Sunteți pe pagina 1din 162

CRETCP IAI

PRIMITIVE
PROBLEME DE CONCURS

- selecie de probleme pentru clasa a XII-a -

Breviar teoretic ........................................................................................ pag.01
Probleme de concurs ................................................. Enunuri / Indicaii / Soluii
- probleme cu caracter calculatoriu
o cu funcii raionale ........................................................................................ pag.05 / pag.21 / pag.45
o cu funcii care conin radicali......................................................................... pag.05 / pag.21 / pag.46
o cu funcii care conin exponeniale ................................................................ pag.05 / pag.21 / pag.47
o cu funcii trigonometrice ................................................................................ pag.06 / pag.22 / pag.49
o cu integrare prin pri ..................................................................................... pag.06 / pag.23 / pag.52
o cu punerea ntr-o form avantajoas a integrantului ...................................... pag.06 / pag.23 / pag.53
o cu primitive surori .......................................................................................... pag.08 / pag.25 / pag.60
- probleme cu caracter teoretic
o ecuaii funcionale ........................................................................................... pag.09 / pag.26 / pag.67
o relaii funcionale care mpiedic o funcie s fie primitiva altei funcii ......... pag.11 / pag.29 / pag.81
o comportamentul la nmulire a funciilor primitivabile ................................... pag.12 / pag.31 / pag.89
o condiii suficiente pentru primitivabilitate ...................................................... pag.14 / pag.33 / pag.94
o condiii suficiente pentru non-primitivabilitate ............................................... pag.15 / pag.35 / pag.99
- probleme diverse I ................................................................................... enunuri: pag.127/soluii: pag.131
- probleme diverse II ............................................................................................ enunuri i soluii: pag.147






Profesor: SILVIU BOGA, silviumath@yahoo.com

Surse bibliografice:
1. Probleme de calcul integral, R. Miculescu, C. Ciobotaru, A. Roioru, N. Blnd, C. Lupu, Ed. GIL, 2005
2. Analiz matematic probleme pentru clasa a XII-a, D.M. Btineu, M. Btineu Giurgiu, I. Brchi Damian, A. Semenescu, Ed. MATRIX ROM, 2004
3. Poblems in Real Analysis: Advansed Calculus on the Real Analysis, T.-L.T. Rdulescu, V.D. Rdulescu, T. Andreescu, Ed. Springer, 2009

Iai 29 octombrie 2010
- 1 -
- 2 -
- 3 -
- 4 -
- 5 -
- 6 -
- 7 -
- 8 -
- 9 -
- 10 -
- 11 -
- 12 -
- 13 -
- 14 -
- 15 -
- 16 -
- 17 -
- 18 -
- 19 -
- 20 -
- 21 -
- 22 -
- 23 -
- 24 -
- 25 -
- 26 -
- 27 -
- 28 -
- 29 -
- 30 -
- 31 -
- 32 -
- 33 -
- 34 -
- 35 -
- 36 -
- 37 -
- 38 -
- 39 -
- 40 -
- 41 -
- 42 -
- 43 -
- 44 -
- 45 -
- 46 -
- 47 -
- 48 -
- 49 -
- 50 -
- 51 -
- 52 -
- 53 -
- 54 -
- 55 -
- 56 -
- 57 -
- 58 -
- 59 -
- 60 -
- 61 -
- 62 -
- 63 -
- 64 -
- 65 -
- 66 -
- 67 -
- 68 -
- 69 -
- 70 -
- 71 -
- 72 -
- 73 -
- 74 -
- 75 -
- 76 -
- 77 -
- 78 -
- 79 -
- 80 -
- 81 -
- 82 -
- 83 -
- 84 -
- 85 -
- 86 -
- 87 -
- 88 -
- 89 -
- 90 -
- 91 -
- 92 -
- 93 -
- 94 -
- 95 -
- 96 -
- 97 -
- 98 -
- 99 -
- 100 -
- 101 -
- 102 -
- 103 -
- 104 -
- 105 -
- 106 -
- 107 -
- 108 -
- 109 -
- 110 -
- 111 -
- 112 -
- 113 -
- 114 -
- 115 -
- 116 -
- 117 -
- 118 -
- 119 -
- 120 -
- 121 -
- 122 -
- 123 -
- 124 -
- 125 -
- 126 -
- 127 -
- 128 -
- 129 -
- 130 -
- 131 -
- 132 -
- 133 -
- 134 -
- 135 -
- 136 -
- 137 -
- 138 -
- 139 -
- 140 -
- 141 -
- 142 -
- 143 -
- 144 -
- 145 -
- 146 -
- 147 -
- 148 -
Antiderivatives
Nature and Nature's law lay hid in night. God said,Let Newton
be!,' and all was light.
-Alexander Pope (1688-1744), Epitaph on Newton
Abstract. The integral calculus is much older than the differential calculus, because
the computation of lengths, areas, and volumes occupied the greatest mathemati-
cians since antiquity: Archimedes, Kepler, Cavalieri, Barrow. The decisive break-
through came when Newton and Leibniz discovered that integration is the inverse
operation of differentiation, thus reducing much effort to a couple of differentiation
rules.
8.1 Main Dehnitions and Properties
And whereas Mr. Leibniz prfxes the
letter to the Ordinate of a curve to
denote the Sum of the ordinates or area
of the Curve, I did some years before
represent the same thing by inscribing
the Ordinate in a square My
symbols therefore are the oldest in
the kind.
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), Letter
to Keill, 1714
Let f be a real-valued function defned on a b. A differentiable function F is an
antiderivative (or a primitive) of f if
F x f x for any x a b
We shall use only the term antiderivative, and symbolically, we write
Fx f xdx
- 149 -
The mean value theorem implies that any two antiderivatives of a function f
differ by a constant. Thus, if F and G are antiderivatives of f then there exists C
such that F G C.
We observe that not every function has an antiderivative on a given interval
a b. Indeed, if f : a b has an antiderivative F on a b, then by Darboux`s
theorem, f F satisfes the intermediate value property. This shows that the pres-
ence of a jump discontinuity at a single point in a b is enough to prevent the
existence of an antiderivative F on a b. In other words, if f is defned on a b
and f c, f c exist but are not both equal to f c, for some c a b, then f
has no antiderivative on a b.
A large class of functions that have antiderivatives on a b is the class of all
continuous functions f : a b . Next, we investigate the converse of this state-
ment: to what extent does the existence of an antiderivative F of f determine the
continuity of f ? We frst observe that the derivative F x f x of the function
Fx
x
2
sin
1
x
if x 0
0 if x 0
exists for all x , but f is not continuous at x 0. This example shows that it is
possible for a function f to have an antiderivative and to be discontinuous at some
points.
Basic properties of antiderivatives.
(i) If f and g have antiderivatives on a b and k , so do f g and k f , and
f x gxdx f xdx gxdx
and
k f xdx k f xdx
(ii) Integration by Parts. If f and g are differentiable on a b and f g has an
antiderivative on a b, then so does f g , and
f xg xdx f xgx f xgxdx
(iii) Substitution. If g is differentiable on a b with ga b c d and f xdx
Fx on c d, then
f gxg xdx Fgx for all x a b
We end this preliminary section by listing a number of useful integration
formulas.
- 150 -
8.2 Elementary Examples
Facts are the air of scientists. Without
them you can never fy.
Linus Pauling (1901-1994)
0
1

2

1
0
Solution. Factor
2
under the square root. The integral transforms into
1

1
1
1

2

1
1


1
2
2

3
4
1

1

With the substitution 1

12 the integral becomes


1

3
4

1

ln
2

3
4

ln
1


1
2
1
1

2

1 2
2
e

Solution. Split the integral as


e

2
2
2
e

Denote the frst integral by


1
. Integrating by parts, we obtain
2
2
e

2
e

2
e

2
e

1

We deduce that
1 2
2
e

2
e

2
1

2
1

- 151 -
We rewrite the integral as

2
1
1

2
1
1

2

1
1

2
1
1

With the substitution 1 we have 1 1


2
, and the integral
becomes
1

2
1
arctan
We conclude that

2
1

2
1
arctan
1

1
e

1
0
Substitute e

1e

1, 0 1. Then ln1
2

ln1
2
and 21
2
21
2
. The integral becomes

2
1

2
1
4
2

2
1

2
1

4 2arctan
1
1

1
1

4 2arctan ln 1 ln 1
This shows that our integral is equal to
4
e

1
e

1
2arctan
e

1
e

1
ln
e

1
e

1
1 ln
e

1
e

1
1

2
1
0
We only sketch the proof by pointing out the main idea, which can be
applied to compute more general integrals such as
1

- 152 -
The indefnite integral may be also written as

1

We associate the related indefnite integral



1

Then

1
1

2
2

2
2

We also have


1

2
2

Both integrals can be computed easily, and the details are left to the reader.
8.3 Existence or Nonexistence of Antiderivatives
I would rather be a superb meteor,
every atom of me in magnifcent glow,
than a sleepy and permanent planet.
Jack London (1876-1916)
:

Solution. Since the range of is , which is not an interval, it follows


that does not have the intermediate value property. Thus, cannot be the derivative
of a function, or equivalently, does not admit antiderivatives.
:

inf

2
1
1
2

sup


2
1
1
2

Solution. A straightforward computation shows that


2
1 if
1
2

11
4
if
1
2

- 153 -
Since x 12 is a discontinuity of the second kind, it follows that f does not have
the intermediate value property; hence f does not admit antiderivatives.
f :
g : f g

Solution. Let F denote an antiderivative of f . Since g is continuous, it has anti-


derivatives. Let G be an antiderivative of g. Then Fg f g Fg . Since F and g
are continuous, it follows that Fg is continuous; hence it admits an antiderivative
H. Thus, f g Fg H , which shows that f g has antiderivatives.
a 0 b a
2
b 0
f :
f f x a f x bx x
f
Solution. Arguing by contradiction, let F denote an antiderivative of f . We frst
prove that f is one-to-one. Indeed, if f x f y then f f x f f y; hence
a f x bx a f y by, which implies x y. Since f is one-to-one and has the
intermediate value property, it follows that f is strictly monotone.
Let us frst assume that f is decreasing and fx x y. Then f x f y, which
implies f f x f f y, that is, a f x bx a f y by. We deduce that
0 a f x f y by x 0, a contradiction.
Next, we assume that f is increasing. It follows that f f f in increasing. On
the other hand, for all x ,
f f f x a f f x b f x aa f x bx b f x a
2
b f x abx
The equality f f f a
2
b f ab1

is impossible, since the left-hand side is


an increasing function, while the right-hand side decreases.
f : f x 1x x 0
f
Solution. We argue by contradiction and assume that F is an antiderivative of f .
By hypothesis we have f 1x x, for any x 0. Therefore
1
x
2
f
1
x
1
x

which can be rewritten as


F
1
x
lnx 0 for all x 0
This shows that the function x :F1xlnx is nonincreasing on 0 . Hence
1 F1 lim
x
x
which is a contradiction. This concludes the proof.
- 154 -
8.4 Qualitative Results
Facts are many, but the truth is one.
Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941)
a
n

n 1
0 f :
f x a
n
f x x
n 1 f
Solution. Let F be an antiderivative of f . By hypothesis, there exists a constant
C such that Fx a
n
Fx C.
We observe that for any a there exists a sequence of integers b
n
such that
lim
n
a
n
b
n
a. Indeed, if b
n
denotes the integer part of aa
n
, then
a a
n
b
n
r
n
, with 0 r
n
a
n
. Using this and taking r
n
0 in our hypothesis,
we fnd that a
n
b
n
a.
Fix a real number x
0
. We have
Fx
0
a
n
b
n
Fx
0
Fx
0
b
n
a
n
Fx
0
b
n
1a
n
Fx
0
a
n

Fx
0

b
n
Fx
0
a
n
Fx
0

a
n
b
n
Fx
0
a
n
Fx
0

a
n

Since F is differentiable, we obtain, as n ,


Fx
0
a Fx
0
aF x
0

Since a is arbitrarily chosen, we obtain for all x ,


Fx Fx
0
x x
0
F x
0
Fx
0
x
0
F x
0
xF x
0

that is, Fx BAx, with A and B real constants. Hence f x A F x


0
.
I g : I
f : I f g
f : I
f g
f
1
x
e
x
cos
1
x
i f x 0
0 i f x 0
f
2
x
0 i f x 0
sin
1
x
cosx i f x 0
f
3
x
e
x
2
sin
1
x
i f x 0
0 i f x 0

- 155 -
(a) In particular, f has the intermediate value property, so f I is
an interval in . It follows that f has constant sign on I, which implies that
any antiderivative F of f is strictly monotone, so one-to-one. Thus, the mapping
F : I FI is bijective. Moreover, since F x f x 0, we deduce that the func-
tion F
1
: FI I is differentiable. This implies that the mapping
h g F
1
: FI is continuous, so h admits antiderivatives on FI. Let H
be an antiderivative of h. Hence H F : I is differentiable, and a straightforward
computation shows that H F is an antiderivative of f g.
(b) Let us assume that f is bounded from below. Thus, there exists m such that
f m 0 on I. By (a), the function f mg : h admits antiderivatives on I.
It follows that the function f g h mg admits antiderivatives on I, too.
(c) It suffces to apply the above results.
f : T
F f T
g :
Fx
1
T
T
0
f tdt x gx
Using the relation f t T f t for any t , it follows that
Fx T Fx
T
0
f tdt for all x
Considering the function hx
1
T
T
0
f tdt x, we have
hx T hx
T
0
f tdt
Hence Fx T Fx hx T hx, or equivalently, Fx T hx T
Fx hx. Thus, the function defned by gx Fx hx, x , is periodic of
period T.
P f :
f f x f x f x x
P
P
P
- 156 -
(i) If f is a P-function, and f x 0 for some x , the mean value
theorem shows that f vanishes at some point between x and x f x: 0 f x
f x f x f x f .
(ii) Try a nonconstant polynomial function f . Identifcation of coeffcients forces
f x x
2
px q, where p and q are two arbitrarily fxed real numbers.
This is not at all accidental. As shown in the comment that follows the solu-
tion, every nonconstant P-function whose derivative vanishes at a single point
is of this form.
(iii) Let f be a P-function. By (a), the set Z x : x and f x 0 has at
least one element. We now show that if it has more than one element, then it
must be all of . The conclusion will follow. The proof is broken into three
steps.
STEP 1. If f vanishes at some point a, then f x 0 for x a, and f x 0
for x a. The argument is essentially the same in both cases, so we deal only
with the frst one. We argue by reductio ad absurdum. Suppose f x
0
0 for
some x
0
a and let inf x : x x
0
and f x 0 ; clearly, this infmum
exists. By continuity of f , f 0 and f x 0 for x
0
x ; in partic-
ular, f is strictly monotonic (decreasing) on x
0
. Consider further the contin-
uous real-valued function g : x x f x, x , and note that gx x for
x
0
x , and g . Since g x
0
and g is continuous, gx x
0
for x in x
0
, suffciently close to . Consequently, for any such x, x
0
gx
x , and f gx f x, which contradicts the strict monotonicity of f on
x
0
.
STEP 2. If f vanishes at two points a and b, a b, then f is constant on a b.
By Step 1, f x 0 for x b and f x 0 for x a, so f vanishes identically on
a b. Consequently, f is constant on a b.
We are now in a position to conclude the proof.
STEP 3. If the set Z x : x and f x 0 has more than one element,
then Z is all of . By Step 2, Z is a nondegenerate interval, and f is constant on
Z: f x c for all x in Z. We show that inf Z and supZ .
Suppose, if possible, that . Then is a member of Z, by continuity of f .
Recall the function g from Step 1. By Step 1, f x 0 for x , so gx x,
f x is strictly monotonic (increasing), and f x c for x . Since f x is
strictly monotonic for x , the conditions f gx f x and gx x force
x gx. Since g , and g is continuous, it follows that gx
for x , suffciently close to . Finally, take any such x and recall that Z is
an interval to conclude that gx Z, so f x f gx c, in contradiction to
f x c established above. Consequently, . A similar argument shows that
.
The antiderivative test for series, which we now state and prove, follows from
the mean value theorem and the fact that a series of positive terms converges if and
only if its sequence of partial sums is bounded above.
- 157 -


lim


1
1
(8.1)
1 (8.2)
0

1 (8.3)
(i) For we apply the mean value theorem to on 1.
Therefore
1

for some

1. Since is nonincreasing, we have


1

1 for (8.4)
But

1 1 for
so relation (8.4) implies

1 1

for (8.5)
Now, if

converges, the right-hand term in (8.5) is bounded above, so
that (8.5) implies that is bounded on the set of integers that are greater than or
equal to . But 0, and consequently is increasing on ; hence
is bounded on .
Conversely, if is bounded on , relation (8.5) implies that the sequence of
partial sums for the series

1 is bounded above. Thus,

1 and

are convergent.
(ii) The requirement that lim

0 can always be met if has an antideriva-


tive that is bounded above. For example, if 11
2
we would get
arctan 2 instead of arctan.
- 158 -
We introduce the following notation:


1
;
hence

is the error if we approximate by

.
If lim

0, then is bounded on , so that the series



is
convergent, by part (i). Now, if we let in (8.5), we obtain


Since (8.5) is valid when any is substituted for , we have

for all (8.6)


The left side of (8.6) implies that

, and the right side of (8.6) implies


1

. Thus, inequality (8.1) of (ii) holds for . Inequality (8.2)


follows from (8.1); just let in (8.1) and add throughout, noticing that

. Moreover, relation (8.1) implies


0

1 1
for ; hence (8.4) yields
0

1 for
which is inequality (8.3).
EXAMPLE 1. The series
1


converges if 1 and diverges if 1.
Indeed, since
1
1 for 1, then 0 as if 1, and
as if 1. Thus, for any 1,
81 implies
1
1
1

1
1
for 1
82 implies 1
2
1
1
1
1
1

83 implies 0

1

for 1
EXAMPLE 2. Inequality (8.1) implies that
4
approximates
1
e

2
accu-
rately to four places. Indeed, since e

2
2
, then 0510
4
when
4 2 ln10.
- 159 -
8.5 Independent Study Problems
Order is Heaven`s frst law.
Alexander Pope (1688-1744), An
Essay on Man IV
sec
3
xdx
secx tanx ln secx tanx
2
C x 0
2

a f :
f x
sin
2 1
x
cos
3 1
x
i f x 0
a i f x 0
a 0 1
f x
cos
1
x
x
a
i f x 0
0 i f x 0
f : F : 0
0 x f x
F : f :
f x x 1 x x x
0

Fx
0
x
0
f : lim
x
f xx
lim
x
f xx 0
f x
f
1
x
i f x 0
0 i f x 0
gx
cos
1
x
3
x
i f x 0
0 i f x 0
- 160 -