A.Keith Escoe
Mechanical Dsign
of hocess Sy$erns
Volume
I
hesun \bsels
Piping ard
O 1986 by Gulf Publishing Compann Houston,'Ibxas. rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproducd in any form without permission of the publisher.
All
Copyright
Library of Congrcss CataloginginPublication Data Escoe, A. Keith. Mechanical design of process systems. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Chemical plantsDesign and consbuction.
L Title.
TP155.5.E83
1986
6@.2' 8l
8522005
IY
Contents
Foreword
by John J. McKetta
...,....vii
.. , .... ...
ix
81
Preface
Chapter 1 Piping Fluid
Extraneous Piping Loads, 83 Example 2l: Applying the Stiffness Method to a Modular SkidMounted Gas Liquefaction
Mechanics
...........
Basic Equations, I NonNewtonian Fluids, 5 Velocity Heads, 8 Pipe Flow Geometries, 22 Comoressible Flow. 25 Piping Fluid Mechanics Problem Formulation, 25 Example 11: Friction Pressure Drop for a Hydrocarbon GasSteam Mixture in a Pipe, 27
Facility,88 Example 22: Applying the Flexibility Method to a Steam Turbine Exhaust Line, 95 Example 23: Flexibility Analysis for Hot Oil Piping,96 Example 242 Lug Design, 98 Example 25: Relief Valve Piping System, 99 Example 261 WindInduced Vibrations of Piping, 100 Notation, 101 References, 101
Example 12: Frictional Ptessure Drop for a Hot Oil System of a Process Thnk, 33 Example 13: Friction Pressure Drop for a Waste Heat Recovery System, 42 Example 14: Pressure Drop in Relief Valve Piping System, 43 Notation, 45
References, 45
...
103
.,...47
Heat Transfer through Cylindrical Shells. Residual Heat Transfer through Pipe Shoes.
Example 31: Example 32: Example 33: Example 34: Thnk, 140 Example 35: Tank, 142
Internal Baffle Plates Film Coefficient. Film Coefficient External to BafflesForced Convection. Heat Duty of Internal Vessel
Plates. Outside Heat Transfer Jacket Plates. Heat Duty of Jacket Plates Clamped to Bottom Vessel Head. Total Heat Duty of Tank.
Example 43: Seismic Analysis of a Vertical Tower, 237 Example 44: Vibration Analysis for Tower with Large VortexInduced Displacements, 241
Moments of Inertia. Wind Deflections.
Example 37: Heat Transfer through Vessel Skirts, 152 Example 3E: Residual Heat Transfer, 154 Example 39: Heat Transfer through Pipe Shoe,
156
Example 45: Saddle Plate Analysis of Horizontal Vessel, 249 Notation,252 References,254
Vessels
... . .....
Cafcufations
.....25s
Designing for Internal Pressure, 159 Designing for External Pressure, 160 Design of Horizontal Pressure Vessels, 166
Longitudinal Bending Stresses. Location of Saddle Supports. Wear Plate Design. Zick Stiffening Rings.
Steel Saddle Plate Design, 174 Saddle Bearing Plate Thickness, 180 Design of SelfSupported Vertical Vessels, 180
Partial Volumes of Spherically Dished Heads, 256 Partial Volumes of Elliptical Heads, 257 Partial Volumes of Torispherical Heads, 259 Internal Pressure ASME Formulations with Outside Dimensions, 261 Internal Pressure ASME Formulations with Inside Dimensions,262
Minimum Shell Thickness Reouired for Combined Loads, 181 Support Skirt Design, 183 Anchor Bolts, 184 Base Plate Thickness Design, 186 Compression Ring and Gusset Plate Design, 189 Anchor Bolt Torque, 189 Whd Aralysis of Towers, 190
r'\'ind Design Speeds. WindInduced Moments. $ indInduced Deflections of Towers. l indInduced Vibrations on Tall Towers. O\aling. Criteda for Vibration Analysis.
.........
265
Criteria for Determining Wind Speed, 265 Wind Speed Relationships, 266 ANSI A58.11982 Wind Cateeories. 267
Appendix C Properties of
Pipe.
,.....271
Seismic Design of Tall Towers, 209 \anical Distribution of Shear Forces. Tower Shell Discontinuities and Conical Sections,
1t i
Exanple
215
{l:
.....
. 303
Synchronous Speeds, 31 1 Temperature Conversion. 3l 2 Altitude and Atmospheric Pressures, 313 Pressure Conversion Chart, 314
{\S[
A58.1 1982.
Index
..
.... . ...
315
vl
Foreword
The engineer who understands the impact of process design decisions on mechanical design details is in a position to save his client or his company a lot of money. That is because the test of any process design is in how costeffectively it yields the desired product, and how "cost" generally translates to "equipment": How much will the process require? How long will it last? How much energy will it consume per unit of product? Process Systems,
proper respect in two excellent chapters on fluid mechanics and the engineering mechanics of piping. The chapter on heat transfer in vessels and piping illustrates lucidly the interrelationship between process and mechanical design. Every engineer working with industrial process systems will benefit from reading this
chaDter.
In this twovolume work on Mechanical Design of A. K. Escoe has performed a monumental service for mechanical design engineers and
chemical process engineers alike. It is presented in such a manner that even the neophyte engineer can grasp its full value. He has produced an indepth review of the way in which process design specifications are interpreted into precise equipment designs. Perhaps most valuable of all are the extensive worked examples throughout the text, of actual designs that have been successfully executed in the field. The piping system is the central nervous system of a fluid flow orocess. and the author has treated this with
Although the author has made a herculean effort in covering the mechanical design of pressure vessels, heat exchangers, rotating equipment, and bins, silos and stacks, it is true that there are omissions. It is hoped that, as the author hints in his preface, a future volume might be added covering multiphase flow, specific cogeneration processes, turbines, and detailed piping dynamics. Still, at this writing these two volumes comprise an outstanding practical reference for chemical and mechanical engineers and a detailed instructional manual for students. I recommend these volumes highly for each design engineer's professional library.
John J. McKexa. Ph.D., P.E. Joe C. Waher Professor of Chemical Engineering UniversitY of Texas ' Austin
vii
Dedication
To the memory of my beloved parents, Aubrey H. Escoe and Odessa Davies Escoe; and to. the dedicated engineer, Dr. Judith Arlene Resnik, U.S. astronaut aboard
5lL).
vll
d{ ry,'
heface to Volume I
This book's purpose is to show how to apply mechanical engineering concepts to process system design. Process systems are common to a wide variety of industries including petrochemical processing, food and pharmaceutical manufacturing, power generation (including cogeneration), ship building, and even the aerospace industry. The book is based on years of proven, successful practice, and almost all of the examples described are from process systems now in operation. While practicality is probably its key asset, this first volume contains a unique collection ofvaluable information, such as velocity head data; comparison ofthe flexibility and stiffness methods of pipe stress analyses; anal
felt that this book is a valuable supplement to any standard or code used. The book is slanted toward the practices of the ASME vessel and piping codes. In one area of vessel design the British Standard is favored because it nrovides excellent technical information on Zick rings. The book is written to be useful regardless of which code or standard is used. The intent is not to be heavily prejudiced toward any standard, but to discuss the issueengineering. If one feels that a certain standard or code should be mentione.d, please keep in mind that there are others who may be using different standards and it is impossible to
discuss all of them. The reader's academic level is assumed to be a bachelor of science degree in mechanical engineering, but engineers with bachelor of science degrees in civil, chemical, electrical, or other engineering disciplines should have little difficulty with the book, provided, of course, that they have received adequate academic training or experience.
ysis of heat transfer through pipe supports and vessel skirts; a comprehensive method on the design of horizontal vessel saddles as well as a method to determine when wear plates are required; detailed static and dynamic methods of tower design considering wind gusts, vortexinduced vibration and seismic analysis of towers; and a comparative synopsis of the various national wind
cooes.
typically encountered in engineering practice. Therefore, because most mechanical systems involve singlephase flow, twophase flow is not covered. Because of its ubiquitous coverage in the literature, flange design is also excluded in this presentation. Since all of the major pressure vessel codes thoroughly discuss and illustrate
the phenomenon of external pressure, this subject is only
courses in the mechanical, civil, or chemical engineering fields. The book can also be used to supplement an intro
mentioned briefly.
This book is not intended to be a substitute or a replacement of any accepted code or standard. The reader is strongly encouraged to consult and be knowledgeable of any accepted standard or code that may govern. It is
ductory level textbook. The French philosopher Voltaire once said, "Common sense is not very common," and unfortunately, this is sometimes the case in engineering. Common sense is often the byproduct of experience, and while both are essential to sound engineering practice, neither can be
ix
*
learned from books alone. It is one ofthis book's eoats to unite these three elements of "book learning," c6mmon sense, and experience to give the novice a better grasp of engineering principles and procedures, and serve as a practical design reference for the veteran engineer. Finally, I wish to thank Dr. John J. McKetta, professor of chemical engineering at the University of Texas at Austin, who had many helpful comments, suggestions,
and words of encouragement. I also wish to thank other engineering faculty members at the University of Texas at Austin for their comments. I must exDress thanks to
in
Chapter 4; and last, but certainly not least, I wish to express gratitude to William J. Lowe and Timothy W. Calk of Gulf Publishing Company, whose hard work and patience made this book oossible.
.{
j&ir,,
The study of fluid energy in piping systems is a comprehensive subject that could in itself fill countless volumes. This chapter is primarily concerned witl fluid energy dissipated as friction resulting in a head loss.
Pr
(r2)
Although this topic is popularly known in industry as "hydraulics," the term "piping fluid mechanics" is used here to avoid confusion.
I and 2 refer to flow upstream (after the flow process) and downstream (before the flow process), respectively, and
where subscripts
Pt
Pz
BASIC EOUATIONS
The basic equation of fluid mechanics, originally derived by Daniel Bernoulli in 1738, evolved from the principle of conservation of energy:
Vt^ V' :
29"
:dz
(Yr
p
where
29"
g"
,]V r ,{E
r
,llr. + ,1ll^
(ll)
Yr)
I =
F
friction 1o* in
!JlQ,
cm (kg)
P: 8": dY:
F: He: HE:
gravitational acceleration
cm/sec2; 1.0 height above datum, ft, cm differential between height above datum and
g/9" :
32.2 fllsecz,
The following are expressions of the Bernoulli equation when applied to various incompressible and compressible flow conditions:
Incompressible
reference point, ft, cm head loss, friction loss, or frictional pressure drop, ftlbr/Ib., cmkg6/g. energy added by mechanical devices, e.g. pumps, ftlb/Ib., cmkg/g. energy extracted by mechanical devices, e.g.
p,  P.
v,2
f low 
Rewriting Equation l1 along a fluid streamline between points 1 and 2 with steady, incompressible flow and no mechanical energy added or extracted results in
FJn
H X[
_[*l
[*l]
(zz
 z,
+F+HA+HE
H [1 [' where
(,*J'."']
\* /p\ l  : l:l : general gas law \Prl \rrl k : .specific heat ratio (adiabatic coefficient),
/o
t lt
Cp :
C, :
Btu/lb.'F
specific heat at constant volume, Btu/lb"F
Equation 12 is the analytical expression that states a pressure loss is caused by a change in velocity head, static head, and ftiction head. The most cofirmon units are "feet of head." lb. and lbr do not cancel out and the
Forcing a fluid through a pipe component requires energy. This energy is expended by shear forces that develop between the pipe wall and the fluid, and to a lesser extent among the fluid elements themselves. These shear forces are opposed to fluid flow and require excess energy to overcome. Figure 1l shows a simple version of this phenomenon and illustrates how shear stresses increase in the radial direction away from the pipe center line and are maximum within the boundary layer next to the wall. Friction energy loss is a resuit of these shear stresses next to the pipe wall. Excess loss in energy occurs because of local turbulence and changes in the direction and speed of flow. As a fluid changes direction, energy is expended because of a change in momentum. The methods used to determine energy loss caused by wall friction are essentially the same, where the pipe component is treated as a straight piece of pipe. However, the methods used to determine energy loss caused by change in momentum differ, and a couple are described as follows.
Equivalent Length
In this approach to determining energy loss caused by fluid momentum, a piping component is extended a theoretical length that would yield the same energy loss as the actual component. This length is called the "equivalent length" because it is that length required to obtain the same amount of friction pressure drop as the piping component alone. The major problem with
a change in
cumbersome to use, because the friction loss is the parameter most often desired. The friction loss is the work done by the fluid in overcoming viscous resistance. This friction loss can only rarely be analytically derived and is determined by empirical data developed through experi
mental testins
dv oy
x+c
[,
9e a"] or1'1
rf>

Figure 11. Shear stresses in fully developed flow. Shown here are imaginary fluid elements "slipping" over one another.
Piping Fluid
Mechanics
this method is that the equivalent length for a pipe component varies with the Reynolds number, roughness, size, and geometry of the pipe. All these par.rmeters must be analyzed in using this method.
into the piping system, the factor F in Equation 12 becomes the desired parameter. This friction loss is the work done by the fluid in overcoming viscous resistance and loss attributed to turbulence. The parameter F is composed of two components, pipe wall friction and losses for the various pipe fittings, pipe entrances, pipe exits, and fluid obstructions that contribute to a loss in
and is replacing the equivalent length method in fluid calculations. Throughout this book, the velocity head approach will be used. The velocity head is the amount of kinetic energy in a fluid, Y2l2g". This quantity may be represented by the amount of potential energy required to accelerate a fluid to a given velocity. Consider a tank holding a fluid with a pipe entrance shown in Figure 12. We draw a streamline
fluid energy. These latter losses are described in terms of velocity heads, K;. In solving for F in Equation 12, we first obtain pressure loss attributed to pipe wall friction, represented by
AP. '
(13)
By adding values of velocity head losses to Equation 13, we obtain the lollowing for any piping system:
from point 1 of the fluid surface to point 2 at the pipe entrance. Applying Equation 12 at point 1 we obtain the followins:
aP,
)r,l4I .6c
I
.,,
(l4)
1= p
\,,
PrP2_Pr_V22
where is the dependent pipe friction of the pipe of diameter d over the length L, and DK; the summation of velocity head losses. Equation l4 provides the friction pressure drop in a pipe for a steadystate incompressible fluid of fully developed flow with a flat veiocity profile.
flld
PP2g"
in which the change in fluid pressure between points I and,2 is Y ] l2g, or one velocity head. A pressure gauge mounted on the pipe entrance would record the difference of pressure of one velocity head. This term is accounted for in Equation 12 by Y y2  Y2212g.. Analyzing a simple conversion from potential to kinetic energy is an elementary procedure, as demonstrated. After the fluid passes through the pipe entrance
Examples of this equation are given after the terms in Equation 14 are further explained. The term (flld) (pV2l2g") expresses the amount of energy loss attributed to shear forces at the pipe wall and is based on experimental evidence. It is a function of the pipe component length and diameter and the velocity of the fluid. Writing the relationship for friction pressure drop as a result of pipe wall friction results in
'p' 
[L
t+qd
pV']
'
'J'
where Fp,
L: d:
11.
Equation l5 may be expressed in various forms. To express flow rate in gpm (w) and d in inches use
FPf
0.000217 fLW/d5
(l5a)
Equation l5 is the most commonly used relationship and is known as the Fanning equation. Dividing the equation by p/144 yields feet of friction loss rather than
psl. Figure 12. Storage tank.
The reader is cautioned in applying the friction factor f, because it is not always defined as above and some au
thors use 4f1 in place of f. If such factors are used, particular attention should be paid to the specific friction factor chart used. The friction factor f is dependent upon the dimensionless term expressing the roughness of the pipe (E/D, where E is the depth of the pipe) and the dimensionless
Reynolds number
factor data can be obtained and better understood through use of new methods for measuring roughness.
Nr"
dpV/M, where
viscosity of the fluid, inJb1sec/ftz. The Reynolds number is the single most important parameter in fluid mechanics because it establishes flow regimes and dynamic sirnilarity. The relationship between the friction factor f, the pipe roughness, and the Reynolds number is shown in the classic relationship given by Moody in Figure 13. Figure l3 may be presented in a more convenient form as shown in Figure 14, where the relative roughness of the pipe is based on a single value of roughness. This value of roughness must be an average value estimated to simplii/ the problem. The figures presented herein are the best available until more reliable friction
l1,
is the absolute
lent. The Reynolds numbers establishing these zones are 2,100 for laminar, 2,100 to 3,000 for transition zone, and 3,000 or more for turbulent The basis for Figure 13 is the classic Colebrook equatron

r1r,
(l 6a)
<
NR"
<
108
For laminar flow the friction factor is determined by the simple expression
"64
Nn.
(16b)
.05 .04
.o? .0t5
.04
.01
=
oo4 : 003 :
002
.0015
.01
.009
2 3 4 56 Blo5 2 3 4 56 to7 \2 qs9l r, If* , o i' n., ,' ir *4r = = f '. ff Figure 13. Moody friction factors. (Repdnted from Pipe Friction Manual, @ 1954 by Hydraulic Institute. Data from L. Moody, Frioion Faaors for Pipe Flow, permission of ASME.) z J 4 56 8 rot
R?ynotds Nunber n"
.008
? 3 4 56 I
F.
#( 8u
Piping Fluid Mechanics
Pipe oiameter, in Fet
/)
,=
,/
Figure 14. Relative roughness of pipe materials and friction factors for complete turbulence. (Courtesy of Crane Company [5]. Data from L. F Moody, Friction Factors for Pipe Flow permission of ASME.)
Equation 16a, which describes the friction factor for turbulent flow in pipe of any roughness, is a simple addi tion of the Prandtl solution for smooth pipe and the von Karman solution for rough pipe. The relationship holds for the transition between rough and smooth pipe. To solve Equation 16a for the friction factor f an iterative analysis is required because the function is nonhomogeneous and inseparable. There are several empirical relations of f expressed as an independent separate function of f G/d, NR.), but with today's microcomputers Equation l6 can be solved more accurately and expediently with iteration.
Dimensional forms of Equation 14 are presented in Table 11 [1], where the equation is conveniently shown in various units that are used to solve fluid pressure loss problems.
NON.NEWTONIAN FLUIDS
The Colebrook equation holds for fluids whose flow properties are dependent on the fluid viscosity. These fluids consist of all gases, liquids, and solutions of low molecular weieht and are known as Newonian fluids. In
rll
= rate APr or pHr L IrNr">2,ooo'r:[2 g nvz w {*r^,.i + * rr 'l pt)pD pD2 e \ 'l uoQ' cQP dQ pv' /!& * ",. D4 pD D2 \ D ' L\J . "
Row
Conventlonal units Units and constants
Plessure Ol?p,
ne
[11
loglqQ27etD+(?/NR"o)],'
Metric units
AP(H'
w(Q)
D
e
psl
psl
(gprn)
lb/h
ln. in.
(ft)
tb/h
(f9
ln.
inHrO[60"F]
(acfm) In.
ft
lb/ft3
cp
tn. tn.
p
HV
a
ft
lb/ft3 cp
ln. ln.
ft
lb/ft3 cp
in.
bar kg/s mm
rnm
bar
(L/s)
mm mm
Pa
(m)
(m3/s)
ft
in.
ft
lb/ft3
cp
m
kglm3
mPas(cp) m/s
kg/s m m
m
m
m
kg/m3 mPas(cp)
tb/f13
m
kg/m3
Pas
m
kg/m3
Pas
ftls
psi 6.316 0.05093 9,266
b
ftls
psr
ftls
cp
ft
ft/s
ft
ft/min
in. H2O
0.02792
bar
8.106 x 106 1,000
1.273
d
e
6.316 64 1aY ^
0.05093
t2
379.0
183.3
1.204
m/s
Pa
m/s
m
0.08265
0.8106
9,266
I
r.273
1.273
2
velocity head
pipe roughness fluid viscosity fluid density
I
1.273 1.273
106
1.273 x106
106
2xttr
a,b,c,d,e D
HI
piF
a=
2xlo5 HV =
19.61xp
volumetric flowrate
Reynolds number
velocity
: =
ical behavior. NonNewtonian fluids are those in which the viscosity alone does not define their rheological behavior. Sucir fluids are solutions composed of solid particles that ex_ pand. Clay and very dense slurries are examples of non_ )iewronian fluids. The flow properties of suih fluids are a function of the particle characteristics, e.g., size and flexibility and thermal expansion. Purely viscous nonNewtonian fluids are classified into dree categories: timedependent and timeindepen_ dent and viscoelastic. A timedependent fluid displays slo*' changes in rheological properties, such as thixbtro_ pic fluids that exhibit reversible structural chanses. Several ty,pes ofcrude oil fit inro this category. Anoiher rype of tinre{ependent nonNewtonian fiuid is rheooectic fluids Under constant sustained shear, these fluidi. rate of srrucrural deformation exceeds the rate of structural decav. One such category of fluids is polvester. Rheqectic fluids are less common than thixotrooic fluids.
pseudoplastic fluids. ln pseudoplastic fluids an intinitesimal shear stress will initiate motion and the ratio of shear stress with velocity decreases with increasins ve_ locity gradient. This type of fluid is encountered in iolu_ tions or suspensions of fine particles that form loosely bounded aggregates that can break down or reform witL an increase or decrease in shear rate. Such solutions are aqueous dispersions of polyvinyl acetate and of an acrv_ clic copolymer: aqueous solutions of sodium carboxy_
Timeindependent fluids that are purely viscous are _ classified as. pseudoplastic, dilatant, Bingham, and yield
methyl cellulose, and of ammonium polymethacrylatl; and an aqueous suspension of limestone. In dilatant fluids an infinitesimal shear stress will start motion and the ratio of shear stress to velocity increases as the velocity is increased. A dilatant fluid ij characterized by an increase in volume of a fixed amount of dispersion, such as wet sand, when subiected to a deforma_ tion that alters the interparticli distances oI its constituents from their minimumsize confisuration. Such fluids are titanium dioxide particles in waier or su
':bl&,,
Piping Fluid
Mechanics
100,000 the following empirical relations can be used for determinins the friction factor:
(Ni") b"
where bn
n=
0.0019498 (n)45"
(7.8958
"y
termined by viscosimeter measurements. Figure 15 shows the rheological classification of non
suspensions and aqueous solutions of carboxypolymethylene (carbopol). Viscoelastic fluids make up the last category of nonNewtonian fluids. The term "viscoelastic fluid" is applied to the most general of fluidsthose that exhibit the characteristic of partial elastic recovery of the fluid structure. Whenever a viscoelastic fluid is subiected to a rapid change in deformation, elastic recoil oi stress relaxation occurs. Many solutions exhibit viscoelastic properties under appropriate conditionsmolten polymers, which are highly elastic; and solutions of longcharged molecules, such as polyethylene oxide and poly
acrylamides. Processes such as coagulation, oilwell fracturing, and highcapacity pipelines rely on polymeric additives to cause pressure drops. Viscoelastic fluids exhibit the "Weissenberg effect," which is caused by normal stresses and produces unusual phenomena, such as the tendency of the fluid to climb up a shaft rotating in
the
MULTI.PHASE
SINGLE PHASE
TRUE HOMOGENEOUS
fluid.
For any timeindependent nonNewtonian fluid, Metzer and Reed [2] have developed the following generalized Reynolds number fraction:
=
N*"
D'
U2np
(17)
PLASTIC C OILAIAI.II
"l
where D : U : p : ^l : : n:
pipe
ID, ft
I
density, lb,/fC generalized viscosity coefficient, lb./ft gc c 8nr (see Table 11) sec experimentally determined flow constant, for a Newtonian fluid empirical constant that is a function of nonNewtonian behavior (flow behavior index), 1.0 for Newtonian fluids
//g"
For
n:
Np"
1.0 and C : p/g", Equation 17 reduces to Du p/p for Newtonian fluids. For 2,100 < NR"
Figure 15. Rheological classification that behave as single phase fluids [4].
of complex mixtures
Tabte 12 Rheological Constants tor Some Typical NonNewtonian Fluids* ol Fluid
23.3% Illinois yellow clay in water
0.67 % carboxy methyf cellulose
13I
Rheological Constants
n 0.229
of Fluid
0.863 0.121 18.6% solids, Mississippi clay in water
14.3 7o clay in water 2l .2% clay ln \nater 25.0% clay in water 31.9% clay in water 36.8% clay in water 40.4% clay in water 23% Iime in water
Rheological Constanis
n
0.331 * Reproduced by permission: A. B. Metzner and J. C. Reed, AICHE Jownal, l,434 (1955\.
(CMC) in water 1.5% CMC in water 3.0% CMC in water 33% \me water 10% napalm in kerosene 4% paper pulp in water 54.3% cement rock in water
o.716
0.554 0.566
0.171
0.920
2.80 0.983
1. 18
0.520
0.575 0.153
6.13
0.105
0.0344
0.0855
0.2M
0.414
1.07
2.30
1.04
VELOCITY HEADS
Returning to Equation 14, let's focus on the term EKi. This term represents the excess velocity heads lost in fluid motion due to fluid turbulence caused by local turbulence at the pipe wall and change in flow direction. The latter is the greatest contributor to the DKi term. When a fluid strikes a surface and chanses flow direction. it loses momentum and. therelore. Jnergy. Considering the 90' elbow in Figure l6, we see that the fluid changes direction from the x to the y direction and imparts reactions Fx and Fy, each a function of the pressure and velocity of the fluid. End conditions of the elbow determine some of the velocity head loss, that is, where the
tered by the flow. In a screwed elbow there are abrupt changes in the wall causing local turbulence and henie
increased velocity head loss.
fitting is a "smooth elbow" or a "screwed elbow." A smooth elbow is one that is either flansed or welded to
the pipe such that a smooth internal srirface is encoun
Analytical determination of velocity heads can only be accomplished in a few simplified cases. The values for velocity heads must be determined and verified empirically. Comprehensive listings of such velocity head (K) values are given in Figures 17 t5l, 18 [5], 19 [6], and 110. Using these values in Equation 14, you can analyze most cases of friction pressure drop for pipe under 24 inches in diameter. For pipe with diameter greater than 24 inches, an additional analysis must be made in solving for the velocity head term. This method, presented by Hooper [7] is called the "twoK method."
TWO.K METHOD
As explained previously, the value of K does not depend on the roughness of the fitting or the fitting size, but rather on the Reynolds number and the geometry of the fitting. The published data for single K values apply to fullydeveloped turbulent flow and K is independent of N*. when N^. is well into the turbulent zone. As Nq. approaches 1,000, the value of K increases. When Na" < 1,000, the value ofK becomes inversely proportional to NR". In large diameter pipe ( > 24 in.) the value of NRe must be carefully considered if values of 1,000 or less are encountered. The twoK method accounts for this dependency in the following equatron:
K:
K1/Np"
+ K (1 + lid)
K for the fitting of NR" : I K for a large fitting of NR" : oo internal diameter of attached pipe, in.
(18)
: K : d:
kxt
continued page 22
:::a*a;=:;i{ilif/r td
nt*":m
Piping Fluid Mechanics
I Y4"
1Y2"
2V2.3"
8.10"
.o17
.01 6 .01 5
1216"
.01 3
t824"
.o27
.o25
.o23
.o22
.021
.0r9
.018
.014
.ot2
"K"
FACTORS'
t/\2/^1 rz=
o.s(in9(, 
o'r
Ba
Kr=
tr
K.
Formula
z , Formula
,,
Kz=
K, o r !sin
lA
i(r
tJ'
 trt + (r 
)2
"iGp)\f"#
a4
Kr lf
/.\
K,
Kz=
,
a2\2
Kr
R4
^
Kr=SO *Formr.rla I + Formula
d,r
l 02)2)
1I _au
Subscript
K"=
Kr +sin3[o.a 0
P\ +2.6 (t
dennes dimensions
to
0<
+5".........K,  Formula
0.
4to. . .. . . . ..K2
 Formula
= Formula z
Figure 17A. Selected Crane Company velocity head values. (Courtesy Crane Company [5].)
10
K:sof,
Minimum pipe velocity (fps) for full disc lift
= r,0 =
o.
...........
K' :
/r
6
P< r and 0 < 45o ........K2: Formula B< r and 45"<0< r8oo...Kz  Formula
=)5vv
a8!V
r
E
If: B:r...Kt=l+ofr
lf:
lf At.. Kr=sjfr
9=
B<
tr r...K,:
r.
.
.
;s fr K, = Irormula
lift
: t4o BV V
TIITING DISC CHECK VALVES
l'F
i
l4lV I z++ll l
FtrIF
zto 8'...K:
If
: A=r...lit=riofr
t
If: B:r...Kr:S5fr
Sizes
Figure 178. Selected Crane Company velocity head values. (Courtesy Crane Company [5].)
li:il :::i::
8t'n*"
Piping Fluid Mechanics
11
+.[
< 45. ora ( 22.50 Kr = 2.6(1  B'?)2 sin e
lf d
l
1800 or 22.50
40
830
.4 llo
:E
20
6.0
IS
A,BY lHE
It
FOR EACH
<o(90o
COI4PONENT .
K'=(1 0"f
. td,d=arcslnl
Figure 18. Calculated Crane Kvalues for concentric conical diffusers are tabulated in Table l6.
T./1 Dl (
_l_
\,,/
,l
TWO.MITERED ELBOW
1.0
0
Figure 110A. Velocity heads for change of flow [6].
'*
12
n =number
or segments
ot
miters
1Eo
1
644+
mitered ell
smooth ell
.5
R/o
t.o
1.5
h*":ns
Piping Fluid
Mechanics
13
2<.
V
<*3
+s"(o<go.
an
az/og
'4
on=
9/og
Piping Fluid
Mechanics
15
\sri \7
tAl
 I
Ai= A2: A3
aR = or
/ag
16
on
or/ag
k...n*
Piping Fluid
Mechanics
17
OR: O1/o3
Figure 110G. Velocity heads for change of flow [6].
'*
18
o*= 02/o3
2>
_)>
k*=*
Piping Fluid
Mechanics
19
v'.
)t
>2
OR= 01/O3
' 'drF'
2+
llt)3
Kzg
on=
oz/o,
it 
'I[,,'
21
or:
o.'
/o3
Small pipe fittings have more surface roughness and abrupt changes in cross sections, making Kl insignificant at values of Nr" ) 10,000. For this reason, the new Crane method is recommended for pipe diameters 24 in. and less. Comparison of the methods for elbows is depicted in Figure 111. Table 13 lists Kr and K values. The twoK method is preferred over the equivalent length method because in large, multialloy sysiems the equivalent length method could predict losses 300% too high, resulting in oversized pumps and equipment. With laminar flow, the equivalent length method predicts head losses too low. Also, in the equivalent length method, every equivalent length has a specific friction factor associated with it, because the equivalent leneths are derived from the expression L. = K D/t. The Hydraulic Institute's widely used Kfactors are good for lin. to 8in. pipe, but result in errors in larger piping. The disadvantage of the twoK method is it is limited to the number of values of K1 and K available, shown in Thble 13. For other fittings, approximations must be made from data in Table 13.
Table 3 Constants for the TwoK Method I7l Filting Type Kl Standard (R/D : l),
screwed Standard (R/D
800
1),
flanged/welded Longradius
800
(R/D
typqs
1.5), all
1Weld
800
90" Mitered
elbows
2Weld
(R/D
: l 5)
4Weld
5Weld
(90") I,000 1.15 (45') 800 0.35 3Weld (30') 800 0.30
(22t/2") 800
o.27 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.25
0. 15
Elbows
(R/D
Longradius
: :
1),
l),
flanged/welded
etbow
Tees
Used as
Standard, screwed
hydraulic radius
Runthrough tee
Gate,
branch 1,000
200
150 100
0.10 0.50 0.00 0.10 0.15 0.25 4.00 2.00 2.00 0.25
10.00
This relationship applies to noncircular cross sections flowing full or partially full, oval, rectangulat etc., but
not to extremely narrow shapes, such as annular or elongated openings, where the width is small relative to the length. In such cases the value of Rs is approximately onehalf the width of the passage. The value of 4RH is substituted for d in Equation 14.
p:
ball,
plug
300
p:0.e
p=0.8
500
1.000
Reduced trim,
**"
: r,1*,
Butterfly
800
Check
Note: Use R/D
Lift
Swing
2,000
Tiltingdisk
= 1.5 values for R/D 5 pipe bends, Use appropriate tee values for flow through crosses.
45' ro 180'.
<  8l
23
9d ell
Screwed tee
Line
flow
D
Long radius
K1
0.8
10
rfiIl
r\
}J
Flanged 90oell
6 0.3
K
Branch
I
T
0.3
1
10
flow
D FlangEd tee
Flanged
K o.2
0.1
0.3
0.6
I D
t\ \_t
20 Squareodged inlet [24]
Long radius
o.4
Branch
flow
p!"..ffi
Contraction o.4
p
o'?FidG,i\
0.8
Regular screwed 45oell
*Hl
0.6
K=o.b
Inward ptojocting pipe
ffi'=.errr,rf(fiar]
Enlargemnt
0.4 0.3
0.3
0.5
/(=1.0
(:; /, *1lJ
K
K
0.1
0.00'
0.02
0.04
0.06
0_10
0.15&up I
For
0.09 o.o+
(,
see
table
'Sharp{dged
.........,......
crane
It2l
ft^
132]
Figure 111. Velocity head values for common piping components [1]. (Reprinted by special permission from Chemical Engineering, @ 1978, by McGrawHill, Inc., New York.)
'd
24
n tLtLtt4
hc.
Il4l
fliljlllH;E
Tvoictl
.T
,I
K
Flanged
0.6 '1
24
Nomimr LDr LE u tL tize {in.l {in.l 1/2 0.520 0.250 314 0.750 0.275 0.04t04 t.000 0.187 r 1.500 0.200 r1n 2.O@ 0,161 2 2.962 0.143 3 4.000 0.081 4
Head loss in conical diffuse6
1.2
dimh'ioo3
0. 9 o.12 0.08
106
4 6
10
tr9l
1.0
5
Angle valve
Scre$red
o.e
6l
4l,t
I r
0.6
1
P, des.
,I llIl
0.3
mite6
147l
63
Flanged
1
K= 1.2 (1 cos0
Pf0g cock
valve lr9l
Buttertly
valve ll9l
to'
2o'
0.05 0.29
5"
to'
20" +0"
o.24 o.52
1.54 10.8
r.56
11.3
lo"
60"
206.0
6o'
I18.0
dk
is
Table 14
\ralues ot hydlaulic radius (RH) for various Cross
Sections
Cross Section
RH
where Y 1214a12 : 0 for incompressible flow since a? @, the term ar2 multiplied by the fluid density pl is the bulk compressibility modulus of the fluid and gives
the pressure change for the fractional change in density. Values of the bulk compressibility modulus for various substances are given in Appendix A. The term a1 is the velocity of sound waves propagated in a compressible medium.
L
IN/ E+=
0.153 Di
ferences are small, then the incompressible Bernoulli equation (Equation 12) may be applied.
:::ssible fluid flow. This is a reasonable assumption :jce most liquids are steady flow, but frequently the as.nption is valid for gases. Because some liquids and all :ies are compressible, a criterion is needed to deter,ne what percent of error is incurred assuming constant
:::1Slty. \n estimate of the error can easily be made for a baro::pic fluida fluid whose density is a function of pres
values and are only for mechanical systems; for such values of chemical processes the reader should consult chemical engineering sources.
.::.
:
.:id
Sabersky and Acusta [8] have shown that for a Vr, static pressure R and density
Viscosity
Widely misunderstood and often improperly applied, viscosity is perhaps the most recondite of all the properties associated with fluid mechanics. However, a clear conception of this physical property is critical to the suc
(19)
26
Table 15
Reasonable Velocities
Liquids
Service water mains General service water piping Boiler feed water piping Heat medium oils Feet per Second
2to5
2to6 2to6
Thus, ifone has a fluid such as a fuel oil (see Example 61), which for a given temperature has an absolute viscosity of 139.53 centipoise, we calculate the kinematic viscosity, z, in the English system of units as follows:
4 to l0 6 to 13
p=
139.53 cp at 90'F
54.725lb^/tr
Lubricating oils
Gases Lowpressure steam heating
and process piping
ij!.
Lowpressure steam mains Highpressure steam mains Steam engine and pump piping Steam turbine piping
70 to
150
100
15 to 70
165
E fP
to
330
r:
0.0017
:ft2
sec
Natural gas
Air, 0 to 30 psig
Forced draft ducts Induceddraft flues Chimneys and stacks Ventilating ducts
40 to 60 30 to 50
35
70
0.0017 ::0.00001076e
ft2
il
centistoke
159.261 centistokes
sec
cessful design of hydraulic systems and rotating equipment that transport fluids (see Chapter 6). Viscosity is the property of a fluid to resist flow. Consider how much more freely and easily gasoline pours from a container than does black strap molasses. In fluid mechanics terminology, the heavier, bulkier nature of molasses is caused by the fluid's high shear stresses. These high shear stresses make the molasses very resistant to flow. The fundamental measurement of flow resistance is the dynamic or absolute viscosity. In the cgs (centimetergramsecond) system of units the basic unit of viscosity is the poise, which is equal to one hundred centipoises, (For a detailed explanation ofhow absolute viscosities of fluids are determined, the reader should consult a basic text on fluid mechanics.) The centipoise (cp) is now the standard unit of absolute viscosity, but because other units are still used, as illustrated in some of the examples scattered throughout this book, methods for converting to and from centipoises are provided. With the centipoise, one must be careful in using the English system of units when converting to the kinematic viscosity. Illustrating this conversion we have the following:
Since the kinematic viscosity is a function of the fluid density, the above value is only valid at the specified temperature of 90'F. In the metric system the kinematic viscosity can be obtained by dividing the absolute viscosity by the specific gravity. This is only for the metic system of units.It is a common mistake in using the English system of units to compute the kinematic viscosity by dividing the absolute viscosity by the specific gravity of the fluid. Equipment manufacturers often use other units of viscosity. One ofthe most widely used units is the Seconds Saybolt Universal (SSU). This unit represents the number of seconds required for sixty cubic centimeters of liquid at a constant temperature to flow through a calibrated orifice. For liquids of high viscosity a larger orifice is used and the unit applied is termed Seconds Saybolt Furol (SSF). It is customary to specify these units of viscosity at standard temperatures. The following are formulas for converting SSU's and SSF'S to centistokes. Below the value of 32 the SSU is undefined and below the value of 25 the SSF is undefined. Throughout this book, the centipoise and the centistoke are the standard units of absolute and kinematic viscosity, respectively. Where the need arises, the centistoke is converted to SSU. SSU to centistokes
p= z
= i.0 lbsec/ft2 = 478.7 poise = 4.787 centipoise : kinematic viscosity, centistokQ2 : & 8", for the English system of units
frlh
lDrSeC'
aaa
,/
t: :
For32(t(99,
For
6.2261
Wnefe gc = JZ.t
:  P7 t
 !1 t
w=
fluid, lb./ft3
t)
100,
o.zzu
*( L'
::
Rrr 25
( t(
39,
2.24r  : : t
lR4
p= p=
v v
e:
10 PSig
5rt>40,
2.16t
=  :t
60
EXAMPLE l.l: FRIGTION PRESSURE DROP FOR A HYDROCARBON GAS.STEAM MIXTURE IN A PIPE
An amine still reboiler boils off a hydrocarbon gas{eam mixture that flows in a 3M ss line connecting the :eboiler with an amine still tower. It is desired to deterrine the maximum pressure drop in the line as shown in Fieure 112. The sas is a small tract of amine immersed
The velocity head approach is used in determining the friction pressure drop. The line shown in Figure 112 is coming off two nozzles on top of the reboiler and merging at a tee before entering the amine still tower. The dimensions shown are identical with both sides coming off the reboiler nozzles (exemplified by the word "TYR" meaning for both sides). To solve this problem, we must apply Equation l4. To use this equation, we divide the connecting pipe into three components (see Figures 113l15)an 18in. f portion with W = 25,291 lbl hr a24in. d portion with W : 25,291lblhr; and a24in. d with W : 50,582 lb/hr, Equation 14 is applied to each portion and the pressure drop for each is added to
GAS OR LIOUID
coNFtq!84[!9X.
 tr'6
scttEOULE
tcs
PAGE
_OF _
L,,
(z'. a"\
r{z'j"\ + (r'et) ,
y
rerzr\H
(o.,s$$
(=#l)
1' z"
1, 1s.7
p7
+i,+81# f"*",i,"'(##) =
SERVICE
FoR sERvtcE
iE;G'dr;BrEvEEcrw
E REYNoLDS
No=
ov
=.ov/, = rt6
)*,
PIPE ENTRANCE
80 o,079 o, oza
o,7
f=
*=,..,u
psi
1y
NpE= 690,49/
Q=
W=
".
o,otl
2sz9t
tt/nr
FLOW
GAS
OR
L,.=
(i'o') + (1't
""n #n"cr.z\
tv/1i']1
'tli =
2+076
++
..r
'
("
raszgr\E(#c'"J
i,,''
Gfi],,)
21,++2
SERVICE
FEASOMBLE VELOCITY
FOR SERVICE
REYNOLDS
NO= DVM'
)*,
rwo 9d
LR ELt s
 K o,1?o
322 o.o?s P= y
lL=
o,ot
cp Lb/cu
ll
= 21a12
o.oll
1si
191"".
t+,t17.r25
w= ZS29l
Q=
tyn
cAS OH
LtOUtD
CONFI6URAT1ON
LINE NUMBER
lt
Z''tt"
= 2,9l.1
Sh
=
"4q
<2."
rs'srz'tiF (=za!=ai
fo,oa,iS
h*l\ru.(ffi
r7,s84
DTAMFTER
tftll
)*,
PIPE ExtT
coMatNtNG
FLOV'I =
TEE,
t2
2,2
lL= P= t= e=
)*=
Sg2
.L/rrr
gpm
Figure 115. Fluid analysis for single phase flowgas or liquid.
Lr
:
:
Table 16
KValues tor Concentric Conical Diffusers
6.167
ft
104)(0.01322)
d(deg)
Kr
(8.384
x l0 6)]!L Itsec
Sch
80
tl2
\ tz I =DVP: p :
,fl05
Let
690,491.450
lr1:50)r, 1+r.+tzr
(8.884
0.302 0.423
Sch 80
3lc x
Sch
106)
3lt 0.742 0.423 1.500 6.104 tlz 0.742 0.546 1.500 3.746 4s 0.957 0.423 2.000 7.672 1lz 0.957 0.546 2.000 5.898 3lc 0.957 0.'742 2.000 3.081
tlz
0.126
0.036 0.225
Q.121
80
1X
f:
0.022
0.318 0.153 0.040 0.373 0.225 0.099 0.009
16a)
Sch 80 I r/4
Sch
'0.014)05
1.278 0.546 2.000 10.545 r.278 0.742 2.000 7.701 1.278 0.957 2.000 4.603
8.452
flPf =
(3.072
0.014
8.537
80
(?.
r'.l#
* ,"'l ,rol
,o.oss,
(l 4)
1.500 0.546 2.500 10.999 3lq 1.500 0.742 2.500 8.720 1tl2 x 1.500 0.957 2.5W 6.235 lUq 1.500 1.278 2.500 2.545
Sch
40
ro,
:I
ft
(4e.487),
0.957 2x ll/c 2.067 2.067 1.278 3.000 7.556 llz 2.067 1.500 3.000 5.423
0.436
0.297
0.131
fr lh
SC'lD6
H*)
lP1,
2.469 0.957 Itlq 2.469 1.278 ztlz x lt/z 2.469 1.500 2.469 2.067
40
Sch
3.500 12.474 3.500 9.796 3.500 7.957 3.500 3.292 3.500 14.816 3.500 12.944 3.500 8.221
0.143
0.013
L. :
40
Sch
tt
Similarly,
\R" :
_\p.
514,177.125 and
f =
3.068 0.957 1V+ 3.068 1.278 3 x lyz 3.068 1.500 3.068 2.067 2tl2 3.068 2.467
1
0.454
0.337
0.11 I
3.500 4.9@
0.028 0.559
0.014
40
Sch
o.
o8r
H ei
44zf
!(, * *)
lV+ 3.548 1.278 4.000 16.484 lUz 3.548 1.500 4.000 14.833 3t/2 x 2 3.548 2.067 4.000 10.668 zth 3.548 2.469 4.000 7.151 3.548 3.068 4.000 3.440
0.449
0.210 0.093 0.010
fr lh
SC'lD1
c,..,&
32
Size
Sch
d2(in.) d10n.)
std
L(in.) 0.496
0.275
40 ltlz 1.500 4.026 4.000 18.406 2.067 4.026 4.000 r4.r74 4 x 2tl2 2.469 4.026 4.000 11.223 3.068 4.026 4.000 6.878 31lz 3.548 4.026 4.000 3.425
Sch
0.609 0.345 0.197 0.055 0.088 0.537 0.388 0.205 0.100 0.035
wt8
7.981 r7.2s0 15.000 17.997 10 10.020 r7.2s0 15.000 13.946 18 x 12 11.938 17.250 15.000 10.199 14 13.250 17.250 15.000 7.662 16 15.250 r7.250 1s.000 3.823 7.981 19.25Q 10.020 19.250 11.938 19.250 13.250 t9.250 15.250 19.250 17.250 19.250
0.125
0.058 0.008
s.u'l
5.000 17.338 5.047 5.000 14.940 5.047 5.000 1r.4r4 5.U7 5.000 8.621 5.U7 5.000 5.860
wt8
srd
10 12 20x 14 16
20.000 10.533
5.s00 19.08 5.500 15.810 5.500 13.228 5.500 10.682 5.500 5.310
l8
l0
wt
0.257
0.151
std
0.023
403
Sch
3.068 7.981 6.000 24.168 0.726 3t/z 3.548 7.981 6.000 21.680 0.618 4.026 7.981 6.000 19.243 0.476 8x 5.V7 7.98t 6.000 r4.r52 0.229 6.065 7.98t 6.000 9.188 Q.O74
Sch
14 1,3.250 21,.250 20.000 11.537 22x 16 15.250 21.250 20.000 8.627 18 r7 .250 2r.250 20.000 5.739 ?0 19.250 2r.250 20.000 2.866
wt
std
0.092
0.030 0.004
40
10 12 14 24x 16 18
Srd
10.020
11
.938
13.250
l0x
Sch
r5.2s0 23.250 20.000 1t.537 17.250 23.250 20.000 8.627 20 19.2s0 23.250 20.000 5.739
0.026
wr
40
5.047 11.938 8.000 25.511 6.065 11.938 8.000 2r.535 12x 7.98t 11.938 8.000 14.319 10 10.020 11.938 8.000 6.885
13.250 13.000 t6.042 7.981 13.250 13.000 1r.692 14x 10 10.020 13.250 13.000 7.136 12 rr.938 13.250 13.000 2.892
26
Sch
40
12 r1 .938 25.250 14 13.250 25 .250 16 15.250 25.250 t8 r'1 .250 25 .250 24 .W0 9 .s94 20 19.2sO 2s.2s0 24.000 7.181 22 2t.250 25.250 24.0W 4.780 24 23.250 2s.2s0 24.000 2.388
14
0.214
0.059 0.005 0.604 0.356 0.157 0.046
0.011
std
Wr
30x
16
wt6
16
std
l8
0.174 0.044
0.014 0.002
x 10 10.020
r5.U7
15.250 14.000 10.765 12 rr.938 15.250 14.000 6.793 14 13.250 15.250 14.000 4.096
33
APt,
d1(in,)
:
=
6.961 O.'
Size
Srd
dr(in.)
16
L(in.)
@(deg)
K1
AP
\\i
APl
AP1
0.141
APr,
pst
APr,
AP;,
(0.029
0.005
0.061)
18
20
6.695 O"'
_\
22
24 23.250 33.250 24.Un p.025 26 25.250 33.250 24.000 9.594 30 29.250 33.250 32 31 .250 33 .250
24.000 24 .NO
0.078
0.011 0.001
4.780
EXAMPLE t2: FRIGTIONAL PRESSURE DROP FOR A HOT OIL SYSTEII OF A PROCESS TANK
A pressure vessel storage tank contains 6,000 gallons of filler coating that must be maintained at 370'F to be
used in the manufacture of roofing products. To maintain the coating mixture at the required temperature, external
Std
\\'t
16 18
20
24 23.250 35.250 24.W0 14.478 16x 26 25.250 35.250 24.000 12.025 30 29.250 35.250 24.000 32 3t .250 35 .250 24 .000 34 33.250 3s.250 24.000
1\l
Srd
jacket coils are placed on the outside shell and bottom head as well as four internal coils inside the tank with an agitator. The tank is depicted in Figure 116 and the hot
7.181 4.780
2.388
24 26 30 32 34 36
23.250 41.250 24.000 22.024 25 .250 41 .250 24.000 19 .47  29.250 41.250 24.000 14.478 31.250 4r.250 24.000 12.025 33.250 41.250 24.000 9.s94 35.250 41.250 24.000 7.181
0.4s4
0.339
0.161
0.098 0.053
0.024
\r. :
rP.
1,028,354.250 and
f = 0.013
2.201
't:
(0.013x2.917) (23.s0)
(o.oss)
(s4.884F
34
oil system in Figures l17, l18, and 119. It is desired to determine how much frictional pressure drop will be incurred for the entire tank so that pump sizes may be
selected.
Hot Oil Entrance from the 2in. Header and Flow Through Station 1. (Figure 1U):
The tank is divided into two systemsthe hot oil supply system and the hot oil return system. Each system connects to the three componentsthe four internal coils inside the tank, the outside shell jacket coils, and the jacket coils connected to the bottom headand each of the three components must be analyzed separately.
z.s' Y t,,
30 spm
t
I
L
o p
: 36 gpm : 26.5 in., p = 0.15 cp, e : 0.0018 :2.067, p = 58.7 lb/ft3 : (6.72 x 104)(0.150) : 1.008 x 105
lb./ftsec (36)
'
sd (___u, ){_1.'"
3.442 ft.lsec
g=11h"x31a"
___.1
35
rl
tl I r3t^ J
q.\
q7sm
{t {t \ \t
0l I lI
\l
NI \l t\l  \l
_l
@
t\ tt\
fm&*
Piping Fluid Mechanics
37
Nn"
_DVp_ P "I
?8\o"*"
(t.oo8
osD*
tD'
nsec
L:
4.0
ft
sar
rnin \7.479.9aU \60 sec/ \144 in.'/l
x lo )
v_
.io\ ''
rc
\ltgi
ilrt I (J.JJbtrn.'t......_l
67lr,,z.sost
12
2.869 ft/sec
:3,452,9\0
I
(1o
s
l{q!q'!) z
roe,o
ffi
K
2.51
DVp
_\
12
/
x
a,sa.;,
sec
a,qsz,srol(D\
(1.008
10
4)
l!' nsec
:
Kfactors
0.040
:
1
287
,7U
0.78 0.46
(fl0.5
e8lJwtfi{'
K=
:0.040
Kfactors
+ (0.78)
\
.
0.78
1.
:K: :K:
0.570 0.910
1.480
aP,:
_
(dLL.
D")#
(2.067) *
rzr
,.r6al
I
[to.o+oxz.zoelt
or,^ ''
[ro.o+orr+.orrtzt
Q.067)
*,.orol
()d. /)
I
I
rh rr2 / rfi2 \ /5R?\::11 M)\2:L  " I '' ,ftr. . ss62 \144 in.2/
,rrta j:b:l'sec'lDf
lbr
$rr :

0.186 psi
I 1ftr ll
2.837 ftlsec
12.036)in.,
t tt'.1
\144 in.J
(1.008 22t,657
j:' nsec
th
(flo
z
'oc'o
I
I
1ft
[
rnrsvltf
,,^, t"'
I ft3 \/1 min\ 'oi" \2.+zs s"il \60 '*/ = / t e'z \ (0.864)in.,tfr1n}/
ca1
4.457 ftlsec
:0.M2
Kvalues o 2in.
ltlzin. LR ell
Nn. =
t#)o,0.0",
(1.008
or.a
o .  "'
[(9
t'  e'i],u,
:
1u9'
1
226,889.525
Ir rr o\2 = l ^"1 =
\2.M7
0.607
(o0
r
rocro
lb''4 /
l\ o0s7
P4
* [ 3i tz26seo]flri

2.51
0.368
* _
.
0.607)]
_ o.o'
:0.051
Flowthru tee
Kvalues
Q*:18:0.667K:0.53
^R r.v
1)
lr/2in.
x fin.
reducer
et
p,)] _
Dr:
or,,
o.oar + 0.53
0.611
: [,oq?!u1'uo]t't, * 0.u,,]
(J6. . /)
Flowthru tee
.^
ftr
!!y
Sec' lDf
APr,
0.063 Ott
Flow from Station 3 to Station 4:
6 gpm
,l
Z Hot Al
*r:I
+6
oFm
(0.051x1.0x12)
(r .049)
r. 1811
r1
t!'
l2x't
I
I
,<o
rr lb
r,,,
,.t', fC / t t'
sec \t+a
frlh
SC'lD6
A
12
spm

I
1"31
O.222 psr
Piping Fluid
Mechanics 39
E Hot Oil
to Exit B:
(58.7)
rh
ft;
(3.612F
tcrrr!jq.SC'lD;
APq
0.405 Ott
117)
I
to station 2
L:2ft
1ft3 tl sal /4\ \"/ min tt \7.479 ga \60 sec/ 
\/r i"\
_ 3.612 ftlser
(0.533)in.'(+)
@ @ @ @ @
Entrance
A4.449
Dot, =
Z
1
=
Ivalues
0.055 35spm 2
3/ain. reducer
lin. x
 0.601I
:
.
K
0.0'[8
390' LR ells
3(0.025X30)
:
1.0
2.25O
Pi1r exit
1q
o.7 o" =:.r : 42 : 0.167 Qr Kr = 0.032 Header entrance = K = 0.78 station 1 : K = 0.03 K : O.75 : 42 Q: epm 'L = 10ft;/ = 0.15cp;d = 2.067in. p:58.7 lb/ft3;6 = 9.9613 V = 4.016 ff/sec; f : 0.020; Nr, : 402,829 APr : 9.195 *' Station 235 gpm
28 gpm
E* :
&r, _ 
o.o+s + z.zso
l(0.055x2.0)(12)
to^szat
+ r.ooo = +
3.2esl
3.298
40
n. 1 Qr: ::] = JJ .:0.200 Qr Kaz = 0'03 L = 5in. = 0.417 ft;d = 2.O67 in. Qa : 35 epm Y : 3.346 tusec; f : 0.020; Nn : 335,691 AP, : g.gg1 n"t
Station
5
3
9:1:o.soo 14
0.021
Q3
28 gPm
Q:.1 28
Qr L = 10ft d : 2.O67 rn. v : 2.677 ft/sec; K32 : Nr":268,553 f : 0.020 APr : 6.952 n.'
Station
:o.zs
0.036
43
21 gpm
I Tspm
I
14gpm
Q:1:o.rgr 2l
Q: &z = 0.030
Qr
L:5in.:0.417ft; d = 2.067 ln. : 21 epm V = 2.008 ff/sec; f : 0.021 Nn' = 201'415 AP+ : g.ggt O.t
K = O129 K : 0.311 K : 0.048 K : 18(0.025) : 0.450 2l1lzin.90" LR ells, K = 2(30)(0.021\ : 1.2@ 11in. 90" LR ell, K : (30X0.023) = 0.690 13l+in. 90. LR ell, K : (30X0.025) : 0.750 Exit into coil, K : 1.0 Q = 7 gPm; L : 7 25 f7 F. = 5.168 !K : . For 2in. { pipe, d 2.067 in.
lrlzin.
1tlzin. reducer, lin. reduceq lin. x 3/ain. reducer, r/+in. plug valve,
K: V=
L:7in.:0.583ft
1.049
0.669 fl:/sec
4'l
Nr":67,138
AP
f:0.023
n.
0.0M psi
o For lrlzin. d Pipe, d : !.610 in. L:3ft K : 1.571 V : 1.103 ftlsec; Nx" : 86,195; f : 0.023 : AP 0.016 psi o For 1in. { pipe, d : 1.049 in. L:Zft K = 0.738 V : 2.599 ftlsec; Nq" : 132,292', f : 0.024 AP : 0.055 psi . For 3/ain. { pipe, d : 0.824 in L :2ft K : 2.2O Y : 4.Zll ft/sec; Nx" : 168'416; f:0.025
Kr: 0.030 L: 10ft Qr : 21 gpm p:58.7 lblff; p :0.015 cp; e:0.0018; d : 2.067 \n. V = 2.008 tusec; Nr" : 201,415t f : 0.021 AP1 : g.g3g O.'
Station
2
AP
0.330 pst
o, : Q' :
: v : :
o.5ool
.nil
!s\
is
llP
0.195 psi
\
0.001 psi
i!Z
+ 0.052 psi +
\!
0.001 psi
/
station
station
2
+
station
3
+
station 4
L = roft
134,2'16:
f:
0.021
0.014 psi
(0.004
0.016
station 5
It" :
O.OOS
psi
Shell
Sration
13
+ 21spm
;'il]
r 14 gpm
n. o" : lll = 1.0: K,, = 1.28 r)^ For 2in. x 1in. reducer, K : 2.538 1in. x :/qin. reducer, K = 0.048 3/4in. plug valve, K : 0.450 Exit into coil, K : 1.0 For lin. 90" LR ell, K = 0.690 For lin. { pipe, d : 1.049 in.
Ns.:132'292
AP
For
EXAIIPLE l3: FRIGTION PBESSURE DROP FOR A WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM
A gas turbine manufacturer specifies that the maximum back pressure on the unit used in this system be 10 in. of water pressure, therefore, the waste heat recovery
system should be designed so that the frictional pressure
0.079
2i'].0
drop does not exceed 10 in. of water. The system is shown in Figure l20.
795"F;
For3Ain.
opipe:d
V:
0.8241
L:
V= =
2 ft:
= 1.450
4.211 tusec
tt :
0.0759
th
.n
cp
L:
l2O
ft;
O.OOOO+Z
(commercial steel)
coil is
e= N""
0.00015
'
sr
lr AP
psi
1
+
: :
VDP,
station 2
t'
2.108
\3,600 sec/
(0.011
0.079
0.245)psi
105
lb ftsec
station 3
sr
AP
0.3'19
psi
fl 1t.0)
a(4t.25)i".
Nn:
sec
(2.108
10
Maximum friction pressure drop in supply system is incurred at bottom head coil line with AP : 1.002 psi.
.!!rrsec
662,224
B{SS
STAC
i(
42'6 670 9a
4zV srD
K.*r
+ 0.340
4.271
op = ILL*
3.438
in. =
ft
\d 
rr)ey I2e,
to.oiU
.. t :
ior
fL D
K1/Np.
(0.0130)(120)
3.438
^,r..4
rt"
19,
(r 3r .oo,12
il
sec'
2\32.2)
sec'
fr ".
(144)
fr2
ln.' :
+ K
(l + '/d) {
section
0.271 psi
..
fL d
For l0
ft x
ft x
42Lrr.
transition piece,
(0.0130)(120
3.438
30)
ii\'alues
\:lr
es and Fittings
tsrtterfly valve
R.unthru tee
I r
*  [<o.ot:ot<+.ot  5.714
= =
0.005 psi
th
2132.2)
AP AP
( _
'
:
+
Itirer Kvalues
AP
7.564 tn.
rlin.dx30in.d
lrck exit
OI
AP
<
l0 in. allowed
:rr
a rectangular duct,
i.=ab/2(a+b)
:'r round pipe,
i. =
Di4
a+b
68.571
2(10)ft (4)fr
l0ft+4ft
_ < ",,
r,
in.
Mechanical Desisn of Process Svstems The total pressure drop for 6in. and 4in. lines
Pr
Pr
3.869 psi
Set pressure
psi
9.804 psi
%^P:#:4.8vo>3vo
Consider moving 6in. x 4in. swages above gate valves and making 90" LR and gate valve 6in., as shown in Figure 122. Recomputing the Kvalues we have
+
Figure 121. Relief valve piping system.
K : 30 fi : 30(0.015) : 0.4s0 K : 8ft : 8(0.015) : 0.120 Entrance, K : 0.780 Tee, K : 0.900 6in. 90' LR ell, K : 0.450 6in. gate valve, K = 0.120 6in. x 4in. swage, K : 0.019
6in. 90' LR ell, 6in. gatevalve,
D*:
For 6in.
@
z.zas
10
ft
6in. tee
K:
60
ft =
60(0.015)
AP = 4.869 psi: Ns. : l4,g3l,g2g V : 37.N2 ft/sec; f = 0.01741 Vo AP :4869 : 0.024 = 2.470 <37o
0.900
205
60'
The pressure drop in the system in Figure 122 does not exceed 37o \p to the relief valve as the plant rules require, thus, Figve l22 is the final configuration. Latet in example 25, we will examine the structural integrity of the system.
K:
k:
B
0.5(l
0.,141)(sin 30')05
0.194
1.019
ft
30(0.015)
0.450
: I :
1.0
+r( = 8ft :
0.78
8(o.ol5)
o.l2o
Entrance,
K:
ft
LtK : 0.'78 + 0.90 + 1.019 : 2.699 AP : 3.869 psi; Np" : 14,931,929 V : 37.002 tusec; f : 0.01741
4in. line from swage to relief valve, L4
\r
ft
AP
Dr
= o.oso+o.l2o =
Piping
45
NOTATION
Greek Symbols
: a. : AR : b. : c:
al
sonic velocity of sound waves in compressible medium, ft/sec rheological variable, dimensionless
ratio of branch area to header area, dimensionless rheological variable, dimensionless experimentally determined flow constant where c plE" for a Newtonian fluid inside diameter (lD) of pipe. in.
: 6:
d
"y
d= D:
f: F:
g:
ft
cr
p= y=
irregularities, ft absolute (dynamic) viscosity, centipoise kinematic viscosity, centistokes angle, degrees
'. lb.
g.
REFERENCES
g"
1. Simpson, L.
L.
and Weirick, M.
L.,
"Designing
2. 3.
lbt energy added by mechanical devices, e.g. pumps, ft(lb)/Ib.", cm(kg)/g. energy extracted by mechanical devices, e.g. turbines, f(lbr)nb*, cm(kg)/g. specific heat ratio (adiabatic coefficient), Co/C, velocity head, (ft)(lb)/lb* velocity head for a large fitting at Np" = o length of pipe or piping component, in. rheological variable, dimensionless Reynolds number, dimensionless
pressure,
Plant Piping," Chem. Eng., April 3, 1978. Metzer, A. B. and Reed, N. C. A.l.Ch.E. Jownal, vol. 1, no.434, A.S.M.E., New York, 1955. Rase, H. F., Piping Design for Process Plazts, John
The Flow
of Complex
Mixtures in Pipes, Robert E. Krieger Publishing Co., Huntington, New York, 1977. Crane Co., Technical Paper No. 410 Flow of Fluids,
Crane Co., New York. 1981. HVAC Duct System Design, SMACNA,
6. SMACNA,
hydraulic radius, ft, in' average bulk velocity, ftlsec velocity, lblt(, kgrlcrfi height above datum, ft, cm
l!lt9,
kgrlcrfi
7. Hooper, B., "The TwoK Method Predicts Head Losses in Pipe Fittings," Chem. Eng., Ang. 24,
1981.
8.
Sabersky, R. H. and Acosta, A. J. Fluid FlowA First Course in Fluid. Mechanics, The MacMillan Company, New York, 1964.
Static and dynamic analyses require clear and precise c.efinition of termstheir misuse can often lead to mis:;nderstandings, a problem the engineer greatly appreciThe application of engineering mechanics to piping "tes. :s mainly referred to in industry as "pipe stress analy.rs." However, the term is not comprehensive enough recause engineers are usually more concerned about :orces and moments exerted on equipment than stress. Cerrainly, stress is a concern and is discussed along with
These forces and moments are controlled by structural supports attached to the piping using pipe supporrs ro control forces and moments in the pipe and attaching components bring up two fundamental conceptsstiffness and f lexibilitywhich are discussed later in this
chaDter.
rtier
{nother popular term used in industry is "piping flex:ility analysis." The word flexibility can pose a probem because in the stiffness method of analysis
PIPING CRITERIA
In analyzing piping mechanics, the following parameters must be considered:
it is actu
:lh the structural stiffness of pipe supports, rather than :ieribility, that is important. For this reason the term 'piping flexibility analysis" is avoided. piping component is any constituent part of a piping \ ., stem, of any finite length of pipea valve, flange, el:\.\\\'. pump, or anything else within the piping system. llping is supported for various reasonsan obvious one rng to counteract the force of gravityand to begin to :rderstand the applications we must start with some baa.: concepts. Consider a piping component as shown in Figure 21. i{:re we have a threedimensional axis system with the : rmponenta short length of straight pipesubjected to
rrces and moments about each axis. The forces and moare considered as vector quantities and often ex::essed in terms of resultant vectors. For convenience u'ill express resultant vectors in terms of a resultant :.ror operator defined as follows: '
:
2. The design pressure and temperature. 3. The type of material. 4. The pipe size and wall thickness of each pipe
ponent.
5. 6. 7.
8.
:.nts
::
The piping geometry including movements of anchors and restraints. The allowable stresses for the desisn conditions set by the appropriate code. Limitations of forces and moments on equipment nozzles set by API, NEMA, or the equipment manulacturers. Metallurgical considerations, such as protecting material from critical temperatures, like carbon steel below its transition temperature.
\.\.2)
: ,tll*Z
(21)
je J
For any piping system, these criteria must be considpiping system, it is not always necessary. For example, a system having only two terminal points and pipe of uni form size does not require a formal analysis if the following approximate criterion is satisfied:
ered and satisfied. While it is sufficient to analyze a
onlv code that is different from the ASME codes is the Geiman DIN code, where the basis of yield is different' The code basis and theories of yield are discussed later' Reeardless of what ASME codes are used, the user is cauti6ned that the codes are written by ASME to be euidelines and not design handbooks. The intent of the lodes is merely to set minimum rules and procedures for desrgn. This does not include operation ofplants' Operationil problems are not intended to be governed by ASME codes. Such problems as bowing of the pipe and geysering are considered operational and are not consrdered as design Phenomena. Pioine codesare not the only ones with which the desien'eniineer should be familiar. It would be expedient utia n.tpru if he or she is familiar with ASME Section
o?w""
where
(22)
D, =
y= 
L=
U
: C: :
outside diameter (OD) of piPe. in' (mm) resultant of total displacement strains to be absorbed by the piping system. in (mm) developed length of line axis between anchors, ft (m) anchor distance (length of straight line joining anchors), ft (m) 0.03 for U.S. units 208.3 for SI units, in Parentheses
Usually. however. the piping sysrem has either more rhan two terminal points or not all of the previous cnterla are met, and a formal analysis is required' After the first five criteria are considered the next and foremost factor to consider is Step 6the allowable stress of the pipe. To determine this, one must reter to the appropriaie code that governs the piping system' The following are codes applicable to industrial piplng ln the United States: ASME 83l.
I
piping
Also, the AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction\ Manual of Steel Construction is mandatory in the design of structural supportsa requirement that will be obvious later. 'The reader will notice a stark contrast between the ASME and AISC philosophies of codes' The AISC Manual of Steel Constiuaion is intended to be a design handbook and is considered as such. AISC' unlike ASME' covers all industries of steel construction, from the buildine of tall office buildings to major chemical plants ' Unlike ASME, the AISC codes give a commenta'ry on what bases are used in formulating the code and why much these bases were used' It cannot be emphasized too civil and mechanical crosses mechanics that engineering A States United in the known as aisiiplines ensindrine kniwleaee"of some of both is necessary to understand the overill perspective of piping mechanics' ln satisfuing Step 6 in the list of criteria, once the appropriate iodi is selected. the system must be analyzed io ditermine if any portion of the system exceeds the allowable stress given by the code' The allowable stress br the cide is' in the ASME and most foreign of fail"i;;; EoA... Uu."a on ttte maximum shear stress theory itrit tft"ory is based orfthe fact that a material yields "i". when the maxihum sheir stress equals the yield stress' data This theory is in good agreement with experimental for and rnO"i .,"ufv stati and iatigue stress conditions
reason has been adoPted' this iince
PiPing SYstems
ASME 831.5RdiEeration Plnins . ^. ASME 83l .8C,as Transmission and ulstrloution PiPing SYstems ASME Section IINuclear PiPing' Most foreign codes are similar to the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) codes' particularlv as fai as the theoretical basis is concerned' lne
tnowledge of thi different theories of yield is piping noi dir""tly pertiient to industrial applications of further for Ill r."fti.., the reader is referred to Faires are restresses what note to pertinent is It discussion. cuired bv the codes in analyzing piping systems' ' An element of pipe wall subjected to four stresses ls pressure shown in Figure 2:i. The pipe is under internal and the four stresses are as follows:
oL oc
: :
Piping
49
rR
Jr
: :
radial stress
shear or torsional stress
l.
M : ,7 LM
Q3)
M. oe: _ LM
2. Bending
(24)
Direct shear stress is negligible and is not considered when caused by the piping temperature, because local yielding or "creep" reduces the stress at piping components. Local strain hardening restricts the local yielding and prevents the material from rupturing. This phenomenon of locai yielding reducing stress is termed "selfspringing," and has the same or similar effect as cold or hot springing. The operating stress ("operating" is used because it can be either hot or cold) diminishes with time. This change in stress is compensated for by the allowable stress range, which is the sum of the operating and down condition stresses and remains practically constant for one cycle. This sum is obtained as follows:
ot : f 0.25 o" i
O.25 oe)
(211)
stress induced by the weight of the pipe. (This stress should not be a consideration ifthe piping is properly supported and will not be considered in this analysis.) ,1. Longitudinal stress induced by internal pressure.
f :
"' = Pi
(2s)
3ecause both longitudinal stress caused by internal pres.re and bending stress act in the same direction,
7,000
14,000
22,000 45,000
100,000
: =
oBL
oP
(26)
Expansion stress, caused by thermal expansion, must not exceed the allowable stress range, oo, and is defined:
lle
oe=[@s)2+4(o)2]
(2tz)
(2'7)
i ,: thinwalled cylinders op is negligible. However, for ::kwalled pipe, the following relationship may be 'd for determining the radial stress:
__ r,2P,
rozPo rozri2(Pi  Gt:'5r il l _
Po)
The piping codes further state that the sum of the longitudinal stresses caused by pressure, weight, and other sustained loadings shall not exceed op. This also includes the longitudinal stress caused by internal pressure, op, defined above. When torsional stress becomes significant, as in many multiplane systems, the resultant fiber stress, or combined stress, is determined by the following:
(26)
t = llor+
op
[4(o1),
(o1
op)r]05]
(213 )
ic
,_
P6
0, we have
T

lZm
(210)
::ie
50
cal yielding causes local deformation which in turn reduces the stresses. Selfspringing is an example of this
ohenomenon. 
Primary stresses are not selflimiting because as they increase, local yielding does not reduce them. One example of primary stress is internal pressure. Under sufficient pressure a pipe will undergo local yielding and deform, but the stress will not diminish and the pipe wall deformations will be excessive and unacceptable. For this reason, it is necessary to assign lower allowable stress limits to primary stresses than to secondary stresses. This fact is extremely important, as prlmary and secondary stresses are evaluated differently' and have different allowable limits. It must be remembered that piping and vessel codes give allowable stresses only for primary sresses. Secondary stresses must be assigned allowable limits as shown in the following discussion.
:>
Piping
51
inro the plastic region. For complete plastic deformation to occur, the entire area ofthe pipe wall must exceed the minimum yield point. This would not be acceptable in practice because of permanent deformation and the pos
sibility of rupture.
There are acceptable cases where the loads will fail between Figure 22 and Figve 23. This condition is shown on Figtre 24, where part of the pipe wall is in the elastic range and the other part is on the plastic region. For cases where the portion in the plastic range is small compared with the portion in the elastic range, the amount of permanent plastic deformation is imperceptible. For this reason, the distance between points A and B m Figure 24 is small compared to Figure 23 because the portion of material in the elastic range limits the amount of permanent deformation . Thus , when the spec
imen is unloaded, residual stresses are developed that cause reverse yielding when the material exceeds the compressive yield point. This is shown graphically in Figure 25. The specimen is loaded to point A and an excessive load deforms it to point B. At point B, part of the material is in the plastic range and the other portion is in the elastic range. When the specimen is unloaded, the stresses in the material go into compression shown at point C. Residual stresses caused by the combination of material in the elastic and plastic regions make part of the material exceed the compressive yield point and the specimen deforms from point C to point D. Upon application of the same initial tensile load, the material is loaded to point E. Point E is larger in value and, thus, to the right of point A, because the initial loading of part of the specimen into the plastic range causes strain hardenB
I
tl
,l
,l
ll
STBAIN
=>
52
ing and, thus, increases the minimum yield point of the material. As excessive loads are applied, the minimum yield point E is exceeded and the material deforms to point F. As the material is unloaded again the initial process repeats itself and the stresses in the material move to point G and then to point H as the compressive yield point is exceeded. Point Q represents the stress in the loaded condition after several loading cycles, and point P represents the stress in the unloaded condition. It is possible that no significant plastic deformation will occur after many load cycles. However, should stress values of Q and P exceed the fatigue limit of the material, small cracks will propagate throughout the strainhardened material. After the small cracks appear, further cyclic loading will result in brittle fracture failure. The stress magnitude P results from the specimen being unloaded when the load condition, point Q, is reached. Thus, since Q is the tensile stress opposite to the compressive stress P in the parallelogram OB'QR the sides OB' and QP are equal in iength. Therefore, Q : 0.5 B'. Fracture by strain hardening will not occur if the theoretical tensile stress B' does not exceed twice the minimum yield stress of point A, and the magnitude of Q does not exceed the ultimate yield strength of point A. When a ductile material, that is a material with a defined minirnum yield point, is subjected to repeated loading, a certain behavior occurs. When a component, such as a nozzle on a header pipe, is repeatedly loaded and unloaded, the strain hardening makes the material stronger from load cycle to load cycle. As the material becomes harder, it is better able to resist yield. However, the maximum point at which this repeated loading cycle can occur is 2oyp. The stress o : 2ovp is the limit ofthe maximum stress range. This process is called elastic shakedown. that is. the material "shakes down" to an elastic response, and undergoes deformations or strains induced by loads beyond the minimum yield point of the material. It must be noted that at elevated temperatures the value of 2oyp can be altered by hydrogen embrittlement. Carbon steel exposed to hydrogen at elevated temperatures can fail during elastic shakedown because the hydrogen combines with the carbon causing embrittlement. The relationship between the maximum stress range and the initial yield point can be expressed as
This analysis indicates that the allowable stress should be based on the yield point rather than ultimate strength. The material's ability to revert into compression and
limit itself to the amount of permanent plastic deformation is termed "shake down." The material "shaking down" limits the amount of deformation and, thus, has
an elastic response.
From this discussion, we see tlat there is a range of allowable stresses available. Direct membrane stresses are limited by oy, bending stress is limited by l.5oy, and a limited, onetime permanent deformation from A to B occurring from secondary stresses is limited by 2oy. Table 2l gives recommended values for design allowable stresses. As shown in ASME Section VIII, Division I, paragraph UA5e, different stress levels for different
stress categories are acceptable.
flexibility and stiffness. The former approach is more common and easier to understand. Piping mechanics (more popularly known as "pipe stress") is often referred to as "flexibility analysis," but it will become obvious in the following discussion that such a term is not
complete. In the flexibility approach, the piping configuration is made more flexible by using loops that allow the pipe to
3.
Temporary mechanical
4. Hydrotest
1. Pipe supports
than
and connections other
overload
..... . . ...
oo X hydrotest factor
l.33oa < oy
2. Bolting
bolts
.. ... .......
1.330a
Per AISC Manual of Steel Construction considerable
o1,s
where
MR : YP :
maximum local stress range not producing fatigue failure, psi initial yield point of the matedal at the operatrng temperature, psl
will
'
Piping
53
displace itself, resulting in lower stresses, forces, and moments in the system. This method is often the most desirable when relatively inexpensive piping material is used (pipe elbows can be very expensive in alloy piping) and space is available for the loop(s). However, the stiffness method becomes quite important when the flexibility method is neither practicai nor economical. When limited space reduces piping flexibility or makes it irnpossible or undesirable to use flexibility loops, restraining the piping using the stiffness of pipe supports becomes the alternative. This approach is gaining popularity with the increased use of modular designs of petrochemical plants, offshore platforms, and other industrial facilities. The following is a summary of the advantages of both
methods:
St iffne s s Me
A piping element has six degrees of freedom, three in translation and three in rotation, as shown in Figure 26. The amount of force or moment required to produce unit displacement in each degree of freedom at points all along the piping element is described mathematically as the stiffness matrix. K. which is defined as
P:KU
where we have an elastic element subjected to a set of n forces and moments
(2ts)
the corresponding displacement of each by the matrix
P1
is described
(2r6)
g es
l.
Requires less pipe fittings and is thus more economical than flexibility method, because pipe restraints required are far less expensive than the number of fittings they replace. In alloy piping
these savings are enormous. Requires far less space for piping, such as in modu
as
(217)
2. 3. 4.
and
which can be in pounds per inch or foot pounds per degree. The relationship II
P
Method is safer because in case ofa failure, such as a leak in a weld crack, the pipe restraints can (and have) kept systems from blowing apart. Piping and system is more resistant to dynamic loads, such as vibration and seismic shock loads.
(218)
1. Utilizes simpler pipe supports, and requires less piping engineering skill. 2. Is more desirable in noncritical systems, e.g. exhaust and flare lines. 3. Many solutions do not require a computer. The
problems can be solved manually.
To better understand these two methods of piping me'hanics, it is necessary to examine some basics of struc::rral analysis. Stiffness is the amount of force or moment reouired to :ioduce unit displacement. either translational or angu
is defined as the compliance or flexibility matrix and can be in inches per pounds or degrees per footpounds. Thus, the stiffness K ofa system is the inverse of the system compliance or flexibility, C, that is, the piping system becomes more flexible, or less stiff than its initial
configuration
The system stiffness matrix, K, is made up of elements that are either direct stiffness or indirect stiffness components. The direct stiffness component K;; is the value of stiffness at the point i when the displacement U1 is produced by a force or moment P acting in the direction of
U1. The indirect stiffness Kij is the value
the point
.lr movement. The simplest concept of stiffness is to ::nagine using X pounds to compress a spring one inch. Thus, the spring stiffness is in terms of pounds per inch. This simple example illustrates translational stiffness. Rotational stiffness can be thought of in a similar manner as a spring that resists rotational movement, footpounds rer unit degree of movement.
tion ofj, due to a force or moment at another point i in the direction of i. The indirect stiffness can also be thought of as relative stiffnessthose stiffness values induced by forces and moments in the system other than the point in consideration. It is the combined grouping of the complete direct and indirect stiffness values that form what is called the "stiffness matrix." Each direct and indirect stiffness is considered in the matrix when all other matrix components are zero. Such as the system described in the followins:
of stiffness
at
translational stiffness for a beam element fixed on one end and pinned at the other end is
P:
tmi
lH ft: e ft [:
Q1e)
n't :
3EI
t_3
where the values K11, Kzz, Fv:z, K44, K55, and K66 are known as direct stiffness values and all the other compon"rrt. u." known as indirect stiffness values' Each value of U represents a unit displacement. The components ol (a'tial the stifiness matrix are ditermined by the nature force, bending moment, shear force) of the force or moment inducin! unit displacement U at or arvay froT the point in que.iion. To eifectively see how these stiffness iopon"nt, ur. utilized in practical applications'.we will consider each type of force or moment rnduclng olsolacements, thai is, each component of the P matrix coriesponding to each value of the U matrix' Table 22 lists in"'airect'uatues of stiffness induced by direct and indirect loadings shown in Figure 26. For analytic derivations, the rlader is referred to Przemieniecki [2]' To illustrate how these concepts apply to piping mechanics, let us consider both a 4in. schedule 40 pipe and we a 10in. schedule 40 pipe shown in Figure 2'7 He,re a to. are considering two pipe spool pieces subjected me that force F shown. Referring to Table 22' we see
in.o
S,Oal.OO
P m.
x lo) rtoo.s)
(48)' in
ln."
Kro =
'
r26,497.40Y
1n.
in'
is
in.
1.421.92 lb
To generate the same amount of force in a 10in' pipe the same length would have to move
,421.92 lb
0.011 in.
zo,qsl.+o
! ln.
*"t
rl'>'*
>x
(*u
Kr::Kzs:0 _ = or,
^or tzEl il+ e)L3
t"
A\l l,k r\
\.t
Ktt=Kr:?
AF
Kla:K2a:0
r,,:r,,:4E L
K:r:IQr:K5r=Iqr=0 Kzz=Kqz:6tr=lQr=0
^44:(l+o)L:
,.
l2Er
,, :
K53
lzBl 11 1oy rr
: rqi = {1 + O)tr
Ky :
Koq
,=.=
.=1+o)Ll
6EI
K..
f.r
""/
\1._________J
l9)'
/,
Tu
/P t"t (.4=Y/^.lffil
,/
^._____________ TT T/ fl
&::ree:d#r,
6FI Krs=K:r=illo)U
466
Kes
Kso =
(2
L(l + O)
a)EI
and
lzBr
GALI
K = cJ
L :
lorsronal sunness
56
g
FOR ONE END PINNED AND THE OTHER FIXED
K1o
K,, =
'
3!.Ll1+olL'
a"q scHeoure
))
K4
mal expansion and theie was a restraint of a given spring ."tttuioing the movement, the 10in' pipe would "onrtt onlv have to rnonJ0.0l I in. to exert ihe same force as the'4in. pipe moving r/+ in' Thus' the l0in pipe is the 4in' pipe, which is a ore tltun 2i ties stiffer than the .igrifi"t point because it indicates that the larger oiloine. the'less it must move to exert excessive forces Iria rio."ntt on nozzle connections and pipe supports'
the p^ipfi". ,fti, example it is obvious that the largeroften fail i*. tt'" *t"ut"t itte stiffness' Piping designersmove very
iarrvine^the analysis further. consider the two piping shown in Figure 28 This situation is "oniit,itu,iont similir to Figue 27 in that one end is fixed and the other pinnedi'e., both systems have the same boundary The segmentBC is flexible enough to bend """Jit'i"".. with enough rotatidnal flexibility to consider tut "ld^:: piping is luu' a pinned j6int. lf the temperature ofthe moves BC f, the segment
M a: (1.75)do,o'ft = o.o70in'
4in
schedule 40 pipe
Figure 28. Pipe size makes a significant difference in nozzle
loadins.s.
Fq:
(5.687.66)
th
tO.OUOr in. =
398.14 lb'
a l0in.
schedule 40 pipe
oz6,4s7.40r
8,854.82 rb
l ielding a moment of
vro:
(8,854.82)(4)
35,4r9.27ttlbl2
l7,7o9.64fttb
at the nozzles A and B. The 4in. force of 398.14 lb would nroduce a moment
of
\'r1
(3e8.14)
! :
na.ze
uv
at nozzles
u
A and B.
Exchanger
Figure 29. An MRS supportrestraint designed to reduce forces and moments on an aluminum olatefin heat exchanser.
simple MRS restraint is the anchor, where the pipe itself or a pipe attachment is welded down to structural steel or immersed in concrete. In that case, it is resisting three degrees of freedom in translation and three degrees of freedom in rotation. In most applications, the moments
at nozzle connections can become excessive, and it is often desirable to resist rotation in one. two or tlree axes while allowins translational movement. Resistine rota
58
tion along three axes is, if not impossible, wholly impractical. An MRS allowing two degrees of freedom in
translation and resisting three degrees of rotation is quite complicated, although practical, very useful, and economical when the situation warrants. In designing such restraints Teflon and other materials with very low friction coefficients are desirable. Care must be made in assuring that such material selected can witlstand the forces and moments being resisted. If the material used is not resistant to shear, cold flow will result, leading to uneven surfaces and an improperly functioning restraint. In the engineering of MRS restraints, the principles discussed previously must continuously be applied. No support or restraint can be expected to be infinitely rigid along the degrees of freedom that are being restrained. Placing MRS devices in front of equipment nozzles will not stop all loading exerted by the piping, because all restraints have a corresponding stifftress value for each deg of freedom, either lbs/in. for translation or ftlbs/deg for
Restrainl
rotation. The engineer must also understand what assumptions are being made by the piping stress program being applied. Almost all computerized pipe stress packages consider an anchor as six springs, three resisting translational forces of 10e lbs/in. and three resistine rotational forces of l0e ftlbs/deg. There is no infinitel! rigid anchor in nature, but 10e lbs/in. is sufficient to be called an anchor in almost all applications. In modular plant design it is often desirable for the engineer to enter the actual stiffness of any anchor or restraint to obtain an accurate model of the piping system
being analyzed on the computer.
=a'/
C
Feslinl =
KTX, XRX. KRY KFz
Figure 210. Various designs of moment restraint supports (MRs)arrows indicate direction of allowed movement.
=4
_>
Hequrres
Restraining pipe with MRS at AandB required with pipe sizes normally 12" d and over
Requires
Restraining pipe with MRS at A, B, C & D required with pipe sizes normally 30 " d and over
flowa
meters 8in. and smaller, attaching an MRS on one side is sufficient for most modular construction. Circumferential shear flow, on the other hand, is not a lactor in most installations because torsion is very effeclively transferred to the structural steel by the MRS resralnt. Using piping restraints to transfer loads to structural iteel or concrete to lower loads at equipment nozzles is
'becoming quite popular and more widespread because
is more economical in modular skid design.
equipment, it is often more economical and desirable to design the piping to be flexible enough to reduce loadings on supports and equipment nozzles. For pipe racks, long headers, etc. this method is the only practical approach to solving piping mechanics problems. Tools used
and
techniques as piping loops, cut short and cut 1ong, and expansion joints.
it PIPE LOOPS
The most common types of pipe loops used today are shapes, "2" shapes, and "L" shapes. Curves for these shapes showing stresses plotted against the loop dimensions are shown in Figures 212 and the equations are as follows:
Also, where
erpensive piping materials are used, the stiffness method can help reduce the number ofelbows used for flexibility end, thus, reduce the cost of the job because restraints and supports are far cheaper than piping elbows.
"U"
In nonmodular skid construction (blockmounted plants) and areas where there is ample space to place
F1
A1B ll
tu,
t" :
in.o
60
rol
,I
I
8l
,l
Ry
6 5
it
3 2
1
tof
I
"I
I
"l
_l
Ry
1
3 2
1o
Ry
4
3
ro
9
I
7
Ry
'
to
12 14 16 1A 20 22
Ay
24
Figure 2128. Uloop with one leg twice the other leg.
to
I
a
7
RY
5 1
3
2
Figure 2128 (continued). UJoop with one leg twice the other leg'
10
a
7
6
Ry
2
1
180 ^
z&
Figure 212C. UJoop with one leg three times the other leg'
6
Ry
"* o,
ooo
Fv
10 t2 tO t"o,
22242a303234
Figwe 212C (continued). Uloop with one leg three times the other leg.
to
I I
7
Rv
4 3 2
tao
oo
22o
10
I
a
6
Ry
15
2O o, ,o 1,
25
Figure 212D. Uloop with one leg four times the other leg.
'to
I
a
2oo
300
400
500
500
700
800
Figure 212D (continued). UJoop with one leg four times the other leg.
i1 n=*
Ry
Ab
"2"
configuration.
a 7 6
Ry
4 3
2
1
10 20 30 40 50 60 m
80
gOAv
IOO llo
t8O
Ry
40o
A,
so "2"
configuration.
"=E
"L"
configuration.
"L"
configuration.
L  fr. D =
172.800
rn.
the bend radius of an elbow of the pipe size being used. If you cannot put piping guides on the pipe coming down from the loop, then put them on the inside ofthe loop as shown in Figure 214.
Other configurations, such as and "L" shapes, are used in the normal routing of piping systems. It must be remembered that when these shapes are anchored on
opposite ends, the ratio of the shortest leg to the longest
"2"
should
Loops such as circle bends, double offsets, and other geometrics involving completed circular geometry should be avoided because they are impractical, expensive, and unappealing to clients due to their complexity. If excessive looping is required, the stiffness method should be used to produce a practical, economical solution. The use of both the flexibility and stiffness approaches in areas, where applicable, can yield very attractive and appealing piping designs. In pipe racks, the "U" shape loop is invariably the most practical shape to use because of its space effi ciency. "U" loops are normally spaced together (i.e., lines running together on a pipe rack are, where practical, looped together as shown in Figve213). It is desirable to guide the pipe on each side of the loop and at every other support thereafter as shown in Figure 214. Make sure the first guide is far enough from the loop to avoid jamming problems. Usually, this distance is twice
stressing the pipe. When analyzing the shapes by computer, any ratio can be used, but usually the aforementioned range is valid for most applications.
Line smallesl in size aod has least lhermal movement is placed on inside
Lrne tnat has greatesl lhermal movement and targesl size is placed on oulsade to allow lor movement
r: loops.
stiffness of 10e ftlbs/deg. Such a restraint that restrains a pipe in all degrees of freedom is termed an anchor. Piping guides are restraints that counter movement in one or several directions but allow total freedom of movement in one or more directions. Total freedom is defined as a stiffness value of zero. An anchor, by definition, has some value of stiffness in every degree of freedom, even though the anchor itself can move. The movement occurs while the anchor is still resisting movement at a certain stiffness in each degree of freedom. Thus, the term "sliding anchor" in place ofa pipe guide is erroneous, because guides have a value of zero stiffness in one or more degrees of freedom. An anchor can restrain movement, although it may move. It is important to be cognizant of restraint terminology to avoid unnecessary confusion. The stiffness of a support is not only a function of the restraint material, but also a function of the structural steel or concrete to which it is attached. Even thoush very stiff in compression. concrete is not infinitely stifi. As shown in Figure 215, the pipe restraint has a stiffness value K,, the concrete a stiffness value of K6, and the soil a value of IG. Because Ka ) Ks, the concrete can sink or move in the soil if the concrete support is designed correctly or if subsidence occurs. Movements caused by soil conditions should be the responsibility of the piping engineer as well as the civil/structural engineer. The latter is responsible for limiting such movements as much as possible, and the piping engineer is responsible for entering these movements in the stress computer run or manual calculations. It was mentioned earlier that for a pipe restraint to be considered absolute in one direction it must restrain one billion pounds per inch of translation and one billion pounds per degree of rotation. However, very few pipe restraints in nature are so rigid (an anchor being a restraint in three degrees of translation and three degrees
of rotation).
If
modeled into the pipe stress analysis, more realistic reactions and moments are obtained. In the case of nressure vessels much work has been done in determining realistic spring constants for nozzles. For application to rotating equipment, the reader is discouraged from using these spring constants, especially on equipment made of brittle material such as cast iron. Also, these spring constants are to be used only for ductile materials. Nozzle loadings should be based on either manufacturer recommendations or applicable standards. For further details and discussion of nozzle loadings on rotating equipment Frgure 215. Conceptualization

of system stiffness. Each ::rponent of the systempipe, pipe supports, concrete, and .::has translational and rotational values ofstiffness (matri.: ilbout each axis. These values can be modeled into the sys'. as springs,
see Chapter 6.
To treat a restraint with elastic end conditions, only rotations are considered significant. Deformations induced by radial force and other translations are ignored, be
70
The basic relationship for rotational deformation nozzle ends is applying Equation 217 as
of
..P
U
M " ler I e
=
(2r7)
Circumferential
where K : M = e : F :
:H: ,
I :
Dy kf
= :
modulus of elasticity of vessel metal at ambient temperature, Psl moment of inertia of vessel rLozzle, in.a diameter of vessel nozzle, in. flexibility factor, referred to in piping codes
as
where C1
Dg
"k"
The flexibility factor, kr, is a parameter that has had several formulations over the years. One widely used variant was that proposed by the "Oak Ridge ORNL Phase 3 Report 1 1531966 ." Since this document was oublished in 1966, several revisions have been made' the current ASME Section III Division I code gives detailed discussions on the flexibility factor. If one is desiening piping for nuclear systems. then that person stroula only consult that code. Outside the nuclear industry the piping engineer rarely knows all the parametersthat are necessary to compute the flexibility factor of Section III. Also, the piping engineer in nomuclear work rarely knows which vendor will supply the piping components, thereby making many Section III parameters unknown. Therefore, the more elementary "ORNLI" factors are Dresented here, because they produce lower values for [, which, in turn, produce higher, more conservative values of K. These factors are as follows: Flexibility Factor
D= = E = modulus ofelasticity. lb/in I : moment of inerria of branch. in.a KL : longitudinal flexibility factor K : circumferential flexibility factor M : apPlied moment, in lbs Or : longitudinal angle of twist, radians O. : circumferential angle of twist, radians t : wall thickness of vessel or pipe header' in. tB = wall thickness of branch, in
2
C. :
0'09 for in Plane bending O.2'l for out of Plane bending diameter of vessel or pipe header' in. diameter of branch' in.
Inplane bending refers to longitudinal bending in Ihe pipe header or vessel in the plane formed by the interseciion of the branch and vessel or pipe header centerlines' Outofplane bending refers to circumferential be.nding in a plane perpendicular to the vessel or pipe header. diameter. These rotational spring rates are necessary wnen the stiffness of an anchor must be considered in pipe
sfess analySis.
c","o"
Longitudinal
= K.:
(i
lr\:
\T/
tD
Circumferential
K"
^. ,,8"8
*.: #or*[ry*)
:
R"
Circumferential
Figure 216. Pipe lug support for a pipe with internal pres
connection is free of moments because the pin connection at the lug hole allows the pipe to twist in all directions. The usual oversight in designing a lug support is not considering the primary and secondary stresses, which must be added together and compared to the minimum tensile strength of the pipe material. First, we will
discuss the Bijlaard method, which is only concerned with secondary stresses. The pipe and 1ug geometries determine the attachment parametet B, and the shell parameter, k, by
2Ru
r ff> r,,
rr
pq
<  .u
'ff),,
",]
(Btp)o:
(221)
where K1 and K2 are determined from Table 23. For circumferential stress, od, the circumferential membrane and circumferential bending stresses are determined by
.l
H (9 
.,,".u'r.,ential
bending stress
The membrane force, No/(P/R.), is determined from Figure 217 or Figure 218, and the bending moment, \1"/P, is determined from Figure 219 or F\gure 22O. Stress concentration factors must be accounted for in the surface discontinuity between the rectangular surface rfthe lug and the circular surface ofthe pipe. The memlrane stress concentration factor for Dure tension or :omoression is determined bv
Table 23
Radial Load P
Nd
N,
1.68
Md
Kr
0.91
1.48
1.76
t.2
r.25
K,
r.2
0.88
:<
:rd
t : r+l/ 6w/ \5
=,*(t'\" \9.4wi
\0.65
I
(222)
Table 24 Recommended Minimum Weld Sizes for Plates Thickness t ol Thicker Minimum Size, w' ot Fillet Plare welded (in.) weld (in.)
Sned by
(223)
; here w, the weld size, is given in Thble 24 for various :ite sizes. These values for w are only recommended
3/ro
51rc
3/z
!2
5/s
72
100
+ :H
(9)
'"'r"'o''"r
bending stress
N" ,, ,, o"T^o
6M,
(22s)
The longitudinal stress and circumferential stress represent the secondary stresses in the pipe wall. These
primary stress which, in the case of internal pressure in the pipe, is the pressure stress. The pressure stress is determined by
stresses must be added to the
I tE z l:\
OD:
'2t
P"GD) .
DSI
Q26)
= q6+
op
Q2',1)
oT:qx+op
where o1
Q28)
<
2oa
oy
Figure 218. Membrane force, N6/P/R., induced by radial load P [3]. and the engineer should use whatever sizes are actually to be used in practice. The total circumferential stress, ox, is determined by using these factors in the following equation:
the entire pipe with the lug attaching to the top of the clamp. This reduces localized stresses at the pipe wall by adding extra metal. This same principle applies to vessel nozzle reinforcement, which is discussed in Chapter 8.
SPRING SUPPORTS
These supports provide loading to a pipe that has undergone displacement. Simple supports are no longer useful if the pipe raises off and loads are transfered to other supports or fragile equipment nozzles. To ensure support for the pipe while it moves, a moving support is desired. The most practical device to fill this requirement is the spring.
*: "(9 **,(9
(224)
The longitudinal stress, ox, is determined in a similar way. The membrane force, N*/(P/R.), and the bending moment, M*/P, are determined from Figure 2 17 or 218 and Figure 221 or Figure 222, respectively. These parameters are used to determine the longitudinal membrane and circumferential bendins stresses. where
Springs come
springs and constant springs. The former, which is by far the most common, provides loading to a pipe at a fixed spring rate, lb/in., but the amount of force to deflect the
stress
spring varies with the amount of deflection. This force versus spring rate is a linear relationship and is the reason for a "variable" spring. The constant spring is a
74
T
.ol
Mx
.50
T
Mx
M"/l
induced by ra
Piping
75
spring that will provide the same spring rate for any force great enough to cause initial deflection. Constant springs are used in critical installations where forces or deflections induced on the piping system are critical. These springs are considerably more expensive than the variable types and are usually avoided by piping engineers when not needed. Constant springs provide constant supporting force for the pipe throughout its full range of contraction and expansion. As shown in Figwe 223, this constant support mechanism consists of a helical coil spring working in conjunction with a bell crank lever in such a manner that rhe spring force times its distance to the lever pivot is always equal to the pipe load times its distance to the lower pivot. Thus, the constant spring is used where it is not desirable for piping loads to be transferred to connecting equipment or other supports. Variable springs are used where a variation in piping loads can be tolerated. As an example, consider the folIowing example shown in Figtre 224. The spring is above the pipe and is attached to it with a rod and clevis. This arrangement is called a spring hanger. As seen in Figure 224A, the spring supports the weight of the pipe and insulation. As the pipe heats up and expands it
A, relates to
(229)
where
K: A=
F"
AK' lb
spdng constant of spring, lb/in.
deflection, in.
the hanger in such a manner that when the piping is at its operating (hot or
F:F"+WP
where
WP
of variability, it is desirable to
deflections will not exceed those of the spring range. Typical spring sizes and ranges are shown in Table 25.
F
(A) F=Wt
Cold Position
In thls case, hot
(B)
Hot Condition
Flgure 223. A constant load spring support provides constant .rpport loading in critical situations.
Figwe 224. The "cold" and "hot" loading positions ofa variable spring hanger.
.eB
9
s
sg
!,i
to
sss
egfi E$$3m$Ege$$$$8$gE
E
g$
f;
s8E8
?bEr
5
9383
e$pEIgEE$EENFEFFEE* SHHEESFPEFFFFe$es$ErE
I
E
HHDF 8
8
a
ao
t5
a5
It)
ctt
(t
It
dE
ao .(g
dl.N
Fc Ett
U'
89R
ri
I
I I I
889: PFFEEF:9EEEEFEFEEEEE
33I
8
l! '6.
8
E
EsEpp:::$FFSppi33$EEq
EESF FPRESbS$8588839:P:&ft
&
j's
9E
83SE33633bEFFrRR8$$E3
s
S
ss
(, F F
g8
()
Piping
77
size
l/a in.)
will
In critical and large systems, spring loadings should be eYaluated by computer analysis. Often, in large systems, piping movements are not intuitively obvious and errors can result because the entire system must be evaluated if a correct analysis is to be obtained. In most systems,
hand calculations are far too cumbersome. Occasionally, springs are used as moment resisting devices, as shown in Figure 225. In such an application, the spring preloads the pipe in a specific direction. As the pipe expands or contracts, the spring counters the rbrce created by the movement and, thus, reduces the moment at an end connection. Such a system in normal practice usually works in the operating mode but when ihe system shuts down the spring overloads the piece of equipment protected in the operating condition. Thus, if such a scheme is used, care must be taken to ensure that
Cre protected items are safe in both the operating and Jown conditions. These schemes can be avoided by use
rre 226A. To avoid jamming, a guided load column is used to prevent such a problem (Figure 2268).
Springs are often used to support equipment to reduce nozzle loadings, which are discussed in Chapter 6.
EXPA]ISION JOINTS
These devices accommodate movement
in
piping
..'i MRS devices where space does not warrant piping tlexibility. lrcation of spring supports is of critical importance.
\\hile springs should be placed where they will be most 3fficient, often such locations are undesirable from tle itructural engineer's viewpoint. The piping engineer :hould always be cognizant of available structural steel Lrr concrete and loads to be placed on structures. Most prings are supported from above at either mid spans or at elbows. Many times it is desirable to support the pipe tiom below. When using this type of spring, one must be .autious of pipe movement, as excessive movement ( >
direction to corrugated bellows joints that can be designed to accommodate movement in several directions. It is the latter type that we will concentrate on, as they are by far the most numerous and complicated of expansion joints. Corrugated bellows expansion joints have a bad reputation with some users because of ignorance. Many bellows expansion joints have been incorrecdy specified and the consequences attributed to the device itself. This is unfortunate because this device is invaluable when either rerouting the line is impossible or cold spring or other alternatives are not available. The surest way to avoid problems with bellows expansion joints is to have the piping (stress) engineer specify the unit and to procure the unit from a reputable manufacturer. The bellows expansion joint is like the MRS device discussed earlier because the more the unit is required to accomplish the more complex is its configuration. The simplest corrugated bellows expansion joint is the single
\ )
t"
= moment generated
by spring
)L2Nozzle
Direction oI Pt A movement
Figure 225. Utilizing a spring to counter a moment generated by piping is appropriate only when the spring movement, Ms, does ilot overload the nozzle or overstress the piping system when the latter is in the down condition and there is no movement at A. This condition is required after the operating condition is met.
: :
Figure 226'. (A) Enough piping movement will cock load flange andjam spring. Note: arrows indicate direction ofmovement. (B) A guide load column shown here will prevent situation in 1a;. ttreie arJvarious designs for guide load columns, but for pipe movement greater than t/+" one should consider a column with rollers or Teflon on top;f the ioad flange.
grees of freedom except about the longitudinal centerline. In fact. no bellows expansion joint can accommodate torsion and any tendency for the pipe to exert a high torsional moment could seriously damage thejoint. External restraints are placed on the joint to restrict movement in one or more degrees of freedom. Such devices are tie rods or hinges that restrict movement or pressure thrust. Figve 2278E are examples of joints that are so restricted. Following the same nomenclature shown in Figure 210, we consider each joint in a threedimensional axis system. KTX, KTY, and KTZ are the translational stiffness values lb/in., about the X. Y. and Z axes, respectively. KRX, KRY, and KRZ are the rotational stiffness values, ftlb/deg, about the X, Y, and
bellows type shown in Figtxe 227 A. This specific joint is shown with flanges welded on each end, but is available from manufacturers with pipe spool pieces on each end to enable the unit to be directly welded into a line. The piping engineer should try to utilize this type ofjoint whenever possible because of economy and simplicity of operation. The single bellows is free to move in all de
not support its own weight so this joint would not be desirable where each end exceeds the maximum amount of pipe span shown, as calculated by the following equation:
L:0.131
: modulus of elasticity of pipe material, psi I = moment of inertia of pipe, in.a P : design pressure (psig) A : bellows effective area. in.2 K : axial bellows stiffness (KTZ in F\gure 221)
E
The maximum length of unsupported pipe implies that
the unit itself is within this length. Preferably, the joinr is close to one support or nozzle to avoid excessive deflec
tron.
KRZ:
axes, respectively. For all bellows joints, (1.0 x 10') ftlb/deg, as previously srared.
ln Figure227 A, we have finite values for KTX, KTy, KTZ, KRX, and KRI the joint is free to translate about three axes and rotate about two axes. The bellows does
Thejoint in Figure 2278 has values ofKTX and KRy KTY : KTZ : 10e lbs/in. and KRX = KRZ = 10e lbs/deg. This means that the joint is free to translate in the Xdirection and free to rotate in the ydirection and is rigid in all other directions. This type ofjoint is called a "hinged" joint and is selfsupporting in the ydirection shown in Figure 227 . Placing high vertical loads on a joint must be approved by the manufacturer.
and
The Engineering Mechanics of The joint in Figure 227C has values of KRX and KRY irut absolute values of KRZ, KTX, KTY, and KTZ. Nor
Piping
79
nally, these joints are used in pairs to allow rotation lbout two axes similar to swivel or ball joints and not
ellowing any translation. This action is seen in Figure 2
t8.
The unit in Figure 227D is a pressure balanced uniersal joint. It is free to move about all degrees of move:nent except KRZ and is restricted by tie rods that bal.rnce pressure thrust. This type of joint is very common
r
aa
in engine exhaust systems. Figrre 2278 depicts one of the most complicated expansion designsan in{ine pressure balanced expansion 'oint. This joint eliminates pressure thrust, is selfsuprorting, and does not require a change in the piping sys:em to install. It is desirable where structural supports .ire not available and a joint is needed because flexibility rs required of the piping.
Pressure thrust is the amount of force generated by internal pressure and is simply internal pressure times minimum bellows radius area (PA), lbs. This force can become quite high as the pipe size and the internal pressure increase. In many applications, the piping itself is anchored and the joint is allowed to compress when the thermal compression force exceeds the pressure thrust force. As seen in Figure 228, when movement in the form of lateral translation is desired (KTZ and KTY), tie rods are used to restrain the joint in the axial direction @). If tie rods are being used to overcome pressure thrust, then any equipment flanged to the joint
(KTZ:
should be able to withstand the load reouired to overcome pressure thrust. Generally. tie rods are only used to permit lateral movement. Bellows expansion joints can be restrained and combined in pairs or trios to perform certain tasks. It must be emphasized that just because a joint is free to move in
)
A
{:,
,T
.Fz
.%^
Ftgure 227. Types of bellows expansion joints: (A) flangedflanged end simple bellows joint; (B) hinge bellows expansion ::nt: (C) gimbal bellows expansion joint; (D) pressure balanced bellows expansion joint; (E) "inJine" pressure balanced self':oorting bellows expansion joint. (Courtesy of Pathway Bellows, Inc.)
80
MOVEMENT HOT
LATERAL
TUEJ:
lA: PG:
lntrmedlaleAnchor
Planar Guid6
Tied Univorsal Expansion Joint
Figure 228. Generally the use of tie rods is to allow only lateral movement. (Courtesy of Pathway Bellows, Inc.)
directions KTX, KTY, KTZ, KRX, and KRY does not mean that the corresponding stiffness values are small. As internal pressure and pipe size increase the values of KTX, KTY, KTZ, KRX, and KRY increase, because the bellows wall thickness increases to resist increased internal pressure. The bellows can be a single wall construction (single ply) or multiple wall construction (multiply) and the stiffness values vary with each manufacturer. Some people erroneously think that the purpose of using bellows expansion joints is to make the pipe stress
analysis unnecessary. Such is definitely not the case, because values of stiffness in each direction must be en
PRESTRESSED PIPING
Piping systems are sometimes prestressed to reduce anchor and restraint forces and moments. This prestressing of the pipe is best known as cold springing, but is also called "cut short," meaning that the pipe is cut short a percentage of the amount of thermal expansion expected. The opposite is true in cold systems where the pipe contracts, so the pipe is fabricated extra long, with the extra length being a percentage of the amount of thermal conEaction expected. This procedure is best known as "cut long." Some refer to cut long as "hot springing," which may cause confusion because it is not as popular as the term cold springing and to some it means hot forming, which hds nothing to do with fabricating the pipe extra long. "Credit" may not be taken for prestressing the pipe in computing the stress in the piping system. Several piping codes are specific about this and, if the piping is over the allowable stress range, one cannot cut short or long to lower the stress. However, credit may be taken for anchor and restraint reaction forces and moments. The procedure of cutting short or long involves a percentage of thermal movement. The whole purpose of the prestressing process is to balance the forces and movements between the down and operating conditions. Thus, cutting short or long 1007o (i.e., cutting short or long the exact amount of thermal movement) is normally not done. Exceeding 100% is not recommended and doesn't make good sense. Normally, the amount cut is 50% and should not exceed 66% of the thermal movement' The reactions, R6 and Rp in the operating and down condi
it
can be
vei
excessive to the equipment nozzles. As shown in Figure 228 a pipe can either be properly guided or anchored, and such restrictions should be modeled into the computer stress analysis. The piping engineer is encouraged to refer to the Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association (EJMA) t4l in accessing piping layouts when using bellows expansion joints. Also, it is desirable to specify the joint such that the manufacturer is required to meet EJMA requirements. One should follow EJMA guidelines and requirements, and include modeling restraints and stiffness values in computer stress analysis to verify that attached equipment is protected. Expansion joints are not cataloged items to be bought at random but rather
sophisticated pieces
expansion joints.
engi
Piping
81
tions, respectively, are obtained from the reactions R derived from calculalions based on the modulus of elasticity at ambient temperature, 8". The relationships are as follows:
Bellows expansion joints should be avoided if a more economical and practical method is available for providing flexibility oi restraint to the pipe. ln many ipplications, only the bellows expansionjoint will suffice, e.g., movement and vibration in straight runs of pipe at elevated temperatures between different pieces of equipment can only be compensated by bellows joints. How
n":lr?*l&  \ 3 lEo
Ro: XR
ot
thereby more expensive, other alternatives should be considered. Such alternatives lie in either the flexibility or stiffness methods Dreviouslv discussed.
R"
t:
11
].
FLUID FORCES EXERTED ON PIPING SYSTEilS
When fluids move in a piping system, they import energy to the system when they are forced to change direction by the pipe. In other words, it requires energy to change the direction of a moving f luid . This fundamental fact is known as the impulsemomentum principle, exnressed as:
that :
4
where
<
1.0
X:
: Ep : Ee : R:
E
cold (or hot) spring factor ranging from zero to one, one being 100% cold or hot spring
computed expansion stress. psi modulus of elasticity in the down condition, psi modulus of elasticity in the operating condition, psi maximum reaction for full thermal movement based on Ep which is the most severe
l)l \]
ph
Mv,
Mv,
(231)
: Ro :
Rp
in.lb
maximum reaction in operating condition, lb
or in.lb These formulations are not necessary nor desirable when computerized stress runs are made. All reactions that result from prestressing the pipe are much more accurately made by a computer. However, one is not always privileged to use a computet especially at remote sites, so these formulations will yield conservative approximations to feactions. The biggest legitimate objection to prestressing the pipe is that often it is simply not done by the pipe fabricator or construction workers. The orocess is often difficult, especially in large pipe, and is unpopular with fabrication personnel. When schedules get tight and people fall behind on the schedule, there is a tendency to overlook prestressing the pipe. To avoid such a problem, some large engineering companies issue cold spring reports that are signed off by inspectors. However, such reports get lost fairly easily, unless a rigid system is implemented to treat them as control documents. There is certainly nothing wrong with prestressing the pipe, except maybe a little extra paperwork.
This states that the change in momentum in a system remains constant during the exchange of momentum between two or more masses of the system. Applying the equation to that of a pipe elbow shown in Figwe 229, we apply the principle to obtain:
Mvxr+DFxxt:MVy,
Mvyr+DFyxt=Mvy2
where t =
1
(232) (z33)
M=
6
force in horizontal direction exerted by the bend on the flowing fluid, lb force in vertical direction exerted by the bend on the flowing fluid, lb horizontal velocity component at bend inlet, ftlsec vertical velocity component at bend inlet, ftlsec horizontal velocity component of bend oudet, ft/sec vertical velocity component of bend oudet, ft/sec
Wgi
g"
fluid
mass
weight of fluid in bend, lb, local acceleration due to grayity, approximately 32.2 ftl serz dimensional consiant 32.17 lbft/lb1sec2
the analysis of chemical rocket engines is suitable for estimating reaction forces. These calculations in such an analysis agree with those reactions comDuted bv other methods and have been found to be slightly conseivative. The method presented by Hesse [5] is desirable because of its simplicity and accuracy, and knowledge of the process fluid is limited onty to the specific heat ratio, k, and the molecular weight, M. The derivation and explanation of the formulation is given by Hesse [5]. Consider the nozzle shown in Figure 230. The reaction force developed by a fluid exiting the nozzle is given by the following:
F=
Figure 229. Pipe reactions induced by change of momentum of fluid flowing through elbow.
\cac"A,P. I
[/
\/
\,,
',[' where \
Ca=
lo.t
*+tnP.l
: 
(234)
When applying Equations 232 and 233 to relief valves, the fluid dynamics of nozzles must be considered. The dynamics and thermodynamics of fluid motion through nozzles is a very involved subject and rather than investigate the various theoretical methods in this book, we will only investigate the various results and discuss their merits. Relief valves can exert enormous forces when fluids exit the nozzles. Often, the fluid exits the nozzle at speeds exceeding Mach 1. Numerous private companies, as well as the ASME and API, have developed procedures to approximate such fluid forces. The ASME B31.1 gives a method for computing the reaction forces exerted by relief valves. The main drawback to this method is that it applies to steam only, because Code 831.1 governs only power piping. Steam is one of the most comprehensively defined substances, with all properties well known and published, but such is not the case with many chemical processes. The 831.1 method requires that the properties of the substance be we defined, to the point of being rather cumbersome to use. The ideal method would require the fewest number of physical properties, but still provide the necessary data. One such method that is very easy to use is the ApI formulation in API 520 Part II, paragraph 2.4, which is used for gases or vapors. This formula loses accuracy as the flow rate approaches Mach 1, so another method is desired for predicting reactions at all flow rates in processes that have poorly defined properties. The aerospace industry has done much research in the study of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics of nozzle flow. Because relief valves operate in a closed system,
nozzle correction factor l/2 (1 + cos o) 1.0 for most relief valves nozzle discharge coefficient, which 0.97 < Cd < 1.15, normally Cd > 1.0 specific heat ratio CplC"
nozzle inlet section throatwhere critical condition exist = e = nozzle exit section ef = gffrat;rr exit sectionwhere exhaust gas pressure first equals ambient pressure, Po
c=
l/r,
/ '.
7l\
t
Figure 230. The relief valve mecharusm.
cv:
(rJ05 = 0.95 to 0.98 nozzle adiabatic efficiency nozzle exit pressure, psia 14.7 psia ambient pressure nozzle exit area, in.2 nozzle throat area, in.2
rc =
and
'
t)l
r,. oF ll + \K
r,t
critical pressure
P,
lI \K f l/
vc=V.=(skRrJo5=\#',f
/"_,..,f
(236)
G:
G=
T"
Figure 231 molecular weight of fluid, lb/mole gas flow rate, lb/sec, where
(234a)
Reaction forces produced by relief valves can become quite enormous and should not be overlooked. A structural failure of a relief system could well result in a catastrophe.
C.A,p" '[Rr.\k
 [r {_z\:ll +u I
: ffir,, 't
I + l.1l
/r.
critical temperaiure
.T,
r\
1 028A,P"
[+ (#=
P,)
['  (,:)*]]"'
(235)
A"(P"
Equation 235 assumes that the flow is isentropic and in addition to relief valves, includes turbines, compressors, jet engines, rockets, injectors, ejectors, and atomizers. Most nozzles used in current applications are either convergent or convergentdivergent, also known as DeLaval or Level nozzles. Convergentdivergent nozzles are used for high pressure ratios and supersonic flow, and convergent nozzles for low pressure ratios and subsonic flow. Thus, relief valves are Level types that can handle high pressure flow. Critical pressure of gas occurs at the point where the fluid velocity becomes Mach 1. This pressure is obtained at the minimum area of the nozzle and this minimum cross section is called the nozzle thrcat in the DeLaval nozzle. In the convergent nozzle, the cross section of minimum area is the exit section. The critical velocity can be expressed in terms of the inlet temperature be
84
100
90
80 70 60
o"A,
10 8
7
80 lOO
'clPa
2OO
loOO
the rate of200 Nn" 200,000, where a wellformed vortex stret exists. Figtre 232 shows flow regimes of fluid flow across stationary circular cylinders, and illustrates how the vortex streets tend to separate as the flow velocity increases.
which is the numeric constant between the resonant frequency of vortex shedding (f) and the cylinder diameter (D), divided by the free stream velocity (V). This is analytically written as
Between the range 300 NR" 300,000 thi region is called subcritical because as Nx" approaches 300,000, the boundary layer becomes completely turbulent and the vortex shedding effect is lost. One parameter used in analyzing vortex phenomena is the Strouhal number(s),
<
f.D
Q37)
For circular cylinders, the Strouhal versus Reynolds number is shown in Figure 233. In a structure, the ob
Piping
85
ject of design is to avoid resonance. If the inverse of the Shouhal number < 1, where f is the natural frequency of the structure, then resonances with vortex shedding from the first, second, and third harmonics are avoided. This can be accomplished by adding mass, such as insulation, and putting pipe support spacing at uneven intervals. If pipe supports are spanned evenly, periodic wave motions can form, resulting in resonance.
The response of a right circular cylinder at resonance with vortex shedding is a function of the following: Damping
where 6.
and
:
:
_ 2m(2rl)
pW
(z38)
Etl_g
energy dissipated per cycle  _ 4?r(total " energy of structure) Mode shape : VW: i for a rigid cylinder) Aspect ratio : LlD, L = length between spans
'rwo
nEGrMEs
lr
wHrcH vofiTEr
PERTOOTCT'IY COVEFIED
R.
RII{CE BY
I/(E
l'r
LOW
PERIOOICITY GOVERNEO
R. RING'
'Y
VOR'IEI
II{ tiIOH
Eg5E!l3aq
IRAXSIIIOI NINGE
TO
IUiBU.
lOO<i.t
3rol voRrEx
sritEt
rs Frrl'tl
,,4.*
3,'o..' i. <35, o.
u/////t
W
e'
L^YE
BAS UIiOEROOXE
IYi?Y,",li,t
lt6%i!13i*,,*.*[i'"
t?l
IENI
IORIET SIREE' II]AI EvrDtT rx 3oo< i.? 3ro: 'AS Ih'S IIME TIE SOUNDIRY LAYER
lno
THE uAr(
The amplitude Ay/D can be approximated by loading the pipe with a uniform wind load and using the maximum deflection as Ay. This can be used in Figure 234 to estimate the damping at resonance for a given aspect ratio. This damping is then compared with the natural frequency of the piping. The natural frequency of the pipe, especially for complex geometries, is computed by modal extraction computer analysis or any other dynamic computer software that computes the natural frequencies of piping systems. For short straight spans, the natural frequency can be determined by comparing values obtained from Table 26 and with the resonance damping frequency in Figure 234. In practice, the greatest problem with vortex shedding occurs on tall vertical towers when pipe four inches and smaller is uninsulated and left hanging without support. It has been found that once insulation is applied to the pipe resonance vanishes. The following simple guidelines will enable you to avoid the vast majority of windreduced vibrations:
l.
2
Increase the flexural stiffness of the pipe so that its critical velocity is above the range of moderate
winds.
vi
bration.
3. 4.
5.
REVIIOLDS
Eh! R.
intermediate struts. Attach spoilers to the pipe to disrupt the flow near the tower surface; this impedes the formation of vortices and thereby eliminates the cause of vibrations. Span the piping supports at uneven intervals to prevent a periodic wave function from developing.
at Ends
ffi
f:
(3.55XD)0
f :
(3.89) (D)
0.5
f: D:
natural frequency of vibration. cycles per second maximum static deflection of member under its own weight plus any weights that vibrate with it
or
r,rer r.re
= r stn
r3l s2/p#
88
]UIETHOD TO A IIODULAH
Figure 235 depicts the preliminary piping design of a gas liquifaction plant mounted on a skid module. Space is severely limited, as the equipment and piping are limited by the structural steel skid supports, so such devices as piping loops are unthinkable. Expansion joints are not
allowed by the client, because highpressure hydrocarbon gas is highly combustible and an expansion joint failure would mean certain gross property damage and possible loss of human lives. Therefore, the piping engineer
must utilize the stiffness of pipe supports to transfer loads from the piping to the structural steel rather than to the equipment nozzles. This transfer of loads is not total, but enough to guarantee that the equipment nozzles loadings will not exceed allowable levels. For the stiffness method to work, the piping configuration must be flexible enough for the piping itself to be within allowable stress limits set by the applicable code. This is the first significant criterion, because if the piping exceeds the allowable stress range in any part of the geometry, the system design is faulty. Conversely, the piping system can be well within the stress range and the equipment nozzles still be overloaded. Thus, the piping itself must have a certain amount of flexibility to be within code allowables. The piprng supports must be stiff enough to protect equipment nozzles from excessive loads. Here our case has been stated; adding additional flexibility is not acceptable. From computer calculations the original configuration in Figure 235 is found to be overstressed and the expansion stress exceeds the ASME 831.3 allowable stress range provided in Equation 24 for 3O4 SS pipe. Therefore, the piping must be changed to bring the maximum stress within the accepted stress range. This analysis includes the nozzle movements shown in the figure. Each nozzle is considered as an anchor. Figure 236 shows the final configuration after several iterations are made to determine what configuration would best suit the structural limitations set by the module skid. This configuration is found to have a maximum allowable well within the stress range of ASME B3 1 . 3 . To achieve this acceptable stess, a limited amount of flexibility must be added to the system. Thus, regardless which method is usedflexibility or stifftiessa certain amount of flexibility is required to make the piping system operate properly. Once we have obtained the minimum flexible configuration required, we now focus our attention to the equipment nozzles. To consider this question, we must distin
by using certain structural devices, such as shown in Figure 237. Even though flexibility has been added to the system to get the piping within the allowable stress range, the equipment nozzles are still overloaded by excessive moments above the X, Y, and Z axesM;q, My,
and Mz. To counter the movements of the piping at the nozzles numbered 5 and 30 at HEB and A, respectively, variable springs are placed to support the pipe while allowing the
pipe to move at the same time. One spring is placed at point 20 with a simple Y support added at point 56. These additional supports help reduce the moments at nozzles 5 and 30, but not enough. So, we must add MRS restraints (see Figures 29 ard 210) in pipe members 5l0 and 3035. Each MRS is designed to allow nozzles 5 and 30 to move upward but to transfer moments M;, Mv, and Mz from the pipe to the structual steel below. Also, each MRS allows pipe members 510 and 3035 freedom to nove along the axis so that we have the following restraints at each MRS: KTZ, KRX, KRY, and KRZ of Figure 238 (see Figure 210). Thus, we have
one translational and three rotational restraints, each with a stifftress value K in lb/in. or ftlb/deg. The pipe and exchanger are free to translate along the X and Y
axes. One can readily see that the MRS restraints must allow nozzles ar points 5 and 30 to move upward, as the exchangers are bolted down to structural steel higher up on
the units. Restraining the nozzles from moving upward would anchor the unit at the nozzles and at the support point causing the exchangers to rupture. Pipe members 510 and 3035 must be allowed to move along the xaxis for thermal expansion. We now have the conceptual model of what the solution looks like and the next step is to finalize the details. The MRS restraints are resisting forces and moments shown in Figure 238. It is necessary to design the restraints such that each has enough stiffness to transfer the loads to the steel and protect the nozzles at points 5 and 30. We will now compute the support stifftress values KTZ, KRX, KRY, and KRZ. Once these values are determined, they can be input back into the computer run and verified to be sufficient for the nozzles.
Piping
89
\,zr/
\\\ \\\ \ \
\/W \\
\
\\ \'"
,r^
a o
o
'4
z
o_
tsJ
4
7
7^
"3 2:1
,
t
4e.
2l/o
o.,
e:x
$
90
o
o
',',
ao
ct
o
.D
IL
9
z
91
venncr
SPRNG
TO OF
L COSPONENTq LE GIH
OISIRIB(IIION OVER
\\

rtrslrL^r
' +
IIDE
STSE SOPMRT PIPE
d!
_4
Mechanical
Systems
tb
)o lb
ioo ftrb
For Torsion
T
For Shear
12,800 ftlb
._ _
4(R2
+ Rr + 3(R + r) +
12)
,r:a:
Tc
(12,800)ftrb

(r., J
(*,
4oJ0 in.o
4(10.976
9.545
316.194)
I
1.975 in.
12,563 psi
Iq
rl4lc,
A_T $Q.?
.'_*
p_  : A: "
r+t prt
r,
A
O
(r,roonb
: :
22.83"
"=+:+i: :
rs
521648
(ry)
in.'?(r.e75) in.
2R'zt cos
o 4
(0.432) cos (22
625 + 5.76 I
83")
7 '635
For Bending
Mx Mz
:
=
700
ftlb
4,000
ftlb
Q
480.143 psi
At Point
5
B=
3.215
Mn : :
M, :
ftib
(4,000)" + (9'500)tlo
202.182 psl
=; = r,j/ti.= = 1o,114Psi
10,308 ftlb
lY \ln/
/.^. \ rn'l
At Point
c480.143 psi
A:?)R'lo=r=
6r:1o,jr4+i/tg
Shear
Point
r' l,
'
oi:
1o,2s7 psi
11.039
= r. + rr = 480,143 + 12,553
= 13,043.143 psi
'
o=
{_
I43 psi
=
+
r = rs + z1 :
9,138 psi
psi
9,658 psi
[\21
psi
o : l4,lll.\57
<
r=202.182+12,563
7
= 12,765.182 psi
Therefore, use 8in. Sch 40 A312 TP3G4 SS pipe for the 3ft pipe spool piece. From these calculations, we see that the minimum pipe size for the MRS is an 8in. Sch 40, 3.0 feet in height. The stiffness values for an 8in. Sch 40 pipe are as follows: From Thble 21, we have
Stress Elements
KTx
r:
l2EI' . = (1 + O)LJ
8.625
2
ox
+.JlJln.
lo,2s7 +
o
2 l\ 2
[h0,257\':
lot f (13,043.14311
?1? : = : := L JI'.U
: 4
0.120
<<  
<D
:0
t 19,143.674 psi
o"11
17,000 psi < 19,143.614 psi allowable stress, so, try 8in. d Sch 40.
Bending ro.ms irru
KTX
: :
12(2s.0
109
(72.5) in.4
(36.0)3 in.3
540,766.5 lb/in.
ll?:"
\ft/
KRX _ KRZ
4(2s.0
106)
(zz.s) in.o
16.81 in.3
(36.0) in.
7,358 psi
:
or KRX
in
233,611,1ll.l in.Jb/deg
Torsion
(
KRZ
19.467 .s92.6
:*
qeg
frlh
2,800)ftlb (12)
'
Tensile Stress
^ It
t4.313)in.
(72.5)in.3
9.138 psi
2(29.0
106)
KRY =
(36.0) in.
116,805,55.6 in.Jb/deg
1
ln'
(72.5) in.4
: :
r+r
Psr
l,200 lb
870GJ
or KRY
9,133,196.3 ftlbldeg
94
and 30. Further reduction in loads can be obtained bv adding springs abo',e the MRS restraints to counter ; negative moment above the Zaxis. Using springs above these supports is not always necessary, but in this case they are required because of the large vertical movement of points 5 and 30. A weight run should be made to verify that the springs do not ovedoad the nozzles durins
shurdown.
Entering these stiffness values into the computer run. we see thar lhe nozzle loads fall very sharply it points 5
therefore making such a unit sensitive to external loads. Always be careful when subjecting rotating equipment or vessels made of light material to excessive nozzle loads. In the final analysis the pipe loadings transferred by the MRS to the steel must be considered by the structural engineer. who must design the loundation accordingly. Sometimes it is necessary to model the stiffness of the steel foundation members when nozzle loadines become
critical.
The MRS restraints vary in design and are conceptually shown in Figure 210 and Figure 239. These iupports are made ol interlocking sliding plates wirh eaih sliding surface coated with highstrength Teflon. The precise details of such supports vary and are customized for each application. Looking to other parts of the piping system, we notice that nozzle 75 on the cold separator has a high moment about the negative xaxis. This moment is attributed to the aluminum exchangers (HEA and B) moving upward and the cold separator shrinking downward. Because space is premium and we are "lockedin" and can't add any more flexible piping, we add a spring at elbow 65 pulling downward to counter the exces5ive neqative xmoment at nozzle 15. The spring is sized ro b6 acceptable for operating and shutdown modes.
Table 27 lists the forces and moments at each equipment nozzle. Upon reviewing Table 27 , you will notice the disparity in nozzle loadings. The aluminum heat exchangers,
than does the cold separator or power gas volume tank. This is because each has acceptable loadings that are different. The cold separator is made of 23lain. plate stainless sreel. which makes rhe loads shown easilv acceotable. {The method of determining whether suchloads ire acceptable on pressure vessels is discussed in Chapter 8.) Such loads would be very unacceptable lor the aluminum heat exchangers because aluminum cannol withstand nearly as great a load as steel and is not very elastic,
ar
t44.7
279.O
126.2
255.9 624.6
299.2
38.5
2437 .8
0 854.4 94.6
293.9 684. I
914.O
0 0
2440.0
6175.0
877 .1
210.5
553.4
8217.6 3306.8
Piping
95
EXAIIPLE 22: APPLYING THE FLEXIBILITY IIETHOD TO A STEAiI TURBINE EXHAUST LINE
A client has added a steam turbine to a chemical plant and has piped up the turbine with makeshift parts and existing pipe, plus a newly purchased bellows expansion joint. When the turbine technicians determine they cannot cold align the turbine with the exhaust piping, the client decides that the piping must be rerouted, but requests
an evaluation of the system, which is shown in Figure
240.
The system is modeled with a computer software package, and the results indicate that a moment about the yaxis in the magnitude of 31,000 ft/lbs is exerted on the turbine exhaust nozzle under operating conditions. Such a load is well above any turbine allowable. The reactions
along the other axes are moderate and the problem of alignment must be solved. The extremely high ymoment is caused by the thermal expansion of the pipe member extending along the zaxis from point 95 to point 145 almost Ze in. With this expansion along the positive zaxis, the pipe rotates about the positive yaxis from point 20 through the expansion joint at point 45 to the elbow at ooint 75. This torsion is transmitted to the turbine nozzle it point 5. Thus, the adjustable base elbow support at point 31 is entirely useless in resisting this vertical moment and the expansion joint at point 45 transmits all of the torsion motion to the turbine nozzle at point 5. An earlier section discussed the fact that these joints are totally rigid in torsiona moment about the axis is parallel to the longitudinal axis, which in this example is the yaxis. In fact, with the vertical moment as great as 31,000 ftlbs the expansion joint at point 45 will either be destroyed or have a short service life because the bel
li
lri
ii
do.^*
psia.
.u""'"'
Figure 240. Original piping configuration of 20in. 0 steam line for turbine exhaust: temperature
300"4 pressure
16
Hg
96
lows are not designed to resist such high torsional moments. Thus, the diagnosis is to avoid the high torsion and stop the .8in. movement at point 135. To do this economically with minimum alteration to the piping, a bellows expansion joint is added at point 123 and.the shoe on the dummy leg is stopped in the *z direction (i'e'' movement in the 1z direction is stopped, and the vessel nozzle at point 85 is protected by the joint at point 123 ' An expansion joint is sized based on the manufacturer's standard dimensions for a 20in. pipe and the joint stiffness values are as follows:
5)530.8Ib, Fz
: : Mx :
Fx
46.51bs,
Fy
343'9 lb, Fr
634.l lb
85)
Mx
: :
5,968.7 ftlb, MY
5,0?6.0 ftlb, MR
The problem of turbine alignment is directly related to the inabilitv of the turbine technicians to adjust the pipe because of the pipe's inflexibility, which is caused by the suided base elbow at point 3l . The base elbow support is ieplaced by a spring depicted in Figure 241 and modeled into the compuier siress program. This mn is made with the added ixpansion joint at point 123 and. the spring at point 3. ihe following results were obtained from the computer run:
The loadings at the turbine nozzle are acceptable' (The basis for conaluding this is discussed in Chapter 6') The reactions at point 85 seem excessive and would be for a steam turbin;, but considedng the vessel is five feet in diameter and made of 3in. plate, these loads are not ex
cessive. Pressure vessel nozzle loading analysis is covered in Chapter 4, but one can deduce that pressure vessel nozzles tan withstand much greater loads than most tvDes of equipment. ''The svstim is implemented and in two days the turbine will be fired up and operating well. The concluding remarks are that the expansion joint at point 45 is accom
plishing nothing and the capital expended for its purriu. wa$;d' ln fact, it would not hurt to move the "hu." unit, but this is not necessiuy since the high torsional moment has been eliminated. The expansion joint at point 123 was specified and ourchased for those stiffniss values previously listed' the final configuration is shown in Figve 242
A olant in a remote area of Brazil has an emergency need for a hot oil system. The plant manager has deter
SPRIN6
I'
ipring :
300 lb/in.
1':l
.7
mined that a 3inch Schedule 40 pipe is to be used' based on plant requirements and available pipe trom local to design the piping and ensure it will ioui.".. w" not be overstressed. There are no electronic computers available anywhere near the plant and all calculations must be made without a stress program' For a hot oil header extending over some distance the flexibility approach is the practical method in this applifit" iiit" it to operaG at 550'F at 50 psig Foraj"ution. in. Sch. 40 pipe, d :3.50 in. A layout is nrade o{ the system and preliminary loop is shown in Figure 243' The piPe is ASTM A53B PiPe.
it"
Figure 241. Sketch of spring that replaces base elbow^supoon: installed load :713 lb. operatlng load = /uJ rD'
":
3o : = 3.7 5
8.oo: Rv
:!:I:z.so La4
97
ttt *f,tt^\.
t
I
,"_'wJ_\
tN:z
Dlf,Ectro{s
Figute 242. Final piping configuration of 20in. steam line for turbine exhaust: temperature
300"F, pressure
16 Hg psia.
220
: :
(4. I
l)
(_2.9._q
r72,800
x ltr) _ 689.8
The available steel in the plant in the area the hot oil header is to be run is spanned 4.5 m or 14.76 ft, making tlre anchor points spaced at 18 m or 59 ft. Thus, =
oe
1.25(20,000)
0.25(18,100)
29,525.0psi
At:98
oB
l<
: Ia:
6.0
Rx =
&:
L'
5.0'
7.886.7 psi
<
o^
L',
ft
This is based on
L',
r^
Qe,s25) (30)
7,886.7 112.3 fr
15
1t2.3
\L/
ft
(between supports)
7.5 supports
Figure 243. (A) Initial piping configuration; (B) final piping configuration installed and operating.
Therefore, place a loop 6 ft x 6 ft (arbitrary dimensions) every seven supports. One could increase L' by making the loop larger (increasing Ia and La'1, but space limitations in this application prevent it. See Figure 243. The shess intensification factors (SID in the code were made equal to one because computer stress runs have verified that the curves are conservative enoush to make SIF : 1.0.
0.188 in.;
cr
L : l.z) ln.
rrff< r.u =
wlth ; >
tt2
L,
B B
Let
hole
3/s
in.,
L:
p: 0:
: :
1.20 0.88
1.25
R. :
Nd
P/RM
4.t52in.
Md
P
.
(2,000)
2,842.30
_ :
Total stress
E.*,.5.j2
Ci.rcumferential Stress,
: or :
ot
oO
+ or : +
oP
ox
"t=*"Y*",ry
od
: :
12oa =
2(20,000)
40,000 psi
>
31,033 psi
(1.36) (rs,o4s.72)
78
Letw :
K"
:'
Oolt or pin
10,186
_ area)
2,000
r(0.5)2 4
[, I
tril
<
oB
Oolt allowable)
os
25,000 psi
edge is to be a minimum
551.
The distance from the lug hole centerline to the lug of AISC Table 1.16.5.1, p.
Weld Size
Nx .
Pi
R
Fizure 218
2(0.25) (2.50)
'"
2.000
1.600
!1r
P 
Fisure 22r
(4.rs2) (0.322)
Weldsize
: *: ft f* : 0.113 +
6M. .^
[ur,l
[rp]
/n ,....r'2'000)
\0.322),
ta\t
14,467.03
. NY .. ox:K"itooti
qx
6M"
(1.38) (3,739.87)
(1.36) (14,467.03)
are as follows:
:24,836.19
Primary or pressur" ,1r"a,
k:c1c":1.451
: o. = I 2t N:
Ar =
243,755 lb/hr 28.89 in.2
T": M:
294"F
170.9
754"R
100
[r"ln'
l__:l
IMl
I : I :
d<)
(>6in. d)
0.1443 (1.15)
Cc:
't
I l ^ lrr.+srt
 ' l* v.45u I

\2451105
A
D
L:
.^
(6,
o.7z
+
lo'5
(239)
1.9)Sl
I zs+ \n'
\r?ot
:0.055
ft, lin.
Sch. 40 pipe
5WL3 384EI
where 61
I:
=
(0.055) (28.89)
710 =
42.6t3
12.569 in.
[zrr.+sr,l_r
[
F
0.45r
v.4stl I
)#[,
_ l_ryq)l,",,1"
\42.613/
= r
3.55
(12'569)u r
l.trut
cvcles/sec
+(28.89) (4)
(238)
: :
2,385.879 lb
MR
(2,385.879) lb (8.5)
ft :
p:
.=
'1) 
ft )  _:L sec2
ll.
25 milhr
36.65
ttl
A lin.
@ Schedule
tower, and it is necessary to determine what span intervals are needed to avoid vibration resonance caused by vortex shedding induced by wind external to the pipe. Piping designers have the line supported at 3Ofoot even intervals. The first problem with the layout are the even intervals for the supports. Piping spans subjected to vibmtion should be in uneven intervals to prevent sine wave oscillations that would be symmetric and pedodic, and thus selfdestructive.
6,
: :
13.037;
Nn
2.54
x 1ff
0.18
rnus,
fi
:
=
o.tzo
Damping
tul#I"
tr.utt
Heat Transfer in Piping and Values from Figure 234 indicate we are close to resoftrnce, as we are within an L/D ratio of 5 and L/D = 30. Thus, we should experience resonance at 25 mph for the lin. S Sch 40 bare pipe. The line should have more supports added at uneven intervals closer than 30 ft and the previous analysis repeated for a range of wind velocities . Such a problem can be approached with a computer program based on experimental data. As is obvious, vortex shedding vibrations is still a sub_jective phenomenon based on empirical data, but this example should assist one in protecting piping surrounded
Equipment
101
RD
R(x, y, fi
ro
z) :
T t U Z
by vortices.
z^
I{OTATION
OR
oc
OL
A: C= D: Ep : E" :
area, in.2
compliance, in./lb or deg/ftlb diameter, in. modulus of elasticity in down condition, psi modulus of elasticity in operat
o"
OR
OT
oy
reaction in down (nonoperating) condition, lb vector resultant operator inside radius, in. outside radius, in. torsion, ftlb thickness, in. displacement, in. weight of fluid, lb. weld size, in. section modulus, in.3 section modulus of mean section radius, in.3 bending stress, psi circumferential stress, psi longitudinal stress, psi pressure stress, psi radial stress, psi torsional stress, psi yield stress, psi
shear stress, psi
ing condition, psi F = force, lbs G modulus of rigidity, psi I moment of inertia, ft' polar moment of inertia, fta J K stiffness, either translational (lb/in.) or rotational (ftlb/deg) stress concentration factor for bending stress concentration factor for pure tension or compression KTX : translational stiffness along Xaxis, lb/in. KRX : rotational stiffness about Xaxis, ftlb/deg KTY = translational stiffness along Yaxis, lb/in. KRY : rotational stiffness about Yaxis, ftlb/deg KTZ : translational stiffness along Zaxis, lb/in. KRZ : rotational stiffness abovt Zaxis, ftlb/deg L: length, in. M= moment, ftlb P= force (lb) or moment (ftlb) in stiffness matrix Pi= internal pressure, psig P"= external pressure, psig Pn: internal pressure evaluated at radius R, psig R: reaction, lb
F,M +
X,
+Y,+Z
forces
in +X, +Y, or *Z
4MX, Y,Z :
X, l
K= K:
REFERENCES
l.
2.
5.
6. 7.
Faires, V. M., Design of Machine Elements, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1965. Przemieniecki, I.5., Theory of Matrix Structural Analysis, McGrawHill Book Co., New York, 1968. Wichman, K. R., Hopper, A. G., Mershon, J. L., Welding Research Council Bulletin 107, Local Stresses in Spherical and Cylindrical Shells Due to External Loadings, Welding Research Council, New York, 1979. Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association, Inc., Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association, Inc., New York. Hesse, W. J., Mumford, Jr., N. V. 5., Jet Propulsion for Aerospace Applications , Second Edition, Pitman Publishing Corporation, New York, 1964. Blevins, R. D., Flow Induced Vibration, van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1977. Lienhard, J. H., "Synopsis of Lift, Drag and Vortex Frequency Data For Rigid Circular Cylinders," Washington State University, College of Engineering Research Division Bulletin 300, 1966.
pcts
of
themselves. (Chapters 2 and 4 illustrate how mechanical design borders civil engineering in a similar manner.) Process systems require thermal energy for various reasons, and the most common are to accelerate chemical reactions; to heat products and services so the products remain liquid and do not clog piping or equipment, such as with asphalt and roofing materials, viscous fuel oils, and syrups; and to cool products and services, for example to protect epoxy from polymerizing. In piping systems there are three ways to transfer heat to the process servicetubular tracers mounted externally to the pipe, jacketing the process pipe with a larger pipe forming an annulus in which the heat transfer fluid flows, and electrically tracing the pipe. We will discuss the first two types of transfer systems.
5,000 centipoises or more. Such highviscosity fluids are quite common with coating mixes used in manufacturing roofing tiles. Tracing such viscous mixtures with several tracers has proven to be so inferior to jacketed pipe that the disadvantages ofjacketed systems are offset. With a viscosify of 4,000 centipoises, one should consider jacketed pipe.
Most jacketed pipe is limited in commercially available sizes. Normally 8in. by 10in. is the largest size
pair, can cause the heat transfer and process fluids to mix, which can have catastrophic resulis. However. the disadvantages ofjacketed pipe must be weighed with the economics of adding tracers. A proven guideline is to use jacketed pipe for process fluids with viscosities of
front vi6w
103
104
Equipment
105
DIMENSIONS
COMMON TO ALL
I
150 LB.'
Holes Holeg
BC 3.12 3.88 4.75 RF 2.00 2.84 3.62 3.62 4.12 6.00 7.50 9.50
11.75 14.25
3OO
LB:
BC 3.50 4.50
5.00 5.00
5.EE
stzE
Y2t1Y1
o
tPs 1r/a 1Y2
tPs
Y2
u
2.56 2.56
T
NPI
.oD
4.25 5.00
No.
Dia. 0.62
0.62 0.75
K 0.75
0.75
No.
Dla, 0.75
0.E8 0.75
RF
2.OO
K 0.88 0.88
0.6E
3/tt1Yz
1t2
1Yarz
,l
'
Vq \/+ 2
0.75
0.62
3.44
L/^
%
1
0.75
0.75 0.75 0.75
0.75
0.8E
0.88
1.00 1.12 1.25 1.44 1.62 1.88
1l2x2l2
2x3 3x4 4x6 6xE 8x10
1L/2
, 3 4
0.69
0.75
7.50 8.25
'10.00
2 3 4
4.69 4.44
4.31
7.50 9.00
11.00
'13.50
I
8 12 12 16
0.68
0.8E
6.62 7.88
10.62 13.00
'15.25
1 1 1
0.94
1.00 1.12 1.19
6.'l9
8.50 10.62 12.75
0.88 0.88
1.00
0.88 'L00
6
8
I
10
4.31
4.88
1Y2
16.00
Figure
3lB.
Continued.
Figure 31C. Expansion joints for jacketed pipe. (Courtesy of ParksCramer Co.)
106
DIMENSIONS
150 LB., DUCTILE IRON. STEEL
FLANGE DIMENSIOIiISi OD Holea mm. 152 178
190
srzE 1Y1r2
ID
tPs
A
BC
4.75 RF 3.62 4.12 6.00 5.00 6.19 8.50 10.62 12.75 o.75
0_88
T
mm.
610 635 645 660 673 4.69 4.44
4.31 4.31
'I '
,l
lns.
6.00
No. 4
Dlao.75 0.75
lns.
24.OO
TIPT
1Y4
1Y2
3.44
3/t
3/q
1t/2f,Y2
7.@
7.50 9.00 11.00 13.50
M
3x4 4x6 6x8 8x10
4
8 0.75 0.88 0.88 1.00
28
279
7.50 9.50
6
8
12
3/$
406
'tl.75
14.25
27.U
16.00
u.25
470
4.8
1Y1
All dimensions in inches (ins.) unless otherwise noted. 'Flanges ol higher pressure class and other facings available.
carried in stock, but larger sizes can be specially fabricated. When a jacketed system is selected, a careful stress analysis should be made to ensure that the system is not overstressed. (Chapter 2 covers such stress analyses.)
what simpler than steamtraced systems, because steam traps and condensate return lines are unnecessary. However, hot oil can be expensive and if there is ample auxiliary steam available for tracing, steam is favorable for moderate to lowtemperature systems. When there is much piping to be traced, steam at the available temperature and pressure may condense into hot water before tracing the entire system. For these situations, only hot oil can be used. Thus, hot oil is used in tracing applications where steam is either not practical or not available. There are many types of hot oils marketed by various chemical companies as heat transfer fluids.
It is most
heat transfer cement in tracing tubes on process piping, because it provides more heat transfer area. Heat transfer cements are available in all major countries and in
some of the larger Third World countries. However there are times of expediency in which traced systems must be installed without the cement.
Equipment
1O7
Figure 33. Traced pipe with one tracer under bottom without
HTC.
l.
Assume a value of air space temperature equal to or greater than the minimum temperature of the process temperature inside the pipe.
h",
from the tracer to the air space from Figure 34. 3. Calculate the equivalent cylindrical insulation thickness, T", as
'\ '"
4.
(3
l)
Determine the outside film coefficient of the insulation to atmosphere, h., from Figure 35 and calculate Uo from the following:
1
u.
Di
ho
T] kt
h.
(32)
:
=
ki
T"
:
=
inside diameter of pipe insulation, ft outside film coefficient from insulation to atmosphere, Btu/hrft2 "F thermal conductivity of insulation,
Btu/hrftz'F
T,
Uo:
equivalent thickness of cylindrical insulation, actual insulation thickness, ft overall heat transfer coefficient from the air space to the atmosphere, Btu/hrft'"F
ft
sDace.
 L) a: Q: ) (r)(Qr)
(v,xA")(t"
(hJ(AJ(n)(tt
(33)
t")
(34)
(35)
Figure 32, Various traced pipe configurations: (A) single traced pipe, with tracer under pipe, with heat transfer cement (HTC); (B) process pipe with two tracers with HTC; (C) one tracer on top ofprocess pipe with HTC; (D) process pipe with three tracers with HTC; (E) jacketed pipe.
where Ao
A, :
h,
: :
outside insulation surface area, ft2lft outside surface area of tracer tube, ftzlft convection film coefficient from tracer or heat transfer cement (HTC) to air space,
Btu/hrft
'F
108
.c
1.o o.9
o.a
o.7
FtLM COEFFICTENT
h.
o.5ltl
.^.
a:
7
6 5
35710
Figure 35. Heat transfer outside horizontal pipes.
152030
50
OUTSIOE DIAMETER OF INSULATION IINCHESI ho=COMBINED OIJTSIDE HEAT TRANSFER FILM COEFFTCIENT
Equipment
109
Qr
: heat transfer per lineal foot from air space to atrnosphere. Btu/hrft Qz : heat transfer per lineal foot from tracer to air space, Btu/hrft L : temperature of outside air, oF ti = temperature of tracer fluid, oF "y : safety factor; 1.3 for piping systems without
HTC, 2.0 for piping systems with HTC, 1.5 for vessels without HTC, 2.5 for vessels with
HTC
wall temperature. The contribution of radiation from the tracer and pipe or vessel to the inside wall ofthe insulation is negligible, as is the film resistance to heat
vessel
transfer on the inside insulation wall. The procedure for tracer design with heat transfer cement is as follows:
2.
lf ta > ti, then the system is adequate. The maximum spacing of tracer tubes for cylindrical vessels is calculated in the same manner except that a flat plate approximation (T. = t) is used to compute the heat losses, or Q values.
ing Figure 37. Calculate the metal wall area (equals wall thickness) A*; the outside surface area of insulation, Ao, the outside surface area of pipe, Ao, and the outside surface area of tracer tube or heat tfansfer cement
(Hrc).
Assume a value of the minimum pipe wall temperature, to, equal to or greater than the minimum process f luid temprature. 4. Assume a value of air space temperature, ta. 5. Estimate the natural convection coefficient, h",
3
tem is shown in Figure 36. The other mode of heat transfer is the natural convection from the tracel and the pipe or vessel wall to the air space. Thus, the air space temperature is lower than the minimum process pipe or
from the HTC to air space. 6. Calculate T" using Equation 31. 7. Determine the outside film coefficient of the insulation to the atmosphere, h., from Figure 35 and calculate Uo from Equation 32. 8. Calculate the average pipe wall temperature tp and estimate t}le natural convection coefficient from the pipe or vessel to air space, ho, from Figure 34.
It2I
',{sJ[(!e"" Ie#9]
110
9. Formulate a heat balance around the pipe or vessel wall and air space and perform an iteration analysis solving for t" and te with the following steps:
: Qz:
Qr
Qn
(u.)(,\)(r"
(hJ(At)(tt
t")
temperature of air space, 'F ambient temperature,'F length of heat flow through metal, ft pipe temperature at point nearest tracer, 'F pipe temperature at point farthest from tracer.
.F
(I*)o.u,, * ,,,'
Q+)
Likewise for traced systems with HTC, for traced vessels, the maximum tracer tube spacing for traced vessels is calculated by the same procedure, except that the flat plate approximation (Te : t) is used to compute the heat losses, or Q values.
Qz+ Q:)Qr
where Am
(3l
crosssectional pipe wall area (equals pipe
l)
Condensate Return
Steam differs from hot oil in that condensate is formed by loss of heat energy. During energy shortages, the use of condensate return lines is normally justified. Considering the use of 1/2in. tracers, normally a lin. condensate subheader
= = k : n, : Q: = Q4 :
Ap ho
thickness), ft,/ft outside surface area of pipe, ft /ft convection film coefficient from pipe to air space, Btu/hrft2oF thermal conductivity of vessel shell material,
a ltlzin.
header from
will handle condensate from 28 tracers, 920 tracers, and a 2in. sub
pipe, Btu/hrft
header from 2150 tracers. With a condensate collection and return system the steam supply pressure should be at least 100 psig. Even though these rules of thumb are well tested in field practice, the reader is encouraged to calcu
Equipment
11
late the condensate load for his particular needs. Consider the following analysis:
Total heat loss from steam tracer Qr For systems with HTC (by adding Equations 3'7 and 39),
where hr8
Qr:
Qq+Qz
(312)
The steam in the tracer is assumed to transfer energy as heat for a given mass of steam under constant pressure. A typical condensate return system is shown in
Qr:Q:
(34)
Figure 38. When collecting condensate, care must be taken to prevent water harnmer caused by the mixing of condensate at different temperatures and pressures. To prevent water hammer in condensate systems, spargers and
steam separation kegs should be considered.
To size the condensate return lines, as well as the tracers themselves, use the methods presented in Chapter I for line sizing. In systems where a large quantity of condensate is formed by steam flashing, a condensate return
The steam in the tracer is assumed to enter the system as saturated steam at an initial temperature or pressure. Considering the amount ofheat loss over a given temperature range, the condensate load from n tracers on a given process pipe is
,ir
: $,
nnfc
rum
(313)
pump may be required. Normally, condensate return pumps are the horizontal centrifugal type. Pumps and their applications are presented in Chapter 6.
STEAM SUB
HOR.
COND.
HOR.
SEEDETAIL A(TYP.)
SEE FIGURE 3
COND HOR.
SEE
OETAIL
(wP.)
OETAIL
Figure 38. Condensate return header in tmcer system. (Courtesy of Thermon Manufacturing
co.)
112
Jacketed Plpe
Figure 39 illustrates details ofjacketed pipe. Forjacketed systems, it is customary to assume a temperature drop over a given length of pipe for hot oil. In applica, tions of hot oil heating a viscous fluid such as asphalt, 100'F drop per 100 ft, or I 'F per foot, is quite common. If one is not familiar with a given service, then a heat balance must be made, like those done for tracers, However, using a temperature drop over a given lenglh of pipe simplifies the analysis and has been proven in practice, because all examples cited are from actual, successful operating systems. The following steps illustrate one such method of designing jacketed pipe: Compute the overall heat transfer coefficient, U, by the following relation:
for Dy'D"
>
0.2
d.o
(318)
in which
D:4Rs ._
NC"
(319) (320)
l.
and thus
' .D(314)
Nru"k
(32r)
N*"
Y%
tt
(3r5)
hr:
Nr"
the overail heat transfer coefficient, determine the amount of heat transfer from the relation
(322)
r.86(NrJ"'(N",)
"LP) ($
(oeJ
k$'"
(3
l6)
UA(LMTD)
: o.o2o Nr;'Nr
where
A:
0_17\
outside area of inner tube. ft2. and the LMTD is based on the assumed rate of heat loss per unit lengrh of pipe.
,1
rooo
o socror.t
9d
LR
PE(rcESS IINE
ptt= t'ga,&1,4,
Equipment
113
v2t. ss n
BING
CUIOE
BAi
PrJlinl
z'z
4t6
31
t
le'9r
r4r15 2 rrYi6r
z t" i,u
In
to
in tong
PFOCESS LITIE
li.L
ll
114
Mechanical Design of Process Systems To facilitate manual calculations refer to Figure 310 [1]. The concept of the logarithmic mean temperature differ
(GTTp)
, /crro\ ]n ll
: :
(UrTp)
/1r1r
\rjrTD /
mean temperarure difference
ence is widely explained in most basic engineering textbooks, so its explanation will not be presented here. The reader is referred to Kern [2] or Ludwig [3] for a formal
where
LMTD : logarithmic
GTTD LTTD
3.
Once the amount of heat transferred is determined from Equation 322. assuming a given temperature
tm
90 80 70 60
^o@
,\,rn
.c,*
.rk@'
50 40
to,4
i5
tll
o
F
E
(O
Equipment
15
jacket (outside the tank) and exits through another side heating the vessel's contents. This can be seen in Figure
)tzrirCoAt
(324) hot fluid flow rate, lb/hr specific heat of hot fluid, Btu/lb"F hot fluid temperature drop
where rir
At
: : :
Before we analyze in detail these various components, we must first look at the overall heat reouirements of the vessel to determine how much heating surface is required. The controlling criterion in determining the amount of heating panel surface area of a vessel is the transient state, i.e., how much surface area is required to heat a given mass of fluid of specified properties to a
4.
drop in the whole sysrem (which includes the piping connecting the annuli). The pressure drop for the piping other than the annuli is determined by using the methods presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 6 shows how to select and size the pumps to handle fluids that usually require jacketed services, such as hot oil.
Once the flow rate is determined, the hydraulic analysis made, and the pressure drop judged adequate for the size ofpumps selected, the jacketed system details can be
specified temperature within a specified time. Figure 313 illustrates a control mass inside a oressure vessel. Consider two transient boundary conditions in the vesselthe fluid resting at steady state and the fluid moving through the tank at a given mass flow rate. Thus, the following two criteria must be established before the heat transfer area required for a process vessel can be determmeo:
1. A vessel shown in Figure 313(a) contains a static fluid of X gallons at an initial temperature, Y'F. How many degrees of temperature per hour will the fluid mass rise for a given surface area of
designed.
Typical jacketed piping components are depicted in Figure 39. In extensively jacketed systems, valves can be procured that have jacketed spaces built in. These types of valves are recommended for services where jacketed pipe is required (p > 5,000 cp). Some of these valves are shown in Fieure 39.
2.
in Figure 313@), how many degrees of temperature per hour will be transferred to a given mass of fluid of defined properties flowing through the vessel at a constant mass flow rate with an initial temoerature of Y'F
: : :
mcpat
(32s)
and
The complexity of traced components depends on the viscosity of the process fluids being handled. For highviscosity, nonNewtonian fluids special items must be added to vessels, such as agitators that are composed of blades and usually powered by electric motors. There are many reasons to use agitators, and one of the most common is to keep suspended particles in a nonNewtonian fluid evenly distributed to prevent particle settlement on the tank bottoms. There are two basic types of heating and cooling devices used for vesselsinternal and external iackets that fit on the inside and outside of the vessel, respectively. These jacket types are shown in Figure 312. The hot fluid (normally steam or hot oil) enters one side of the coil and flows through the baffle (inside the tank) or
UA(LMTD)
(326)
At
UA(LMTD)
mCp
(327)
The U value, or overall heat transfer coefficient, is calculated on the basis of whether the panel of heat tracing tubes are clamped on outside the vessel or located inside the vessel. These overall heat transfer U values are determined through extensive laboratory tests and accumulated field experience. The U value used in calculations should be that recommended by the heat transfer panel manufacturer, as various panel designs are available and the calculation of the U value analvticallv can
116
tt;
I
Pinchesoluater I
Flgure 311A. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of ParksCramer Co.)
't
Equipment
117
dl
o =
Figure 3118. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of ParksCramer Co.)
I
1
18
f,
fi
{.
1" x 2" Sch.40 Jackeled Pipe
curyes based on 100 leel ol jackied pipe (livs
rive t4" o.D. x .065" wall lubrng jump_ rengrhs) and 'nclude and exii losses. water @ 60'F {16'c.} overs plus entrance
20{"
E J
I
o = J
A P inches
of water
Figure 31C. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of ParksCramer Co')
Equipment
119
1Y4"
Cutues based on 100 leet ol jacketed ppe (lve 20:0" lenqths) and include live 74'O.D. x .065'walrlubrnq jump overs plus entance and exit Losses. Wate. @ 60"F. (16'C.)
Ppsig
<'
ut
o =
inches ol
water 3
Figure 311D. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of ParksCramer Co.)
120
1r/a" x
ot jackered pipe (Uve 2010' r;'O D. ! .065" wdl tJbrng jumplengrl^sl dnd r clude rive'eet overs pr!s entrance and exl rosses waler @ 60,F. (16.c )
Curves based on 100
APpsig
t
'to
= J
Figure 311E. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of ParksCramer Co.)
Equipment
12'l
1Y2"
Curues bas6d on 100 teei ol jackered pipe (live 20!0" lenglhs) and incrude nve ya" O O x obs" wrll ruo,rg tuhpovers plls enrra.ce a.d ext losses. water @ 60"F. (16'c)
lD
I
Figure 311F. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of ParksCramer Co.)
122
6 = J
inches ot water
Figure 311G. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of ParksCramer Co.)
123
ol jackeled pipe
(tive 20'0"
 psig
Figure 311H. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of ParksCramer Co.)
124
o = J
 inches ol waler
Figure 31 11. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of ParksCramer Co.)
125
o =
inches ol
wate. q
Figure 311J. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of parksCramer Co.)
oi
APpsig
,LENT )aa:
7
:,:
t 
7.,
o(
j:
o(
E, o(ra
lo
=, a
':: AM tN/ \R
::::l::::l:
Park :s l ,fal ne
JACKETET
NG
r:
t
::::l::.1:.::1.::t,:
SYST :l\4S
COMPONENTS
l,ill
A
P
'
,'1,,,,1,,
 inches ol
water q
Figure 311K. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of ParksCramer Co.)
127
APpsig
/;;
JT
!r:::r'
T FTOW
i,? ,/..:
i:,1,:
h0b,
.1=:
F=
t1=
/. /
F= t.
l::::
t:
=, (r. o, =
lv
)1
c
@
7/.
/
ul
o =
L AMINAR
I
:l
Pe
k sl fame I
':r:i::::l
:::l't
,l
!l
I
:
:;::l ::l
...1..1
:::.[] .. .t.._
.
.1..
inches ol
water q
Figure
31
L.
128
Moderate bracins for mediurn agitation cooditions. All 5rac6 are from vessel wall and no circumIereotial rings are used.
Flexible hoses desirable her when possible aod wnen lorces are Severe. Also particularlv imoorc ant, foi altematirig heiting
ano cooltnq
conorttons.
Figure 312A. Heat transfer internal plate or panel baffles inside a vessel. (Courtesy of Tranter, Inc.)
Equipment
129
'ffiFt*
\*'/ ,(?,''l \t \ l[ [ l\
l\
,/ w*\ \ \ / _.\r\1
e
C=2%" MlN.
I
I
D v
HEADER SIZE
Figure 3128. Schematic depicting how heat transfer panel plates heat up or cool down process fluid in tank. (Courtesy of Tranter. Inc.)
ffi N
Figure 312C. Heat transfer panel plates designed to curved surfaces. (Courtesy of Tranter, Inc.)
fit
on
lead to erroneous results if the exact details of the Danel design are not known. Most panel manufacturers hesitate to reveal such detailed features, so the U values on the low side are recommended for situations where the panel manulacturer does not have a recommended U value. With highviscosity fluids such as tar and asphalt at temperatures of 300700'F. a good U value lor lnternal baffle panels is 9.60 and for external clampedon panels a
value of 4.00 is reaSonable. After a U value has been selected, Equation 326 is solved, revealing the net temperature change per hour.
L 35 Llgs (typ) Cuslomer shoutd instatl al iifre ol instartairon.
iq
i
to
Figure 312C (continued). Heat transfer panel plates designed fit on curved surfaces. (Courtesv of Tranter. Inc.)
graphically illustrated later in Example 34. Once both transient conditions I and 2 are satisfied bv the selected heat transfer area, the detailed design of the baffle panels (both external clampon and inteinal) can be designed. This is best shown by example and done so in Example 35. Further applications of Equations 325 and 326 are given in Example 36. In this example a material handling problem is analyzed in which both steady state and transient heat transfer conditions are considered. After reviewing Examples 35 and 36, the reader is encouraged to always consider transient conditions of heat transfer in similar situations. Transient criteria, as revealed, usually govern to a large degree.
The second criterion involves the mass flow rate ofthe fluid through the vessel. To estabiish this criterion, Equations 325 and 326 are solved tosether to determine the temperature rise. The analysis of both criteria is
same
Figure 312D. Vessels with typical external heat transfer plate panels. (Courtesy of Tranter, Inc.)
Equipment
131
' *i
fluid x gallons
v'F
oF/min
Figure 313. Two schemes in which the heat transferred must be considered: (A) conrol rnass scheme; (B) control volume
scheme.
132
and convection are the controlling modes of heat transfer. The convection can either be considered as natural or free convection, or in the case of wind, forced convection. It has been found that using the free convection coefficient is the most desirable in many cases, since vessels are normally surrounded by other equipment and structures, making free convection more applicable. Assume that the temperature inside the skirt is the same as ambient temperature and wind chill factors are not present. Air seepage under the skirt and open apertures on the shell allow for equilibrium to be established with the outside temperature. The first step is to determine the free convection film coefficient for the outside surface of the oressure vessel skirt insulation. In normal conditions. the air temoerature inside the vessel skirt. ti. is assumed five degrees lower than the outside ambient, ts. The free convection film coefficient is found by iteration using the following
equatrons:
ln (r+/r:)
ta
1 l' * k* h.J
(Ua/ha
5)(!
t5)
t5
No,
=
:
[d3lgB I At 
(3,600)2]tp2
NN"
C(NG.NP.)
(331) (332)
hl.s : G"i,NN,)/d
flll
@l
= =
insulation metal
.f
Figure 314. Vessel skirt insulation detail. Sometimes the inside insulation is left off.
133
tlc
)13
<
Nc,Np,
<
10", C
O.129,m
pip
These relationships are valid for applications for the refining, petrochemical, and gas processing industries. Now, for a cylinder with insulation on both sides, we use the final value of ha5 after performing iterations from Equations 328 through 332 in the following equatrons:
"
^z
/2"r,.,\
\U,q,/
r tltt tr"'rrl [
l" (t ,ttj
13'll
\[
: ztQ
, [ ,,  (t/'i)lll
tl" {r./rr)
I"
l]L
(334) (335)
Substituting these parameters into the foliowing equation, we obtain the temperature distribution down the skirt length:
2(t.
, *
Zt
eoo
5
=
(336)
"zrauJ
The difference between the process temperature inside the vessel and the outside ambient temperature is the main driving force of heat transfer. It is analogous to electrical EMF driving force or the potential energy of height differential from which a fluid is dropped and turned into kinetic energy. The degree in significance of convection is inversely proportional to the insulation thickness. The air around the outside insulation surface is in a state of local turbulence and for this reason the variance of the Grashof number down the outside insulation wall is insignificant. Experimental measurements confirm this fact. The reader will see in Examples 37 and 38 how to apply this method to vessel skirts. Piping that is supported by piping sections is treated in a similar manner to vessel skirts. Such piping supports are shown in Figure 315 in which the pipe supports and branch lines are subject to thermal gradients from a hot or cold process header. Figure 315a shows a stub piece used as a piping header support. The temperature gradient through the stub piece must be analyzed to determine if the Teflon slide beneath the base plate will be protected from the elevated temperature inside the process
Fragile piece ol
equipment
Figure315. (A) Stub piece used as header support: (B) process line is connected to a turboexpander. The line is supported by a short section of pipe welded to a base plate; (C) branch line from a header (hot or cold) connected through a shutoff valve to a ftagile piece of process equipment.
header.
If the process header is in cryogenic service, the stub piece must be analyzed to assure the design engineer
that the carbon steel structural members are adequately protected from temperatures below the transition temperature. Shown in Figure 3l5b is a common situation in which a process line connected to a turboexpander is supported by a section of pipe welded to a base plate. If the pipe stub deflects enough (shown by 61), the thermal deflec
134
Mechanical Design of Process Systems where c and m are determined as previously for skirts
tion could induce a sufficient bending moment on the turbine to cause serious mechanical damage. Figure 315c shows a branch line running from a hot
or cold pipe header to a fragile piece of equipment. Even though the valve on the branch line is closed, the residual temperature distribution through the branch line may be enough to cause the pipe to deflect and damage the equlpment. Referring to Figure 316, the procedure for determin
h,j
= (k"r.Nr")/d
(u3/h;) (ti
tj :
ing the temperature distribution through the empty branch pipe or pipe support is similar to the case of a vessel skirt. First, solve for the free convection film coefficient on the exterior surface of the pipe insulation. To do this, use the equation for the overall heat transfer coefficient:
Once Atj criterion is met, we can proceed with the final iterative value for the film coefficient, h.. With this final value. we solve lor the parameters Q, Z. and Z as
follows:
;"{$
/ r \ r kJ, t't  tT l^J lrrtr"tt:
rn
2nk1
(340)
ur:
t',
,"
1,,
 r( \ k(r,
(;)

,, ,"
(,:)
n;/]
,
(337)
(341)
lll \r,
: l=l
=
to)
to
(338)
o
Once Q and Z are known, we solve for the temperature distribution with
No,
[d37,gB( lAt
l) (3,600),]/rr,
(330)
Nr" = C(Nc,NpJ'
(331)
tx
(336)
ts
900'F; ; 300'F
You will notice that the form of the final solution. Equation 336, is the same for the skirt problem with insulation on the inside and outside shell surfaces as the pipe problem with insulation on only the outside surface. The difference in the solutions is because of the boundary conditions, i.e., a cylinder with insulation on both inside and outside surfaces versus a cylinder with just insulation on the outside surface alone. The solutions to the basic differential equations are affected by these differences in boundary conditions. For further information on this subject, the reader is referred to the author's paper
For cases of tapered vessel skirts the cylinder section can be approximated by using an average diameter. This
t4l.
Figure 316. Empty branch pipe with one end uniformly subjected to three temperatures.
approximation is very close to actual results because skirts should not taper more than 15" (see Chapter 4). As a consequence of heat transfer along vessel skirts and pipe connections, thermal deflections will occur. The deflection equations are the same regardless of whar case is considered, whether it is a shell with insulation on the inside and outside surfaces or a shell with only external insulation. The values of Q and Z are determined from the appropriate equations of each respective case.
135
The thermal deflection equations are dependent on the type of material considered since the coefficient of thermal conductivity is the governing property of the particular material being considered. Thking a differential ele
+ +
(2.Oss (2.055
x ro ,7]L
l0o
e2lao
5)
1;
dL :
@(t)t(x) dx
(342)
(1.06 x l06)
106
(_
l8(t,
z),
Since the temperature varies over the shell length, we inregrate Equation 342 to obtain the total deflection, 6, as
'Ir
+
o= jar = JL crrrr(xr dx
(341)
The function, c(t), is the coefficient of thermal expansion for the particular material being considered. Values of the thermal expansion were curve fitted over a large range of temperature and a relation in terms of temperature was obtained for various materials. The function for t(x) is obtained from Equation 336 and is substituted
4Zi,
Zt
tr
(345)
Like Equation 344, Equation 345 can be adequately handled using only the first three terms. The use of these equations will be demonstrated in the examples.
with d(t) in Equation 343. Then, the product of a(t)t(x) is integrated over a length L and we obtain the thermal deflection function for each particular material. For carbon steel, the expanded thermal deflection equation is as follows:
2[5.89
(2.496
x l0 ,22)& 106e0.5
Z) arctan
(elo0
5;
(2.496 (2.496
Z)2(e2lao5
1)
e2LQo
5)
x ro ,z'L
t0
(6.536,l0?)
(109
{rr,,
 zr
+ arctan [sinhtLQo'y]l
't..
[sech(LQos.; tanh(LQo
l1
/
e:Loo
87r,
,a"42t.
 2f
\l
i
5i
etLao
For practical applications in the refining, petrochemical, and gas processing industries, sufficient accuracy may be obtained by omitting the last term beginning with (6.536 x 10?) in the calculations. Similarly, for stainless steel, the thermal deflection equation is as follows:
6.,
B441
2&
Z) [8.96 +
(4.1
Ix
10
5
)Z]
arctan
(eLQ0
5)
(106)Qo
136 \
Mechanical Design of Process Systems (Heat loss by convection from'l shoe to outside l
plate
/ \
air
.t
go"F
k.A,
l:l = hJp(ar)
(346)
sos'r
8o3'F
8O3"F
For the conduction process, At : ti  tp For the convection process, At : tp  to Substituting into Equation 346, we have
Ue.
(D'
l=hoAp(tpr.)
'888'F
(347)
8sa"F
A. : Ao = h^ = k: L:
(P
Base width
x length of shoe) x 2,
in.2
Btu/hrfc"F
shoe height, in.
Like the analysis for cylinders, the free convection coefficient, h., can be substituted with a forced convection coefficient. However, most pipe shoes are surrounded by enough obstructions to prevent a direct wind from blowing on the shoe for any length of time. Figures 318a and 318b show thermal gradients for various simple pipe
supports.
A'
0.131
ft'?
2.5
h {D' \Di
2t)
/
o.+rs
r. = l=l
u.
/r rr\
0.41e
0.256 ft
EXAMPLE
DESIGN
kr
(2.0X0.04)
0.08
Determine the steam tracing requirements for an Sin. Schedule 40 gasvapor line with a minimum process temperature of 140'F. The piping insulation is 2rlz in. caliium silicate, 9inch nominal IPS. The system is to be designed for an ambient temperature of 0"F and a 15 mph wind. The tracing medium will be 150 psig steam,
4.5 (assuming At
50'F)
U. =
0.292
following:
Qr (ah space to
Q2 (tracer to
atm) :
tracing.
We first try using two tracers running alongside bottom of process pipe. Calculating the areas we have the
air space)
Btu/hf
following:
A" =
3.63
ft
Equipment
137
rr i1 nl
olo
'
t___
I
H_
ol
I
'{"1 ltll!'1
*l
D.
Qr :
8.00
in.
+
0.667 ft;
+ 2(2.0)
12.0in.
1.0ft
148 Btu/hr
Q: =
221 Btu/hr
2(0.167)
,n [o.ooz
Since Qz
tracers.
> (f)Qr,
0.667
At :
+ zro.roull
I
0.203 rt
A" =
Ap
0.916 ft2lftl'
0.131 ft'?lft
A^:
EXAIIIPLE 32: HOT OIL TRACING DESIGN
A 3in. schedule header contains asphalt which is to be maintained at least to 445'F. The 3in. header is to be traced with hot oil (Ce : 0.50 Btu/lb'R p = 58.7 lbl ft3 at 475"F). Determine the size and number of hot oil tracers required to maintain the asphalt at a minimum temperature of 450'F. For asphalt, Cp : 0.368 Btu/lb"F at 500"F. For most applications, l/zin. copper tubing is the standard size for tracing operations. We select a l/zin. 18 BWG gauge steel tube, At : 0.131 ftlft, k^ : 27.5 Btuft/hrft2'n First we will try one tracer,
12
o.ol8 fr:
0.345
t'  j1 2n,
hr" tr"
0'690
2(1.0)
ft :
ft
0.33[ffiu'.*r,,J:
hr"
r't,
5.059
+ eh,:3.992 + (0.90)(1.185) :
I
5.059
= u^:0.449
Di :
3.50 + 0.50 :
4.00 in. :
0.333
ft
138
qt :
n,
 70) :
z.z:o
263.383 Btu/hrft
: q2 :
qt
25
: 258.680 Btu/hrft Q.25)(O.131X550  345) : 60.4248tts/hrft q3: (1.383X0.916)(497 .50  345.00) : 193.191
(o.449)Q.095X345
70)
Btu/hrft q4
9z
t2.236t(0.t31x550
(
qr =
qa
1.375X0.916)(520
=
<
tr1 sl
\u.J+)/
445)
301.304 Bruihr_ft
q4
2q3
No balance
Qt
t)1 sl
(ffi/
=
ro
ott'tsso  +ro'
172.174 Btu'lhrft
jt
< 2qt
No balance
Since we have reached the minimum desirable temperatures for q and to, it is clear that the system will not balance using one Uzin. tracer. Therefore, we will use two t/zinch tracers. Referring to Figure 32b we consider the
Consider t"
following:
h,
in.
0.387 0.720
ft ft
hp
0.5
(::L
roo)"'
r.+s+
ti:2in. :0.167ft
216.351 Btu/hrft
: qz : q3 :
qt
Q.364)(0.131X550  300) : 77.421 Bttlhrft 1.454)(0.916Xs50  300) : 266.373 Bttlhrft t)1 \\ q^ = t2) l:::l (0.018)(550  450) = 286.957 Btu/hrft \u.J4)/
70)
(
(0.449)(2.095X300
_ '1"
A"
2r(0.360)
2.262 ft'?lft
h,":033[sffiffi,,t:,,,,
h :
hr.
+ eh, :
1.996
(0.90X1.185)
3.063
qt =
70)
10.479 in.
: 350) :
350)
= o.ztsft
450)
286.957 Btu/hrft
jq <
2q3
No balance
and te2 2.25
Consider
t" = 345'F
445'F
r,,
+10" = os(try#, =
A. = 0.018 ft: Ap = 0.916 ft?/ft consider t" : 350'F and to, : 490'F h, : 2.236i hp : 1'375 q : (0.390)(2.262)(350 't0) : 247.010 Btu/hrft q2 : Q.236)(0.131X550  350) : 58.583 Btu/hrft q3  1.175 )(0.916X520  350) : 214.ll5 Btuihrft
A, = 0.13t fP/fl:
(
9a
/rt.\
490)
544.954 Btu,/h.:
139
Consider
9r
p=938.08
Co at
500'F; k:0.1
(0.390X2.262X350
9:
(2.236X0.131)(550 (1.375)(0.916)(525 
#h
: 3s0) :
3s0)
V= V=
5o
,"tut
220.4r3 Bt'tlhrft
3.781 ft/sec
q. 
500)
454.128 Btu/hrft
VDP ^, _
qr>2qandq2+q3>qr
Therefore, the system is balanced. For 100 ft of pipe,
9r or,
q
(j.781)
Nn"
b'rL\
{e38 08)ce
: : _
(100)f(454.128) Btu/hrft
45,412.8 Btu/hr
l\ ill *p
Nn"
22,706.422 Btu/hr for each tracer 22,706.422 Btulhr
3.242
<< 2,100 +
Laminar flow
908.257 lb/hr
hrz
1.86(NnJr"(N,)'' (P)'i3
= , _
H [:)."
=
(316)
'
t.ezy gpm
N".:f
/, , ,lo \
(e38.08)ce
Thus, we see that two l/2in. tracers containing hot oil flowing at I .929 gpm is adequate to maintain the asphalt at a minimum temperature of 450'F. The next step in the design is to do a hydraulic analysis using the principles
l+l [o/
nr ^
Btu
to.:+r,oBtu,
ofChapter 1 and size pumps to handle the hot oil. (Chapter 6 discusses how to select the pumps required to distribute the oil in the system.)
:
D
hrfr'F
,654.733
4 026
/ rr'\
'" t,rJ
0 336:
L=
'
loo
rt
hr.,
1.86(3.242)r
r (7.654.733)r
(H)
'
'(#)(10)#.F
,
1
ra ht z
ra
ln (ry'rr)
kz,:
f',, = 2.415Tnrrt'  f
+
h:
Di/D.
0.664
>
o=
95.909
lb/ftr: C
0.34
lb'F
NN"
0.020
^9,'*"1,,(*]'
140
Rs
hydraulic 1361r,
3 033
ft
2 250
.
0.392 in.
q q
UA(LMTD)
7.80)ftr(72.135).F
4Rn
1.566
in. =
0.131
Nr" ''
required
(4o.ro7r
ricpat
For hot
^, "p,
/rCo
oil, At =
toH
toc
100'F and,
,0.,r,a"
rorRr,'l
0.5
Btu
=
ooo).F
127.$21!
hr
lb'F'
Nr" =
0.020(5,01 r.24D0.8(z.s3s)'t3
(0.*U*)*'
ze.r2r
1^
_ NN,k
hrft'/"F/ft
0.131
th
ft
ftr
rr 
13.033) +
L
(3.033) ln (2.2so/2.0r3)
2.4rs
1 l' , 15r$l
lh
Rr"
Ri,r
or
ft']hr'F
q: :
outside surface area of inner tube
I1,771.400 Btu/hr
A: A
Thus, 0.5 gpm is a sufficient flow rate to transfer the required heat to the film coating mixture.
1.178
fPlft
117.800
ft, for
100
ft ofpipe
In hot oil applications it is common to assume that the hot oil decreases in temperature 100'F per 10 feet in jacketed and traced systems. For the film coating mixture,
tcn
: :
500'F and
t. :
to.
459'P
ton
550'F and
459'P
LMTD
72.135"F
Equipment
141
f.1.537 ol
12.82 lb/gal
cP=
: :
4(107)(12)/1,14
35.667 ft2
o'g+
The overall heat transfer coefficient, Uvalue, supplied by the panel manufacturer for applications to the fill coating mix is as follows:
Process Conditions (as determined by process engineers
COATING MIXTURE
or client for desired capability of tank): Initial temperature of coating mixture = 360'F Final temperature of coating mixture = 400'F For internal panels, U : 9.52 Btu/hrft2'F For external clampon jacketing, U : 4.00 Btu/hrft2"F
Substituting into the previous equation for At we have
^, _ ' 
(9.52x35.667)(LMTD)
(4.0X377.078XLMTD)
at:7.410'F/hr
COATING MIXTUR AT TEMPERATURE t
Referring to Figure 319 we can now determine how fill coating mix will rise using external clampon jacketing on surfaces of the flanged and dished head, the vessel shell, and four internal panmany degrees per hour the
els just considered:
(60)
Q
:104.869'F
360)'F
360) Btu/hr
LMTD
: (550360)(4504oo)
Now,
: and Q :
with Q
:ool
4ool
UA(LMTD)
39,229.20(t
360)
mceAt
(9.s2)(35.667)(LMrD) 1,847.862(LMTD)
(4.0)(377 .U
8)(LMrD) 39,229.20(t'
360)
360)
UA(LMTD)
39,229.2O(t'
,
m
UA(LMTD)
DLp
LMTD
th
gal =
2L.230(t'
360)
{6.000)gal(12.82)
Now, 76.920.00 lb
(550360)(450r')
Using heat transfer panels shown in Figure 312 we compute the toial available heat transfer area as follows:
 1550 '"t450tl 
21.23(t'
3601
360)
142
Solving for t,
wP:
1
wetted Perimeter
: (.Jo*t*
(21.23r'
(110.394t',
,642.80)
39,841.956)
"t
ln (450
r')
WP:
A
0,68
in.'?
4a(W)
where
eln
(450r')Y
A:2Yr+2wY
in which 2.718
(450
t')Y
366.12'F
0.681 in.2
at :
366.12'F  360"F :
6.12'F
r(0.431)'?
: Q:
Q
OI
UA(LMTD) (9.52)(3s.667)(LMrD)
(4.0X377.078)(LMrD)
_ 550"F 
450'F
1,847.862(LMTD)
7.913 ft/sec
Now,
p:
LMTD
1550
1t9.789.F
k:
Cp
Btu/hrftl"F/ft
[4s0
366.12l l
in which Q 1,847 .862(129.7 89) 239,832. 162 Btul hr is the heat transferred to the coating mix.
'a =
/^ + . .. ," . \ rD/rlnrl c lz
'\
1Co I 
0.3b0 tb/lrhr
The maximum pressure drop permitted through the internal baffles, which are connected in parallel, is normally 10 psi, thus
VDp * l\Re 
(7.e*)
rt
sec
l'
g (lql..'*)
rr
\ I nr
0.360
fthr
Rr :j:
Nr" =
333'661
N"':
(0.360)
lh ,j:
(0.501
Btu
't <l<
lu.v/lr
143
From Kern
[],
,N,,,' ' (uJ"'"
Btu
thn
tt
r. = {0.027)
'hrft2'F/f
ro.aozrin.
llrt l2 in.i
\
I
8
x
1.
(333,661f
(2.535)1/r (1.0)
. = qsl R? Btu
rtt =
U.U9
'h9'^
ni =
("il'kl'
:
4
(348)
For coating mix, 10r < NR" < 2 x 106 The properties of the mix are as follows:
p:
A
14,400 lb/fthr
k=
0.1 Btu/hrft'F
Other properties related to the internal baffle plate approximated as a string of cylinders with diameters equal to four times the hydraulic radius of the trapezoid plate sections shown in Figures 320 and 321.
\6 =
\. Lp
/^ \ 11 lgel'nl
min
\ lhr
3360 revrhr
: =
65
in.
5.42 ft
HEATING AREA: A.
t= STRAIGHT SECTION BETWEEN CHANNELS
Dj
ft
144 k:
h,q
or
0 0e (oo
r)
['s
+:r't:'log.o
'qs
,
eoqJ'^'
lT 
^[
h:.+
[(o
r4){ r4.4oo)1,
(0.I) l
{lJ2l l]),'
110.0/
\41
[i^] o^ *
t\2/
(1.0)
n=
7, for which
Now, to solve for the overall heat transfer coefficient, U, we must develop the appropriate equation.
,, " it\
[(jJto
7o
to:'
i:]
+
(0.045t ln (0.431 /0.32b)
l
Let Ao
LW
L=
W:
width of plate
I 
 art "'
I
18.334
[(0.326X949.883)
UAa
(tr
Ar :
sr
baffle
51.'123
ft
To account for the residual heat transferred through the plate connecting the hexagon tubes we consider to be the equivalent radius of a cylinder that is the total surface
A= A:
A=
surface area
2210.431)i"
lt.672 fe
D, :
Zor'
= Dt
4(tr.672) ft2
46.690 ft2
It
2tr From above,
q=
UA.
{f
I  t1) 2T(tr
\.r lzr
I
L
1t,
ta1
q:
UAAT (100).F
finl2
in which
r" "T
Kt I
ta) n
r" ln (r./r)
f
137,698,1a8
f.! nr
U:
D,Iq*r"lntr./r't * hrII k:
[r,hrz :
In the case of external jacket plates, the heat transfer parameters are based on the dimension, shown in
Equipment
145
tgure 322, because it is this surface that is in contact rth the vessel wall. Consequently we can analyze the ^ : xfiguration in Figure 322 as a tube with circumfer::re'e of W. Hence, we have the following:
where
At =
i;r1 =
: .rhere rr :
Y7
At =
r(0.219)1
0.151 in.':
: :
V2
:iom above,
Yz
: = ;
175
0.21C in. or
D,
9.433 in.
0.62
ln.2 (from
The tube equivalent flow rate for the length W mapped :nto a circle or radius rr is by the continuity condition of iluid mechanics,
I
sec
vr
(0.62) in.,
o.Lsrin:
= 6.448
:sec
vDp
I'r
(6.448)
in.i
,s8
lL tthr
Nn"
138,150.85
w= 1.375 in
1.,1o.
PCo
k
2.535
j = 'l.375
circumference
h,,
=
w
(0.027)
= 0.438
in.
h',,  = 77.260
hrft2'F
Equivalent llow,
13 1341/) 111
6.448 fusec
Perry [6] gives the correlation for heat transfer for jacketed walls to the agitated liquid as follows:
Thus for the equivalent tube, rz = 0.219 in. rs = 0.219 + 0.109 = 0.328 in. r+ = 0.328 + 0.375 = 0.703 in.
c,
''
h
: "(;)t')1'(9^k)'
5
(349)
where, tq
Dj
k
Equivalent Cylinder Figure 322. Panel total flow cross section. Contact length w is mapped into an equivalent circular tube whose circuinference equals w.
LP
N,
film coefficient at vessel wall (see Figure 322) inside diameter of the vessel, ft = 10.0 ft 0.1 Btu/hrft'F diameter of agitator = 5.42 ft angular velocity, or rotation of agitator
3,360 rev/hr 95,909 lb./fC
146
speciflc heat of coating mix viscosity at bulk temperature, lb/fthr viscosity at wall temperature, lb/fthr
see Table
.u=l t
(0.703
l(0.2t9)(71 .26)
(0.73) ln (0.328/0.219)
3l
(0.703 )
ln r0.703/0.328)
II
I lr
14.06l
Laboratory tests were made on the coating mix and the results showed that p6lp* : 0.65. Since the coating mix is a nonNewtonian fluid, it is strongly recommended that the physical properties be deterrnined by a qualified Iaboratorl,. the ratio p5lp* should reyer be assumed to be I .0 for a nonNewtonian fluid without laboratory tests of
A,
is
fluid
samples.
For a disk. flarblade turbine agitator we find values for a. b, and M from Thble 31 as follows:
A:
Now,
37,043.82 in.'?
A' : A' :
area of channels in all nine jacket shell plates clampedon to outside of shell
257
.249
ftl
hot oilcoaring mix servicc
Rr'
following:
Ar = 100"F for
(s.42t(3,360.0X9s.909
(14,400)
,*,(,*)[
l,o.ur',o,o
q
or
{8.14lr
(100)'F
,
h,,. '
:ltr+,+ool]"'
lto
14.060
Btu
q=
209
.414.44
Rr,'
:
nr
hrfC'F
Thus,
II _
l17. In Chapter 1, Example 12 we analyzed the hydraulics for the hot oil flow through the panels mounted
Table 31
on the tank. From this analysis we determined the following velocities required to obtain l0 psi pressure drop through the panels:
innerpanel outerpanel
Range
: V: : V:
turblne Propeller
Paddle
2lz
40<NR.<3x105
80<NR"<200 Nn" = 2000 3oo<NR"<3 8<NR.<105
Heat Duty for Bottom Head Inner Panels Similar to the shell panel plates above, we must compute the equivalent tube diameter and equivalent velocity. As determined above the equivalent radius is
2lt ,/3 2h
Helical ribbon
0.633 Vz
105
l8
rr :
0.219 in.
Equipment
lroo;"r
147
S.lce the bottom baffles have the same flow area as the .rell plates, the cross flow area of the equivalent tube is
q '
uA
at = (8.s90). lr)hrftr'F
Btu
1r.+r+)n,
i = n(0.219) in.2 :
I
0.151 in.2
in which h,
for both two inner plates
:e
equivalent tube circumference is equal to the contact ::mension, w, as above we must compute the equivalent
..locity. Thus
quivalent velocity
= Y.
:' sec
(0.31)in.2
in.'z
0.151
tcutvatent \ etoclt\
{
(5.237rt0.31
0. 151
lu. /f
lt/sec
10.75l,(0.438r
Nn.
0.160
\
322,453.78
h,2 '..
 {0.027) lfffl
1t6.303
/^ ^\
\0.438/
.:
(0.027)
'r { 1.0)
h,, =
, :tu^= nrlt''f
:..:152.2ll
'hell
i.r.
Btu
hrfP"F
The vesselside
panels,
for the
f'n,
.l.l+,SlO
!$nrrI't
Thus,
Thus,
, ' 
,, "
(t.trr:,
rn lo \0.219/
29
34'l
(0.703) ln (0.703/0.328)
29
I 14.914)
,
u
A: A=
OI
ro.703 r ln
lu
/^ ^^\ /urI
2s
\0.328/,
'
I I'
r+.st+)
heat transfer area of bottom head plates from rhe manufacturer's data the flow path length is 388.231 in. for one half of the head, hence,
Let
A:
in. =
5,579.140 in.2
1 = (18$.231)
OI
1,067.635 in.2
A=
'1.414
A: q:
ft2
heat duty
UA
At =
24,772.333
ry hr
148
Thus, the minimum hot oil flow rate in pipe header supplying the total hot oil to surge tank is 10 gpm, the actual flow rate is 16 gpm.
q=
137,698.148
Btu
hr
Btu
hr
internal
panels
6,368.11
Btu hr
24,772.333
Btu
hr
two nner
panels on
four outer
panels on
bottom head
bottom head
q=
378,253.631
P!! hr
qt
Now,
23g,832.rc28:
nr
q:
rh cp At
Elr"
373.253.631
"
{0.50)
tb'F
Rrrl :t:
7,s65.073
(
l!
nt
l00toF
2.
239
:::
nt
Elr'r
flnln
4.796.64
th
nr
4.", :
P nr
/r.+a gur\
5s.7
! ftr
th
\ri/
Table 32
Component wt.,
Glass mat
16.067 gpm
Asphalt
Filler
4.796.640 58.7.]9'
120.58
: nr
n'
\ r/
f
7.48 gall
87.32 96.08
Component
Cp
o/o
ol
Cp
0.2
o.4
0.217 0.20
o.395'7 10.9688
8.217 4
I 2.03
6. I
6.0348
o.2
0.50
318,42 10000
C, =
10.187 gpm
)q t;0
q4R
0.299 Btuilb'F
Equipment
149
3.
ter required.
Leaving Granule Section Q = mcp At for each component Temp. of component Component prior to mixing Cp Eo by wt. 0.2 1.9785 80'F Glass 400'F 0.4 2'7.422 .A.sphalt 400'F 0.22 37 .8682 Filler
Granules Talc Adhesives
a.
t :
0.9375lb/ft2
80"F
80'F 400'F
.8682)(0.22)(400
30.17398
r.92
0.63"75
(0.9375X0.299)(101.63)
29.49
.t 2t
(1.978s)(0.2X80
(37
t^) + (27.422)(0.4)(400
t.)
t,)
3.0
106
10.969
t^ +
3332.402
8.331
t.
80) + + 4387.520
c. Heat loss through forced convection and radiation of heat passing through air medium is determined as follows:
6.035 t. 25.50
482.',784
0.384
t. 
30.720
0.319
t.
where
t. :
313.633'F
At
t ]
I
FINAL
COMPONENT
'150
For convection,
Q:
hAAt
For 600 shingles/hr (or 144,000 Btu/hr) the heat removal would be : (144,000X0.9375)(O.299)(313.63  125)
= h."^ :
:
2 Btu/hrlft2/.F 50 Btu/hr/ftrl.F
7.614 mm Btu/hr
h. =
t2
> removal
q:
23 Btu/hrtfP l"F
and the cooling system is adequate.
/6R {r ";:'(l)
s.708
fr2
For vaporization,
29 Btu/ft,
For radiation,

Qv
,l
104,400.00 Btu/min
h,
F.Fo lo(tr"
1,000 Btu/bb
0.173
108
1r)4 400
;*;
104.40 lbi
min
Thus, 104.40
g
mtn
th gal
h,
1.857 Btu/hr/ft,/"F
gpm =
12.518 gpm
8.34:
Thus, the water pump to be used is to be sized gpm at a terminal exit pressure of 200 psi. 1.857
for
13
: Q = h1A(At) :
h" + h.
Btu/hr
23.000
24.857 Btuthttfet"F
(24.8s7X5.708) (223.63)
3r,729.464
l.
Water Required for Cooling
Let Qv
2.
The composite sheet is approximated by a material of average conductivity. The sheet is infinitely long and is an isotropic rigid
solid.
heat removed by vaporization
ftlmin
Qv
17,400 Btu/min
Figure 323 shows a view of the roofing slab. Assuming that the material is a composite sheet approximated by an integral sheet of average properties, the temperature distribution is at all times symmetric about the midplane of the slab, thus x = 0 at the center of the sheet. From Fourier's law of conduction,
= kdX
AI
Q=
3,000,000
The heat transfer across x = 0 is zero and at the midplane of x : 0 the sheet behaves as a perfect insulatoran adiabatic surface. Consequently, the solution to this problem applies to a slab that is perfectly insulated at one
Equipment
151
Iace, initially at a known temperature, to, and then exposed on one face to a
tr.
k p Cp
1
0.30 (0.9375)(0.299)
U.UO/
1.070 ft'?lhr
= 314'F
t"
90'F
ti
r = 0.90(0.094), .070
or
hr =
0.2146
min
Here we are spraying water on the sheet and we wish to determine the time required for the sheet to reach
125'F.
0.:3149O=224"F
0,L=o
125
90:35"F
r = 26.'756 = 2'7 sec for 90'water Approximate length of sheet exposed to nozzle splay : 150 ft Velocity of sheet : V, For V, : 600 ft/min,
150
l c.
 rn.
,=r
:
35 ==0.156 224
ft
600 ftlmin
0.25 min
15 sec
Thickness of sheet
3/ro
in. in which
L:
300
:/:z
For
V.
400 ftlrnin,
0.094 in.
150
ft
For water,
Surface coefficient (worst condition)
400 frlmin
0.375
min
22.5
sec
Btu/hrftl"F
The length of the cooling section and the velocity of the sheet are both fixe.d. The only parameter not fixed is the
temperature of the water.
Thus,
o.ott
Fourier number
From Figure
324, NF"
0.90
d7 L
r:
NroL2
ct
o.oo417
m/L2
Figure 324. Heisler's main chart for the infinite slab [7].
152
(Nr o),"o
'a
(o oo4l7j(
o7o'
(0.094)'
0.505
(*).,,,,
Let
oo,o
t" :
r
t,\
l)5 Jl+ 
lyzed, 200"F,  100'F, and 50'F. The skirt is made of Type 3(X stainless steel and is insulated on the inside and outside as shown in Figure 328. The insulation is sized for the most extreme process temperature that the vessel will be exposed to, 200"F. Data used in the example are given in Figure 325. First, determine the natural convection film coefficient for the skirt. The temperature inside the skirt, ti, is assumed to be five degrees lower than the ambient temperatute, t5.
uo
:
=
in which
temperature of water.
t* = 11.86"F
[', 'L(no,r
.,.
O*4,
u'i,r:.',n)
iJ'
I
[7.r1s
r l, hJ
Thus, for a cooling section of 150 feet long, the sheet moving at 600 ftlmin cannot be cooled to 125'F since the theoretical value of t* is below freezing.
Assume h4,5
0.275
At V,
= r=
u4:0.093
0.0063 hr 0.7568
{Nro),.u.r
=
=
(0.0063X 1.070)
^: (u.u94r
0.180
.:
j =
l;l
ln\
r
t*
t* :
83.51'F for a
sheet velocity
of 400 ftlmin
Thus, the sheet can be reasonably cooled while moving at 400 ftlmin. If a velocity of 600 ftlmin is desired, additional water sprays must be added. However, one must balance the sheet velocity against the cutting machines and workers' capability to handle the additional material. It is found in most roof shingle plants that 400 ftlmin is an optimum velocity. As demonstrated, the transient heat transfer analysis is mandatory in evaluating a system.
= 60"F = 3048in. :2.573lt /, = 367,bin. = 3.073 ft f3 = 37%in.  3.135 ft /4 = 435//6in. : 3.635 ft A^ = (tt  r,2) = l.z0glt, F  1(460+ 60) = 0.00'1923 1 = 0.07633 lb/tt3 p = 0.04339 lbfit h k*, = 0.01466 Btu/h ft "F kyz 8.0 Blu/h ft.F ka t = kg'q = 0.14 Btu/h ft'F
G t1
NP'
4 = 55'F
= 0'712
Figure 325. Cryogenic pressure vessel with internal and external insulation on the skirt.
153
,. =
[*J
(tr
 ts) + ts
#[",('[4
ra1nl.2gsr
 , 'f5)
 t, ll
:l /o.osl\ l{))+bU
\0.275i
['h
63sx0 27sx1 69)
'(;.,Jll 0
14
s8.31'F
l'3
t
,,1.
sa.:
r
ln
55.00
ln
l(7 .27)3(0.07
[ \3.13s/
Z:65.1O2"F1ft2
Iturr\tt
tl
\3.073/
Na,:1,613,'720,723
where
2te
213.6tt)
7.27 ft
z:?
Nc,Np,
1,14g,9tt,ttt
Q For t. :
=6s'1o2
1.126'7
57.781'F
299'P
C= N", :
0.129
andm
r/:
2(t.
Zle*oo
5
I + e2*qo
C(Nq,Np,)0.129(l,148,969,155)r/3
(fqi,
+z
57.78.1
=
n.1 ' =
135.
11
t. _
0.2125
(515.56)(2.89)+ 1 + (2.89y'
I.") d (s)
(0.014661(l35.ll)
7.27
Similarly for:
IOOqII ti  l#l
60:
=
t, : 
100'F,
s8.29"F
_ t. "
515.56X2.89)r + (2.89)"
57.781
58.31
58.29
0.02
and for
t, : 50"F
:4.275
r _
.:[ffH][dil.*.19]
I I t_ = t_t"ro. [(8Xl.2oe, li
z
Figure 326 shows these distribution curves. The axial deflection of the skirt will now be calculated using the first three terms of the stainless steel deflection equation (Equation 345). The hyperbolic terms in the equation are not necessary when the steel temperature is greater than 300'F or less than 1000'F,
r+r
!
t
rl
';T#"'J
_ *._ ^
2(t.
Z)ls.sa + (4.i1
5;
/z.sz:\
f
(2.055 (2.055
l03\z2L
[l '" \'otr/
Q:
r.1267 ft'?
100
154
U:
: :
+ r/h.l
: Let
U3
[12.565
+'/h"]
0 '0137
: Ut :
h"
'
1.0 Btu/hrft2'F
200 160
120 _80
Temperatur,
.F
_40
0 m 40
60
65.16.F
At=t:L=5.16'F }'16, : [d3e,gB( lAt l)(3,600t]/r., : (1.052t(0.0763r2(O.O01923)(32.2) x (3,600F(s. l6)l/(0.0433eF : 14,920,198.65 Nc,N", : (14,920, 198.65X0.7 12) : 10,623,181.44
NNu
where,
(1.06
C(Nc.NPr).
rElt
0.525andm:r/+
0.525 (10,623,181.44)\ra = 29.97 (k"i,/d)NN" : (o.ot466n.052) 29.57
.,82rt,
For
t. : : 6.5 200"F. Q =
0.00701
0.00718
 2f ,a'
ezroo:
\l
+ ela
0.4t77 (U3/h;)(ti
+60
.I L'L
60)
'72.35"F
57.781 and L
7.19'F
: 6., :
6,,
+ 0.00004 +
V:
t3
h"
: :
Btu/hrft
'F
fr :
0.08616 in.
see that
200'F that 20"F is obtained at x : 1.75 ft. At about 2.0 ft and below, the skirt could be of carbon steel construction and considerable material savinss could be obtained.
(.0.0684'710.49) 70
+ 60
69.781'F
Nr, h"'
At:'
= \, =
+ 60 =
0.002'F <
69.779"F 0.1
155
= a = a =
z
0.49 Btu/hrft'F
2?rki/[kMAM
ln (ry'ra)]
2r (0.027
)I
[25 (0.0387
(0.52610.27
I
4
Z
tx
=  [2rl(k.A.)][r3h.(t3  t")  kit3/ln (ry'rJl : I l21rt[25 (0.0387) [0.s26(0.49)(69.78 60) 0.027 (69.78)/ln (0.52610.276)1 :  2.607  : 2.60'1"F1ft'? : zlQ : 9.587'F + Z ^= t2 (i.  Zt.'oo1lt 1.:roo51; : iZ t,,  9.587)e''0 "'7'o 5/11 + e2r'02?210s)l
+
9.587
6)l
) In
(0.521
x ltr)
103)(125 ,565 .623Xr82.902)
O.272
fr
(2.496
(0.521
109(184.902)
+ +
1
0.0008 2706.95
(6.s36
x 10')
[558,494,713.0
2000884.26
+'74,115,250.451
6".
0.0155
ft :
For
t, :
900'F,
I.780.83 (1.313)' ^ \87 .  '' : tl + 1.313)'?1 r q For t. : 699'P 1.180.83 0.313)r, . + 9.587 ' = lr + (l.3l3y'l For t, : 399'P
(
This example shows that residual heat through a closed branch line can be significant enough to cause thermal movements, which can result in high stresses. These thermal deflections are particularly important when space is limited and the piping system has little flexibilIty.
580.83
ll+
(l.3l3l
Curves depicting t, are shown in Figure 327. Unlike Example 37, the slopes of the curves change much less, almost approaching straight lines. Axial temperature gradients along a section of piping produce thermal deflections. The pipe support will now be analyzed for thermal deflections. The surface temperature, ts, of the branch pipe at the point of the contact with the header is 600'F. The average temperature inside the pipe may be calculated from the 600"F curve in Figure 327 which shows a temperature at a distance x of five feet to be 294'F.
t; =
(600
+294)t2:447"F
Through the process of iteration, h. : 0.68 Btuihrft'F at the average internal temperature of 447"F. This was obtained using the natural convection iteration technique described in Example 37. Using the same techniques, Q = 0.2719 ft 2, Z : 66.7916'Flftz, and Z : 245.6476"F. To calcuiate the axial deflection, substitute these values into the expanded thermal deflection equation for carbon steel, Equation 339. Note: Values for the arctan used in the equation must be calculated in radians. Calculate the arctan m degrees and convert to radians in which the relationship is 2zr radians : 360 degrees. Using equation 339,
X distanc,
ll
a
header through a closed valve plotted from the pipe to valve connection every six inches for a distance of five feet in Figure
156
A l2in process header shown in Figure 328 is supported by a shoe 14in. long. The process fluid is at 750"F and it is desired to determine the temperature of the bottom of the shoe base plate where Teflon is mounted to accommodate pipe movement. The Teflon cannot withstand a temperature in excess of 400'F. Referring to Figure 328 and using Equarion 347 we
have
ffi
Rtrr /< rs ; z\ 126.0), ": r.l irr r750) "F nrrrr \ t++ In. /
0)
[126
(3.0)
rP
(3 0]
#"
_
(,,ttt{,"J
r,'(,i)r, rm,'
, 'r' : k,,, : L:
h"
h=
306.303'F
Btu/hrftl'F for
Thus, the Teflon on the base is adequately protecte. The amount of heat loss through the shoe base plate :.
q =
h"Ap (tp
t")
in :) (r.0) ,,' {rob.J'3 l:u  frrz in.J ' 'hrftr"F " '\r++
e').F
504.706 Btu/hr
L:90'F
NOTATION
y'lgscu
ao
5"cAlcruM srLrCATE
INSULATION
A = Ao : Ao : At =
A_
area
ft2
outside surface area of insulation, ftzlft outside surface area of pipe, ft'?/ft outside surface area of tracer tube or HTC
ft2lfr
specific heat, Btu/lb'F outside diameter of a pressure vessel, ft diameter, ft, in. inside diameter of pipe insulation, ft, in. outside diameter, in. inside of outer ring of annulus, in. outside diameter of inner ring of annulus. :: inside diameter of tracer tube, in.
acceleration of gravity, 32.2 ftlsec2
/
to =9oo F
D;
D: :
D,L= I
oin
h
P=0.375in
ho' :
ho
= ht : :
BASE }IIDTH
=8in
Figure 328. Heat transfer through pipe shoe.
h4s
natural convection coefficient at OD of ::: piping insulation, Btu/hrft2'F corrected value for h", Btu/hrft'?'F convection coefficient, pipe to air space, B:hrftr o F convection coefficient, tracer or HTC to "..: space, Btui hrft2'F convection coefficient between the outsj.: vessel insulation and ambient air, Btu/hr::
Equipment
157
X: Z: Z=
distance of plotted temperature points along the vessel skirt or piping, ft heat transfer factor, 'F/ft2 heat transfer factor, ZiQ, 'F
L=
Greek Symbols
0: 6.,, 6,, :
?: p: p:
,IK
axial deflection of carbon or stainless steel skirt or pipe, in. safety factor for traced pipe absolute viscosity, lbifthr
densiry, lb/ft3
Btuihr
heat transfer from tracer to air space, Btu/hr heat transfer from pipe to air space, Btu/hr heat transfer from tracer to pipe, Btu/hr
:
=
t3' : t4' :
At
t5
: At' : Atj' : U3 :
U+
air space temperature, oF process fluid temperature, 'F air temperature inside the vessel skirt, pipe support or branch pipe, 'F surface temperature of the branch pipe at contact point with the header, or operating temperature in a pressure vessel, "F temperalure at distance x along the vessel skirt, pipe support or branch pipe, 'F ambient temperature, oF temperature and corrected temperature at OD of the pressure vessel insulation, 'F temperature and corrected temperature at OD of the pressure vessel insulation, 'F tr  t in piping example, ta  t5 in vessel skirt exarnple, 'F t4  ta' in vessel skirt example, "F t3  t3' in piping example, "F overall heat transfer coefficient at OD of pipe insulation, Btu/hrft'?'F overall heat transfer coefficient at 14. Btu/hr
REFERENCES
QEMA), sixth edition, New York, N.Y, 1978. 2. Kern, Donald, Process Heat Tiansfer, McGrawHill
Book Company, 1950.
4.
62, no.
Texas.
l,
Houston,
ftr'F
Chapman, Allen 8., Heat Transfer, third edition, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1974. 6. Perry, Robert H. and Don Green, Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, sixth edition, McGrawHill Book Company, New York, 1984. 7. Heisler, M. P., "Temperature Charts for Induction and Constant Temperature Heating," Transactions of the A.S.M.E., vol. 69 (1947), pp.227236.
5.
The specifuing, design, and construction of pressure containing vessels varies all over the globe. Each adopted code that has been used for any significant
length of time has proven to be workable because its use has resulted in safe, economic designs. The main differences in codes are the theories of yield that are used for determining maximum allowable stresses, material spec
ifications. and basic procedures. With increasing international competition and cyclic economic conditions, there is a growing need to emphasize economics and familiarity of foreign codes, and avoid unnecessary overdesign that relies on only one set of codes and standards. This chapter emphasizes the optimization of economics and safety. If you choose to be conservative in your design, you can be; however, if you are bidding in a highly competitive market, you can use these methods to produce a safe, economical design. International competition and economic condltions have caused engineers to restructure their thinking that a good design uses only enough material that produces a safe and economical product. Thus, this chapter's philosophy is to optimize engineering design within code rules, whatever the code. Overly conservative design that results in excessive material use becomes unproductive and expensive when one is competing in the world market today. A thorough treatment of vessel engineering and its concomitant aspects of static and dynamic phenomena would fill several volumes. To present this broad subject with clarity. various physical phenomena are briefly discussed and references are made to sources that give detailed theoretical explanations. lt is not this book's purpose to give a trearise of static and dynamic problems. but rather descriptions of proven practices. The theory of these problems is always available, but proven solutlons are nothence, the reason for this book.
The first problem you face in designing a vessel containing pressure is how to physically make the components and assemble them. In the petroleum refining industry (CPlChemical Process Industry) and allied industries, the most practical and economical method is welding. We will refer to welding later in more detail, but first we will look at the vessel from a pure engineering viewpoint assuming perfect welds with given efficiencies. Some have proposed bonding pressure vessels together with glue, as is done with aircraft components. The main disadvantages to bonding are
assembly.
compressive
3.
Chemical bonding, especially in thickwalled vessels, takes much longer than any welding process.
Another form of assembly that has been even more seriously considered than bonding is threading components and screwing them in place. Even though this may appear to be simple, the process becomes enormously expensive with large diameters. Thus, welding is the most practical and economical means of assembling pressure vessels for the foreseeable future.
159
160
In the design for liquids under pressure, the most severe condition of coincident pressure and temperature expected in operation must be considered in computing shell thickness. This is fairly universal in codes throughout the world. The intent ofthe statement is that the most frequently occurring liquid level should be considered. For example, if a vessel is filled to a certain level "A' 75% of the time and a higher level *8" 25% of the time, level "A' should be used for design purposes. The normal liquid level to be used for vessel design and its quantitative value should be determined by the process engineer. For upset conditions each code allows an increase in allowable stresses under temporary conditions, and you should consult whichever code is to be used for exact amounts allowed. It is recommended that a value of 30 psig or 10% be added to the operating pressure for design pressure. This practice varies with each company throughout the industry. Once the internal pressure is determined it must be decided how the vessel is to be welded. The factors affecting this decision are as follows:
design temperature and pressure. The value of the MAWP at the two conditions gives the exact range of temperature and pressure that the vessel can withstand if the owner decides to use it in another application. The reader is cautioned to consult his respective code on the practice of using a vessel for another application. The following example illustrates how the MAVr'P is applied: An ASME Section VIII Division I vessel is made of SA 240304 SS, design pressure : 500 psig, design temperature : 150'F. The vessel has a shell thickness of 1.00 in. and a ioint efficiencv of 1.0.
MAWP (NAC) = (18,800)
(1.00)
(1.00.)
(21.00)+(0.6)x(1.00)
870.4 psig
MAWP (Design)
(18,300)
(1.00)
(1.00)
(21.00)+(0.6)x(1.00)
847.2 psig
l.
2. 3.
Size of vesselwhether rolled plate or seamless pipe is used. The toxic nature of the fluid to be contained. The economics of fabrication as to whether a full joint efficiency is necessary.
The 18,300 psi is obtained by linear interpolation of the allowable stress values in Table UHA23 of the ASME Code.
The vessel owner knows the maximum allowable pressure for the shell at the new and cold condition as well as the design condition. It is a common practice to limit the
One can appreciate the degree of types of welds required for a vessel. A slug catchel which acts as a scrubber handling a nontoxic substance, does not require the same caution as a vessel containing cyanide gas. The quality of a weld joint is determined by a radiographic inspection. Full radiography includes a complete Xray inspection (1OO% for butt weld and 907o for singlewelded butt joint) and spot radiography implies 85 % for buttjoints. See Thble 41 for maximum allowable efficiencies for arc and gas welded joints. The reader is strongly urged to consult whatever code happens to govern. Listed in Thble 42 are the joint efficiencies for the various welded combinations for pressure vessels under
MAWP by the head or shell and not by the flanges or openings, only the MAVr'P is determined by the flanges or openings when the vessel is to be reapplied in another application or a design oversight is made. Finally, in computing the minimum thickness of the shell or head, mechanical allowances must be considered. In the manufacture of heads, the metal is thinned on forming the section (a forgery process). This forming allowance must be considered when the nominal thickness is specified. When a minimum thickness is specified to the head manufacturer, the forming allowance is not considered because it is the manufacturer's responsibility to ensure the minimum thickness.
ASME Section VIII, Division I[1]. Any discussion on designing for internal pressure must include maximum allowable working pressure, which is the maximum gauge pressure permissibie at the top of the completed vessel in its operating position for a designated temperature. This pressure, MAVr'P, is normally specified on two conditions*new and cold (ambient) (NAC), and design. "New and cold" implies the MAWP for a new vessel (noncorroded) at atmospheric condition, and "design" implies the vessel corroded at
161
Table 41 Maximum Allowable Joint Efficiencies for Arc and Gas Welded Joints [11 Degree ot Examination
(a)
Fully
No.
(l)
Type ol Joinl Description Butt joints as attained by doublewelding or by other means which will obtain the same quality of deposited weld metal
on the inside and outside weld surfaces to agree with the requirements of UW35. Welds using metal backing strips which remain in place are excluded. Singlewelded butt joint with backing strip other than those included under (l). Singlewelded butt joint without use of backing strip. Double tull fillet lap joint Single firll fillet lap joins with plug welds conforming to UW
Radio"
Limitations
None
graphed
1.00
Examined
0.85
(b) Spot
(c)
Not Spot
Examined 0.70
(2)
(a) None except as in (b) below (b) Butt weld with one plate off
0.90
0.80
(3) (4)
(s)
t7
t/2 in. thick (b) Circumferential joints for the attachment to shells ofjackets not
(6)
over s/a in. in nominal thickness where the distance from the center of the plug weld to the edge of the plate is not less than 1r/2 times the diameter of the hole for the plug. (a) For the attachment of heads convex to pressure to shells not over s/e in. required thickness. only with use of fillet weld on inside of
0.45
162
Table 42
Joint Elficiencies for Arc and Gas Welded Joints per ASME
T1 = T2 =
Joint Types H, C, and L Type 1 Joinl (ASME UW12) Type 2 Joint (ASME UW12)
Illustration of weld joint locations Typical of Categories A, B, C. and Dsee ASME Section VIII Division I.
Radiograph
L
Type
Welded Head (NonHemispherical)Welded Shell Head Thk. Calcu. Shell Thickness Calculations E. Cir. Stress E. Long Stress
C
H'
Spot
T1 I .00
T1
1.00
T2
0.85
0.90
L00
Spot None Spot Spot Spot Spot None
0.85
I I I I
I I I I
None
Spot Spot
Full
Spot
None
Full
Spot
1.00
0.85
1.00
None
Spot Spot Spot Spot Spot Spot Spot Spot Spot
100
I I I
I I
I I
0.85
0.80
0.80
100
0.85
spot
Spot Spot
I I
I I I I I
None Full
None Full None Full None Part
*L
Full
Spot
None
Full
Spot
1.00
I I
0.85
1.00
I I I I
Vessels
163
L' C' None Part None Part None None None None
*L
Fadiograph Type
H.
Spot
Tl
f2
None
Full
Spot
0.85
II rl YI
O.70
0.80
0.6s
ii
ii i!
0.80
0.65
H=Tl H=Tl H=T2 H=T2 L C' H' C=Tl C=T2 C=Tl C=T2 Full Full Full 1.0 0.90 0.90 0.90 FUU Full Spot t {
Joint
Tt
f2
T1
T2
FullFullNoneiiii
Frrll sn^IFrrll ' "" _____i!::_____i_
!ll!
0.p0
Spot Full Full 1.00 Spot Full SDot { Spot Full None i : _=:  spot Spot tu i Spot Spot Spot 0..85 Spot Spot None Spot None Full Spot None Spot
I
0.90
 t
I
r
0.80
100
0.85
0.80
100
0.85
0.80
100
None Full None Full None Full None Spot None Spot None Spot None None None None None None
Full
Spot
None
Full
Spot
None
0.85
0.80
0.80
Full
None
0.70
164
Radiograph
Type
C=Tl
H=T1
H=T1
C=r2
Full
Spot None
00
E. Cif. Stress
o/o o^n
T1
T1
0.85
I .00
Full
Spot
None
0.85
1.00
Full
Spot
0.70
HeadWelded Shell
E. Cir. Stress
T1
Full
Spot None 1.00
T2
Full
Full Full
Spot
0.85
1.00
1.00
0.90
+
I I
0.85
1.00
Full
Spot
Spot Spot
None None None
*L
L00
0.85
1.00
0.80
i
I
I
None
0.85
I .00
Full
Spot None
0.85
0.70
i
I
0.65
0.85 0.70
HeadSeamless Shell
Shell Thickness Calculations E. Long Stress
0.80
! C Weld go\ern5 ior head dnd longnudinal slre,s calculalion\.
0.85
0.80
165
Stress
Full
Fart
Spot
0.90
1.0
0.85 0.70
0.80
0.65
\one
Head Thlck.
c'
Full
Part
Spot
Calculatlons
100 85
E. Cir. Stress
E. Long Stress
1.00
Full Full
1.00
0.90
0.90
I
I I
None
Full
Part
Spot
r00
I
0.80
I I
85
None
Full
Part
Spot
I I I
None None
None
I
0.65 0. 70
t
0. 65
None
Tl
1.00
E. Cir.
120.90
Stress
100
1.00
I
I
I
I
None
6 )
100
0.85
1.00
Full
Part
Spot
I I
0. 80
I I
0.85
85 100
None
Full
Part
Spot
1.00
:0.70
None
U. 65
6)
0.85 0.70
*H
166
L. P. Zick [2] of the Chicago Bridge and Iron Company developed the method of analyzing supports for horizontal cylindrical shells in 1951. We will not derive the method, but rather summarize it in a seneral discussion along with guidelines and useful praciices thar make the design of such items more straightforward. Horizontal vessels should be desisned to withstand internal and external pressures. and support reactions produced by the vessel weight and additional loads from ladders, platforms, piping, etc. Zick [2] showed that supporting horizontal vessels by more than two saddles is not only inefficient, but incurs additional undesirable problems. Figures 41 and 42 illustrate a horizontal vessel supported by two saddles. LONGITUDINAL BEITIDING STRESSES
/'\
,\l ,..T.,
  '\
.
A horizontal vessel supported on two beams is the same as a beam overhanging two supports. The maximum longitudinal bending stresses occur at the supports themselves and at the center of the vessel, as shown in Figure 43. Zick [2) and Brownell and Young [3] give a
detailed derivation
ts
bending stresses at the saddle and at midspan. This analysis is summarized in the following:
At
Saddle
qr =
oa1 allowable stress in tension. psi o"r = B = allowable stress in compression. psi
Figure 42. Horizontal vessel with saddles on concrete piers.
For tension,
01
Eoan
op
where
E:
op
The allowable stress for compression is based on the accepted formula for buckling of short cylindrical columns, which is
<
Bl2
where
r
D
= radius of cylindrical shell, in. thickness of cylindrical shell, in. modulus of elasticity of shell, psi
B factor in the ASME vessel code, psi
Referring to Figure 43, oy occurs at either lBl6 + 0l2l degrees or zero degrees at the shell acting in the longitu
2A :
dinal direction. This only applies to unstiffened shells. The vessel must meet the allowable with or without oressure.
":t*[..(,
l
,AL I *ll 3L
+ I +
*'
At Midspan
"41 ll
IJ
o:
(4r)
Thneential Shear Stress
where
(43)
CA
= 0:
A, H, L, Q, r, and t.
are defined in Figure 43. corrosion allowance, in. angle of contact of saddle with shell, degrees (Figure 41)
l.
u\ /
(44)
\r2
o3
<
0.08ou1
N
 tt/
\ il \ T.11
l/
Figure 43. Bending moment diagram for a horizontal vessel developed by Zick l2l.
168
;&p
Vessels
169
I I
17O
z z
6
=
o.os
o z
z
UJ
)
t
z gJ ,'u o'o2=
E
1.O
RATIO A/r
Vessels
171
If A/r>1,
where d
>R)
/LH
2A'l
/
then deg
K6:
O.42Z2ea
ot710
(411)
:in," I '(\7r@+slnqcosd/
',r'here
,or,
..
0sin0
2
1t
[
sin 6
cos P
sin 0
R
1=
r,#
(;
rq],
& B in
degrees
(46)
r! :
,j.
15
.ltu\
\/
This stress occurs only when t}re shell is stiffened by the head and when the head is located less than one shell radius from the saddle. The rnaximum shear is located at
an angle
.  r(#)'+
^/^\: srnpcosp, i
2cos2B
(412)
of (l9l2O)P
as shown. (47)
.lslnpl
\B
o,
This stress is located at the horn of the saddle If o; ( outr, it is not necessary to take credit for the wear plate.
"6
(4S)
o7
<
l'50
ou1
06 is the same as 05 and also is located at (19/20)0. With rhe shell stiffened by the head, then
o6
0.8o"1
"s
3Q I
3'1u
oall
6e,1
sin']"
cos
(4 13)
"l
For shell stiffened by head the maximum circumferential stress at horn of saddle is,
IfL>8R,o7: 4( :
CA) (b
CA)'?
a
1.56(r(r
CA))u)
p.s)
(t
CAXb
1.56(r(t
Ca;101
(414)
@
_
12&QR
a
oe
{ '1':'" \7rq+slnacosq/
}o"(0.5o,
L(t
CAf
(4_lo)
7r
172
This stress is compressive and acts in a radial direction between the saddle and shell. The limitation of this stress
IS
Table 43
0.5ori"ra
o4 E. where
E = joint efficiency
where oyi"rd
02 +op =
03' o5'
02
ff
<
'o'' r
< <
1.5
0.8
oall
q4 06
0.8
o7 oe q
o"1
0.5
(or1i") *
Compressive Yield
ir
code.
l.Jb Vfl, It
r, ft
Lr* :
_ _ KuQ nAWhere
Z
KuQr ,
n7,
Table 44 shows minimum allowable shell thicknesses required for horizontal vessels without wear plates. The values are based on using a fluid 1.75 times the weight of watet and the metal has a minimum yield of 30,000 psi and an allowable stress of 17,500 psi. For vessels in seismic regions wear plates should always be used to minimize stress concentrations at saddle plateshell juncture.
= l/c for ring in the plane of the saddle, tn.' z : I,,/d at saddle horn at tip or flange of :
"
I*
r
K6
: : : :
stiffener ring, in.3 moment of inertia of stiffening ring about axis xx, in.a (includes wear plate thickness if one is used) crosssectional area of stiffening ring, in.2 number of stiffener rings per saddle mean vessel radius, in. previously defined
175
Table 44
Minimum Shell Thickness Required lor Horizontal vessels Without Wear Plates
lD (in.)
78
8
84
90
96
102
I I
108
114
120
132
144
156
l0
t2 t4
r/s in.
r/r
in.
lllro in.
5/r in.
_r?ro in.
9/ro in. t2
l6
l8
20 30 40 50 60
65
Nots 1. The above table is based on the following: a. vessel is tully loaded with a fluid of specific gmvity of 1.5. b. The ratio of the shell outside radius, R., to shell thickness, t, is Rlt c. vessel weight is computed with not (a.) and hemispherical heads. d. Vessel material has the following properties: d,i" y,.rd = 30,000 psi and o.rr* = 17,500 psi 2 In seismic zones 3 and 4 wear Dlates should be used.
?/x
in.
in.
tn,
Is/r6 in.
lYro in.
78 in.
in.
>
'72.
174
oleAB(0.5o.,
In tension, o,6 is positive,
o'e
oo
o.1 [tension]
where B
= o", :
op
l)
compressive yield stress (see ASME Section g Division 2) internal pressure stress (includes wear plate thickness if one is used)
In defining the parameter K7, it must be noted that the Zick stiffening rings can fit on either the inside or outside of the vessel shell. Many clients object ro the rings
being external to the vessel surface because of aesthetici. However, after insulation is applied, the rings are no longer visible. We will consider rhe rings in both ways. The constant K7 is defined as follows:
strengthened with stiffener or web plates. but often too many are used. which increases laboi and material costs. In the past, saddle plates have been purposely overdesigned to guard against uncertainty. This is no longer required, since literature on flat plate theory has increased with mounting experimental data. One such organization that has engaged in extensive research is U.S. Steel [4]. Figure 44 shows a typical saddle configuration for a horizontal vessel. Section AA shows that only an effective portion of the member will resist compression. shear. and bending loads because when rhe member is loaded, the outside fibers ofthe web plates and the center of the saddle plate shown by rhe sh;ded areas in Figure 44go into the plastic range. The rest of the plate area
stresses
that were created by nonuniform heating during rolling or welding. Presently, this "effective" area can be determined only by experiment. Equations 49,410, and 414 are used in saddle design as follows:
b":KL
where b"
(415 )
K; =
Kr:
0.250,0
: : :
effective width, in. plate buckling coefficienr for either compression, shear, bending, or a
combination of these loads (see Figures 45,
120"
150'
180.
where
K. :
Kb Ks
i : : :
46, 47, 48,49, and 410). c, b, s, or a combination of these characters, plate buckling coefficient for compression,
dimensionless plate buckling coefficient for bending, dimensionless
\:
Kr:
1.0
(o.271, l.0.2r9, [0.140,
0
0 0
: : :
120"
150' 180'
We now have
4(t  CA)[b" +
a
1.56{rrr
CA))o']
(.49)
1.0
(0.27  , 0
_
0
;:.

1.)K.
rf L >
8R
Kz:
o
4(t
CA) tb"
1.56(r(t
CA)
fI
(410)
<
8R
cA) tb.
1.56G(t
CA)f
5l
'(
7t (\
I1
cos ol
sln a cos
l
(4r4)
175
lffl
 b":l f I t1
\r .,.lN
b
I
.T
sections AA and B8, shaded areas are in the plastic range.
elevation view
Figures 45 to 410 are courtesy of United States Steel Corporation. USSC makes no warranties, express or implied, and no warranty as to the merchantability, fitness fot any particular purpose, or accuracy of the information contained in any material reproduced herein from its Steel Design Manual. In the event of any liability arising out ofthe publication of such material herein, consequential damages arc excluded.
E E
I
I
r
i
't cAS
r F
'l_l CISE 4
F5
ri\
\\'
\
FtXE0
z.
i\
\\.
ta.'a
Figure 45. Buckling coefficients for flat plates under uniform compression. (Courtesy of U.S. Steel [4].)
176
MJNII\,4UI\,IBUCTI.NGCOLfFICITNI.'I,
UNLOAOED
Sll\,4PLY
SUPPonTED
EDGES
\l
T
.]
t7/
tl
t!ft.
{PU8E BENOING)
3H.
,.1
jr:=2l3r,r
\
5.00
2.OO
't.00
Fry]= !l r, = r/3f I E/
\t______tr/
Ir
0.50
rr_____r_: F= f: = f, t=
.VALUES
I,
4.0
GIVEN AAE BASED ON PLATES HAVING LOADED EDGES S{I\4PLY SUPPORTED AND ARE CONSERVATIVE FOR PLATES HAVING LOADED EDGES FIXED.
i
j
shear.
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels Figure 48. Buckling. coefficients for stiffened plates under uiform compression (one longitudinal stiffener at midpoint).
,Courtesy of U.S. Steel [4].)
14 13 12
177
0.6 0.8
1.0 2.O
2.2
tl
I
z
tr
U
o o
z
f F
1.O 1.2
34
1.4
2.8 30
2A
3.0
I
810
12 14 16
O
18
NONDIMENSIONAL PABAMETER,
26
24 22
:
o
(, =
20
18
t6
12
35 40 45 50
55
NONDIIUENSIONAL PAsAMETER. d
Figure 49. Buclding coefficients for stiffened plates under uniform compression (two longitudinal stiffeners at third points). (Courtesy of U.S. Steel [4].)
178
2.O
2.8
3.0
z
q
n
o
j
Figure 410. Buckling coefficients for stiffened plates under uniform c_ompression (three Iongitudinal stiffeneis at quarter points). (Courtesy of U.S. Steel [4].)
NONDII\,4ENSIONAL PARA]\IETER, d
no web plates are used then b" : t,. It is very comfor engineers and designers to use the we6 plate width, b, instead of b". This is wrong. The only time b" : b is when t, = b, as is true for a solid concrete saddle. With steel this never happens, as values of b can be as great as 24 in. and obraining plate that thick is impos_ sible (ar least on this Dlanet). Values ofb" depend upon K, and t,. Since the value of t. is known, the real independent variable in Equation 415 is K,. Once again referring to Figure 44. we analyze the
If
mon_
jected to compression, bending, shear, or a combination. the plate buckling coefficienr is equal [o rhe effecr:ve width that is determined by the residual stress crirerion, which is as follows:
ti
t., yields approximately the effective width, b", that is used for residual stress. In other words, if a member is known or suspected to have residual stress and is sub
d,t,
tion BC is considered fixedfixed in Fisure 45. since it js stiffened by sections AB and CD. S=ections AB and CD are considered fixedfree since the outer web Dlate is not stiffened by another section. The fixedfree condition is the most critical because it is more susceDtible to buckling. and rhus ha: a lower value oi the plaie buckling coefficient than the fixedfixed case. [t is interestins to note that the plate buckJing coefficient for uniforri
ldit.+2r*(bl)l
(416)
The general equation in which the saddle plate stress distribution is defined is as follows:
o{:
K,
zr2
\,
(417 a)
\\/
179
shere di
of
thickness of saddle plate, in. effective width of saddle plate that is perpendicular to the web plate, in.
with
d.=d,(0.25+0.91\)
in
Equation
\:lll
o,
\dJ
, or:6y7
o*2
1o.,
J(r
= or
/, \2
\7D
;; ;; "' ,l[
o.l2
(417b)
gives the relationship of the plate buckling stress in the inelastic range. This equation is based on the conservarive assumption that a plate will always buckle before the yield stress is reached. However, U.S. Steel [4] states that plates will deform plastically without buckling because of strain hardening. This process is similar to the "elastic shakedown" described in Chapter 2. In most applications, as already cited, saddle plates are reinforced with stiffener plates. A simplified analysis can be made to design saddles by using
As shown in Figure 4i 1, the load Q has a horizontal component exerted on the horns of the saddle. The saddle must be designed to p{event the horns of the saddle from separating. To accomplish this make sure that the minimum crosssectional area at the lowest point on the saddle can resist the horizontal force component. This force is as follows:
(4
l9)
The effective cross section to resist the horizontal force is As, shown in Figure 411 and calculated as follows:
Fs:
n(A,
2b"t.)o.
(418)
where Fs
A, n
: : :
Ae
: iRl l;l t, :
outside vessel radius
where R
t
1
Figure 411. The load distribution on a saddle.
R/3
180
Table 45
o=
@10.85
'J
e,r
(3
/,r
\o
(420)
:0.70
3000 psi
in which
(0.70)(0.85)(3,000)41
,
,' :
:1:3,L,,: \Ar
(,A
L1,1"
17 26 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 s4 s7 60 63 66 69 72 76 84 95
Bearing Plate Thickness Values tor Various Saddle Loads L1 L, Q.ax (tbs) t (in.) Bp (psi) o,(psi)
l"
r41rl
4 2,858 0.165 42.029 108.852.563 4 5,043 0.178 48.490 162.100.694 4 8.103 0.2t0 67.525 t85.744.857 4.25 .13l 0.241 79.365 213,447.893 4.25 16,007 0.277 1U.62r 232,042.324 5.'75 20,418 0.350 91.050 320.269.t3r 5.75 25,387 0.3?6 lo5.t22 344.024.233 5.75 33,523 0.4t7 129.557 367.11.7.375 5.75 40,154 0.442 145.486 39t.528.914 5.75 s9,549 0.508 r9r.784 439,028.224 5.75 68,777 0.531 209.846 462,776382 s.75 84,203 0.573 244.067 486.523.,736 5.75 101.759 0.6t4 280.908 5t0,270.399 5.7s 114,664 0.637 302.145 534.016.463 6.75 t28.417 0.715 275.721 637,918..163 6.15 143,003 0.738 294.245 665.0.1s.973 6.75 174,748 0.794 340.639 701,285.2,75 6.75 210,035 0.828 370.432 773.70r.873 6.75 2s0,290 0.850 390.316 873.271.364
Using a factor of safety of 1.6, Equation 421 becomes Thus, the maximum stress in the bearing plate is
*=r,
rs.63 A,
(eir2Mtl!)"'
op
Using a minimum yield strength of 30,000 psi we have the allowable stress for bending, per AISC recommendatron, o.n
=;
M= ,\2r"1\tl
riq\/bj
(4))\
"
,
lil
\6i
0.66
o,
0.66(30,000)
19,800 psi
A)
7l
BP:
Q ao' = LrLz
Today's tall, cylindrical process towers are selfsupporting, i.e., they are supported by a cylindrical or conical shell (skirt) with a large base ring attached to a con
Vessels
181
,'rete foundation or steel structure with anchor bolts embedded in the concrete or steel. Normally, a vertical \'essel must be at least thirty feet tall to be classified as a "tower." This height is used because thirty feet is the old first windzone demarcation in code use. However, smaller vertical vessels are governed by the same design criteria, but are not usually referred to as towers. The various phenomena that affect towers in normal operation make their design complex and worthy of experienced engineering personnel. Therefore, towers should never be taken lightly by any design office, because a failure could result in massive loss of material and possibly lives.
bined with the bending and tensile (or compressive) stresses. Writing this expression we obtain,
"= (.*J'H(x)
where
(427)
Z: A:
section modulus of the shell cross section, area of the shell cross section, in.2
in.l
Substituting Equations 424, 425, and 426 into Equatior 427 produces
,

: * (ryf  (":zlur.. _
 \4,/=
ipo\ /
\nrtO" \
to
"i o^lra
, h iLr, _
\
"J
@zB)
t DitrDr D,:t/
(429)
= \",tnt
or
,(
2w
*
Ot1
'
D'a)
.I
(424)
= \""fr5
,(
2w \ * t1
(430)
rRztt exact
= z = ,a (gd
ar'"'D
415 
A=
?Irt;
exact: A:
l,o" 
D,)
(.426)
Using R as the mean radius minimizes the error and using R as the outside radius results in considerable error. Solving for the thickness or stress with the exact formulations involves iterative analysis, which is a key attribute of today's computers. The minimum shell thickness required for internal or external pressure alone is often not sufficient for addi tional stresses induced by bending moments and weight loads. Bending stress is a result of static wind, dynamic wind gusts, vibration or seismic response spectra. In design the engineer takes the largest bending moments induced by one of the following: wind, vibration or seismlc. Referring to Figure 413, we analyze the stress element depicted. The maximum stress resulting from internal pressure occurs along the xaxis, i.e., the hoop stress is twice the longitudinal stress. Wind, vibration, and/or seismic forces cause the shell to bend about the zaxis, so
'
/po\ /
\ +t
ro
or
\"(D"
lzwl + DJ/
\rrr D"
o"v

\
D,2t /
D,tt D"2
(431)
 /zw\ \"r(DJD)/
t41)\
2.
/po\ i
\4tl
\"(D" + D)/
lzwi
ro \Tt(D" + D,XD.r
o.r,a
I
D,r)/
/411)
182
o
u,
U'
llo
ll,
/
l
clF
stN =ll x l= 1tl r'l tr
I
ll'
'E'
o
3
tt Gt q) o
l<1_
tt, lo
^i^ Lol I
s^
th at
" lci r \  lr
Nls
ci
> E
o i.;
o"
/ irlol<rrl
I
tk
q)
to C'
tt
!'<f r.u 3
o)
bp
o.
EO
^r
"
Rlr
t
I
a,l
o rl)
E(/, o
o
\1il <lKlr
^, i rine* )
tl I
x ol o td
E" O,o
3 5x
Fl_
o r
i tu
..t''_ Ir
Y\ . pl*
o
q)
a9 or l:
U',,l
!:
(1,
IL
Vessels
183
._  /ro\
'
\4"/
ro
o.rra
\"r(D" + DJ/
lr*\
\""(DJDJ(DJ
+3/
\
(434)
the costplus contractors seek to standardize designs and use lower pressure vessel code allowables. As with wear plates on horizontal vessels, most lumpsum contractors would elect to omit them whenever possible to save material and labor costs. This phiiosophy is becoming increasingly popular with recent economic upheavals and
3. For
vacuum vessels the maximum stress occurs on the compressive side, such that Equations 429 and 430 become
increasing international competition. Types of skirt supports are shown in Figure 414. Figure 414b shows the most common and desirable skirt, since the shear is eliminated by the type of attachment. This type is used primarily on short vertical vessels.
The skirt is designed to resist loadings caused by bending and the tower weight. Writing the expression that describes this we obtain
(435)
\"t(DJ
DJ/
16MD.
7r't(D" + Dr(D"2 +
2W
Di) ,
irr(Do
(437)
D,)
l6MD"
no(D" +
2W
(438)
Once again, Equations 437 and 438 must be solved by iteration. Normally, these equations do not govern the skirt thickness, as the reaction of external bolting and
l\l Jt tE,
l
16I
t,/
184
cations where external chairs shown in Fisure 415 ire used. See Brownell and Young [3], for a derivarion ofthe reaction expression. The skirt thickness required to re_ sist the reaction of external chairs or comp;ession ring for a chair of the type in Figure 415 is determined ai
compression rings is not considered. The stresses in the skirt shell that result in compressive loading on the compression ring and bolting chair can be quite high in appli
W: W. :
WE
Fi :
see below
yessel weight, lb
= N=
follows:
The minimum initial bolt load required to maintain compression between the base plate and compression ring exist when o" 0. Thus, using Equation 440 and substituting o. 0 we have
,=176[#r]",,,
where
t
(43e)
'
f,:
8M
r
m
F.
B
G11
: skirt thickness, in. : radius of skirt, in. : bolt spacing, in. or 28 in Figure 415 = uplift bolt load, lb : radial distance from outside of skirt to bolt
N(D", +
D. 
D,1
____:
W,
N
(441)
[*")No,
*'
(442)
Equation 439 is normaily the controlling criteria for a skirt with external chairs. Howeveq for a skirt with or without external chairs, Equation 438 must be satisfied.
where BC ou
: bolt circle diameter, rn. : allowable anchor bolt stress, psi M : in.lb
ANCHOR BOLTS
Anchor bolts are one of the most important aspects of tower design, and, unfortunately, are often not taken seriously enough. Consequently, many problems related to towers during construction or operation can be linked to anchor bolts. Wind and seismic loads are dynamic and result in cyclic loading of the anchor bolts. For this reason, I will only present the method for analyzing preloaded anchor bolts. Initial preload is significant since pretorquing the bolts reduces the variable stress range the bolts experience during cyclic loading. The tower weight and bolt load allow firm contact between the compression ring and concrete or steel such that the support base rotates about the neutral axis of the contact area, as shown in Figure 416. Referring to this figure we see that under a moment M at the base plateconcrete juncture the maximum and minimum stress is
_
Equation 442 is one of the major differences in designing a tower under a lumpsum contract versus costplus. Most costplus designers use vessel code allowable stress values that are based on a factor of safety of 4:1. This large a factor of safety is intended for components containing pressure. Thus, using vessel code allowable stresses for bolts leads to large anchor bolts, which is undesirable because more concrete is required and larger
per AISC
" = H).
where A"
[oJ
 (**J
o,r;
(440)
f,to"t
strength material will still be less than rhe addirional c6ncrete and labor costs associated with a larger bolt. Certainly. if one pays more for highstrength stleel, he should be permitted to use the larger allowable, as given by AISC. Normally, 40,000 psi is used with A325 and 193
highstrength bolts are used in most applications. A307 bolts are used where bolt loadings are not large and the bolt size need not be massive. When bolt sizes get large (231a to 3 in.) or it is desirable to reduce the bolt size. then Al93B7 or A325 bolts are used. One can see from Table 46 that A325 has more than twice the allowable stress value as A307 bolts. The extra cost of the hieh
87 bolts.
The spacing of anchor bolts is another critical parameter. Spacing the anchor bolts too close to one another
I,=#(D"4D,4)
185
f*
"
r? lzA,l
1I
t[ liill
Fr:'_i
NOTES:
all dimenslons in inches BTHK to be evaluated by
IT
Iil
kil+l
r*l
J IIL
"t"
BOLT
'I
SIZEABCBH
'l
GH
tl'
'l1la 1q8
1112
11la
2tl+
21h
23lq
31lz 'l4a 14q 1112 2 3{+ 148 17k '1518 21k 4221s1c2112 41lq 21la 2118 148 2sla 2sl+ 4tlz 21lc 21la 2 5 2112 21lz 2th 31lq 51lz 24c 23lc 21h 31lz Sslc 3 24c 23lt 34a 61lc31l+334118 Srla 4112 61lz 3rlz 3 7 3glc 31lc 31lz 4gla
31lt
33/e 33lq 41le
41lt
5
51lz
53lc
64a
71lz
CHLLJMNP 31lz 31la 3 6 9e 51lz 5 3{+ 6 Ye 53lq 51lc 31lz 3 5112 33t+ 3qo 4 6 4t 6 33lq 4318 7 4q 61lq 53lq 4 41lq 41la 4112 8 3lq 6112 6 7 6tlz 4eh 4alc 43lq 9 1 Stlq 51lz 6 10 1 7112 7 Telc 7112 53lq 5718 6112 12 1 7 13 11/e 81lc 74c 64a 6 '14 11lq 8112 I 61+ 6{e 71lz 16'l1la98r/+777slq
74s3 731rc3
3 3 5
6 7
9 10
Figure 415. Typical designs and dimensions of chair and base plates
186
ANCHOB BOLT
FOUNDATATION
MAXIMUM COMPBESSIVE
FORCE = nFc
JI
<l zt<
E.
I I
I I +
COMPRESSIVE FOBCE
DISTRIBUTION CENTROID
prevents the strength of the bolting in the concrete from becoming fully developed. It is advisable to set the bolts at least 18 inches apart. To accommodate this minimum spacing a wider base ring with gusset plates can be used or the skirt can be tapered with a conical skirt. As shown in Figure 414, with a tapered skirt the apex angle should not exceed 15 ".
factor. The modulus of elasticity of steel is approximately 30 x 106 psi and that of concrete approximately 2.O to 4.O x 106 psi. Defining the ratio of the two as n. we wnte
F
(443)
since E.
:o"
os
s
and
E. :
cumference of the bolt circle. Anchor bolts normally vary in diameter from one to three inchesbolts smaller than one inch are more likely to strip or shear off; bolts larger than three inches require large wrenches and create excessive problems for construction personnel. For these reasons it is desirable to attemDt to adhere to the one to three inch size range. In the case of a concrete foundation, the relative strength of the concrete to steel becomes a significant
and e,
e. because
os(induced)
have
(444)
Listed in ?ble 47 are values of the moduli ratio n and the various concrete mixes from Brownell and Young [3]. Figure 416 shows a detail ofthe compressive force of the concrete, F", multiplied by the value of n shown
opposite the maximum tensile stress, Fr of the base plate
steel.
187
Table 46
Bolis, Threaded Parts, and Rivets Tension [51 Allowable loads in kips
Bolts and Rivets Tension on gross (nominal) area Nominal Diameter. d. in.
ASTM
Fi
3la
4s
'l1la
11la in.'?
13ls
11lz
Designation
A307 bolts A325 bolts A490 bolts .\502l rivets A5022,3 rivets
23.9
0.7854
15.'7
0.9940
19.9
43.'7
53.',1
1.227 54.0
66.3
1.485 29.7
65.3
1.767 35.3
77 .7
34.6
42.4
18.
to.2
12.8
8.9
22.8
22.9 28.8
?8.2 35.6
80.2 34.2
43.1
95.4 40.6
51.2
The above table lists ASTM specified materials that are generally intended for use as structural fasleners. For dynamic and fatigue loading, only A325 or A490 highstrength bolts should be specified. See AISC Specification. Appendix B. Sect. 83. For allowable combined shear and tension loads. see AISC SDecification Secl. l 6.3.
Threaded Fasteners [51 Tension on gross (nominal) area Nominal Diameter. d. in.
ASTM
Designaiion
A.r6
F, Ksi
F, Ksi
58 65
Ft
1
5.9 6.6
7.1
12. i
11ls
11la
13/8
'l1lz
Ksi
4572. Cr. 50
A588
A,149
2t .5
23.
I
8.4 9.5
10.2
I
l l.5
r5.0
16.9
18. r
19.0
23.4
26.4
t2.9
r
2t.4
23.0
3.9
28.3
d<l
I <d <
lr/:
92 8l
120
105
39.6 31.7
7.5
23.8
3l.l
3.1.5
12.6
Thc abole lable lists ASTM specified nulc.iul\ !!ailirblc in round blr sr(xk rhat lrc genrr!lly intcnded lirr u\c in rhreaded appljcaoons such rs rie rods. cross bracing and similar uscs The rensile capacir! ol thc lh.cadcd porlion ol an upsrl r(xl shall bc largrr lhan lh! b( ) lrca rrnrs 0.6F.. F, = specified minimunr tensilc strcngth oflhc lasrener nutcrill. t. = 0.llF, = allowable tensile srress in rhrcldcd iasrener.
[31
C"
0.050
0. 100 0. 150
C", Z, Function of k
Cr
q,
andJasa
ZJ
0.490 0.480 0.469 0.459 0.760
o.'766
o.7'7
Average Values ot Properties ot Three Concrete Mixes Water Content oi n U.S. Gallons 28day Ultimate 30 x 106
2.66r
2.551
per 94Jb
0.776
0.7'79 0.781
Sack ot Cement
7tlz
63/c
Compressive
Streigth,
2000 2500 3000
psi
Ec
Allowable Compressive
Strength, psi
800 1000
1200 1400
1.&0
1.765
1.884
o.418
0.438 o.427 0.416 0.404 0.393
0.381
2.t t3
2.000
1.884
l5 t2
10 8
6
5
3750
r.765
0.369
o.784
'188
Equation 444 is shown as a linear proportion by the straight line shown in Figure 416. Even though the tensile strength of the bolt is, by Equation 444, equal to the ratio n times the concrete allowable comDressive strength. it is not necessarily evenly distributed about the neutral axis as shown in Figure 416. This "offset factor," known as the "k Factor," is determined from
f
(ER)(SFC)
(453)
os
(d
 kd)
noc
kd
After computing an initial value of k, this process should be repeated five times in order to converge on a value for k. Once a value for k is determined, we now solve for the maximum induced stress at the outer periphery in the
concrete,
ork =
I
tro"
(44s) oq.*,
using
: (sFC)t*X**]
L
=
(4s4)
D"
(skirt OD)
given value of Z. Normally, k = 0.333, C" : 1.588, C. = 2.376, Z = 0.431, and j : 0.782 to start the process. Then the following equations are solved:
rt/\
Equation 445 is solved by iteration using the following steps: Thke values for C", C,, Z, and j in Thble 47 for a
, ln.
(4s5)
BrHK = L
where ou1 psi
[tf,]"'
(4s6)
(446)
rJrl;l
\'.1
.. lBcl
''
Ir =
(Ah)N
(447)
(448)
fc:
BPW
fi +wE
\2/
base plate
width, in.
(44e)
(4s0) (451)
Bpw:(D.)(Di)
2
tz
BPW
t;
By using Equation 456 one assumes no gusset plates on the base plateskirt connection. To reduce the required base plate thickness in Equation 456 the additional strength of gusset plates can be used, because with the gusset plate stiffening the base plate at the skirtjuncture. the base plate between the gusset plates can be considered as a rectangular, uniformly loaded plate with two edges simply supported (at gusset plates), a third edged fixed (skirt side), and the fourth edge free. The deflections and bending moments are tabulated by Timoshenko [6] and are shown in Thble 48. The process of using gusset plates to stiffen the base plate is begun by making the number of gusset plates equal to the number of anchor bolts. Doing this we write
(c.)(1,000)
NG : let NG:
5U=
modulus of elasticity of base plate metal, psi compressive strength of concrete, psi, denoted in
Thble 47 as o"
/IIat NG + N bolts
JL = 
f,
(h
circle and
/^l
(Enxt ))
(4s2)
RAT:! SG
M :
M,'
1E,1o"1.""(SG)'? (458)
(459 
(]Jrc.r
where SFC :
lE,1o"1."(L)2
Vessels
189
Table 48
{' = b/2\
\v
=r
Typical designs and dimensions of chair and base plate designs are shown in Figure 415. The compression plate
thickness is determined by
f^^ : where
0
0.0078f"b,
0.500f"1,
o.0293f"bl
0.0558f"b,
o.428f"t, *0.319tP
o.22'7 f:r2
I rr,rc I
t _____________
::
l4('.rr(A
BS : Fi : o.11 :
BSI
(463)
0.w72f.b,
0.123fJ2
0. 131f"b,
0.119f"F
o.124f"t2 0.125t"t2 0.125f"1,
0.133f"b,
0.125f"t2
0.133f"b,
bolt uplift force, determined by Equation 461 allowable stress of compression ring metal, psi
= :=
(F,)ta
=0  l"'i=' I,J.ru
a],,2/F \
\4@l
gusset plate thickness, m. gusset plate width, in. (A in Figure 415) gusset plate height, in. (see Figure 415)
ornN
where
lortalo
'
or
(460)
Mr
in.lb/in.
. *:
Fw
and
[+r'a
[_oJ
["o*l =
]  [w. I
[.o"j
M,
(1.33Xo"r)(0.55)
This iteration can be repeated as many times as desired to reduce the base plate thickness. In normal practice, it is unusual to use more gusset plates than anchor bolts. The bearing pressure on the base plate must be checked to prevent exceeding the allowable compressive stress of the concrete. Computing the uplift force on each anchor bolt we have,
: w = 2F*
where o"1
weld size
(465)
'
o^ _
N1D"z
: M: D.r :
(461)
A" A.
.weight and wind o" ( 1,200 psi for where, M : ftJbs A" =
t
There have been many recipes proposed for the computation of bolt torque over the years. The mystery of bolt loads is unveiled by such authorities as Bickford [7] and Faires [8]. Their extensive research into bolt loading produced the following recommended formulation:
where
r[(D")'?
(D)'?]
T:
CDFi,
in.lb
0.20 bare steel 0.15 for lubricated bolt nominal bolt diameter, in. anchor bolt uplift force, lbs
(466)
where
(DJa]
r[(D")a
C: C: D=
F1
64
190
Mechanrcal Design
ol
Procg55 g151snlt
2.3<+<2.6
groutli
fconcrete
L = 17Du
Figure 417.
"J"
and
"L"
interested reader is relerred to the excelleni work of Bickford [7]. Figure 417 shows the two most common types of anchor bolts, "J" and "L." For large towers where large loads are anticipated, the bolt in Figure 418 is used.
orout ,L
T_
op
o"
= =
stress due to wind or earthquake stress due to internal or external pressure stress due to weisht
Figure 418. Straight type boltused for large vessels, cially towers.
espe
Vessels
191
Referring to Figure 413, we see that the stress ele:lent in the shell is affected by the combined loads more ::r the longitudinal direction than the circumferential di:ection. However, for the longitudinal axis the internal rr external pressure stress is governed by the relation
4t
PD
(467)
,rhere D
P
op
T
: : : :
 o*,1 ) o"1E where ou1 : allowable stress in tenslo, for a given material at a given temperature and pressure E : weld efficiency
lo* f
Another form of Equation 471 may be determined by rewriting the equation as
op
There are two conditions where Equation 467 is used to combine stress values:
o*,
or
P(R,
(468)
\'s:qw+opo*r
For leeward side ,rLs
0.40
_ ;Rl W
TI
(473)
Inwhrchfi{
W69)
op
ow
+ op
o*,1
l oo
(470)
(47
Equation 473 is another form of Equation 471, in terms of the vessel dimensions, where W is the total weight of the tower above the section being analyzed.
:f and only
if
o*,1
t)
2.
which is true for most applications, when the internal pressure stress is greater than that induced by the weight of the tower above the section. However, for a few cases, the stress induced by the weight is greater than Ihat induced by internal pressure for lowpressure thickivalled applications. The thick walls at low pressure could be for controlling tower deflections due to wind. For these limited cases the allowable stress is that determined by UG23 (b) of the ASME vessel code, which is known as the B factor. The B factor is commonly associated with external pressure, because the case of the weight stress exceeding the internal pressure stress is rare, but it must be emphasized that the B factor is the allowable value of stress for longitudinal compressive loading like that encountered in towers. Thus, the B factor is more comprehensive than its external pressure application would indicate. Therefore, if Equation 471 is
reversed and
o.,
On windward side
OWS
= O*OpO"n
On leeward side
OLs:
O*
op  O*,
>
ows
>
lool
(472)
192
2.
ing hit by one is extremely small; however, nuclear sites are designed to withstand tornado winds. Using site and structure factors calculate the design wind speed. The factors on rhe ANSI l98Z tesr
used are as follows:
,t: r.\r:)"
where Vo
(474)
3.
Z. =
: Q:
mean wind speed at a reference height Z reference height (normally 33 fr orl0 m) a constant dependent upon roughness of
(a) Importance Coefficient, I, a hospital or nuclear plant would be designed moie conservatively than a barn on a farm. (b) Variation of wind speed with building height and surrounding terrain. (c) Gust response factor. (d) Velocity pressure coefficient, K2. Test a model of the tower and its surroundings in a wind runnel. Even though rhe 1972 ANSI stindard does not mention this, the 1982 version sDecifies certain requirements lor wind tunnels.
Z=
terrain
height above ground
three optional methods of determining wind design loads on a structure are given [11]. These options are as fol
and the Standard Building Codes [10]. The ANSIA58.1 1982 differs from the ANSIA58. I  1972 in that
Other proposals have been made to determine wind speeds. Simiu [9] states that the logarithmic law is a supenor representation of strong wind profiles in the lower atmosphere. What is relevant to the reader is to be familiar with whatever standard is used. The discussions and examples presented in this text are slanted toward those standards in the United States. However, the technioues and base principles of engineering are applicable to all countnes. In the United States there are four basic codes soverning wind ANSI A58.  1982. the Uniform, thi Basic,
These three options are new to both the ANSIASg. I standard and to the three building codesthe Uniform. Basic. and the Standard. The larrei three codes do not au
tomatically adopt newly revised ANSI standards, thus making for inconsistency in wind code provisions in the United States. The basic wind pressure in the ANSIA5S .l19j2 rs
q3a= pv2l2
0.00256
v3o
lb/ft,
(0.5X0.00238)(5,280/3,600fV30
@'75,
where q.s
: V36 :
ft,
above grade
The effective velocity pressures of winds for buildings and structures, qF, is
lows:
9r :
where
KzGrQ:o
(476
l.
Choose a design wind speed (50year mean recurrence interval) off the U.S. map provided on the document. The national map is a graphic display of isopleths (lines of equal wind speed) of the maximum values of the mean speed for which records have been kept. i.e.. basic wind speeds rhat can be expected to occur within a particular period. This "particular period" is called the return period. The problem with a nalional map consisting bf isopleths is that localized wind speeds can vary as much as 30 mph over the speed shown on the isopleth (particularly in mountainous regions).
upon the type of exposure and height Z above the ground dynamic gust response factor
In the 1982 ANSIA58.1 Code the effective velocin pressure for wind is partially a combination ol Equarion.
47
and 476, 0.00256 KzGV)2 basic wind speed, mph importance factor I
qz
V=
: I:
\417)
Hurricanes are fairly well accounted for on these maps. Tornadoes are considered to be nonexistent, because it is not economically feasible to design an entire building for tornado wind speeds. The reason for this is that the probability of a structure be
A value of V can be approximated for the United States from the isopleths shown in Figure 419. One of the major differences between the ANSI A58.11972 and 1982 is how the velocitv Dressure coefficient, K2, is determined. In the 1972 Cod'e the value ot
J
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure
Vessels
193
o; ; e. b \.E oot;9 \
\\ ;]
\
\px
i4'
a'*w* *
ird\
\\
3. iaEg oi=H9
" I
: ; ; :
$ " !;i;
o!o
let
g;ni: I * l(U*963
6
6 r. E'= o
:
z
O
No
.9
TL
.l
!L
rl' I jll\
194
[1 1l
o.t2
0. 15 0.1'7
30
40 50
60 70
80
0.30
0.33 o.37 0.40 0.42 0.48 0.53 0.58 0.63 0.67 0.78 0.88 0.98
90
100 120 140 160 180
o.37 0.42 o.46 0.50 0.57 0.63 0.68 o.73 o.77 0.82 0.86 0.93 0.99
1.05
1.1
1
1.20 .27
r.32 r.37
1.46 1.52 1.58 1 .63 1.67

.'7
l.
19
 .24
r.07
1. 16
t.24
1.7 5
1.81
1.88 1.97
2.O5
2.12
2.
l8
2.4r
K7 is a linear function of the height Z from heights of thirty to nine hundred feet. This results in a triangular wind distribution on the tower. In the 1982 Code the
value of K2 is a parabolic function (can be approximated with a step function) for wind loading depicted in Table 49 and for dynamic gust response, K7 is governed by lhe power law, Equation 474.
where a
velocity of sound
to sonic
speeds
This equation shows that there is a relationship dictated by the dimensions of the parameters involved. Applying dimensional analysis makes the equation
,r*
Kz=
lz\2'
\r,)
tpvt, t;
P(Y2!2
,}:.
forZ <
15 feet
where each of the two components is a dimensionless parameter. The equation can be solved for the first dimensionless combination by
where values of Z" and d are given in Thble 410. The parabolic function is a reflection of the old classical approach used in the ASA 58.11955, but is a more refined distribution. The treatment of K2 in the dynamic gust response analysis is a new development in U.S. codes. The force exerted on a tower immersed in a movins fluid is a function of the properties ol the tower shapi and properties of the fluid. The fluid properties of importance are the viscosity, density, and elasticity. Writing this relationship in functional form we have
r _  /pvi\ pv+'\r/
and
(419
F = f(p, Y, I, p, a)
Equation 479 implies that the parameters F/(pVri: (pYllp) have certain definite values that will be equa. if a geometrically similar body with the same orientatio: is moved through the same fluid or another fluid fo: which pVflp has the same value as the first body. Tsi such bodies are said to be dynamically similar and dr namic similarity is the key to wind tunnel tests. Assumins
that p has no influence on the force F, we can deduce
fror
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels Equation 479 (see any basic fluid mechanics text) and obtain
195
4
3.0 4.5
Do
2
Cp
c
pYz12
7.0
10.0
D
(480)
orF:
where Cp is a dimensionless empirical constant. Equation 480 states that, for a body of given orientation and shape that is immersed in a moving fluid, the force experienced is proportional to the kinetic energy per unit volume of the motion of the fluid (p/2)V2 and a characteristic area f2. Cp is a dimensionless quantity that characterizes the force and
r/h =
1.8
O.O21
is called the /orce coefficient. Two bodies that are immersed in moving fluids are said to be similar (geometric similarity) if their Reynolds numbers are equal. Then the flows are dynamically similar and have equal force coefficients. The Reynolds number pVl y. is called a similairy parameter. Figure 420 shows the influence of the Reynolds number, corner radius, and surface roughness on the force coefficient on various bodies. The values of Cp are determined empirically and are shown in the figure. Sometimes this coefficient is referred to as the drag or pressure coefficient. Kuethe and Schetzer [12], use the KuttaJoukowski theorem to show that the force per unit length acting on a right cylinder of any cross section whatever is equal to pVf and acts perpendicular to V. The symbol f is circuIation flow about the cylinder and  = r'DV. The KuttaJoukowski principle is exemplified in Figure 4211131. Here the pressure distribution around the cylinder is maximum ninety degrees to the air flow. Depending upon the relative stiffness of the tower sections and mass distribution. this perpendicular lorce vector can cause a phenomenon known as ovaling, which will be discussed
later.
j ''!1,
lz'
04
r/h = 0.167
(b)
1.2
I
I I
o.4
,"01
t/h=
0.333
1.2
In computing the wind forces on a tower, Equation 480 takes the following form in using ANSI A58. 1 1982:
t/h=
O.5
F:
q2GCpAg
(481)
whele qz
G:
Cp
:
=
tO. 2
4
sanded
8105 $rface
srrface
4
Ae
(d)
ato6 2
8tO7
lb/fc
gust response factor for main windforce resisting systems of flexible structures force coefficient crosssectional area of tower and other attachments, ft2
Smooth 
Ar =
Figure 420. The curves depict the influence ofthe Reynolds number, corner radius, and surface roughness on the drag coefficient, square to circular cylinders; r is the corner radius and K is the sand grain size [9].
196
112
p!2
Figure 421. A sequence ofpressure fields forming around a cylinder at Nq6 = I 12,000 for approximately one third of one cycle of vortex shedding (FlowInduced Vibration by R. Blevins. @1977 by Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc. Reprinted by oermission.)
that would induce deflections equal to those of a gusty wind. MacDonald [14] refers to this approach as a quasistatic loading analysis. Quasistatic means that at any instant the stress and deflection induced in the tower are the same as if the instanlaneous mean wind load were aoplied as a static load. Thus. the significanl factor is identifying the single highest peak value of instantaneous mean wind speed, or that is, predicting the future worst peak value. Baker and others found at the end of the nineteenth century that there is a simple relationship between the gust frontal area and gust duration. This relationship provides a means of determining the size of the gust, and is illustrated in Figure 422. The figure indicates that the worst wind condition for a Darticular tower is not necessarily the maximum value of the wind velocity, but rather the highest wind speed of the particular size of gust capable of totally enveloping it. To compensate for this in a simple quasistatic analysis, ANSI A58.11982 gives rhe gust factor as
Table 41 1
Probability Design Lite ot Structure in N years P, 1510 15 25 50 100 0.10 0.100 0.410 0.651 0.'194 0.928 0.995 o.999 0.05 0.050 0.226 0.401 0.537 0.723 0.923 0.994 0.01 0.010 0.049 0.096 0.140 0.222 0.395 0.634 0.005 0.005 0.025 0.049 0.072 0.118 0.222 0.394
D_
Annual
probability of exceeding design wind speed dunng n years, where P : l(1  p.)" annual probability of wind speed exceeding
given magnitude (Table 4l l) exposure factor evaluated at twothirds the mean height of the structure
tJ:
L,.o.l +t
lp
\p
11
?tr.,/s
\r2

_ 11
e82)
+ 0.002ci
2.35(C, )0 5 (Zl301rt"
where
p:
structural damping coefficienr (percentage of critical damping). For normal working stress conditions, 0.01 < P < 0.02 for towers.
S:
structure size factor (Figure 423) average horizontal dimension of the building
ft
r97
Iv
MEAN VELOCITY: V
J
GUST DURATION 3
l'4l ^,l
OUnOt'O".?
5
15
)165
tt
Figure 422. Diagram of relationship between gust duration and gust diameter.
For a tower with many obstructions, such as piping, ladders, platforms, and clips that are comparable in size to the vessel, the gust response factor can be determined by:
,I
r.:
"
= "\/t.zsp
n r<
(483)
0.9
:r[o3ora
^
0
20
30 r0 5060
80
t00
hlftl
200
300 a005006008001000
2000
l].
The gust response factors given in Equations 482 and 483 are for flexible structures, such as towers, where the height exceeds the minimum horizontal dimension at least by five to one or the structure exhibits a natural frequency less than one. The fact that the tower may have a natural frequency less than one is significant. Simiu and Scanlan [9] point out that for natural frequencies greater than one, the response spectra are dependent on the structure's height. However, for natural frequencies less than one, the spectra distribution has little influence on structural response, and the magnitude ofturbulent fluctuation components, such as wind gusts, at or near the natural frequency of the tower could significantly affect the structural response. For this reason Equation 482 should be used for towers with particularly low natural frequencies. Figure 424 shows a plot of wind gust velocity versus the structural response of a structure. The cyclic loading
198
platform
Figure 424. Quasistatic structural response spectra versus wind velocity [ 14].
DE
= effective diameter
of area resisting wind
induced in the tower can result in fatisue failure of various vessel components. Equation 481 contains the last parameter that must be defined, Ar, the total crosssectional area of the tower and attachments that are perpendicular to the wind. This area is computed by first determining the equivalent diameter of the area facing the wind. This can be expressed
AS
De
(vessel OD)
+ 2(vessel insulation thickness) + (pipe OD) + 2(pipe insulation thickness) + (platform projection)
(ladder
projection)
(484)
Equation 484 does not consider extraneous equipment attached to a tower, such as reboilers. The engineer must
add the OD of the reboiler, plus twice the insulation thickness, plus any other equipment diameters to Equation 484. Doing this and multiplying by a length over which D" is effective determines As. Figure 425 shows the effective or equivalent diameter.
FJ,
WINDINDUCED MOMENTS
After the wind pressure distribution is obtained from
Equation 477 , the distribution of section force vectors is obtained from Equation 481. The force vectors, shown in Figure 426, act through the centroids of the pressure
Ma+F"(2,Z;+F,"rb
FbXZb Z") Fb + FcXZc
Fb
+ F. + Fi(Zd
+ F,r" Zd) +
Fdtd
Z") + F"t"
or in a general equation,
distribution sections. Referring to Figure 426, we see that the wind moment distribution is obtained from the wind force vectors through the following relationships:
t c;
i:
(485
199
insulation OD
d = plattorm angle
Figure 4258. Wind area and force calculations for conical sections.
/i = section length, ft Qi : wind shear at each section juncture Mi : moment induced by wind profile, in.lb
For rotation we have
^,
_\?,'l
l\r.l
/n I \
o
Er, \6 *q,r,_,,) 2 l
:
y
"{w,r,
(487)
Total deflection
"=F
,s
+F
,t.
(488)
llY{*!{,*M') Er\8 3 2l
61
(486)
where
!1
W1
= : : :
lateral translational deflection of section length of section i concentrated wind load (wi/), lb
i,
in.
shedding. Over the years many researchers have made wind tun
nel tests, proposed various analytical procedures, and conducted field tests of various structures subjected to wind loads. Windinduced vibration was first noticed on
Uniform
Load End Load End
w.'
dITTtrM
T1i
4 2
^ :
w!2
6EI
:
= =
wf'
8EI
Q/' 2El
Qi,
3EI
Couple
,\
T)
w/,
:vd EI
EI\6
A=
lul{
2ET
wl2
6EI
, , Mo{ 2EIEr'
iw{ , wr +M)
A:0t,
tall stacks by Baker at the turn ofthe century. Since then, many advances have been made in the field of aerodynamics allowing designers to adequately design tall structures. This chapter discusses tall process towers and Chapter 5 discusses tall stacks. The differences between the two will become more clear in the following discussion. Staley and Graven u5l summarized the state ofthe art of wind vibrations. Their studies indicate that even though vortex excitation of higher modes has been obtained in wind tunnel tests, existing freestanding stacks have always been observed to vibrate during vortex excitation at a frequency and with a mode shape associated with the fundamental mode. Furthermore. the shaDe of the dynamic lorce amplitude or existence of nearly constant frequency over the height of the stack (or "lockin") implies that dynamic response will almost entirely be induced by the first mode. Staley and Graven concluded that all higher modes should be neglected in the dynamic analysis and that the frequency and associated critical wind velocity ofthe fundamental mode should be considered. For this reason the Rayleigh method is the industrially accepted method because it is used to determine an approximate value for the lowest natural frequency of a conservative system based on an assumed confisuration of the first mode.
What is clear in wind tunnel tests and field observations is that at low Reynolds numbers the tower is dynamically stable, vulnerable only to forced vibrations and at higher Reynolds numbers a possibility of selfexcited vibration will be present. From many field observations it can be concluded that the first peak vibration amplitudes occur at the critical wind velocity Vr, which corresponds to a Strouhal number of 0.2 with the forced vibration as the basic source of excitation. Thus. it is sisnificant that the peak amplitudes of vibration determined by forced vibration theory are in very good agreemenr with field observations. This will be seen later in this chapter in Example 44. Even though the Rayleigh method is the industrialll accepted method for the present, there are other methods used to describe the vibration phenomena of tall process towers and stacks. One such method was devised by N. O. Myklestad, a great pioneer in the theory of vibrations. The Myklestad method used in cantilever beams is essentially a Holzer procedure applied to the beam problem. Its strong point is utilizing field and point transfer matrices to obtain relations that govern the flexural motion and vibrations of lumpedmass massless elastic beam systems. This method is used in such applications as aircraft wings where the structural component is sub
Vessels
2O1
jected to high Reynolds numbers. Since we have already delineated the difference between cylinders subjected to high and low Reynolds numbers and the fact that modes higher than the fundamental mode can be neglected, the Myklestad method has lost favor to the Rayleigh method. We are primarily interested in forced vibration peak am
magnification factor we must consider some basic principles. Consider Figne 427 in which a system with a single degree of freedom is subjected to viscous damping and an externally imposed harmonic force. The spring is denoted by stiffness k, the friction coefficient by c, mass by m, displacement by x, impressed force as F sin cJt so, we have
plitudes of relatively low natural frequencies. Although the Myklestad analysis is excellent for relatively clean aerodynamic surfaces such as wings and missiles, its practical use in process towers with attached ladders, platforms, and piping is questionable. Even for stacks. low Reynolds numbers allow for the fundamental mode to dictate. Before the Rayleigh method is applied to our analysis, let us summarize some basic precepts. Equation 480 calculated the pressure force exerted on a cylinder by a static wind. When dynamic effects settle in maximum actual amplitudes, these amplitudes often exceed those under static conditions. The net result is to multiply Equation 480 bv a masnification factor. To understand the
X+.x +ki:
Fsin<rt
(489)
From the theory of differential equations we know that the solution of Equation 489 is the superposition of the general or complementary solution of the homogeneous Equation 489 and the particular solution of the same relation. Writing this in equation form we have
X=X"*Xp
where X" is the complementary function and Xo is the particular solution. This classical differential equation is
T"
*, = ]+ r",1
lreol
I*
i 7 ,
I
,il]ur=
,=
r
r6" _L,r
6!
l[:
4_.=o"lr,.+r,.1
ri
14.=s\"
r
[.
l)'.
I _r
4_; qlL,.+r,,+r, .l
6.
.L A
olFrt ==
4.=qlq.,+ r'.+t'..r."1 Figure 426. Schematic diagram of wind loadings and deflections of a tower.
IA L*
202
x.,
f
fStru"t = forcing function
(.49t)
"T ,,f1_12r*
The maximum actual amplitude X of forced vibration is obtained by multiplying the static deflection X,, b1
Figure 427. The vibration of a tower is modeled as a sinsle degree of freedom. which i5 exposed to an exrernally impos=ed harmonic force and subjected to viscous damping.
fraction X/X,,. The fraction or ratio X/X* is called the dynamic magnification factor, D. These formulations indicate that the nondimensional amplitude X/X,, and the phase angle, 0. are functions of the frequency ratio r and the damping factor f and are plotted in Figure 428. These curves indicate that the damping factor has a large influence on the amplitude and phase angle in the frequency region near resonance. From Equation 491 we see that at resonance the dynamic magnification factor, D, is inversell proportional to the damping ratio, or
n'
solved in numerous sources and will not be delved into here. See Vierck [6] for a complete discussion of the solution. The final solution takes the form of the followlng:
X(t)
e t''(A
cos (,Dt
B sin
ropt)
{t l t+ (r'tt
(490)
t:
c/c, 2(mk)ri2 is the critical damping factor that is the criteria for critical damping such that I : nonvibrating motion : overdamping I : harmonic vibration : underdamping a few percent of c. for a tall, slender structure such as a tower static deflection of the spring acted upon by the fbrce F/K c,,,/o : frequency ratio of forced vibration frequency to free vibration frequency
E E
K M
Letting
X:
.(T
l t+ (2rt
Freouencv
r.tio.
(;/o
and tan 0
I r
Figure 428. The dynamic magnification factor versus the frequency ratio for various amounts of damping. (From Slructural Dynamics by M. Paz. @ 1980 by Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc. Reprinted by permission.)
Vessels
203
The damping ratio, , is not known and extremely difiicult to measure at best. A practical method for experimentally determining the damping coefficient of a system is to initiate free vibration, and measure through decreasing amplitudes of oscillatory motion, as shown in Figtre 429. This decrease or decay is termed the logarithmic decrement, 6, and is defined as the natural loga
The force coefficient can be readily obtained from Figure 429. Equation 492 yields the maximum transverse force per unit area of the projected surface of a cylinder at resonance. Equation 493 may be rewritten with the velocity in miles oer hour as
rithm of the ratio of any two successive peak amplitudes, X1 and X2 in free vibration. Expressing this in equation tbrm we have
F=
and
(494a)
^x,
F=
x2
0.01I l3pCrDVr'?(dH)
(494b)
X(t) :
Cefdr cos(@Dt
cr)
It can be shown [17] that the dynamic magnification factor, D, and the logarithmic decrement, A, are related using the previous expression as
^T
(492)
F=
and
50'F
(494c)
Most research data available for practical use are presented in terms of the logarithmic decrement, 6. Table 413 provides values of 6 versus D for various structures.
These values are acceptable for use process towers and stacks.
0.07728pCeDVr'?(dH)
(494d)
in actual design of
where d =
H= Vr : Vr :
T: p:
outside diameter of either upper r/: or r/+ of tower, ft total height of tower, ft first critical wind velocitY, 3.40d/T, mph first period of vibration, Hz density of air at any specified temPerature,
lb/ft
z
= 9
h
6
Figure 429. The Reynolds number versus the drag coefficient for a circular cylinder tet.
Table 413 Conservative Values for Logarithmic Decrement and Dynamic Magnilication Factor for Tall Process Towers Logarithmic Decrement
6
Dynamic Magnitication
Factor
D
0.052
0.080
o.t26
Structural Coefficients l1 critical damping factor
lbisec ln.
25
A:
Steel frame
Working stress
Near yield
Low stress levels (a) 0.005 ( c ( 0.010 (b) 0.005 < c ( 0.010
C. =
(b)0.0s<c(0.10
(a)0.M(c(0.06
D.M:
k:
W=
c
tower stiffness, lb/in. total tower weight, lbr
For tall, slender towers of constant diameter, the first period of vibration is given by the expression
the static equilibrium point. For the potential energy o; the system, the reverse is true. Thus,
T:
(l/0.5l)(WHa/gEI)o
(495)
(K.E.),,
= (PE.)., =
where
g= H:
The Rayleigh method applies only ro undamped systems, but is found to be sufficientlv accurate for comDuting the fundamental frequency of process rowers. e;en though towers have varying shell thicknesses down the Iength that result in unevenly distributed mass and stiffness. The Rayleigh method is basically the conservation of energy, i.e., the total kinetic energy of the system is zero at the maximum disDlacement but is a maximum at
will readily yield the natural frequency of the system. To estimate the period of vibration using the Rayleigh method the tower is considered as a series of lumpec masses. These lumped masses are determined by consid ering the weights of
The resulting equation
1. Shell and
heads
2. Trays and internals 3. Manways and nozzles 4. Insulation and fire proofing
Vessels
205
These are summed for each section and the overall :ower is considered as lumped masses at the centroid of :ach section along its entire length. The assumption is nade that the stiffness is constant along the entire length Jf the tower; an assumption that greatly simplifies the ;omputations for the various deflections of the section :entroids. The more sections, the greater the overall ac.uracy achieved. Such a beam with lumped masses is shown in Figure 430. For such a simple, onemass, vibrating system, Timoshenko et al. [19] have shown that rhe angular natural undamped frequency (rad/sec) for
such a system is
M,
: wr () * *, * nJ + w,(?.
. *,(?)
")
(49e)
 :
or T_
lewv\o'
(496)
\wv'/
(4e7)
The moments obtained are used to determine the deflections induced by vortex shedding. The method of deflection computation is based on the areamoment (conjugate beam) method applied to a cantilever beam. In this method the slope of the elastic bending curve of the actual beam is equal to the shear at the same point on the conjugate beam, which is an idealized beam corresponding to the actual member. The deflection y of the actual beam (or tower) at any point relative to its original position is equal to the bending moment at the corresponding point on the conjugate beam that has the same M/EI area of the actual beam. Figure 431 shows weights of the vessel sections distributed about the section centroids along with beam lengths used in the analysis. The conjugate beam method of computing deflection is demonstrated in Table 414. For an indepth analysis of the method the reader is referred to Higdon et al. [20]. The examples presented at the end of this chapter will clarify
,"
(498)
this approach.
The section weights, Wi, are computed by using cumulative weights down the tower. Summing moments about the base in Figure 430 we obtain the moment distribu
OVALING
Ovaling is a resonance phenomenon more common in stacks rather than process towers. However, towers exhibit this phenomenon mostly during construction, before insulation and appurtenances are added to the vessel. To avoid ovaling, the designer should consider the following guidelines. The cylinder is considered as a ring that has a natural
freouencv
Mr=0
+ M, = W, lKr \21
/
\ K2l
of
vE
(4100)
u. = w, lI1 +n.
\2
, Kil )l
* *,lvr*,\ \ 2
''
7.58r.
6oDt
Figure 430. A tower modeled as a sectionless beam with distributed lumped masses.
,f
+ t'+
t, I r_,
+*t*t
L, l 15
' 1.

+
I
+
I
l)
w.w"vqq
Xs, = o,
Mr
r,
=
W1L1
t4r
E'It
M,
ZE)l)
S,
+A, = A,
Pt*l.z:
Itt
Lr=Pr
M2
, '
RI+R'
2
rr
19
EzI:
/v.
\E,I,
2
M,\
Err,/
52*41 :,A2
/a, +
t?,
a.\
P2
Pz
* ir:
r:
XL2:
M1
xL2:
52
W1(L1
*L)
+ w2L2
2
R,
+R.
I:
M: E:I:
irur, \E.I2
M, \ E,I,/
53+A.4
= Aj
14i14)
Ptl p+:
Pr
pt
\21
XL3:
wr(Lr + L2 + L1) +W2 (L2 + L3) + W:L,
xL3 =
S1
Lo=l+R" 2
'.
Sa A,=Aa
/eo +
lrl
el
Pa
Ptr ps:
pt
v
For cylindrical
shells,
xlo =
xla =
So
M,:Mi r+Li
\w Ll
l:
l
/ M,*,
FT
\E,
+
M, I E,l,/
_ Ri +Ri+r r '2
rli+ 2
s'
+D
S:=Ar
A"
/Ai +
Irl
Ai*ri
P1
Pi
irr+r
: I
xli = S
xL; :
lil
xLn:
M"+r
S"
M"+L"
xFw, L,l
see Table 416C. bending moment diagram oi conjusate beam slope of real beam elasric curve  shear of conjugate beam moment diagram of real beam : load diagram of conjugate beam y1 fu)(12), in.
Co_mputation
Table 4148 Beam MethodSection Break Method Deflections Based on the Coniugate Vibralion
lttrttl
w" Mi
Mr
w'r li
w.{
Y "Y
V
Ds, = o,
= Mrdx/Eili
M/Eili Mr ErIt
Pi
p = M;d2xlE;11
:0
Ir
Mr 2El1
sr
+Ar:Ar
/e' +
l?l
s2
xLq:P1
Mj 
/W,lr(r
+ ^\ r(?l
Ir
= W,Lj
M,
EtI,
/vt, M2\
\t'313
2 l'212l
+ A,
A/
\21
{rf
xL2 = P'
Pt
't pt :
ttz
_M,
'
2r..
52
xL2 = M, = w,lR' , R,
\2
r!\w,fIL$,\ 2l '\ 2 l
Ir
Er
/Mr\E.I.
2
Mrl
Err',/
53+A*:4,
lA, +
lrl
Aql
Pr*t.,:/:
P3
xL3 =
ra+45:Ad
t"
MJ EoL
/eo + ,+,\
\)
Po*/r: = lr
P4
W1(L1
L2
+ Lr) +
W2L2
xL4:
xL4 =
54
M,:w(q+*,**.*&\ 2l \2
+w,l&+n.+!l '\2 2l
+ w.lR. + &l \21
15 l&
E:I:
s5
Dsi
f,L,+a"\ lrl
xL5:
P5
Ps
*ro = rs
xL5 =
55
sr , W,l r,
I,
M"
Ik
/tut",
\EJ"
tnl" , E t/\
_jI
2
L" =
P^
xL":S"
M.+
r
S"=A"
@ : ebrupt section break k : n + (number of abrupt Infigureabove,k=n*1
section breaks)
= M"+L"
<Fw,
t:l
y = (pi)(12) ft
':'(T i
b(4a
3t)
Conical Section
3H(D": v
6[{D"r
ktl
f ,"D
where
0.2v
many external, attached appurtenances. What is more commonly done with towers is to stiffen up shell sectiont to offset ovaling resonance. See Chapter 5 for more information on ovaling.
45 mph or 66 fps
If for any section of the tower fi < 2f,, ovaling vibration is imminent. The resonance wind velocity that would
theoretically induce ovaling is
60 f.D
(41o2)
where s
Strouhal number
To counter ovaling vibration, ovaling rings or helical strakes are added. These normallv are not oractical for
Vessels
209
velocity, V, is greater than the wind design speed, a vibration analysis is not required. The limiting minimum heighttodiameter ratios H/ d are as follows:
H/d H/d
z 4_}
q
> >
H/d
stacks stacks
)
)
(4 103)
columns
++ q
+
4.
lows:
LD,
20
ZW
(4lo4)
25 <
5.
If
+i
:
the total force on the tower induced by the first critical wind velocity V1 does not exceed l/rs of the operating (corroded) weight W or
:oViHd ')"
1"
w
cussed
o15
(4 105)
.1+_
q
++'+1
a more thorough dynamic analysis. Fortunately, the UBC method is accurate enough for most tall, process
tower/stack design problems and is presented here. In seismic analysis the design spectrum is not a specification of a particular earthquake ground motion; it is a specification of the strengths of structures. For this reason the tower must be ductile enough to absorb energy without ultimate yield. This implies that for the structure to absorb energy that exceeds maximum design conditions the overall structure deformation will be ductile
r+_
Figure 431. The vibration ensemble in which each section weisht is located at the section centroid.
210
practical design procedures are simplifications of the complex dynamic phenomenon used as'.quasi" static criteria applied with elastic srress limits. The Uniform Building Code 1982 [10] requires thar all freestanding structures in seismic zones to be desisned and constructed to with5tand a total lateral force tbase shear) given by
rather than brittle. The result is that while more risorous analyses are very helpful in determining design ciiteria.
I : g=
moment of inertia,
ft
32.2 ftlsec2
When Equation 4108 is applied to sreel wirh a value of E 30 x 106 psi we have
1=
17.65e v
/ \, t::t0")
l[)'^1tz*o'' r
\D",i
(4 l09
V:
ZIKCSW
(4 106)
and for
29
106 psi,
where Z
: I : K : c : s = =
seismic zone factor (see Figure 432) occupancy importance factor : I for all process towers and stacks structure type coefficient structure period response factor slte structure interaction factor total operating weight of tower above ground
(4110)
where D,,,
K, is as follows:
For a tower with uniform cross section and tapered (conical) skirt the following relationship can be used in computing the fundamental period:
K= K=
2.0 for vertical vessels on skirt supports 2.5 for vertical vessels on skirts when
t,h.n
= 2" (o qod)"
6=
(4111
>
1.5
tskin
where
the calculated deflection at top of tower induced by 1007" of irs weight applied as a laleral load
(4_107)
For short, stiff structures, such as horizontal vessel supports, in lieu of making a period calculation, the response factor C may be taken as equal to C."". For most industrially accepted design methods, the effects of the soilstructure interaction are considered. This is done in the Uniform Building Code by using the ratio of the fundamental elastic period of vibration of the tower, T, to the characteristic site period, T,. Formulations used to determine the fundamental natural period ofvibration for seismic response vary as to the type of structural crosssection considered. The generally accepted equation for towers of uniform crosssec
With towers of varying cross sections and attaching equipment, a method used to determine the fundamental frequency was developed by Warren W. Mitchell in an unpublished work [21]. The solution is based on the Ravleigh method ofequating porenlial and kinetic energies in a vibrating system. The resulting formulation is readill useful in computing fundamental periods of cylindrical. taperedcylindrical, and steptaperedcylindrical structures common to the petrochemical industry (CpI). The formulation is as follows:
,: ln)' \,F4DfEo, +
\100/
a.y
(4 Il2r
where
T
H
w
tion is
'l
: =
t.re
LI
lrql" \EIei
.
(4 108)
where
E_
fundamental period, sec total heighr, ft weight per unit of height, lb/ft shell thickness, in. modulus of elasticity, psi
period, sec overall height of tower, ft distributed weight (lb/f0 of each section concentrated loads attached to the tower at any level, that add mass but do not contribute to the stiffness of the tower modulus of elasticity (106 psi) for each
section
coefficients for a given elevation depending on the ratio of the height of the elevation above grade to the overall height of the tower (h,/H)
Vessels
211
3
E
xllo
;llo ll0 oo ; o ''ll,r
ollR
Ell' !l]f; tl
"ll:
oLJ
nt
ol ol Ll
.
65 !o 6
R
6l
NI
R5C
ol
6l
212
Ao, A.y
differentials in the values of a and .y, from the top to the bottom of each section of uniform weight, diameter, and thickness. 6 is determined from
each concenttated mass. Values of and "r are shown in Table 415.
a. 6.
force. V. shall be applied ro rhe top of the tower aciording to the following relationships:
For,
n Ifa tower's lower section is several times wider in diameter and shorter than the upper sections, then the tower's period can be more accurately determined by computing the upper section's period, assuming that the tower is fixed as to translational and rotational displacement. If a tower's shell diameter or thickness is
;<3.0,F,:0
3.0<: < 6.12. F. = l)
h
0.07
TV
(4ll4)
significantly larger than that of the supporring skirt, the period calculated by Equation 4112 may be overly conservative for earthquake design and a more accurate method may be desirable. D For conical tower sections the Mitchell eouation can'coefficients not be used because of lack of data for the a, B, and 7. The Rayleigh equation (Equation 497) is more comprehensive and ubiquitous in application. Once the fundamental period of vibration is determined, the numerical coefficient for the site structure interaction (seismic sitestructure resonance coefficient),
;>
6.12, F,
0.lsv
where F,
h: D=
V=
total force applied at top of structure overall height of tower, ft diameter of tower, ft total base shear from Equation 4106
The remainder of the total seismic force is distributed and applied to the mass distribution in the structure according to the following equation:
S, can be determined. As previously stated, the soilstructure interaction is considered in most industrially accepted methods. The value of S is determined by the following formulas:
For T/T,
F^
141
l5
\w
1.0,
1.0
+: T,>
+
1.0,
0.5
l:l
/ \. ITI'
\T,i
(4l l3a)
where F* : W* = h, =
Ewh
For T/T.
lateral force applied to a mass at level x, lb weight of mass at level x, lb height of level x above the base (normally measured from bottom of the base plate of the tower), ft the sum of the products of w" and h, for all the masses within the structure, ftlb
1.2
0.6
I T,
0.3
E)'
\r,/
(4l l3b)
M:
where
V, L, _,
F*,C;
(4116)
Lr,, :
ft
tlme:
sec
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels Table 415 Coefficients for Determining Period of Vibration of FreeStanding Cylindrical Shells Having Varying Cross Sections and Mass Distribution'
nx
H I .00 0.99
213
h"
H
2.103
8.347
2.02r
1.941 1.863 1.787
1
8.12l
7.898 .678 '7 .461 7 .248
7
'7
0. 1094
.'7
t4
.O3'7
1.440
1.377 1.316 1.256 1 .199
o.74r8
0.6876 0.6361 0.5872 0.5409 0.4971
0.455'7 0.416'7 0.3801
0.0678 0.0612
0.0551
o.92495 0.91854
o.911'73
0.0494
0.0442
0.0395
0.0351 0.0311
o.o2'7 5
0.40 0.39
0.3 8
0.90448 0.89679
0.888&
0.88001
1.143
1.090 1.038
0.988 0.939
4.930 4.758
4.589 4.424 4.261
o.0242 0.0212
0.0185
0.0161
0.2552
0.2291 0.2050 0.1826 0.16200 0.14308 o.12516 0.10997 0.09564
o.0826'7 0.07101
0.892
0.847 0.804 0.762 0.722 0.683 0.646 0.610 0.576 0.543 0.512
0.481
0.80
0.'79
0.999455 o.999309
0.78
0.'77
4.1o2 3.946
3.794 3.645 3.499 3.356 3.217
3.081
0.999t33
0.998923 0.998676
0.998385
0.0140 0.0120 0.010293 0.008769 0.00t426 0.006249 0.005222 0.oo4332 0.003564 0.002907 0.002349 0.001878
0.001485
0.81710 0.804s9
0.79t4
0.7716 0.7632 0.7480
o.'7321 0.7 r 55 0.6981
2.949
0.20
2.820 2.694
2.57
o.995434
0.99468 r
0. l9 0. 18
0.993834 0.992885
0.99183 0.99065
0.17
0.
l6
2.3365
2.2240
2.1r48
2.OO89
1.9062
1.8068 1.7107
1.61'7'7
1.52'79
0. 15 0. 14 0. 13
0.12
0.11
0.5992
o.57 69
o.4512
0.4231 0.3940 0.3639 0.3327 0.3003 0.2669 0.2323
0. 1966
0.1676
1.1545
1.4413 1 .3579
I .217 5
0.97301
0.97W7
0.96688 0.96344
0.959'73
1.2002 1.1259
1.0547
0.0000M
0.000002
0.000001
o.00249 0.00165 0.00104 0.00062 0.00034 0.00016 0.00007 0.00002 0.00000 0.00000 0.
o.159'1
0.1216
0.0823 0.0418 0.
'vi,cher
rormura:
pB
214
OO SMALL END
TRUNCATED CONE
that the conetocylinder stresses computed by the equivalent circle method are very close in magnitude to those computed by more exact methods. Because of its close approximate answers and simplicity, the equivalent circle method is normally the method used for treating conical sections in towers. The method will only be outlined here, as others l22l have already derived it. Figure 433 shows how the sections of a truncated cone and a conical head are approximated by an equivalent circle, which is used to compute the section modulus and moment of inertia. These formulations are used in tower design and are demonstrated in the examples that
,."=[*&l
follow. Conical shells used in tower sections have a half anex anglecv ( 30degrees. Whenh. ( 0.10H, rhecon..an be approximated by considering two cylinders shown with dotted lines (Figure 434). In pracrice, stiffening rings must be used when required by the vessel code.
CONICAL HEAD
L
T'
t\/2
Conical sections can be tieated quite simply by utilizing the equivalent circle technique. Bednar [22] shows
Figure 434. When h" ( 0.1 H, the cone can be approximated by considering the two cylinders shown with dotted lines.
215
o:
:
=
37.845 psi
02
o2r:
o7
oo
: =
1,715.34t0r'
A horizontal vessel containing hot oil is to be completely analyzed using the Zick method to determine wear plate requirements (Figure 435).
Vessel
8R
8(1.750)
14.00
+ L < 8R
o.u5
material
Saddle material
: :
=
5A51670
5.4.36
Temp:300'F
Design pressure
Q : 7,828.981 cA:0
lb
R
l5oo
t.750
0.857
=k
7,828.981
4(0.94r)[0.375
1.s6[(21)(0.94)]0
5l
_
1.396
\12
rad
284.547
80.0'
928.358
<
1.25 dr,rr
21,875
., = 10*13910)
or =
oo
50.501 psi
(0.941)[0.375
1.56[(2 1X0.941)]0rl
: !D
:
or + op :
.I
I
I.990
: iilllt'.t :
1,728.00psi
lr 
 cos(u4)
+
sin
1,67i.50
os
865.678 psi
<
<
19,000
psi
0.5 o,
orr
At Midspan
From Equation 43
tial
of yield
'
o 600]
10'o'
A detailed mechanical design is required for the proin Figure 436. The design criteria
I ol
il c\t
*l
Design temperature:  150"F Design wind speed 100 mph Internal pressure at top head: 150 psig Internal pressure at boftom head: 162 psig Shell material: 304 SS
l
PWHT: Yes
oo
Figure 435, Horizontal pressure vessel containing hot oil.
216
towER ANo
TNTEFATS
(Nor
ro
scAL)
VIBBATON ENSEMALE
WINO
ENSEMBLE
I
'..
Ill;,
r rrtl ltttr _!_rt!!
I ltt I rtt
r
TTJBE
l:'
7
'..
"oo +
t$
'roP
aEo
I
1.,
,tt __ _.jL___
llr:
llir* I:
___iL__
____L__
,"r"*""
csruliiinny
T
ti
I I
BOTIOMBEO
.__i1___
F.i+r
Tl "*.,J:l
N.RMAL LrourD
l*IU
l"l
I
l
ri
f
.."r.
FI
+
Vessels
217
0.00256 Kz (IV)'z;
= 100 mph
Kz
:2.58
12)
2.58
/r
s\'"
IZJ
for
z<
rs ft
12 in. pipe
plus insulation
plus insulation
+
\7
12
in.
127.00 in.
.0, Ze
900,
D" =
0.005
ladders
and
.At 15 ft,
D.
47.O il:'.
(12.'75
11)
+ r2) in.
12
ForZ)15ft,
K, '. :
2.58
+
\0286
(12.75
in. +
in.
107.50 in.
l:l
/ 7
\900/
V=
100 mph,
h=
104.292
ft,
f:
0.01
0.981 Hz
qz
0.00256(0.801)(Iv)':
From Thbles
and 5 of A58.11982,
I=
az
1.0
0.00256(0.801)( 1001
z<
15
fr
.(t+*)(ro75o) = 11s3s5
From A.58.1 Table A9,
f
o, '" = 0.00256(2.58)1"
I 7
\D
I
286
\900/
s:
1.00
I7
66.048
(eoo1 . z > ts rt
\0.286
tz'?erre1*
u'r","*rr*I.$
'*"u'o''on
1i'0
PtpE
ffJ Y
Figure 437. Effective cross sectional area.
214
\ t'? /: 9: h 1o4.292
ir rs.:os\
o.oe5:c
I 18.305
+9.859
_>..
ffi:
ID_
#>r
ooo"
6.145
0.0055,
y=
fly :
(10.743)(0.0055X0.145)
0.009
*>..
o
oo.*,(fro"'",0r,,. =
: l.l
cG=
0.6s
0.65
(483)
q>E
30'oo
1.076
1.726
*+r
From Simiu[9],
9:9zG
Figure 438 shows the wind pressure distribution q plotted along the tower length.
\+{)>
f00t
l5.oort
'
+;
Figure 438. Wind force distribution (q) along tower is para bolic above 15 feet. Section wind force distributions are combined into a force vector located at the centroid of the wini
section.
.t
.r
(4117)
From Figure 439 we obtain a general expression for the composlte area,
Using this equation we compute the wind force distribution. From Figure 420, Cr = 0.6. Solving for sectior properties we have the following:
(4118)
aa '" :66.048
Section
I7
1.l
\2t1
\900/
Solving for the wind resultant force acting through each centroid we obtain,
A
104.292
F:
AO"CI
Z:
tt
)
) l^l
NINI
Vessels
219
$l
ilI
il:
l ;l
il@
IN
ql
^,1 :l
qo 6 F I (JO (l
N
I
1l t^
tN+
!L!
^lN rf.f ^
r',.'NS
I Lr'
t:o
YI
Ntd
1F
N.
Tl 'l
ol
I.t
re ihl
r<
=x":
g^1
Nir++
.el
E
(!
"l
Q,ni+++ u,
Jii
rl gil
Ll rN
!L
>
tL>
___t91
<t)
tl
dlB
tl
,Yl.l
^l
q)
tt
'i!  ;N
(G q
.9 =N
i:
Rt
J9
oo
tN
lt
IN
:*
()+
'N
220
9z
66.048
l:: :
\vwi :
/ qR \0
286
Section D
35.659
q":48.852
6r.547
q"
(l.726X3s.659)
9n
726t
l:;l
166.048)
e"r
60.461
: (r.726)ffiul (66.048):44.573
(12.75 )[(7X48.8s2)
(6.292)l(7)(6t.s47)
(2)(44.s73)l
(2)(60.461)l 610.739
2+7
385.735 lb/ft
x,r4.571)l
6.430
ft
ft
Section E
Section B
q" =
60.461
o.
, = 1l.726] l^il
/ qn
\o
286
\vw/
(66.048)
s9.007
(66.048):43.097
(8.00x7)(60.461) ^_
(2X59.007)l
+
165.919
(2X43.097)l
:48 I
103
lb/ft
s
:
(2)(7)(60.461)
J2
(7x60.461)
+ +
(2
t)
4.009 ft
1.881
ft
Section C
Section F
q"
59 007 4s.352
(66.048)
39.943
(2)(48.852)l
+
296 .713lblft
(2)(39.943)l
(2X7X59.007) + z: zl 32 [ +
1
(7)(s9.007)
,0, ,0,
nl 32 
eI(2)
(7
('7
)(43.o97) )43.097)
oo,
22.128 ft
Section G
Section J
q"
C"
39.943 35.347
 = (1.726) l:::::l
\vlru/
(3.00)ft?X39.943)
/ro
oo\0
28o
(66.048)
: 38.378
9n_r
: :
35.347
^ :
(2X38.378)l
At
q(2"
530.205 lb/ft
Z" ,) =
(3s.347X15.0)
118.786
lb/ft
ll :
2
z.so r,
z 
1.506
ft
Section H
F=
FA
ArD"Cr
q"
9"_r
38.378
":
=
(385.7rs) ('']=oo) 12 /
,0." :
=
2,44e.4r7 tb
(1.726)
/r?
l::::::; \7wl
on\o
2s6
(66.048)
36.63s
FB
(481.103)
{'t]^ool to.ut
\ rl
3.055.004 lb
(3.00)t(7x38.378) ^_
(2X36.635)l
Fc
FD
:
=
(2.468.&0) {l?lq. ^
0l
\tzl
(0.6)
t5,675.864 lb
ll).972lblft
(6r0.73e)
{toLtol ,0.u, =
i 
:
:
\12
3,2E2.i22 rb
Fr =
FF
n65.919r l'07
501
ft
\12l
ro.ur
Eel.8r5
rb
=
=
es6.ii3)
(ue ) ,0 u, : \ 12 /
=
,5e5. r55 rb
Section
F6
q":36.635
q"_r
638.475 lb
(1.726)
lj':Y:l \vUU/
/, <
^^\o
286
t66.048)
35.347
/'
,o
u,
612.6oo rb
(2.00)[(7)(36.63s) ^_
(2X35.347)]
3e0.746 lb
72.697
lblft
)
Fr
(3
(s30.205)
Ito],to) ,0.u, =
\12
2,84e.852 lb
,r.oo,
Fc
1.003
ft
31,,141.650 lb
222
M"=M" t+(z^,z^)DF,_,
+
M^
Ms Mc
af\
F,z.
:
7,718.113 ftlb
(48s)
:
=
(2449.417)(3.151)
7,718, 113
MD : ME
Figure 440. The tube bundle is modeled in banks ofconcentric circles used to approximate the section moment of inertia. The tube bundle enhances the section stiffness.
: : :
Mn
(1,s9s.155)(3.s2s)
(25,354.822)(7 .00)
I,193,555.784 ftlb
Mc
1,193,555.784
(26,949.9'77)(3.OO)
(638.475X1.506)
Mu:
Mr
1,275,367.258
= :
1,359,046.001
+ +
+ +
I : A: K: n :
0.0210 in.a
0.191 in.2
Mr
1,415,840.023
arl+in.
I:
DKIG + AL)
I
are tabulated in Table 416.
,. "
: 0.756
Values of
rta
t, 23,676.070 in.'
Section
64'1s+.zs)o
"
(54.00)41
The shell and tube heat exchanger section moment of inertia is approximated by a set of concentric circles of tubes. The concentric circle pattern approximates that of the exchanger tube sheet. Using the parallelaxis theorem, we arrive at the section moment of inertia. Referring to Figure 440 we analyze the exchanger as follows:
)l = Lt'
: :
Ib
6.675 fC
16.364.299
14.127 .503
t6,364.299
30,491.802 s2,880.927
12.104.531
10.284.531
;
10
;i#.uZr
14.50
17.00
89.000
0.191
0.
0.021
86
r.765.174
6r,45s.470
68,593.s70 74,465.473
.7s,230.641
210.250
l9l
o.021
9l,901.445
92,456.266
t7
18
Jf,
92,79t.181
92.980.407
93.074. 195
t9
t6
2l
l0
t55
2t,6t4.595
l1:1.735.1,+1
Section
c
I/zin.
)ectlon
trAtn.
rL
,=.[+:1!f 64 l\ 12
:
1.1 10 fta
I \12lJ
_/+z.ool.l
1.533 ft4
Section
d5/sin.
Section
gr3/r6in. t
142.001"1
,r ll43.62sl _  64 L\ t2 I \ t2 /J
0.917 fta
1.208 fta
Section
e
t/roin.
r= :
L[(r# (:gl
I
.013
ff
,.r:(
26.193
21.812s
cos 6.934"
\t
224
Deflections
$ lo
ydla
Ia
+
h. a"\
2.416
10s
ft
[(e,oss.oo+)(a.oo)
.:
(8.oot
(2.787
10'9
(:2,449.4I7)(S.OO) 321
reo=21.8125 in rho=26.1925 in
{Z,Zrr. r r:l1
3.088
x l0
ft
tto:29.1109 in
1o=
51.o in
. '
(43.50)'? I (15,675.864X43.5)
(6.402
+ '32)
10') [
(s,s04.421)(43.5)
+ Q2lOo
soo)l
:
t /. rol .\+  , dol ^.\q ot.  lr+6 l=  l4o ''  64[\12/ \12ll
1
0.055 ft
l.5i3
frr
(3 ,282
('1
.722)(t2
8
.7
5)
Section i
+
27.856 in.
(21 , 180.285)(
l2.75)
razs,ttt.to4]
2l
0.017
ft
(3.'/r,
"[/ss.zr,z\* /s+.oaz\tl 64 L\ 12 / \ 12 /l
Section
(4230
x r0) t
[tal
r. s
rs)t:.zs)
8
j
:s.rrr\
, (24,463.OO7)(3.75) Jrl
=
0.002
(917,03s.328t
'' L '
/sr.oo +
2 cos
6.934' /
(7.00),
7.846 fta
(4.
L\
635,10)L
[(r,sqs.rssxz.oo) t8
iI
Values
, (1,0r0,449.109t 2)
moment, and moment of inertia are summarized in Thble 417 for the entire tower.
0.006
ft
1l
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels
Table 417 Force, Shear, Bending Moment and Wind Summation of Section Moment of lnertia
Section a
Fr (lb) 2.449.4t7
Qi (lb) 2.449.417
Mi
(ft{b) 7,118.113
li (fta) 0.756
6.6'7 5
El (lbft'?)
3.157
2.78'7
3,055.004 15,675.864
3,282.',722
5.504.421
21. 180.285
39,560.960
625,878.'192
1.533
891.815
917.035.328
1,010,449. 109
0.917
1.013
638.475
612.600 390.746 2,849.852
27,588.452
28,20 r.052
1,193,555.784 1,275,367.258
1,359,046.001
1.110
I .208
t 4.635 ^ 5045 x
6.402
3 .27
x x x x
10'q
lOto
10!) 109
t}e
loa
101r
1.533
2.54',7
7 .846
28,591.798
3l,441.650
1.415.840.023 1,866,090.883
x 1.064 x
6
><
10'
1010
l0t'r
(rJ8i ,, 109 t
t26.s4s.s71
(6.2e2)(8.00) [ (3,05s.004)(8.00)
6 (2,,149.4
3'l
t3.0t
1.19J.555.7S4)l
7x8.00)
?.718.I r3l
I
0.001
ft
[(612.oo](3.0u/
3.899
10 5ft
, '
13.oo1r
(6.402
t
lOa)
A'r:l
(6.402
lOY) [
(27,s88.4s2X3.0)
, (r,27s,367.25U] )l
=
(5,504.421)(43.s)
39,560.960]
0.001
ft
0.027
ft
":
:
orn:l
^ ^' ,,:
15't
oJ29
. lo) [
(r,3s9,046.001t
(21 , 180.2
85X12.75)
625.878 792
x t0 a ft
I (2.849.852)( 15.00)
L
0.148 ft
I
"
^ 't
r70.542rr3.75,1{8q1.815)r3.?51
r+.::ot
_
r
tolL
2
(28,59r.798)(r5.00)
, 1,415,840.023)l 21
(
, _ q tr,u:S.:28
0.006 ft
0.060 fr
226
_ ^ )6
Mechanical Design
ol
Process Systems
r74.292n7.00) [{ t.5q5.155x7.00)
(4.6iai
"
ro1
all+in.
(2s,354.822)(7.00)
1 I ,010,449.t09]
?1
0.124 ft
/po\ /
\4tl Dt
\?r((D" 
ron^na
D,XDa
+ Di,
^1
(8r.2s2)(3.00)[(638.4 75X3.00)
(5!45 x rO
l
\"<n. * o,
E
lzw\
150 psi,
1.0,
t:
0.25 in.,
T : 100'F,
0.060 ft
w
Di
0.423 kips
54.0 in.,
D"
54.50 in.
2(1.8t4) I [ tr(0lsxl08 d
8,100
0.052
ft
l3s0.7 46)(2.o0)
.
161.009
42.57
(87 .2s2)(2.oo)
t0ro) t0ro)
q=
+l(28,591.798X2.00) + 1,359,046.001] 2
:
O.O23
ft
o^=
'
PD
2t
1s0.0)(54.0)
2(0.2sX1.0)
: ^ '" _ :
rt ": (89.292x 15.00) [(2.849.8s2r 5.00)
16,200
psi
<
18,800
o"
The circumferential stress governs in this section and is less than the allowable stress.
Section
[t
b
:/ain.
(2S,s91.798)(1s.oo)
I 1,4r5,840.023.j
r:o.orrs+.orl
0.067 ft
L(4)(0.37s) I
1
, [ 16(54.75)(39.s60.960)(12)
ft + ir.
0.561
ft =
0.649
ft
[ :rrs.zor.oor I
t.(0 3is,(t08
itl
5,400
550.16
237.30
Section
el
l/rein. f,
(150.0)(54.0)
2(0.375)(1.0)
:
o"
10.800 osi
< 18,800:
Section
zw,sor.sztt I I t"(0.o88x85.3?tl q o
c\lzin. (4x0.s)
I
t
I
2,289.24
12,509.56
482.98
0r = tl
Ir rso.olrs+.orl
o,
rorss.oolrozs.s
(t
78.isu'l2t]
1
.
o"
oo) I
'
(lsq'Pl!4? oo)
2(0.688)
4,578.488 psi
: o:
o
lzot.tzz.oll
t"rcJ0l t0r)l
Section
f:/+in.
4,050.00
6,497 .53
440.@6
18,800
krso.olt+z.orl [ (4)(0.75) I
<
r=
Iro(+s.soxr, ts:,555.7s4x12t I
"(0Jsxs550)(3,6562s0)
o^ = ::
'
q: o:
o
Izr+o.sst.sssl I
t"(oisx8s5o)l
2,100.00
13,533.81
Section
ds/sin.
l5,l67.61psi tension
<
=
_
*l t
(L 6)
op
r(0.688)(8s.375)(3,&s.39r)
 tl
zt+:,+rs.oor I
Section gt:71uin.
lr(0.688t(85.375r1
2,520.00
11,320.361
470.584
18.800
<
psi
o,
=[
(r2) ,27 s,3 s.367 67 .258) .258)(t2 6(43. 625) (1,27 116(43.625)(
1.
"(0813X85525X3'667140
(150'0x42'o)
2(O.62s)
5.o4o.oo osi
Izt+s.ozl.+ssr I t"(08t3l8s.6rtl
228 = o: q:
q
1
.2'l
13,319.972
439 .64
<
18,800
psi
da
ll,822.342 psi
compression
D": : D; : :
A.
OO of base plate
111.50 in.
106.75
2(2.375)
ID of
base
plate
98.00 in.
=
2221
111.50
2(6.j 5)
All section stresses are less than the allowable stress of 18,800 psi. Thus, the tower thicknesses are acceptable.
.302 in '
3.059.323.380
(4,11
W.
N
1
(4.+
^,: [+*]/*".
(442)
1.s0)
63,815.727
Using an A 19387 highstrength bolt with an allowable stress of 40,000 psi per AISC and assuming a bolt circle of 107 in., the required bolt area, ,4.6, is
[{4){ l2){ 1.866.090.8S3)
(12)(70,219.061)
2,22t .302
(
63,8rs.721
2,22\.302
I
:
toz
(12X40,000)
l.o I I ln'
We select a lslsin. d bolt of 8thread series with a minimum root area of 1.680 in., Thus, using Figure 415, the new bolt circle becomes
BC
102
in. + 2(.2.375)
106.75 in.
[*tgg(
63,81s.727f
l2)(40,000)
p"
W
(4_1j
1.615 in.'?
<
1.680 in.2
lo.
20,000
lJOrr sDaclng
r( 106.75
t2
=
19
,000 psi
21.947
in. >
18
in. minimum
oJo,
0.333
Vessels
229
1.588, C, = 2.376,2 = 0.431, of Equation 445 using Thsix iterations 0.782, and J ble 47, we obtain a value of k of 0. 186.
with k
0.333,
c"
ti
 0.845 ta 0.901 in
0.046
For
0.186, 655.834 psi and o, = 26,850.892 psi The allowable stress in the base ring = 36,000 psi 3,000 psi The allowable shength in the concrete
o.
k=
tc =
15116
in. thick
Using Equation 454 and solving for the maximum induced stress in the concrete,
Calculating the minimum skirttobaseplate weld size we have from Equation 465 4M
^
o.1.,"y
:
:
n2
769.139 psi
(456)
.
:
kt
r2X r ,8oo,090.
2,939.611
102.00
_,
?<n
i
o*
: :
1.33( 12,700X0.s5)
weld
size w
2.939.611 (2)(9290.0s)
0.158
BTHK
t4.75t l
1.613 in.
Make base
15/8
in. thick
Anchor bolt torque is determined by Equation 466. For lubricated bolts with FelPro C5A,
Solving for the compression ring thickness using Equation 463 we have
: T:
C
or
0.15
(0.15)(1.62s)(64,605.803)
15,747.664 in.tb
(b4,605.803x2.37s)
[4{20.000)14.75
^^
1.25I
1.625'1].j
T:
1,313
ftlb
Checking the skirt thickness for reaction of the bolting ring against the skirt we have from Equation 439,
Using Equation 464 and Figure 4 l6 in calculating the compression ring thickness, we have
t! ztE
1.500
t
r= t =
1.76
pp
(419)
18.000
G*r"
{F,)tl
@64)
l. /o
(70.2le.06rx2.3zsr [ t_
t, q x
l'
Q.672
Fi
"00X
/rozl' t'z /
'
64,605.803
Grr
9.00 in.;
G* =
4.25 in.
Skirt thickness meets chair ring reaction cnterla. A sketch of the skirt and chair design is shown in Figure 442.
230
f 11td
^$.87
BoLls
Section Gentroids
Referring to Figure 421 we have the following:
Section a
Section c
ROO y.=;=4.00ft
Lz
b(4a
2.50 + 4.00
6.50 ft
,Fl
toio
30
Section d
tot r.rt>
3(0.25)
5.00 ft
ul"r"'",  o.rr) t :
Lr =
s.857
in. =
0.488 ft
 '2
L.+
24oo
1.00
=
+
l2.ooft
0.488
ft + :_: =
z
50
2.988 fr
12.00
13.00
ft
Section Section b
f
1.3?5
v :2'75 : 2
L5
ft
t,=+=2.5ort
12.00
1.375
13.375
ft
231
Section g
Ltt =
6.125
1.875
8.00
ft
i," = '"2 Ld
8oo:4.ooft
1.3'75
Section m
+ 4.00 :
_
5.375
7.00
2
ft
Section h
Lr:
1.875
+ 3.50 :
5.375
ft
v,=17s=0.875ft "2
Li
Section n
4.00 + 0.875
4.875
ft
'"2
L13
3.00
Section
i
l.75oft
3.50
1.50
5.00 ft
t, '2 :350:
La
Section o
D".
D3,
0.875
+ l.'75 =
2.625 ft
Section
D,. D;.
1.500 in.
 Di :
t28.62s
'mol
D.,
,, _
3HrDl
o=
/roz.oo
 \
2(240.00)
+:.
ou
s\
I
6.934
 Di, = 43.25  42.00 = 1.25 D;.  Di : 1,870.563  1,',761.00 = t.\ cr = arctan lll : Ze.scs'
\t2l
:
y.
18.556 in.
: t =
Lq
(1.0
0.521)
2.229 ft
D.,
DZ"
:
=
52.381 in., D1
Section k
2,743.'t9s,
D3.
: Dl. :
Di.
1.625
j'^
:
=
) ?S '1'
2
 Di = 167.598 in.
+
6.125 fr 6.646
3(204X167.598)
6[167.s98
Lro
0.521
+ 6.125 =
ft
Section I
3.75
"2
= l.X/l tf
: I13.044 in. yp : 9,420 tt L,. : (3.00 1.546) + 9.420 : Lro : 17.00  9.420 : 7.580 ft
10.874
ft
.9 9 9  i q H E ! $ R 3 H: H s ;^x^x^^x^^^;^;xx l .' P N :.
Figure 443, The vibration ensemble of lumped masses.
.. 9 q ;i I qS p
Vortex.lnduced Vibration
Referring to Figure 443 we have the following:
* : 6r?ffir,rral :
687 ,472
4.523
x
x
ro5
M.:0 Mb: (0.423)(2.95 8) : 1.251 *ot M" : 1.251 + (1.814)(6.50) : 13.042 kipft Ma : 13.042 + (15.201X5.00) : 89.047 kpft M" : 89.047 + (16.192X13.00) : 299.543kipft Mr : 299.538 + (29.004)(13.375) = 687.472 ktpft Mc : 687.46'7 + (30.813Xs.375) : 853.091 kipft Mh : 853.086 + (35.084X4.875) = 1,024.126 kipft Mi  ,024.r2r + (36.016)(2.625) = 1,118.668 kipft Ivl = 1,118.663 + (37.s32)(2.229) : r,202.322 ktpft M,. = ,2o2 .322 + (37 .913)(6 .646) :  ,454 .292 ktptt Mt : ,454.292 + (43.171)(800) = 1,799.660 kipft M. : 1,799.660 + (4s.028)(5.375) = 2,M1.685 kipft M" : 2,041.685 + (47.662)(s.o0) = 2,279.995 Y,tpft M. : 2,2'79.995 + (50.684)(3,046) : 2,434.379 kipft MF = 2,434.379 + (s 1.937X10. 874) : 2,999. r42 kipft Ms^, = 2,999.142 + (63.816)('7.58) : 3,482.867 kipft
1
(4.32
x
"
10)(1.533)
1.038
10
8s3,091
,4
?)
lft"t,
104
(4.32
1.O24.t26
to
' '
lo
.202.322
14.32
.lo"ltt.gtot
_14?v^4
'
r,, 
{,  = E.I,
M' (30 ,
x
lOe
tO")tb/in.,(t44tin.b/ft,
4.320
x x x
\blf
(4.32
ro
"
1,251
(4.32
l0)(0.756)
:
=
3.830
x x x
107
!,,. '
<r4
\4.32
13,042
(4.32
10)(6.675)
4.523
l01
(4J2
&=
er+;ffi1j3,,
r.345
1o
, r,<
2,434,379
(4.32
l0)( 1.s32)
r.u78xl0a
q.902
,.
ro
''
a
s,,
Sr+
_ 2.t57 ,, l0
l.l5o
Io
(,1.369
3.678)( r04)
(3.046)
1.226
x l0 r
Sr: =
)(2.958)
(3.678
x x
10
1+
2
9.902
x l0 ) (10.874)
x l0
2
5.665 10
x l0 '
?)l
2.538
Sro
10'
10 r)
(7.58)
S:=
t(3.83
x l0 ) + (4.523 x x
10
6
(9.902
x l0 5 + 1.150 x
x
10
1
(6.s0)
:
2.?15 [(4.523
8.111
x l0
10
5
?)
+
2
(1.345
x l0)] (s.00)
a =q+\q:s+,1
j=n
3.476
Ar
10
[(1.345
x l0) + (4.523 x
)] (r3.00)
A: =
:
Ss:
3.814
x l0 4 x
10
t(4.523
t + (1.038 x
l04)l
(13.375)
:
5" ') 
9.966
,1
10
011
 !?88110',5325,
+
1.546)(101
b.2sr
6.908
l0
(1.288
(4.875)
x l0 I
: 8.111 x l0 8.111 xl04+2.538xl0r:3.349xl0 l = 4.575 x l0r $ : 3.349 x l0 3 + 1.226 x l0 I At : 4.575 x l0r + 2.15'7 x 10 r : 6.?32 x 10 r As : 6.'732x l0 3 + 2.249 x l0 3 = 8.981 x 10 l Ao = 8.981 x l03 + 3.113 x l0r : 1.209 x l0 r 1.704 x 10 3 = 1.379 x 102 N : 1.209 x 10 2+ 2+3.506 x 101 : 1.414 x 10 l As : 1.379 x 10 As = 1.414 x 102 + 4.246 x l01 : 1.457 x 10 r r No : .45'7 x 10 2 + 6.908 x 10 a = 1.526 x 10 r Arr : 1.526 x 102 + 6.251 x 101 : 1.589 x 10 Arz : 1.589 x 10 '? + 9.966 x l0 a  1.688 x l0 Ar: = 1.688 x l0 2 + 3.814 x 10 a = 1.'726 x 10 + 3.476 x l05 : 1.730 x l0' N+: 1.726 x l02 Ars : 1.730 x 10 2 + 2.115 x l0 6 : 1.730 x 10': Aro = 1.730 x 10 2+5.665 x 10 r = 1.730 x 10'?
a
2 2
s8
: :
(1.546
L689)(10
e.625)
4.246
r0l
A'.
lr,
s,
(1 689
+ L457Xl0r) e.2zg) =
+
3.671)(
3.506
x r0 I x
10 r
: (ry,
8.111
( .262 t,, \.349
)(7.58)
3.s74
"
(
ro
Sro =
(1.457
10) (6.646)
1.704
P,. :
x x
10
t
,
+ 3.349
10
10.874)
Sr
9!\?9(8.00)
(4 112
:
(s.37s)
3.113
x ro l x
1.o
l02
+ 4.575
s,, =
+ t258xl0
z.z4g
r
:
x10r
x l0
r
l0 1 (3.046)
I
1.207
234
+ 6.732
10
,
x
10 _d
(s.00)
Pr:( :
L730
l02 + 1.730
10
_n
) (6.s0)
102
1.125
x l0, x
10, + 1.730
32
x
v
t03 + 8.981
J
10
15 175I
r
: : tt5 : : pro : : pB : :
p16
730
x l0
(2.958)
4.223
l0z
x l0 ']
P'':( :8
8.981 .v
l0r +
1.209
,
.428
(8.00)
1Q2
P'r=( 1.379 x
=
9.281
1.414
l01 + 1.414
,
lO'z
x l0
(6.646)
x
x
P":(
l0z +
1.457
10
T
3.2( .200
(2.229)
10
Pr:( : Pr:( :
x l0
(2.62s)
1.915 1.526
102
xl0,
x l0
2
+ 1.589
l0 i
(.4.87
5)
7.593
(5.37s)
10'
Pr:( /r.osa x
=
2.283
ro t +
1.726 x. 10 ,\ )
(r3.37 s)
x l0 3 ft : y(16) : 0.037 in. x 103 + 2.262 x t02 x 102 ft : Y(15) : 9.39t n. x 10'? + 1.207 x I0 x l02 ft : V(t4y = 9.45, .r. 3.'176 x l02 + 2.827 x l02 6.603 x 16z 1 : y(13) : 0..792 in. az = 6.603 x 10'? + 4.223 x 10 : 1.083 x l0rfr : y(12) : 1.399 1r. p11 : 1.083 x l0r + 8.428 x 10 ' : 1.925 x 10 ! ft : y(11) : 2.310 in. p.6 : 1.925 x l0r + 9.281 x l02 : 2.854 x 10 ' ft : y(10) : 3.425 'n. : 2.854 x 10r + 3.200 x l02 : 3.174 x 10' ft : y(9) : 3.809 in. = 3.174 x l0r + 3.915 x l0 : 3.565 x 10'ft: y(8) : 4.278 in. : 3.565 x l0r + 7.593 x 10 , : 4.324 x 10 I ft : y(7) : 5.189 in. : 4.324 x 10r + 8.807 x l02 : 5.205 x 10r ft = y(6) : 6.246 tn. : 5.205 x 10r + 2.283 x 10 ' : 7.488 x l0r ft : Y(5) : 8.986 in. : 7.488 x lOt + 2.246 x 10  : 9.734 x l0 rft: y(4) = 11.681 in. : 9.734 x 10r + 8.650 x 102 F3 : 1.060 x l0'ft : y(3) : 12.720 in. : 1.060 + 1.125 x l0 : r.r72 ft : y(2) : 14.064 ir'. , Pl : 1.172 + 5.117 x l0 : r.224ft: y(1) : 14.683 in.
2 2
2 I
x l0
P":( : P,:( :
.726 x. t0
+ 1.730
10
_n
)
,\ l0
13.00)
2.246
1.730
x x
l01
10, + 1.730
Section weights and displacements for computing the tower's period of vibration are listed in Table 418. The first period of vibration, T, is determined as follows:
(s.00)
8.650
> l02
,=r"\E leDwv
(498)
__4
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels
(in.)
w (lb)
423
1,391
wy
(in.lb)
Wy' (lbin.'?)
91.194.771 5,134.3'70 2,165,995. r 81
2'7
14.683
6.2 r0.909
t9 ,563 .024 170,282.640 I1,575.871
14.064 12.720
11.681
13,387
9l I
t35,217 .749
8.986 6.246
12.812
4.271 1,516
e 1
5.
189
1,809
381
t15,128.632
fi,299.0r4
5
I,034,545.887
70,5'73.64r
4.278
3.809
rr4,999.754
t] .056.797
2r ,994.85',/ 4,469 .368
3.425
2.310
1
,774.444
 ,304.925
s )sR
1.857
12,145.980
.300
2.414.100
2.086.128 1.368.966 385.924
439.523
2.634
3.O22
)s?
l 18.865
16.262
20,493
D*, = 3l6,t2s:ss
D*r,:3.g64,78s.40.
(386.4)(386,129.39s)
:
Hz
Yz
6.25
Vr
65.163 mph
f : l/T :
0.976
Hz =
0.981
F,
: 0.00086(0.6x60)(4.583)(104.292)(10.37 r, = 1,592.930 lb
Considering the upper third of the tower as being the effective length for vortex shedding the first critical wind velocity is as follows:
T_
104.292
3
34.764
ft
if we have a problem with vortexinduced vibrations, we must compare the force amplitude of 1,592.93 lb against the corresponding maximum wind force amplitude for the same region (either top l/r or r/+ of towerin this case, the top r/:). Using Figure 439 we have the following:
To determine
54.00
+
t2
1.00
L:
4.583
34.764
ft, from
above
ft
1M.292 tt34.764
ft :
69.528
ft
3.40 d
(3.40)(4.s83) ft
n. = al 716x15 659)
o"
61 547 lb/trl
286
1.024 fi
sec
se:
cycle
,=
l"^^"^"I
\900/
(66.048)
10.375 mph
9" r
54.808 lb/ft2
_
F=
or
(34.7 64)l(7)(6r.
+ (2+7)
s47)
(2)(54.8o8)l
:2,087.559
t2087.559r
/r rr nn\ l';;""1 \ rz I
Finally, if the Reynolds number is greater than approxa vibration analysis is not required, because in these regions the vortices breakup. In our case.
imately 350,000,
(0.6)
= l?
DcVp
F*,0
13,256 lbr
>
1,608.56
lbr
where
F"
D. :
Since F*;"6
F,iu.",ion,
0.071
effective wind diameter at top r/: or r/+ o: tower : 127.0 in. critical wind velocity = 15.292 ft/sec
lb./fc
lhan those at resonance vibrarion, so no further vi6ration analysis is required. If the vibration amplitude force had been greater than
1.285
x l0 5lb/ftsec
11
the maximum wind force, further investigation would have been required. Dynamic stresses ar thecrirical wind velocity can be approximated by taking the ratio of the vibration force amplitude, F", to the maximum wind force amplitude, F1,, and multiplying this ratio by the bending stress term in Equation 429. The pressure stress, which is a primary stress, and the weight load stress in tension are unaffected. Shear is not considered in the equation because it is almost always negligible. Defining the ratio of vibration force amplitude to the maximum wind force amplitude as R. Equirion 429 becomes
N"" :
894,215
Since N*" : 894,215 > 350,000, a vibration analvsis is not required since we are outside rhe range of vortex formatron. Vortex formation has been observed at NRe > 3.5 x 106, but wind velocities encountered would not cause Reynolds numbers that high.
oD:
t(?J[**"un#.J
= \",rO. +
ANSA58.t1982
.l 2w \
DD7
In determining wind loadings in this example we used the formulation to compute wind forces:
p:
q.CC,A,
(481
where
oo
oD
avoided by using stiffening rings. Certainly a more accurate and detailed analysis, such as the octahedral shear stress theory of yield, can be used, but such a detailed analysis can be avoided in most tower designs. A detailed fatigue analysis is mandatory in many aipplicarions and should always be used in case of doubt. Weaver [24] discovered in windtunnel tests that vortex sheddins cannot prebently be analyzed as a response spectra beiause
computed using the total width of the tower, insulation, ladders, platforms, and attached piping as an equivalent or effective diameter of a cylinber. called the effective or equivalent cylinder. This iquivalent cylinder represents the total wind area. Suih an analysis is called a quasianalysis, because it is not exact. The equivalent cylinder concept used for conical sections is similar when compared to the exact analysis of a cone. The ANSIAS8.11982 uses a more refined and equally complex analysis to determine the wind loadings. The relationship used for wind force is as follows:
in which Ae is
F:
q7G2CrA61
+ qzcciArr
where G2 Acr
416
:
=
This greatly complicates the study of vortex excitation by use of finite element methods, but efforts are being made.
gust response factor for cladding and compo, nents calculated at heisht Z area of insulation tclaJdingt of tower. and al. external attachments such as platforms. lad ders. and piping rhat resist wind area of the tower shell itself that resists winc
The term G7 is given in Table 8 of ANSIA5S.11982 rhat is determined by the following expressions:
where G21u"ry
tower.
Gz
:
:
0.65
3.65 Tz
L1
For category A,
D" = 0.025,o:3.0,2e
For category B,
1,500
D.
0.010,
q  4.5.22:
1,200
For category C,
D" = 0.005,
a :7.0,2e:
9OQ
ANSIA58.11982 gust factor for flexible structures, G, is more conservative than the ANSI method of using the two gust response factors G2 and G. Thus, being more conservative than ANSI A58.1 1982, one meets the minimum requirements ofthe standard, as it is stated in the title, "minimum design loads for buildings and other structures." Certainly, using the formula for lattice structures, Equation 483, is a conservative approach. For designing a tower without a computer software package, the equivalent diameter method is recommended. In such a design, one is faced with numerous
calculations, which leads to a greater possibility of error. Also, the use of two gust factors with one varying in height adds considerable complexity to the problem. When using a highspeed electronic computer the use of two gust factors would be a very good method to use, although cumbersome to verify. Certainly, some could argue that with less conservatism a cheaper vessel is produced. Such a consideration must be analyzed in each separate circumstance. For some, the additional manhours may offset the economics of the vessel or time may be the ruling criterion.
For category D,
D.
0.003,q
10.0,
ze =
700
G2, which is used for cladding and components, varies with height and is a parabolic distribution. The term G is used with the tower shell and only is constant along the height of the tower. Comparing the two methods we set Equation 481
q/GC,A,
q7G7C,A,
qrCc,e,
Acr
. Arr
Ar
Ar
from which
qzcCA:q2C,A1(xQ.+yG)
Seismic Analysis
V=
ZIKCSW
(4 106)
c>G,
This is certainly true as one moves up the tower in computing Gz. It can be safely said that
Gau,er
For zone 4,2 : t,I = 1, K : 2.0, W : 15,571 lb Since the tower is not of uniform thickness, equation 4108 cannot be used. Either the Rayleigh equation (Equation 497) or a modified form of the Rayleigh Equation, the Mitchell Equation (Equation 4112), can only be used. For illustration purposes the Mitchell Equation will be applied and then compared to the more accurate Rayleigh method.
238
Using values in Table 415 we determine the values to be used in Equation 4112. Connecting piping exerts a concentrated load o12.7 kips at the support point midway in Secrion @@. using the values in Table 415 we construct Table 419,
where
v:
h72 D2
Fr
(1)(1X2.0X0.078X1.434X1s,571)
3,484.0 lb
A = !twa" + *Btt;
36
+ Fr =
0.15V
s22.60
n:
111
\2
Ee(,f,)'.a,
(0.15)(3,484.0)
F : (V 0.673 sec/cycle
Ft) YYhY
13.484
522.60)
w)hv
u00/
D*'*" i=
I
515,380
Using the more accurate Rayleigh method, Equation 497 , the value of T is
0.0057 wr,hy
0.734 sec/cycle
42 and,44.
Now, we must solve for the bending moments induced by the seismic forces. First we find the base shear using Equation 4106. To accomplish this we have the followrng:
MM3 : Ma : M5 : M6 = M7 : Ms :
Vxi Ly_r
Fx Ci
M,
1""'r
(r.i" 
l:125
l.U
1.t25
< t.5... K 
2.0
Flexibility facror
= C: ]= 15(l1tr':
O.OZA
The characteristic site period, T,, is determined by soils consultant to fall within the following range:
: : Mrr :
M,
M16
M12:
(0.30)(5.083) + (0.49)Q.s42) (0.49)(7.50) + (1.19X3.75) (1.68)(5.417) + (0.18X2.708) = (1.86X2.00) + (0.09x1.00) = (1.95X8.00) + (0.28)(4.00) = (2.23X4.00) + (0.16)(2.00) (2.39X10.00) + (0.32)(s.00) (2.71X10.00) + (0.22X5.00) 28.200 (2.93)(9.083) + (0.23)(4.542) 27.658 (3.16)(8.00) + (0.10X4.00) 25.680 (3.26)(2.917) + (0.01)(1.458) 9.524
: 2.770 2.'770 : 8.138 10.908 9.s88 20.496 3.810 24.306 16.72o 4r.026 : 9.240 50.266 : 25.sm 75.766 : 103.966 : 13r.624 : rs7.304 : 166.828
Dt
0.5<T.<0.55
To be safe, we
will
of 0.5. Now,
 ;; = _ ls u.)u :
O ?14
1.468
The wind moment for an 80mph wind was calculated ro be 106,716 ftlb. Since 166,828 ftlb > 106,716 ftlb seismic phenomena govern. The skirt and base plate analysis is identical for seismic and wind analyses. Just as in Example 42, the seis
1.2
+ 0.6 El
\TJ
0..
El'
\TJ
: s:
S
mic forces and moments are used instead of the wind forces and moments. In the case of this tower a thicker base plate was welded on, the number of gusset plates were doubled, and anchor bolts of a high strength alloy
were used to meet the seismic criteria. In an earthquake zone other than zero, a comparison of seismic to wind should always be made.
1.2 +0.6(1.468)
1.434
0.3(1.468f
t
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels
whv kipsfft
1
Aa
H
WAa +
WAB/H
l9l'to"
u0i
.00
1.000 1.000
o.567 5.840 o.219 0.045
1.000
0.091
0.923
2.'7
1.000
0.079
1.000
0.998
1.000
0.329
0.033 0.998
1.234
106
0.t42
0.1r7
0.125 0.607
0.161
0.067 0.543
9.541
x l0
o.278
0.265 0.097 0.552
0. 168
0.0010
0.0015
0. 161
0.r24
o.414
0.0,14
0.0080
0.006
0.021
o.763
0.002 0.504
0.0001
0.3t2
0.160
0.160
0.380 0.000
0.0412
A:0.,140
B:0.261
240
Table 420
w\r kips \:
.':
!r 72
63.2 56.7
w,h, ffi
207
Fx
l. l9
v,
0.49
*,1u
2.770 8.138 9.588 3.810 16.720
*,oTi
2.770
10.908
3.289 0.542
.86
1.68
\3
30.73
15.05
0. 18
+
+ +
>s,* i
+2s.k1.0'
1.86
20.496 24.306
41.026 41.026 15.766
103.966 131.624 157.304 166.828
0.284
1.0
53.0
0.09
1.95
48.0
42.0 15.0 25.0
15.5
'7
48.00
27 .09
l
0.645
/:
> rsr
..:
1.613
'+
9.240
2s.500 28.200
27
56.46
0.32
2.7
1
G
1.550
+
+ +
38.75
40.01
17
2.581
2.493
1.109
15.571
.O
.45
1.5
5
l .66 15.38
9.524
3.27
3.270
+
o
5l
Vessels
241
EXAMPLE 44: VIBRATION ANALYSIS FOR TOWER WITH LARGE VORTEXINDUCED DISPLACEMENTS
A phone call from a plant manager reveals that an existing tower needs to be analyzed for wind vibrations. The tower was designed, built and installed overseas and is vibrating so badly all the natives drove off the plant site in fear of the tower falling over. The tower with the appropriate wind load distribution is shown in Figure 444. The tower is divided into wind zones at 30 ft,40 ft, and 75 ft and according to shell diameter and thickless. The variation of wind zones based
on the shell diameter and thickoess is necessary since the
D.
54.25
in. =
4.521
ft
Zone 6Section 2
: D. :
D"
[24.50 33.50
3.75 ft
Zone 7Section I D.
D"
:
=
136.625
[3.50 in.
in. + 2(4.5) in.l + [6.625 in. + 2(5) in.] + 2(4.5) in.] + [6.625 in. + 2(5) in.]
tower's section moment of inertia will vary. To begin the analysis we start with defining the effective diameter of each section as illustrated in Figure 445. Thus we have the following: Zone 1Sections 7. 8. and 9
46.625
12.50
D.
104.875
in.
8.740
ft
Moments of Inertia
D"
[32
in. + 2 (4) in.] + [6.625 in. + 2(3.5) in.] [2.375 in. + 2(3.0) in.] + [4.5 in. + 2(3) in.]
13.625
r:#(D".Di)
\ : :
hl36.62s)4
0.283 fta
8.375
10.50
72.5
in.
6.042
ft
(36.000)41
5,876.389 in.a
Zone 2Section 6
2(2)
in.l
48.5 in.
Transition PieceSection 2
5" :
D" D"
[4.5 in.
2(2.5) in.]
,"r:(
req
18.375
12.375
2 cos 26.565'
17.
10.50 in.
190
D.q
34.380 in
in. = 4.l88ft
Zone 4Section 4
r, = #(34.380)4 Iz
(33.630)11
D" : D" :
5791.250 in.a
0.279 fta
25.25 in.
2.521
2(2.5) in.
30.25 in.
ft
3
\ : :
1,
Kz4.sq4
e4.00)11
r,400.ri2
in.a
Zone 5Section
0.068
fc
(24.00)11
9" =
D"
125.25
[3.5 in.
34.25
2(3.5) in.]
2,133.181 in.a
10.50 in.
* ";
".".
'
%: *,*
l\'
'"*
T(
ry'essels
and 2
M2
es8.4zs)
(#.
tr.r) * o,uno.rrrr(U)
+
4,450.00
+ 4,450
Mz: Mz :
Figure
445. Tfalsition
444.
Sections 2 and 3
M3
(788.425)(15.2W
17.0O)
Q,690.r72)(6.75
+
M: M:
17.00)
+ 4,450 + (1,453.50)
tt
ht\
+
12,354.75
:
=
=
25,394.381
63,891.585
4,450
106,090.716 ftlb
I.
: 1 (24.00)41 : g [(25.ooy :
0.139
2,888.744 in.a
Section 3 and 4
fll
lvl4
(788.425)(32.209
+ +
(2,690.172)Q3.75 (1,453.s0X10.00)
10.00) + 10.00)
u.= fir<zs.zsf =
0,177
@4.oof1
3,667.316 in.a
+ Q21.5s2\lrl
rroi
tr
+ (268.541(+)
Section 7
\ffi/
=
D.e
28.348 in.
f,11zt.z+ty4
(27.72141
0.130
b:
I8
2,704.843 in.a
fll
= #rc2.00)4 =
0.565
(30.00F1
r1,i1r.wzin.a
fll
r,
:
=
fftfrz.oof
0.2t00
 eo.6zr4l :
8,2e2.684n.a
Figure 446, Section 7 of Figure 444.
ff
4,450
14,535.00
Sections 7 and 8
147 ,067
.517 ftlb
M8
(788.425X67.292
Sections 4 and 5
M5
(788.425X42.2o9
+ +
+8) + (2,690.172X68.833 + 8) + 4,4s0 + (1,453.50X35.083 + 8) + (721.552)(30.083 + 8) + (268 .547)(26.583 + 8) + (349.41 l)(21.083 + 8) + (39.328Xr7.583 + 8) + (522.662)(4.542 + 8)
+
17s4.042t
l:l \zl
/n\
+ + M:
8)
(J4s.41)
l:l
\21
Mr =
lll \zl
59,362.095 + 206,693.985 + 4,450 + 62,621.t41 + 27,478.86s + 9,287.16r + 10,161.920 + 1,006.128 + 6,555.227 + 3,016.168
390,632.690
Ma
ftib
:
=
Sections 8 and 9
Me
Q 88.425)(7
M5
222,7&.113 ftIb
Section 5 and 6
M6
(788.425)(50.209 + 8.0) + (2,690.172)(5r.75 + 8.0) + 4,450 + (1,453.50)(18.0 + 8.0) + (72r.5s2)(13 + 8) + (268.547X9.5 + 8) + (349.411)(4 + 8) + (39.328X0.5 + 8)
5.292 + 2.9 17) + Q,690.r72)(.1 6.833 + ).:917) + 4,450 + (1,453.50)(43.083 + 2.9t7) + (721.5s2x38.083 + 2.9t7) + Q68.547)(34.583 + 2.9t7) + (349.41r)(29.083 + 2.917) + (39.328)(25.583 + 2.917) + (522.662)(r2.sQ + 2.917)
,
Ms
17s4.042\A
+ 2.gt.l,) + ,Zt+.OOr(2.717\
\z
+
Mo
rs22.662t
lll
\21
/^\
61,661.931 + 214,541.217 + 4,450 + 66,861.00 + 29,583.632 + 10,070.513 + 11,181.152 + 1,120.848 + 8,079.832 + 5,215.709
:
=
401.003
45,893.431
160,737.'177
+ 4,450
Ms
413,166.837 ftlb
M6
2'7Q,892.241
Sections 6 and 7
Wind Deflections
M?
(788.425Xs8.209 + 9.083) + (2,690.r'12)(59.75 + 9.083) + 4,450 + (1,453.50)(26.0 + 9.083) + (721.552)(2r + 9.083) + (268.547)(17.5 + 9.083) + (349.411X12 + 9.083)
'
:
!z
t4.176
1B),
t0"x0.28J)
[r:.+ZS.:SZtr
r:) , +,+sOl
0.00113
ft
(17)'
Mz
{3e.328X8.s
(4.r76
l0)(0.068)
l{2,+tt.serot
t3
.o)
: :
53,054.695
+ +
+
+
185,172.609
2t,706.449
691.504
(r,4s3.5_0)(17.0)
2,373.669
M7
332,94'1 .484
ftlb
(10F
821
+34,s2s.42]:
0.04081
ft
E
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure
Vessels
245
, *
ff
(99o.o99xro) _
106,090.721 _.l:
001658
fr
(4J?6
(sf
(8f
t06x0x9)t
ks,szz.rso)(s)
3
'6 
(56.50X9.083) ft6.833.596)(9.081)
14.176
x t0\0260)t
(388,738)(8)
* '
t+'t.OOt.SZ]
2 l= 0.00989 ri
3
6l
2io.8s2.z41f
0.143 ft
Af?6 x ro)(oJ??)t
+
t522.66UG)
ko,:ro.s:+Xs)
(71.583X8)
(4.176
ft2,+oo.rz r'11r;
10)(0.565)
8
x
* '
Zzz.lo+.tnl
Lz
)
0.0r I 15 ri
+(7s4'y2)(8) + n2,s4i.481:
6l
009071 rt
(4.176
10)(0.260)
'* :
0.012
(572.730)(9.033)
(8),
82j
+270,8s2.24rf
a r
ft
+
18
(7s4.042)(8)
821 +
332,s47.481
0.00507
ft
: total deflection at top of vessel : \LtA, 2y, + \: 0.743 ft : 8.910 in. at top for static gust wind
I
t274.u2\2.st667,
(13.5)(
" 
821 l7)
39!.632.69]
0.00201 ft
(4.176,.
looxol68)t
[tf.+la.sertr t r r
z
(1'453 50)(17)
6l
ro.rnn.or]:
0.05519
ft
'
, 't
+
(990'0?9x
6l
t0)
106.090.721
:
r
0.07709 rr
,4.
17,6,
:0 M, : (4.71)(6.961) : 32.786 kipft Mz : 32.786 + (4.823)(8.789) : 75.u5 kipft M4 : 75.175 + (7.533X13.25) : 174.987 kipft Ms = L'74.987 + (10.013X9.00) : 265.104 kipft M6 : 265.104 + (12.023)(8.00) = 361.288 kipft Mi : 361.288 + (14.253X8.862) : 487.598 kipft Mr : 487.598 + (ri.693)(8.221) : 633.032 kipft Ms : 633.032 + (21.233)(5.458) : 748.922 l<tptt Mrc : 748.922 + (23.143)(1.458) = 782.664 ktptt
Mr
,  6
{388.738x8)
, l+/,uo , ,, + ".1.s2l =
I
0.09560 fr
T:M/I
Mt T, '' = tz 32'786
0.279
'
rv.5t2.54
246
:M.:
I3
75,t75 _ I,105,514.71
0.068
17
T4
:Mo:
r4
0.103
4,987 _ 1,698,902.91
=
T6
M'=
I5
:Mu=
I6
361,288
o.t77
,041 ,r7
.14
q
T
:Mr:
11
487598 _
0.130
>4.71k
T8
:Mt=
Is
633,032
0.565
_ _
e
Tro
s.
:M,:
Ie
'748,922
0.400
1,872,305.00
=M'o= Ie
=
M dx/I
r.2.71k
Sro
(1,956,660.00
1,872,305.00)
(1.458)
)
>2 .48x
:2,791,315.49
(1,872,305.00
+
2
t,r20,410.62)
>
e
2,23k
2.01k
(5.458)
8,167 ,120.93
^"2
3.750.753.85) \'_:___:__________________:__________rv,,,r
(1.120.410.62
^ ^^"
> 
S7
:20,022,921.55
2,041,175.r4)
(8.862)
344k
>
e
(s)
(;\
S5
: ,5
15
l3.54K
Sr:
_
(2,O41,175.14
+
2
1,90',1
,223.O2) (8.00)
15
(1 ,907 ,223
.02
+
2
16,227,566.69
t
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure
ry'essels
Sr:
(1,698,902.91
,579 ,266 .73
+
2
1,105,514.71)
(13.25)
. _ lE__2=
(10,958,436.42
172,393,524.9
30,98r,357.9't)
$.22t)
18
$=
Sz:
(1,105,514.71
5,374,593.25
+
2
lr7,512.54)
(8.789)
^ rt
T(56,645,395.32
(30.981.357.97
+ s6.&5.39:.32)
$.862)
:388,274,143.9
(117,512.54\
a
6.961\
Po:
+
2
72,438,9U .96)
(8.00)
Q9,002.40
516,337 ,533.2
Ps:
e, = Ds, =
1M1
(72,438,987 .96
88,666,554.65)
dx)/!
P4
724,974,941.7
2,791,315.49
(88,666,554.65
107.245,821.4)
2,791,315.49
10,958,436.42
8,t67,120.93
z
1
,,..., lr5'zJ)
:
20,022,921.55
,297
,919,492
P::
(to7,245,821.4
966,202,r7 5.0
+
2
t2,620,4t4.7)
(8.789)
+ + + +
25,ffi4,037.35
56,&5,395,32
56,&5,395.32
72,438,987.96
72,438,987 .96
15,793,592.&
Pz=
(112,620,414.7
785,374,239.6
+
2
113,029,417.1)
(6.961)
16,227 ,566.69
88,666,554.65
88,666,554.65
18,579,266.73
rc7,245,82t.4
tu,245,821.4 +
112,620,414.7
5,37 4,593.25
lL2,620,414.7
409,002.40
ps
:
=
rt3,o29,4r7.r
39,557,941.95 211,951,466.9
+
+
172,393,524.9
pt
o=(*,
: :
211,951,466.9
@0,225,61O.8
388,274,143.9
)u
t4 =
: t'.s : :
lt4
458)
+
+
516,337,533.2
724,974,941.7
Q,79r,3r5.49 + 10,958,436.42)
37 ,523
1,297,919,492
3,139,457,578
,U2 .96
14
248
p2
: :
4,105,659,753
4,891,033,993
785,374,239.6
r,,:
li :4.it0x
r0
aft =
0.006in.
'
Yz:
l44Ei
4,891,033,993 144(30 x t05
4,105,659
,7
The tower section weights and displacements are combined in Thble 421 to determine the period of vibration of the tower.
: l.lJ n = lj)v
ln.
53
(43' x tOt
3,1,39,457 ,578
: :
0.950
ft : ft =
ft : ft :
11.405 in.
..T
3.40 d
(4.32
l0e)
0.727
8.721 in.
";=re.24tt L= 16
q6
t5 
I,841,538,086
1bt =
0.426
5.1 15 in.
= ,.,,,
":z1 ,1t6,563,r44 :
(43' x iort
600,225,610.8
0.258
3.102 in.
fy V,
natural frequency
@tt]ott
Y8:
J92rr,951,466.9
: : :
0.139
ft : ft :
ft
1.667 in.
: fvD S :
U.l
34.540a
Sec
$8 16 w2t16
0.049
0.589 in.
23.550 mph
39,557 ,94r.95
= 0.1l0 in.
v
(o
eT(lfa)
u.z
423s
L sec
2E.eo mph
Table 421
w
4.7 r0
8.72
710
5.r2
3.
2,480
2,010
l0
1.67
2,230 3.444
1 54n
64.008.90 1.289.33 23.63t .20 .60 6.231 .00 3.724.10 2,029.60 389.40
19.10
1.9i0
Dtr :
First Period of Vibration, T
114,02s.23
Dwy, =
r,182.443.81
1.03 sec/cycle
of=
O.9j Hz
Since the field measurements indicated an air velocity at resonance to be 30 mph and a stack deflection of 13 inches, this analysis agrees with empirical results. From the calculations for the first critical wind velocity, it appears that the larger diameter of Section t has a larger influence on this deflection. For this reason we use the top I/+ of the tower rather than the top 1/:. Now,
r\36)\'l
)z
_ o,12r'lst.zq _
2 
15l.2ar1l
l(361 j
59.948.76 trl.3
From Equation A1 in Appendix A the partial volume of liquid in the cylindrical portion is calculated.
Y1
6.25;
Vr
(6.25)(28.90)
180.63 mph
., :
=
Y:
(72)2(150)(l2t
A tower that has been fabricated and installed in the field is beyond design changes. Unlike stacks (see Chapter 5), vortex strakes are difficult to install on many towers and impossible on others. Shortening the tower height is impractical, since the tower's internals are necessary (unlike a stack). Consequently, the only resolution is to mount guy wires to the tower's upper section (normally 2/3 the height). Except for special applications, guy wires are to be avoided in practice. They use a lot of space and plant maintenance people sometimes must temporarily remove one or two to gain access to an area for equipment installation or some other reason. Problems then may arise in keeping the tower from falling over during this temporary time interval, remembering to reconnect the guy wire(s), and making sure the wires are properly tensioned once they are reconnected. Despite these disadvantages, guy wires were essential in this application. EXAMPLE 4.5r SADDLE PLATE ANALYSTS OF A HORIZONTAL VESSEL
A proposed horizontal vessel design shown in Figure 448 is fully loaded with corn syrup used by a confectionery manufacturing plant in Fayetteville, Arkansas. The corn syrup has a specific gravity of .y = 1.4 un6 . ut 90"F. The thickness of the head and shell is t/z in. since the corn syrup is at 90'F, there is practically no thermal
expansion of the vessel, so only uniform compression is considered in evaluating the saddles. Even though a Zick analysis indicates that the vessel is grossly overstressed, the saddle in Figure 448 is to be evaluated. To analyze the saddle plate, refer to Figure 448 c. Each section of the saddle plate, AB, BC, CD, is considered separately. Each section supports a portion of the vessel weight indicated by the dotted lines. Sections AB and CD support equal weights. Section
2
40,483.32 gal
lott+0.+St ^ l
L 180
AB
is
4O,483.32 gaI
2(259.52) gal
5,481.22 ft3
4t,002.36 gal
Wres :
Wrco
rr
.+r
478,839.22 tb
Metal Weight Above Each Section, AB and CD For outside surlace on h.ud, thuiur" V, ir,. tt'i.k,
2r\36
.25 )(7 2 .5
), _
"<t?.r,lsr.t+
62,434.25 in.3
The inside volume in the head was determined in computing the fluid volume as being 59,948.76 in3. The metal volume in one head is then
VM
62,434.25 in.3
59,948.76 in.3
2,485.49 in.l
Yu =
2(2,485.49)
4,970.98 jn.3
The metal volume in the cylinder portion above Section AB is determined as follows:
AB
and
CD Ri
4.27
ft :
51.24 in.,
6.0
ft = i2rn.
_
=
(72.5)2050)(12)
2
l""l;';"'  o'r]
9,512,090.41 in.l
250
I50
It
TAN/TAN
lrot
I
lI
A,
i8
wi=3 46
i\
f.i.," i"['i"'
ABCD
lcl
tl
tttl
The inside volume was determined in computing the fluid volume as being 9,351,647.46 in3. The metal volume in the cylinder is then
rr AB 
vvcD 
525,651.36 lb
262,825.68
lb
V:
: 
BC
Similarly to Section AB, for the head, the liquid volume is determined from Equation A7 in Appendix A.
is
AB
vM
4,970.98 in.r
160,442.95 in.3
165,413.93 in.3
r : {#["
r 
t#l :
135,483 43
in3
v = 2(135,483.43) :
wy =
1r65.413.93) in.J (0.283)
rn.J
.lb, =
46,8t2.14 lb
v: v : :
2(270,966.86)
54r,933.73 in.3
: :
2(9,351,647.46) in.3
{
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure
rGssels
251
B{
is
vru
484,029.86 in.3
3228.72 in.3
487,258.58 in.3
Vr :
541,933.73 in.3
BC
is
Metal Volume Above Section BC For outside surface on a single head, usin Equation
A7
Ws =
.^
lb
ft3
 r(7?.s\2[rt *  tr#J :
B7,oe7.7e
in.3
The inside volume was determined from calculating the liquid volume as being 135,483.43 in.3 Thus the metal volume for a single head is
(11.151,198.I?)in.r w, _  rn.3
,723
(62.4)
(1.4)ftj
:
Wr
563,869.78 lb
Yu
137,097.43 in.3
135,483.43 in.3
1,614'35 in.3
BC
is
137,894.18
lb +
563,869.78
lb
701,763.96 lb
2(1,614.36)n.3
3,228.72 in.3
Wrc:Q:
701,763.96 lb
350,881.98 lb
The metal volume for the cylindrical portion is determined using Equation Al and the total volume ofa cylinder as follows:
rQz.0)2(15O't02') (72)z(r50X12)
V:
(72.5)2(rs0)(r2)
2
where
ldi ts
+ 2hG
1)
*f0a6.'12"\
 0.551I

h = 0'50 in'
(12x3.46X0.50)
V=
Vr,a
20,205,196.86 in.3
(12)(3.46X0.s) + 2(0.sxls
1)l
= 0.59
19,963,181.93 in.3
in.
AIso,
(+1s)
Yu =
Adding more length to web plate will net. increase the local buckling strength for pure compression. The same also holds for bending and shear. Substituting the value of b, above into Equation 417a ws have
252
\ e/\ 0.s I
tJo.
Substituting this value into Equation 418 we determine the buckling load for compressive loading as follows:
F:Q
o=
z
Fs
FB
: :
 B * sin B cos p
n(A, +
2be
(418)
(4)[7.5 + 2(0.597)(0.5)
161,321.389 lb
(rso
:)
'r f = no"
+
350.881.98 z
Since 161,321.4
lb <
262,825.7
lb <
350,881.98 lb
if
^ v:
2(262.825.68)
438,266.67 lb
we are to use a
FB."
351,000 lb
8s,294.56 lb
:
n
n[7.5
2(0.597X0.5)]o".
^"
= (,u),. =
(9
(o 5o)
12 ss 1n,
d"
di (0.25
Referring to Table 46, the allowable stress for A36 is 0.60 o, : 22,000 psi. Since 7,058.86 psi < 22,000 osi. the saddle is sufficient for the horizontal reaction.
0.91\'?)
where
1{OTATION
(u*;)(':''*f':
+
0.91 (0.41)'?)
oo'
16.74
1n.
w"
(3.46)(12)(0.25
10.392(
dimension from saddle centerline to tansent head (Figure 42) ft, in. effective area of concrete, ft2
of
n=
o^, 8= FB
l2)
16.74
BP
BPW
C
l5l'ooo
43.875.0 osi
(8)[7.5 + 2(0.597X0.s)](43,875.0)
2,842,W7.0 lb
CA:
c.:
plate width (Equation 415) in. bearing pressure, psi base plate thickness, in. constant for bolt torque (Equation 466), dimensionless; friction coefficient (Equation 489) dimensionless; structure period response factor (Equation 4106) dimensionless corrosion allowance, in.
Since 2,&42,047
lb > >
cs=
sufficient.
Vessels
253
D= Dr : D. :
D,
diameter (Equation 427), in.; dynamic magni fication factor (Equation 49 1), dimensionless
qF g:o
: :
E:
velocity pressure of wind on structures (Equation qi6), rcJf( basic wind pressure at 30 ft, lbrift'? Strouhal number used (Equation 4102), dimensionless; structure size factor (Equation 482)
F; : f. :
F=
f, : Gr :
Gg
G* : H:
I:
: t6q : t8 : tr, : ( : vo : vr :
Tr
v30
T=
bolt torque as defined (Equation 466), in.lb exposure facior for wind (Thble 411), dimensionless
compression plate thickness (Equation 463), in. gusset plate thickness, in. head thickness (Equation 47), in. shell thickness (Equation 41), in. theoretical ovaling velocity (Equation 4102), mph or ft/sec first critical wind velocity (Equation 494),
mph
I" =
K: k:
K' =
Kz : L:
of effective area of
con
W=
x.t
coefficient of buckling for shear (Equation 415 and Figure 43), dimensionless dimensionless parameter for concrete (Thble 47) plate buckling coefficient (Equation 415), dimensionless
xO =
y=
Z:
L" = m: Mc : Mr : N:
P
M:
velocity pressure coefficient (Thble.49 and Equation 478) length of a horizontal vessel from seam to seam (Figure 42), ft, in. effective column length (Equation 419), in. bending moment, in.lb, ftlb bolt spacing (Equation 439), in. compressive bending moment in the shell of a horizontal vessel (Figure 42), ttlb tensional bending moment in the shell of a horizontal vessel (Figure 42), ftlb number of anchor bolts (Equation 440), dimensionless
Z=
basic wind speed at thirty feet used as design wind speed (Equation 475), mph vessel weight (Equation 440), lbr static deflection of a spring acted upon by a force (Equation 490). in. displacement as a function of time (Equation 490), in. total lateral displacement of tower (Equation 488, Figure 421), in., ft elevation or height above a reference point, such as the ground (Equation 474), ft reference height in which basic wind speed is considered (30 ft or 10 m), ft
Greek Symbols
a : ir A= 6; =
d B=
(tr 1180)(012
grees
: :
Pu
buckling load for compressive loading (Equation 418), lb6; probability of exceeding wind design speed during n years (Thble 411) and Appendix A), dimensionless annual probability of wind speed exceeding a given magnitudesee (Appendix A), dimensionless mean radius of shell (Figure 42), ft, in. inside vessel radius (Equation 413), in. outside vessel radius (Equation 473), in. inside radius of vessel (Figure 42), ft
(180 012), degrees (?./180x5di 12 30), degrees lateral translational deflection oftower, (Equation 488 and Figure 426), in. angle of contact of saddle with shell (Figure 41), degrees, radians; rotational displacement
R: Ri : & : r: Q:
\ = less p : radius of gyration : (I/Af 6 = general term for stress, psi o" : allowable stress values (Table 43) psi d. : allowable stress induced on concrete (Equation
.5
ogp
lbl
440), psi; general tern for compressive stress (Equation 416), psi critical stress in a flat plate defined in Equa
:
oE oP
: : : : :
o.
ow oy
z=
elastic buckling stress (Equation 416), psi; 28day ultimate compressive strength of concrete (Thble 47), psi stress due to weight, lbr pressure stress induced by either internal or external pressure, psi; longitudinal stress in Equation 467 , psi tensile stress in steel, psi stress induced by wind or earthquake response spectra, psi minimum yield stress for a ductile material, psi Poisson ratio for a given material, dimensionless
Building Officials, Unlform Building Code, Whittier, California, 1982. 11. American National Standards Institute, Inc., "ANSI A58.1Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures 1982," New York. 12. Kuethe, A. M. and Schetzer, J. D., Foundations of Aerodynamics, John Wiley and Sons, New York,
1959.
13. Blevins, R. D., FlowInduced Vibration, Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., New York, 1977. 14. Macdonald, A. J., Wind Inading on Buildings, Applied Science Publishers, Ltd., London, England,
1980.
d:
REFERENCES
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII Division I , American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York. 2. Zick, L. P., "Stresses in Large Horizontal Cylindrical Pressure Vessels on Two Saddle Supports," Welding Research Journal Stpplement, 1971. 3. Brownell, L. E. and Young, E. H., Process Equipment Design, John Wiley and Sons, New York,
1959.
'
l.
4. U.S. Steel,
Steel Design Manual, U.S. Steel, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1981. 5. American Institute of Steel Construction, Manual of Steel Construction, Eighth Edition, AISC, Chicago,
Illinois.
1980.
6.
5., Theory of Plates and Shells, McGrawHill Book Co., New York, 1959. 7. Bickford, J. H., An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bohed Joints, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1981. 8. Faires, Y. M., Design of Machine Elements, The Macmillan Co.. New York. 1962. 9. Simiu, E. and Scanlan, R. H., Wind Effects on Stuctures, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1978.
Timoshenko,
15. Staley, C. M. and Graven, G. G., The Static and Dynamic Wind Design of Steel Stacks, ASME 72Pet30, New York. 16. Vierck, R. K., Vibration Analysis, Harper and Row, New York, 1979. 17 . Paz, M., Structural Dynamics, Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co. New York, 1980. 18. Australian Standard 1170, Part 21983 SAA Loading Code, Part 2Wind Forces, p. 55. 19. Timoshenko, S., Young, D. H., Weaver, W., Vibration Problems In Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1974. 20. Higdon, A., Olsen, E. H., Stiles, W B., Weese, J. A., and Riley, W. F., Mechanics of Materials, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1976. 21. Mitchell, Warren W., "Determination of the Period of Vibration of MultiDiameter Columns by the Method Used on Rayleigh's Principle," an unpublished work prepared for the Engineering Department of the Standard Oil Company of California. San Francisco, California, 1962. 22. Bedna\ H. H., Pressure Vessel Design Handbook, Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co.. New York. 1981. 23. Boardman, H. C.. "Stresses at Junction ofCone and Cylinder in Thnks With Cone Bottoms or Ends," Pressure Vessel and Piping Design, coTlected, papers, ASME, N.Y., 1960. 24. Weaver, William, Jr., "WindInduced Vibrations in Antenna Members," American Society of Civil Engineers, Paper No.3336, Yol. 127, Part 1, N.Y.. N.Y., 1962.
Appendix A
v" '
L
RiL
panial volume
In snaoeo regron
shown (Al)
: R:
Examplg lFigure
A.tl
/.\
J __
For a cylinder with 144in. ID find the partial volume of a fluid head of 60 in., if L : 100 ft:
A.l.
33,366.5 gal
r(3sft3(50)
l00l
64,140.85 in.3
277.7 ga
Example
For horizontal volume in Figure A2b find partial volume for a head with Rr 50 in. and y 35 in.'
V. =
Example
for a head with Ri
For vertical volume in Figure A2a find partial volume 50 in. and y = 35 in.:
277 .7
138.85 gal
255
256
193
1n.
ll4 z
a: L:
159.43"
108
=:
2.78
 16.786:91.2r
in.
Figure A2. Partial volume of vertical hemispherical (8) Partial volume of horizonral hemispherical head.
head.
_rT
lY' ll I lv tl
t?
PARTIAL VOLUMES OF SPHERICALLY DISHED HEADS
ln,
I
.{}

Horlzontal Head
The partial volume of a horizontal head (Figure A3) is
v="lJGt:lT{pvF
Vertical Head
ryl
(Al)
. v:
or
::
?rv(3x2
v2)
(A4)
,,
rry2(3o
3
v)
(A5)
of spherically dished
vertical
n
Appendix A: Pressure ry'essel Formulations
Yi
= 6.786"
Figure A5.
r=\:.,O/l
1..,fi082
61s6,P
J(los:
5FF
(91.21)(562
6.7862)
168.37 gal
38,893.21 in.3
55.456 in.
u_r(9)[3(55.a56f+g'z]
14,874 in.3
64.4 gal
End View of Horizontal Head
u = (I93)'(Rl  n1i
6RI
(46)
(A7)
is
v^=
_______:
2 l'
I lv
uj
3(IDD)'?j
(A8)
258
A
vertical head
IDD:
rng:
108
2(1.0)
26.50 in.
IDD
X
., t :
(IDD)
a:138.80":2.42 v_
V:
(19.0)12.42t 6(53) 17,512.94 in.3
.,?r
s _ / rEtrl
75.81 gal
B
horizontal head
2r(lDD)R,2
_ "n, [, 2I''
_ y,, I
3(rDD4
c
vertical knuckle region
,,  2rQ6.50)(53.U2
V= V
77,951.81 in.3 76,641.06 in.3
zrt53.0) [
z'lteo
H=IDOKR
D
horizontal knuckle region
Figure A8.
Figure A9. Partial volumes of torispherical heads: (A) vertical, (B) horizontal, (C) vertical knuckle region, (D) horizontal knuckle resion.
y IDD
: : p:
v: ?
., vD _

<t, +
4rM2
ri2)
(Ae)
y2)
6
(A10)
(A11)
wherey:IDDKR
Horizontal Todspherical Hcad$
Partial Volume of Dish
(Figure Al
l)
(A12) end view of dish volume
Figure A11. Sketch for example partial volume calculation of horizontal torispherical head.
vo = *FI9 + Rr
KR)
(*,
K*)'l
(A 13)
: V6+
V6
 \GI:TF  L(&'? 2
*
yf)
"[#
+ Gi
KR)
+ (&
KR),]
(A14)
wherel: p _ IDD
Figure A12.
260
head made to ASME specifications (KR ) 0.60p and KR > 3th, tr, = head thickness) is spun from lin. plate. The head is horizontal and the liquid level is 35in. determine the partial volume. From the vessel head manufacturer's catalog and Figure A12 we determine the following:
The head is vertical and the liquid level is 18in. Determine the partial volume. From the vessel head manufacturer's catalog we determine the following:
p
R,
132 in.,
p=
R,
96 in., KR
17.562 in.
too
z =
x = 67.50
 (31 
H2lo5
66.446 in.
vr = Q.532) vaq6trsry
(78.438)(50'
uOai
tcl
f
Rr in.
:61.50;ri
Ri
KR
67.50
3.00
64.50
15')
,
(50.00
120.283
)9,11
(3.0
+
Vr =
(5o.oo
6.12s)
6.125f1
)
14.091.,14
in.r =
147.59 ga.
(64.5011
z(17.283)[3(64.500)'? 6
(17.283)'?]
138in.
d OD F&D (flanged
in.3
635.903 gal
Appendix
A:
i=
PR oE + 0.4P
D_ oEt 'RO3t
Circumferential Joint
'
PB"
2'E + 1AP
2oEl
Ro
1.4t
2:l
ElliDsoidal Head
t=
PDo
2oE + 1BP
D.
2oEl  1.8r
t=
PRo
o_
2oEl
2dE + O8P
_ 0.885P1 ';E+osP
When
^
UB <
qEt
0.885L
0.8t
161b
PLM
2oE+P(M0.2)
Conical Section
PDo r=  2 cos o(oE + 0.4P)
^ Y=
Do
t=
PRi oE
I'ti
+ u.bt
t=
PRi
2oE + O.4P
1\ iltTi
^
l'
2oEl
Or
't
+ 0.2t
2oEl
R + 0.2t
0.1P
0.885L + When UR
0.lt
l_,
FOR VALUES OF
<
16?e
SEE SUPPLEMENT
t=
'"'
2oE
O.2P
^
Conical Section
2oEt LM + 0.2t
t=
PDi
2 cos d(oE
0.6P)
o_ ^
2oEt cos a
Di
+ I.2t cos a
a
Appendix A: Pressure Vessel Formulations
263
For elliDsoidal heads, where the ralio ol lhe major axis is other than 2:1, reler to ASME Code Appendix 14(c). 4. To use the lormulations tor a conical section in the table, the half apex angle, r, shall not exceed 30". lf d > 30o, then a special analysis is required per ASME Code Appendix
15(e).
cylindrical shell, when the wall thickness exceeds one half the inside radius or P > 0.385dE, the lormulas in ASME Code ADDendix 12 shall be used. For hemispherical hsads without a straight flange, the efficiency of ihe headtoshell joinl is to be used if it is less than the efficiency oI lhe seams in the head.
when
For an ASME flanged and dished head (torispherical head) Ur< 1643 the lollowing values ol M shall be used:
Values ot Factor M
UT
1.00 1 .00
7.OO
Ur
M
1.41
1.75
1
2.00
.10 9.00 1.50
1
.08
8.50 1.48
2.50
1.15 10.0 1.54
3.25 1.20
1
3.50 1.22
'12.0
4.00
1.25 13.0 1.65
4.50
1.2a 14.0 1.69
5.00
1.31
1.5
t.co
1.60
1.62
1.72
6.00
't.36
164s 1.77
6.50 1.39
D. When Ur
>
M=
/ fL\ oit.!;/
xrl
@
Appendix B
A standard is a collection of current practices, past experiences, and research knowledge. Standards that are developed by consensus groups (e.g., ASTM, ANSI), trade associations (e.g., AISC, ACI), or government groups (e.g., HUD, CPSC) carry more authority than other standards because they reflect wider ranges of materials. The ANSI A58.11982 is a collection of information that is considered to be the stateoftheart in the design of buildings and other structures. Local and regional building codes adopt portions of the ANSI standard for their own use. These local and regional codes are developed to represent the needs and interests of their respective areas and are written in legal language to be incorporated into state and local laws. Because these building codes are regional or local in scope, they often do not include everything in the ANSI standard, which is national in perspective. For this reason, one must be certain that a local code written for one area is applicable to the site being considered. The ANSI standard does not have as much authority as the ASME vessel codes, and, unfortunately, does not have a referral committee or group to officially interpret
is the Australian Standard 1170. Part 21983. SAA Loading Code Part 2Wind Forces. The Australian Standard I 170 is more applicable to the process industries because in it are shape factors for geometries that are more common in that industry, e.g., circular shapes. However, before applying the shape factors of the Australian standard to the ANSI or any other national standard, one must be very careful to correctly convert the factors. This is because the codes have different basis upon which these factors are deiermined, and a direct application of other parameters is not possi ble. This is discussed later after we discuss the basis for the various standards.
CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING WIND SPEED
Wind is caused by differential heating of air masses by the sun. These masses of air at approximately one mile above the ground circulate air around their centers of pressure. At this altitude, the velocity and direction of the wind is almost entirely determined by macroscale forces caused by large scale weather systems. Below this gradient height, the wind is modified by surface roughness, which reduces its velocity and changes its direction and turbulence. A secondary criterion, except for extreme wind conditions, is the temperature gradient, which affects the vertical mobility of turbulent eddies and therefore influences the surface velocity and the gradient height. Therefore, the exact nature of the surface wind at any point depends, first, on the general weather situation, which determines the gradient wind and the temperature gradient, and, second, on the surrounding topography and ground roughness which, together with
265
the document. Therefore, one must make decisions based on past experience and accepted methods of design. The ANSI standard (Paragraph 6.6, p. 16) states
that in determining the value for the gust response factor a rational analysis can be used. A note below theparagraph states that one such procedure for determining the gust response factor is in the standard's appendix. The note at the top ofthe appendix (p. 52) states clearly that it is not a part of the ANSI 458.1 mirninum design standard. What all this implies is that one may follow the guide of the ANSI standard's appendix or use another rational analysis, which includes another wind standard. Thus, one caz use another standard for design purposes.
266
the temperature gradient, modify the gradient wind to the surface wind. Wind motion is further complicated by the rotation of the earth, which induces additional forces that cause the air moving across the earth's surface to be subjected to a fbrce at right angles to the wind velocity vector. These additional forces are known as Coriolis forces. Each country has adopted its own standard for measuring wind velocity. The U.S. National Weather Service and U.S. codes use the fastestmile wind sDeed. which is defined as the average speed ofone mile of air passing an anemometer. Thus, a fastestmile wind speed of 120 mph means that a "mile" of wind passed the anemometer during a 30second period. Other nations, namely Australia and Great Britain, use the twosecond gust speed. This is based on the worst 2second mean as measured by a cup anemometer. The mean gust speeds are recorded over a period of time such that a mean recurrence interval is determined. The mean recurrence interval is the reciprocal of the probability of exceeding a wind speed of a given magnitude at a particular location in one year. The risk, or probability, R, that the design wind speed will be equaled or surpassed at least once in the life of the tower is given by the expression
will be exceeded during the life of the structure. The United States and Australian wind codes use the 50speed
R:l(lP,)" where P, : annual probability of exceedance (reciprocal of the mean recurrence interval) n : life of the tower or stack
The risk that a given wind speed of specified magnitude will be equaled or exceeded increases with the period of time that the tower is exposed to the wind. Values
year recurrence interval. The instrument for measuring the wind in the United States, Great Britain, and Australia is the cupgenerator anemometer shown in Figure B1. This device is operated by the wind striking the cups, which drive a small permanent alternator. The indicator, which incorporates a rectifier, is simply a voltmeter calibrated in miles per hour. In most recent cupgenerator models the generator output is used to activate a penchart recorder which provides a record of continuous wind soeed.
of risk of exceeding design wind speed for a designated annual probability and a given design life ofthe structure are shown in Table B1. For example, if the design wind speed for a tower is based on an annual probability of 0.02 (mean recurrence interval of 50 years) and the projected tower life is 25 years, there is a 0.40 probability that the design wind
Pr = 1(1 
Po)*
Annual Probability
PAI
5
0. 100
l0
15
25 50
100
V  t;:^lrl00) \1.30i V:
/r
sa\
mph
tt8.4
mph
0.005
0.410 0.651 0.794 0.928 0.995 0.999 0.050 0.226 0.40t 0.537 0.'723 0.923 0.994 0.010 0.049 0.096 0.140 0.222 0.395 0.634 0.005 0.025 0.049 0.072 o.tt8 0.222 0.394
129.8 mph
a
Appendix B: National Wind Design Standards
Figure B2, Ratio of probable maximum wind speed averaged over t seconds to hourly mean speed.
Thus, the 1.18 factor would have to be used in the 2sec gust code if that code were to be substituted for Appen
dix A of ANSI A58.11982. Similarly, the Canadian code we must convert to obtain an equivalent fastest mile wind speed from the mean hourly. The mean hourly implies that the wind moves an average of 100 mph across the anemometer in a period of 3,600 sec. Reading Figure B2 we have V'/Vru* = 1.6. Thus
lj:
ozor
which yields an equivalent velocity of 76.9 mph. With the Canadian code one must use 0.769 in use of shape constants and the various other parameters when using with ANSI A58.1. A comparison of the major wind codes is given in Thbles BZ, B3, B4, and B5.
Category AA very restricted category in which the wind speed is drastically reduced. Most petrochemical and power facilities do not fall within this category. The wind force is reduced because the structure is considered to be among many tall structures. One example would be a tenstory building in downtown Manhattan, New York, where the taller buildings would block the stronger air currents. Category BA classification that encompasses some tall structures, but not enough to block the majority of wind gusts. An example of this category would be a tower in the midst of a large petrochemical facility where there were other towers that would block some of the wind force. A forest surrounding a tower is another example. Category CThe most common classification for petrochemical applications. This category is open terraln where the tower would receive full impact from the wind with minimum ground resistance to the wind. An example of this category would be an open field or an alrDort. Category DA classification for wind moving over water. A beachhead, in which there is flat beach up to a row of buildings would be in Category D. Miami beach, from the ocean front up to the facade of hotels, is a good example. Behind the hotel fronts would be Category C. Another example of this classification would be a tall vertical vessel on an offshore structure.
Table B2 Malor U.S. and Foreign Building Codes and Standards Used in Wind Design
Code or Australian Standard I 170, Part 2Wind Forces
Standard
Edition
1983
Organization
Standards Association
Address
Standards House
of Australia
1972
1974
1980 1980
London, WIA 285, England Building Research Station Garston, Watford, WD2 7JR, England National Research Council of
Canada
The Supplement to the National Building Code of Canada (NRCC 17724) ANSI A58.1,1982
Council of Canada
1982 1982 1982
with
1983 rev.
1984
Feference
Averaging time Equivalent reference
(SAA,
Australian 1983)
second
Canadian (NRCC,
1980)
23
gust speed
118.4
gust speed
I18.4
'l'*"1iil
Appendix B: National Wind Design Standards
Australian
Parametel
British
Canadian
United Siates
1982)
,1
4
Yes Yes 2sec gusts
3
Wind Speed
Terrain roughness
4
Yes Yes
4
None
Yes Fastest mile
None
Yes
Wind Pressure
Pressure coefficients
appendix includes figures Gusts Magnitude Spatial correlation Gust frequency Gust speed Reduction for large area Dynamic consideration
factor factor
for h/b
>
Dynamic consideration
for h/b
>
h>
Analysis procedure
400
ft
This standard is consid Overall a very good code, its weakest part ered by many the best is the lack of dynamic for use in the process
industries. Figures and tables are easy to read. The standard actually provides the user with equations to cutves. The analysis procedure
consideration
.
is straightforward.
270
Table B5
Australian Standard
I 170, Part 2 1983 National Building Code of Canada
Location Title
Guide to the Use of the Code Section 1 (Scope)
"...EssentiallyaSet
of Minimum Regulations . . ."
(NRCC,
1980)
British CP3
". . . Does Not Apply to Buildings. . . That Areof Unusual Shape or Location
For Which Special Investigations May Be Necessary . . ." "Minimum Design Loads . . ." "Specific Guidelines Are Given For. . . Wind Tunnel Investigations . .. For Buildings. .. Having
United States
ANSI A58.I
Title
Paragraph 6. I
Uniform Building
Code Basic Building
Section 102
Section 912.1 Preface
Article 1205.2(a)
Appendix C
Properties of Pipe
272
Th6
PROPERTIES OF PIPE
tollowilg tormulqs dre used in lh computorior of th6 volues
,bo\'n in lhe toble:
t weighl
weight ol lPcler pr foot (pou!ds) squqre leet ou&id ludoco per loot squorc leet inside surlace Fr loot inside drea (squdre hches) dred o{ rnetcd (squore irches)
moment ol
10.6802(D0
Tlr lsEilic ste6ls rnay be sbout 5% les!, dDd the crEte.itic stdin_ legs sleels qbout 27o greate! thon the values shown in tbiE tqble which ore bcsed ort weigbts lor cdrboIt steel.
= : =
0.340sd,
0.2518D
* achedule numben Stordord weight pipe qnd schedule rlo qte the scrae in oll sizss lhrough loisdr; lrom lzilch thtough 24irch, stqndard {eight pip6 has d croll thicloess oI %ircb.
Extro BtroDg woight pipe ond schedule
gO dla the sdEe in oll sires lhrough 8i[ch, llom 8inch thlough 24trch. ertrd strong weight
0.26r0d 0.785d,
0,785(Drd?)
ir6rtia (inches.)
0.049r(D.d)
A^E o'
0.0982(D.ci.)
D
0.25t/D,'D,+
d D R, t
= = = =
o: ANSI836.10
b: ANSI
c: ANSI
Bq
piF .ize
oulide
nordnol
achedule
wcll
thick. in. I0s
0.01s 0.068 0,0s5 0.06s 0.088 0.119 0.065 0.065
i!3ide
dioErin"
0.307 0.269
in
%
0.405 40
80
sq.
in
li
sq
tt
Feiqht o[ wcter
psr It.
moDttl
OI
aoction
rardiur
inertic,
0.0m88
0.00108
Eodulu&
0.00437 0.0052s 0.00600 0.01032 0.01230 0.0139s 0.0285 0.01737 0.02160 0.02s54 0.0285
gyrclior,
iE
0.0321
srd
xs
srd
40s 80s
0.2I5
0.410 0.364 0.302
0.036{
0.1320
0.1041
0.127t
0.1215
0.00t22
0.00279
0.00331
0.llt6
0.1694 0.1528 0.1547 0.2750 0.2169 0.2090 0.199r
0.27S0
%
0.540
l0s
40
40s
80
xs.
80s
0.0716 0.396 0.2333 0.1910 0.1405 0.3959 0.357 0.304 0.2340 0.1706 0.0499 0.655 0.614 0.s33 0132
0.2961
0J35
0.538 0.423 0.568 0.739 0.538
0.571 0,851
0.0310
ss
% 0.675
40 80
0.7I0
0.545
0220
0.I716
0.1011
;;;
xs
l0s
40s 80s
0.0st
0.126 0.065 0.083 0.10s 0.147 0.187
0.294
0.493 0423
0.710
0.12{6 0.16t0
0.2173 0.1583 0,1974 0.2503 0.320 0.383 0.504
o.t427
0.1295 0.1106 0.1853 0.1765 0.1628 0.1433
0.0827 0.0609
0.171
% 0.840
40
80 160
;;
r0s
40s
80s
xs
r.08
1.304 1.714
n(s
0.t220
0.0660 0.2409 0.2314
0.0I431 0.0r710
0.02010
0.m4I
0.0407 0.0178 0.0s27 0.0s77 0.046? 0.0s66 0.0706 0.08s3 0.1004 0.1104 0,0760
02892
0.2613
0022t3
0.02125 0.02451 0.02970 0.03?0 0.0448 0.os27 0.0s79 0.0500 0.0757
0.2505 0.2402
0.2rs2 0.3{9
0.343 0.334
0.321
0.06s
10
0.20u
02321 0.333 0.435 0.570 0.718
;;;
xs xxs
l0s
10s 80s
0.083
0,684 0.857
i.050
s0
160
0.2t57
0.1913 0.1607 0.1137 0.310 0.2872 o,2746 0.2520
l.r3l
1.414
1.937
0.614
0,434 1.185 1.097
0.r875 0.1284
0.0641
0.304
0.1d79
2.441 0.868
1.401 1.679
0.28{0
0.443 0.428 o.121 0.107 0.387
1.t03
0.915
0.3{4
0,413 0.494 0.639 0.836
1.076
10s
I
J.3t5
40 80
40s 80s
I.049
0.s57
0.815
0.86{ 0.t19
0.522
0.344 0.344
0.478 0.409
o,37 4
0.ll5r
0.1329 0.1606 0.1900
0.087{
0.1056
0.3{4
0.344 o.314 0.434 0.434
0.434
2.t72
2.444
3.659
1.107 1.805
0.31t
o.2261 0.1221 0.797
t60
xxs
0.599
1.530
0.28r8
1.839 1.633 1.496 1.283
0.t2s2
0.140s 0.1038
0.2t37
0.1250
0.1934
0.36t 0.55{
0.5s0 0.540 0.s24 0.506 0.472 0.649 0.634
0.326
u.531
r%
I.66'0
40 80 160
l';
*ts
r0s
40s 80s
0.109
t.142
1.380
0.7tl
0.618
0.r60s
0.1s48
0.140
0.669
0.r91
0.250 0.382
l27A
1.160 0.896
r,057
0.631 2.161
0.88r 1.I07
1,534 0375
0.{34 0.43{
0.434
0497
o.24t8
0.{58 o.2r32
1.067
0.2316 0.2913
0.342 0.411
0.2839
0.341
5.2t1
1.274 2.08s
rt4
1.900
r0s
0.065 0.109
t.770
1,682
0.ts80
0.2469
2.222
0.613
0.497
0.962
0.1663 0.2599
F
Appendix C: Properties of Pipe
.chedule
trcll
tbicLir.
40s
0.145 0.200
!uEber'
b {0
80
i!!ide
Bq.
metcl
qted,
aq.
6q
lt
sq
lt
outride inaid
surtdce, BUttdc, per It Frft
0.{97
0.497
0.421
w6ight
per It,
weiEhl
ol wlter p! lt,
!adiu!
ol inertiq, modulus, 9l.rc_
UoE
ir.
il.
lbt
inJ
0.882 0.765 0.608 0112 0.218 0.123 0.310
in.r
0.326 0.623 0.605
0.581
2,036
rh
J.900
xs
80s
t761
1.406
160
0.28r
2.718
0.{97
0.49? 0.197 0.497 o.622 o.822 o,622 0.822 o.822 o,622 0.622
xxs
2287
2.551
3.63r
4.859 6.408 7.710 8.678
1.604
0.39r
0.483 0.568 0.6140 0.6340
0.{12
0.508 0.598 0,6470 0.6670 0.2652 0.120 0.s61
;; ;;
2.3r5
80 160
l0s
40s 80s
xs xx!;
''''.
...'
0.065 0.109 0.154 0.218 0.343 0,436 0.552 0.587 0.083 0.120 0,203 0.276 0,375 0.552 0.6?5 0.800 0.083 0.120 0.216 0.300 0.437 0.600 o;125 0.850 0.083 0.120 o.226 0.318 0.636 0.083 0.120 0.188
o.472
0.116
1.7I6
1.582 1.455 1.280 0.971
0.3t5
0.499
0.666 0.868
2ts7
2,087
1.939 1.689
r.075 t.417
2.190 2.656
2.638 3.553
5.O22
0.r81
0.756 0729 0.703
r.503
1.251 1.001
t.774 t229
0.187
3.I99
3.641 0.128
1.039
o.622
0.75s 0.753 0.753 0.753 0.753 0.753 0.753 0.753 0.916 0.916 0.916 0.916 0.916 0.916 0.916 0.916
0.508 o.442 0.393 0.328 0262 0.709 0.690 0.646 0.60s 0.451 0.399 0.334 0.873 0.8s3 0.803 0.759 0.687 0.602 0.537 0.471
0.73t
0.979
1.104
7.141
9.029
10.882 12.385
0.769 0.533
0.341 2.49S
I.163 1.3I2
1.442
1.5130
0.6t10
0.64d0 0.988 0.975
2.175
3,531
;; :..
2% 2.875 80
l0s
40s 80s
0.710 0.988
1.530 1.925
t.701
2.251 2.915 4.03 4.663
xs
)0(s
ta:
2.t25
1.771
2.076
1.837 1.535 1.087
L064
1.339 1.637 1.s98
0.9d,
0.924 0.894
2.464
1.825
t.525
0.792
0.554 3.78
t.275
3.334 3.260 3.068 2.900 2.62A 2.300 2.050
1.800
t,276
4.73 8.35 7.39 5.42 4.15 3.299 2.543
5.2t2
0.891
t7.729
3.03 4.33 7.58
10.25 14.32 18.58
0.84{
0.8140 0.7860 1.208
1.195 1.164
;i d;
3
l0s
10s 80s
t.274
2.228 3.02
4.21
3.6r
3.20 2,864 2348
ta22
3.02
t.124
2228 2.876 3,43 3.7150 3.9160 0.980
1.378
80
160
xs
3.500
3.90 5.03
5.99
r.136
1.091 1.o17 1.0140
xxs
1.80t
1.431
2t.487
24.Os?
'
5S 3y2
t.103 5.0r
4.81 4.28 3.85 2.530
6.5010 6.8530
1.960
3.834
*Un
40 80
;;
r0s
40s 80s
3.t60
3.548 3.364 2.728 4.334
ll.l0
9.89 8.89 5.845
14.75 14.2S 13.35?
1,463
xs
xt(s
tGs
1.00{ 0.98{
0.929 0.881 0.716
1.135
3.47 4.57
9.ll
12.51
22.450
2.351
t.337
1.307
1.2100 1.562 1.549 1.5250 1.510
3.t4
4.92d0
1.249
l.l78
1.178 1.178 1.178 1.178
{.260
l.ll5
1.082 1.054
6.{0
8.560
10.?9
2.8u
3.96 5.8500 7.23
9.61
;;
80
4.t24
4.826 3.826 3.s00 3.438 3.152 2.900 2.650 5,345 5.295 5.047 4.813 4.563 4.313 4.063 3.813 3.563
2.547
3.17
1.162
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31.000 30.750
31,2s
49.48 61.59 73.63
8.18
XS
0.s00 0.62s
0.688 0.750 0.875 1.000
Lll
8.0s
8.02 7.98 7.92 7.85
t2'l
168
6l{0
7578 8298 8990
l.l8 l.l4
8.38
8.38
209
473.6
518.6
32.000
10
736.6
730.5 718.3 706.8 694.7 881.2
230
250
291 331
I LoS I1.07
11.05
I
8.38
8.38 8.38 8.38 8.S0 8.90
8.S0
85.52
97.38 109.0
3t6.7 3l1.6
306.4 301.3 382.0 379.3
3',18,2
561.9
648.2 730.0
t8372
l.0I
n680
1302s
LI25
0.2s0
10
29.750
33.500 33.376
7.ts
4.77 8.74
371
90
814.0
26.50
32.99 39.61 52.62
371s
4680
22t.9
275.3 329.2 434.4
0.312
s74.9
867.8 855.3 841.9 835.9 82S.3
tt2
135
l.9l
srd
20
34
0.375
33.2s0
33.000 32.750
8.70
8.64 8.54
8.51
s597
7385 9124 9992 10829
II.89
I1.85
XS
0.500
0.625 0.688
LS0
8.90 8.90 8.90 8.S0 8.S0 8.90 9.42
l?s
223 245
310 353 395 96
370.8
30 40
65.53
72.O0
365.0
359.5 354.1 348.6 343.2 429.1 426.1 423.1
34.000
32.624
32.500
0.7s0
0.875 1.000
78.34
I1.80 I1.78
r 1.76
32.2s0
32.000 31.7s0 35.500 35.376 35.250 35.000
8r6.4
804.2
91.0t
103.67 116.13
l2s0l
141t4
15719 4491 6684 8785
tt.12
I
I.I25
0.250
79r.3
98S.7
I.63
28.1r
34.S5 42.01
12.64
l0
2D
;,;
xs
s82.9 975.8
962.1 948,3 934.7
942 942
9.42
s.26
9.23 9.16
ll9
143
t2.62
12.59 12.55
I90
236
4t1.1
4I
36.000
30 40
34.750
34.500 34.250 34.000 33.750 41.500
69.50
83.01
942
9.42
s.l0
9.03
l.l
t0a72
I2898 I4903
48S.I 604.0
716.5
82',1.9
t2.51
12.16 12.42 12.38
0.750
0.875 1.000
920.5 907.9
894.2 1352.6
96.50
109.96
9.42 9.42
9.42 10.99 10.s9 10.99
8.97 8.90
8.89
282 324
374
419
I685I
r8763
s36.2
1042.4
Ll25
0.250
123.I9
32.82
49.08
t2.34
I0.86
10.80
l12
167 222 330 438 544
7t26
to627
14037
339.3
506.1
I4.73
14.71 14.67 14.62 14.59 14.s0
srd
20 42 30
0.375
0.500 0.6?5
41.250
41.000
r336.3
1320.2 1304.1 1288.2
xs
65.I8
81.28
97.23
I0.73
10.67 10.60 10.47
42.000
40
0.750
I.000
1.250 1.500
t0.99
r0.99
10.99 10.s9 10.99
565.{
558.4
544.8
17373
20589
I256.6 r22S3
1194.5
27080
33233
10.3{ t0.21
649
53t.2 5I7.S
t4.41
3918I
t4.33
278
To determine the seight per foot of any piping insulation, use the pipe size and nominal insulation thickness to find the insulation l'eight factor F in the chart shorvn belorv. Then multiply F by the density of the insulation in pounds per cubic foot.
Erample. For 4" pipe rvith 4" nominal thickness insulation, F : .77. It the insulation density is 12 pounds per cubic foot, then the insulation rveight b .77 x 12 : 9.24lb/tt.
Nominal
Pipe Size
1%"
.057 .051 .066
2rA"
.16 .29 ,29
.31
3%"
.40 .39 .48 .47
4"
4%"
5%"
6"
I
r%
.10
.11
lt/i
2
.30 .38
.080
.r4
.21
.59
2%
3
.091
.19 .23
.r0
.30
.36 .34
.41
.46
.70 .68
.83
.81
3%
4
.54
.39
.cr
.58 .64 .80 .93
.96
.97 1.10
.24
6 8
10
.45 .66
.88
.97
t.04
r.13
1.36
.34
.43
1.17 1.32
1.75
1.99
t2
.50
l4
18
.68 .70
.88
.90 1.01
1.07
1.52
1.3.{ 1.49
1.7
l.l I
1.24
.74
.87
2.29
2.51
\.\2
1.23
.37
1.50
1.64
1.92
20 24
.70 .83
.96 1.13
1.79
t.44
2.10
2.09 2.44
2.40 2.80
2.73 3.16
3.06 3.54
3.40 3.92
LOAD CARRYING CAPACITIES OF THREADED HOT ROLLED STEEL ROD CONFORMING TO ASTM A.36
Nominal Rod
Diameter, in. Root Area of Thread, sq, in. Max. Safe Load,
lbs. at Rod Temp. of 650"F
.068
lz
v4
1r/e
r%
1.293
1.7
2y4
21/2
2y4 4.619
3r/q
3'h
7.918
,126 .202
.302 .419
.693
.889
44 2.300 3.023
3.?19
5.621 6.724
610 1130 1810 21L0 3??0 4960 6230 8000 11630 15700 20700 21200 33500 41580 50580 60480 ?1280
Appendix C: Properties of
Pipe
279
l"
z i. z
EI 4/ a^
A /\ w {l\
ur'
t_J,
\]J
Temperature Range
'F
z
F
tr{agnesia
Calcium Combina
tion
FiberSodium
z
,t
&
ffi
T}
'11
Njs
4l
{s.:ssr
7
F
thicknesses oI materials. Insulation Neights are based on 85/6 magnesia and hvdrous calcium silic&te et 1l lbs,i cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and Neights of sums of ihe inner layer of diatomacecus earth at 2l lbs/cubic
recommendation
for
specific
z .(
N /9N
@ tr\ qJ +
Neights from the nranufacturer. Cast iron valve $eights are for flangcd end valves; steel $eighLs for welding end velves. valve and fllnge $'eights include the DroDorlion.l \leieht of bolts
Fsc
AII
flanged
fitting,
fl&nged
280
Mechanical De:ign
of
Process Systems
l/a"
z
F
t+,!
f'^
z
3 F
HJ
4L. E:::t ttl
n_Lt
\LJ
Tenrpcraturc Range "F
{ ir
! ! o z
Ma,gnesia
Nom. Thick.,In.
Calcium
Silicate
uon
FiberSodium
I effi
z
ffi
Boldface type
is s'eight in
Jor
weight
is weight factor
for
insulation.
fsis$
! T:liiqF
/A 4
,N
.al
silicate &t 11 lbs/cubic foot. The listed ihicknesses and i{eights of combination covering are the 6ums of the inner layer ol diatomaceous earth at 21 lbs/cubic
of ma,terials Insulation weights are based on 85% magnesia and hydrous calcium
thicknesses
recommendation
specinc
/>
lbs/cubic foot.
Insulstion weights include alIowances for wire, cement, csnvas, bands end peint, but not
speeial surface finishes, 
@ l[' +
1.<3
)
rc
$'eights from the manufacturer. Cast iron velve weiqhts arc for flanged end valves; sGel weights for weldins end valves.
valve and flange weights include the Drooortionrl weiqht of bolts or si,udi: to make up all joinl,s. * 16 lb cu. ft. density.
flanged
Appendix C: Properties of
Pipe
281
r.eoo" o.D.
l/2"
Ywn
160
srd.
.145 .88
.E
XS
.200
xxs
.28r
4.86
.61 .400 6.41 .41
L Lic
knessIn.
fl.2
1.{
1.8
{"u n z^"
.6
.3
.2 .6
1.3
E E
e
ri\ (, F!+
{_O
.8 .2
3.1
.6 .6
3.7
.6
/.,e^
Lt_!
(1l
Lateral
Reducer
5.4
1.3
.6 .2
.3
.7 .5
.3
1.2
\IJ
2 N
c"p
.7
t001c9 200299 300309 400499 500599 600699 700799 300s99 c003c9 10001009 11001200
1
r%
1.35
2 252
2r/6
2%
3.47 214 4.20
2
2%
3.47
3 4.52
3
3 4.SZ
.84
.84
3.47
4.52 3
2)i
4.20
2%
4.20
3 5.62 3 6.16
z FiberSodium
5.6t
2%
4,16
562
3
I
1.07
r%
1.07
1.E5
lr/4
1.85 Steel
2 3.50
2rz
4.76
1.07
3.50
6.16
psr
Raiing
Cast Iron
125 250 7
150
3C0
400 9
600 9
900
1500 19
2500
sffi$
Screwed or
3.5
l9
1.5 19
3l
34
1.5
ivcight
Boldface
tlpe is rfeight
in
:ffi
,a I /
insul:rtion.
t2
9
10
t2
9
l9
1.5
1.5
Insub.tion ihickncsses
ss]s
d}.'.=N!
.'11
,tJ
l9 l9
1.5
l9
19
3l
1.5
Blind
S.R. 90" nlbow
7 1.5
10 13
t0
1.5
26
3l
1.5
23
3,?il*'11 ll'9"lxli:l:","'.*'"is,3
46
3.8
3.9
rd s scights cights of listed thiclinesscs cn(l ing are the combin.tion covering
sums of t,he inner lrver of dirlbsr'cubic cubic tomaceous earth at 2l lbs: lD,J'er 5n 5t :cr lD,l'er fooi and the outcr
e,\
z tc
t44\ lF ll
3.4
l1
23
39
70
11 lbs/cul)ic foot.
3.5
30
t7
5.6
20
ccment. ctnlo$lnccs for 'iviro, ccmenl. rint, but not vcs, bllncls {Lnd plint,
hcs. sulf.rce linishcs. strccial 
5.8
70
.1.5
1=<l
* k33
flanged l3onnet
Gxte Flanged Bonneb Clobe or Angle Irlanged Bonnet Check Itressure SeaI
30
t25
170 5
6.8
40
fr, tor bv the multipll; tlic wciFht frctor uscd \\cighi t)cr foot of covcring :ovcring'uscd
siblc, obtoin matc, Whcn Dossiblc, irnufarcturcr. rvoights from thi mtnufacturcr.
45
4D
Vxlvc
3uu
J<[J
FSO
'
ll0
42
RorrretCrie
Pressurc Seal
42
1.9
'eights rre for Cast iron vtlve weights lllnged cnd vrlves; stccl \eights for rveldine cnd valvcs.
BonnetGlobe
.ights include includc valve rnd 1rngc ivcights l)olts cight of ol l)olts the l,rorntlion l N(iglrt :rll ioints. up:rll or sluds to m.tku up ioints,
242
2"
!r
ptpn
zs. B, o.D.
u'N
z z
u,r'
dJ.t
Ih
rr\
{_L_!
/> fin
Temperature Range oF
z
F
Magnesia
Calcium
5 Combinatron
FiberSodium
Nr$
z
Boldface tyDe
is
weisht in
for
lnsutailon.
weigit.
b weight factor
+fi$ N*s
cr.is
/A, /a)
,61
Insulation thicknesses and weights are based on average conclrtrons and do not constitute & recommendation for
soecific
thicknesses of materials. I_nsulaiioo veights are based on 85/o magnesia and hydrous calcium silicate at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and weishts of combination coverinc are the sums of the inner laler of diatomsceous earth at 2l lbs/cubic
/D
IN' '{I
,N
, Insulaiion weights include allowances Iol wlre, cemen!, canspecial surface finishes. To 6nd the weieht of coverinc
1l lbs/cubic foot.
1.<l
't
@ rfl
[],._/
on flanses. valvds or fittinssi multiply tlie weight factor by tIe weight.per foot of covering used
onslr&lghl prpe.
weights from th; msnuiacturer. Cast i.on valve weights are for flanged end valves: sGel weiehts for ielding end vaives.
+<t
FsO
valve and flange weigF* inclide the prcportional weight of bolts or 6tuds to make up all joints, ' 16 lb cu. It. density.
All
nsnsed fittios.
flanced
fr
Appendix C: Properties of
Pipe
283
2.87s"
o.D.
2/2"
Ywn
7
F
z
l
E'
A w {T\
ur'
'
F1 /.>\
z
f
FiberSodium
ffi
z
Boldface
weight
insulation.
$q1$
Nls$
Insulation Lhicknesses
and
N
.al
T.A
a4
A
,N
thicknesses oI materiels Insulation weights ere based on 85/6 magnesio and hvdrous calcium silicate at ll lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses end rveights of combination covering are the sums of the inner laver of diatomaceous eerth at 21 lbs/cubic
for
specific
L4
.{
'l
@ flr)
+<i
t4
lb cu.
+ 16
lt.
density.
284
Mechanical Design
of
Procesr Systems
3"
B.boo' o.D.
40
1C0
std.
.216 7.54 3.20
xs
.300 10.25
xxs
.438 14.32 2.35
.600
PipeLbs/Ft
\1'xterLbs/Ft
2.86 6.1 .8
.5
t8.56 l.E0
W
4 {I/
3
4.6
.8 .5 .3
8.4
.8
lo.7
.8
S.R.90'Elbow
L.R. 45' Elbow
Tce
4.4
.3 .8
.3
5.4
.3
7.4
.8
12.2
.8
14.8 .8
Lsteral
Rcducer
l9
1.8
3.7
.3
4.7
.z
.3 .1.8
.3 .5
\JJ
?
z
Magnesia
Calcir.rm
cup
3.7
.5
.5
.5
100,14r 200:0c 3003c9 100lm 500599 600699 7007s9 80080s 900g?9 10001099 1100r200
1k
2.08
2%
4.07
3%
3%
Y Silicete
t25
3.01
3.01
5.24 3 6.94 2
3.9E
s.24
3
5.24 3 6.94
3
2\
5.07
1
3%
9.17
3%
9.17
6.94 3 6.99
FiberSodium
I
1.61
1rz
2.74
1tz
2 3.9E
3%
8.99
3%
8.99
1.61
1.61
6.99
tcst lron
125 250
17 150 9
1.5
600
20
900
1.5
1500
2500 102
rffi
O
Screwed
ot
t7
6l
38 1.5 36 38
1.5
SlipOn
Boldface iype
is
u'eight in
s{
rFn
ils
tl
1.5
6l
1.5 60 1.5
ll3
1.5 99 1.5
Ni.s
qF{i.llqn
l9
1.5
1.5
Blind
S.R 90' Elbow
l0
26
l9
46
l0
32
20 53 63
24 1.5
24
67
6l
1.5
r05
.onditions and do not constitute nstttule sPecific a recommendetion for specific Insulethicknesses of materials. Insula>n 85% 857a tjon Neights are based on macnesia and hvdrous calcium
the rre th cornbination covering are diasums of the inncr layer of dit )s/cubic tomrceous earth at 21 lbs/cubi
11 lbs,lcubic foot. rot. The "ili;r. 't l1 lhs/crrhin foot ights of o listed thicknesses and $eights
2
E
98
l^a
/'11
3.9
30
4
50
3.9
40
4.1 4.3
46
E1
4.3
r50 4.6
< E BJ
B,N u /9N
.:
ti]
4.3
4.3
41
4.3
2E
60
93
3.6
39
3.8
102
3.9
135 4 23E
lorvences
67
6
l5l
260
5
llJ
Tee
5.9
66 7
5.9
70
6.2
6.9
410 5.5 495
,k
j
{<t
r\J
Flanged Bonnet
Gate tr'langed Bonnet
125
95 70 +.4
t55
1.8
t2l
7.2 46
100
60
t55
1.8
4.3
60
r20
4.8
t50
4.9
208
440
7.2
5.n
235
180
+<t
rc
Bonnet Cate
acturef. weights from the ma,nufacturer. fo Ls are for Cist ilon valve weiehts weight flansed end valves; steet. weights for weldine end valves.
s include includ valve and llanse rleiqhts bolt of bolts the proportionlel \r eight.of Il joints. or studs to mirl(e uP all Jorntt
flange. flanged
r35
BonnetGlobc
Appendix C: Properties of
pipe
28.tt
4.ooo'o.D.
3/2"
ewr.
srd.
XS
.318
xxs
.636 22.8s 2,53
9.tr
4.28
t2.51
3.85
fr?
ut {J/
6.4
.9
8.7
.9
.6
l5.4
.9
4.3
.6
: {l\ 3 /)\
z^, F [/)
El#
4.4
t2.6
.9
20
.9
Lateral
Reduce!
26 1.8 3.1
.a .3 1.4
/.N Irt
6.9
.3 .6 11001200
cuP
Temperature Range
agnesta
2.t
.6
2.a
.6
'F
r00199 200209 300399 400499 500599 600699 700799 800899 900999 10001099
1
1%
1.83
2%
4.EE
2ti
4.88
3%
7.80 316
314 7.80
3%
7.80
srlLcate
Lbsi/Ft
Nom. Thick., In.
r.E3
3.71
6.39 3
6.39 3
8.7
tit 6 z
)mbina
2%
6.49
1 1
3%
r0.6
3%
106
Lbs/Ft
Nom. Thick., In.
E.7l
2
r0.6
3
FiberSodium
r%
3.65
1X
3
E.66
3%
r0.62
3%
10.62
Lbs/Ft
Pressure Rating psr Screwed
z.4l
Cast Iron
241
5.07
5.07
8.66
Ste"l_150 13
,ffi
3S4
t25
13
250
300
21
400
600
900
r600
SlipOn
or
2500
2l
lvelglrt.
32
Pounds. Llghtf:rce
Boldface _tvpe
itS
l4
1.5
13
msul& on.
is
"
NIM
2l
25
26 1.5
35
26
1.5
Efsfs$ O ,'4
23
15
1.5
49
2td Eq
4.L
4.4 62 4.4 54 4.4
39
70
82
4.3
<.: E Ptn
BN O /. 3\
1"<3
m:rgnesir and hvdrous lrlcium silicsle rt I I Ibs'cul,ic foot. The listcd thickncsses :rnrl \.eiqhts of combination coveriDg ar:e the sums of the inner hier of diatomil(eous e.Lrth at,21 lbs/cubic
for
specific
Elbor
3l
54
6 a2
5l
86
3.9 8.2
6
90 155
t33
6.4
180
11 lbs:cubic foot.
t43
137
7.1
74
5t0
4.8
HKP
fqJ
7.7 7.3
125
160
Fhnged Bonnet
Pressure Seal Pressure Serl
To firrd ihe $eigl,t of covering fiftincs. multit,lj thc $eight f"(bor l,v thc wuight per foot ol covjrinlj'usc(l on straiqht DiDe. Vxlvc \,eigl,ts rrc epprori
on llrnges, vxlves or
7.7
t2s
+<t
BonnetGate BonnetGlobe
3E0
th_e mtnuiacturer. ( ust iron v{Llvc Neiq}rts arc lor flangtd entl velvesistaci leishts Ior rveldirrg end vdves.
rveights from
,\ll fluhged fit tins, fllrnsc,l vxlve xnd flxnge rrcigl'rs inclu,le thc proporlional weight of bolts
286
\\ attrlbs/I t
f'2 !x
tr2
z
F
HI
e
{i\
ti .t
{,\
\IJ
'l'cmtx,miurr lLrngc'Ir
z
F
Ilagnesia
Celcium
I
z
iion
FiberSodium
$'eight
l Stits
recommendation
spccific
thicknesses of materials.
z
F
/A
/''ll
magnesia and hydrous calcium silicate &t 11 ibs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and \\'eights of combination covering are the sums of ihe inner layer of diatomaceous earth
11
Insull
,N />
@ +
,lr1
F{3
rc
lveights from thc manuf&cturer. Cast iron valve lvcights &rc for flanged end valves; stecl \cights for lelding cnd valves. All fleriged fittins, flanged valve rnd flange rvcights inciude the proportional rveight ol bolts or studs to make up all joiDts.
C
Appendix C: Properties of
Pipe
287
5.563"
O.D.
5"
PtPe
(!j
z
F
z
B
w fl\
4'e.
c_i_)
a1r
Tcmperature Range
15.6
r7 .7
,'1l
'F
z
F
FiberSodium Combina
tion
Magnesia
Calcium
ffir$
z
$'eight
lreights
is weight lactor
rre
for
and
insul.rtion.
s{lrs
$sjN$
Els:i:5$
of m&teri3ls. Insuhtion weights :rre based on 85% magnesia and hvdrous calcium silicate at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The
thicknesses
lnsulation thicknesses
z
F
/r4
,N
/11
listcd thicknesses and \'eights of combination covering are the sums of the inner layer of diatomoceous earth at 2l lbs/cubic
z ti
/>
t{
J
ll' IH 'll
++3
* 16
@ 0
rc
lt
cu.
weights from the manuflcturer. Cast iton valve rveights are for flonged end valves; steel rleights for welding end valvesAll flangetl Iitting, flrnged vslvc and flange weights include
ft.
288
6" ,t n
6.625. o.D.
gJf
z
{n {1\ E:cl
a1J
E_=_=r
!._!____,
'
\t/
2 Calcium o
F
D
Ma,gnesia
Combinltion
tr'iberSodium
Boldface
4qx$
z
beneath tr.pe oounds. Liehtface ' q eight is  weight iactor for insulation.
iype is
weight in
sfil$
dNs
{Jss;s
# 4l
,N
,41
thicknesses of matedals. Insulation weights &re based on 85% magnesia and hvdrous calcium s;liAte at 1l lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and weights of combina,tion covering are the sums of the inner layer of diatomaceous ea,rth at 21 lbs/cubic
recommendation
for
specific
EqA
/9s
'{t
lowances
lt'
can
t{3
3
on ffanges, valves or
multipit
the
u
ir)
+<i
6ttings, eight frctor b\' the !\eight per foot of covering used on straight pipe. Valve $eights are {rppror mate. When possible, obtain weights from the manufecturer. Cast iron valve weights are for flenged end valves; steel weights
ffi
All
or studi to mrke
ut rll
joints.
il
Appendix C: Properties of
PiP.
249
8.625. O.D.
8"
"r",
A
z
F F
T,Jr'
e,
/t\
rFr
lA
{T\ r';J
uJ
\iJ
Temperature Range
'F
1r001200
z
F
2 tron
FiberSodium
ffi
2
ireiglrt.
\rcight
iacLor lor
s{tlts
$s
is A
!N
z
F
rA A /> ela
of materills Insulation \reights cre based on 85lo magnesia and hydrous cslcium siiicate at 1l lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and leights of combination covering are the sums of the inner loyer of diatomaceous eadh at 21 lbs/cubic loot snd the outer lol er at
thicknesses
recommendation
for
specific
Insulation rveights include allowances for uire, cement, canvas,.b!.nds ond paint, but not
sDectal surlace nnrshs. 
1l lbs/cubic foot.
1{3
t4 s^
FsO
+<t
* 16 lb cu. ft, density,
\leights from th6 manuflcturer. Cast ilon valve iveights ore for
vrlves;stecl \\'eights
vslve and flongc Neights jnclude the proportionlrl lveight of bolts or studs to make up all joints.
All
flanged
fittine,
flanged
290
10t'prpe
,o.zso"
\\rtcrLbs
'
l'
IA
z k
(,
E.I
.l
//\ w {i\
4'd',
!l_, t,t!
Trmprrx6url 11''ra. "P
z Calcium
uon
N'Iagnesia
Combina
FiberSodium
ffi
A,/TmA z qIS I l\S
We)ding Neck
Boldfcce
type is neight in
$eight, Jsctor for
$cight.
lnsut& on.
is
Nls
ryrp
z
F
,ll
thicknesses of matcdcls. Insul:rtion \ieiqhts are bascd oir E59. magnesii and hldrous calciuni silicate at 1l lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and $eights of combination covering are the sums of the inner laler of diatomeceous earth at 21 lbs/cubic
for
specific
s,t
/>
tP ql
11 lbs/cubic foot.
Insulation \Yeishts include alfor rdr;, cement, cenvas, bands and paint, but not
lowonces special surlace frnishes,
J<3
'l
on flonges, valvds or
multipll
@
ll.J
rc
++l
\r0iqhls from thc n)rnufscturcr. Crrst iron rrlvc $cights rfe for 13rngcd t'nrl \.llvcsi stccl Neights fot lclding end vrlves. \11 flrngcd fitting, fllnged vslve and flcngc $eig)r1s inrlude thc propottionul \eight of bolts or studs to rn.rke up all joints.
Appendix C: Properties of
Pipe
291
rz.75o"
r00
o.D.
140
12"
160 1.312 160.3
prpx
60
80
I20
1.000
Wall Designation
std.
.330
43.E
XS
.406 .500 65.4
47 .0
ThicknessIn.
.562
.687 4,r.0
PipeLbs/Ft
.843
1.125
49.6 49.0
53.5
48.5
73.2 46.0
WsterLbs/Ft
5l.t0
8E.5 1t07.2
r25.5
39.3
r39.7
37 .5
49.7
4r.6
34.9 375
{?
nuj
lr9
80 60
t57
3 104
2
7a 167
1.3
IEl
1.3
360
r32 Lateral
Reducer
180
273
5.4
5.4 44 .7
38
33
30
94
Crp
Temperature Range 'tr'
t9
r00199 200299 300399 400499 500599 600699 7007s9 800899 900999 10001099 11001200
{iryTiu Y
Silicate
Nom. Tbick.,In.
1%
6.04
1%
6.04
2 E.13
2tz
10,5
3 12,7 3 17.7
3%
15.1
4%
17.9
4%
20.4
Lbs/Ft Lbs/Ft
Nom. Thick.,In.
t7.9
4
26.7
20.4
{ 7
z
tion
3%
4 267 4
4%
4%
31.1
2t.9
2%
14.20
3r.l
5
Fiber
1%
1%
5.22
lrl
1%
r%
2%
14.20
Sodiuo
Lbs/Ft
Prcssure Rating psr
Cast lron
250
150 7L 137 88
r
300 400 164
1.5 163
1.5
24.@
2500
a.g
32.&
32,&
Bs$
"
o
Screwed or
t.5
l1()
!stu
Nls
lA
s\"ssF
26r 1.5
2t2
1.5
Lap Joint
96 177
11E
164
1.5
t87
261 669
1500
E20
l6u
1919 1.5
ldsulallon.
843
tlpe bencxth \reigl,f. js reight frctor for Insulrtion thickncsses and base<l on aver:rte
suecific
is rvciqht in
434
1.5
r.5
902 928
neights are
1573 1775
209 509
341
E15
1.5 
,{t 2Ld ,. Al
265 375
453 5.2
345 5 485
EA z&4
j
6.2
235
6.2
3E3
6.2 4.3
513
l59E
6.2
4.5
943
tliicknesses of materirls. Iirsul:rtion Neighis are l,rsrd on E5% mrgncsiu and hrdrous calcium silicxte at lL lbs/'cubic loot. The listed thickncsscs and Ncishts of combinrtion covering aie the sums of thc inner loier of dirrtomlceous ctrth at 21 lbs/cubic
4.3
403
4.3
684
dflq 1.{3
8.3
1420
?0s
9.3
2770 4650 8
687
l29a
4 r200 9.5. I160 9.5
7.a
*@
rqJ
Globi or Angle
80E
9.4
674 9.4
7r0
5 560
720
1410
{={t
'
16 lb cu.
2600 8 2560
6
3370 8
ts0
ft.
BonnetGate BonnetGIobe
45t5
7
Crlst iron vtlye wciqlrts &rc lor flangctl end v0lves: stccl \eichts Jor rrcltiine cnd vclves. 
Vrtr
rrcights
rtc
errnloriobt:rin
vnlvc rn4 lixfigc \rcigirts include thc proportionrl Ncight lcight of bolts or studs to make mrkc up rrn all rll joints. ininlq
.\lt
292
14"
ptnE
14" o.D.
{?
z
.
EJJ /\
{t}
fh
t =;t
\t/
Temnr.r:1turc Rrngc Nlaguesia
'F
2 Calcium
F
Conlbina
Nom.
Thick.,In.
tlon
Fibe!Sodium
ffi
z
Boldlacc
insulation.
6{rls ds]s
Elsisp
Insulation lhicknesscs
thicknesses of materials. Insulation tieights al.e based on E5fi magnesia and hvdrous ralcium silicate at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The
and average
z
.
D' .{
t&
/A ,11 // ,\
lorvances
can
+.{
@ r)
the \\'ejght facior by the lYeight pcr foot oI covering used on straight, pipe.
+<t
scigbts from tha manufrcturer. CasL ilon valve Neights are for flanged end vrlvcs; steel *eights
rc
vrlve end frcnge $rights include the proportionri \rcighi of holts or studs to meke up all joints.
All
flanged frttiDg, *
flanged
16 lb cu.
ft.
density
I
Appendix C: Properries oi
Pipe
2gl
ro'o.o.
16t'
prpt
G
t4
L!_r'
z
F
z
B
{l\
!+i
L4J
f>\
e4'4
r't\
f.+l
Temperature liange
'F
11001200
! i
6
z
tion
Cornbina
Sodium
Se
z
s{N
Nis
s\sf
z .
Insulation thicknesses and ireights .Ire bascd on avcrrge conditions and clo not consiir.u[e
lnsul<on.
recommendrtion
d
,N
tion \\'eights are brsed on 859% magnesil and hydrous cllciui silicate rt ll lbs/cuLic [oot. 'Ihe
for
succitic
combrlctlon covering ace the sums of the inner laier qI dia11 lbs/cubic foot.
!!!q
_ Insuiation
To_
vas,.bands and' pxint, but not find Lhe weight of covering fittines.
1"<3
E
@ fi1
weight flctor bl the werght.pcr foot uf covcriDg uscd on strxrqht DlDe, Valve rriiel,ts al,rrroxi
on llxngcs, vnlves or
multipl] te
+<t
l4
vrlve $cishts cre for flangcd cud valvesi stiel $eiehts for rvelding end v:rlves.
vclve and flxngc ncights i clude the proportionrl weight of bolts or studs to make up all joints.
manui:rciuror
frxnged
'
16 lb cu.
ft. density.
294
18"
prpo
18" o.D.
{.!r'
z
F F
z
B
&\
\JJ
'fonrl)erllturc
{T\ t\"
a+!
f>\
I5:I
lhrlac'Ir
2 Calcium o
F f
FiberSodium
ffi
z
Soldface i,r'pc
is rrcight in
tlpc
benecth
for
stfN$
Nls
qN
7
F
lecommcnd:ltion
specific
r7
,N
4!44
11 ibs/cubic foot,
D',
.S
Brl
@
IU
+<t
\\cights from the manuf&cturer. Cast ilon velve \Yeights &re for for
flanged end valves; stecl weights u clding end valvbs. fl:rnged fitting, flanged
rc
valve and fiange \\riHhts include the proportion:rl \cight of bolts or studs to make up all joints. * 16 lb cu. ft. deDsity.
All
Appendix C: Properties of
Pipe
295
zo"
o.D.
20"
ptpp.
PipeLbs/ I t $ atcrl,bs,,lft
L=I
fl LJ!
f\ w {l\
to
F4'1
1100r200
Magnesis,
Calcium Combina
!ton
FiberSodium
4dJ$
z
$fu
Njis
qlss,rs
Insulrtion
A
le{
,N
/Ai
,8.
comlrinotidl covoring rio the sums of the irrner l:uer of rlirtornsceous crrth rlt 21 lbs (ul)ic
silicllte rrt 1l lbs ruhit foot. The listc(l tl\i(,lincsscs r!n(l rvcislrts of
ll)s'(ul)i0 foot.
prLint, but, not su frlco {inishos. To liud tho \\ c;ght of covcring ,rrr l1lLrrg' s, vrl!(s or fittirrgs,
ill
@ flr\
+<{
'
16 Ib cu.
leig[i lrcl foot JI coverirrA uscd orr stlLlight l)il)c. itlvu $1 i{lrts rlc rr)r,ro\iol,trin nrxto. \\'lrrn possil,lc,
fllugctl cnrl v:rlvcs; stccl Neights for lel<lins end vulvrs.
vlllve &n(l llllngc ryci'alrts il)(ludc thc prol)ortionrl \ycight of l)olts or studs to mrke up ull joir)ts.
n1'ights from thc nlxnulllcturcr. OlL\t, irorr vxlvc NoigLts urc for
rc
ilrrngcd
ft.
deDsity.
296
24" ptpB
\\'rll
24, o.D.
Dcsigrr,rtiou
1,!J
f,.d
t
{i} 1_'*,.1
14'1
t\
{G
/i\ t Lrt
\*t"J
'IcnDer:lturc llcngc "F
it
Magnesia,
Calcium Conrbine
tiolr
FiberSodium
ffi
z
j
Boldfrre
is weight in
and
is $eight factor
for
+r[1$
Insulation thicknesses
N+S
l:N
/14 ,N
recommendction for specific of msterials. Insuletion $cights are b.rsed on 857, magncsia and hydrous calcium silicste rt 1l lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and \eiqhts of combination covering are the sums of the inner laver of diatomaceous certh at 2l lbs/cubic
thicknesscs
/>
ffi
3
.{ l,, DS
ll lbs/cubic foot. Insulation *eights include al, loNMces 1ot wlre, cement, canspeciel surface finishes. To find the geieht of coverins on Banges, vrlvis or 6ttinss] muJtipll the rreight factor by the \aeiglrt.lrrr foot ol covering used on sLrsrght DlDe. \'Rlvt $ciehts rre annroxiobtain mxtc. \\'hen possiblc,
@ fi1
J<t
rc
vxlve ar)d {lrngc seights include thc proporiiunxl \reight of bolts or sLuds to mekc up all ioints. * 16 lb cu. ft. deDity.
\'eights from thi manuflcturer. Cast iron valve \icights :rre for frengcd end v:rlvcs, steeJ *eights
I
Appendix C: Properties of
pipe E7
za"
o.o
26tt
prpt
fif
7
F
IL4J
ur'
E=:l
F
{l}
4\"
u/
Celcirrm = irrltcate o
F A
Temperature Range
llagnesi.r
'F
tion
;r:r:::::
FiberSodium
ffi$
S{''l$ Nls
d\slN]
z 3
t4
aglg
/'41
,N />
B,s Ht
canvas, bands and paint. but not special surface finishes. To find the weiqht of cover
foot and the outer laver at i1 lbs/cubic foot. Insulation weiphts include allowances for w_ire, cement,
Insulation thicknesses and weights are based on average conditions and do not consaitute a recommendation for specific thicknesses of materials. Insulation weights ale based on 85% masnesia and hydrous calcium siiicate at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and weights of combination covering are the sums of the inner later of diatomaceous ealth it 21 lbs/cubic
ror lnsulalron.
Boldface tvDe is weisht in pounds. Lighiface typ"e beneath weight is weight factor
F<]
@ lll')
FqJ
+<f
*
16 lb cu.
weights from manufacturerCast iron valve weights are for flanged end valves: steel valve and flange welghts include.the prolo.rtiohal weight oI oorls or studs to make uD
densit\.
covering used on straiqht Dipe. Valve weishts are aoorbiimate. When possible. bbtain
ft.
all joints.
298
28"
prpn
28" o.D.
ff
F
z
F
{i\ E::I
4\.
tt! fFr
f^ w
&?
\iJ
&
EN
z
F F
ffi
A
Nis
weights are based on average conolllons and do not constltute a recommendation for specific thicknesses of matebased on 8570 masnesia and hydrous calcium silicat4 at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and weishts of combination coverind are the sums of the inner lafer of diatomaceous earth at 21 lbs/cubic
#
,N /9N
D',
foot and the outer laver at 11 lbs/cubic foot, Insulation weiehts include allowances for wlre, cement,
ing on flanges, valves or fittings, multiply the weight factor by the weight per foot of
canvas, bands and paint. but 6nishes. hot special surface To find the weisht of covei
'il FJl
l"<3
ll
@
m
li
cu. ft. density.
+<i
l
rc
weightsforweldingend valves. All flansed fittins. flansed valve andflanse wiiehts "include.the propo!tional wei ght ol Dolts or studs to make ur)
weights from manufacturer, Cast iron valve weishts are for flanged ehd valves; steel
covering used.on straight pipe. v arve welghts are approxtmat. When possible, obtain
16
all joints,
if,
Appendix C: Properties of
Pipre Ag "rpe
Bo'o.D.
30"
45
ur'
z
ii
lj:I
{i\
i .4\"
\tJ
!l
Temperature Range \Iagnesia
Calcium
'F
FiberSodirrm
ffi
z
Boldface ti,pe is weight in pounds. Lightface type beneath wight is weight factor
IOr lnsulailon.
sf,J$
Nl$
{f.,::r:q} z
F
4l
,\
7
B,s
i;>t
\
ltl
.ll,
Insulation weights include allorvances for wire, cement, canvas, bands and paint, but not special surface ffnishes. To find the weight of covering on flanges, valves or fittings, multiply the weight faccovering used.on straight pipe. v alve werEhts are approxr
nation covering are the sums of the inner layer of diatomaceous earth at 21 lbs/cubic foot and the outer layer. at 1l lbs/cubic foot
based on 85i. maqnsia and hydrous calcium siticate at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and weights of combi
Insulation thicknesses and weights are based on average conditions and do not constitute a recommendation for specific thicknesses of matelials. Insulation vreights are
u> /
@t
e$+
* 16 lb cu. ft. density.
mate. When possible,;btain weights from manufacturer. Cast iron valve weights are for flanged end valves; steel valve anO nanqe werghts rnweights for weldingend valves. All flanged 6tting, flanged
clude,the proportionai wei ght oI, oolEs or studs !o make up alI Joln!s.
300
32"
prcn
82, o.D.
{!r'
z
F
2 b
LLi
{l\
I i)
f,t\ ri\
E::t
\tJ
Temperature Range
Magnesia Calcium Z Siliccte
.F
5 tion
UOmOrna
FibrSodium
$fu
fs],m
qJt.rrr.:qs
ffi
Boldface type is weight in pounds, Lightface type beneath weight is weight factof weights are based on average conditions and do not constitute a recommendation fo! specifrc thicknesses of hate
and
z
F tr
d
D' .f B_{i
9.4
/.4
AI
nation covering are the sums of the inner layr of diatomaceous earth 11 lbs/cubic foot.
11
Fdl
@
D
lt
cu.
+<i
'
16
mate. When possible, obtain weights from manufacturer. Cast iron valve weights are for flanEed end valves; steel
rc
weights forweldingendvalves, All flanged fi tting, flanged varve ano nange werEhts lnclude the proDortional weisht of bolts o; stjuds to makeup
density.
ft.
all joints.
!r
Appendix C: Properties of
Pipe
3Ol
84'o.D.
34"
prpt
z
F tr
z
F
b {T\
"t\ \IJ
TJ/
//\" E_=_=iI
FiberSodium
ffi
2 3
Boldface type is weight in pounds. Lightface type beneath weight is weight factor
and
stits
Sqls$
weights are based on average conditions and do not constitute a recommendation for specific thicknesses of mate
N
z
t
F
11
/AJ /14
.al
AI
A
i'a
of the inner laier of diatomaceous earth ai 21 lbs/cubic foot and the outer layer at 11 lbs/cubic foot. allowances
+.{
+<i
r
16 lb cu.
canvas, bands and paint, but not special surface finishes. To find the weight of covering on flanges, valves or frttings, multiply the weight fac
for u'ire,
cement,
@ a
mata. When possible, obtain weights from manufacturer. Cast iron valve weights are for flanged end valves; steel
rc
ft.
deDsity.
valve and flange weights include,the proportional weight oI Dolrs or stucts to make uD
all joints.
302
36tt
prpo
s6, o.D.
WaterLbs/Ft
f.;
L.R.90' Elbow
{t/ /\ I tt
{} dJ
L_r!
tr
; 44"
\tJ
Temperature Range "F
Ilrgnesir
z
F
Crlcilrm.
J Com !ton
z
FiberSodirm
ffi
6{,l$
Boldface type is weight in pounds. Lightface type beneath weight is weight factor
N*S
$:T,\1I
tute a
.4 /.4
F
/.tl
,\
z
hyd.ous calcium silicate at 11 ibs/cubic foot.The listed thicknesses and weights of combination covering are the sums of the inner layer of diatomaceous earth at 21 lbs/cubic foot and the outer layer at 11 lbslcubic foot, allowances
Fd3
ing on flanges, valves or fittings, multiply the weight factor by the weight per foot of
mate. When possible, obtain weights from manufacturer. Cast iron valve weiqhts are
weights forweldingend valves. All flanged fitting, flanged valve ano nange werghts rnclude the proportional weieht of. bolts oi siuds to make'up
coveri ng used.on straight pipe. v arve wergnrs are approxl
canvas, bands and paint, but not special surface finishes. To find the weight of covet
F{]
fi^l
+<l
FsO
steel
all lolnls.
304
NTO
MULTIPLY 8Y
2.998 x l0'o
TO COI{VERT
ll{T0
Srancal/sec watts tootlbs/sec
hoasepower
MULTIPLY BY 0.0700
3.929 x 10. 0.2931 12.96 0.02356
t0
160
horsepoweahrs
Hectaae or
lx1O5
.4047 43,560.0
4,O47. 1.562 x
8tu/min
Btu/min
Btu/man
kilowatts
watts
0.01757
17.57
Btu/sq ft/min
4,840,
43,560.0 3.259 x 6.452
l0 '
105
o.t22l
ft
meter
In.
1.818 x 10 1.2445
2,t50.4
0.03524
35.24
cfi
meter
l0l
0.1550
1,550.0 6.452 x 10 3,500.0 0.03731 1.257
4.0
64.0 32.0
mete.
10.
.
Calories, gram (mean) Candle/sq. cm 8.T.U. (mean) Lambeds Lamberts sq meters Fahrenheit grams 3.9685 x
coutonbs
faradays grlberts ampturns/ In.
10:
2.540
100.0
3.142 .4470
t.257
0.3937
39.37
(C'x9/5)+32
0.01 .3382
1.0
0.4950
0.01
o.0244
0.o1257
centiliters
centimeters centimetels
centrmeters
liters
feet inches kilometers meters
.6103 2.705
0.0r
3.281 x
10'
0.3937
100.01
5
Acre (US)
sq. yards
acreS
1x 10.
.0247
centimeters centimeters
centameters
119,60
o.02471
100.0 1.495 x
76.O
Astronomical Unit
Atmospheres atmospneres atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres almospheres almospheres atmospheres
sq meters Kilometers
centimeters centimetels
centimeteFdynes centimeteFdynes centimeterdynes centimetergrams
Ton/sq. inch cms of mercury ft of water (at 4"C) in. of mercury (at 0.C)
xgs/ sq cm
10
cm8rans cfidynes
meterkgs Poundfeet
.007348 33.90
29.92 1.0333 10,332. 14.70 1.058
centimetergrams
centrmetergfams centjmeters of mercury centrmeters of mercury centimeters of mercury centimeters of rnercury centimeters of mercury centameters/s?c
meterkgs
pound{eet
atmospneres feet of water kgs/sq meter
l05
Pounds/sq in.
0.01316
pounds/sq ft
7056.
105.0
42.O
barrels (ojl)
oars
ga
ons
gallons (oil)
atmospheres oynes/sq cm kgs/sq meter
bars
Dars
0.9869
106
bars
bars
Batyl
1.020 x 10. 2,089, 14.50 1.000 10.409 1.0550 x 10'o 77a.3 3.931 x 1,054.8
centimeterc/sec centimeters/sec centimeters/sec centimeterc/sec centimeters/sec centimeters/sec centimeterc/sec/sec centimeters/sec/sec centimeters/sec/sec centimeters/sec/sec
Chain Chain Chains (surveyors' or Gunter's)
Pounds/sq in.
0.1934
1.1969 0.03281 0.036
meters/min
m
0.1943 o.02237
3.728 x 10. 0.03281
iles/hr
fiiles/min
feet/sec/sec
kms/hrlsec
meters/sec/sec
0.036
0.01
miles/hrlsec
Inches meters yards sq cms sq mils Radians sq inches
o.02237
792.0O
8tu 8tu
Btu
LiterAtmosphere
ergs
20.12
22.OO
lootlbs joules
gramcaiones hofsepowerhrs
btu
Btu
10 
l0.
10'
8tu
Btu Btu
Btu
/hr
o.2520 r07.5
2,928 x
circular mils
Cords
lO.
o.2162
8
2.998 x 10 1.036 x 10!
L
Appendix D: Conversion Factors
305
INTO
coulombs/sq coulombs/sq coulombs/sq coulombs/sq coulofibs/sq coulombs/sq
cu feet cu Incnes in. meter cm meter crh in.
MUI.TIPLY BY
101
0.1550 6.452 x 10' 3.531 x 10 5 0.06102 106 1.308 x 10. 2.642 x 10. 0.001 2.113 x 10l 1.057 x 10' 0.8036
10.
cu mete6
cu yards gallons (U. S. liq.)
CONVERT degrees/sec degrees/sec degrees/sec dekagrafis dekaliters dekameters Drams (apothecaries' or troy) Drams (apothecaries' or troy) Drams (U.S., fluid or apoth.)
TO
olams drams drams Dyne/cm
INTO
MULTIPLY BY
0.01745 0.1667 2.778 x LO .
10.0
liters
metets ounces {avoidupois} ounces (troy)
10.0
10.0
0.r371429
0.125 1.7718 27.3437 0.0625
.01
24320.O ,728.O
0.02832 0.03704 7.44052
Erglsq. millimete.
Inch of lVercury at 0'C Inch of Water at 4'C grams
2432
59.84 29.92
l0 l0 l0'
l05
cubic feet/min cubic teet/min cubic teet/min cubic feet/min cubic feet/sec
cubic feet/sec
cubic inches cubic inches cubic inches cubic inches cublc inches cubic inches cubic inches cubic inches cubic inches cubic meters
cuDrc meters cubic meters cubic meters cubic meters cubic rneterc cubac meters cubac meters cuorc meters cubic yards
472.0
o.1247
dynes dynes
dynes
pounds
0.4720
62.43 0.646317 448.831 5.787 x l0. 1.639 x 10s 2.I43 x 105 4.329 x t03 0.01639 1,061 x 105 0.03463
oynes/sq
cfi
oars
Etl Erl
Em, Pica
erg5 erg5 ergs ergs ergs
114,30
45 .4233 cm/sec
1.000 9.480 x 10r' 1.0 7.367 x 10i 0.2389 x 10' 1.020 x 10: 3.7250 x 10la 10 r 2.389 x l0 rr 1.020 x 10  0.2778 x 10 'o 5,688 x 10 ' 4.427 x lO6 7.3756 x l0l 1.341 x l0ro 1.433 x 10 , 10 r0
lite.s
malfeet pints {U.S. tiq.) quarts tU.S. liq.) bushels (dry)
Btu dynecentrmeters
o.ot132
28.38
106
foofpounds
gram.cmS
r,000.0
2,113.0
ergs ergs
105
kilowatlhrs
watt'houts
O.2J78x IO tt
r,057.
7.646 x
27.O
Btu/min ftlbs/min
ftlbs/sec
horsepo\der
46,656.0
o.7646
202.O
kgcalories/min kilowatts
cubic yards/min
cubic yards/min cubic yards/min
106
feet
0 Dalton
days Gram
leet
1.650 x 1.0r. 86,400.0
0.1 0.1 0.1
centimeters
krlometers meters mrles (naut,) miles (stat.)
decrgrams
seconds grams
deciliters
oecrmeters degrees (angte) degrees (angte) degrees (angle)
Irers
meterS
qua0ranr5
raclrans Seconos
0.01r1t
0.01745 3,600.0
millimeters m ils
armospneres rn, of mercury
9.6500 x lcr. 26.80 9.649 x lcr. 1.828804 6.0 30.48 3.048 x l0r 0.3048 1.645 x 10. 1.894 x 10 . 304.8 1.2 x I Cl. 0.02950 0.8826
kgs/sq cm
0.03048
306
r'lT0
MULTIPLY BY
304.8 62.43 0.4335
TO CONVERT
g.ains grains grains grains
{troy) (troy) (troy) (troy) grains/l.J.S. gal Srains/U.S. gal graans/ lmp. gal
Srarns
INTO
grains (avdp) grams ounces {avdp) pennyweight (troy)
MULTIPLY gY
1.0
leet/nin
feet/min teet/min
feet/ rn in feet/ rnin
poLrnds/sq in.
0.06480
2.0833 x 101
0.5080
0.01667 0.01829 0.3048 0.01136 30.48 1.097 0.5921
14.29
kms/hr
meters/min
parts/million
pounds/million gal
0.04167
17.118 142.86
miles/hr
cms/sec
parts/million
dynes grains
14.286
kms/hr
knot5
grams grams
Srams Srams Srarns
meters/min
leet/sec/sec
feet/sec/sec feet/sec/sec feet/sec/sec feet/ 100 feet
Foot
miles/hr miles/min
cms/sec/sec
grams grams
Srams Srams
kms/hrlsec
meters/sec/sec
miles/hrlsec
per cent graoe Lumen/sq. meter Btu
ergs
0.3048 0.6818
1.0
candle
10.764
foofpounds
footpounds
r.286 x 10 l
107
foofpounds
foot.pounds footpounds
l0 '
liter
grams/ liter
grarns/liter
grams/sq cm gram'calofle5 Sramcatofles gramcalories gramcatofle5 gramcalones
foo!pounds
foot'pounds/ min footpounds/ min
kgmeters kilovr'atthrs
Btu/min
footpounds/sec kgcalories/ min
tootpounds/min
toofpounds/min
footpounds/man
kilowatts
3.24 x 10. 0.1383 3.766 x 10 , 1.286 x 10 ! 0.01667 3.030 x 10 ' 3,24 x 10 . 2.260 x lO 5 o.o7717 1.818 x 10' 0.01945 r.356 x 10' 0.125 40.0 660.0
980.7 15.43 joules/cm 9.807 x 10! joules/rneter (newtons) 9.807 x 10r kilograms 0.001 milligrams 1,000. ounces (avdp) o.03527 ouhces (troy) 0.03215 poundals 0.07093 pounds 2.205 x 10r pounds/inch 5.600 x 10l pounds/cu ft 62.43 pounds/cu in 0.03613 pounds/milfoot 3.405 x 10' graans/gal 58.417 pounds/ gal 8.345 pounds/cu ft 0.062427 parts/mallaon 1,000.0
pounds/sq tt
2.0481
3.9683 x 4.1868 x
8tu
ergS
10!
l0'
footpounds horsepowerhrs
3.0880
1.5596 x 1.1630 x 1.1630 x
10 .
gramcalo es gmmcalories/sec
gramcentimeters gramcentimeters gramcentimeters gramcentimeters gramcentimeters
kilowatthrs
watthrs
l0.
l03
8tu/hr
Btu/min
horsepower kg'calories/man
Btu/hr
Btu
ergs
t4.2a6
l0
5
furlongs turlongs
feet
Hand
Cm.
10.16
2.47
gallons Sallons Salrons gallons Sallons gallons gallons (liq. Br. Imp.)
3,785.0
0.1337
231.0 3.785 x 10' 4.951 x 101 3.785 1.20095 0.83267 8.3453 2.228 x lO I
sq feet grams
hectoliters
hectometers hectowatts hennes Hogsheads {British) Hogsheads (U.S.) Hogsheads (U.S.) horsepower
ho15epower
liters
meters watts
r00.0
100.0 100.0 1,000.0 10.114
liters
gallons (U.S. !iq.) gallons (lmp.) pounds oJ water cu ft/sec
8.42184 4?.44
33,000. 550.0
in
Bt!/min
gallons/min
gallons / m in gausses gausses gausses gausses
0.06308
8.0208
6.452 10 
6.452 x
10l
10.
0.7958
gilberts
ampturns/cm
amp{urns/jn
amp{urns/meter cubrc cm. liters pints (liq.)
Radian
0.7958 2.021
79.58
gills gills
t4?.07 0.1183
0.25
Grade
Gins
drams (avoirdupois)
.0t571 0.035s7143
horsepower horsepower (metric) (542.5 ft lb/sec) horsepower (550 ft lb/sec) horsepower horsepower horsepower horsepower (boiler) horsepower {boiler) norsepowernrs norsepowernts norsepowernrs horsepowerhrs norsepowerhrs
0.9863
1.014 10.68 0.7 457
7
kgcalories/min kilowatts
watts Btu
ergs
45.7
Bt!/hr
kilowatts lootlbs
gramcalories
33.479 9.803
2,547.
2.6845 x 10r' 1.98 x 1Cl' 641,190. 2,684 x 10.
joules
1
Appendix D: Conversion
Factors T7
i,ULTIPLY BY
641.1 2.737 x LA o.7457 4.167 x 10t 5.952 x 10t 112 0.05 1600 100 0.0453592
TO CONVERT kilograms/sq cm
kalograms/sq cm kilograms/sq cm
INTO
MULTIPLY 8Y
kilowatthrs
days
heter
meter
meter meter
0.0446429
centimeters
meters
2.540
2.540 x 1.578 x 25.40
kilogram.calories
10r 10,
I,000.0
inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches
ol mercury
of of of of
mercury mercury mercury mercury of water (at 4'C) ot wate. (at 4'C) of water (at 4'C) of water (at 4'C) oI water (at 4'C) of water (at 4'C) lnternational Ampere International Volt
kilogramcalories kilogramcalories kalogram meters kiiogram meters kilogram meters kilogram meters kilogram meters kilogram meters
"
)
joules joules joules joules ioules iouies/cm joules/cm joules/cm
joules/'cm
JOules
joules/cm
Btu ergs footpounds kgcalories kgmeters watGhrs grams dynes joules/meter(newtons) poundals pounds
K
9.480 x
107
10'
l0'
dynes 980,665. grams 1,000.0 joules/cm 0.09807 joules/meter(newtons) 9.8Q7 poundals 70.93 pounds 2,205 9.842 x 10l tons (long) tons (short) 1.102 x !0 ' grams/cu cm 0.001 pounds/cu ft 0.06243 pounds/cu in. 3.613 x l0' pounds/milfoot 3.405 x l0'o pounds/ft 0.6720 980,665 Dynes 0.9678 atmospheres 32.81 leet of water
kilometers/hr kilometers/hr kilometers/hr kilometers/hr kilometers/hr kilometers/hr kilometers/hr/sec kilometerc/hr/sec kilometers/hrlsec kilometers/hr/sec kilowatts kilowatts kilowatts kilowatts kilowatts kilowatts kilowatt'hrs kilowatthrs kilowatthrs kilowatthrs kilowatthrs kilowatthrs kilowatthrs kilowatthrs kilowatthrs kilowatthrs
knots
t(hots
mercury 24.96 ft 2,048. in. 14.22 atmospheres 9.678 x l0' bars 98.07 x 10 ' feet ot water 3.281 t 10 2.896 x 101 inches of mercury pounds/sq ft 0.2048 pounds/sq in. 1.422 x 10 t kgs/sq meter lcl' Btu 3.968 footpounds 3,088. hphrs 1.560 x l0 I joules 4,185. kgmeters 426.9 kiiojoules 4.186 kilowatthrs 1.163 x 10' Btu 9.294 x l0 I ergs 9.804 x 10t footpounds 7,233 joules 9.804 kgcalories 2.342 x 1O' kilowatt.hrs 2,723 x lO'. maxwells 1,000.0 liters 1,000.0 centimeters lot feet 3,281, inches 3.937 x 1Cl. meters 1,000.0 miles 0,62f 4 millimeters lO yards 1,094. cms/sec 27.74 feet/min 54.68 feet/sec 0.9113 knots 0.5396 merets/ fltn lt.t / miles/hr 0.6214 cms/ sec/ sec zl,Ia ft/sec/sec 0.9113 meters/sec/sec 0.2718 mifes/hrlsec 0.6214 Btu/min 55.92 footlbs/min 4,426 x W footlbs/sec 737.6 horsepower 1.341 kgcalo.ies/min 14.34 watts 1,000,0 Btu 3,413. ergs 3.600 x 10rt footlbs 2.655 x 106 gramcalories 859,850. horsepowerhrs 1.341 joules 3.6 x lcl. kgcalories 860.5 kgmeters 3.671 x lot
inches of
pounds/sq pounds/sq
xnols
knots
at212'F. 3.53 tuon62'to272'F. 22.75 teet/hr 6,080. kilometers/hr 1.8532 1.0 nautical miles/hr statute miles/hr 1.151
pounds of water raised
308
INTO
Yards
MULTIPLY 2,027.
1.689
8Y
m
TO CONVERT
microhms ohms
INTO
MULTIPLY BY
lhl
L
feet/sec
miles (approx.) Miles Kilometers
8aus5e5 Sausses
icroliteIs
(naut.) (naut,) (naut.) (naut.) (statute) (statute)
liters
meters
Microns
miles (naut.)
feet
kilometers
meteas
9.46091 x 101!
1.0
0.1550
1.550 x 10r
l.l.516
2,027. 1,609 x 6.336 x
webers/sq in.
webers/sq meter tncnes Inches bushels (U.S, dry) cu cm cu feet cu inches cu meters cu yards gallons (U.S. liq.)
l0l
centimeters feet
Inches kilometerc
l0'
10
1,550 x
12.O
10'
{statute)
(statute) (statute) (statute) (statute)
r.509
r,609. 0.8684
1,760. 44.70 88. 1.467
metels
males (naut.)
yaros
6r.02
0.001 1.308 x
l0!
liters
lrters
o.2642
1.057 5.886 x 10' 4.403 x r0 ' 1.0
liters
liters/min liters/rhin
Lumen Lumen
gals/sec
footcandles Spherical candle power Watt Lumon/sq. meter
miles/hr miles/hr miles/hr miles/hr miles/hr miles/hr m iles/hr miles/hr miles/hr/sec miles/hr/sec rniles/hrlsec
males/hr/sec niles/ min
miles/
m
cms/sec
teet/min
feet/sec
kms/ht
kms/min
knots
l.609
o.o26a2
0.8584
26.42 44.70 1.467 1.609
rfieters/min
miles/min
chs/sec/sec feet/sec/sec
kms/hrlsec
meters/sec/sec cms/5ec teet/sec kms/min
knots /rn in
.079s8 .001496
10.76
0.4470 2,642.
88. 1.609
in
lur
foot'candles
M
0.0929
0.8684
60.0 9.425 x 1,000. 0.001 1.0 0.001 0.001
0.1
miles/hr
cu inches
kilograms meters gra ins
Srams
10.
kilolines
megarnes megohns
megohms
0.001
1C'
l0.
10r'
1x 10t
0.01543236
mrcrohms ohms
1oi
100.0 3.281 0.001 5.396 x 6.214 x
nilligrams/liter
millihenries
parts/million
henraes
centimeters feet
tnches kilometers miles {naut.} miles (stat.)
millilites
millimeters millimeters
10' 10'
millimete6
millimeterc millimeters millimeters millimeters millirneters million Sals/day m ils
3.281 x
10t
0.03937
l0.
millimeters
yards
varas
r,000.0
1.094 1.179
rles
10'
10!
cms/sec
teet/min
teet/sec kms/hr
knots males/hr
feet / min
3.28r
0.05458 0.06 0.03238 0.03728 196.8 3.281 3.6 0.06 0.03728 100.0 2.237 9.807 x
105
lnils
rTr
centimeters feet
IncneS
tls
meters/min melers/sec
mils
mils
miner's inches
Manims (U.S,,
fieters/sec
meters/sec meters/sec
me(ers/5ec
Minims (British)
fluid)
miles/min
cms/sec/sec ft/sec /sec
kms/hrlsec miles/hr/sec
cmdynes
cm8lams poundfeet farads
Srams meEonms
meterkilograms meterkilograms
mrcrotarad micrograms mtcronms
1CP
1.54723
2.778x 1O,
1.f,
10.
l0r
l0.
nepers Newton
Dynes
decibels
1x105
309
MULTIPLY
BY
TO
CONVERT
INTO
MULTIPLY 8Y
1.0005
megohms
10,
10. 16.0
(fluid) (fluid)
mrcrohms drams grains grams pounds ounces (troy) tons (long) tons (metricJ cu inches
(troy) (troy) (troy) (troy) (troy) (troy) (troy) pounds of water pounds of water pounds of water pounds of water/man poundfeet
ounces {avdp.) ounces (troy) pennyweights {troy) pounds (avdp.) tons {long) tons (metric) tons (shoft) cu feet cu Inches
ga
12.0 240.0 0.a22457 3.6735 x 10r 4.1143 x 10 0.01602 27.64 0.1 198 2.670 x 10r 1.356 x 10' 13,825.
3.7324x 1o'
'
Ions
liters
grains grams ounces (avdp.) pennyweights (troy) pounds (troy)
pound{eet pounds/cu pounds/cu pounds/cu pounds/cu pounds/cu pounds/cu pounds/cu pounds/cu pounds/ft
pounds/ in.
480.0
31.103481 1.09714 20.0 0.08333
0.1383
0.01602
ft tt
ft
t6.02
5.787 x 5.455 x 2.768 x 1,724. 9.425 x 1.488
178.6
10'
ft
an.
pounds/mil{oot
gms/c(1 cm
10'
ounces/sq rn.
4309 0.0625
l0'
10
6
pounds/mil{oot
Parsec Patsec
parts/million
parts/mill,on
0.0584
0.07016 8.345 554.6 9.091901
parts/million
Pecks (British) Pecks (Britash) Pecks (U.S.) Pecks (U.S.) Pecks (U.S.) Pecks (U.S.) pennyweights {troy} pennyweights {troy) pennyweights (troy) pennyweights {troy) pints (dry) pints (liq.) pints (liq.)
pounds/million gal
cubic inches
liters
bushels cubic inches
8.809582 8
24.O
pounds/milfoot pounds/sq ft pounds/sq ft pounds/sq ft pounds/sq ft pounds/sq ft pounds/sq rn. pounds/sq in. pounds/sq in. pounos/sq In. pounds/sq in.
almospneres feet of water inches of mercury kgs/sq rneter pounds/sq in. atmospheres inches ot mercury kgs/sq meter
4.882
6.944 x 2.307 2.036
703.1
10!
0.06804
pounds/sq ft
144.0
0.05 4.1667 x 10r 413.2 0.01671 24.47 4.732 x 10' 6.189 x 10' 0.125 quadrants (angle) quadrants {angle) quadrants (angle) quadrants (angle) quarts (dry) quarts (1,q.) quarts (liq.) quarts (laq.) quarts (liq.) quarts (liq.) quarts (liq.) quarts (liq.)
deg/ees
o
minutes
rad ra ns
cu rnches
cu cms. cu feet cu inches
90.0 5,400.0
pints (liq.) pints (liq.) pints (liq,) pints (liq.) pints (liq.) pints (liq.)
Planck's quanturn
1.57I
3.24 x 105 67.20 946.4 0.03342 9.464 x 1.238 x o.25 0.9463
cu mererS
cu yards gaons
seconds
cu Inches
cu cms cu feet
liters
quarts (liq.)
second Gram/cm. sec. Erg
o.4732
0.5 6.624 x 1011 1.00 14.5833
cu rnches
cu rneters cu yards
rotse
Pounds (avoirdupois) poundats p0unoals pounoars pounoats poundats pounoars pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds (troy) pounds (troy)
l0.
10!
t3,826.
14.10 1.383 x 101 0.1383 0.01410 0.03108 44.4823 x 7,000. 0.04448
8aIons liters
.ad ians
degrees
lcl'
3,438.
0.6366
2.063 x 9.549 0.1592 573.0 9.549
105
grains grams
4.448
0.4536 16.0 14.5833
revol!tions/min
revolutions/sec revs/min/rnin revs/min/sec
revs/sec /sec quadranls radtans oegrees/ sec
radians/sec/sec
revolutions
0.1592
360.0 4.0
32.t7
1.21528 0.0005
revoru!ons
tevolr.rtions
6.2a3
6.0 0.1047 0.01667
5,760.
373.24177
dians/sec
tevs/sec
310
MULTIPLY BY
1.745 x 0.01667
TO CONVERT
square square square square square square square square square
INTO
MULTIPLY 8Y
6.452 x
10 6
l0
mils
mrls yards yaros yards yards yards yards yards sq inches actes
sq
10'
2.778x lO.
360.0
6.283 60.0 3,600.0 60.0 5,029
16.5
cfis
radians/sec
revs/mrn radians/sec /sec
sq inches sq meters
sq males
revs/min/min
revs/min/sec Chain (Gunters) feet
grains minutes quadrants radrans Kilogram
Pounds
sq millimeters
rcds
T temperature
Scruples seconds (angle) seconds (angle) seconds (angle) seconds (angle) Slug Slug Sphere square centimeters square centimeters square centimeters square centtmeters square centimeters square cenrmelers square centameters square feet square feet square feet square feet square feet square square square square square square square square square 5quare square square square square square square square square square square
20
2.778 x 10. 0.01667 3.087 x 10. 4.848 x 106 14.59 32.17 1.973 x 10r 1.076 x l0r
temperature ("c) + 17.78 temperature temperature (" F) tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons
(long) (long) (long)
('c) +213
('F) +460
32
temperature ('C)
kilograms pounds tons (short) kilograms pounds kilograms ounces ounces (troy) pounds pounds {troy) tons (long) tons (metric) kgs/sq meter pounds/sq in. pounds of water/hr 1,016.
2,240.
1.120 1,000.
Steradians
ci.cular mils
sq feet sq inches sq mrles sq millimeters sq yards actes
0.1550
0.0001 3.861 x 100.0 1.196 x 2.296 x 1.833 x
929.O
10
rr
l0. \o'
l0!
2,205.
907.1848 32,000. 29,156.66 2,000. 2,430.56 o.a92a7
circular mils
5q crhs
144.0 sq merers
5q
0.09290
3.587 x 10r 9.290 x rd 0.1111 1.273 x 106 6.452 6.944 x 10! 645.2
106
mles
(short)/sq tt (sho.t)/sq ft tons of water/24 hrs tons ol water/24 hrs tons of water/24 hrs
0.9078
9,765. 2,000. 0.16643 1.3349
gallons/min
cu ft/ hr
feet
Incnes Inches Inches Inches Inches Incnes kilometers kilometers kilometers kilometers kiiometers kilometers kilometers meters meters metets
meteas
sq millimeters sq yards
circular mils
sq cms
sq feet sq millimeters sq mrls acres sq cms sq ft sq Inches sq miles sq yards acres sq cms
sq feet
Statvolts
.39370 .003336
7,716 x 247.1
1otr
I0 '
w
watts
Btu/hr 8tu/min
ergs/sec
3.4r29
0.05688
107.
footlbs/min
106
44.27
fooflbs/sec
0.7374
0.01.433
l0
10
'
watts
l0'
meters meters
square miles square rniles square miles square square square square square
0.056884
1
watfhours
watthours watthours watthours watthours watt.hours watthours
foofpounds
EramcaloneS norsepowerhas
2.590
2.590 x 3.098 x
1,973.
106 106
859.85
1.341 x
l01
circular mils
sq cms sq {eet
sq Inches
circular mils
0.0I
Watt (lnternational)
webers webers
0.8605
0.001 1.0002
lo
kilolines
l0'
I
Appendix D: Conlersion Synchronous Speeds
Synd'ronout Spced
Factors
311
Frsoucncy
120
N;;T;G;TREOUENCY
FNEOUENCY
50 Gyclo
2
50.y.ls
3000
t 500

60
1500 12
.ycl.
50
cy.lo
3600
't71.1
r
112.9 136.4
t
lg00
1200
8
750
500 375 300 250
11 15
18
63.6 56.5
000
30.1
900
750
600
500
t50
141
r
t2s
t20
t0 l2 l1
t6 t8
20
720
600
50
38.5 33.3
rr5.4
514.3
450
128.6
375
214.3 187.5
166 7
51
lll.t
t07.t
103
56
5S
2s.6
400
360
121.1
.5
300
150
60 62 61 66 68 70
t20
l
100
272.7
136.4
l6.l
09. I
2l
300
250
t25
1r2.5
 t
276.9
257 .1
230.8 211.3
200
It5,4

07.1
05.9
30
210
100
93
r02.9
100
97 .3
85.7
83.3
225
31
35 38
7
72 71 76
2
200
.8
176.5 166.7
8l,l
78.9 76.9
75
91.7 92.3
189.5
180
t57.9
t50
78.9
80
,t0
90
312
Temperature Conversion
NOIA Thc c.ntlr .olsm' of .'rmbcrt in boldl.ce r.ter3 to the tempe.ot'rre i. degree3, irher Cenriorodc or fohre.heir, which ii i! dcti..d ro convcrt into th. othe. .col.. lf .o.v.dine from Fohrenh.it ro Ce.ligrode degreei, lhe equivolen. tempe.oture will be found in rhe tefr coiumn, whit if Gonve.ri^s trom d.er.er Cenligrodc to desrc$ Fohrenhi.t, th. on.wer wi be found in thc cotumn on rhe righr.
Cenligrod. C.ntisrode
Cenligrode
C.nti9.od.
32 53 54 55 55 57 58 59 60
Fohr.6h.it
159.f
,150
20.6
5
0
23.0
32.0
ll.l
11.7 12.8
r
125.6
t27.1
5a.t
60.0
62
I
16.7
16.
1
l3l
t29.2
.0
.8
ato
3!0
t5.6
15.0
2 3 a
6 7
3.3
65.6
68.3 71.1
37 .1
t1.t
t2.8
4r.0 t2.g
11.6 46.1 14.2
50 .0
39.2
l3 .9 15.0 15.6
r
t1.1
266 275
281 293
302
3l
?20
3t0
360 350 330 320
!
12.2
11.7
6.l
40.0
6r
52 63 5a 55 55
t41.8
113.6 115.4
117 .2
16.7
9
ta0 3to
300 290 2ao
Ll
tl
t0
17 .2 t7 .8
tt0 tt5
t90 t95
200
t2
t3 t5
5r.8
53.6
55.1
57 .2
10.6 10.0
t4 l5
8 .9
459.1
9.1
59.0
60 .8
149.0
5f
58 69 70
r50.8
96.r
98 .9
205
40t
410
t52.6
l s4 .,(
2t0
212
215
t00.0
r02 r04
107
I
r69 r68
162
2r0
2It
l5l
157
8.3
5.7
tf
t8
20
l9
2l
5.6
361 316
310
7t.6
20.6 2t .l 2t .7
22.8 23.3 23.9 2a.1 25.0 25.6
all
7l
72
119
12e
220 225
230
t37
116 161
,3
75 75 78 79
EO
lt3
116
t0
163.4 165.2
167.O
116
t10
r31
2to
220
1.1
?3 24
75
73.1 75.2
77 .O
l8 t2l
r
t73
192
,a9l
121 127
500
509
t23 l l8
129
200 190
26.l
26.7
27 .2 27 .a
l t2 107
t!0
25
78 .a
171.2 t76 .O
't77 _g
t29
r35
r38
265
2fo 2t0
245
80.6
t60
r50 rao t30 t20
r70
2f5
290 295
300
5t8
527
l {.6
2a
a9
.7
82 .1 81 .2
EI a2
E3
536
o.0 0.6
3l
86.0
a7 .a
28.3 28.9
29 .1
l4
65 86 a7 88 89
r8l
t79.6
,1
r4I
r43
l,a6 t,a9
r83.2
185.0 186.8
r 
89.6
rr0
r00
t81
166
t.l
9l
34 35
.,(
30.0 30.6
t5{
r60
166
171
3t0
320 330 340
350
93.2
3t
31
90
30
t30.0
ta8.o
95.0
96.8
.l
8s.6
90.1
626 611
36
l
12.0
2.a 3.9 1.1 5.0 5.6 6.7 7.2 7.5 8.3 8.9 9.4
10.0
.7
37 39
lt
3l
40
98.6

32 .2
90
00 .,(
32.8
70
t03.0
91 .0
9l
92.
177
33.9
31.1 35.0
t82 t88
193
360 370
680 698
93
99.4
3t0
390 400
65 60
85.0
76.0 58.0
67 .0
{t
12
a3 44 45
94
95 95
201 .2
r99
201
5t
50
6.I
147.6  09.1
35.6
36. I
37 37
2t0
216
221
at0
420 430
{5 {0
35 30
25
19.0
40 .0 31 .0
ln.2
111.8
1 1
97
9E
15 47
48 a9 50
99
727
t00
105
13.0
40.6 43.3
46.1
l0
5
26.1
20 10
23.3
I5
,(.o
.4.0
120 .2
239
t0.6
5t
122.0 t 23.8
48.9 51 .7
t20 r25
215
257
812
860
932
forhulot ol thc right moy olro be urcd conyerling Centi!.odc or tohrcnhir inlo the orhcr i.ole.,
Des,ee3 c.r.. .c =
j er +
rot
ro
Dcsre3 Fohr.,
.F
: ! r. + rot .0
9
=
Dcaree! Kelvin,
 etr'r
223,2
c +32
+159.7
"K:oC +
Desre.. non&lne,
't :of
Appendix D: Conrersion
Facrors
313
Ke/'q
Hs Abr. 5000
,{500
Hg Ab3.
903 .7
PSIA
1526
t373
1220
1068
77 75 73
25 21 23
21
7l
70 58 66 61
20
9r5
763 6t0
,f58
17.18 17.19
I6.90
r6.62

.229 .209
.188 .169
.
6.3,r
r19
t9
t6.06
15.79 r5.51
.129
.
t500 t000
500
0
500
305
0
6l
59 57
l8 l7
t09
802.1
.091
t6 t1
12
30.t7
29.92 28.86 28.33
27 .82
l5 .23
773.9
760.O
.071
11.96
.o52
.0333
r4.696
11.43 14.16
13 .91

t53
158
716.3
733 .O
.0t5
.956
r000
t500
2000
6t0
763
915
1068
52
t1
719.6 706.5
693.9 681 ,2 668.8
.975
.960 .943
3.66
3.41
2500
3000 3500
50 a8 15 13
l0
9 7 5
t7
4000
,1500
1220 1373
t
r
3.17
2.93
.926
.909 .892
6s6.3
611.1 632.s 609.3 586.7 561.6 513.3 522.7
A29 .0
l2.69
t2.t6
12.23
.876 .860
.828 .797 .767
5000
0.95
6000 7000
8000
l
'
1526
I .7
_9
l83l
2136
2111
{t
3S 3
1.3 1.5
I
34
3l
23
I I
23.t0
22.23 2l .39 20.58
rL3,(
l0
,91
.78
9000
10,000 15,000
2716
3050
10.50
.738
20,000
25,000
30,000 35,000 40,000 45,000 50,000 55,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 t00,000
120,000 1,{0,000 160,000 180,000
t4
30
18
5
t0.10
8.29 6.76 5.46 1.37 3.17
2.73
r6.89
13.76 .12 8.903
7
.7to
.A7 5
319.5
2A2
.l
.38,(
226.1
't79 .3
111 .2
.307
.2A1
66
.060
t3,730
15,255
t6/81
18,306
70 70
1.375 3.111
t.l
?.t5
r .69
87
2.7t2
.5
.r5l
9 .0935 .0238 .0458 .0285 .o179
68.9
51.2
.4

3.3
2t,357
2A,108 27,159 30,510 36,612
62
15.2
17.1
52
 .05
.651
2t.0
8.36
3.,(5
.,(06
t8.9
22.8 26.6 30.4 31.2
37 .9
57
_26
28
59 16
5.200' 3.290'
12/11
18,8t 6 51,918
I t6
t9
12 66
I .358r
5 .9177
200,000
720,O00
t9 3
11
ft
t.5l
:!:
.255
ot
t,
gtt
3.26I  .48I
240.000 260,000
2S0.000
1t .7 45.5 19.3
53.1
86
t29
90 88
300,000
,{00,000 500.000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000
56.9 75.9
91.8
I
1.{3r
3.737
'
9.19.
l .60'
,r.06' 1.30t s.08 r 2.08l
3.566 1.506
l,{
r52
189
t,400,000
1,600.000
224 266
30,{
366,t 20 127,110
6.3
t.1,
 .6r
5.9.
5.1'
2.0,
8.2r0
,{88.t60
3.8
10
r.800.000
2.000,000
312
5!9,r80
610,200
 .8ro
9.65'
1
L 2r'
.57'
2.31e
ooro t6h N^s^ srodord {t9621. n.np.rorur. o.d bc'oi.t.' ^inoph.r. or. oppori6". to. n.qcriv. 6ftrud.,, ..T.np.rorur.t fi. ov.rog. crr,rin, .r 40. torirud. ond or! round.d ro .v.n iunh.3. lN.soriv. .rpon..t iho,! nu6b..6t rpo.d rh. d.rimot lotit mu b. iovld to ri. t.0. Courrdy hs.EollRand Co
o\
tr
b
8
a5
q
E
b
6 A
:o ao
;E
8
d
E
EI >!
b
R
o
I(l)
o,
6 b
9p EO : a:
Eg
8 q
t5
ou
iR
oer
t'g
b
8
z
o
P tr 0 F
C)
F ao
I
6
tt
.o
z t!
(9
t e
ol i +
.:ra
sj
8p Et
r=
):
:i s6
3
E
o
oq
J9
5E Ee
lo u3snnN NfAl
I
Index
ACI bearing strengths, 180 American Institute of Steel Construction. See AISC. Anchor bolts analysis, preloaded bolt, 184, 186 bolt area, required, 184 bolt loads, allowable, 187 bolt load, minimum required, 184 bolt spacing, 186 common types of, 190 large bolts, undesirability of, 184 loading force, distribution of, 186 loadings induced on, 184 lubricant, 190 philosophy, design, 184 size and number, 228 stress in, 184, 186 tension on gross area, 187 torque, anchor bolt, 189190, 229 ASME Piping Codes ASME 831.1, 48 ASME 831.3, 48 ASME B3I.4, 48 ASME B3I.5, 48 .ASME 831.8,48 ASME Section IlI, 48. Also see Pressure vessels. for piping, 48 for pressure vessels, 48 ASME Section VIII, Division II for piping, 48 Aspect ratio, 85
Baseplate design, 186189 anchor bolt size range, 186 bearing pressure on, 189 concrete foundation for, 186 concrete mixes, 186, 187
concrete modulus of elasticity of, 186 concrete and steel, relative strength of, 186 gusset plates, 188* 189
kfactor, offset, 188 steel, modulus of elasticity, 187 steelconcrete moduli ratio, 186 tension on gross area, 187 torque, anchor bolt, 189190, 229 Bernoulli equation, 2 Bingham, 67 Boundary conditions for saddle plate design, 178 Buckling coefficients for saddle plate design, 175178 Centroid, section,212 Circumferential stress, moment, 170 Codes, vessel differences in, 159 foreign, 159 Coldspring,49 Colebrook equation, 4. Also see Friction factors. Compressible flow
adiabatic
flow, 2
compressibility effects, 24 introduction to, l2, 24 isothermal flow 1 modulus, bulk compressibility, 24 nonsteady flow, 24 sound, velocity of, 24
steady flow, 24 Concrete mixes for baseplate design, 186187 Concrete modulus of elasticity, 186 Conical sections, 199, 224
316
manufacture
of,
160
bellows, corrugated, 77 gimbal joint, 79 hinged joint, 7879 inJine pressure balanced, 79 multiply, 80 pipe span, allowable, 78 pressure thrust, 7879 single ply, 80 standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association (EJMA), 80 stiffness, rotational, 78 stiffness, translational, 78 tie rods, 7879 reasons for, 78 universal joint, pressurebalanced, 78
Fanning equation, 3
control mass, 115, 131 control volume, 115, 13l electrical tracing, 103 Fourier number, 151 Grashof number, 132, 134, 153 in jacketed pipe, I 12 I l5 LMTD (log mean) chart for, 114 definition of, I 14 Nusselt number, 132, 134, 153 in pipe shoes, 135 136 application of, 156
heat balance for, 136 temperature distribution
in,
136
in pipe supports, 133 in piping temperature distribution in, 134 typical applications of, 133 134 Prandtl number, 112, 139140 in process systems, 103 in residual systems applications of, 132 deflections, thermal, 134135 overall heat transfer coefficient, 134
tubular tracers. See Tracing. in vessel skirts application of, 152 154 coefficients of, 132 convection, significance of, 133 free convection, 133
rate
of,
133
temperature, distribution oI, 132 133 Heat transfer design example, 148150 static analysis, i48 150 transient analysis, 150 152 Heisler's chart, l5l
Hesse formula, 82
Gimbal joint, 79 Grashof number, 132, 134, 153 Gusset plates, 188189 Gust (wind) effects, 194196, 236237 Guy wires, 249
Head
Horizontal pressure vessels saddle bearing plate design, 180 ACI bearing strengths, 180 bearing plate thickness, 180 factor of safety for, 180 saddle plate buckling analysis, 251 252
saddle plates
5oo
r{ 'll"i, '
application of , 249 252 boundary conditions for, 178 buckling coefficients for, 175 178
design
of,
174 179
l:;:..
effective width, 113, 178, l'79 horizontal reaction, 119, 252 stiffener plates, I74, 179
STTESS
criterion for residual, 178 elastic buckling, 179 inelastic buckling, 179 U.S. Steel design method, 174179 web plates, 174 wear plate requirements, 215 Zick analysis, 166, 215 bending moment diagram, 167 constant, circumferential bending moment, 170 introduction to, 166 saddle supports, location, criteria for, 172 shear stress, 171
shell
yieldpseudoplastic, 6 7 piping, reasonable velocities in, 25 problem formulation, 24 twoK method, 8,21 viscosity,2426 Incompressible flow. See Hydraulics. Internal pressure, 159 160
Jacketed pipe
annulus, hydraulic radius for, 112 applications of, l12115, 139 140 details of, 104106, I 12l l3
expansion joints for, 105 106 heat transfer, I 12 I l5 coefficient, film, I l2
for, 198 of inertia, for tube bundle, 222223 windinduced, 198 Moody friction factors. See Friction factors.
Myklestad method, 200201 NonNewtonian fluids. See Hydraulics. Nusselt number, 132, 134,153
compressibility effects, 24 introduction to, l2, 24 isothermal flow, I modulus, bulk compressibility, 24
nonsteady flow, 24 sound, velocity of, 24 steady flow, 24
rheopectic,67 thixotropic, 6 7
timedependent, 67 timeindependent, 67 viscoelastic, 67
API,47
318
vortex force, 83 vortex streets, 83 flexibility (compliance) matrix, 53 flexibility method, 5968, 8l advantages of, 53, 68 application of, 9598 "hotspring," 49 nozzle flexibility factors, angle of twist, 70 circumferential, 70 longitudinal, T0 Oak Ridge Phase 3 Report, 70 rotation deformation of, 70 rotational spring rate, 70 pipe loops, 5968 pipe lug supports , 7072, 9899 pipe restraints moment restraints (MRS), 5'7 59, rotational 58, 68 translational,58,68 pipe roughness, 5
prpe stress
concrete,69 matrix,5354 method,8l advantages,53,68 applications of, 8894 piping elements, 5556, 69 translational, 54 Pipe Stress. See Piping mechanrcs. Piping systems adiabatic process, 83 API 520 Pafi 2, 82 ASME 31.I, 82 critical pressure, 83 critical pressure ratio, 83 critical temperature, 83 Hesse formula, 82 impulsemomentum principle, as applied to a pipe elbow, 8l nozzle correction factor, 82 nozzle discharge coefficient, 82 nozzles,83
Prandtl number,
ll2,
139140
77
, 8894
I,
160
circumferential bending/membrane, 7l "coldspring," 49 creep,49 "hotspring," 49 internal pressure, circumferential stress, 49 longitudinal stress, 49 pipe weight, bending stress, 49
pressure, 72 prestressed piping, 80 primary stress, 4950, 72 range, allowable, 42 residual stress, 5l secondary stress, 4952, 72
design, philosophy of, 159 external pressure, 160 heads, 160 horizontal saddle bearing plate design, 180 saddle plate buckling analysis, 251252 saddle plate design, 174 179 application of , 249252 boundary conditions for, 178 buckling coefficients for, 175 178 effective area, 174, 178 effective width, 173, 178, 179
selfspring,49 "shakedown," 52 thermal expansion, 49 torsional or shear stress, 49 selfspring,49 shear flow, 5859 spring supports, 72, 75, 76 guided load column, 72 jamming of, 77
horizontal rcaction, 179, 252 stiffener plates, 174, 179 stress, criterion for residual, 178 stress, elastic buckling, 179 stress, inelastic buckling, 179 U.S. Steel design method, 174179 wear plate requirements, 215 web plates, 174 Zick analysis, 166, Zl5 bending moment diagram, 167 compressive Bfactor, 174 constant, circumferential bending moment, 170 head used as stiffener, 171 saddle support location, 172
b"l !
shear stress in head/shell, 171 shell moments equations
171
319
of,
198
stiffening rings, 172, 174 stress, allowable compressive, 166 stress, circumferential con.rpressive, 171 stress, location of, 168 169 tangential shear, 167 171 wear plates, 171 172 internal pressure component thickness, 159 maximum allowable working pressure, 160 quality of welds, 159 upset conditions, 160 vertical anchor bolts analysis, preloaded bolt, 184, 186 bolt area, required, 184 bolt loads, allowable, 187 bolt load, minimum required, 184 bolt spacing, 186 common types of, 190 large bolts, undesirability of, 184 loading force, distribution of, 186 loadings induced on, 184 lubricant, 190 philosophy, design, 184 size and number, 228 stress in, 184, 186 tension on gross area, 187 torque, anchor bolt, 189190, 229 ANSr1982,215 baseplate design, 186 189 anchor bolt size range. 186 bearing pressure on, 189 concrete foundation for, 186 concrete mixes, 186, 187 concrete modulus of elasticity of, 186 concrete and steel, relative strength of, 186 . gusset plates, 188 189 kfactor, offset, 188 steel, modulus of elasticity, 187 steelconcrete moduli ratio, 186 stress, compressive, on concrete, 188 thickness, baseplate, 188 centroid, section,212 combined loads on, 181 compression plate, 189 cone, truncated, equivalent radius for, 214 conical head, equivalent radius for,214 conical sections, equivalent radii for,224 earthquake, See Seismic design. loads, wind and seismic, 190191
windinduced, 198 wind pressure, distribution of, 198 section properties of, 181 seismic analysis of, loads, combined, 190l9l
seismic design baseplate design, 238
coefficients, Mitchell, 210, 213 coefficients, structure type, 210 criteria, quasistatic, 210 criteria,238 Mitchell equation, 2lO, 2lZ compared to Rayleigh equation, 237 238 occupancy importance factor, 210
period
characteristic site, 238 numeric integration of vibration, 238239 of tower, 210, 2lZ Rayleigh equation, 212 compared to Mitchell equation, 237 238 seismic zone factor/map, 210211 site structure interaction factor, 210, 212
equation for, 212 shear forces earthquake force, total, 212 lateral force, equation for, 212
Uniform Building Code, 209 210 selfsupporting, 180 skirts controlling criteria for, 184 design of, 183, 185 costplus contractor, 183 Iumpsum contractor, 183 stress equation, 183 supports, 183, 185
compressive B factor,
l9l
181
in,
182
tensile, windward side, l8l vacuum, 183 towers centroids, section, 230231
32O
definition of, 181 equivalent circle method, 214 section moment of inertia, 241243 skirt and baseplate destgn, 228229 anchor bolts, 228 anchor bolt torque, 229 compression ring thickness, 229 skirt thickness, 229 weld size, minimum for skirttobase plate,
229
criteria foq 2 14 for conical sections, 214 stresses, wind section, 226228 transition piece, 241, 243244 vibration ensemble, 216 of lumped masses, 232, 246 wind deflections
modes of, 199 schematic diagram of, 201 superposition, method of, 199 wind ensemble, 242
vibration, windinduced angular natural undamped frequency, 205 applications of, 232236, 241249 areamoment method, 205207 conjugate beam. See Area moment. controlling length, 203 critical damping factor, 202, ZO4 critical wind velocity, 208209 , 236, 248,249 total wind force, 209 Zorilla criteria, 209 damping coefficient, 203 damping ratio, 202203 degree of freedom, single, 201 differential equations for, 2012OZ dynamic magnification factor, 201202, 2O3,
2M
dynamic response, 200
example of, 232236 first period of, 204
force amplitude, 235 force amplitude, dynamic, 200 forced vibration theory, 200
frequency
natural,248 ratio,202 vortex shedding, 208, 248 guy wires, disadvantages of, 249 Holzer procedure, 200 lockin effect, 200 logarithmic decrement, ZO3204 lumped mass approach, 204205
ovaling,205 natural frequency of, 205 vibration due to, 208 wind velocity, resonance, 208 period of vibration, 234235, 248 phase angle, 202 Rayleigh equation, ZOO, 201, 204, 205 resonance,236 Reynolds number, 195, 20O,201,236 soil types, 204 stresses, dynamic, 236 tower fluid forces on, 203 model for, 201202 moment disrribution in, 205 stiffness, 205 vibration ensemble, 209 of lumped masses, 232 vibration, first peak amplitude, 200 vortex shedding, 199 vortex strakes, 249 wind tunnel tests, 236 wind analysis of, loads, combined, 190191 wind design speed ASA 58.11955, 194 ANSIA58.11972, 192 basic wind pressure, 192 effective velocity pressure, 192 gust response factor, dynamic, 192 ANSI A58. 1 1982, 196, 236237 effective velocity pressure, 192 gust response factor, 192 importance coefficient, 192 velocity pressure coefficient, 192 wind speed, variation of, 192 wind tunnel tests, 192 centroid of spandrel segment, for wind section, 218 coefficient, drag, 195 structural damping, 217 conical sections, 199 constant exposure category, 195 crosssectional area, effective, 217 cylinder, pressure fields around, 196 equivalent diameter method, 236237 vs. ANSIA58. 1 1982, 236237 exposure lactor. 196 fatigue failure, 198 flexible structures, defined, 197 gust duration, 196 vs. gust diameter, 197 gust frontal area, 196
ii
l:r.=
30,32 41. 1,19l{l"t. l!:. 145,147 nonNewtonian fluids. See Hydraulics. NonNewtonian fluids. Strouhal coefficient vs., 85 vortex shedding, for, 8385
Newtonian fluids, 21,
Saddle plate design, 174 179
logarithmic law, 192 parabolic area, centroid of, 219 parabolic function, 194 peak values, types of, 196 power law, 192 probability of exceeding. 196 response spectra, 198 return period, 192 similarity parameters, 195 structure size factor, 196, 197 surface roughness, 195 tower
crosssectional area
application of , 249 252 boundary conditions for, 178 buckling coefficients for, 175 178
effective area, 174, 178 effective width, 173, 178, 179 horizontal react\on, 179, 252 stiffener plates, 174, 119 stress, criterion for residual, 178 stress, (in) elastic buckling, 179 U.S. Steel design method, 174179 wear plate requirements, 215 web plates, 174
Seismic design baseplate design, 238
natural frequency of, 197 wind area section properties, 219 wind force distribution, 218 wind distribution parabolic, 194, 218219 triangular, 194 wind load applications of, 215231, 241245 equivalent static, 195 mean, 195 weld size, skirttobase plate, 189 welding, joint efficiencies for, 161165,172 Zick analysis, 166, 215 bending moment diagram, 167 compressive Bfactor, 174 constant, circumferential bending moment, 170 head used as stiffener, l7l saddle support location, 172 shear stress in head/shell, 171
shell
coefficients, Mitchell, 210, 213 coefficients, structure tYPe, 210 criteria, quasistatic, 210 compared to wind, 238 Mitchell equation , 210, 212 compared to Rayleigh equation, 231238 moments, equation for, 212 occupancy importance factor, 210 period, characteristic site, 238 period, vibration numeric integration of, 238 239 tower,210,212 Rayleigh equation, 212 compared to Mitchell equation, 231238 seismic zone factor/map, 210, 2ll
shear forces earthquake force, total, 212 lateral force, equation for, 212
stiffening rings, 172, 174 stress, allowable compressive, 166 stress, circumferential compressive, stress, location of, 168 169 tangential shear, 167 171 wear plates, 171 172
Residual systems, heat transfer
171
of,
183
in, 132135 in piping, 154 155 Reynolds number, 195, 2OO, 2Ol, 236 drag coefficient vs., 203
lumpsum contractor, 183 stress equation, 183 supports, 185 thickness, 183 184
322
Strouhal number, 84 Reynolds number vs., 85 vibration, vortex shedding, 8485, 200, 20g Supports, 72,75,76. Also see p\ping mechanics. Thermal design. See Heat transfer tie rods, 7879
Towers
outside film coefficient, 107 overall heat transfer coefficient, 107 procedure for design, 107
definition of, l8l equivalent circle method, 214 section moment of inertia, 241243 skirt and baseplate design, 228229 anchor bolts, 228 anchor bolt torqte, 229 compression ring thickness, 229 skirt thickness, 229 weld size, minimum for skirt{obase plate, 229 skirt detail, 230 stress, discontinuity criteria for, 214 for conical sections, 214 stresses, wind section, 226228 transition piece, 241, 243t244 vibration ensemble, 216 of lumped masses, 232, 246 wind deflections of
modes of, 199 schematic diagram of, 201
film coefficients for, 143 of, 115 applications of, 130, 140 148 film coefficient, vesselside, 147
use heat duty of, jacketed heads, 146 heat transfer coefficients, reasonable values of,
130
transient, I l5 criteria for, 115 importance of, 130 internal baffle plates, heat duty of, 144 jacketed walls, heat transfer film coefficient, 145 jackets, types of, 115, l28,13l nonNewtonians, use of, 146 plate channels, equivalent velocity of, 147
reasons
for,
115
4
introduction,3,8
199
superposition, method
of,
of pipes
applications
136 139 condensate return for, I l0 condensate load, determining, 1l I
of,
ll
separation keys, I l1 typical layout, 111 water hammer, 11 I hot oil, application of, 137139 steam, application of, 136137 versus jacketed pipe, 103 106 with heat transfer cement, 106, 109 I 10 advantages, 106
film coefficient, natural convection, 108 heat balance for, I l0 heat transfer rates of, I l0
without heat transfer cement, 106109
advantages of, 106 disadvantages of, 106
109
Vibration, windinduced angular natural umdamped frequency, 205 applications of , 232236, 241 249 areamoment method, 205207 conjugate beam. See Area moment. controlling length, 203 critical damping factor, 202, 204 critical wind velocity, 208209 , 236, Z4g249 total wind force, 209 Zorilla criteria, 209 damping coefficient, 203 damping ratio, ZO2203 degree of freedom. single. 201 differential equations for, 201,202 dynamic magnification factor, 201 202, 203, ZO4 dynamic response, 200 example of, 232236 first period of, 204 force amplitude, 235 force amplitude, dynamic, 200 forced vibration theory, 200
frequency
fog
107
natural,248
,!i
lri:r
ftIio, 202
sust response factor. 192
vortex shedding, 2O8' 248 suy wires, disadvantages of' 249 i{olzer procedure, 200 lockin effect, 200 losarithmic decrement, 203 204 lumfed mass aPProach, 204205 mode shapes, 200 Myklestad method, 200, 201 ovaling,205 natuial frequencY of. 205 vibration due to, 208 wind velocitY, resonance, 208 period of vibration, 234235, 248 ohase angle, 202 ilayleighequarion. 200. 201. 204 ' 205 resonance,236 Reynolds number, 195, 200, 2O1' 236 soil types, 204 stresses, dYnamic, 236 tower fluid forces on, 203 model for, 201202 moment distribution in, 205 equations for, 205 stiffness,205 vibration ensemble, 209 of lumped masses, 232 vibration, first peak amplitude' 200 vortex shedding, 8387' 199 vortex strakes, 249 wind tunnel tests, 236 Viscosity, 2425 von Karman solution, 5 Vortex shedding,8387 aspect ratio, 85 cylinders,83 damping vs. amPlitude, 87 guidelines for, 85
mode shaPes, 85 reduced damPing, 85
irpottun." coefficient.
192
wind speid, variation of' 192 wind tunnel tests, 192 : i r centroid of spandrel segment, for wind section' coefficient, drag, 195 structural damPing, 217 conical sections, 199 constant exposure category, 195 crosssectional area, effective, 217 cvlinder, pressure fields around, 196 equivaleni diameter method, 236237 vs. ANSIA58.1 1982, 236231 exposure factor, 196 fatigue failure, 198 fle;ble structures, defined, 197 gust duration, 196 vs. gust diameter, 197 gust frontal area, 196 iurt t.rpon.., dYnamic. 194 iurt ,.tpont" factor. 195. 1c0.217.236237 gust size, 196 isopleths, 192 193 KunaJoukowski Theorem. 195 loading analysis, quasistatic, 196 losarithmic law, 192 paiabolic area, centroid of, 219 parabolic function, 194 peak values, tYPes of, 196 power law, 192 probability of exceeding, 196
iesponse sPectra, 198
return period, 192 similarity parameters, 195 structure size factor, 196' 197 surface roughness, 195 tower
crosssectional area
of,
198
fluid force exerted on, 194195 gust velocity vs. structural response' 197 iatural frequencY of,
197
Weld sizes
recommended values, for Plates, 71
skirt to baseplate, 189 Welding, joint efficiencies for, 161165, 172 Wind design sPeed ASA 58.11955, 194 ANSI A58.11972 basic wind Pressure, 192 effective velocitY Pressure, 192 qust response iactor. dynamic. 192 ANsl A58. l1982, t96, 236231 effective velocitY Pressure, 192
wind area section Properties, 219 wind force distribution, 218 wind distribution parabolic, 194, 2t8219 triangular, 194 wind load applications of, 215231, 241245 equivalent static, 195 mean, 195
Yield,
159
324
Zick analysis, 166, 215 bending moment diagram, 167 compressive Bfactot 174
constant, circumferential bending moment, 170
head used as stiffener, l7l saddle support location, 172 shear stress in head/shell, 171 shell
unstiffened, saddles away from head, 171 stiffening ings, 172, 174 stress, allowable compressive, 166 stress, circumferential compressive, 171 stress, location of, 168 169 tangential shear, 167 171 wear plates, l7l172
stiffened bv head.
l7l
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