ K[P .g8ZG[8GF\ SFI"G[ V;ZSFZS AGFJJF HJFANFZ ;MO8J[Z TCP / IPK[P H[GM VY"
Transmission control protocol / Internet protocol YFI K[P
.g8ZG[8 V[S;[; SZJ]\ sHM0FJ]\f
.g8ZG[8GM jIJl:YT V[S;[; A[ AFATM 5Z VFWFlZT K[P J5ZFXSFZG]\ .g8ZO[;
SG[SXG VG[ .g:8M, SZ[, A|Fph;" H]NF H]NF G[8JS"4 H]NF H]NF 5|SFZGL ;[JFVM VG[ HM0F6 5]ZF
5F0[ K[P I]hZ[ 5;\N SZ[, HM0F6GM 5|SFZ4 I]hZ H[ C[T] DF8[ .g8ZG[8 JF5ZJF .rK[ K[ T[GF\ 5Z
VFWFZ ZFB[ K[P
.g8ZG[8GF\ OFINFVM ov
.g8ZG[8 V[ lJ`JEZDF\ DF6;MG[ D/L XS[ T[JM DFlCTLGM ;D]N= K[ 5Z\T] H]NF H]NF
%,[8OMD" 5Z T[G[ J5ZFX DF8[ D]SL XSFI T[ ZLT[ V,U V,U K[P .g8ZG[8 DL0LIDG[ ;DS1F K[P
.g8ZG[8 5|M0S8GF\ BZLN J[RF6 ;FY[ ;\S/FI[, SM.56 jIlST DF8[ ;\N[XF jIJCFZGL
R[G, VG[ S\5GLVMGF\ ;\N[XF jIJCFZ DF8[ DFS["8 TZLS[ SFD VF5[ K[P
.g8ZG[8 V[ V[S lJXF/ JrI]"V, sSF<5lGSf AHFZ K[P H[DF\ TD[ HFC[ZFT VF5L XSM KM
VG[ T[DF\YL pt5FNGM DF8[ VM0"Z 56 VF5L XSM KMP

114

.g8ZG[8 V[S;[; DF8[GF\ DFwID ov


VG]
G[8G]\ DFwID
PG\P
!P 8[l,OMG ,F.G 0FI, V5
SG[SXG
ZP

8[,LOMG ,F.G ADSL


A|M0A[g0

#P

A|M0A[g0

$P

,Lh0 ,F.G

5P

DMAF., OMG VG[

&P

;[8[,F.8 SG[SXG

*P

S[A, G[8JS"

:5L0

JF5ZJDF\ VFJT]\ ;FWG

5&P&k
bps

DM0[D (modulator /
Demodulator

Z5&
kbps
VYJF
JW]
&$
kbps
VYJF
JW]
&$
kbps
VYJF
JW]
&$
kbps
VYJF
JW]
&$
kbps
VYJF
JW]
&$
kbps
VYJF
JW]

Route-USB,
Ethernet, Routeretheret. Wi-Fi and
Lan card
Router + Lan Card

pNFCZ6M
Internet service
provider(Isp),
satyam, BSNL JU[Z[
CF,GL
,F.GDF\
JM.; ,F.GG[ B,[,
5CM\RF0IF JUZ
S[A,G[8 Icenet,
Aduara, Dishnet
JU[Z[ DFZOT[

Router

Reliance, TaTa
JU[Z[

DMAF., sDM0D ;FFY[GF\


,[8[:8 DMAF.,f

Reliance, TaTa,
Hutch JU[Z[ Hi-Fi

DM0[D ;lCTGF\ ;[8[,F.8


OMG

Reliance, BSNL
VG[ CJ[ VFJGFZ

SITI S[A, G[8JS"

GM\W ov
.g8ZG[8 SG[S8LJL8LGL :5L0 JF5ZJFDF\ VFJTF DM0[D VG[ Sd%I]8ZGF\ SgOLUZ[XG
s;[8L\U 5Z VFWFlZT CMI K[Pf
EFZTDF\ VMKFDF\ VMKL SG[S8LJL8L Z(P( kbps SM.56 0FI, V5 ,F.G HM0F6DF\
K[P VG[ JW]DF\ JW] A|M0A[g0DF\ 5!Z kbps S[ JW]GL D/[ K[P
.g8ZG[8GF\ I]lG8 ;%,FIZGF\ D]bI ;J"Z 5ZGF\ ;\RF,G VG[ lJQFI VFWFlZT 8=FlOSGF\
EFZ6YL 56 .g8ZG[8G[ V;Z 5CM\R[ K[P
:5L0 Kilo bits per second (kbps) DF\ DF5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[ H[ ;FDFgI ZLT[
JF5ZJFDF\ VFJTF\ ;FWGGM Bandrate K[P

115

H~lZIFTM ov
!
Sd%I]8Z l;:8D

ZP
#P

5[lg8ID Z4 # VYJF $
128 MB VYJF JW] RAMJWFZ[ .rKGLI K[P s 64
MB56 RF,X[f
10 GB S[ T[YL JW]
10/10 mbp G]\ LAN card
USB Port
modem VYJF Router VYJF Mobil Phone
VYJF Landline VYJF FWL ;FWG

VM5Z[8L\U l;:8D
.g8ZG[8 A|FphZ

win 98 SE, WINDOWS-XP


Internet Explorer 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6 VYJF JW] Netscape
Nevigator VYJF Mozilla JU[Z[

Sd%I]8Z G[8JS"4 JFIZ,[; G[8JS"GF\ D}/E}T l;wWF\TMs LAN, MAN, WANfov


Network V[S VYJF V[SYL JW] SMd%I]8;" V[S ALHF ;FY[ HM0FI VG[ V[S ALHFG[ 0[8F VG[ DFlCTLGL
VF5,[ SZTF\ CMI tIFZ[ T[G[ Sd%I]8;"GF\ G[8JS" TZLS[ VM/BFI K[P
Topologies of network H[ ZLT[ Sd%I]8;" V[S ALHF ;FY[ HM0FI K[ V[8,[ S[ G[8JS"DF\HM0FI K[
T[G[Topologies of network SC[ K[P T[ GLR[ D]HA K[P
C

C3
C

C2
C

C1

Bus Topology

Ring Topology

C
C

C2
C

C1

C2

Star Topology

Mesh Topology

116

Types of network +6 5|SFZGF\ G[8JS" K[P


LAN : LOCAL AREA NETWORK
MEN : METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK
WAN : WIDE AREA NETWORK
Introduction to LAN
LAN ( local area network) Sd%I]8Z V[S H HuIFV[ CMI K[ VG[ S[A<;YL HM0FI[,F CMI K[P
MAN (Metro Politan Area Network). MAN lJXF/ Sd%I]8Z G[8JS" K[ H[ ;FDFgI ZLT[
S[d5; VG[ XC[ZG[ VFJZL ,[ K[P T[ T[DGF\ :Y/MG[ HM0JF ;FDFgI ZLT[ JFIZ,[; VF\TZ DF/B]\ VYJF
VMl%8S, OFIAZ HM0F6M JF5Z[ K[P
MAN V[ V[J]\ G[8JS" K [ H[ EF{UMl,S lJ:TFZDF\ Sd%I]8Z;" ;FY[GF\ ZL;M;"GF\ VYJF LAN YL
DM8F 5Z\T] WAN (wide area network) YL GFGF lJ:TFZDF\GF I]h;"G[ V[S ALHF ;FY[ HM0[ K[P VF
XaN XC[ZDF\ G[8JS"G[ V[SALHF ;FY[ HM0LG[ V[S H lJXF/ G[8JS" sH[ T[ 5KL P WAN G[ 56
V;ZSFZS HM0F6 VF5[ K[ f AGFJJF DF8[ J5ZFI K[P S[8,FS :YFlGS lJ:TFZGF\ G[8JS" LAN G[
A[S,MG ,FI;g;YL HM0LG[ V[S ALHFGL ;FY[ HM0JFGF\ VY"DF\ 56 J5ZFI K[P
MAN GF\ H]NF H]NF SNGF\ pNFCZ6M ,\0G4 .gU,[g04 ,M0;"4 5M,[g04 VG[ HLGLJF4
:JL8hZ,[g0GF\ D[8=M5Ml,IG lJ:TFZMDF\ HMJF D/[ K[P S[8,LS JFZ DM8L lJ`JlJnF,IM 56 T[DGF\
G[8JS"G[ J6"JJF VF XaN JF5Z[ K[P TFH[TZG]\ J,6 JFIZ,[; MAN :YF5JFG]\ K[P
WAN (wide area network ) ov Sd%I]8;" H]NF H]NF :Y/[ CMI K[ VG[ 8[,LOMG ,L\SYL
HM0FI[,F CMI K[P Sd%I]8ZG[ 8[l,OMG l;:8D ;FY[ HM0JF DM0[D JF5ZJFGL HZ]Z 50X[P
WAN V[ Sd%I]8ZG]\ lJXF/ G[8JS" K[P VF G[8JS" lJXF/ EF{UMl,S lJ:TFZMDF\ VG[ ;FDFgI
ZLT[ A[ RFZ DF.<; S[ S[8,LS JFZ CHFZM DF.<;G[ HM0[ K[P WAN V[ 36F\ LAN G[ V[S+ SZLG[ 56
AGFJJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ H[ 36F\ GFGF G[8JS"G[ HM0LG[ V[S lJXF/ G[8JS" AGFJ[ K[ WAN 36F\ lJXF/ S\5GL
VYJF ;ZSFZL G[8JS"G]\ AG[,]\ CMI H[ N[XEZDF\ VYJF lJ`JEZDF\ O[,FI[,]\ CMI CSLSTDF\ WAN VFH[
Vl:TtJDF\ CMI T[J]\ VG[ ;F{YL DM8]\ VG[ ;F{YL ;FDFgI WAN K[P
G[8JS" DFwID V[ BZ[BZ V[S Z:TM K[P H[GF\ 5Z .,[S8=LS, ;LuG, ;OZ SZ[ K[P VG[ T[ V[S
S\5MGg8YL ALHF TZO HFI K[P G[8JS" DFwIDGF\ ;FDFgI 5|SFZM 8JL:8[05[Z S[A,4 SMV1FLI, S[A,4
OFIAZ VM%8LS S[A, VG[ JFIZ,[; K[P
JFIZ,[; ;\N[XF jIJCFZ ov
LAN 5ZGL A[ l0JF.;L; JrR[ 0[8FG]\ JCG SZJF JFIZ,[; SMdI]GLS[XGDF\ Z[l0IM lO|SJg;L
(RAF) VYJF .gO|FZ[0 s IRf DMHFVMGM p5IMU YFI K[P JFIZ,[; LAN DF8[ VUtIG]\ 38S
JFIZ,[; CA VYJF V[S;[; 5M.g8 K[P H[ ;LuG,GL JC[\R6L DF8[ J5ZFI K[P
JFIZ,[; G[8JS" ov
V[S;[; 5M.g8YL l;uG, D[/JJF PCVYJF ,[%8MDF\ JFIZ,[; V[0%8Z SF0" (wireless NIC)
.g:8M, YJ]\ H~ZL K[P JFIZ,[; l;uG<; .,[S8=MD[uG[l8S DMHFVM K[P ACFZGF\ VFSFXGL BF,L HuIFDF\
VG[ CJFDF\ D];FOZL SZ[ K[P T[YL JFIZ,[; l;uG<; DF8[ EF{lTS DFwID H~ZL GYLP H[ T[G[ G[8JS"
AGFJJFGL B}A V,U ZLT K[ JFIZ,[; l;uG<; RF :5[S8=DGF\ EFUG[ JF5Z[ K[P H[ VJFH4 N'xI VG[
0[8FG]\ JCG SZ[ K[P JFIZ,[; O|LSJg;L # SL,M C8"; s KHzf YL #__ ULUFC8"h GHz GL Z[gHDF\ CMI
K[P 0[8FGL JCG 1FDTF 5|lT ;[Sg0 9 kb YL ,.G[ 54 mbps H[JL CMI K[P
.,[S8=MD[uG[8LS DMHFVM JrR[GM D]bI TOFJT T[DGL O|LSJg;L K[P VMKL O|LSJg;LGF\
.,[S8=MD[uG[l8S DMHFVMDF\ ,F\AL J[J ,[guY sV[S 5L DMHFYL 5KLGF\ ;LG[ DMHFM ;]WLG]\ V\TZ f CMI K[P
HIFZ[ p\RL O|LSJg;LGF\ .,[S8=MD[uG[l8S DMHFVMDF\ 8]\SL J[J ,[gUY CMI K[P
JFIZ,[; 0[8F SMdI]GLS[XGGF\ S[8,FS ;FDFgI J5ZFX GLR[ D]HA K[P ;[<I],Z OMGGL DNNYL
.g8ZG[8 V[S;[; SZJLP
117

;[8[,F.8 5Z 3Z VYJF jIJ;FI DF8[ .g8ZG[8 SG[SXG :YF5J]\


CFYDF\ ZFB[,L A[ Sd%I]8L\U 0LJF.;L; JrR[ 0[8FG]\ lADL\U sO[\SJFf DF8[ JFIZ,[; SLAM0" VG[ DFp;
JF5ZJ]\
JFIZ,[; 0[8F SMdI]GLS[XGGM VgI ;FDFgI J5ZFX JFIZ,[; stitilte of Electrical and
Electroic Engineers (IEEE)802.11 :8Fg00" 5Z AG[, K[P WLANS ;FDFgI ZLT[ Z[l0IM
J[jhGF\ SMdI]lGS[XG DF8[ p5IMU SZ[ K[P spNFCZ6 TZLS[ )_Z D[UFC8"h s MHz f 4 DF.S|MJ[jh s
pNFCZ6 TZLS[ ZP$ GHz f VG[ IR waves spNFCZ6 TZLS[ (Z_ G[GMDL8Z;" mmfP VFHGF\
G[8JSL"\U DF8[ JFIZ,[; 8[SGM,MHL VUtIGM EFU K[P

!ZPZP WWW-World wide web VG[ web A|Fph;" ov


CF,DF\ ;F{YL JW] wIFG B[\RGFZ .g8ZG[8GM J5ZFX World wide web K[P WWW
CF.5Z8[1FYL HM0FI[,F ;J"ZMGL z[6L K[ Hyper text DFlCTL ZH] SZJFGL 5wWlT K[P H[DF\ VD]S 8[1F
CF.,F.8 SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ VG[ T[G[ 5;\N SZJFYL T[ lJQFI 5Z JW] DFlCTL VF5[ K[P CF.,F.8 SZFI[,L
VF VF.8[d; CF.5Z ,LgS; SC[JFI K[ VG[ T[ I]h;"G[ V[S 0MSI]D[g8YL H]NF H]NF ;J"Z 5Z VFJ[, ALHF
0MSI]D[g8DF\ HJF VFJJF N[ K[P I]hZ J[ADF\ C[ZO[Z SZJF Internate Exploror , Mosaic VYJF
Netscape Navigator H[JF A|FphZ ;MO8J[ZGM p5IMU SZL XS[ K[P A|FphZ V[S ;MO8J[Z K[ H[
I]hZG[ WWW DF\ G[JLU[8 sVJZHJZf SZJFDF\ DNN SZ[ K[P J[A V[ DM8FEFUGF\ J[A 5[HL;G]\ U|FlOS
DFwID K[P H[DF\ VD]S lR+M CMI K[P Home page XaN V[8,[ ;FDFgI ZLT[ SM. ;\:YF VYJF DFlCTLGF\
:+MTGF\ Index Page sXZ]VFTGF\ 5'Q9f K[P Home page DF\ l,\S CM. XS[ K[P H[ I]hZG[ V[S H D]N=F
5ZGF\ VFU/GF\ :Y/[ ,. H. XS[ K[ VYJF VgI 5[H 5Z l,\S; H. XS[ K[P
Common technologies s;FDFgI 8[SGM,MHLf WWW G[ ,UTL ;FDFgIZLT[ J5ZFTL 8[SGM,MHL
GLR[ D]HA K[P
Browser sA|FphZf V[S S,FIg8 ;MO8J[Z K[P H[ I]hZG[ CF.5Z 8[1F 0MSI]D[g8 NXF"J[ K[ VG[
T[GL ;FY[ VFNFG 5|NFG SZ[ K[P
Web ServersJ[A;J"Z f V[S Sd%I]8Z K[ H[DF\ 5[HL; ;\U|C YFI K[ T[ V[S 5|MU|FD K[ H[ J[A
A|FphZDF\YL :+MT D[/JJF DF8[GL lJG\TLGM 5|lTEFJ VF5[ K[P T[ ;J"Z 5|MUFD R,FJT]\
Sd%I]8ZK[P S[8,FS p5,aW J[A ;J"Z DF.S|M;MO8G]\ Internate Information server (IIs)4
G[8 :S[5G]\ Fast track VG[ Novell G]\ Intra NetWare K[P
Home Page J[A ;J"Z 5ZGL ,L\S 5Z HTF\ 5|YD H[ CF.5Z 8[1F 0MSI]D[g8 NXF"JFI K[ T[ CMD
5[.H K[P
Hyper text Markup language (HTML) J[A 0MSI]D[g8 AGFJJF J5ZFTL V[gSMl0\U
:SLD K[ 5|M8MSM, V[ Sd%I]8;" wJFZF TFlS"S ZLT[ ;\N[XFGL VF5,[ SZJF J5ZFTM lGIDMGM ;[8 K[P
Hyper text transfer protocol (HTTP) J[A p5ZG]\ CF.5Z 8[1F 0MSI]D[g8; TANL,
SZJF J5ZFT]\ 5|M8MSM, slGIDf K[P HIFZ[ I]hZ ,L\S 5Z S,LS SZ[ K[P tIFZ[ A|FphZ ,L\S
JF\RLG[ 0MSI]D[g8 5Z ,. HFI K[P
Uniform resource Loctor (URL) V[S J[A V[0=;L\U :SLD K[ H[ .g8ZG[8GF\ ZL;M;"G]\
RMSS; :Y/ NXF"J[ K[ HIFZ[ I]hZ ,L\S 5Z S,LS SZ[ K[ tIFZ[ A|FphZ ,L\SG[ JF\RLG[ 0MSI]D[g8
5Z ,. HFI K[P ,L\S lJQF[GL DFlCTL A|FphZG[ URL wJFZF VF5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P V[S
0MSI]D[g8DF\YL ALHF 0MSI]D[g8DF\GL SM.56 ,L\SGM C\D[XF URL JF5ZLG[ VD, SZJFDF\ VFJ[
K[ URL 0MSI]D[g8GF\ :YFG lJQF[GL DFlCTL WZFJ[ K[P URL VgI HTML 0MSI]D[g8G[ VYJF
SM. lR+ G[ NXF"JT]\ CMI K[P URL ,BTL JBT[ S[8,FS lGIDM VG];ZJFGF\ CMI K[ 5Z\5ZFUT
URL GLR[ D]HA CMI K[P
118

J[A V[ DFp;GF\ S,LSYL p5,aW DFlCTLGL N]lGIF K[P T[G[ JF5ZJF DF8[ TDFZ[ SMd%I]8Z4
.g8ZG[8G]\ HM0F6 VG[ A|FphZGL HZ]Z 50[ K[P
TD[ A|FphZ X~ SZM tIFZ[ T[ DFlCTLGF\ 5[.HL; XMW[ K[ VG[ NXF"J[ K[P J[A A|FphZG]\
SFI" J[A 5[HL; s HTML f GL 5|MU|FDL\U ,[\UJ[H sEFQFFf G[ ;DHJFG]\ VG[ TD[ TDFZF :S|LG
5Z HM. XSM T[ XaNM VG[ lR+MDF\ ~5F\TZLT SZJFG]\ K[ HM JW] DFlCTL HM.TL CMI TM TDFZ[
CF.5Z ,L\S 5Z S,LS SZJFGL CMI K[P NZ[S 5FGF 5Z S[8,FS XaNM4 XaN;D]CM VYJF lR+MG[
CF.,F.8 SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ VG[ T[G[ S,LS SZJFYL A|FphZ VgI 5FGF p5Z ,. HFI K[ H[DF\
;\EJTo JW] CF.,F.8 SZ[,L AFATM CMI K[P VFD VF ,L\S VFU/G[ VFU/ ,. HFI K[P
TDFD J[A 0MSI]D[g8; ;J"Z SMd%I]8;"DF\ ;\U|C YI[,F CMI K[P H[ O[S8ZL ~5[ NXF"J[, K[P
I]hZ; VF 0MSI]D[g8 T[DGF\ :YFlGS sV\UTf Sd%I]8;"DF\YL lJG\TL SZLG[ HM. XS[ K[P H[ T[ 3Z
wJFZF NXF"JJFDF\ VFJ[, K[ H[G[ Client sS,FIg8f SC[ K[P J[ADF\ ;DFlJQ8 TDFD Sd%I]8;"
.g8ZG[8YL HM0FI[,F CMI K[P H[G[ Z:TFVMYL NXF"J[, K[P

TD[ CF.5Z ,L\SG[ S,LS SZM S[ TDFZ]\ VWZ Sd%I]8Z V[S 0MSI]D[g8 5Z ,. HFI K[P

!ZP# J[A A|Fph;" ov


A|FphZ V[S 5|MU|FD K[ H[ .g8ZG[8G[ ;OL"\U s;OZ SZJFf SZJF HZ]ZL K[P J[A A|FphZGF\
S[8,FS pNFCZ6M GLR[ D]HA K[P Internate Explorer 6 V[ VFU/ 50T]\ A|FphZ K[P lJg0M4
XP ;F{YL ,MSl5|I VM5Z[8L\U l;:8D K[ VG[ DM8F EFUGF\ I]hZ 800X6005LS;[, VYJF JW]
lZ;M<I]XGYL VG[ VMKFDF\ VMKF &54___ Z\UMDF\ N'xIM HMJ[ K[P
Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer (IE) by Microsoft is the most popular Internet browser today. IE was introduced in 1995 and
passed Netscape in popularity in 1998.
10H

Netscape
Netscape was the first commercial Internet browser. It was introduced in 1994. Netscape has gradually lost its
popularity to Internet Explorer.
1H

Mozilla
The Mozilla Project has grown from the ashes of Netscape. Browsers based on Mozilla code is the second largest
browser family on the Internet today, representing about 20% of the Internet community.
12H

119

Firefox
Firefox is a new browser from Mozilla. The browser is very promising and expected to gain a high market share.
13H

Opera
Opera is a Norwegian Internet browser. It is known to be fast and small, standards-compliant, and available for
many operating systems. Opera is the preferred browser for a number of small devices like mobile phones and
hand-held computers.
14H

(A) Internate Explorer ov


DF.S|M;MO8G]\ .g8ZG[8 V[S;%,MZZ VFH[ ;F{YL JW] ,MSl5|I .g8ZG[8 A|FphZ K[P
.PV[P!))5DF\ X~ YI]\ CT]\ VG[ !))(DF\ T[6[ Netscape G[ ,MSl5|ITFDF\ 5FK/ ZFbI]\P
(B) Netscape
Netscape 5|YD jIJ;FILS .g8ZG[8 A|FphZ CT]\ T[ !))$DF\ XZ] YI]\ CT]\
Netscape wJFZF WLD[ WLD[ T[GL ,MSl5|ITF U]DFJL VG[ Internate Explorer V[ D[/JLP
(C) Mozilla
Netscape GL 50TLDF\YL Mozilla 5|MH[S8GM HgD YIM VFH[ .g8ZG[8 5Z UMlh,F
SM0 ALHF G\AZG]\ ;F{YL DM8]\ A|FphZ S]8]\A K[ H[ ,UEU Z_ @ .g8ZG[8 ;D]NFIG]\ 5|lTlGlWtJ
SZ[ K[P
(D) Firefox :firefox V[ Mozilla TZOYL GJ]\ A|FphZ K[ VF A|FphZ B]A 5|EFJXF/L K[ VG[
T[G[ p\RM lC:;M D/JFGL V5[1FF K[P
(E) Opera
VM5[ZF GMJ["HLIG .g8ZG[8 A|FphZ K[ T[G[ h05L VG[ GFG]\ :8Fg00" Sd5,FIg8
sVG]S]/f VG[ 36L VM5Z[8L\U ;L:8D DF8[ p5,aW U6JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P DMAF., OMG VG[ C[g0
C[<0 SMd%I]8;" H[JL V;\bI GFGL 0LJF.; DF8[ VM5[ZF 5;\NUL 5F+ A|Fph;" K[P

!ZP$P .g8ZG[8 ;O" SZJL ov


p5ZGF\ G[8 A|FphZGL DNNYL VF5YL H~lZIFT D]HAGL IMuI J[A;F.8 p5Z VF56[
G[JLU[8 sVJZHJZf SZL XSLV[ KLV[ G[8 5Z C[ZO[Z SZJL V[8,[ S[ S\. SC[JF ;OL"\U SZJ]\
.g8ZG[8GF\ D}/E}T 5FIFGF\ lGIDMG[ VG];ZLG[ TD[ H[ SFI" SZM KM T[G[ ;OL"\U SC[JFI K[
pNFCZ6 TZLS[ TD[ SM.56 V[S lJQFI 5Z J[A;F.8DF\ XMW SZM KMP

!ZP5P Search s;R" V[gHLG Google JU[Z[f


Search Engine DFGJLI NB,ULZLYL SFI" SZ[ K[P T[ :5F.0;" DMS,[ K[ H[ V,U
V,U :5F.0;DF\ VMKL XMW SZ[ K[P VG[ IFNL AGFJ[ K[ NZ[S ;R" V[gHLG ALHFYL V,U SFI"
SZ[K[ VG[ V[SALHFYL JW] XlSTXF/L CMI K[P VF lJQFI lJX[ JW] XLBJFGM Z; WZFJTF\ CMI TM
Bot spot BFT[ FAQ GL D],FSFT ,MP
;R" V[gHLG 5F;[YL ;\A\lWT 5lZ6FDM D[/JJFGM ;F{YL z[Q9 Z:TM C[<5 OF.,G[
JF\RJFGM K[P

120

Search Engine Samples sGD]GM f

Alta vista ;R" V[gHLG


VF V[gHLG XlSTXF/L XMWBM/ 1FDTFVMGL A0F. CF\S[ K[P H[DF\ TD[ J[A;F.8;4
gI]hU'5 VG[ jIlSTVMGL T,F; SZL XS[ K[P
Excite
VF lJXF/ lZ;M;"G[ H[ ,FBM 0MSI]D[g8;DF\ XMW SZ[ K[P

121

Google

www, lR+M gI]hU'5 VG[ TFHF gI]hDF\ XMW SZ[ K[P

!ZP&P J[A;F.8DF\ VCL\ TCL\ HJ]\ ov


J[A;F.8 V[0=[; 8F.5 SIF" 5KL TD[ H[ A|FphZG[ JF5ZJFGF\ KM T[ J[A;F.8G]\ GFD4
J[A;F.8G]\ lJQFI J:T] p5Z D]HA NXF"JX[P J[A;F.8DF\ G[JLU[8 SZJFG]\ ;Z/ SFI" K[P H[DF\
CF.,F.8 SZ[,F lJQFI,1FL D[8Z 5Z S,LS SZL TDFZL HZ]ZLIFT D]HAGL ;\A\lWT ;F.8 B],[
K[P
VF ,L\\S q CF.,F8 SZ[, lJS<5M ;\A\lWT DFlCTL 5[.H 5Z ,. HFI K[ VG[ J[A;F.8
VYJF DFlCTL BM,JFGF\ ,L\S SZ[,L CMI TM T[G[ NXF"JX[P
5FGFGF\ p5ZGF\ EFU[ Home A8GG[ S,LS SZLG[ SM.56 ;DI[ J[A;F.8GF\ CMD
5[.H sD]bI 5FGFf 5Z ,. H. XSFI K[P
5FGFGF\ p5ZGF\ 0FAF EFU[ 0=M5 0FpG AM1FDF\ Jump to G[ S,LS SZM H[YL TD[ tIF\ H.
XSM T[ 5FGF N[BFX[ TD[ VFD T[D 5M.g8Z O[ZJXM tIFZ[ VF IFNL TDFZF CF,GF\ :YFG[ X]\
p5,aW K[ T[ NXF"JJF AN,X[ s VF 0=M50FpG AM1F DF8[ S[8,LS ;F.8; Jump to G[
AN,[ VgI GFDM JF5Z[ K[Pf CMD 5[.H l;JFIGF\ SM.56 5[.H 5ZYL TD[ GLR[GF\ SFIM"
56 SZL XSMP
Navigation barDF\ ,L\SG[ S,LS SZL XSM H[YL T[ 38SG]\ lJQFI J:T] NXF"J[P
0FAL AFH]V[ 5[.HGF\ DYF/[ bread crumbs linkG[ S,LS SZL prR :TZGF\ 5[HL;DF\
HFJP
;\A\lWT D]N=FVM ov
Help D[/JJL

122

TDFZF browser G[ ;[8 SZM s8I]G.Gf


HM SM. A|Fp;ZG[ ,UTL D]xS[,LVM CMI S[ SM. lJQFI J:T]G[ %,[IZ VYJF %,U.GGL
HZ]Z CMI TM A|FphZG[ 8I]G SZLG[ R[S SZMP VYJF H~ZL CMI TM GJ]\ A|FphZ %,U.G 0FpG,M0 SZL
.g:8M, SZMP

!ZP*P J[A 5[HL;GF\ EFUG[ 5|Lg8 SZJM VYJF ARFJJMP


J[A 5[HL;GF\ EFUG[ 5|Lg8 SZJFG]\ JWFZ[ ;C[,]\ K[ ;FDFgI ZLT[ J[A;F.8 l5|g8L\UGM
lJS<5 VF5[ K[ VG[ ;FDFgI ZLT[ J[A;F.8 5Z VF5[, lGXFGLYL Save SZJF VYJF l5|g8G]\ SFI" SZL
XSFI K[P
JW]DF\ TD[ P file D[G]DF\YL Print lJS<5 5;\N SZL J[A 5[HL;GF\ lJQFI J:T]G[ l5|g8 SZL
XSM KM JW]DF\ lJQFI J:T]GF\ 5[.H VYJF ;DU| 5[.HG[ ;FRJJF VF H 5|M;[; JF5ZL XSFI GLR[ :S|LG
VF5[, K[

GLR[GL :S|LG J[A5[HL;G[ 5|Lg8 VG[ Save SZJFGF\ lJS<5 NXF"J[ K[P

123

lR+DF\ NXF"jIF 5|DF6[ GLR[GF\ lR+G[ l5|g8 SZMP

J[A 5[HGF\ EFUG[ ;FRJM file D[G]DF\ H. Save As NAFJMP

124

file G]\ GFD VF5M

Save As GF\ 5|SFZ VF5M

125

0[8FA[.hDF\YL V[gSM0L\U lJS<5 VF5M

J[ADF\ VF5[, lJS<5MGL DNNYL V[8,[ S[ J[A;F.8 5ZYL H l5|g8 VF5M

VFS'lTDF\ NXF"jIF 5|DF6[ lR+G[ ;FRJ[ K[

126

!ZP(P 0FpG ,M0L\U spTFZJ]\f


Downloding V[8,[ N}ZGF\ Sd%I]8Z 5F;[YL 0LhL8, DFlCTL D[/JJFGL 5wWlT T[GF\
VY" D]HA J[A 5Z TD[ H[ S\. SZM KM T[ 0FpG,Ml0\U K[ T[ TDFZF DFp;G[ S,LS SZJF H[8,]\ ;Z/ K[P
TD[ J[A 5[H V[S;[; SZM KM tIFZ[ TD[ CSLSTDF\ 0MSI]D[g8 VG[ TDFD ;\,uG lR+MG[ J[A ;J"ZDF\YL
0FpG,M0 SZM KM 0LhL8, 0[8F D/L UIF 5KL A|FphZ OF., V[S:8[gXG sc P c 5KLGF\ V1FZMf HM
OF.,GM 5|SFZ VM/BL HX[ TM T[ T[G[ NXF"JX[P HM T[ VM/BX[ GlC\ TM T[DG[ viewer SgOLUZ SZJF
ZC[X[P sOF., HMJF SIF ;MOJ[Z 5|MU|FDG[ JF5ZJM T[ A|FphZG[ SC[X[Pf OF.,G[ TDFZL CF0"0L:SDF\
Save SZJFGM lJS<5 56 VF5X[P
OF.,M 0FpG,M0 SZJFGM VgI V[S Z:TM OF., 5ZGL ,L\SG[ DFp;GF\ ZF.8 S,LS sA8Gf SZL
5M5vV5 D[G]DF\YL Save to disk lJS<5G[ 5;\N
SZJFGM K[ S[8,FS lS:;FVMDF\ TDG[ OF., CF0"0L:SDF\ SIF\
;FRJJL T[ 5}KX[ VYJF OF., TDFZF 0[:S8M5 5Z
VF5D[/[ 0FpG,M0 YX[ H[ TDFZ]\ A|FphZ S[JL ZLT[ .gOLUZ
YI[, K[ T[GF\ 5Z VFWFZ ZFBX[P
lR+ ;FRJJ]\ ov
TDFZF DMlG8Z 5Z lR+ VYJF OM8M NXF"JFI S[
TZT H TD[ T[G[ ElJQI DF8[ Save SZJF .rKM tIFZ[ GLR[
D]HA SZM ov
!P lR+ 5Z TDFZ]\ S;"Z ZFBMP
ZP lJg0Mh I]hZ[ DFp;G]\ ZF.8 A8G NAFJJ]\P
5M5vV5 AM1F B},X[P Macintosh sD[SLGM;f I]hZ[
5M5vV5 AM1F N[BFI tIF\ ;]WL DFp;GF\ A8GG[ S,LS SZL
NAFJL ZFBJLP
#P Save lJS<5G[ 5;\N SZLG[ TDFZL CF0"OF.,DF\ lR+G[ ;FRJMP
127

$P TD[ OF.,G]\ RF,] GFD :JLSFZL XSM VYJF T[G]\ GFD OZL VF5L XSM sU|FOLSGL OF.,
;FDFgIZLT[ P gif VYJF P jpg OMD["8DF\ CMI K[P f
Sd5|[:0 VG[ ;[<OvV[S:8=[SZL\U OF.<;
;MO8J[ZYL TD[ Sd5|[:0 sVMKL HuIFDF\ ;FRJ[, f OF.<; 0FpG,M0 SZM KMP VF OF.,M
jIlSTUT OF.,M VYJF OF.,MG]\ H}Y CM. XS[ H[G[ V[S H OF.,DF\ Sd5|[; SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
0FpG,M0GF\;DI VG[ l0:SGL HuIF ARFJJF VFD SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P HM OF.,MG[ Sd5|[:0 SZJF VFJ[,
CMI TM TDFZ[ T[G[ l0Sd5|[; sK}8L SZJFf V,U ;MO8J[Z I]l8l,8LGL H~Z 50[ K[P
.g8ZG[8 5ZYL V[%,LS[Xg;4 %,Uv.g;4 U[.d; VYJF VgI SM.56 ;MO8J[Z 0FpG,M0 SZJF
VF :8[d5 VG];ZMo

If you don't already


have one, create a
Temporary Files folder
by opening Windows
Explorer, highlighting
your hard drive
(typically the c: drive),
then selecting
File/New/Folder.
15H

16H

When the folder appears,


name it Temporary Files.

Once you locate the software you


want to download, click on the link
to begin the download process.

128

You will be
asked
where to
save the
file. Locate
the
Temporary
Files folder
on your
hard drive
and double
click on it
to open it.

Click SAVE

If you are really bored, you can watch the file as it downloads.

129

After the download is finished, you have to install the software. Close all
programs that are running, except Windows Explorer. Find the file you
downloaded and double click on it.
A series of installation screens direct you through the process.
17H

New application programs are usually installed in the Program files folder. Plug-ins are
usually installed in the appropriate browser folder.

130

After the software is installed you can delete the file in your Temporary
Files folder to free up space on your hard drive

After the download is finished, you have to install the software. Close all
programs that are running, except Windows Explorer. Find the file you
downloaded and double click on it.
A series of installation screens direct you through the process.
18H

New application programs are usually installed in the Program files folder. Plug-ins are
usually installed in the appropriate browser folder.

131

After the software is installed you can delete the file in your Temporary
Files folder to free up space on your hard drive
HM TDFZL CF0"0=F.J s;FDFgI ZLT[ c:drivefDF\ temporary files OM<0Z G CMI TM lJg0Mh
V[S:%,MZZ BM,L c:driveDF\ file/New/Folder G[ S,LS SZL AGFJMP
HIFZ[ Folder N[BFX[ tIFZ[ T[G[ Temporary Files GFD VF5MP
TDFZ[ 0FpG,M0 SZJ]\ CMI T[ ;MO8J[Z D/[ S[ 0FpG,M0 5|M;[; X~ SZJF l,\S 5Z S,LS SZMP
OF.,G[ SIF\ Save SZJFGL K[ T[ 5}KX[P TDFZL CF0"0=F.J 5Z Temporary Files OM<0ZG[ XMWM
VG[ T[G[ BM,JF 0A, S,LS SZMP
Save G[ S,LS SZMP
TD[ 0FpG,M0 YTL OF.,G[ HM. XSM KMP
0FpG,M0 5}Z]\ YFI S[ TDFZ[ ;MO8J[ZG[ .g:8M, SZJFG]\ K[P lJg0Mh V[S:%,MZZ l;JFIGF TDFD RF,]
5|MU|FDG[ A\W SZMP TD[ 0FpG,M0 SZ[,L OF., XMWM VG[ T[GF 5Z 0A, S,LS SZMP
132

.g:8M,[XG :S|LG V[S z[6L TDG[ 5|M;[;ZDF\YL 5;FZ SZX[P GJF V[%,LS[XG 5|MU|Fd; DM8[EFU[
Programs Files OM<0ZDF\ .g:8M, YFI K[P Plug-in DM8[EFU[ IMuI A|FphZ OM<0ZDF\ .g:8M, YFI
K[P
;MO8J[Z .g:8M, YFI tIFZ 5KL TD[ Temporary Files Folder DF\YL OF.,G[ N}Z SZL TDFZL
CF0"0=F.J 5ZGL HuIF ARFJL XSM KMP

!ZP) .g8ZG[8 R[8L\U s;\N[XFVMGL VF5v,[f


R[8 ~d;
I]h;" S[8,LS J[A;F.8; 5Z ,MUVMG sHM0FIf SZL XS[ VG[ .g8ZG[8 R[8 ;MO8J[Z JF5ZLG[
VMGv,F.G lJlJW VgI I]h;" ;FY[ ;\N[XFGL VF5v,[ SZL XS[ K[ H[ V[S .g8ZV[lS8J sVZ;5Z;f
;MO8J[Z K[ H[DF\ I]hZ V[S lJg0MDF\ SMD[g8; 8F.5 SZ[ K[ VG[ ALHF lJg0MDF\ D[/J[ K[P VFJL
J[A;F.8;G[ R[8~d; SC[JFI K[P V[ SMgOZg; 5|SFZGL 5wWlT K[ H[DF\ I]h;" H]NFvH]NF lJQFIM 5Z RRF"VM
SZTF CMI K[ H[D S[4 c.P;P 5}J[" ) DF\ lJ`J S[J]\ N[BFT]\ CX[ mc YL c.P;P #___ DF\ lJ`J S[J]\ YX[ mc VG[
cHLJG VG[ VY"GF H]NFvH]NF 5F;F\VMcP
.g8ZG[8 ZL,[ R[8 s IRC f VYJF Chat V[ VgI .g8ZG[8 I]h;" ;FY[ ;\N[XFGL TZT VF5v,[
SZJFGM ;MO8J[Z 5|MU|FD VYJF Java %,Uv.G K[ H[ TDFZF CF,GF J[A A|FphZDF\ SFD SZ[ K[P 36L
H]NLvH]NL R[8 R[G<; VYJF ~d; K[ H[ S<5L XSFI T[JF NZ[S lJQFIG[ VFJZL,[ K[ VG[ R[8~d;DF\ ;F{YL
JW] ,MSl5|I R[G<;GL IFNL CMI K[P
A},[l8G AM0" 5Z D[;[H D}SJF VG[ ALHF ;\N[XF JF\RJF SZJF p5ZF\T TD[ R[8 lJg0MDF\ TDFZM
;\N[XM D}SL XSM KM VG[ ALHFT[DGF ;\N[XFVM D}STF HM. XSM KMP
VFGFYL S[8,F\S HLJ\T ;\JFN VG[ JFTRLT YFI K[ H[ ;\N[XFVM JF\RJF SZTF\ JW] VFG\N5|N CMI
K[P TD[ ALHF R[8 R[G, I]hZ ;FY[ VFNFG 5|NFG SZL XSM KM VG[ H]NF H]NF IRC R[8 ;J"Z JF5ZLG[
lR+M H[JL OF.,M DMS,L VG[ D[/JL XSM KMP DM8FEFUGF\ Java %,Uv.G R[8=;DF\ TD[ OF.,M DMS,L S[
D[/JL XSTF GYLP VFD KTF\4 HM TDFZL 5F;[ ICCE CMI TM T[GF J0[ OF.,MGL C[ZO[Z SZL XSM KMP
OF., 8=Fg;OZ SZJF lJX[ YM0L JFT SZLV[P TD[ R[8 R[G,DF\ CMJ tIFZ[ VG[ SM.S TDG[ OF.,
DMS,JFGM 5|ItG SZ[ TM TDFZL :S|LG 5Z 5M5 V5 ;\N[XM VFJX[ H[ TDG[ OF., 8=Fg;OZ :JLSFZJF S[
GSFZJFG]\ 5}KX[P VF OF.,M ;DFgI ZLT[ .exe VYJF .ini lGXFGL SZ[, CMI K[P VF 5|MU|FD OF.,M
CMI K[ VG[ T[DF\ JFIZ; sG]SXFGSFZS OF.,f CM. XS[ K[P SM. TDG[ lR+ DMS,JF .rK[ TM T[ .gift
VYJF .jpg OF., CMI T[GL BFTZL SZMP VF V[S8[gXg; U|FlOS; DF8[ J5ZFI K[P HM X\SF CMI TM VF
8=Fg;OZG[ ZMSL N[J]\ TD[ 0FpG,M0 SZM VG[ OF., R,FJM GlC\ tIF\ ;]WL TDFZF Sd%I]8ZG[ G]SXFG SZX[
GlC\P
VFU/ JWM VG[ TDFZL VM5Z[l8\U l;:8D DF8[ l0hF.G SZ[, R[8 5|MU|FDG[ 0FpG,M0 SZL
;[8;J"ZDF\ ,MU.G SZM VG[ VFG\N p9FJMP
IRC GL VM/B OF.,YL MS lJg0Mh JF5ZTF ,MSMG[ IRC GM 5lZRI SZFJLV[ KLV[ TDFZL
5F;[ .g8ZG[8 5|MJF.0Z K[ VG[ vinshock 5|MU|FD JF5ZTF CXM VF .gN=M OF., IRC 5Z H wIFG
S[lgN=T SZ[ K[P VF OF., IRC JF5ZJF DF8[GF 5|MU|Fd; .g:8M, SZJF VG[ T[G[ SgOLUZ SZJF V\U[GL
DFlCTLVM H6FJX[ GCL\4 5Z\T] TD[ SIFZ[I HM WS-FTP, G[8:S[54 eudora, ws-archie, mosaic,
win v, free agent VYJF T[JF 5|MU|Fd; .g:8M, VG[ JF5ZJF 5|ItG SIM" CX[ TM IRC 5|MU|FD
sS,F.g8f S. ZLT[ .g:8M, SZJM VG[ R,FJJM T[ ;DHJFDF\ SM. D]xS[,L 50X[ GlC\P
V[ wIFGDF\ ZFBM S[ IRC R[8 5|MU|FD 0FpG,M0 SZJDF\ VG[ .g:8M, SZJFDF\ VG[ .g:8M,
SZJFDF\ HM DNNGL H~Z CMI TM .g:8Ml,\U R[8 5Z HFJP
DM8FEFUGF\ IRC 5|MU|Fd; BF; SZLG[ ,MSl5|I VG[ JW] ;FZF V[JF 5|MU|Fd; VF 5|MU|Fd; ;[8L\U
SZJF VG[ .g:8M, SZJF V\U[GL VNE}T C[<5 OF.,M ;FY[ JC[\RJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P

133

s!f IRC X]\ K[ m


IRC V[8,[ ccInternet Relay Chatcc T[ D}/E}T ZLT[ !)((DF\ Jarkho
oikarinen wJFZF ,BJFDF\ VFJL CTLP lOG,[g0DF\ X~ YIF 5KL T[ lJ`JEZDF\ ,UEU &_ N[XMDF\
JF5ZJDF\ VFJ[ K[P IRC V[ D<8LvI]hZ R[8 l;:8D K[ H[DF\ DF6;M H}YDF\ VYJF BFGULDF\ JFT SZJF
R[G,s~D4 JrI]"V, %,[;4 HIF\ JFTRLTGM SM. D]N=M CMI f 5Z D/[ K[P RF,] RRF"DF\ S[8,L ;\bIFDF\
DF6;M EFU ,. XSX[ VYJF IRC 5Z S[8,L R[G<; AGFJJFDF\ VFJX[ T[ V\U[ SM. DIF"NF GYLP sIRC
S[JL ZLT[ X~ Y. T[GF lJX[ JW] DFlCTL www/,mirc.co.uk/ jarkko.txt VG[P Jarkko 2.txt 5Z
D/X[f

sZf IRC S[JL ZLT[ :YF5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[ m


I]hZ TZLS[ TD[ S,FIg8 5|MU|FD R,FJLG[ IRC NETWORKDF\ ;J"ZG[ HM0FI XSM
KMP TDFD ;J"Z V[SALHFGL ;FY[ HM0FI[,F CMI K[ VG[ T[ IRC G[8JS"DF\ I]hZYL I]hZG[ ;\N[XFVM
DMS,[ K[P V[S ;J"ZG[ VgI S[8,FI ;J"Z ;FY[ HM0L XSFI VG[ CHFZM S,FIg8 ;FY[ HM0L XSFIP S[8,FS
JW] DM8F VG[ JW] GFGF IRC G[8JS" VFJ[,F K[P EFnet (eris free net) IRCnet, Undernet VG[
Dalnet GFDGF ;F{YL lJXF/ G[8JS"; ;FDFgI ZLT[ ,UEU SM.56 ;DI[ Z_4___qv I]h;"G[ ;[JF
VF5[ K[P

s#f S,FIg8 X]\ SZ[ K[ m ;J"ZGM C[T] X]\ K[ m


IRC S,FIg8 SDFg0; JF\R[ K[ VG[ TD[ DMS,[, 8[18 JF\R K[ VG[ T[G[ VFU/ W5FJ[ K[ T[
T[G[ lO<8Z SZ[ K[ VG[ H~ZL CMI TM IMuI lS|IF SZ[ K[ VG[ TDFZF ;J"Z 5Z DMS,[ K[ V[S IRC;J"Z
VgI 36F\ S,FIg8;G[ ;[JF VF5L XS[ K[P ;J"Z R[G<; VG[IRC BFT[GF jIlSTVMGL DFlCTL ;FRJ[ K[
VgI DFlCTL ZFB[ K[ T[DH T[ TDFZF ;\N[XFVM VgI I]hZG[ 5CM\RF0JF 56 HJFANFZ K[P IRC
G[8JS"DF\ VG[S ;J"Z VFJ[,F CMI K[ H[ TDFD V[SALHF ;FY[ HM0FI[,F CMI K[P

s$f C]\ IRC S. ZLT[ D[/J] XS] m


5|YD TDFZL l;:8D 5Z IRC S,FIg8 .g:8M, K[ T[GL BFFTZL SZMP HM G CMI TM
TDFZF PC VYJF LAN DF\ S,FIg8 .g:8M, SZJF TDFZF :YFlGS l;:8D V[0DLGL:8=[8ZG[ SC[J]\
HM.V[P HM TDFZL 5F;[ V[S,]\ PC CMI H[DF\ .g8ZG[8 V[S;[; CMI TM TDFZL HFT[ S,FIg8 D[/JJF VG[
.g:8M, SZJFGM CMI K[P slR\TF SZXM GlC\v T[ ;C[,]\ K[P f lJUTJFZ ;}RGFVM D[/JJF Installing
H]VMP
lGSG[D X]\ K[ m
IRC 5Z TDG[ VgI jIlSTVM GLSG[DYL s8}\SFGFDfYL VM/B[K[ TD[ )V1FZM,F\A] SM.56 8}\S}\ GFD
sGLSG[Df 5;\N SZJF :JT\+ KMP TDFZF GLSG[DDF\ :5[; G SZM VG[ Asell V1FZM G JF5ZMP V[S H
GLSG[D JF5ZTF CMI T[JF jIlSTVM D/[ T[ B}A ;FDFgI K[ VG[ U]\RJ0M 8F/JF TDG[ GLSG[D AN,JFGL
5;\NUL VF5JFDF\ VFJX[P OST S[8,FS IRC G[8JS" 5Z GLSG[DGL DFl,SL Y. XS[ K[P

s5f DFZ]\ IP V[0=[; X]\ K[ m


TDFZ]\ PC .g8ZG[8 5Z H[ V[0=[; JF5Z[ K[ T[ TDFZ]\ IP V[0=[; K[P T[ ;FDFgI ZLT[ $
VF\S0FVMGM ;[8 CMI K[ VYJF T[G]\ ;DFG IP GFD CMI K[P S[8,FS 5|MJF.0Z TDG[ VGgI IP V[0=[;
s:8[l8S IPf VYJF TD[ HIFZ[ HIFZ[ HM0F6 SZM tIFZ[ V,U V[0=[; VF5[ K[P 0FIG[lDS IP V0=[;YL
TDFZ]\ S,FIg8 VF5D[/[ H TDFZF CF,GF\ IP V[0=[;G[ H]V[ K[ VG[ TD[ IRC DF\ SG[S8 SZM tIFZ[ TDFZF
Local Host GFDG[ H]V[ K[P

s&f DFZ]\ LOCAL HOST GFD X]\ K[ m


TD[ VYJF TDFZF 5|MJF.0Z[ TDFZF PC G[ VF5[, GFD V[ Local Host Name K[P T[ V[S
GFD VYJF TDFZF IP V[0=[;G[ ;DFG GFD CM. XS[P

134

Yahoo DF\ R[8L\U SZJF TDFZ]\ Login Id VF5J]\ VG[ NFB, YJ]\ s;F.G .GfP

V[SJFZ Sign In SIF" 5KL GLR[G]\ D[G]N[BFX[

gFLR[GL VFS'lTDF\ Enter chat Room S,LS SZMP

135

GLR[GL VFS'lT NXF"J[ K[ S[ l;:8D R[8~DDF\ NFB, Y. ZC[, K[P

136

!#P E-mail s.D[.,f (Hotmail / yahoo JU[Z[f


!#P! Emails.,[S8=MGLS D[.,f
85F,YL ;\N[XF VFJTF T[ lNJ;M UIF CJ[ Sd%I]8;" VG[ .g8ZG[8YL VF56G[ Email V[8,[ S[
.,[S8=MlGS D[.,GL GJL 5lZEFQFF s8DL"GM,MHLf D/[, K[P
SM.56 JFl6HIGF\ JFl6lHIS EFUGL AFATDF\ VMG,F.G 4 V;ZSFZS ;\N[XFjIJCFZG]\
5|lTlGlWtJ SZT]\ CF,G]\ SdI]lGS[XGGM OFINM VF5T]\ ;FWGP
O|LD[., ;[JFVM S[ H[G[ jIF5S 56[ JF5ZJDF\VFJ[ K[P
- Hotmail
- Yahoo mail
- Rediff mail
- Indiatimes mail
- Epatra mail
- Madmail
- Nicnet
- Google mail VG[ NZ[S Internate service provider (ISP) s.g8ZG[8GL ;[JF
VF5TL S\5GLVMfGF D[., ;J"Z

!#PZP .vD[., V[SFpg8 s yahoo mailf S. ZLT[ BM,J]\P


:8[5 o! Email ;lJ"; I]l8l,8LGF\ D]bI J[, 5[H G[ BM,M pNFCZ6 TZLS[4 http://www.com. GLR[G]\
5FG]\ HMJF D/X[P

137

:8[5 oZ D]bI yahoo J[A5[HDF\ mail lJS<5 BM,M VG[ TDG[ GLR[GL :S|LG HMJF D/X[P CJ[ TD[
TDFZ]\ yahoo Id VG[ 5F;J0" VF5L sign In G[ S,LS SZMP

:8[5 o #
P HM Yahoo VYJF VgI SM. .D[., ;lJ"; J[A;F.8DF\ TDFZ]\ SM. .D[., Id G CMI
TM sign In 5Z S,LS SZMP
:8[5 o $ sign In NAFJJFYL GLR[G]\ J[A 5[.H N[BFX[ H[DF\ TDFZ[ jIlSTUT lJUTM VG[ TDFZL 5;\NG]\
.D[., V[0=[; VF5JFG]\ CMI K[P

138

p5ZMST Singup ;LSJg;G]\ 5FG]\ Z GLR[ D]HA ZC[X[P

Sing up ;LSJg;G]\ 5FG]\ # GLR[ D]HA ZC[X[P

p5ZMST 5|M;[; TDFZL 5MTFGL H~lZIFT D]HAG]\ .vD[., V[0=[; TDFZL H~lZIFTGF .vD[., ;lJ";DF\
AGFJJFDF\ DNN SZX[P

139

!#P# Email V[SFpg8DF\ 5|J[XG]\ s Log in f s Yahoo mail f


V[SJFZ TDFZ]\ 5MTFG]\ emil ID T{IFZ YFI S[ TD[ SM. BF; D[., ;lJ";GL O|L D[., J[A
;lJ";DF\ Log in ID VG[ 5F;JS" VF5TF TDG[ GLR[GL :S|LG N[BFX[

H[DF\ TD[ GJF D[., TDFZF .GAM1FDF\ T5F;L XSM KM H[ TDG[ D/[,F GJF .vD[., NXF"JX[

13.4

Checking your Inbox (Viewing mail)

140

!#P5 TDFZM D[., JF\RJMP


D[., lJQFI EFU 5Z S,LS SZLG[ .vD[., R[D SZL XSM KM VG[ TD[ .vD[., JF\RL XSM
KMqHM. XSM KMP

!#P& TDFZF D[.,GM HJFA VF5JMP


TDG[ D[., SZGFZGM D[., JF\RLG[ TZT H HJFA VF5MP To: EFU TZT H T[G]\ V[0=[; NXF"JX[
VG[ lJQFI NXF"JX[P

141

!#P* D[., VFU/ W5FJJM sD/[, .vD[.,G[ VgI .vD[,, ID 5Z


DMS,JMfP
CF,GF .vD[.,G[ TDFZL 5;\NULGF SM.56 V[0=[; 5Z VFU/ W5FJJM V[8,[ S[ VgI jIlSTG[
D[., OMZJ0" SZJMP

GJM D[., ,BJF s.g8ZG[8DF\ Compose TZLS[ VM/BFT]\fP GJM .vD[., ,BJF
Compose G[ S,LS SZMP

142

!#P( .vD[., ;FY[ OF., Attach sHM0JLf SZJLP


!P TDFZ[ H[ jIlSTG[ D[., ,BJFGM CMI T[G]\ D[., V[0=[; ,BM VG[ lJQFI ,BMP HM TDFZ[
OF., VYJF SM.56 VUFpYL S\5Mh SZ[, .vD[., VYJF 0MSI]D[g8 OF.,G[ HM0JL CMI TM T[G[
.vD[.,DF\ DMS,L XSM KMP

143

ZP Attach Files NAFJL VF5[, :8[5 VG];ZM VG[ TDFZL OF., V[8[R Y. HX[P

CJ[ .vD[.,GM 0=FO8 ,bIF 5KL Send 5Z S,LS SZL 0MSI]D[g8 DMS,MP slR+v!(&f
TD[ VF ZLT[ .vD[.,GF 0=FO8G[ ARFJL XSM VG[ OZL JF5ZL XSM KMP
TD[ 8[18 VG[ lR+ ;\N[XFVM S\5Mh SZL XSM KMP
JF\R[, VYJF lAGH~ZL ;\N[XFVMG[ ZN SZL XSM KM VYJF GSFDL OF.,MGF OM<0Z sTrashfDF\
GF\BL XSM KMP
TDFD GJF .vD[., V[0=[;G[ address book ;FRJMP
.vD[.,GF .,[S8=MlGS; ;\N[XF :S|LG 5Z p5ZMST TDFD lJS<5M ;C[,F.YL p5,aW K[P

144

!#P) V[SH .D[., V,U V,U I]h;" VYJF jIlSTVMG[ DMS,JF

!#P!_P .D[., ;FRJJMP


Save Draft lJS<5 5Z S,LS SZM VG[ .D[.,GF\ ,BF6G[ TDFZF Sd%I]8Z 5Z
OF., TZLS[ ;FRJM VYJF Control VG[ C VYJF Control VG[ V SL NAFJLG[ SM.56 J0"
5|M;[;ZDF\ ;FRJM T[GF\YL p,8] SM.56 0MSI]D[g8GF SM. EFUG[ TDFZF .D[.,GF ,BF6DF\ D}SL
XSFI K[P

145

!$P DF.S|M;MO8 VFp8,}S V[S;5|[;


!$P! Microsoft outlook VG[ Outlook express SgOLUZ SZJF
VG[ HF/JJFP
Microsoft office D[G]DF\ Microsoft outlook/ outlook express VF.SMGG[ S,LS SZM
TDG[ GLR[GL :S|LG HMJF D/X[P GLR[ D]HAGF ;Z/ :8[5 VG];ZMP Next G[ S,LS SZMP

V5U|[0 SZJFG]\ CMI TM upgrade from G[ S,LS SZM GlC\TZ Do not upgrade G[ S,LS
SZMP

TD[ H[ GFDYL TDFZF .D[., V0=[;G[ VM/BJF DF\UTF CMI T[ VF5M

146

VCL\ cc ITI Kubernagar cc H[J]\ GFD ,BMP

MS Outlook express DF\ SgOLGZ SZJ]\ CMI T[ .D[., V[0=[; ,BM

147

!$PZP Incoming VG[ Outgoing ;J"Z SgOLUZ[XGYL PoP3 BFT]\ SgOLUZ SZMP

.D[., V[0=[; VYJF Login Id VG[ 5F;J0" VF5M T[DH TDFZM 5F;J0" IFN ZFBJF S,LS SZMP

148

TD[ H[ 5|SFZGF\ SG[SXGYL .g8ZG[8DF\ HM0FI[,F KM T[ VF5M o V[8,[ S[


cable VYJF LAN

149

dial up, direct

Next G[ S,LS SZM VG[ V\T[ GLRGL :S|LG N[BFX[

Ms outlook G[ SgOLUZ SZTF\ T[GL :S|LG GLR[ D]HA N[BFX[ o

150

!$P#P D[., R[Sv sT5F;JF f


Ms outlook Express DF\YL .D[., R[S SZJF Index G[ S,LS SZM T[ .D[.,GL lJUTM NXF"JX[P

!$P$ D[., DMS,JM VG[ D[/JJMP


GLR[ NXF"jIF D]HA Send/Receive lJS<5G[4 .D[., DMS,JF\ VG[ D[/JJF S,LS SZMP

!$P5P S[,[g0Z4 SMg8[S8Z4 8F:S4 gI]hU'5GF\ D}/E}T TtJMP


V[5M.g8D[g8 VG[ S[,[g0Z ;[8 SZJF S[,[g0Z lJS<5 5Z S,LS SZM VG[ S[,[g0Z lJS<5 S,LS
SZM GLR[GL :S|LG N[BFX[P BF; TFZLB 5Z S,LS SZL DL8L\UGM 8F.D ;[8 SZMP

151

lJQFI4 :Y/4 ,[A,4 X~VFT VG[ V\TGM ;DI T[DH IFN SZFJJFGM ;DI ;[8 SZMP

;ZGFDFGM SMg8[S8 pD[ZJM VG[ contect lJS<5G[ S,LS SZJ]\

152

Task lJS<5G[ S,LS SZL Task :S|LG D[/JM H[DF\ 5;\N 50[ T[ lJQFI ;[8 SZL News
group lJS<5G[ S,LS SZM GLR[GL :S|LG HMJF D/X[P

153

154

!5 o DFlCTL 5|F{nMlUSLGF V858F XaNMsHFU"g;f HF6M o


!5P! DFlCTL 5|F{nMlUS s.gOZD[XG 8[SGM,MHLf VG[ H{J 5|F{nMlUSL
sAFIM8[SGM,MHLf
DFlCTL 5|F{nMlUSL
DFlCTL 5|F{nMlUSL sITfDF\ Sd%I]8Z lJ7FG VG[ 5|F{nMlUSLG[ VFU/ W5FJJFGL TDFD ;\A\lWT
AFATMGM l0hF.G4 lJSF;4 .g:8M,[XG VG[ DFlCTL 5wWlTVM T[DH V[%,LS[Xg;GF\ VD,LSZ6 ;FY[
;DFJ[X YFI K[P .gOZD[XG 8[SGM,MHL VFlS"8[SRZ V[ jI}CFtDS wI[IM 5|F%T SZJF VF.P8LPG[ D[/JJF
VG[ T[DF\ S|F\lT ,FJJF DF8[G]\ ;\Sl,T DF/B]\ K[P ,MHLS, Sd5MGg8;DF\ lDXG4 SFI"SFZL VG[ DFlCTL
H~lZIFTM l;:8D SgOLUZ[XG VG[ .gOZD[XG O,MGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P 8[SGLS, Sd5MGg8;DF\ ,MHLS,
VFlS"8[SRZGM VD, SZJF JF5ZJFDF\ VFJGFZ VF.P8LP:8Fg00"; VG[ lGIDMGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P
H{J 5|F{nMlUSL ov
AFIM 8[SGM,MHLDF\ .gOZD[XG 8[SGM,MHLGF p5IMUDF\ AFIM,MHLS, VG[ Sd%I]8Z J{7FlGSMGL
V;ZSZS ZLT[ ;\N[XFjIJCFZ SZJFGL V;DY"TFG[ SFZ6[ 50SFZ K[P VF.P8LPGM AFIM8[SGM,MHLDF\
p5IMU SZJFDF\ VG]EJTF 50SFZMGL lJUTM VF ,BF6 VF5[ K[P VG[ GJF ;\N[XF jIJCFZ ;]WFZJFGF
p5FI ;}RJ[ K[P

!5PZP .vUJG"g; s G2G,G2B,B2Bf4 l0lh8, l;uG[RZq ;l8"OLS[8


.vUJ"Gg; .g8ZG[8 5ZGL ;ZSFZL J[A;F.8YL S\.S lJX[QF K[P 5Z\T] CSLST[ T[ X]\ K[ VG[
GYLm .vUJ"Gg;GL 36L jIFbIFVM K[P S[8,LS VgI jIFbIFVM 56 J5ZFI K[P H[DF\ .vlAhG[;4
.v0[DMS|[;L VG[ .vUJ"D[g8GM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P
.vUJ"Gg; V[ JCLJ8DF\ .vlAhG[; K[P VG[ HGTF sGFUlZSM VG[ jIJ;FIMf GL .,[S8=MlGS
;[JF VF5JFG[ ,UTL 5|lS|IFVM VG[ A\WFZ6M4 jIJ;FIGF\ EFULNFZM ;FY[ ;CIMU T[DH ;\:YFSLI
EFUDF\ .,[S8=MGLS ,[J0N[J0GF ;\RF,GGM p<,[B SZ[ K[P
.,[S8=MGLSGM J5ZFX V[8,[ 4
s!f ;ZSFZ VG[ GFUlZSM JrR[ VFNFGv5|NFG T[DH ;ZSZ VG[ jIJ;FIM JrR[ VFNFG5|NFG T[DH
sZf ;ZSFZL VF\TlZS SFDSFH
H[YL ZFHJCLJ8GF\ ,MSXFCL4 ;ZSFZL VG[ SFDSFHGF\ 5F;FVMG[ ;Z/ SZL XSFI VG[ ;]WFZL
XSFI4
VF.P8LPVFWFlZT .vUJ"Gg; l;:8DDF\ D]bItJ[ DFlCTLGL ZRGF ;\U|C4 5'yYSZ64 JC[\R6L
VG[ p5IMUGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P T[ ;ZSFZGL GLlT v30TZ 5|lS|IFDF\ p5IMUL .g5]8 sp5IMUL AFATMf
5}ZL 5F0[ K[P T[ ;ZSFZL 5|lS|IFG[ HJFANFZ .vUJ"Gg; ;FWG AGFJ[ K[P VG[ T[YL ZMHAZMHGF\
JCLJ8L SFIM"GL H~lZIFTM 5}ZL 5F0JF p5ZF\T JW] ;FZL ZLT[ SFD SZJF VG[ JW] p\RF DC[;},L J'lwW
T[DH VMKF BR" DF8[ ;1FD AGFJ[ K[P GFUlZSM VMKF 5|ItGMYL D]ST ZLT[ H]NFvH]NF ;ZSFZL lJEFUM
;FY[ UD[ T[ ;DI[4 UD[ tIF\ VFNFG5|NFG SZL XS[ K[P
.PUJ"Gg;V[ GFUlZSM jIJ;FlIS EFULNFZM4 ;\:YFVM VG[ ;ZSFZL 5NFlWSFZLGF
,FE DF8[ ;ZSFZL ;[JFGF DFlCTL VG[ 5|NFG D[/JJFG]\ ;Z/ AGFJJF ICTs.gOZD[XG4 SMdI]lGS[XG
VG[ 8[l,SMdI]lGS[XGfGM p5IMU KP .vUJ"Gg;V[ CSLSTDF\ JCLJ8 DF\ DFlCTL 5|MnMlUSLGM p5IMU
155

GYL S[ T[GM VY" Sd%I]8;" VG[ V[;[;ZLhGM 5|;FZ YTM GYLP T[GF AN,[4 T[GM VY" 5|F{nMlUSL YSL
;]JCLJ8 ;]lGlzT SZJFGM K[P JW] VUtIG]\ V[ K[ S[4 .vUJ"Gg; V[ D}/E}T ZLT[ ZFHSLI lG6"I K[ H[
VlWSFZLVM VG[ SD"RFZLVMDF\ lX:T VG[ J,6GF\ 5lZJT"GGL VG[ lJXF/ ;ZSFZL 5|M;[;GF\ 5]Go U9G
(GPR ) GL lCDFIT SZ[ K[P
C/JL ZLT[ VF56[ .UJ"Gg;G[ c.G ,F.Gc YL cVMG,F.GcDF\ O[ZOFZ TZLS[ U6FJL
XSLV[ 5|{FnMlUSL V[ SMI0FGMGFGM EFU K[ T[GM VD, V[ RFJL K[P ;ZSFZM 5F;[ GJLG V[Hg0FGL H~Z
K[P IT V[Hg0FGL GlC\ N[BLTL ZLT[ H .vUJ"Gg;GM VFBZL C[T] U|FDL6 EFZTG[ OFINM 5CM\RF0JFGM
VG[ 0LhL8, 0LJF.0 sA[ HLJG X{,L JrR[GM IT V\U[GM TOFJT f G[ HM0JFGM K[P
G2G, G2B, VG[ B2B H[JF 8}\SF V1FZMGM VY" VG]S|D[ UJ"D[g8 8] UJ"gD[g8
s;ZSFZYL ;ZSFZ4 UJ"GD[g8 8] ALhG[;s;ZSFZYL JFl6HIf VG[ ALhG[; 8] ALhG[XsJFl6HIYL
JFl6HIf YFI K[P
ALHF TASSFDF\ H]NF H]NF J5ZFXDF\ ;ZSFZ VG[ HGTF JrR[ VFNFG 5|NFG sG2C,
VG[ G2Bf GM pN=EJ YFI K[ DF6;M .D[., DFZOT[ 5|xGM 5]KL XS[ K[ ;R" V[gHLG JF5ZL XS[ K[ VG[
OMD"; T[DH 0MSI]D[g8; 0FpG,M0 SZL XS[ K[ VFGFYL ;DIGM ARFJ YFI K[P CSLSTDF\ NZZMH RMJL;[
S,FS V[%,LS[Xg;GM ;\5]6" p5IMUs;Z/f SZL XSFIP ;FDFgI ZLT[ VF SFpg8Z BFT[ XZ]VFTGF\
S,FSDF\ Y. XS[ K[P VF\l+S ZLT[ ;ZSFZL ;\:YFVM s G2B f LAN .g8=FG[8 VG[ .D[.,GL DNNYL
;\N[XF VG[ 0[8FGL VF5,[ SZ[ K[P

0LhL8, ;LuG[RZ
0LhL8, ;LuG[RZ V[ SFU/ 5ZGL ;CL H[J]\ H K[ 5Z\T] T[ .,[S8=MGLS; K[ 0LhL8,
;LuG[RZGL GS, Y. XSTL GYL 0LhL8, ;LuG[RZ D[/JGFZG[ BZF. SZFJ[ K[ H[ jIlSTV[ OF., DMS,L
K[ tIF\YL H D/L K[P VG[ T[DF\ ;CL SIF" 5KL T[DF\ O[ZOFZ SZJFDF\ VFJ[, GYLP
0LhL8, ;LuG[RZ V[ ,[lBT ;CL SZTF\ .,[S8=MGLS ;CL K[ H[GM p5IMU ;\N[XM
DMS,GFZGL VYJF 0MSI]D[g8GL ;CL SZGFZGL VM/B 5|DFl6T SZJF SM. wJFZF YFI K[P DMS,JFDF\
VFJTF\ ;\N[XF VYJF 0MSI]D[g8G]\ V;, ,BF6 AN,FIF JUZG]\ K[ T[ ;]lGlzT SZJF 56 JF5ZL XSFI
K[P
0LhL8, ;l8"lOS[8 ov
0LhL8, ;l8"lOS[8 V[ HFC[Z SL 5|DF65+ sVYJF VM/B 5|DF65+f K[ H[ HFC[Z SLG[
VM/B ;FY[ V[S+ SZ[ K[P H[D S[ jIlSTG]\ VYJF ;\:YFG]\ GFD T[GF\ ;ZGFDF VG[ VFJ]\ S\.S VF ;l8"lOS[8
HFC[Z SL SM. jIlSTGL K[ T[GL BZF. SZJF JF5ZL XSFI K[P jIlST VYJF ;\:YFGL VM/BGL BZF.
SZJFGL .,[S8=MGLS 5wWlTG[ ;FDFgI ZLT[ 0LhL8, ;LuG[RZ SC[ K[ VF ;l8"lOS[8 .g8ZG[8 5ZGF\
jIJCFZDF\ GS, BMZL lGJFZJF VYJF BM8L VM/B lGJFZJF l0hF.G SZ[, K[P

156

!5P # HFC[Z :J~5 [ sJ[A ;lJ";f4 lSIM:S f ov


I]hZ .g8ZO[.;4 5|M8MSM,4 API VG[ ABI I]hZ VG[ SMd%I]8Z JrR[ VFNFG 5|NFGGL
l0hF.GG[ cc I]hZ .g8ZO[.; cc SC[ K[P SdI]lGS[XG l;:8D VYJF G[8JS"GF\ Sd5MGg8; s38SMf JrR[GF\
lGIDM OMD["8 VG[ SFIM"G[ cc 5|M8MSM,cc SC[JFI K[P 5|MU|FDDF\ ZMHL\NF VFNFG 5|NFG JrR[GL EFQFF VG[
;\N[XFGF\ VYJF ;MO8J[Z Sd5MGg8; JrR[GF\ OMD["8G[ cc V[%,LS[XG 5|MU|FDL\U .g8ZO[.; cc sAPIf
SC[JFI K[P SM. lJlXQ8 DXLG JFTFJZ6DF\ SFD SZTL VM5Z[8L\U l;:8D DF8[GF\ lGlN"Q8 l;wWF\TMG[
ccV[%,LS[XG AFIGZL .g8ZO[.;cc sABIf TZLS[ VM/BFI K[ 5Z\T] VF XaN jIF5S 56[ JF5ZJFDF\
VFJTM GYLP
p5ZMST TDFD VFNFG 5|NFGG[ .g8Z O[.; SC[JFI K[ T[G[ X]\ SC[JFI K[ T[G[ wIFGDF\ ,LWF l;JFI
T[ TDFD lGIDM 30[ K[ H[G[ 0LhL8, lJ`JDF\ RMSS; 56[ VG];ZJFGF\ ZC[X[P

II

I]hZ .g8ZO[.;
I]hZ Sd%I]8Z ;FY[ SDFg0;4 D[G] VG[ A8GYL
;\N[XF jIJCFZ SZ[ K[P

V[%,LS[XG

V[%,LS[XG 5|MU|FDL\U .g8Z O[.;


V[%,LS[XG VM5Z[8L\U

157

VM5Z[8L\U
;L:8D

l;:8D ;FY[ API J0[ ;\N[XF jIJCFZ SZ[ K[ H[ T[DGL JrR[ 5;FZ SZJFDF\ VFJTF\ 5[ZF DL8Z
GSSL SZ[ K[P
VM5Z[8L\U
;L:8D
V[%,LS[XG AFIGZL .g8ZO[.;
V[%,LS[XG
V[%,LS[XG Sd%I]8Z ;FY[ VM5Z[8L\U l;:8D V[5LVF.
DXLGGL
VG[ T[ H[ Sd%I]8ZDF\ RF,[ K[ T[ DXLGGL EFQFFDF\ ;\N[XFGL VF5,[
EFQFF
SZ[ K[P VM5Z[8L\U l;:8D VG[ DXLGG]\ ;\I]ST HM0F6 ABI K[P
.D[.,4 O[S;4
S,FIg8q
"Z

.D[.,4 O[S;4
S,FIg8q ;J"Z4

5|M8MSM,

V[%,LS[XGg; 5|M8MSM, JF5ZLG[ G[8JS"DF\HM0FI K[ G[8JS"G]\ ;MO8J[Z JWFZFGF\ 5|M8MSM, JF5Z[


K[ H[ Sdi]lGS[XG .g8ZO[.; AGFJ[ K[ sH]VM OSI DM0[, f

J[A ;lJ";L; J[A VFWFlZT V[%,LS[XGg; XML, UDDL, VG[ SDAP ;lCTGF\ VM5G :8Fg00"
JF5ZLG[ VgI J[A V[l%,S[XG ;FY[ VFNFG 5|NFG SZ[ K[P VFJL V[%,LS[XGg; 5Z\5ZFUTZLT[ 5FzFtI
E}lDSFDF\ RF,[ K[ VG[ V[S 5|MU|FD ALHF 5|MU|FD ;FY[ ;\N[XF jIJCFZ SZ[ K[P s;J"Z 8] ;J"Zf
DF.S|M;MO8G]\ Pnet VG[ ;GG]\ SUNONE ( J2EE) D]BI 0[J,5D[g8 %,[8OMD"; K[ H[ D}/E}T ZLT[
VF :8Fg00"G[ ;5M8" SZ[ K[P

158

J[A ;lJ";Lh
I]P 0LP 0LP VF.P
s 0L :S J ZL f
W S D L
s J6"G f
S O A P
ZLDM8 ;lJ"; SM,
H T T P
( Transport Application Protocol)

C
P/
I P
(Transport Protocol)

J[A ;lJ"; V[ V[%,LS[Xg; VYJF l;:8D JrR[ 0[8FGL C[ZO[Z SZJF DF8[GF\ 5|M8MSM, VG[
:8Fg00";GM ;\U|C K[ H]NL H]NL 5|MU|FDL\U EFQFDF\ ,BJFDF\ VFJ[, ;MO8J[Z V[%,LS[XGg; S[ H[
H]NF H]NF %,[8OMD" 5Z RF,[ K[ J[A ;lJ";LhGM p5IMU SZLG[.g8ZG[8 H[JF SMd%I]8Z G[8JS"; 5Z
0[8FG]\ VFNFG 5|NFG V[S H Sd%I]8Z 5Z V[S ALHL 5|M;[; JrR[GF\ ;\N[XF jIJCF ;DFG ZLT[ SZ[K[P

SLIM:S ov
gI]h :8[g0; VYJF 8LSL8A]Y H[8,]\ GFG]\ VF5 D[/[ pE[, DF/B]\ K[ ;TT D<8LlD0LIF SLVM:S
Sd%I]8Z :S|LG DFZOT[ HFC[Z DFlCTL 5]ZL 5F0[ K[P V\NZ DFlCTL VF5JF s.G5]8f DF8[ SL AM0"
8R :S|LG VYJF A\G[ JF5ZJDF\ VFJ[ K[P

159

OM8M lSIM:S B]A ,MSl5|I AgIF K[ H[ NZ[S HuIFV[ XM5L\U DM, VG[ :Y/[ pEF Y. ZCIF K[
SLIM:S 5Z DFp;GL HuIFV[ 8R :SLG JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P SFZ6 S[ JW] h05 VG[ VMKL D]xS[,L
JF/M .g8ZO[. ; 5]ZM 5F0[ K[P

!5P$P SdI]lGS[XG l,\S s0FI, V5 4 ,Lh0 ,F.G4 JFIZ,[;4 VSAT


T[ V[S :Y/[YL ALHF :Y/[ DFlCTLGL .,[S8=MGLS C[ZO[Z K[P 0[8F SdiF]lGS[Xg; VYJF cc 0[8F SMD cc 0LhL8,
8=Fg;DLXGGM p<,[B SZ[K[ VG[ 8[l,SMdI]lGS[XG VYJF 8[,LSMD JM.; VG[ V[G[,MU T[DH 0LhL8, A\G[
0[8FGF\ lDz6GM p<,[B SZ[ K[ G[8JSL"\U V[8,[ LAN VG[ WAN P
cc SdI]lGS[XG;cc XaN ;FDFgI ZLT[ 8[l,SMD ;\A\lW PBX, DM0[D SM, ;[g8Z VG[ T[GF H[JF
8[l,SMDG[ ,UTF lJQFIMG[ ,UTM K[ VFDKTF\ VF XaN V[S D}/ V\U|[HL XaN K[ H[ J6"FtDS ZLT[ VG[,MU
lJ~wW 0LhL8, SMdI]lGS[XG C[0,F.GDF\ J5ZFI K[P VFD cc SdI]lGS[Xg; cc BF; SZLG[ S[8,FS
lS:;FVMDF\ VG[ JW] ;FDFgI ZLT[ VgIDF\ J5ZFI K[P
SdI]lGS[Xg;DF\ ,F.G4 R[G, VYJF ;lS"8 5Z 0[8FG]\ JCG SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P V[0=[; V[8,[ J[A
;J"Z 5Z J[A 5[H VYJF VgI OF., s .D[H4 lJ0LIM4 PDF OF., JU[Z[ f J[A 5[HL; .D[.,
;\N[XFVM4 J0" 5|M;[;L\U 0MSI]D[g8; T[DH CF.5Z 8[1F8 VG[ URL V[0=[;L\UG[ ;5M8" SZTF\ VgI SM.56
0MSI]D[g8DF\ ,L\S CMI K[P
0[8F D[G[HD[g8DF\ ,LS Z[S0"DF\ V[dA[0[0 5M.g8Z H[ 0[8F VYJF VgI Z[S0"DF\ 0[8FGF\ :YFGG[
H6FJ[K[P 5|MU|FDL\UDF\ VgI 5|MU|FD VYJF UF{6 5|MU|FDG[ SM, SZJFG[ l,\S SC[ K[P
0FI,vV5 ov
0FI,vV5 8[l,OMG G[8JS"DF\ JF5ZJFDF\ VFJTL ,F.G H[JL A[ JFIZGL ,F.G 0FI,
V5 l,h0 ,F.GYL lJ~wW K[P

,Lh0 ,F.G ov
SMDG S[lZIZYL EF0[ ,LW[, BFGUL ;\N[XjIJCFZGL R[G, V[ ,Lh0 ,F.G K[P DM8FEFUGL
l0hL8, ,F.GDF\ RFZ JFIZ sA[ HM0f O], v0]5,[1F 8=Fg;lDXG DF8[ CMI K[P l,h0 ,F.G V[ ;FDFgI
ZLT[ ;LD[l8=S 8[,LSMdI]lGS[XG ,F.G K[ H[ A[ :Y/MG[ V[S;FY[ HM0[ K[P 5Z\5ZFUT PSTN YL lJ5ZLT
,Lh0 ,F.GG[ 8[,LOMG G\AZ CMTM GYLP ,F.GGL NZ[S AFH] SFIDL ZLT[ ALHFG[ HM0FI[, CMI K[P T[
8[,LOMG4 0[8F VYJF .g8ZG[8 ;[JFVM DF8[ JF5ZL XSFI K[P
JFIZ,[; CJFGF\DMHF DFZOT[ Z[l08M swJlGfG]\ JCG SZJFG[ JFIZ,[; SC[ K[P
JFIZ,[; JFIZ JUZGF\ JCG DF8[G]\ D}/E}T OMD" K[P H[DF\ AM VG[ FM Z[l0IM 4
8LJL4;[,OMG4 5M8["A, OMG VG[ JF5Z,[; LAN GM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P JFIZ,[; JCG DF8[ S[8,LS
5wWlTVMGM p5IMU YFI K[ H[DF\ ;F.8GL .gO|FZ[0 ,F.G4 ;[<I],Z4 DF.S|MJ[J4 ;[8[,F.84 5[S[8 Z[l0IM
VG[ :5|[0 :5|[S8DGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P ;[<I],Z HGZ[Xg;4 JFIZ,[; u,M;ZL4 JFIZ,[; LAN,
CMRS, PCS, FDMA, TDMA, CDMA VG[ CDPD 56 ;DHMP VFW]lGS ;\NE"DF\ VF
160

XaNMGM VY" S[A, VYJF NMZ0F JUZ ;\N[XF jIJCFZ YFI K[ H[DF\ D]bItJ[ Z[l0IMO|LSJg;L VG[ .gO|FZ[0
J[jh JF5ZJFGM p<,[B K[P ;FDFgI J5ZFXDF\ IRDA VG[ Sd%I]8;GF\ JFIZ,[; G[8JSL"\UDF\
jIFbIFlIT H]NF H]NF ;\N[XF jIJCFZGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P

VSAT ( very small Aperture satellite Terminal)


;[8[,F.8 8=Fg;lDXG DF8[G]\ GFG]\ VY" :8[XG H[ 5& lS,M,F.8 5|lT ;[Sg0GF\ l0lh8, 8=Fg;lDXG
SZL XS[ K[P VSAT S[ H[ T1 0[8F Z[.8 s!P5$$ D[UFAF.8; 5|lT ;[Sg0fG[ HF/J[ K[ T[G[ ccTSATSC[
K[P
!5P5P GSWAN s VC SG[lS8lJ8L4 A[g0lJ0Y4 :JLR4 CA4 ~8Z4 lA|H f
GSWAN
U]HZFT ZFHIG[ ;F{YL lJXF/ NlZIFlSGFZM K[ VG[ JFJFhM0F q 5}Z VG[ WZTLS\5 H[JL VFOTM
JFZ\JFZ VF ZFHIDF\ +F8S[ K[P ZFHI ;ZSFZ[ JCLJ8L T\+GL JM.; sVJFHf4 lJ0LIMsN'xIf VG[ 0[8F
sDFlCTLf ;\A\WL VF\TlZS VG[ AFCI ;\N[XFjIJCFZGL H~lZIFTMG[ 5CM\RL J/JF VnTG U]HZFT :8[8
JF.0 V[lZIF G[8JS" s GSWAN fG]\ VFIMHG VG[ VD, SZ[ K[P

GSWAN;lRJF,I4 UF\WLGUZ BFT[ S[lgN=T :8FZ 8M5M,MHLDF\ SFD SZJF VFIMlHT YI[, K[
H[GF VFd;" TDFD lH<,FVM ;]WL 5CM\R[ K[ H[GL JW] 5CM\R slH<,F D]bI DYS :TZf VF0L VG[ pEL
GLR[GF :TZ ;]WL lJ:TZ[ K[ VG[ lH<,F :TZGL VG[S VgI SR[ZLVM T[DH TF,]SFVMG[ ZFHI JF.0
V[lZIF G[8JS" ;FY[ HM0[ K[P GSWAN YL EF{lTS ZLT[ G HM0FI[, SR[ZLVM VG[ I]lG8G[ GSWAN
;C[,F.YL D/[ T[ DF8[ TDFD lH<,F DYSMV[ 5IF"%T 0FI,vV5 ;J,TMGL HMUJF. SZJFDF\ VFJL CTLP
GSWAN A[ TASSFVMDF\ VD,L SZJFG]\ VFIMHG CT] H[DF\YL TASSM v! lH<,F :TZGF\ G[8JSG[
VFJZL ,[JFGM K[ VG[ ;\5]6" G[8JS"G[ VFJZL ,[JFGM K[P

161

GSWAN DF8[ 5;\N YI[, 8[SGM,MHL IP CTL VG[ TDFD ;[JFVM V[8,[ S[ lJ0LIM SMgOZg;L\U4
JM.; s8[,LOMGLf VG[ 0[8F ;[JFVM IP VFWFlZT CTLP
X~VFTDF\ VFIMHG SIF" D]HA TDFD lH<,F D]bIDYSMG[ (2)MBPS ,Lh0 ;lS"8YL VG[ TDFD
TF,]SFVMG[ TC lH<,F D]bIDYS sDCf ;FY[ BSNL 5F;[YL ,LW[, 64KBPS ,Lh0 ;lS"8YL
HM0JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P CISCO 7513 V[ ;lRJF,I BFT[G]\ ;[g8=, ~8Z K[ HIFZ[ lH<,F VG[ TF,]SF
:TZ[ VG]S|D[ CISCO 3661 VG[ CISCO 1751 ~8Z ,UFJ[, K[P NZ[S lH<,F D]bIDYS[
VMKFDF\ VMKL Z_ VgI SR[ZLVM K[ S[ H[ BSNL 5F;[YL ,LW[, BF,L SM5Z DFZOT[ lH<,F JF.0
V[lZIF GM0 ;FY[ HM0F6 YJFDF\ K[P NZ[S lH<,F D]bI DYSG[ PSTN DF\YL D[/J[, !_ 8[,LOMG
sOST ZL;LJf ,F.G K[P 0FI, V5 ;[JFVM DF8[ CISCO 3661G[ R,FJ[ K[P AW]\ D/LG[ ZFHIDF\
Z5_ 0FI,vV5 5M8" K[P H[ I]lG8qSR[ZLqjIlSTVMG[ OST :YFlGS SM, SZLG[ ZFHI EZDF\YL
GSWAN ;FY[ HM0FJJFDF\ ;1FD AGFJ[ K[P
JF.0 V[lZIF G[8JS" CISCO 3540-IP VFWFlZT lJ0LIM D<8L SMgOZg; I]lG8 JF5Z[ K[P H[
V[S JW] VWTG B}A VFW]lGS D<8L SMgOZg; ;lJ"; O[;L,L8L K[P
SCAN
GSWAN VgI ;ZSFZL DFlCTL 5|MWF{lUS VF\TZDF/BF ;FY[G]\ HM0F6 B}A H
RMSS;F.YL VD,L AGFJJFDF\ VFjI]\ K[P ;lRJF,I S[d5; V[lZIF G[8JS" sSCANf ULUFAL8 OFC
A[SAMG 5Z SFD SZ[ K[P H[ H]GF VG[ GJF ;lRJF,IGF TDFD DSFGMqa,MSG[ T[DH ;lRJF,I S[d5;
162

ACFZGF VgI ;ZSFZL DSFGMG[ V[SALHF ;FY[ HM0[ K[P H[DF\ ;[S8Zv)4 !) VG[ Z_ ;ZSFZL
ZC[6F\SGF lJ:TFZMGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P A[\SAMGGF VF0F sV[SALHF DSFGM ;FY[f T[DH pEF sV[S
DSFGDDF\ Hf EFU DF8[ ,UEU *5 lSPDLP OFC sl;\U, DM0 VG[ D<8L DM0f sVM%8LS,
OF.AZ S[A,f JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[, K[P Cat-5 :8=SRZJF/F S[A,L\UYL I]hZGF EFU[ V[S;[; D/[ K[P
I/O0[8F 5M8"G[ ;J,T SZTF ,UEU &__ lSPDLPGF\ Cat-5S[A, JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[, K[P
H~lZIFTGF WMZ6[ I/O G[ ;lS|I SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P VG[ CF,DF\ SCANDF\ I/O!5__
sSd%I]8;"f SFD SZL ZC[, K[ H[GL H~lZIFT VG[ TSlGSL WFZFWMZ6G[ wIFGDF\ ZFBLG[ VLAN
SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P ;lRJF,IDF\ TDFD lJEFUMG[ T[DF\ ;F\S/L ,[JFDF\ VFJ[, K[ VG[ T[ .g8ZG[8 A[g0
lJ0Y T[DH VgI 0[8FA[.h ;[JFVM H[JF ;FDFgI ;FWGMG[ JC[\RLG[ LAN;[JFVM JF5ZL ZCIF\ K[P
SCAN ;FY[ GSWANG[ OST LAN YL HM0LG[ ;F\S/L ,[JFI[, K[P
TDFZ]\ I]hZG[.D VG[ 5F;J0" VF5L TD[ lJUTJFZ V[SFpg8 HM. XSF[ KMPslR+vZ_(f

SG[lS8lJ8L sHM0F6f
SG[lS8lJ8L sA[g0lJ0Yf GL H~lZIFTM H]NFvH]NF G[8JS" GMS JrR[ V\NFlHT 8=FlOSGF\ VFWFZ[
GSSL SZJFDF\ VFJL CTLP 5|MH[S8GF :5[XLlOS[XG slJlXQ8 lJUTMf DF\ A[g0JL0Y H~lZIFTM4
0FI,vV5 SG[SXG4 VSAT l,\S WANG[ DMAL,L8L OLRZ VF5JF VG[ H~Z 50[ tIFZ[ 5CM\RL G
XSFI T[JF :Y/G[ VFJZL ,[JFf GM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P ;DIAwW WMZ6[ H]NLvH]NL :+MT H~lZIFTMG[
5CM\RL J/JF ;A:S|F.AZ VG[ J'lwWGL 5wWlTG]\ 5|YSZ6 SZJFDF\ VFjI]\ CT]\P .g8ZG[8 A[g0lJ0Y4
.D[., ;[JF4 J[A CM:8L\U ;FWGM4 DBM ;FWGM JU[Z[GL VFSFZ6L .vUJG"g; C[T]VMG[ wIFGDF\
ZFBLG[ SZJFDF\ VFJL CTLP SM.56 ;DI[ ;DU| lJ`JDF\ BF; SZLG[ DFlCTLGF 5|;FZ DF8[ ;D}C
;\N[XFjIJCFZ DF8[ J[A;F.8 B}A H V;ZSFZS DFwID H6FI]\ K[PV[J]\ lJRFZJFDF\ VFjI]\ S[ NZ[S
lJEFUGL DFlCTLGM 5|;FZ HGTF ;]WL VG[ T[GFYL p,8F C[T] DF8[ SZJF NZ[S lJEFUG[ 5MTFGL J[A;F.8
CX[P JF.0 V[lZIF G[8JS" :+MTGL l0hF.GDF\ .g8=F4 V[S:8=F VG[ G[8JS" JrR[GL H~lZIFTMGM ;DFJ[X
YFI K[P

A[g0lJ0Y
Sd5|[:S VG[ 5[S[8F.h0 VJFHG[ IP VG[ RTP C[0Z pD[ZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P IP C[0ZDF\ ,1I
IPV[0=[; ZLDM8 ~8Z K[P VFGFYL SM, NL9 A[g0lJ0Y ,UEU !Z KBPSYFI K[P
GSWANDF\ TDM :J;RL\U 8[SGM,MHL JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[, K[P

l:JR
G[8JS" :JLR V[ GFGL CF0"J[Z l0JF.; K[ H[ VG[S Sd%I]8;"G[ V[S :YFlGS lJ:TFZ G[8JS"s
LANf DF\ HM0[ K[P TSGLSL ZLT[ G[8JS"GL :JLR OSI DM0[,GF ALHF ,[IZ s 0[8F l,\S ,[IZf5Z RF,[
K[P
G[8JS" :JLR G[8JS" CAYL B}A ;DFG K[ 5Z\T] :JLR ;FDFgI ZLT[ CAYL JW]\ .g8[,LHg; sVG[
JW] lS\DTLf WZFJ[ K[P CAYL lJ5ZLT G[8JS" :JLR4 0[8F 5[S[8 D/[ S[ T[G]\ lGZL1F6 SZJF4 T[ 5[S[8GF ;M;"
VG[ 0[:8LG[XG l0JF.;G[ GSSL SZJF T[DH T[G[ IMuI ZLT[ VFU/ W5FJJF ;1FD CMI K[P G[8JS" :JLR
163

T[G[ HM0[, l0JF.; DF8[ H NZ[S ;\N[XM OST T[G[ H G[8JS" A[g0lJ0Y ;FRJ[ K[ VG[ CA SZTF\ ;FDFgI
ZLT[ JW] ;FZ]\ 5ZOMDg; VF5[ K[P
CAGL H[D G[8JS"GL :JLRG]\ .YZG[8 VD,LSZ6 B}A H ;FDFgI K[P D[.G:8=LD .YZG[8 :JLRM
10 MBPS, 100 MBPSVYJF 10/100 MBPS .YZG[8 :8Fg00";G[ ;5M8" SZ[ K[P
G[8JS" :JLRGF H]NFvH]NF DM0, H]NLvH]NL ;\bIFDF\ HM0FI[, l0JF.;L;G[ ;5M8" SZ[ K[P
DM8FEFUGL Sg:I]DZvU|[0 G[8JS" :JLRMqRFZ VYJF VF9 VFJL c0[hL R[.GL\Uc jIF5S V[S H LAN
lJXF/ ;\bIFDF\ l0JF.;G[ HM0[ K[P

CA
GSWAN DF8[ S<5GF VG[ l0hF.G SZ[, G[8JS" 8M5M,MHL Y|L 8LIZ CAvV[g0v:YMS l0hF.G
lO,M;MOL 5Z VFWFlZT CTLP
O:8" 8LVZ ;[S|[8[ZLI[8 ;[g8Z ZFHIGL ZFHWFGL UF\WLGUZ BFT[ HIF\YL ZFHIDF\ ;ZSFZGL ;F{YL
JWFZ[ SR[ZLVMG]\ ;\RF,G YFI K[P
;[Sg0 8LVZ T[DF\ l0:8=LS8 ;[g8;" VYJF DC GM ;DFJ[X YFI K[ H[ lH<,F S,[S8ZGL SR[ZL
BFT[ VFJ[, K[ VG[ VF0L ZLT[ DC ;FY[ HM0FI[, VG[S lH<,F :TZGL SR[ZLVM ;FY[ HM0FI[, K[P
Y0" 8LVZo T[DF\ TF,]SF ;[g8Z;" VYJF TC GM ;DFJ[X YFI K[ H[ TF,]SF DFD,TNFZGL SR[ZL
VG[ TC ;FY[ VF0L ZLT[ HM0FI[,M S[8,LS TF,]SF S1FFGL SR[ZLVMGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P

~8Z
NZ[S :8[XGDF\ VWTG CISCO ~8Z K[ H[ ,Lh0 ,F.G 5Z SFI" SZ[ K[P VF ~8;" G[8JS"DF\ IP
5[S[8;G[ DFU" VF5[ K[ VG[ SJMl,8L VMO ;lJ"; (AOS) lORZ 5}ZL 5F0[ K[ H[ JM.;4 lJ0LIM VG[
0[8FGM V[S H G[8JS" DF/BFDF\ ;\UD sSgJZHg;f SZJF H~ZL K[P
5|YD VG[ lN|TLI 8LIZDF\ ,LgS;G[ GLR[GF 8LIZDF\ VFU/ W5FJJF R[G,JF/F .g8ZO[.;GM
p5IMU YFI K[P SC BFT[G]\ CISCO 75/34lH<,F S[gN=MDF\YL E1
l,gS;G[ VFU/ W5FJJF
R[G,F.h0 E3 .g8ZO[.;GM p5IMU SZ[ K[ HIFZ[ DC BFT[GF CISCO 3662 TF,]SF S[gN=M BFT[YL
64 KBPS l,\S;G[ VFU/ W5FJJF R[G,JF/F E1.g8ZO[.;GM p5IMU SZ[ K[P

lA|H
lA|H l0JF.; G[8JS" AFpg0ZL BFT[ 0[8FGF 8=FlOSG[ lO<8Z SZ[ K[P lA|H 8=FlOSG[ A[ EFUDF\
JC[\RLG[ LAN5ZGF 8=FlOSG[ 38F0[ K[P
lA|H4 OSI DM0[,GF 0[8F l,\S ,[IZ sA[8FZZf BFT[ SFI" SZ[ K[P lA|H VFJL ZC[, 8=FlOSG]\
lGZL1F6 SZ[ K[ VG[ T[G[ VFU/ W5FJJM S[ N}Z SZJM T[ GSSL SZ[ K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[4 .YZG[8 lA|H
.YZG[8GL NZ[S O|[D S[ H[DF\ ;M;" VG[ 0[:8LG[XG MSC ;ZGFDF VG[ 36LJFZ O|[.D ;F.hGM ;DFJ[X
YFI K[P T[G[ VFU/ W5FJJFGF lG6"I ,[JFDF\ lGZL1F6 SZ[ K[P
lA|H l:JR H[J]\ H SFI" SZ[ K[ T[ 56 ,[IZZ 5Z SFI" SZ[ K[P HMS[ 5Z\5ZFUT lA|H V[S G[8JS"
AFpg0ZLG[ ;5M8" SZ[ K[ HIFZ[ :JLR ;FDFgI ZLT[ RFZ VYJF JW] CF0"J[Z 5M8" VF5[ K[P :JLRG[ 36LJFZ
cD<8Lv5M8" lA|Hc VF SFZ6YL H SC[JFI K[P

164

!5P& WWWsH]VM D]N=M !ZPZf4 VPN4A|FphZ sH]VM D]N=M !ZP#f ;R"


V[lgHG sH]VM D]N=M !ZP5f4 U[8J[P

.g8ZG[8GL ,MSl5|ITF JWL ZCL K[ T[YL jIJ;FIM T[DGF 5MTFGF G[8JS"G[ lJ:TFZJFGF ;FWGDF\
T[G[ O[ZJL ZCIF K[P 5|YD .g8=FG[8 VFJL H[ OST S\5GLGF SD"RFZLVMGF J5ZFX DF8[GL 5F;J0"YL Zl1JL
l0hF.G SZ[, ;F.8 K[ CJ[4 36L S\5GLVM T[GF 5MTFGF VPN sJrI]"V, 5|F.J[8 G[8JS"f :YFIL ZCIF\ K[
H[YL N}ZGF SD"RFZLVM VG[ SR[ZLVMGL H~lZIFTMG[ 5CM\RL XS[P s lR+ vZ_) f 5Z\5ZFUT VPN GL
D]bI LAN S\5GLGL D]bIDYS[ CMI K[ VgI LAN N}ZGL SR[ZLVMDF\ CMI K[ VG[ ACFZYL HM0F6
SZTF jIlSTUT I]h;" CMI K[P
D}/E}T ZLT[ VPN V[ BFGUL G[8JS" K[ H[ N]ZGL ;F.8; VYJF I]h";G[ V[S ;FY[ HM0JF
BFGUL G[8JS" s;FDFgI ZLT[ .g8ZG[8f GM p5IMU SZ[K[P ;Dl5"T JF:TlJS HM0F6 H[D S[ ,Lh0 ,F.G[G[
JF5ZJFG[ AN,[ VPN S\5GLGF\ G[8JS"DF\YL SD"RFZLGF\ N}ZGF\ :Y/[ .g8ZG[8YL HM0FTF JrI]"V, HM0F6M
JF5Z[ K[P VF OSZFDF\ TDG[ VPN GL D}/E}T ;DH6 VG[ D}/E}T VPN S\5MGg8;4 8[SGM,MHL4
8lG",L\U VG[ l;SIMZL8L lJX[ lXBJF D/X[P
U[8 J[ ov
G[8JS" 5ZGM V[S GM0 sHM0F6f H[ VgI G[8JS"GF\ 5|JX
[ wJFZ TZLS[ SFD SZ[ K[P pnMU ;FC;MDF\
U[8J[ V[S Sd%I]8Z K[P H[ JS"; :8[XGYL ACFZGF\ G[8JS" ;]WLGF\ sJ[A5[HL;f 8=FlOSG[ DFU" NXF"J[ K[ 3ZMDF\
U[8 J[ V[S ISP CMI K[P H[ I]hZG[ .g8ZG[8 ;FY[ HM0[ K[P
pnMU ;FC;MDF\ U[8 J[ GM0 36L JFZ 5|MS;L ;J"Z VG[ OFIZ JM, TZLS[ JT[" K[P U[8 J[ C[0ZG[
JF5ZTF\ VG[ 5[S[8; SIF\ DMS,JFGF\ K[ T[ GSSL SZJFGF\ OMZJ0L"U 8[A, JF5ZTF\ ~8Z VG[ U[8 J[ V\NZ
VG[ ACFZ BZ[BZ DFU" VF5TL :JLR A\G[GL ;FY[ ;\S/FI[,L CMI K[P

165

!5P* J[A;F.8 s:8[8LS VG[ 0FIG[DLSf4 J[A OMg; VG[ 0FIG[DLS OMg8;4 J[A
5M8", ov
J[A;F.8 V[ HTML ,[\UJ[HDF\ ,B[, N:TFJ[HMGM ;D]C K[P HIFZ[ I]hZ J[A;F.8G[
A|FphZDF\ H]V[ K[ sV[8,[ S[ .g8ZG[8 V[S;%,MZZ4 G[8 :S[5f tIFZ[ A|FphZ T[DF\ HTML DF\ ZH] YI[,L
;]RGFVMG[ VG];Z[ K[ VG[ J[A;F.8G[ VD]S ZLT[ NXF"J[ K[P
A[ 5|SFZGL J[A;F.8 CMI K[P s!f H[ V[S H 0MSI]D[g8; s:8[8LSDF\f TDFD 5[HL;G[ ;\U|C SZ[ K[P
VG[ V[S V[ H[ lJQFI J:T]GM ;\U|C SZJF 0[8FA[.hGM p5IMU SZ[ K[P
:8[8LS J[A ;F.8 ov
HM I]hZ :8[8LS J[A;F.8 OZL ,M0 SZ[ TM NZ[S ;DI[ T[G[ V[S H lJQFI J:T] HMJF D/X[P V[S
,[BS wJFZF T[GF\ lJQFI J:T]G[ ,BFI[, CMI K[P VG[ HIFZ[ I]hZ ;F.8GL D],FSFT ,[ K[ tIFZ[ T[ SM0
A|FphZDF\ 0FpG,M0 YFI K[ VG[ T[G]\ VY"38G SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
0FIG[DLS J[A;F.8 ov
:8[8LS J[A;F.8YL lJ5ZLT 0FIG[DLS J[A;F.8 V[JL J[A ;F.8 K[ H[G]\ lJQFI J:T] SM. I]hZ
;F.8GL D],FSFT ,[ VYJF OZL ,M0 SZ[ tIFZ[ 5]Go D/[ K[P GJF A|FphZ lJg0MG[ BM,JF VCL\ S,LS SZM
SZJFYL 0FIG[DLS 5[.H TDG[ SIFZ[ HMJFGM 5|IF; YIM CTM T[ ;[Sg0 56 NXF"JX[P HM TD[
RELOADA8G VD]S JBT NAFJXM TM ;DI AN,FX[ T[ TD[ HM. XSXMP

J[AOMg8; ov
TDFZL ;F.8 D],FSFTLVMG[ H[ KF5 VF5[ K[P T[GF\ 5Z J[AOMg8;GL B]A VEFG V;Z CMI K[ X]\
T[ VF{5RFlZS S[ ;FDFgI K[ m X]\ T[ VFW]lGS S[ 5Z\5ZFUT K[ m U\ELZ VYJF lD+TF 5]6K[ m UZD S[
9\0] K[ m VF ,FU6LVM TZT H jIST SZL XSFI K[P TDFZL ;F.8 5Z JF5Z[,F J[AOMg8;G[ TDFZF
D],FSFTL SNFR SIFZ[ ;EFG56[ GM\WX[ GCL\P
TD[ TDFZF Sd%I]8Z 5Z .g:8M, YI[,F SM.56 OMg8G[ ;]RJL XSM KMP 5Z\T] TD[ HM :8Fg00"
OMg8; JF5ZXM TM T[ NZ[S[ T[DGF\ Sd%I]8ZDF\ .g:8M, SZ[,F CX[ VG[ T[GF\YL HMGFZG[ NXF"JJF CX[ T[JF
OMg8 T[ HM. XSX[ GCL\P

D}/E}T c ;,FDT c J[A OMg8; ov


TIMES NEW ROMAN V[ lJg0Mh SERIES OMg8 K[ H[ TD[ JT"DFG5+ S[ D[U[hLGDF\
HMJM KM T[JF OMg8 K[P T[ BF; SZLG[ :S|LG 5Z ;C[,F.YL JF\RJF DF8[ K[P 5Z\T] DF.S|M;MO8GF\ O|L OMg8
GEORGIA V[ :SLG DF8[ JWFZ[ ;FZ] 8F.5 O[; K[P

0FIG[DLS OMg8; ov
0FIG[DLS OMg8;GL :8F.,GL OF.,M K[ H[ 5[H ;FY[ 0FpG,M0 YFI K[P H[ 5[H T[G[ JF5ZT]\ CMI
K[ T[G[ .D[H TZLS[ lJRFZM A; T[ T[GM D}/E}T bIF, K[P
VF OMg8G[ JF5ZTF\ H OMg8GL OF., TDFZF S[; sCASEfDF\ .D[H TZLS[ 0FpG,M0 YX[P
V[SJFZ CASE DF\ VFJ[ VG[ T[G[ N}Z G SZM tIF\ ;]WL OMg8 ElJQIDF\ 56 SFD VFJX[ VF OMg8 JF5ZM
tIFZ[ 5|YD JBT 5[.HG[ HMJFGM VFG\N VFJX[ 5[.H 0LOM<8 OMD["8DF\ 8[S; ;FY[ ;\5]6"56[ N[BFX[
tIFZ5KL OMg8 S[ OMg8; 0FpG,M0 YFI S[ VF ;DU| 5[.H OZL ,M0 YFI K[ VG[ lHJ\T ,FU[ K[P T[ B]A H
;FZL V;Z K[P
J[A5M8",ov 5M8", TZLS[ ;FDFgI ZLT[ VM/BFTL J[A;F.8 VYJF ;[JF S[ H[ .D[.,4 OMZD4 ;R"V[gHLG
VG[ VMG,F.G XM5L\U DM, H[JF ;FWGM VG[ ;[JFVMGM jIF5S J5ZFX VF5[ K[ 5|YD J[A 5M8", H[D S[
166

AOL wJFZF J[AG[ V[S;[; V5FIM 5Z\T] CJ[ DM8F EFUGF\ 5Z\5ZFUT ;R"V[gHLG[ T[DG[ J[A 5M8";DF\
~5F\TlZT SIF" K[ H[YL lJXF/ VM0LIg;G[ VFSQFL" VG[ ;FRJL XSFIP

!5P(P ;J"Z OFD" sD[.,q0[8FqV[%,LS[XGqJ[AqZL:SGM ;\U|Cf ov


;J"Z OFD" V[ G[8JS" SZ[,F ;J"ZG]\ H}Y K[ H[ V[S HuIFV[ ZFBJF\ VFJ[, K[ ;J"Z OFD"GF\
jIlSTUT S\5MGg8; JrR[ SFI"EFZ6GL JC[\R6L SZLG[ VF\TlZS 5|lS|IFVMG[ V[S lNXFDF\ ,FJ[ K[P VG[
VG[S ;J"ZGL XlSTVMGM J5ZFX SZLG[ Sd%I]8L\U 5|M;[;G[ h05L AGFJ[ K[P OFD" ,M0 A[,[g;L\U ;MO8J[Z
5Z VFWFZ ZFB[ K[ H[ H]NF H]NF DXLGDF\YL 5|M;[;L\U 1FDTF DF8[GL DF\UG]\ wIFG ZFBJ]\4 SFIM"G[ VU|LDTF
VF5JL T[DH G[8JS" 5Z I]h;" wJFZF D]SFTL VU|LDTF VG[ DF\UG[ VFWFZ[ T[G]\ :S[0I]V, VG[ ZL:S[0I],
SZJF H[JF SFIM" 5]ZF SZ[ K[P V[S OFD"DF\ ;J"Z lGQO/ HFI S[ ALHFG[ :8[5V5 TZLS[ ZFBL XSFI K[P
V[S H HuIFV[ ;J"Z VG[ 5|M;[;L\U 5FJZG[ ;\I]ST ZLT[ ZFBJFG]\ 36F JQFM"YL ;\XMWG VG[
X{1Fl6S ;\:YFVMDF\ 5|DF6DF\;FDFgI ZCI]\ K[P VFH[ JW]G[ JW] S\5GLVMG[ H~ZL SFIM" VG[ lJXF/ DF+FDF\
Sd%I]8ZF.h[XGG[ ;\RF,G SZJFGL ZLT TZLS[ ;J"Z OFD"GM p5IMU SZL ZCIF K[P
;J"ZGL JFT SZLV[ tIFZ[ AWF T[G[ J[A ;J"Z ;DH[ K[P J[A;J"ZG]\ D}/ SFI" J[A A|FphZ 5Z
J[A5[.HL; 5]ZF 5F0JFG]\ K[P APACHE VYJF IIS H[JF J[A ;J"Z 5|MU|FDG[ V[S H EF{lTS ;J"Z 5Z
;DFJJFG]\ 5|DF6DF\ ;Z/ 5|lSIF K[P VYJF VG[S 0[8FA[.h4 V[%,LS[XG4 VG[ V,U EF{lTS ;J"Z S[ H[G[
V[S I]lG8 TZLS[ SFI" SZJF SgOLUZ SZ[,F K[P T[JF SMd%,[1F S,:8ZGM EFU AGL XS[ K[P

19H

5Z\5ZFUT ;J"Z OFD" ov


!5P) U|FDL6 HM0F6 ovs,F:8 DL, SG[S8LJL8Lf
.g8ZG[8 XlST K[
EFZTDF\ V[S VAHYL JW] ,MSM K[ VFD KTF\ T[DF\ OST RFZ SZM0 8[,LOMG VG[ +6 SZM0 .g8ZG[8
HM0F6 K[P JW]DF\4 VF AW]\ XC[ZL lJ:TFZMDF\ VFJ[, CM.G[ U|FDL6 lJ:TFZM 5FK/ 50L ZCIF K[ SFZ6 S[
lJ`J DFlCTL VFWFZLT J{l`JS VY"T\+ TZO NM0 ,UFJL ZCI] K[P

167

U|FDL6 ;M\56L s0L%,MID[g8f ov


CORDECT l;:8D O[A|]VFZL Z___DF\ 5|YD U|FDL6 lJ:TFZMDF\ :YF5JFDF\ VFJL CTLP
lRtTMZ lH<,M sVF\W|5|N[X ZFHIfGF\ p%ID TF,]SFDF\ &5 UFDM TF,]SFGF\ XC[Z YL Z5 SLPDLGF\ 3[ZFJFDF\
HM0JFDF\ VFjIF CTF\ 8[SGM,MHLGL 8=FI,YL CORDECT GL NZ[S UFDDF\ OST 8[,LOMG H GCL\ 5Z\T]
JFHAL h05[ .g8ZG[8 s#5 KBPS,VYJF 70 KBPS ) 5}ZL 5F0JFGL 1FDTF HMJF D/LP
VF lGNX"G SZJF KTF\ U|FDL6 lJ:TFZMDF\ :YF5GGL AFATDF\ VM5Z[8ZM B]A WLDF CTF\
TENET H}YG[ H6FI]\ S[ 5|J"TDFG VM5Z[8;" s BSNL, VYJF BFGUL BSOf G[ U|FDL6 lJ:TFZM
HM0JFDF\ B}A VMKM Z; CTM 8[,L 8[g;L8LGL H~ZLIFT B]A VMKL CTL T[YL T[G[ GOFSFZS jIJ;FI TZLS[
U6L XS[ T[D G CTF\ T[DGF\ ALhG[X %,FG VG[ 5;\NULGM ;DU| 56[ ULR XC[ZL lJ:TFZMGF\ HM0F6 5Z
VFWFlZT CTF\P HM lGI\+LT DHA]ZLG[ SFZ6[ T[VM U|FDL6 lJ:TFZMDF\ HTF\ TM lJZMW SZTF\P ;A;L0L
s;CFISf DF\UTF VG[5KL VMKFDF\ VMKF HM0F6M UFDMDF\ VF5TF\ T[VM DG VG[ C'NIYL U|FDL6
lJ:TFZMDF\ SFD VF5TF\ GlC\ VF 5lZl:YT FMCG J:T]VMGL AFATDF\ V[\XLGF N;SFGF DwI ;]WL H[JL
5lZl:YlT CTL T[G[ D/TL VFJ[ K[ HIFZ[ lCgN]:TFG ,LJZ[ U|FDL6 lJ:TFZMG[ T[GL ;D'wW VG[ 5|D]B
AHFZ AGFJL VG[ SM. DFGT]\ G CT]\ S[ VFJL J:T]VM U|FdI lJ:TFZMDF\ 56 JC[\RL XSFIP
U|FDL6EFZTGL J;TL *_ SZM0YL JW] VG[ &4__4___ SZM0YL JW] GDP K[ H[ 5|UlT DF8[
5lZ5SJ K[ VG[ VFlY"S VG[ DFGJLI ;FWGMGL AFATDF\ VN|E}T 1FDTFG]\ 5|lTlGlWtJ SZ[ K[ H[G[ DF8[
T[GF ;FWGM V[S+ SZJFDF\ HM0F6 S0L~5 AFAT K[P HM IMuI ZLT[ ;HH SZFI TM EFZTG[ Z!DL ;NLGF
;F{YL XlSTXF/L ZFQ8=MDF\GF V[S AGFJJFDF\ pN|L5S Y. XS[ T[D K[P

!5P!_ ISP, LSP, IP 5|M8MS,4 IP V[0=[;4 .g8ZG[8 8[,LOMGL4 J[A S[D[ZFP


ISP V[8,[ Internet Service Provider
ZFHIGL DFl,SLGF lJN[X ;\RFZ lGUD ,LDL8[0 sVSNLfN=FZF VMUQ8 !))5DF\ EFZTDF\
.g8ZG[8 ;[JFVMGL X~VFT SZJFDF\ VFJL 5|YD RFZ JQFM" ;]WL N[XDF\ .g8ZG[8 ;[JFVM VF5GFZ
VSNL V[SDF+ 5|MJF.0Z CTLP GJ[dAZ!))(DF\ ;ZSFZ[ VSNL GL V[SCyY] ;tTF 5}ZL SZL VG[
5|F.J[8 VM5Z[8Z;" N=FZF .g8ZG[8 ;[JFVMGL HMUJF. SZJFGL K}8 VF5LP ISP GF\ ,FI;g;GL AM,LVM
VG[ XZTM V;FDFgI ZLT[ K}8KF8JF/F CTF\ H[DF\ SM. ,FI;g; O|L G CMTL VG[ VDIF"lNT S\5GLVMGL
K}8 VF5JFDF\ VFJLP IPST[DGF 5MTFGF EFJ VG[ VF\TZZFQ8=LI U[8vJ[ :YF5L 56 XSTF CTFP
VDNFJFNDF\ Sity, e-comm, Iquara, Airtel Bharti VG[ Satyam V[ IPS VFJ[,F\ K[P

LSP
LPS V[8,[ Layered Service Provider VG[ T[ I]hZ :TZGF Winsock api SDFg0;G[
;DHJF J5ZFI K[P sGFD pS[,JF JF5ZL XSFI 5Z\T] VF lORZ EFuI[ H JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[Pf

T[ S[JL ZLT[ SFD SZ[ K[ m


LPS V[ dll K[ H[ Winsock api JF5ZTM NZ[S 5|lS|IFNL9 ,M0 YFI K[ VG[ T[ NZ[S SDFg0 G[
;DH[ K[ V[8,[ S[ HIFZ[ I]hZ LPS ;FY[ HM0F6 SZ[ K[P tIFZ[ LPS T[G[ ;DH[ K[ T[ lJG\TLDF\ O[ZOFZ SZ[
K[ S[ SZTF\ GYL sH~lZIFT 5Z VFWFZ ZFB[ K[Pf VG[ T[G[ Winsock api BFT[ DMS,[ K[P
LSP GF\ J5ZFXGF JF:TlJS pNFCZ6Mo
LSP GLR[GF SFIM" DF8[ JF5ZL XSFIo

168

SG[SXG CFIH[lS\U4 VgI V[0=[; DF8[ SG[SXG lZSJ[;8 VFU/ W5FJJL V[8,[ S[ .g8ZG[8
V[S:%,MZZ N=FZF VDFZL J[A;F.8 www.talimrojgar.gov.in G[ HM0F6 SZJFGM VFN[X
D?IM 5Z\T] LSP GL DNNYL VFG[ ,MS,CM:8 VYJF .g8ZG[8 V[0=[; 5Z HM0F6 SZL VF5JF
AN,L XSFI K[P
lJQFIJ:T]G]\ lGZL1F6 VG[ ;]WFZFvJWFZF V[8,[ S[ LSP S,FIg8G[ BZ[BZ 0[8F 5CM\R[ T[ 5C[,F\
LSP T[G[ 5|M;[; SZL XS[ K[ VG[ T[G]\ lGZL1F6 VYJF T[DF\ ;]WFZFvJWFZF SZ[ K[vlJQFIJ:T]GF\
lGZL1F6 VG[ lO<8ZL\U DF8[ T[ B}A ;FZ]\ K[P
Winsock trace G[ lJg;MSGF\ SM, XMWJF T[DH Winsock V[8,L S[Xg;G[ l0AU SZJF
JF5ZL XSFI K[P
OFIZJM, Z1FS TZLS[ SFI" SZL XS[ K[P sV[%,LS[XG VG[ G[8JS" :TZ[f 5Z\T] T[GL E,FD6
SZJFDF\ VFJTL GYLP
20H

IP 5|M8MSM, o

.g8ZG[8 5|M8MSM<; lJ`JG]\ ;F{YL ,MSl5|I VM5Gvl;:8D sDFl,SL JUZG]\f 5|M8MSM, :I}8 K[
SFZ6 S[ T[ V[SALHF ;FY[ HM0FI[, G[8JS";GF\ SM.56 ;[8GL VF5FZ ;\N[XFGL VF5v,[ SZJF JF5ZL
XSFI K[ VG[ T[ LAN T[DH WAN ;\N[XFjIJCFZ DF8[ ;DFG ZLT[ VG]S}/ K[P .g8ZG[8
5|M8MSM<;DF\ SdI]lGS[XG 5|M8MSM<;GF :I}8GM ;DFJ[X YFI K[ H[DF\GF A[ 8=Fg;lDXG S\8=M, 5|M8MSM,
sTCPf VG[ .g8ZG[8 5|M8MSM, sIPf TZLS[ VM/BFI K[P
.g8ZG[8 5|M8MSM, V[ G[8JS"v,[IZs,[IZv#f 5|M8MSM, K[ H[DF\ V[0=[;L\U DFlCTL VG[ S[8,LS
lGI]+6 DFlCTL WZFJ[ K[P H[ 5[S[8;G[ DFU" NXF"JJFDF\ ;1FD AGFJ[ K[P IP GL lJUT RFC791 DF\
VF5JFDF\ VFJ[, K[ VG[ T[ .g8ZG[8 5|M8MSM, :I}8DF\ 5|FYlDS G[8JS"v,[IZ 5|M8MSM, K[P TCP GL
;FY[ IP 56 .g8ZG[8 5|M8MSM,G]\ SFI" K[P IP GL D]bI H A[ HJFANFZLVM4 .g8ZG[8 JS"YL
0[8FU|FDGL HM0F6lJlCG ;FZF 5|ItGJF/L l0,LJZL VF5JL VG[ H]NLH]NL D[S;LDD 8=Fg;lDXG
I]lG8 sMTUf SN ;FY[ 0[8FGF HM0F6G[ ;5M8" VF5JF 0[8FU|Fd;GF\ EFU 5F0JF VG[ OZL V[S+
SZJFG]\ XSI AGFJJFGL K[P

IP V[0=[;o
VgI SM.56 5|SFZGF G[8JS"v,[IZ 5|M8MSM,GL H[D .g8ZG[8JS"DF\YL IP 0FIFU|FD 5;FZ
SZJFGL 5|lS|IF IP V[0=[;L\U l;:8DGM V\TU"T EFU K[P NZ[S IP V[0=[;GF BF; Sd5MGg8; CMI K[
VG[ T[ D}/E}T OMD["8G[ VG];Z[ K[P VF IP V[0=[;L;G[ 5[8F lJEFHLT SZL XSFI VG[ ;AG[8JS" DF8[
;ZGFDF AGFJJF JF5ZL XSFI H[GL RRF" VF 5|SZ6DF\ 5FK/ lJUTJFZ SZ[, K[P
TCP/IP 5ZGF\ NZ[S IHDFGG[ VGgI #Z lA8 TFlS"S V[0=[; VF5[, K[ H[G[ D]bI A[ EFUDF\
JC[\RFI K[P G[8JS" G\AZ VG[ CM:8 G\AZ4 G[8JS" G\AZ G[8JS"G[ VM/B[ K[ VG[ HM G[8JS" .g8ZG[8GM
EFU CMI TM .g8ZG[8 G[8JS" .gOMZD[XG ;[g8Z sInter NicfYL VF5J]\ HM.V[P Internet
169

Service Provide H~lZIFT D]HA V[0=[; HuIF VF5L XS[ K[P CM:8 G\AZ 5ZGF CM:8G[ VM/B[ K[
VG[ T[G[ ,MS, G[8JS" V[0lDGL :8=[8Z N=FZF VF5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P

IP V[0=[; OMD["8 o
#Z lA8 IP V[0=[; V[S H ;DI[ ( AL8;GF\ ;D}CYL AG[, K[4 85SF\VMYL V,U 5F0[, K[ VG[
NXF\; OMD["8DF\ VF5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P s0M8[0 0[;LD, GM8[XG TZLS[ VM/BFI K[Pf VMS8[8DF\ NZ[S lA8G[
AFIGZL J[.8 s!Z(4 &$4 #Z4 !&4 (4 $4 Z4 !f CMI K[P VMS8[8GL VMKFDF\ VMKL J[<I] _ K[
VG[ JW]DF\ JW] J[<I] Z55 K[ H[ IPV[0=[;GF D}/E}T :J~5G]\ J6"G SZ[ K[P
VFS'lT #_P# IP V[0=[; #Z lA8;YL AG[,]\ CMI K[ VG[ RFZ VMS8[8|LDF\ H}YJFZ JC[\RFI[,]\ CMI
K[P
32 Bit

G[8JS"

CM:8

8 Bit 8Bit8Bit8Bit
0M8[0
0[;LD,
GM8[XG

!*Z

!&

P !ZZ

P Z_$

.g8ZG[8 8[,LOMGL
.g8ZG[8 8[,LOMGL 8[SGM,MHL Sd%I]8ZYL Sd%I]8Z4 VYJF Sd%I]8ZYL OMG4 OMGYL
SMd%I]8Z VG[ OMGYL OMG SM, SZJFGL K}8 VF5[ K[P .g8ZG[8 VYJF IP VFWFlZT SM.56 VgI G[8JS"
5Z VJFHGL JFTRLTG[ DFU" VF5JFG[ JM.; VMJZ .g8ZG[8 5|M8MSM, VoIP SC[ K[P H[G[ VoIP4 IP
8[,LOMGL4 .g8ZG[8 8[,LOMGL VG[ l0lh8, OMG 56 SC[JFI K[P JM.;GM 0[8F ;FDFgI C[T]JF/F
5[S[8v:JLR G[8JS" 5Z JC[ K[P IP G[8JS" 5Z JM.; l;uG,G[ ,. HJF J5ZFTF 5|M8MSM,G[;FDFgI ZLT[
JM.; VMJZ IP VYJF VoIP 5|M8MSM<; TZLS[ VM/BFI K[P

5Z\5ZFUT VoIP p5FIP


170

J[AS[D
J[AS[D V[ TDFZF Sd%I]8ZG[ HM0[, l0lh8, S[D[ZF K[P T[G[ USB 5M8" sVUFp S[D[ZF ;Dl5"T ;C
VYJF 5[Z[,, 5M8"YL HM0FTF CTFf DFZOT[ HM0FJJFG]\ ;C[,]\ K[P ;MO8J[Z S[D[ZF ;FY[ HM0FI K[ VG[
;DIF\TZ[ T[DF\YL O|[D h05[ K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[4 ;MO8J[Z NZ #_ ;[Sg0[ V[SJFZ l:YZ lR+ h05X[P
tIFZ 5KL T[ T[G[ ;FDFgI PJPG OF.,DF\ AN,X[ VG[ TDFZF J[A;J"Z 5Z V5,M0 SZX[PJPG .D[HG[
SM.56 J[A5[H 5Z D}SL XSFI K[P
J[A;J"Z G CMI TM CJ[ S[8,LS S\5GLVM sH[D S[ webcam #ZGF\ pt5FNSf TDFZF lR+MG[
V5,M0 SZJFGL DOT HuIF 5}ZL 5F0[ K[ H[ J[A;J"Z VG[ CM:8[0 J[A;F.8 :YF5JF VG[ R,FJJFDF\
TDG[ 50TL D]xS[,LVMYL ARFJ[ K[P

!5P!! .vl;SI]ZL8L sOFIZJM,4 JFIZ;4 C[SL\U4 ,MlHS, 5M8"4


AFIMvD[8=LS;f
OFIZ JM, sFirewallf
BFGUL G[8JS"G[ VGlWS'T V[S;[; SZJFYL VYJF T[DF\YL V[S;[; YJFDF\YL ZMSJF DF8[ l0jF.G
SZ[, l;:8D OFIZJM, K[P OFIZJM, CF0"J[Z T[DH ;MO8J[Z A\G[DF\ ,UFJL XSFI K[P VYJF A\G[GF
;\I]ST :J~5DF\ ,UFJL XSFI K[P BF; SZLG[ .g8=G[8YL .g8ZG[8 ;FY[ HM0FI[, 5|F.J[8 G[8JS"GF
.g8ZG[8 I]hZ N=FZF VGlWS'T V[;[;G[ lGJFZJF 36LJFZ OFIZJM,GM p5IMU YFI K[P .g8=FG[8DF\
NFB, YTF VYJF T[G[ KM0LG[ HTF NZ[S ;\N[XFVM OFIZJM,DF\YL 5;FZ YFI K[ H[ NZ[S ;\N[XFG[ T5F;[ K[
VG[ lGlN"Q8 l;SI]lZ8L WFZF WMZ6 G WZFJTF ;\N[XFVMG[ ZMSL <I[ K[P OFIZJM,GL S[8,LS 5|SFZGL
5wWlTVM K[P
OFIZJM, 5|MU|FD TDFZF Sd%I]8ZG[ JW] ;,FDT ZFBJFDF\ DNN SZ[ K[P T[ VgI Sd%I]8;" 5ZYL
TDFZF Sd%I]8ZG[ DFlCTLG[ DIF"lNT SZ[ K[ VG[ TDFZF Sd%I]8Z 5Z 0[8F p5Z TDFZM JW] lGI\+6 ZFB[
K[P T[DH VFD\+6 JUZ TDFZF Sd%I]8ZG[ HM0FJJF 5|ItG SZTF\ jIlSTVM VYJF 5|MU|Fd; sJFIZ; VG[
JMd;" ;lCTf ;FD[ ;\Z1F6 5}Z]\ 5F0[ K[P

JFIZ;ov
Sd%I]8Z l;:8DDF\ U0A0 SZJF VYJF G]SXFG SZJF ,BJFDF\ VFJ[, 5|MU|FDG[ JFIZ; SC[ K[P
JFIZ; V[S 5|MU|FD K[ H[ 5MTFGL D[/[ GS, YFI K[ VG[ TDFZF Sd%I]8ZGF\ H]NFH]NF EFUM H[JF S[
0MSI]D[g8;4 5|MU|FD; VG[ VM5Z[8L\U l;:8DGF EFUG[ V;Z 5CM\RF0[ K[P DM8FEFUGF\ JFIZ; V[S
OF., VYJF CF0"l0:SGF SM. EFU ;FY[ 5MTFG[ HM0[ K[ VG[ 5KL VM5Z[8L\U l;:8D VgI HuIFV[
5MTFGL GS, pD[Z[ K[P S[8,F\S JFIZ; SM0 WZFJTF CMI K[ H[ TDFZL OF.,M N}Z SZLG[ VYJF TDFZF
;,FDTL V\U[GF\ ;[l8\u;G[ 38F0LG[ JW] C]D,FVMG[ VFD\+6 VF5L JW] G]SXFG SZ[ K[P

171

JFIZ;G[ .D[., GM\WGL ;FY[ V[1R8[RD[g8 sHM0F6f TZLS[4 0FpG,M0 TZLS[ VYJF O,M5L S[
CD 5Z JCG SZL XSFI K[P V50[8[0 V[g8LvJFIZ; ;MO8J[Z CMJFG]\ H~ZL K[ H[YL GJFDF\ JFIZ;
VG[ JMd;"G[ VM/BL XSFI T[DH ZMSL XSFIP
V[g8LvJFIZ; 5|MU|Fd; TDFZF Sd%I]8Z 5ZGF\ .D[., VG[ VgI OF.,MG[ JFIZ;4 JMd;" VG[
8=MHG CM;L"; DF8[ :S[G SZ[ K[P HM JFIZ;4 JMD" VYJF 8=MHG CMQF" HMJF D/[ TM V[g8LvJFIZ; 5|MU|FD
T[G[ ;DU|56[ Quarantine sGSFD]\ AGFJJ]\f VYJF N}Z SZ[ K[ H[YL T[ TDFZF Sd%I]8Z VG[ OF.,MG[
G]SXFG SZL XSFTM GYLP
Norton V[g8LvJFIZ;4 Mcafee, Avg JU[Z[ V[g8LvJFIZ; ;MO8J[Z K[P

C[SL\U sHackingfov
C[SL\U V[8,[ G[8JS" VYJF Sd%I]8Z l;:8D 5Z U[ZSFIN[;Z 5|J'ltTVMGM GFX SZJF4 T[DF\ B,[,
SZJF VYJF VD, SZJFDF\ jIlSTVMGF Sd%I]8Z l;:8DG[ U[ZSFIN[;Z ZLT[ V[S;[; SZJLP

,MlHS, 5M8"o
5M8" X]\ K[ m
Sd%I]8Z 5XG]\ .g8ZO[.; K[ H[DF\ TD[ l0JF.;G[ HM0M KMP 5;"G, Sd%I]8;"DF\ H]NFH]NF 5|SFZGF
5M8" CMI K[P VF\TlZS ZLT[4 l0:S| 0=F.j;4 l0:%,[ :SL|G VG[ SLvAM0"G[ HM0JF DF8[ V,U V,U 5M8" CMI
K[P AFCI ZLT[ 5;"G, Sd%I]8;"DF\ DM0[d;4 l5g8Z4 DFp; VG[ VgI 5[ZLOZ<; l0JF.;G[ HM0JF DF8[GF
5M8"; CMI K[P
,MHLS, 5M8"GL DNNYL J[A ;lJ";LhDF\ S,FIg8 5|MS;L DF8[ ZG8F.D lOR;" GSSL SZL XSFI K[P

AFIMD[l8=S; ov
AFIMD[l8=S; V[ jIlSTGM XFlZZLS VYJF JT"6]\SGF ,1F6MYL VM/BJFGL :JI\E} sVM8MD[8[0f
5wWlT K[P lO;LIM,MHLS, AFIF[D[l8=S;4 DF6;GF XZLZGF\ EFUGF DF5YL ;LWL H D[/J[, DF5 VG[ 0[8F
VFWFZLT K[P lO\UZ 5|Lg84 VF.ZL; lOhLIM,MHLS, AFIMD[l8=S; K[P
lAC[JLIZ, AFIMD[l8=S; 5|lTlS|IF 5ZYL D[/J[, DF5 VG[ 0[8F VFWFlZT K[P H[ V5|tI1F ZLT[
DF6;GF\ XZLZGF ,1F6MG[ DF5[ K[P JM.; Z[SuGLXG sVJFHGL VM/Bf4 lS:8=MS :S[G VG[
l;uG[RZv:S[G D]bI lAC[JLIZ, AFIMD[l8=S; K[P
VF A[ D]bI ,1F6MGM p5IMU SZTL slOhLIM,MHLS, VG[ lAC[JLIZ,f AFIMD[l8=S; l;:8D
D}/E}T ZLT[ 5[8GGL BZF. sVMYMZF.h[XGf VYJF VM/BGL 5wWlT K[P

!5P!ZP

.gOMl;8Ls8[SGM5FS", SM, ;[g8Z4 D[0LS, 8=Fg;lS|%XG4 ALP5LPVMf

.gOMl;8L V[ lJ`J:TZGL ;\RFl,T VF.P8LP VF\TZD/BF 5|MH[S8 K[P H[ cc XC[ZDF\ XC[Zcc VG[
Z$q* sZ$ S,FS VG[ * lNJ;M V[8,[ S[ ;TTf SFI"5|6F,LGF Sg;[%8 5Z VFWFZLT K[P lJ`JGF ;F{YL
ClZIF/F 5F8GUZvUF\WLGUZsjIlSTNL9 Z* hF0G]\ 5|DF6fDF\ !!& V[SZGF\ D}<IJFG lJ:TFZDF\
lJS;FJJFDF\ VFJ[, .gOMl;8L $_ ,FB RMPO}8 VF.P8LPlA<8 V5 HuIF VG[ ;CFIS VF\TZDF/B]\ VG[
;[JFVM 5}ZL 5F0X[ H[DF\ GLR[GFGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P
172

VF.P8LP 8FJZv! sZ4Z54___ RMO}8f SFI"ZT


lJS;FJ[, VF.8L %,M8; s5_ V[SZ ;]WLGF\f
VF\TZZFQ8=LI S,A CFp; VG[ lZ;M8"; sVFU/GF\ TASSF ;]WLf
ZC[6F\S DF8[GL 8FpGXL54 V5Zl6TMGL CM:8[, sVFU/GF\ TASSF ;]WLf
.g8ZG[XG, :S},4 A[\S CMl:58, slJSF;GF\ TASSF ;]WLf
XM5L\U DM<; sVFU/GF\ TASSF ;]WLf
,ShZL CM8, VG[ SgJ[gXG ;[g8Z sVFU/GF\ TASSF ;]WLf
VM8M DM<; sVFU/GF\ TASSF ;]WLf

8[SGM5FS" ov
8[SGM5FS" TDFZF SFDSFHGL IT, ;\N[XFjIJCFZ VG[ DGMZ\HGG[ ,UTL TDFD H~ZLIFTMG]\ V[S
H :Y/[ D/T]\ ;M<I]XG K[P
8[SGM5FS"GM pN[X 7FGG[ ,UTF pnMUG[ D}/E}T ZLT[ :5WF"tDS VG[ lJ`J :TZGL AGFJJF
;DU|TIF ;1FD JFTFJZ6 5}Z]\ 5F0JFGM K[P

SM, ;[g8Z ov
U|FCSMGF\ VFJTF q HTF ;\N[XFjIJCFZG]\ ;\RF,G SZTL ;\:YFGM lJG\TLVM :JLSFZ[ K[P VF
p5ZF\T T[ ACFZGL DFS["l8\UsBZLNvJ[RF6f VG[ 8[,LDFS["8L\U 5|J'lTVMG]\ ;\RF,G SZ[ K[P
D[0LS, 8=Fg;lS|%XG
D[0LS, 8=Fg;lS|%XGL:8 lOlhXLIg;[ VG[ VgI VFZMuI jIJ;FlISMV[ ,BFJ[, Z[SMl0"\U ;F\E/[ K[
VG[ T[G[ D[0L,S, lZ5M8"4 5+jIJCFZ VG[ VgI JCLJ8L ;FDU|LDF\ ~5F\TlZT SZ[ K[P T[VM C[0;[8 5Z
Z[SMl0"\U ;F\E/[ K[P VG[ H~Z 50[ tIFZ[ Z[SMl0"\U ZMSJF O}8 5[0,GM p5IMU SZ[ K[P 8[18G[ 5;"G,
Sd%I]8Z VYJF J0" 5|M;[;ZDF\ 8F.5 SZ[K[ T[DH T[DF\ jIFSZ6 VG[ X]wWTF DF8[ H~ZL ;]WFZF JWFZF SZ[
K[P T[VM H[ 0MSI]D[g8; AGFJ[ K[P T[DF\ CMl:58,DF\YL D]ST YJF V\U[GM lZ5M8"4 lC:8ZL VG[ lOlhS,
V[S;FDLG[XG lZ5M8"4 VM5Z[l8J lZ5M8"4 Sg;<8[XG lZ5M8"4 VM8M%;L lZ5M8"4 0FIuGMl:8S .D[HL\U
:80Lh4 5|MU|[; GM8; VG[ ;\NE"5+MGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P D[0LS, 8=Fg;lS|%XGL:84 lOhLXLIg;4 VYJF
C[<YS[Z 5|MO[XG<; wJFZF ,BFJ[, 0MSI]D[g8;GL ;DL1FF VG[ ;CL T[DH ;]WFZF JWFZF DF8[ 8=Fg;OF.a0
0MSI]D[g8;G[ 5ZT SZ[ K[P VF 0MSI]D[g8; V\T[ NNL"VMGL SFIDL OF.,MGF EFU AGL HFI K[P

BPO ( BUSINESS PROCESS OUTSOURCING )


BPO V[8,[ BZLNL H[JF jIJ;FIGF SFDMG[ +LHF 51FSFZG[ AFZMAFZ ;M\5J]\P VF SZFZDF\ U|FCS JTL
5|MJF.0Z s5}ZF5F0GFZf AFZMAFZ SFD SZFJJF DF8[ HJFANFZ CMI K[P VF jIFbIF GLR[ ,FIS YJF DF8[
BPOGF SZFZDF\ SFDSFHGL 5|lS|IF DF8[GL ;DU| HJFANFZL 5|MJF.0Z <I[ K[P 5Z\T] 5|lS|IF ;Z/
AGFJJF V[%,LS[XG VYJF ;[JFVM 5}ZL 5F0TF GYLP

173

!5P!#P ;FIg; l;8LP


U]HZFT ;FIg; l;8LV[ VF VlU|DTFG[ ;DHJF U]HZFT ;ZSFZ[ ,LW[, GL0Z 5C[, K[P ;ZSFZ
VDNFJFN BFT[ lJ:T'T Y. ZC[, S[gN= :YF5L ZC[, K[P H[GM C[T] lX1F6 VG[ DGMZ\HGGM VN=E}T ;\UD
5}ZM 5F0JFGM K[ T[ ;FDgI DFGJLG[ lJ7FG VG[ 5|{FnMlUSGL ;DH 5}ZL 5F0JF ;DSF,LG VG[ SF<5lGS
GD}GFVM4 VG]EJM V\U[G]\ DFG;4 SFI"ZT DM0[<;4 JrI]"V, lZVFl,8L4 5|J'ltT DF8[GL HuIFVM4
5|IMUXF/FVM VG[ HLJ\T lGNX"G NXF"JX[P
U]HZFT SFpg;L, VMO ;FIg; l;8L
C[AT5]ZUFD ;M,F ;ZB[H ZM04 ;FIg;l;8L RFZ Z:TF GHLS
;ZB[HvUF\WLGUZ CF.J[GF\ V\T[4 VDNFJFNv#(Z $(!
OMG G\P )!v )v55ZZZ!Z4 Z(4Z)P
.D[., ov mail@ scity.org
J[A;F.8ov www.scity.org
21H

2D .O[S8 ov
A[ 5lZ6FDJF/L EF{lTS VJ:YF H[DF\ O,[8 s;5F8f AFH] SM8"lXIG (X1Y) SMVMl0"G[8;YL
NXF"JJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
A[ 5lZ6FDJF/L V;Z VFDF\ ;5F8 HuIF 5Z A[ 5lZ6FDJF/F DF5GL VlEjIlST NXF"J[ K[P VF
5lZDF6 X VG[ Y DF5 5Z RF, [ K[P
2D Sd%I]8Z U|FlOS; V[ Sd%I]8Z VFWFlZT l0hL8, lR+MGL 5[-L K[P H[ DM8[EFU[ A[
5lZDF6JF/F DM0[<; sH[D S[ 2D HLVMD[l8=S DM0<;4 8[18 VG[ l0lh8, lR+Mf VG[ T[G[ DF8[GL
5wWlTVMDF\YL AG[ K[P VF XaN VFJL 8[SlGS WZFJTL Sd%I]8Z ;FIg;GL XFBF VYJF DM0[<; DF8[
JF5ZL XSFI K[P

3D .O[S8 ov
3D .O[S8 H[DF\ +6 5lZDF6GM VY" V[S HuIF S[ HIF\ VMAH[S8 sAC]SM6f z[6L V\NZ 85SFVMYL
AG[,F CMI K[ H[G[ B}6 SC[ K[P VF B}6FGF\ SMVMl0"G[8;DF\ +6 J[<I]4 X VG[ Y
VG[ Z GM
;DFJ[X YFI K[P 3D :5[; 5Z ZH}VFT C\D[XF Z[g0ZL\U 5|lS|IFYL D[/J[, 2D
lR+ CMI K[P
N'xI VYJF VMaH[S8GL NXF"JJFDF\ VFJ[, ZH}VFTGF\ +6 ;\NE["Mo p\RF.4 5CM/F. VG[ p\0F.
sX,YVG[ Zf GL WZLVM CMI K[P
5Z\T] Sd%I]8ZDF\ X]\ K[ m 3DV[ ;FDFgI ZLT[ lJ0LIM SF0"GL 1FDTFVMGM p<,[B SZJF J5ZFTM
XaN K[P VFHGF\ lJ0LIMSF0"4 lJ0LIMSF0"DF\ H s;MO8J[ZDF\ GlC\f VF5[,L ;}RGFVMGM p5IMU SZ[ K[ H[YL
Sd%I]8Z U[d;DF\ JW] JF:TlJS U|FlOS; D[/JL XSFI K[PH[DF\ p\0F. CMI T[J]\ H6F. VFJ[ K[P VFHGF\
DM8FEFUGF\ lJ0LIMSF0"DF\ VF 1FDTF CMI K[P 5Z\T] lJlXQ8 SF0" JrR[ G DFGL XSFI T[ ZLT[ B}A TOFJT
CMI K[P T[YL TDFZ[ lJ0LIM SF0"GL E,FD6GM VeIF; SZJM HM.V[P

174

l0hL8, l0JF.; ov
;TT GlC\ T[JF 0[8F VYJF .J[g8 VFWFlZT SM.56 l;:8DG[ l0lh8, l0JF.; SC[JFI K[P
Sd%I]8;" l0lh8, I\+M K[ SFZ6 S[ T[GF\ 5FIFGF\ :TZ[ T[ OST A[ J[<I] _ VG[ ! VYJF OFFVG[ ON GL
JrR[ TOFJT VM/B[ K[P _PZ5 H[JL J[<I]GL JrR[ TDFD J[<I]G[ VM/BJFGL SM. ;Z/ ZLT GYLP
Sd%I]8Z H[ TDFD 0[8FG[ 5|M;[; SZ[ K[P T[G[ l0lh8, V[8,[ X}gI VG[ V[SGL z[6LDF\ V[gSM0 SZJFGL K[P

!5P!$P A|M0A[g04 l0lh8, l0JF.0 sD<8LlD0LIFf a,I]v8}Y 8[SGM,MHL


G[ZMA[g0 sG[ZM A[g0lJ0Yf V[8,[ DMH]\ sl;uG,f H[ Z[l0IM :5[S8=D 5Z OST VMKL HuIF ZMS[ K[
VG[ H[ A|M0A[g0 VYJF JF.0A[g0YL lJ5ZLT K[P VF H6FJ[, AFATG[ B}A H ,FU] 50T]\ K[ pNFCZ6
TZLS[ FM Z[l0IMG]\ 5|;FZ6 FM A[g0 5Z !5_ YL Z5_ lS,MC8"h HuIF ,[ K[ HIFZ[ 8LJL :8[XGGM
VMl0IM G[ZM A[g0 CMI K[P H[ OST Z5 lS,MC8"h VG[ J[WZ Z[l0IM T[GFYL 56 VMKL HuIF ,[ K[P T[G[
Z[l0IM V[g8[GFG]\ J6"G SZJF 56 JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ H[G[ G[ZMA[g0 SC[JFI K[P H[G[ V[S lO|SJg;L VYJF
R[G, DF8[ H 5Z\T] lJXF/ Z[gH DF8[ GlC\ T[ ZLT[ l0hF.G SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
TFH[TZDF\4 .g8ZG[8 ;lJ"; 5|MJF.0Z sISPf wJFZF VF XaN .g8ZG[8G[ V[S;[; SZJFGL BF;
:8F.,GM p<,[B SZJF JF5Z[, K[ H[G[ A|M0A[g0 .g8ZG[8 SC[ K[ HIF\ V[S;[; DF8[ JF5ZJFDF\ VFJT]\
SG[SXG 8[,LOMGGF \DM0[D SZTF\ JW] DM8]\ CMI K[s5& lS,MAF.8 5|lT ;[Sg0fP ;FDFgI ZLT[ V[J]\
:JLSFZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ S[ VF XaN 5!Z lS,MAF.8 5|lT ;[Sg0 VYJF JW]GF SG[SXG SZJF J5ZFI K[P HM
S[ S[8,F\S .g8ZG[8 ;lJ"; 5|MJF.0;[" 8}\SL A[g0lJ0Y ;FY[GL ;[JFVMG[ DFS["8 SZ[, K[ SFZ6 S[ VF pnMUMDF\
lGNL"Q8 SM.56 lA8 Z[8 GYLP
p5ZMST jIFbIF D]HA 8[l,OMG DM0[D V[ A|M0A[g0 SG[SXG K[ sSFZ6 S[ T[ V[S l,\S 5Z 5&
kbps ;]WL 0[8FGF\ JCG DF8[ NZ[S I]lST JF5Z[K[ H[GL K[<,L A[g0lJ0Y &$ kbps CMI K[P f VG[ S[A,
DM0[D G[ZMA[g0 SG[SXG K[ sSFZ6 S[ 0[8F S[lZIZ l;UG, 5Z Z_ MHzYL 5__ MHz GL JrR[
DM0I],[8 YFI K[Pv SMVS;LV, S[A,GL VFBZL A[g0lJ0Y lJXF/ CMI K[P f HM S[ DM0[D SZTF\ S[A,
DM0[D SG[SXG RF,L; U6]\ JWFZ[ h05L sVYJF JW]f CMI K[P
SdI]lGS[XGDF\V[S ;FY[ H]NL H]NL V;\bI EF{lTS R[G, JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P H[ VG[S V[S;[; DF8[
K[P VFJL R[G<;G[ V[SALHFYL ;DIYL s8F.D l0JLhG D<8L%,[S;L\U VYJF TDMAf S[ZLIZ
lO|SJg;L slO|SJg;L l0lJhG D<8L%,[S;L\U s FDMA f4 J[J,[gY l0JLhG D<8L%,[S;L\U s WDMf
VYJF .G V[S;[; DYS sSM0 l0JLhG D<8L%,[S;L\U VYJF sDMAfYL V,U ZLT[ VM/BJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
VFJF D<8L%,S;L\U jIJCFZDF\ EFU ,[TL NZ[S R[G,G[ G[ZMA[g0 SC[JFI K[P sSFZ6 S[ T[ DL0LIDGL
;\5]6 A[g0lJ0Y JF5ZTL GYLf hIFZ[ R[G,MGF\ ;[8G[ V[S ;FY[ ,.G[ V[S H SMdI]lGS[XG DF8[ JF5ZJDF\
VFJ[ tIFZ[ T[G[ A|M0A[g0 TZLS[ VM/BFI K[P
.g8ZG[8 SG[SXG4 :8Fg00" V[G[,MU DM0[d; VG[ ISDN HM0F6GL 1FDTFVM JWL HFI K[P
A|M0A[g0 .g8ZG[8 HM0F6M ;FDFgI ZLT[ 5!Z kbps VYJF JW]GL JCG1FDTF WZFJTF CMI K[P

175

A|M0A[g0 XaN V[ 5MT[ H BM8M XaN K[ SFZ6 S[ S[A, DM0[D ISPP V[S;[; SZJF G[ZMA[g0
SdI]lGS[XG R[G, JF5Z[ K[P 5& T DM0[D VG[ ADSL DM0[D A\G[ VF.PV[;P5LG[ V[S;[; SZJF 8=]
AM|0A[g0 SdI]lGS[XG R[G, JF5Z[ K[P
A|M0A[g0G[ ;FDFgI ZLT[ CF.:5L0 .g8ZG[8 TZLS[ 56 VM/BFI K[ SFZ6 S[ JW] A[g0lJ0Y
0[8FGF\ JCGDF\ ,FUTF ;DIG[ 38F0[ K[P VF XaN 36LJFZ BM8M XaN K[P T[D KTF\ BZ[BZ JCGGL UlT
,UEU ;ZBL CMI K[P .g8ZG[8 V[S;[; ,F.GG[ 5F6LGF\ 5F.5 ;FY[ ;ZBFJL XSFI4 8[l,OMGGL ,F.G
5Z DM0[DGM V[S;[; GFGF 5F.5YL 5F6LGL VMKL 1FDTF K[ HIFZ[ A|M0A[g0 V[S;[; JW] DM8M 5F.5 K[
H[GL VgIGL ;ZBFD6LV[ JW] H/1FDTF K[P A\G[ 5F.5DF\YL 5F6L VYJF 0[8F ,UEU ;DFG UlTYL
JCG YFI K[ 5Z\T] JW] DM8M 5F.5 JW]5F6L VYJF 0[8F VD]S ;DIDF\ JCG SZL XS[ K[P
S[8,F\S N[XMDF\ BFGUL ZC[6F\SM DF8[ ! V[DPALP5LPV[;YL JW]GF\ NZ[ A|M0A[g0 ;[JFVM
R,FJJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ VG[ jIJ;FlIS C[T] DF8[ JW] p\RF TANL,L NZM XSI CMI K[ 5Z\T] T[GF\ RFH" B}A p\RF
CMI K[P
VgI 8[SGM,MHLDF\ AFIv0FIZ[SXG, ;[8[,F.8 ;[8DM0[d; VG[ 5FJZ ,F.G SdI]lGS[XG
DM0[d;GM ;DFJ[X YFI K[ H[ .g8ZG[8GF\ V[S;[; DF8[ .,[S8=LS U|L0GM p5IMU SZ[ K[P
5Z\5ZFUT A|M0A[g0 SG[SXG S[A, VYJF xDSL G[ ISP wJFZF #5_v5__ Kbps GL
h05GF\ lA8Z[.8YL R,FJJF SgOLUZ SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P 5Z\5ZFUT S[A, %,Fg8 DF8[GF\ O}, Z[.8
SG[SXG !_ Mbps H[8,M p\RM CMI K[P HIFZ[ ADSL DF\ T[ Z YL & Mbps CM. XS[ s;A:S|F.AZGL
,}5 S[8,L ,F\AL K[v XM8"Z ,}5 S[ CFIZ,}5 fP
VDSL H[JL A[ SG[SXGJF/F OMGGL ,F.G DF8[GL GJLG 8[SGM,MHL VG[ 8[,LOMG T[DH S[A,
%,Fg8 A\G[DF\ ;A:S|F.AZ ;]WL OF.AZ VMl%8S SG[SXg; 5CM\RF0JFYL VMl0IM VG[ lJ0LIM :8=LD H[JF
:8=LDL\U 0[8F DF8[ JW] p\RF N[BFJGL XSITFVM JWL ZC[ K[P VtIFZ[ S[8,LS :8=LDL\U VMl0IM ;[JFVM VG[
S[8,LS :8=LDL\U lJ0LIM ;[JFVM p5,aW K[P A|M0A[g0 .g8ZG[8 V[S;[;4 OF., X[ZL\U ;MO8J[ZGF\
p5IMUG[ 56 ;Z/ AGFJ[ K[P
DM8FEFUGL A|M0A[g0 ;[JFVM CH] 56 ;FZL U]6JtTFGM lJ0LIM 5}ZM 5F0L XSTF GYL SFZ6 S[
MPEG-2 U]6JtTFJF/F lJ0LIMGF ;FZF 5lZ6FD DF8[ ,UEU & Mbps GL H~Z 50[ K[P S[8,FS
C[T]VM DF8[ 5IF"%T lJ0LIM VFGFYL VMKF 0[8F Z[8; V[8,[ S[ *&( Kbps VG[ #($ Kbps YL 56
p5,aW AG[ K[ H[ S[8,LS lJ0LIM SMgOZg;L\U V[%,LS[XGDF\ J5ZFI K[P MPEG-4 OMD["84 Z Mbps
J0[ prR U]6JtTFGM lJ0LIM VF5[ K[P H[ S[A, DM0[D VG[ ADSLGF\ V\TEFUDF\ 56 D/[ K[P Ogg
Tarkin OMD["8 VFJ]\ H 5ZOM"Dg; VF5JFGF\ .ZFNFJF/]\ K[P
K[JF0[GF\ I]h;"G[ VF5JFDF\ VFJTL A[g0lJ0Y JWL ZCL K[ T[YL AHFZG[ .g8ZG[8 5ZGL lJ0LIMv
VMG l0DFg0 ;[JFVM JW] ,MS l5|I YX[ T[JL V5[1FF K[ HM S[ CF,GF\ ;DI[ VFJL ;[JFVMG[ ;FDFgI ZLT[
lJlXQ8 G[8JS"GL H~Z 50[ K[P
JWL ZC[, A[g0lJ0Y[ gI]h U'5 5Z V;Z 5CM\RF0L K[P alt.binaries* H[JF H}YM 5Z S\.S
pD[ZJF s pasting f GL 1FDTF jpeg OF.,M slR+MfYL JWLG[ CD VG[ DVD lR+M ;]WL 5CM\RL K[P
NTL GF DT[ T[DGF\ G[8JS" 5ZGF\ 8=FlOSG]\ :TZ Z__!DF\ N{lGS .GAFpg0 !5_ ULUFAF.8;

176

5|lTlNGGF\ gI]hOL0 VG[ ! 8[ZFAF.8 0[8FVFp8 5|lTlNGYL JWLG[ Z__ZDF\ .GAFpg0 5__
ULUFAF.8; VG[ $ 8[ZFAF.8 0[8FVFp8 N{lGS YIM K[P
;FDFgI ZLT[ A|M0A[g0 p5FIM DF8[GM JCGNZ GLR[ D]HA K[P
Connection Transmission Speed
DS1 (Tier 1) 1.544 Mbit/s
E1
2.048 Mbit/s
DS3 (Tier 3) 44.736 Mbit/s
155.52 Mbit/s
OC3
622.08 Mbit/s
OC12
OC48
2.488 Gbit/s
9.953 Gbit/s
OC192
39.813 Gbit/s
OC768

SG[SXG
DS1(8LVZ 1)

8=Fg;lDXG :5L0
1.544 Mbps

E1
DS3 ( 8LVZ1)
OC3
OC12
OC 48
OC 192
OC 768

2.048 Mbps
44.736 Mbps
155.52 Mbps
622.08 Mbps.
2.488 gbps.
9.953 gbps.
39.813 gbps.

CD6F\ ;]WL VFGM VY" JF.0 V[lZIF G[8JS"G[ HF/JJF ,LH0 ,F.GGM p5IMU SZJM T[JM YTM
CTMP ISDNs Integrated Service Digital Network 128 kbpsfYL OC3sVMl%8S,
S[lZIZv#. !55 V[DPALP5LPV[;Pf OF.AZ ;]WLGL S1FFGL ,Lh0 ,F.gFYL S\5GLVMG[ T[GF\ TFtSFl,S
EF{UMl,S lJ:TFZYL VFU/GL BFGUL G[8JS" lJ:TFZJFGM DFU" NXF"JJMP EZM;M4 SFI" VG[ ;,FDTLGL
AFATDF\ .g8ZG[8 SZTF\ BFGUL G[8JS" 5Z WAN GF\ :JFEFlJS OFINFVM CTF\P 5Z\T] ,Lh0 ,F.G
JF5ZLG[ WANG[ HF/JFG]\ B}A BRF"/ Y. XS[ VG[ 36LJFZ SR[ZLVM JrR[ V\TZ JWJFG[ SFZ6[ BR"
JW[ K[P

A<I]8}Y ov
.,[S8=MlGS l0JF.;L; V[SALHF ;FY[ V,U V,U 36L ZLTMV[ HM0F6 SZ[K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[ o
TD[ HIFZ[ Sd%I]8Z DGMZ\HG l;:8D VYJF 8[,LOMGGM J5ZFX SZM KM tIFZ[ T[ l;:8DGF\ H]NF H]NF V\UM
VG[ EFUM .,[S8=MlGS l0JF.;L;GM ;D}C AGFJ[ K[P VF l0JF.;L; V[S ALHF ;FY[ JFIZ4 S[A<;4
Z[l0IM DMHFVM VG[ .gO|FZ[0 ,F.8 lAd; T[DH SG[S8;"4 %,U VG[ 5|M8MSM<; JF5ZLG[ V[S ALHF ;FY[
;\N[XFGL VF5v,[ SZ[ K[P

177

l;ZLI, SMdI]lGS[Xg; GFDGL :SLDDF\ V[S ;FY[ ! lA8 VG[ 5[Z[,, SdI]lGS[Xg;DF\ AL8GF\ ;D}C
s;FDFgI ZLT[ V[S ;FY[ ( VYJF !&f YL DFlCTL DMS,L XSFI K[P 0[:SM5 Sd%I]8Z ;\N[XFGL VF5[,[ SZJF
DM0[D4 DFp; VG[ SL AM0" H[JL H]NL H]NL l0JF.;L; VG[ 5[Z[,, l,\S DFZOT[ ;\N[XFGL VF5[,[ SZL
l5|g8;" JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
a<I]8}Y V[ .,[S8=MlGS; pt5FNSM wJFZF lJS;FJJFDF\ VFJ[, :8Fg00" K[ H[ Sd%I]8;"4 ;[,OMG4
SLvAM0" VG[ C[0OMG H[JF SM.56 5|SFZGF\ .,[S8=MlGS ;FWGG[ T[G]\ HM0F6 JFIZ4 S[A,4 VYJF I]hZ
5F;[YL SM.56 ;LWL 5|lTlS|IF JUZ SZ[ K[P a,I}8}Y V[J]\ :8Fg00" K[ H[ A[ :TZ[ SFD SZ[ K[P
T[ lOlHS, :TZ[ SZFZ SZ[ K[P a,I]8}Y V[ Z[l0IM lO|SJg;L :8Fg00" K[P T[ 5KLGF\ prR :TZ[ V[
56 SZFZ VF5[ K[ S[ AL8; DMS,JFDF\ VFJ[ tIFZ[ 5|M0S8 SIFZ[ :JLSFZX[4 V[S ;FY[ S[8,F AL8; DMS,X[
VG[ D[/J[, D[;[H DMS,[, D[;[HG[ ;DFG K[ T[GL ;\N[XF :JLSFZGFZG[ S[JL ZLT[ BFTZL YX[
OM8M ;F{HgIo a<I] 8}Y SIG a<I] 8}Y JFIZ,[; PC SF0"P

JFIZM JF5ZLG[ SFI" SZJFGF\ S[8,FS Z:TFVM K[P V[S Z:TM .gO=FZ[0 :5[S8=D ,F.8GF\ lSZ6M DFZOT[
Sd5MGg8; JrR[ DFlClTGF\ JCGGM K[P DF6;GL VF\BM HM. XS[ VG[ ;DHL XS[ T[GF\YL VMKL lO=SJg;L
WZFJTF\ 5|SFXGF\ lSZ6M V[8,[ Infrared s.gO=FZ[0f SC[JFI K[P DM8FEFUGL 8[l,lJhG lZDM8 S\8=M,
l;:8DDF\ .gO=FZ[0 J5ZFI K[P VG[ IrDA (Infrared Data Assoiation) GFDGF\ :8Fg00"GL DNNYL
S[8,FS Sd%I]8;"G[ 5[ZLOZ<; l0JF.; ;FY[ HM0JF J5ZFI K[P VFJF DM8FEFUGF\ Sd%I]8Z VG[ DGMZ\HS
C[T]VM DF8[ .gO=FZ[0 l0lh8, DM0DF\ J5ZFI K[P V[S 5M.g8YL ALHF 5M.g8 ;]WL 0[8F h05YL DMS,JF
36LJFZ l;uG,G[ On VG[ Off 5<;DF\ l;uG, V5FI K[P
.gO=FZ[0 SdI]lGS[XG 5|DF6DF\ EZM;F5F+ K[ VG[ T[G[ l0JF.;DF\ pD[ZJFGM BR" JWFZ[ GYL
5Z\T] T[GF\ S[8,FS U[ZOFINFVM K[P 5|YD4 .gO=FZ[0 c ,F.G VMO ;F.8 c 8[SGM,MHL K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[4
8[l,lJhG VYJF 0LJL0L %,[8ZGF lZDM8 S\8=M,G[ NAFJTF H TD[ VD]S O\SXG D[/JM KMP ALHL BFDL V[
K[ S[ .gO=FZ[0 C\D[XF c JG 8] JG c 8[SGM,MHL K[P TD[ 0[:S8M5 Sd%I]8Z VG[ TDFZF ,[58M5 Sd%I]8Z JrR[
0[8F DMS,L XSM KM 5Z\T] ;FYM;FY ,[58M5 VG[ PDA JrR[0[8F DMS,L XSFTF GYLP
.gO=FZ[0GL VF A[ U]6JtTFVM CSLSTDF\ S[8,LS ZLT[ OFINFSFZS K[ SFZ6 S[ .gO=FZ[0 8=Fg;lD8;"
VG[ lZl;J;" V[S ALHF ;FY[ ,F.GDF\ SZJFGF\ CMI l0JF.;L; p5IMUL K[ SFZ6 S[ ;\N[XM H[G[
DMS,JFGM CMI T[G[ H 5CM\R[ K[ VG[ ~DDF\ V[S YL JW] .gO=FZ[0 lZl;JZ CMJF KTF\ ALHFG[ 5CM\RTM
GYLP
178

JF5ZMGM ALHM lJS<5 l;gS|MGF.hL\U S[A<; .gO=FZ[0 SZTF\ YM0F D]xS[,L HGS K[P HM TDFZL
5F;[ Palm Pilot4 lJg0Mh CE l0JF.; VYJF 5MS[8 PC CMI TM TD[ 0[8FG[ l;gS|MGF.h s;\SMRJFfGL
AFAT HF6TF CXMP l;gS|MGF.h[XGDF\ PDA G[ TDFZF Sd%I]8Z ;FY[ HM0Ms ;FDFgI ZLT[ S[A,YL f
A8G NAFJM VG[ PDA VG[ Sd%I]8Z 5ZGM 0[8F ;]D[/ ;FW[ T[GL BFTZL SZMP VF 8[SlGS PDA G[ 36F\
jIlSTM DF8[G]\ lSDTL ;FWG AGFJ[ K[P 5Z\T] PDA G[ Sd%I]8Z ;FY[ l;gS|MGF.h SZJFG]\ VG[ TDFZL 5F;[
A\G[G[ HM0JF IMuI S[A, VYJF S|[0, K[ T[GL BFTZL SZJFG]\ B}A H V3~\ K[P
a,I] 8}Y GM .ZFNM .gO|FZ[0 VG[ S[A, l;gS|MGF.hL\U l;:8D A\G[G[ ,UTL D]xS[,LVM lGJFZJF
DF8[GL K[P ;LD[g;4 .g8[,4 TMlXAF4 DM8MZM,F4 VG[ V[lZS;G ;lCTGF\ CF0"J[Z J[g0;" wJFZF Sd%I]8Z4
8[l,OMG VG[ DGMZ\HG DF8[GF\ ;FWGDF\ :YF5JF DF8[GF\ GFGF Z[l0IM DM0I]<; DF8[:;5[lXlOS[XG T{IFZ
SZJFDF\ VFJ[, K[P I]hZGL N'lQ8V[ a<I]8}YGF\ +6 VUtIGF\ ,1F6M K[P
T[ JFIZ,[; K[4 TD[ D];FOZL SZM tIFZ[ TDFZF TDFD Sd5MGg8;G[ HM0JF V;\bI S[A,M
ZFBJFGL lR\TF ZC[TL GYL VG[ JFIZM SIF\ ;]WL GFBL XSFX[ T[GL lR\TF JUZ TDFZL VMlO;GL l0hF.G
SZL XSM KMP
T[ BRF"/ K[P T[ AFAT[ lJRFZJFGL H~Z GYLP a<I]8}YG[ SFI"ZT SZJF S\. lJX[QF SZJFGL H~Z
GYLP l0JF.;L; V[SALHFG[ XMWL ,[ K[ VG[ I]hZGF\ .g5]8 JUZ V[SALHF ;FY[ ;\N[XFjIJCFZ SZ[ K[P
a<I]8}Y lO=SJg;LP a<I]8}Y ZP$5 ULUFC8"hGL lO=SJg;L 5Z ;\N[XFGL VF5v,[ SZ[K[P H[
VF{nMlUS4 J{7FlGS VG[ TALAL l0JF.;L;GF\ p5IMU DF8[GF\ VF\TZZFQ8=LI SZFZ wJFZF ;[8 SZJFDF\
VFJ[, K[P

TD[ VUFp JF5Z[,L V;\bI l0JF.;L; VF Z[l0IMvlO=SJg;L A[g0GM OFINM ,.G[ AGFJJFDF\
VFJ[, K[P A[AL DMlG8;"4 U[Z[Hv0MZ VM5GZ4 VG[ TNG GJF SM0",[; OMG4 TDFD ISB A[g0GL
lO=SJg;LVM JF5Z[ K[P a<I]8}Y VG[ VgI l0JF.; V[SALHF ;FY[ B,[, G 5CM\RF0[ T[ l0hF.G 5|M;[;GM
VUtIGM EFU K[P
T[G[ a<I]8}Y XF DF8[ SC[JFI K[ m
)__GF\ K[<,F NXSFDF\ 0[GDFS"DF\ C[ZF<0 a,I]8Y} GFDGM ZFHF CTMP T[6[ 0[gDFS" VG[ GMJ["GF
S[8,FS EFUG[ V[S SIF" VG[ T[G[ V[S ;FD|FHI AGFJL 0[GDFS"DF\ lB|:TLWD"GM 5|FZ\E SIM"P T[6[ T[GF
DFTFl5TFGL :D'lTDF\ H[,L\U ~, :8MG GFDG]\ V[S lJXF/ :DFZS AGFjI]\P )(&DF\ T[GM 5]+ :J[gN
OMS"A0"G]\ ,0F. NZdIFG D'tI] YI]]\ CT]\P VF GFDG[ :8Fg00" DF8[ V5GFJJFYL H6FI K[ S[ AF<8LS 5|N[X
s0[GDFS"4 :JL0G4 GMJ[" VG[ lOG,[g0 ;lCTGF\ N[XMfDF\GL S\5GLVM SdI]lGSX[G pnMU DF8[ S[8,LS
DCtJGL CTL HM S[ VF XaN 8[SGM,MHL H[ ZLT[ SFI" SZ[ K[ T[GF lJX[ B}A YM0L DFlCTL VF5[ K[P

179

!5P!5P S,FIg8; s0dA4 YLG4 YLS4 :DF8" q.g8[,LHg8 8lD"G,f


0dA 8lD"G<;
0dA 8lD"G<;4 l0:%,[ VG[ .G5]8 l0JF.;L; K[ H[ :YFlGS ZLT[ 0[8F VG[ .gF5]8GL 5|lS|IF SZTF\
GYL T[G[ AN,[ T[GL ;FY[ HM0FI[,F Sd%I]8ZDF\ .G5]8 DMS,[ K[ VG[ VFp85]8 NXF"J[ K[P
36F\ jIlSTVM VG[ BF; SZLG[ 5+SFZM G[8JS" Sd%I]8;"G[ 0dA 8lD"G<; TZLS[ VM/BL U]\RJ0M
pEM SZ[ K[ VG[ G[8JS" Sd%I]8;"G[ c 0da0 0FpGc Sd%I]8;" TZLS[ VM/B[ K[P VF ;FR] GYL SFZ6 S[ G[8JS"
5Z SM. HuIFV[ ;J"Z 5Z SFI"ZT 5|MU|FDG]\ 5lZ6FD 0dA 8lD"G, NXF"J[ K[ 5Z\T] T[GF\YL lJ5ZLT G[8JS"
Sd%I]8;" BZ[BZ ,MS, 5|M;[l;\U SZ[ K[ VG[ 0dA 8lD"G, SZTF\ PCYL JW] GHLS CMI K[P
VFDKTF\4 S[8,FS G[8JS" Sd%I]8;" X lJg0M VG[ ICA H[JF 5|M8MSM<;G[ ;5M8" SZTF\ CMJF KTF\
:YFlGS ZLT[ RF,] 5|MU|Fd; p5ZF\T ;J"Z 5Z RF,] 5|MU|FDGF\ VFp85]8 NXF"J[ K[ H[YL T[VM A[SJ0"
Sd5[l8A, sH}GL OSG[ ;5M8" SZJFf K[P
;L0L ZMD %,[I;"4 l0:S[8 0=F.J;" VG[ V[S;5Fg;G :,M8v VF XaNM G[8JS"DF\ GFGF Sd%I]8;"
S,FIg8 CMI K[ VG[ ;J"Z CMTF GYLP VF Sd%I]8;"GL 1FDTFVMG[ OST H~ZL V[%,LS[Xg; ;]WL DIF"lNT
SZJFGM lJRFZ CM.G[ S,FIg8 V[%,LS[Xg;GL AFATDF\ T[G[ BZLNJFGF\ ZC[X[ VG[ T[DF\ H[ S,FIg8
V[%,LS[XGGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[ T[GL AFATDF\ cYLG c ZC[X[P

YLG S,FIg8 ov
cYLG S,FIg8c XaN G[8 5L;L VG[ G[8JS" Sd%I]8Z A\G[ DF8[ 5IF"I TZLS[ J5ZFI K[ H[ S\.S H]NF
H]NF Sg;[%8 K[P G[8 PC .g8[, DF.S|M5|M;[;;" VG[ lJg0Lh ;MO8J[Z 5Z VFWFlZT K[P sG[8 5L;LG]\
:5[XLOLS[XG GSSL SZJFDF\ .g8[, VFU/ 50T]\ CT]\f G[8JS" Sd%I]8ZGF\ bIF,G[ ORACLE VG[ SUN
MicrosystemGM ;5M8" K[ H[ .g8[, DF.S|M5|M;[;;" JF5ZTF GYL 5Z\T] HFJF VFWFlZT VM5Z[l8\U
l;:8D JF5Z[ K[P
YLG%,[G[8P s0M8fSMDv YLG S,FIg8 8[SGM,MHLG[ ;Dl5"T J[A;F.8GF DT[ cc ;J"Z A[h0
SMd%I]8lZ\U cc XaN c YLG S,FIg8c GF ;DFGFYL" TZLS[ JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ SFZ6 S[ VFH[ DM8FEFUGF\
S,FIg8; A[SvV[g0 ;[g8=,F.h0 ;J"Z S[ H[ O[8 VYJF YLG S,FIG8;G[ ;J" SZJF ;1FD CMI K[ T[GFYL
RF,[ K[P

YLS S,FIg8 ov
Sd%I]8L\UDF\ O[8 S,FIg8 sZLR S,FIg8 VYJF lYS S,FIg8 TZLS[ 56 VM/BFI K[f XaN
S,FIg8v ;J"Z V[%,LS[Xg;DF\YL VFJ[, K[ H[ s S,FIg8 DF8[ ACM/Ff 0[8F 5|M;[;L\UG]\ SFI" SZ[ K[P 0[8F
;J"ZDF\ ;\U|C YFI K[P SMg8=F:8 VG[ p\0F65}J"S RRF" DF8[ YLG S,FIg8 H]VM4
HM S[ VF XaN ;FDFgI ZLT[ ;MO8J[ZGM p<,[B SZ[ K[ 5Z\T] 5|DF6DF\ JW] DHA}T 5|M;[;L\U
1FDTFVM WZFJTF\ G[8JS" Sd%I]8ZG[ 56 ,FU] 50L XS[ K[. O[8 S,FIg8G]\ pNFCZ6 Swing (Java)
V[%,LS[XG K[P

180

:DF8" 8DL"G<;
VF 8DL"G,DF\ 5|M;[;L\U 1FDTF CMI K[P 5Z\T] .g8[,LHg; 8DL"G, H[8,L 1FDTF GYLP :DF8"
8DL"G<;DF\ ;FWFZ6 l0:%,[ SFI" SZJF DF8[G]\ .GvlA<8 ,MHLS CMI K[ H[D S[ la,\gSL\U VG[ AM<0O[.;
s3F8F V1FZMfP T[GF\YL lJ5ZLT4 0dA 8DL"G,DF\ ;C[H 56 5|M;[l;\U 1FDTF CMTL GYLP

.g8[,LHg8 8DL"G<;
5|M;[;L\U XlST WZFJT]\ 8DL"G,sDMlG8Z VG[ SL AM0"fK[P .g8[,LHg8 8lD"G<;DF\ BF; l0:%,[
SFI" SZJF D[DZL VG[ 5|M;[;Z CMI K[P T[GFYL p,8]\ 0dA 8lD"G,DF\ 5|M;[;L[U 1FDTFVM GYL T[G[ ;[g8=,
Sd%I]8Z 5Z ;DU|56[ VFWFZ ZFBJM 50[ K[P :DF8" 8lD"G,DF\ S[8,LS 5|M;[l;\U 1FDTFVM CMI K[ 5Z\T]
.g8[,LHg8 8lD"G, H[8,L 1FDTF CMTL GYLP

!5P!& 0[:S8M54 ,[58M54 GM8A]S4 5FD 8M54 PDA


0[:S8M5 Sd%I]8;"ov
5;"G, Sd%I]8Z VYJF PC XaN ;FDFgI ZLT[ DF.S|MSd%I]8Z K[ H[ V[S ;DI[ V[S H jIlST
NJFZF J5ZFX DF8[ AGFJJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ VG[ H[ J0"5|M;[l;\U4 5|MU|FDL\U4 U[.D %,[ VG[ I[hZ N=FZF
BZLN[, VYJF ;MO8J[Z R,FJJF J5ZFI K[P DLGL Sd%I]8;"YL lJ5ZLT 5;"G, Sd%I]8Z T[G[ JF5ZGFZ
jIlSTGL DFl,SLG]\ CMI K[ H[GL BZLN lS\DT VMKL VG[ T[ ;Z/TFYL R,FJL XSFI T[JF CMI K[P 0[:S8M5
XaNGM VY" 0[:S8M5 5Z ZFB[, Sd%I]8Z YFI K[P H[ V[S jIlST JF5Z[ K[ H[ SR[ZL JFTFJZ6DF\GF D]bI
;J"ZGL SG[lS8JL8L 8DL"G,YL V,U CMI K[P
0[:S8M5 Sd%I]8Z V[S :JT\+ 5;"G, Sd%I]8Z K[ H[ BF; SZLG[ SR[ZL VYJF 3ZDF\ 0[:S 5Z
JF5ZJF J5ZFI K[P VF XaN D]bItJ[ VF 5|SFZGF\ 5;"G, Sd%I]8ZG[ 5M8["A, Sd%I]8Z T[DH ,[58M5YL
V,U 5F0JF T[DH PDA, ;J"Z VYJF D[.GO|[D 5|SFZGF Sd%I]8;"YL V,U 5F0JF 56 J5ZFI K[P
VFH[ 0[:S8M5 JW] 5MQFFI T[JF VG[ ;FDFgI Sd%I]8;" K[ H[G[ 36LJFZ jIJ;FIM4 XF/FVM4 3ZM
VG[ VgI ;\:YFVM N=FZF JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P T[ OST 8[18 0MSI]D[g8;4 lR+M VG[ lJ0LIM AGFJJF DF8[ H
GlC\ 5Z\T] T[DGF ;\N[XFGL VF5v,[ SZJF J5ZFI K[P ,UEU TDFD VFW]lGS 0[:S8M5 Sd%I]8;" DM0I],Z
K[ V[8,[ S[ SMd5MGg8;G[ ;C[,F.YL AN,L XSFI K[ VYJF V5U|[0 SZL XSFI K[P 0[:S8M5 Sd%I]8Z XaN
H[GL 5[8L VF0L ZFB[,L CMI T[JF Sd%I]8Z DF8[ 56 J5ZFI K[P s;FDFgI ZLT[ DMlG8Z 5[8L pEL p5Z
CMI K[fP VFJL 5[8LVMG[ Desktop SC[JFI K[P H[ Towers spEL 5[8LfYL V,U K[P
0[:S8M5 Sd%I]8ZDF\ CF0"J[Z DM0I],Z CMI K[ H[YL T[ Sd%I]8ZG]\ DwID 7FG WZFJGFZ SM.56
jIlSTG[ T[DF\ ;]WFZF JWFZF SZJFG]\ ;Z/ AGFJ[ K[P A[lHS 0[:S8M5 Sd%I]8ZGF VF\TlZS CF0"J[ZDF\
RAM, CPU, DWZAM0"4 U|FlOS SF0"4 ;Fpg0 T[DH .g8ZG[8 VG[ VgI 5M8"; DF8[ JWFZFGF VMGAM0"
SF0"; CMI K[P
0[:S8M5 Sd%I]8ZDF\ ;FDFgI ZLT[ V,U DMlG8Z CMI K[P H[DF\ OST S[8,F\S VFW]lGS V5JFNM
iMacVG[ e-Mac H[JF\ S[8,F\S Apple Sd%I]8Z K[P Sd%I]8Z 5M8";G[ SLvAM0" VG[ DFp; H[JF
I]hZv.G5]8 ;FWGM HM0JFDF\ VFJ[ K[ T[DH l5|g8;" H[JF VgI ;FWGM s5[ZLOZ<;f 56 HM0JFDF\ VFJ[
K[P DM8FEFUG]\ SFI" 5[8LDF\ H YFI K[P 5Z\T] S[8,F\S Sd5MGg8; AFCI VYJF VF\TlZSsH[D S[ lJlJW
:8MZ[H l0JF.;L; VG[ DM0[d;f CM. XS[P VF 5[8L 36LJFZ 0[:S p5Z VYJF GLR[ ZFBJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
S[8,LSJFZ T[G[ DMlG8ZGL GLR[ T[GF SN VG[ VFSFZG[ VFWFZ[ ZFBJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P

181

Sd5MGg8;ov

O[GvSd%I]8ZG[ 9\0] SZ[ K[P


DWZAM0"P
CF0" 0=F.Jv,F\AF UF/FGM VF\TlZS 0[8F ;\U|CP
CD-ROM VYJF DVD drive ,UEU DM8FEFUGL VYJF TDFD 5|SFZGL CD JF\R[ K[P
5|M;[;ZP
CPU S},Zv5|M;[l;\U I]lG8G[ 9\0] SZ[ K[P
RAM 8}\SFUF/FGM 0[8F ;\U|CP
lJ0LIM SF0"4 lJ0LIM VFp85]8 H6FJ[ K[ VG[ DMlG8ZG[ DMS,[ K[P
;Fpg0 SF0"v ;Fpg0 VFp85]8 VF5[ K[ VG[ :5LS;"G[ DMS,[ K[P
:5LS;"P
O,M5L 0=F.JP
DM0[Dv 8[,LOMG ,F.G DFZOT[ 0[8F V[S;[; SZJF J5ZFI K[P A],[l8G AM0" l;:8D VG[
.g8ZG[8G[ V[S;[; SZJF J5ZFI K[P
G[8JS" SF0"v Sd%I]8ZG[ VgI Sd%I]8Z G[8JS" ;FY[ HM0[ K[ HIF\ T[ VgI Sd%I]8;" ;FY[ ;\N[XFGL
VF5v,[ SZ[ K[P .g8ZG[8 V[S;[; SZJFGF ;FWG TZLS[ 56 J5ZFI K[P
5FJZ ;%,FIv H]NFH]NF Sd%I]8;"G[ JLH/L 5}ZL 5F0[ K[P

5M8";ov
TDFD 0[:S8M5 Sd%I]8;"DF\ DMlG8Z4 SL AM0"4 l5|g8Z VG[ :S[GZ H[JF\ AFCI ;FWGMG[ ,UFJJF
J5ZFTF 5M8" CMI K[P
USB DM8FEFUGF 5[ZLOZ<; DF8[ J5ZFI K[P
.YZG[8o G[8JlS"\U VG[ A|M0A[g0 .g8ZG[8 SG[SXG DF8[ J5ZFI K[P
DM0[Do 8[,LOMG ,F.G DFZOT[ 0[8F V[S;[; SZJF J5ZFI K[P spNFP0FI,vV5 .g8ZG[8
HM0F6Mf
C[0OMG H[Sv;Fpg0 l0JF.;L;G[ HM0JF J5ZFI K[P
l;ZLI,vl;ZLI, SG[S8Z JF5ZTL SM.56 l0JF.;G[ HM0JF J5ZFI K[P
5[Z[,,v5[Z[,, SG[S8Z JF5ZTL SM.56 l0JF.;G[ HM0JF J5ZFI K[P
PS/2 Sd%I]8Z DFp; VG[ SL AM0" HM0JF J5ZFI K[P
lJ0LIM sVGAfvDMlG8Zq5|MH[S8ZG[ HM0JF J5ZFI K[P
5FJZv5FJZ ,L0G[ HM0JF J5ZFI K[P
Firewire/IEEE 1394 AFCI 0=F.j; VG[ S[DSM0"ZG[ HM0JF J5ZFI K[P
0[:S8M5 Sd%I]8;"DF\ J5ZFTF ;FDFgI DF.S|M5|M;[;Z ov
Intel 8080, 8085, Zilog 280
Intel 8086, 8088, 80186, 80188, 80286, 80386, 80486 (Intel * 86
Architacture)
Intel Pentium, Pentium Pro, Celeron, Pentium II, Pentium III, Xeon,
Pentium 4, Pentium M, Pentium D, Celeron D, (Intel x86, parents of IA64 with HP PA-Risc)
182

,[58M5 ov
lA|8GJF;L lJl,ID DMUZLH[ !)*)DF\ lU|0 l;:8D SM5M"Z[XG DF8 [l0hF.G SZ[, lU|0 Sd5F;
SM.56 ;DFG DM0[, SZTF\ JHGDF\ 5F\R U6F JHGDF\ VMKM CTM VG[ T[G]\ SFI" ;DFG CT]\P H[G[
!)(_GL X~VFTDF\ GF;FV[ T[GF :5[; X8, 5|MU|FDDF\ JF5IM" CTM H[DF\ #$_ kb AA, D[DZL4
0FIvSF:8 D[uG[XLID S[.; VG[ JF/L XSFI T[JL .,[S8=M<I]DLGL;g; U|FlOS; l0:%,[ :S|LG CTLP

5|YD ,[58M5 Sd%I]8Zv VM:AMG"v! ov


DM8FEFUGF .lTCF;SFZMV[ H[G[ 5|YD ;FR]\ 5M8["A, Sd%I]8Z U^I]\ CT]\ T[ VM:AMG"v! CT]\PVFND
VM:AMG" S[ H[ E}T5}J" 5]:TS 5|SFXS CTM T[6[ VM:AMG" Sd%I]8ZGL X~VFT SZL VG[ !)(!DF\
VM:AMG"!G]\ pt5FNG X~ SI]"P T[ 5M8["A, Sd%I]8Z Z$ 5Fpg0 JHGG]\ CT]\ VG[ T[GL lS\DT VD[lZSG
0M,Z !*)5 CTLP VM:AMG"!DF\ 5F\R .\RGL :S|LG4 DM0[D 5M8"4 A[ 5 !q$ O,M5L 0=F.J4 A\0<0 ;MO8J[Z
5|MU|Fd;GM lJXF/ HyYM VG[ A[8ZL 5[S CTF\P VF 8}\SFUF/F DF8[ VFJ[, Sd%I]8Z Sd5GL SIFZ[I ;O/ Y.
GCMTLP
,[58M5 Sd%I]8Z sGM8A]S Sd%I]8Z TZLS[ 56 VM/BFI K[PfV[ GFG]\ DMAF., 5;"G, Sd%I]8Z
K[P H[G]\ ;FDFgI ZLT[ JHG ! YL # lS,MU|FD sZ YL * 5Fpg0;f CMI K[P GM8A]S;GF 5[8F 5|SFZMDF\ sVG[
;\A\lWT Sd%I]8Z 8F.5DF\f GLR[GFGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P
A4 SNGF\ SFU/ SZTF\ GFGF VG[ ,UEU ! lSPU|FP JHGJF/F GM8A]S Sd%I]8;"G[
;AvGM8A]S; SC[JFI K[P
,UEU 5 lSPU|FP JHG WZFJTF GM8A]S Sd%I]8;"G[ SIFZ[S 0[:S GM8; SC[JFI K[P
s0[:S8M5qGM8A]S;fP
XlSTXF/L ,[58M5 sDM8[EFU[ EFZ[fS[ H[G[ 5Z\5ZFUT 0[:S8M5 NJFZF V5FTL Sd%I]8L\U XlSTGL
:5"WF SZJF l0hF.G SZFI K[ T[G[ 0[:S8M5 lZ%,[;D[g8; SC[JFI K[P
PDA YL DM8F 5Z\T] GM8A]SYL GFGF Sd%I]8;"G[ 5FD8M%; SC[JFI K[P
,[58M5 ;FDFgI ZLT[ A[8ZL 5Z RF,[ K[ V[8,]\ H GlC\ 5Z\T] T[ V[0%8;"YL 56 RF,[ K[ H[ D]bI JLH/L
JF5ZLG[ A[8ZLG[ 56 RFH" SZ[ K[P
0[:S8M5 Sd%I]8;" H[ SFI" SZL XS[ K[ T[JF\ 36F\ SFIM" SZJF ,[58M5 ;D1F CMI K[P HMS[ 0[:S8M5
H[8,L H lS\DT[ T[ VMKF XlSTXF/L CMI K[P ,[58M5DF\ T[GF H[JF 0[:S8M5 Sd%I]8ZDF\ CMI T[JF H
SD5MGg8; CMI K[ VG[ T[ T[J]\ H SFD SZ[ K[ 5Z\T] T[G[ DMAF., sC[ZO[Z DF8[f J5ZFX VG[ VMKF lJH/L
J5ZFX DF8[ GFGF AGFJJFDF\ VFjIF CMI K[ VG[ VM58LDF.h s1FDTFDF\ O[ZOFZf SZFI[, CMI K[P
,[58M5DF\ ;FDFgI ZLT[ ,LSJL0 S|L:8, l0:%,[ sLCDf CMI K[ VG[ RAM DF8[ So-DIMM-(Small
Outline Dimm) DM0I], JF5Z[ K[P s0[:S8M5 Sd%I]8;"DF\ J5ZF\TF lJXF/ DIMM SZTF\ V,Uf
;FY[ HM0[, SL AM0" p5ZF\T T[DF\ .G5]8 DF8[ 8R5[0 s8=[S5[0 TZLS[ 56 VM/BFI K[PfVYJF 5M.g8L\U
:8LS CMI K[P HMS[ T[DF\ AFCI DFp; VYJF SL AM0" ;FDFgI ZLT[ HM0L XSFI K[P

,[58M5 VG[ ,[58M5 A|Fg0 ov

Acer-travemate VG[ Aspire


Alienware-area 51m VG[ Sentia
Apple Computer-iBook VG[ Power Book
Asus
Averatee
Bacoc
183

Clevo
Compad-Evo, Armada VG[ Presario
Dell-inspiron VG[ Latitude
ECS
Fujitsusiemens - Lifebook
Hewlett Packard-HP Pavilion VG[ HP OMnibook
Lenovo-IBM Thinkpad
LG Xnote
Linuxcertified Linux Laptop
Medion
GM8A]S ov
Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) VYJF 5FD8M%;
PDA G[ D}/E}T ZLT[ CFYDF\ ZFBL XSFI T[JL l0JF.;L; TZLS[ 5;"G, VMZU[GF.hZ s0FIZLf SFI"
DF8[ l0hF.G SZJFDF\ VFJL CTL 5Z\T] T[ YM0F JQFM"YL JW] J{lJwI ;EZ AG[, K[P
A[lhS PDADF\ ;FDFgI ZLT[ 0[8A]S4 V[0=[;A]S4 8F:S ,L:84 D[DM 5[04 S,MS VG[ S[<SI],[8Z
;MO8J[Z CMI K[P 36F\ PDA CJ[ Wi-Fi VYJF Bluetooth 8[SGM,MHLGL DNNYL .g8ZG[8G[
V[S;[; SZ[ K[P PDA JF5ZJFGM V[S D]bI OFINM T[GL 5L;L VYJF 3ZGF\ Sd%I]8Z ;FY[ 0[8FG[
;LgS|MGF.; s;\\SMlRT SZJ]\f SZJFGL 1FDTF K[P
cc 5;"G, l0lh8, VFl;:8g8cc XaN HMCG :S,L NJFZF ,F;J[UF;4 lGJF0FDF\ Sg:I]DZ
.,[S8=MlGS; XM BFT[ V[5, gI]8GGM ;\NE" 8F\SLG[ H6FJJFDF\ VFjIM CTMP VFD KTF\ Psion VG[
Sharp lJhF0" H[JL VUFpGL l0JF.;L;DF\ PDA SCL XSFI T[JL SFI"1FDTFVM CTLP
CF,DF\ D]bI PDA VM5Z[l8\U l;:8D GLR[ D]HA K[P
Palm Os Plam Inc GL DFl,SLGL K[P
Windows Mobile (Pocket PC) (Windows CE SG[", 5Z VFWFlZTf DF.S|M;MO8GL
DFl,SLGL K[P
Blackberry Research in Motion GL DFl,SLGM K[P
Linux SG[", 5Z VFWFlZT 36L lJGF D}<I VM5Z[8L\U l;:8D; K[P sH[GL DFl,SL SM. S\5GLGL
GYLPf H[DF\ GLR[GFGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P
vv GPE VFWFlZT GTK +/x11
vv Opie / Qtopia H[ Qt / E VFWFlZT K[P Qtopia V[ Trollech N=FZF lJS;FJFI[, K[P Ople
V[ Qtopia GM OMS" K[P H[G[ ;[JFEFlJ jIlSTVMV[ lJS;FJ[, K[P
symbian OS ( VUFp Epo CTL ) H[GL DFl,SL V[ZLS;G4 5[GF;MlGS4 GMlSIF4 ;[D;\U4
;LD[g;4 VG[ ;MGL V[lZS;GGL K[P
36F\ PDA, ARM VFlS"8[SRZs ;FDFgI ZLT[ Intel*Scale 8=[0DFS"YL H6FJFTF\f GF
J[ZLI[XG JF5ZLG[ RF,[ K[P H[DF\ Risc DF.S|M5|M;[;;" GF\ JU"GM ;DFJ[X YFI K[ H[GM DMAF.,
l0JF.;L; VG[ V[dA[0[0 l;:8d;DF\ jIF5S56[ p5IMU YTM CTM VG[ T[GL l0hF.G !)*_ VG[ !)(_
GF N;SFVMGL ,MSl5|I MOS 8[SGM,MHL 6502YL B}A H 5|EFlJT CTLP S,Fl;S h05L X~VFT4 XF\T
SFDULZL4 DIF"lNT ;\U|C VG[ HuIF4 V[S SFI"JF/M UI VlEUDG[ SFZ6[ PDA G[ !)*_ VG[
!))_GF K[<,F JQFM"DF\ ,MSl5|I V[JF VMKF JLH/L J5ZFXJF/F4 GFH}S4 DIF"lNT 1FDTFJF/F CMD
Sd%I]8ZGF TFlS"S 5}ZMUFDL TZLS[ HM. XSFIP VF 5|SFZGF DXLGM V[ ,F\AM A}8vV5 ;DI ,[TF\4 ;lS|I
184

qWM\WF8JF/F S},L\U H[DF\ H~ZL K[ T[JF h05L SFDULZLJF/F CPU T[DH DM8L 1FDTFJF/L 56 JWFZFGF\
3M\3F8 VG[ UZDL 5[NF SZTL CF.0=F.j;GF\ ;FDFgI ,1F6MJF/F CTF\ H[GL HuIFV[ IBM PC GF\
5}ZMUFDL VFjIF\P
VgI p5IMUM ov

Media player
Audio recorder
camera (still & video)
wifi clients
video game emulator
OM8M A|FphZ
GPS ZL;LJZP
;[,OMG
0[8F :8MZ[H l0JF.;P

!5P!*P VFl8"lOXLI, .g8[,LHg;4 V[S;58" l;:8D4 l0;L;G ;5M8" l;:8D ov


VFl8"lOXLI, .g8[,LHg; sS'l+D A]lwW1FDTFf
VFl8"lOXLI, .g8[,LHg; sDXLG .g8[,LHg; TZLS[ 56 VM/BFI K[ VG[ H[G[ A1 8}\SF1FZM
VF5JFDF\ VFJ[, K[ V[ SM.56 pt5FlNT sV[8,[ S[ S'l+D f l;:8D wJFZF 5|NlX"T SZFTL A]lwW1FDTF K[P
VF XaN 36LJFZ ;FDFgI C[T]JF/F Sd%I]8;" DF8[ JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P T[DH A1 GF l;wWF\T VG[ jIJCFZ
p5IMUYL J{7FlGS XMWT5F;GF\ 1F[+DF\ JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
cc VFl8"lOXLI, .g8[,LHg; cc vAI XaN J{7FlGS S<5GFVMGF SFI" S[ H[ VFl8"lOXLI,
.g8[,LHg; NXF"J[ K[ T[GF DF8[ JF5ZJDF\ VFJ[ K[ HIFZ[ sAIfV[S :JT\+ VYJF JC[\RFI[, lDS[GLhDGM
p<,[B SZ[ K[P VFW]lGS AI ;\XMWG A]lwWXF/L JT"6}\SGL H~Z 50[ T[JF DFGJLI SFIM" VF5D[/[ SZJF
p5IMUL I\+MG]\ pt5FNG SZJF ;FY[ ;\A\lWT K[P H[GF pNFCZ6MDF\ lD,L8ZL I]lG8 H[JF ;FWGMG]\;DI
5+S GSSL SZJ]\4 U|FCSMGF pt5FNGM lJX[GF\ 5|`GMGM HJFA VF5JM4 EFQF6 ;DHJ]\ VG[ T[G]\
l,%IF\TZ6s8=Fg;S|F.Af SZJ]\ T[DH CCTV S[D[ZFDF\ RC[ZFVM VM/BJFP
VF ZLT[ T[ V[gHLGLIZL\U lX:T AG[ K[P BF; ;D:IFVMGF pS[, VF5JF 5Z wIFG S[gN=LT SZ[ K[P
5|YD VBFTL I]wWDF\ V[SDMGM ;DI GSSL SZJF AI 5wWlTVMGM p5IMU YIM CTM VG[ VF 1FDTFYL
AR[, BR"YL !)5_GF N;SFYL AI ;\XMWG DF8[ VD[lZSG ;ZSFZ[ SZ[, ;DU| D}0LZMSF6GL
5]GoEZ5F. SZL VF5[, K[P lJ`JEZDF\ 36F\ jIJ;FIM4 CMl:58, VG[ DL,L8ZL I]lG8DF\ T[GM ZMlH\NM
J5ZFX YFI K[ T[DH DF.S|M;MO8 VMlO; VG[ lJ0LIM U[d; H[JF ;FDFgI CMD Sd%I]8Z ;MO8J[ZDF\ 56
T[G[ ;F\S/JFDF\ VFJ[, K[P
V[1F58" l;:8D ov
V[1F58" l;:8D V[ V[JL Sd%I]8Z V[%,LS[XG K[ H[ DFGJLI lGQ6F\T wJFZF GSSL SZL XSFI]\ CMT
T[JF SFI" SZ[ K[P pNFCZ6 TZLS[4 S[8,LS V[1F58" l;:8D K[ H[ DF6;GL ALDFZLVMG]\ lGNFG SZL XS[ K[4
GF6F\SLI VFUFCLVM SZL XS[ K[ T[DH l0,LJZL JFCGM DF8[GF DFU"G]\ ;DI5+S T{IFZ SZ[ K[P S[8,LS
V[1F58" l;:8d; DFGJLI V[1F58"GL HuIF ,[JF AGFJJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ HIFZ[ VgI T[DG[ DNN SZJF T{IFZ
SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
185

V[1F58" l;:8d; V[ VFl8"lOXLI, .g8[,LHg; TZLS[ VM/BFTL Sd%I]8Z V[%,LS[XGGL ;FDFgI


S1FFGM EFU K[P V[1F58" l;:8D AGFJJF DF8[ HF6SFZLGF V[Ghlgliz4 H[ DFGJLI V[1F58" S[JL ZLT[
lG6"I ,[ K[ T[ VG[ Sd%I]8Z ;DHL XS[ T[JL EFQFFDF\ lGIDM ~5F\TlZT SZ[[ T[JF jIlST K[P
DFGJLI lGQ6F\T 1FDTFDF\YL lJS;FJ[, HF6SFZLGF\ VFWFZDF\YL lGQSQF" 5Z VFJLG[ VF5[, SM.
lO<0 VYJF V[%,LS[XGDF\ D]xS[,LVM pS[,JFG]\ ;Z/ AGFJGFZ Sd%I]8Z l;:8D K[P
GM\W G\P!ov
cc V[1F58" l;:8Dc XaNG[ SIFZ[S cc HF6SFZL VFWFlZT l;:8D cc XaNGF\ ;DFGFYL" TZLS[
JF5ZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P HM S[ T[ ;FDFgI ZLT[ V[1F58" HF6SFZL 5Z EFZ D}SJF J5ZFI K[P
GM\WPZ ov
S[8,LS V[1F58" l;:8D T[DGF\ HF6SFZLGF\ VFWFZG[ ;]WFZJF VG[ VUFpGL D]xS[,LVM ;FY[GF\
T[DGF\ VG]EJMG[ VFWFZ[ GJF lGQSQF"G[ lJS;FJJF ;1FD CMI K[P

l0;L;G ;5M8" l;:8D ov


l0;L;G ;5M8"V[ Sd%I]8ZF.h0 DFlCTL 5wWlTGM V[S JU" K[P H[ lG6"I ,[JFGL 5|J'lTVMG[ ;CFI
SZ[ K[P
8}\SF1FZMv DSS V[ XaN .g8ZV[lS8J Sd%I]8ZF.h0 l;:8D K[ H[ jIF5S ;FWGMGL S1FFDF\YL
8}\SF1FZM 0[8F V[Sl+T SZ[ K[ VG[ ZH] SZ[ KP[ DSS V[ ,MSMG[ lJlJW S1FFGF\ ;FWGMDF\YL jIJ;FlIS C[T]
DF8[ 5;\N SZ[, 0[8FGF VFWFZ[ jIlSTG[ lG6"IM ,[JFDF\ DNN SZTL l;:8D VG[ 5[8Fvl;:8D K[P
pNFCZ6 TZLS[ V[S ZFQ8=LI VMGv,F.G 5]:TSlJS|[TF T[GF\ pt5FNGMG]\ VF\TZ ZFQ8=LI :TZ[
J[RF6 SZJF .rK[ K[ 5Z\T] T[ ;FZM jIJ;FlIS lG6"I YX[ S[ S[D T[ GSSL SZJFGL H~Z 50[ K[P S\5GLDF\
T[GF\ SFDSFHGL 1FDTF VYJF ;\ElJT 1FDTF K[ S[ S[D T[ GSSL SZJF T[GF\ 5MTFGF\ ;FWGM sOLAP H[JF
;FWGMGL DNNYL f VYJF VF{nMlUS 0[8F H[JF AFCI ;FWGMDF\YL SM. DF\U 5}ZL SZJFGL K[ S[ S[D T[ GSSL
SZJF J[g0Z DSS JF5ZLG[ DFlCTL V[S+ SZL XS[ K[P DSS 0[8FG[ V[S+ SZX[ T[G]\ 5'YSSZ6 SZLG[
DF6;M wJFZF ;DHL XSFI T[JF :J~5[ ZH} SZX[ S[8,LS lG6"I ;CFIS 5wWlTVM VFl8"lOXLI,
.g8[,LHg; V[Hg8 TZLS[ JT"JFGL B}A H GHLS K[P
DSS V[%,LS[Xg; V[S, DFlCTL ;FWGM H[JF S[ 0[8F A[.h VYJF 5|MU|FD GYL H[ lR+MGL DNNYL
J[RF6GF\ VF\S0FVM ZH} SZ[ K[ 5Z\T] T[ ;FY[ SFD SZTF\ ;\Sl,T ;FWGMG]\ HM0F6 K[P

!5P!(P DF.S|M;MO8 5|M0S8;4 O|L ;MO8J[Z4 VM5G ;M;"4 SQL l,GS;P


DF.S|M;MO8 5|M0S8; ov
!)*5DF\ 5M, V[,G VG[ lA, U[8; wJFZF :YF5JFDF\VFJ[, DF.S|M;MO8 SM5M"Z[XG 5;"G,
Sd%I]8 pnMUDF\ ;F{YL DM8L VG[ JUJF/L S\5GLVMDF\GL V[S K[P DOS VG[ WINDOWS H[JL
JF:TlJS :8Fg00" VM5Z[l8\U l;:8d; lJS;FJJF p5ZF\T T[ 5|MU|FD 8}<;YL K[JF0[GF\ I]hZ DF8[GL
V[%,LS[Xg; V[D Sd%I]8Z ;MO8J[ZGF\ ,UEU TDFD 1F[+DF\ K[P

186

O|L ;MO8J[Z ov
DF.S|M;MO8 pt5FNGMDF\ VM5Z[l8\U l;:8d;4 VMlO; VM8MD[XG V[%,LS[XG4 ;R" V[gHLG4 U[d;4
.g8ZG[8 ;\A\lWT ;MO8J[Z VG[ 36L AWL V[%,LS[XGMGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P VM5Z[l8\U l;:8d;4 U[d;4
8}<;4 5[RL;4 VG[ .g8ZG[8 A|Fph;" H[JF O|L ;MO8J[Z .g8ZG[8 5Z p5,aW K[P
VM5G ;M;" ov s OPEN SOURCEf
VM5G ;M;"GM VY" OST ;M;" SM0 D/JFGM YTM GYLP 5|MU|FDDF\ ;M;" SM0GM ;DFJ[X CMJM
HM.V[ VG[ T[DF\ ;M;" SM0G]\ lJTZ6 T[DH Sd5F.<0 OMD" CMJF HM.V[P ;M;" SM0 ;FY[ S[8,LS 5|SFZGF\
pt5FNG JC[\RJFDF\ VFJTF GYL 5Z\T] JFHAL ZL5|M0SXG lS\DTYL sV[8,[ S[ .g8ZG[8 DFZOT[
0FpG,M0YLf ;M;" SM0 D[/JJFGF ;FZL ZLT[ 5|l;wW 5FD[,F ;FWGM D/JF HM.V[P ;M;" SM0 5;\N SZ[,
OMD" CMJ]\ HM.V[ H[DF\ 5|MU|FDZ 5|MU|FDDF\ ;]WFZF JWFZF SZL XS[P HF6L HM.G[ D]\hJ6DF\ GF\B[ T[JF ;M;"
SM0GL K}8 GYLP 5|L 5|M;[;Z VYJF 8=Fg;,[8ZGF\ 5lZ6FDM H[JF DwI:Y OMD"GL K}8 GYLP
SQL sV[;PSI}PV[,f
SQL GM VY" :8=SR0" SJ[ZL ,[\uJ[H YFI K[P SQL 0[8FA[.h ;FY[ ;\N[XFGL VF5v,[ SZJF
J5ZFI K[P ANSI s American National Standard Institutef GF\ DT[ ;\A\W,1FL 0[8FA[.h
D[G[HD[g8 l;:8D DF8[GL 5|DF6E}T EFQFF K[P
SQL :8[8D[g8;4 0[8FA[.hDF\ 0[8FG[ V50[8 SZJF VYJF 0[8FA[.hDF\YL 0[8F D[/JJF SZTF SFI"
DF8[ J5ZFI K[P SQL GM p5IMU SZTL S[8,LS ;FDFgI ;\AW,1FL 0[8FA[.h D[G[HD[g8 l;:8d;4
VMZ[S,4 Sybase4 Micro Soft SQL ;J"Z4Access4 Ingres JU[Z[ K[P HM S[ DM8FEFUGL
0[8FA[.h l;:8D SQL JF5Z[ K[ DM8FEFUGFG[ JWFZFGL 5|M5ZF.8ZL V[S:8[gXG CMI K[ T[ OST T[DGL
l;:8DDF\ H J5ZFI K[P VFDKTF\4 :8Fg00" SQL SDFg0; H[D S[ cc Selectcc 4 cc Insertcc4
upedate, Delete, CreateVG[ Drop GL DNNYL 0[8FA[.h ;FY[ SM.56 jIlST S\.56
D[/JJF DF\U[ T[ DF8[ SZL XSFI K[P

Linux sl,GS;f
l,GS; V[S Sd%I]8Z VM5Z[l8\U l;:8D K[ VG[ T[ SG[", K[ T[ O|L ;MO8J[Z VG[ VM5Gv;M;"
lJSF;GF\ VFU/ 50TF\ pNFCZ6MDFG]\ V[S K[P Windows VG[ Mac OS H[JL 5|M5|F.8ZL VM5Z[l8\U
l;:8DYL lJ5ZLT T[GL 5FK/GF\ TDFD ;M;"SM0 HGTF DF8[ p5,aW K[ VG[ SM.56 jIlST D]ST 56[ T[G[
JF5ZL4 ;]WFZL VYJF 5]Go JC[\R6L SZL XS[ K[P
;F{YL ;\l1F%T VY"DF\ ,LGS; XaN l,GS; SG[",GM p<,[B SZ[ K[ 5Z\T] T[ ;FDFgI ZLT[ ;DU|
Unix-Like Operating System sGNU / Linux TZLS[ 56 VM/BFI K[PfG]\ J6"G SZJF
J5ZFI K[ H[ GNU 5|MH[S8 VG[ VgI ;FWGMDF\YL ,F.A|ZL VG[ 8}<; ;FY[GF\ ;\I]ST Linux 5Z
VFWFlZT K[P JW] jIF5S VY"DF\ SCLV[ TM LinuxGL JC[\R6LDF\ D]bI l;:8D ;FY[ lJXF/ ;\bIFDF\
V[%,LS[XG ;MO8J[Z ;FY[ VF5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[ H[ JW] I]hZvO|[g0,L .g:8M,[XG VG[ V5U|[0 5}ZF\ 5F0[ K[P
X~VFTDF\4 Linux G[ pt;FCL jIlSTVMV[ lJS;FJ[, VG[ JF5Z[, CTLP tIFZYL IBM4 Sun
Microsystenus4 Hewlett-Packard VG[ Novell H[JF D]bI SM5M"Z[Xg;GM ;J"ZDF\ J5ZFX DF8[

187

LinuxG[ ;CIMU D/[, K[ VG[ T[ 0[:S8M5 AHFZDF\ ,MSl5|ITF D[/JL ZC[, K[P 5|M5MGg8 VG[ V[GFl,:8
VF ;O/TF T[DGF\ J[g0Z 5ZGF\ VFWFZ4 VMKL lS\DT4 ;,FDTL VG[ EZM;F5F+TFG[ H6FJ[ K[P
Linux V;,DF\ .g8[, #(& DF.S|M5|M;[;;" DF8[ lJS;FJ[, CT]\ VG[ CJ[ T[ TDFD ,MSl5|I
Sd%I]8Z VFlS"8[SRZsVG[ S[8,LS lJlR+f4 V[dA[0[0 l;:8d; sH[D S[ DMAF., OMg; VG[ 5;"G, lJ0LIM
Z[SM0"ZfYL 5;"G, Sd%I]8Z VG[ ;]5Z Sd%I]8;"DF\ ,UFJJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P

!5P!) ;MO8J[Z Jh"g;4 ;lJ"; 5[S4 ;MO8J[Z


;MO8J[Z Jh"g; ov
;MO8J[Z 0[J,5;" WLD[WLD[ ;MO8J[ZGF\ JH"G ACFZ 5F0JFGL 5wWlTGF\ l;wWF\T :JLSFZ[ K[P
;FDFgI ZLT[ Jh"G G\AZ A[ VYJF +6 VF\S0FVM H[D S[ Jh"G !PZP! YL VM/BJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P VF
pNFCZ6 NXF"J[ K[ S[ ;MO8J[Z T[GF 5|YD DM8F lZ,LhDF\4 ALHF 5M.g8GF\ lZ,LhDF\ VYJF T[GF 5|YD
GFGF ZL,Lh VYJF 5[RDF\ K[P
NZ[S ;MO8J[Z 5[S[HGL ;FY[ lZlJhG SM0 ,UFJ[, K[P lZlJhG SM0 5|M0S8DF\ z[6LANW
;]WFZFVM VF5[ T[ :JFEFlJS K[ 5Z\T] CSLSTDF\ ZLJLhG SM0DF\ T[GF SZTF\ 5|DF6DF\ JW] DFlCTL p5,aW
CMI K[P

;lJ";5[S ov
;lJ"; 5[SsSP TZLS[ ;FDFgI ZLT[ VM/BFT]\fV[S ;MO8J[Z 5|MU|FD K[ H[ HF6LTF Au;4
;D:IFVMG[ ;]WFZ[ K[ VYJF GJF lOR;" pD[Z[ K[P MicroSoft VG[ Windows NT VFWFlZT
VM5Z[8L\U l;:8D H[JL DM8L V[%,LS[Xg;G]\ pt5FNG SZTL S\5GLVM ;FDFgI ZLT[ V[%,LS[[XGGF V\\UT
5[R B}A JWL HFI K[ VG[ V[%,LS[XG DM8L AG[ tIFZ[ ;lJ"; 5[S ZL,Lh SZ[ K[P G[8JS"YL VG[S Sd%I]8;"G[
V50[8 SZJFGL H~Z 50[ tIFZ[ BF; SZLG[ 5[RGF\ ;D}CG[ .g:8M, SZJF SZTF\ ;lJ"; 5[SG[ .g:8M,
SZJFG]\ JW] ;C[,]\ K[P
;MO8J[Z 5[R .g:8M, YI[,L V[%,LS[XGDF\ HM0JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P VF 5[R J[g0ZGL J[A ;F.8 5ZYL
0FpG,M0 SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ VYJF TM SMd5[S8 l0:SvZL0 VMg,L D[DZL sCD-ROMfDFZOT[ JC[\RJFDF\
VFJ[ K[P VF 5[RG[ R,FJTF\4 T[ T[GL ,FU] 50TL V[%,LS[XGDF\ ;]WFZFvJWFZF SZ[ K[P

THE END

188