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Mgchanica!

Design of Process Systems


Volumel
Piping and Pressure Vessels

A.Keith Escoe

Gulf Publishing Company Book Division Houston, London, Paris, Tokyo

Mechanical Dsign

of hocess Sy$erns
Volume

I
hesun \bsels

Piping ard

O 1986 by Gulf Publishing Compann Houston,'Ibxas. rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproducd in any form without permission of the publisher.
All
Copyright

Library of Congrcss Cataloging-in-Publication Data Escoe, A. Keith. Mechanical design of process systems. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Chemical plants-Design and consbuction.

L Title.
TP155.5.E83

1986

6@.2' 8l

85-22005

ISBN G87201-562-9 (Vol. 1) ISBN G 87201-565-3 (Vol. 2)

IY

Contents

Foreword
by John J. McKetta

...,....vii
.. , .... ...
ix

Fluid Forces Exerted on Piping Systems,

81

Preface
Chapter 1 Piping Fluid

Extraneous Piping Loads, 83 Example 2-l: Applying the Stiffness Method to a Modular Skid-Mounted Gas Liquefaction

Mechanics

...........

Basic Equations, I Non-Newtonian Fluids, 5 Velocity Heads, 8 Pipe Flow Geometries, 22 Comoressible Flow. 25 Piping Fluid Mechanics Problem Formulation, 25 Example 1-1: Friction Pressure Drop for a Hydrocarbon Gas-Steam Mixture in a Pipe, 27

Facility,88 Example 2-2: Applying the Flexibility Method to a Steam Turbine Exhaust Line, 95 Example 2-3: Flexibility Analysis for Hot Oil Piping,96 Example 2-42 Lug Design, 98 Example 2-5: Relief Valve Piping System, 99 Example 2-61 Wind-Induced Vibrations of Piping, 100 Notation, 101 References, 101

Example 1-2: Frictional Ptessure Drop for a Hot Oil System of a Process Thnk, 33 Example 1-3: Friction Pressure Drop for a Waste Heat Recovery System, 42 Example 1-4: Pressure Drop in Relief Valve Piping System, 43 Notation, 45
References, 45

Chapter 3 Heat Transfer in Piping and Equipment


Jacketed Pipe versus Traced Pipe, 103

...

103

Tracing Piping Systems, 106


Traced Piping without Heat Tmnsfer Cement. Traced Piping with Heat Transfer Cement. Condensate Return. Jacketed Pipe. Vessel and Equipment Traced Systems.

Heat Transfer in Residual Systems, 132

Chapter 2 The Engineering Mechanics of Piping


Piping Criteria, 47

.,...47

Heat Transfer through Cylindrical Shells. Residual Heat Transfer through Pipe Shoes.

Primary and Secondary Stresses, 49


Allowable stress Range for Secondary Stresses.

Flexibility and Stiffness of Piping Systems, 52


Stiffness Method Advantages. Flexibility Method Advantages.

Stiffness Method and Large Piping, 58


Flexibility Method of Piping Mechanics. Pipe
Loops.

Example 3-1: Example 3-2: Example 3-3: Example 3-4: Thnk, 140 Example 3-5: Tank, 142

Steam Tracing Design, 136

Hot Oil Tracing Design, 137


Jacketed Pipe Design, 139

Thermal Evaluation of a Process Thermal Design of a Process

Internal Baffle Plates Film Coefficient. Film Coefficient External to Baffles-Forced Convection. Heat Duty of Internal Vessel
Plates. Outside Heat Transfer Jacket Plates. Heat Duty of Jacket Plates Clamped to Bottom Vessel Head. Total Heat Duty of Tank.

PiDe - Restraints and Anchors. 68

Pipe Lug Supports. Spfing Supports. Expansion Joints. Pre-stressed Piping.

Example 3-6: Transient and Static Heat Transfer Design, 148


Static Heat Transfer Analysis. Total Heat Removal. Water Required for Cooling. Transient Hear Transfer Analysis.

Example 4-3: Seismic Analysis of a Vertical Tower, 237 Example 44: Vibration Analysis for Tower with Large Vortex-Induced Displacements, 241
Moments of Inertia. Wind Deflections.

Example 3-7: Heat Transfer through Vessel Skirts, 152 Example 3-E: Residual Heat Transfer, 154 Example 3-9: Heat Transfer through Pipe Shoe,
156

Example 4-5: Saddle Plate Analysis of Horizontal Vessel, 249 Notation,252 References,254

Saddle Plate Buckling Analysis. Horizontal Reaction Force on Saddle.

Notation, 156 References, 157

Chapter 4 The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

Appendix A Partial Volumes and Pressure Vessel


159

Vessels

... . .....

Cafcufations

.....25s

Designing for Internal Pressure, 159 Designing for External Pressure, 160 Design of Horizontal Pressure Vessels, 166
Longitudinal Bending Stresses. Location of Saddle Supports. Wear Plate Design. Zick Stiffening Rings.

Steel Saddle Plate Design, 174 Saddle Bearing Plate Thickness, 180 Design of Self-Supported Vertical Vessels, 180

Partial Volumes of Spherically Dished Heads, 256 Partial Volumes of Elliptical Heads, 257 Partial Volumes of Torispherical Heads, 259 Internal Pressure ASME Formulations with Outside Dimensions, 261 Internal Pressure ASME Formulations with Inside Dimensions,262

Minimum Shell Thickness Reouired for Combined Loads, 181 Support Skirt Design, 183 Anchor Bolts, 184 Base Plate Thickness Design, 186 Compression Ring and Gusset Plate Design, 189 Anchor Bolt Torque, 189 Whd Aralysis of Towers, 190
r'\'ind Design Speeds. Wind-Induced Moments. $ ind-Induced Deflections of Towers. l ind-Induced Vibrations on Tall Towers. O\aling. Criteda for Vibration Analysis.

Appendix B National Wind Design Standards

.........

265

Criteria for Determining Wind Speed, 265 Wind Speed Relationships, 266 ANSI A58.1-1982 Wind Cateeories. 267

Appendix C Properties of

Pipe.

,.....271

Insulation Weight Factors, 278


Weights of Piping Materials, 279

Seismic Design of Tall Towers, 209 \anical Distribution of Shear Forces. Tower Shell Discontinuities and Conical Sections,
1t i

Exanple
215

{-l:

Wear Plate Requirement Analysis,

Appendix D Conversion Factors


Alphabetical Conversion Factors, 304

.....

. 303

Example 12: Mechanical Design of Process Column. 215


Sectron lt{omenls of Inertial lbwer Section Stress Calcularions. Skirt and Base Plate Design- Section Centroids. Vortex-Induced

Synchronous Speeds, 31 1 Temperature Conversion. 3l 2 Altitude and Atmospheric Pressures, 313 Pressure Conversion Chart, 314

vibrarion. Equivalent Diameter Approach


versus

-{\S[

A58.1- 1982.

Index

..

.... . ...

315

vl

Foreword

The engineer who understands the impact of process design decisions on mechanical design details is in a position to save his client or his company a lot of money. That is because the test of any process design is in how cost-effectively it yields the desired product, and how "cost" generally translates to "equipment": How much will the process require? How long will it last? How much energy will it consume per unit of product? Process Systems,

proper respect in two excellent chapters on fluid mechanics and the engineering mechanics of piping. The chapter on heat transfer in vessels and piping illustrates lucidly the interrelationship between process and mechanical design. Every engineer working with industrial process systems will benefit from reading this
chaDter.

In this two-volume work on Mechanical Design of A. K. Escoe has performed a monumental service for mechanical design engineers and
chemical process engineers alike. It is presented in such a manner that even the neophyte engineer can grasp its full value. He has produced an in-depth review of the way in which process design specifications are interpreted into precise equipment designs. Perhaps most valuable of all are the extensive worked examples throughout the text, of actual designs that have been successfully executed in the field. The piping system is the central nervous system of a fluid flow orocess. and the author has treated this with

Although the author has made a herculean effort in covering the mechanical design of pressure vessels, heat exchangers, rotating equipment, and bins, silos and stacks, it is true that there are omissions. It is hoped that, as the author hints in his preface, a future volume might be added covering multiphase flow, specific cogeneration processes, turbines, and detailed piping dynamics. Still, at this writing these two volumes comprise an outstanding practical reference for chemical and mechanical engineers and a detailed instructional manual for students. I recommend these volumes highly for each design engineer's professional library.
John J. McKexa. Ph.D., P.E. Joe C. Waher Professor of Chemical Engineering UniversitY of Texas ' Austin

vii

Dedication

To the memory of my beloved parents, Aubrey H. Escoe and Odessa Davies Escoe; and to. the dedicated engineer, Dr. Judith Arlene Resnik, U.S. astronaut aboard

the ill-fated space shuttle Chnllenger (Flight

5l-L).

v|ll

d{ ry,'

heface to Volume I

This book's purpose is to show how to apply mechanical engineering concepts to process system design. Process systems are common to a wide variety of industries including petrochemical processing, food and pharmaceutical manufacturing, power generation (including cogeneration), ship building, and even the aerospace industry. The book is based on years of proven, successful practice, and almost all of the examples described are from process systems now in operation. While practicality is probably its key asset, this first volume contains a unique collection ofvaluable information, such as velocity head data; comparison ofthe flexibility and stiffness methods of pipe stress analyses; anal-

felt that this book is a valuable supplement to any standard or code used. The book is slanted toward the practices of the ASME vessel and piping codes. In one area of vessel design the British Standard is favored because it nrovides excellent technical information on Zick rings. The book is written to be useful regardless of which code or standard is used. The intent is not to be heavily prejudiced toward any standard, but to discuss the issue-engineering. If one feels that a certain standard or code should be mentione.d, please keep in mind that there are others who may be using different standards and it is impossible to
discuss all of them. The reader's academic level is assumed to be a bachelor of science degree in mechanical engineering, but engineers with bachelor of science degrees in civil, chemical, electrical, or other engineering disciplines should have little difficulty with the book, provided, of course, that they have received adequate academic training or experience.

ysis of heat transfer through pipe supports and vessel skirts; a comprehensive method on the design of horizontal vessel saddles as well as a method to determine when wear plates are required; detailed static and dynamic methods of tower design considering wind gusts, vortex-induced vibration and seismic analysis of towers; and a comparative synopsis of the various national wind
cooes.

Junior or senior undergraduate engineering students


should find the book a useful introduction to the application of mechanical engineering to process systems. Professors should find the book a helpful reference (and a source for potential exam problems), as well as a practi-

typically encountered in engineering practice. Therefore, because most mechanical systems involve singlephase flow, two-phase flow is not covered. Because of its ubiquitous coverage in the literature, flange design is also excluded in this presentation. Since all of the major pressure vessel codes thoroughly discuss and illustrate
the phenomenon of external pressure, this subject is only

Topics include.d in the text are considered to be those

cal textbook for junior-, senior-, or graduateJevel

courses in the mechanical, civil, or chemical engineering fields. The book can also be used to supplement an intro-

mentioned briefly.

This book is not intended to be a substitute or a replacement of any accepted code or standard. The reader is strongly encouraged to consult and be knowledgeable of any accepted standard or code that may govern. It is

ductory level textbook. The French philosopher Voltaire once said, "Common sense is not very common," and unfortunately, this is sometimes the case in engineering. Common sense is often the by-product of experience, and while both are essential to sound engineering practice, neither can be

ix

--*

learned from books alone. It is one ofthis book's eoats to unite these three elements of "book learning," c6mmon sense, and experience to give the novice a better grasp of engineering principles and procedures, and serve as a practical design reference for the veteran engineer. Finally, I wish to thank Dr. John J. McKetta, professor of chemical engineering at the University of Texas at Austin, who had many helpful comments, suggestions,

and words of encouragement. I also wish to thank other engineering faculty members at the University of Texas at Austin for their comments. I must exDress thanks to

Larry D. Briggs for reviewing some ialculations

in

Chapter 4; and last, but certainly not least, I wish to express gratitude to William J. Lowe and Timothy W. Calk of Gulf Publishing Company, whose hard work and patience made this book oossible.

A. Keith Escoe, PE.

.{

j&ir,,

Piping Fluid Mechanics

The study of fluid energy in piping systems is a comprehensive subject that could in itself fill countless volumes. This chapter is primarily concerned witl fluid energy dissipated as friction resulting in a head loss.

Pr

- Pz = V,t=- vrt + (y. _yr;1p p 28" c"

(r-2)

Although this topic is popularly known in industry as "hydraulics," the term "piping fluid mechanics" is used here to avoid confusion.

I and 2 refer to flow upstream (after the flow process) and downstream (before the flow process), respectively, and
where subscripts

Pt

Pz

change in pressure head

BASIC EOUATIONS
The basic equation of fluid mechanics, originally derived by Daniel Bernoulli in 1738, evolved from the principle of conservation of energy:

Vt^- V' :
29"

change in velocity head (kinetic energy)

:dz
(Yr

p
where

29"

g"

,]V r ,{E

-r-

,llr. + ,1ll^

(l-l)

Yr)

I =
F

change in static head (potential energy)

friction 1o* in

!JlQ,

cm (kg)

P: 8": dY:
F: He: HE:

density, lb./ft3 or g./cm3 pressure, lb/ft2 or kg/cm2

velocity, ftlsec or cm/sec


conversion constant, 32. 17 (ft-lb./sec2lbr)

gravitational acceleration

cm/sec2; 1.0 height above datum, ft, cm differential between height above datum and

g/9" :

32.2 fllsecz,

The following are expressions of the Bernoulli equation when applied to various incompressible and compressible flow conditions:
Incompressible

flow- v.2 zE"


gc

reference point, ft, cm head loss, friction loss, or frictional pressure drop, ft-lbr/Ib., cm-kg6/g. energy added by mechanical devices, e.g. pumps, ft-lb/Ib., cm-kg/g. energy extracted by mechanical devices, e.g.

p, - P.

v,2

Compre s sib le -i s othermal

turbines, ftlb6/1b., cm-kg/g.

f low -

Rewriting Equation l-1 along a fluid streamline between points 1 and 2 with steady, incompressible flow and no mechanical energy added or extracted results in

FJn

H X[

_[*l

[*l]

(zz

- z,

+F+HA+HE

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Compre s s ib le -adiabati c f low

H [1 [' where

(,*J'.-"']

: xl' -FJ^ [*J]


+(22-z)+F
+HA+HE

\* /p\ l- | : l:l : general gas law \Prl \rrl k : .specific heat ratio (adiabatic coefficient),
/o
t- lt-

Cp :

sPecific heat at constant pressure,

C, :

Btu/lb.-'F
specific heat at constant volume, Btu/lb--"F

Equation 1-2 is the analytical expression that states a pressure loss is caused by a change in velocity head, static head, and ftiction head. The most cofirmon units are "feet of head." lb. and lbr do not cancel out and the

Forcing a fluid through a pipe component requires energy. This energy is expended by shear forces that develop between the pipe wall and the fluid, and to a lesser extent among the fluid elements themselves. These shear forces are opposed to fluid flow and require excess energy to overcome. Figure 1-l shows a simple version of this phenomenon and illustrates how shear stresses increase in the radial direction away from the pipe center line and are maximum within the boundary layer next to the wall. Friction energy loss is a resuit of these shear stresses next to the pipe wall. Excess loss in energy occurs because of local turbulence and changes in the direction and speed of flow. As a fluid changes direction, energy is expended because of a change in momentum. The methods used to determine energy loss caused by wall friction are essentially the same, where the pipe component is treated as a straight piece of pipe. However, the methods used to determine energy loss caused by change in momentum differ, and a couple are described as follows.

expression is exactly "energy


mass."

(ft-lb) per pound of


is

Equivalent Length
In this approach to determining energy loss caused by fluid momentum, a piping component is extended a theoretical length that would yield the same energy loss as the actual component. This length is called the "equivalent length" because it is that length required to obtain the same amount of friction pressure drop as the piping component alone. The major problem with
a change in

In most industrial fluid problems, Equation 1-2

cumbersome to use, because the friction loss is the parameter most often desired. The friction loss is the work done by the fluid in overcoming viscous resistance. This friction loss can only rarely be analytically derived and is determined by empirical data developed through experi-

mental testins

dv oy

x+c

---[,

9e a"] or1'1

rf>

--

Figure 1-1. Shear stresses in fully developed flow. Shown here are imaginary fluid elements "slipping" over one another.

Piping Fluid

Mechanics

this method is that the equivalent length for a pipe component varies with the Reynolds number, roughness, size, and geometry of the pipe. All these par.rmeters must be analyzed in using this method.

Velocity Head llethod


Since the excess head loss is mostly attributed to fluid turbulence, the velocity head method is widely accepted

into the piping system, the factor F in Equation 1-2 becomes the desired parameter. This friction loss is the work done by the fluid in overcoming viscous resistance and loss attributed to turbulence. The parameter F is composed of two components, pipe wall friction and losses for the various pipe fittings, pipe entrances, pipe exits, and fluid obstructions that contribute to a loss in

and is replacing the equivalent length method in fluid calculations. Throughout this book, the velocity head approach will be used. The velocity head is the amount of kinetic energy in a fluid, Y2l2g". This quantity may be represented by the amount of potential energy required to accelerate a fluid to a given velocity. Consider a tank holding a fluid with a pipe entrance shown in Figure 1-2. We draw a streamline

fluid energy. These latter losses are described in terms of velocity heads, K;. In solving for F in Equation 1-2, we first obtain pressure loss attributed to pipe wall friction, represented by

-AP. '

=.: eyll] 2e. \d/


:
t".
ILL
\u

(1-3)

By adding values of velocity head losses to Equation 1-3, we obtain the lollowing for any piping system:

from point 1 of the fluid surface to point 2 at the pipe entrance. Applying Equation 1-2 at point 1 we obtain the followins:

aP,

)-r,l4I .6c
I

.,,
(l-4)

1= p

\,,

And applying Equation 1-2 at point 2 we have

Pr-P2_Pr_V22

where is the dependent pipe friction of the pipe of diameter d over the length L, and DK; the summation of velocity head losses. Equation l-4 provides the friction pressure drop in a pipe for a steady-state incompressible fluid of fully developed flow with a flat veiocity profile.

flld

PP2g"
in which the change in fluid pressure between points I and,2 is Y ] l2g, or one velocity head. A pressure gauge mounted on the pipe entrance would record the difference of pressure of one velocity head. This term is accounted for in Equation 1-2 by Y y2 - Y2212g.. Analyzing a simple conversion from potential to kinetic energy is an elementary procedure, as demonstrated. After the fluid passes through the pipe entrance

Examples of this equation are given after the terms in Equation 14 are further explained. The term (flld) (pV2l2g") expresses the amount of energy loss attributed to shear forces at the pipe wall and is based on experimental evidence. It is a function of the pipe component length and diameter and the velocity of the fluid. Writing the relationship for friction pressure drop as a result of pipe wall friction results in

'p' -

[L
t+qd

pV']

2ii.i"aion torr, pri length of pipe, in.


corroded inside diameter, in.

'

'-J'

where Fp,

L: d:

The other terms are explained with Equation

1-1.

Equation l-5 may be expressed in various forms. To express flow rate in gpm (w) and d in inches use
FPf

0.000217 fLW/d5

(l-5a)

Equation l-5 is the most commonly used relationship and is known as the Fanning equation. Dividing the equation by p/144 yields feet of friction loss rather than
psl. Figure 1-2. Storage tank.

The reader is cautioned in applying the friction factor f, because it is not always defined as above and some au-

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

thors use 4f1 in place of f. If such factors are used, particular attention should be paid to the specific friction factor chart used. The friction factor f is dependent upon the dimensionless term expressing the roughness of the pipe (E/D, where E is the depth of the pipe) and the dimensionless
Reynolds number

factor data can be obtained and better understood through use of new methods for measuring roughness.

Figure 1-3 is broken into three flow regimes-

laminar, transition from laminar to turbulent, and turbu-

Nr"

dpV/M, where

viscosity of the fluid, inJb1-sec/ftz. The Reynolds number is the single most important parameter in fluid mechanics because it establishes flow regimes and dynamic sirnilarity. The relationship between the friction factor f, the pipe roughness, and the Reynolds number is shown in the classic relationship given by Moody in Figure 1-3. Figure l-3 may be presented in a more convenient form as shown in Figure 1-4, where the relative roughness of the pipe is based on a single value of roughness. This value of roughness must be an average value estimated to simplii/ the problem. The figures presented herein are the best available until more reliable friction

l1,

is the absolute

lent. The Reynolds numbers establishing these zones are 2,100 for laminar, 2,100 to 3,000 for transition zone, and 3,000 or more for turbulent The basis for Figure 1-3 is the classic Colebrook equatron

|
r1r,

: -.^.to8ro Idd 2.51 [- " **,rpi


for (3,000 to 4,000)

(l -6a)

<

NR"

<

108

For laminar flow the friction factor is determined by the simple expression

"64

Nn.

(1-6b)

.09 .08 .07 .06


.01

.05 .04

.o? .0t5

.04
.01

.008 .03 .006

=-

oo4 : 003 :
002

.0015

^^, ' -0008 .0006

.01

.009

2 3 4 56 Blo5 2 3 4 56 to7 \2 -q-s9l r, -If* , o i' n., ,' ir *4r = = f '. ff Figure 1-3. Moody friction factors. (Repdnted from Pipe Friction Manual, @ 1954 by Hydraulic Institute. Data from L. Moody, Frioion Faaors for Pipe Flow, permission of ASME.) z J 4 56 8 rot
R?ynotds Nunber n"

.008

? 3 4 56 I

F.

#( -8u
Piping Fluid Mechanics
Pipe oiameter, in Fet

-/)

,=

Pipe Diafleier, in Inchs

-,/

Figure 1-4. Relative roughness of pipe materials and friction factors for complete turbulence. (Courtesy of Crane Company [5]. Data from L. F Moody, Friction Factors for Pipe Flow permission of ASME.)

Equation 1-6a, which describes the friction factor for turbulent flow in pipe of any roughness, is a simple addi tion of the Prandtl solution for smooth pipe and the von Karman solution for rough pipe. The relationship holds for the transition between rough and smooth pipe. To solve Equation 1-6a for the friction factor f an iterative analysis is required because the function is nonhomogeneous and inseparable. There are several empirical relations of f expressed as an independent separate function of f G/d, NR.), but with today's micro-computers Equation l-6 can be solved more accurately and expediently with iteration.

Dimensional forms of Equation 1-4 are presented in Table 1-1 [1], where the equation is conveniently shown in various units that are used to solve fluid pressure loss problems.

NON.NEWTONIAN FLUIDS
The Colebrook equation holds for fluids whose flow properties are dependent on the fluid viscosity. These fluids consist of all gases, liquids, and solutions of low molecular weieht and are known as Newonian fluids. In

-rll

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

= rate -APr or pHr L IrNr">2,ooo'r:[2 g nvz w {*-r^,.i + * rr 'l pt)pD pD2 e \ 'l uoQ' cQP dQ pv' /!& * ",. D4 pD D2 \ D ' -L\J . "
Row
Conventlonal units Units and constants

Plessure Ol?p,

ne

Table 1-1 Dimensional Forms Used With Equation 1-4


r, ana

[11

loglqQ27etD+(?/NR"o)],'

Metric units

-AP(H'
w(Q)
D
e

psl

psl
(gprn)

lb/h
ln. in.

(ft)
tb/h

(f9
ln.

inHrO[60"F]
(acfm) In.

ft
lb/ft3
cp

tn. tn.

p
HV
a

ft
lb/ft3 cp

ln. ln.

ft
lb/ft3 cp

in.

bar kg/s mm
rnm

bar

(L/s)
mm mm

Pa

(m)
(m3/s)

ft

in.

ft

lb/ft3
cp

m
kglm3
mPa-s(cp) m/s

kg/s m m

m
m

m
kg/m3 mPa-s(cp)

tb/f13

m
kg/m3
Pa-s

m
kg/m3
Pa-s

ftls
psi 6.316 0.05093 9,266
b

ftls
psr

ftls

cp

2.799x10-7 1.801x 10-5 4.031 x l0-5 2.593 x 10-3 t2 t2 12 12


50.66 0.4085

ft

ft/s

ft

ft/min

in. H2O
0.02792

bar
8.106 x 106 1,000
1.273

d
e

6.316 64 1aY ^
0.05093

t2
379.0
183.3
1.204

m/s bar 8.106


1,000 1.273 1.273

m/s
Pa

m/s

m
0.08265

0.8106

9,266

50.66 0.4085 64.35 x p

I
r.273
1.273
2
velocity head
pipe roughness fluid viscosity fluid density

I
1.273 1.273

106

1.273 x106

106

2xttr

a,b,c,d,e D

HI

= pipe diameter = \lbisbach friction factor = frictional head loss

piF

a=

length frictional pressure drop

2xlo5 HV =

19.61xp

volumetric flowrate
Reynolds number

number of velocity heads

velocity

: =

ical behavior. Non-Newtonian fluids are those in which the viscosity alone does not define their rheological behavior. Sucir fluids are solutions composed of solid particles that ex_ pand. Clay and very dense slurries are examples of non_ )iewronian fluids. The flow properties of suih fluids are a function of the particle characteristics, e.g., size and flexibility and thermal expansion. Purely viscous non-Newtonian fluids are classified into dree categories: time-dependent and time-indepen_ dent and viscoelastic. A time-dependent fluid displays slo*' changes in rheological properties, such as thixbtr-o_ pic fluids that exhibit reversible structural chanses. Several ty,pes ofcrude oil fit inro this category. Anoiher rype of tinre{ependent non-Newtonian fiuid is rheooectic fluids- Under constant sustained shear, these fluidi. rate of srrucrural deformation exceeds the rate of structural decav. One such category of fluids is polvester. Rheqectic fluids are less common than thixotrooic fluids.

Newtonian fluids the viscosity alone defines the rheolos_

pseudoplastic fluids. ln pseudoplastic fluids an intinitesimal shear stress will initiate motion and the ratio of shear stress with velocity decreases with increasins ve_ locity gradient. This type of fluid is encountered in iolu_ tions or- suspensions of fine particles that form loosely bounded aggregates that can break down or reform witL an increase or decrease in shear rate. Such solutions are aqueous dispersions of polyvinyl acetate and of an acrv_ clic copolymer: aqueous solutions of sodium carboxy_

Time-independent fluids that are purely viscous are _ classified as. pseudoplastic, dilatant, Bingham, and yield-

methyl cellulose, and of ammonium polymethacrylatl; and an aqueous suspension of limestone. In dilatant fluids an infinitesimal shear stress will start motion and the ratio of shear stress to velocity increases as the velocity is increased. A dilatant fluid ij characterized by an increase in volume of a fixed amount of dispersion, such as wet sand, when subiected to a deforma_ tion that alters the interparticli distances oI its constituents from their minimum-size confisuration. Such fluids are titanium dioxide particles in waier or su-

':bl&,,

Piping Fluid

Mechanics

crose solution. Dilatant fluids are much rarer than


pseudoplastic fluids. ln Bingham fluids a finite shearing stress is required to initiate motion and there is a linear relationship between the shearing stress-after motion impends-and the velocity gradient. Such fluids include thickened hydrocarbon greases, certain asphalts, water suspensions of clay, fly ash, finely divided minerals, quartz, sewage sludge, and point systems. Yield-pseudoplastic fluids are similar to Bingham fluids, but the relationship between the excess shearing stress after motion impends and velocity gradient is nonlinear. Fluids in this category are defined by their rheograms, where relationships between the shear stress and rate of shear exhibit a geometric convexity to the shear stress axis. Such fluids are many clay-water and similar

100,000 the following empirical relations can be used for determinins the friction factor:

(Ni") b"
where bn

n=

0.0019498 (n)-45"

(7.8958

l0-7) (a") 182.1321


and n are given in Table 1-2 [3].

Typical values for

"y

Values for "y and n not available in literature must be de-

termined by viscosimeter measurements. Figure 1-5 shows the rheological classification of non-

Newtonian mixtures that behave as single-phase flow.


The reader is urged to refer to Govier [4] for further information on non-Newtonian fluid or other complex mixtures. Usually, the mechanical design of process systems does not involve non-Newtonian fluids, but knowledge of them and their peculiarities is a must if the need
anses.

suspensions and aqueous solutions of carboxypolymethylene (carbopol). Viscoelastic fluids make up the last category of nonNewtonian fluids. The term "viscoelastic fluid" is applied to the most general of fluids-those that exhibit the characteristic of partial elastic recovery of the fluid structure. Whenever a viscoelastic fluid is subiected to a rapid change in deformation, elastic recoil oi stress relaxation occurs. Many solutions exhibit viscoelastic properties under appropriate conditions-molten polymers, which are highly elastic; and solutions of longcharged molecules, such as polyethylene oxide and poly-

acrylamides. Processes such as coagulation, oil-well fracturing, and high-capacity pipelines rely on polymeric additives to cause pressure drops. Viscoelastic fluids exhibit the "Weissenberg effect," which is caused by normal stresses and produces unusual phenomena, such as the tendency of the fluid to climb up a shaft rotating in
the

MULTI.PHASE

SINGLE PHASE

TRUE HOMOGENEOUS

fluid.

For any time-independent non-Newtonian fluid, Metzer and Reed [2] have developed the following generalized Reynolds number fraction:
=

N*"

D'

U2-np

(1-7)
PLASTIC C OILAIAI.II

"l

where D : U : p : ^l : : n:

pipe

ID, ft
I

average bulk velocity, ftlsec

density, lb,/fC generalized viscosity coefficient, lb./ft gc c 8n-r (see Table 1-1) sec experimentally determined flow constant, for a Newtonian fluid empirical constant that is a function of non-Newtonian behavior (flow behavior index), 1.0 for Newtonian fluids

//g"

For

n:

Np"

1.0 and C : p/g", Equation 1-7 reduces to Du p/p for Newtonian fluids. For 2,100 < NR"

Figure 1-5. Rheological classification that behave as single phase fluids [4].

of complex mixtures

Mechanical Design of Proces: Slstems

Tabte 1-2 Rheological Constants tor Some Typical Non-Newtonian Fluids* ol Fluid
23.3% Illinois yellow clay in water
0.67 % carboxy -methyf cellulose

13I

Rheological Constants
n 0.229

of Fluid
0.863 0.121 18.6% solids, Mississippi clay in water
14.3 7o clay in water 2l .2% clay ln \nater 25.0% clay in water 31.9% clay in water 36.8% clay in water 40.4% clay in water 23% Iime in water

Rheological Constanis
n

0.331 * Reproduced by permission: A. B. Metzner and J. C. Reed, AICHE Jownal, l,434 (1955\.

(CMC) in water 1.5% CMC in water 3.0% CMC in water 33% \me water 10% napalm in kerosene 4% paper pulp in water 54.3% cement rock in water

o.716
0.554 0.566
0.171

0.920
2.80 0.983
1. 18

0.520
0.575 0.153

6.13

0.022 0.350 0.335 0.185 0.251 0.1'16 0.132 0. 178

0.105

0.0344
0.0855

0.2M
0.414
1.07

2.30
1.04

VELOCITY HEADS
Returning to Equation 1-4, let's focus on the term EKi. This term represents the excess velocity heads lost in fluid motion due to fluid turbulence caused by local turbulence at the pipe wall and change in flow direction. The latter is the greatest contributor to the DKi term. When a fluid strikes a surface and chanses flow direction. it loses momentum and. therelore. Jnergy. Considering the 90' elbow in Figure l-6, we see that the fluid changes direction from the x to the y direction and imparts reactions Fx and Fy, each a function of the pressure and velocity of the fluid. End conditions of the elbow determine some of the velocity head loss, that is, where the

tered by the flow. In a screwed elbow there are abrupt changes in the wall causing local turbulence and henie
increased velocity head loss.

fitting is a "smooth elbow" or a "screwed elbow." A smooth elbow is one that is either flansed or welded to
the pipe such that a smooth internal srirface is encoun-

Analytical determination of velocity heads can only be accomplished in a few simplified cases. The values for velocity heads must be determined and verified empirically. Comprehensive listings of such velocity head (K) values are given in Figures 1-7 t5l, 1-8 [5], 1-9 [6], and 1-10. Using these values in Equation 1-4, you can analyze most cases of friction pressure drop for pipe under 24 inches in diameter. For pipe with diameter greater than 24 inches, an additional analysis must be made in solving for the velocity head term. This method, presented by Hooper [7] is called the "two-K method."

TWO.K METHOD
As explained previously, the value of K does not depend on the roughness of the fitting or the fitting size, but rather on the Reynolds number and the geometry of the fitting. The published data for single K values apply to fully-developed turbulent flow and K is independent of N*. when N^. is well into the turbulent zone. As Nq. approaches 1,000, the value of K increases. When Na" < 1,000, the value ofK becomes inversely proportional to NR". In large diameter pipe ( > 24 in.) the value of NRe must be carefully considered if values of 1,000 or less are encountered. The two-K method accounts for this dependency in the following equatron:

K:

K1/Np"

+ K- (1 + lid)
K for the fitting of NR" : I K for a large fitting of NR" : oo internal diameter of attached pipe, in.

(1-8)

where K1 Figure 1-6. Reactions on an elbow induced by a change of


flow.

: K- : d:

kxt

continued page 22

:i. a.t'- ;;t:

:::a*a;=-:;i{ilif/r td

nt-*":m
Piping Fluid Mechanics

Represenlolive Resisfonce Coeflicients (K) for Volves ond Fittings


PIPE FRICTION DATA FOR CTEAN CO'\AMERCIAL STEET PIPE WITH FIOW IN ZONE OF COMPIETE TURBUTENCE Nominol Size
Friclion Focfor ( fr.)
t/^n
3/q"

I Y4"

1Y2"

2V2.3"

8.10"
.o17
.01 6 .01 5

12-16"
.01 3

t8-24"

.o27

.o25

.o23

.o22

.021

.0r9

.018

.014

.ot2

FORMULAS FOR CALCULATING

"K"

FACTORS'

FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS WITH REDUCED PORT

t/\2/^1 rz=

o.s(in9(, -

o'r

Ba

Kr=
tr

K.

Formula

z , Formula

,,
Kz=

K,- o r !sin

lA

i(r
tJ'|

- trt + (r -

)2

"iG-p)\f"#
a4

Kr lf

6(sin+(I - P)'? K, _ ,__]____184


2

/.\

k. Kr= j.n - 0(Formulaz 'Formula+) uhen d = r8o"


=

K,

Kz=

K,+O [o : (, - g') + (t - 9')']

|,

a2\2

Kr
R4

^
Kr=SO *Formr.rla I + Formula

d,r

l 02)2)

lJ \2 az 12\ _\d,J "

1I _au

Subscript

K"=

Kr +sin3[o.a 0

P\ +2.6 (t

and coefncients with reference

dennes dimensions

the smaller diameter. Subscript 2 refers to the larger

to

SUDDEN AND GRADUAI. CONTRACTION E;l

SUDDEN AND GRADUAT ENI.ARGEMENT

0<

+5".........K, - Formula

0.

4to. . .. . . . ..K2

- Formula

45" <e< r8oo...Kr

= Formula z

45o<0< r8o-. . .Kr = Formula 4

Figure 1-7A. Selected Crane Company velocity head values. (Courtesy Crane Company [5].)

10

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

GATE VAIVES Wedge Disc, Double Disc, or Plug Type

SWING CHECK VATVES

Et# JLI I.+ -ffa-rlf


. ts

TL fNr, r-L-r FI-/f F


K:
rcof7

K:sof,
Minimum pipe velocity (fps) for full disc lift

= r,0 =

o.

...........

K' :

-/r
6

P< r and 0 < 45o ........K2: Formula B< r and 45"<0< r8oo...Kz - Formula

Minimum pipe velocity (fps) for full disc lift

=)5vv

-a8!V

LIFT CHECK VAIVES GTOBE AND ANGTE VAIVES

r
E

If: B: r...Kr=6oo/z 9. r.. .K, = Irormula 7


Minimum pipc r tlocitr itp.; ior full .lisc Iifr : F p2 \,/ v

If: B:r...Kt=l+ofr

lf:
lf A-t.. Kr=sjfr

9=
B<

tr r...K,:
r.
.
.

;s fr K, = Irormula

Minimum pipe velocicy (fps) for fr-rll disc

lift

: t4o B|V V
TIITING DISC CHECK VALVES

l'F
i

l--4-lV I z++ll l-

Ftr-IF
zto 8'...K:

If

: A=r...lit=riofr
t

If: B:r...Kr:S5fr

Sizes

All globe ancl angle valves,


hcthcr rcducccl scat or throttled, Ii: 13 < r. . .l(2: Formula 7

Sizes ro to t+'...K: Sizes 16 to 18". . .K =

Minimum pipe velocity (fps) for full clisc lift -

Figure 1-78. Selected Crane Company velocity head values. (Courtesy Crane Company [5].)

li:il- -:::i::

8t'-n*"
Piping Fluid Mechanics
11

+.[
< 45. ora ( 22.50 Kr = 2.6(1 - B'?)2 sin e
lf d

l
1800 or 22.50

40

830
.4 llo
:E

20

t.o 2.o 3.O 4.O 5.o


VBLoCITY-FPllxl03
SHADED AREA UNDER CURVE CORRECTION FACTOR,

6.0

IS

CRITERIA FOR UULTIPLYING


VALUE OF

A,BY lHE

It

FOR EACH

ll 45" < 0 <

<o(90o

FITTINC AND PIPE

COI4PONENT .

K'=(1 -0"f

CORRECTION FACTOR TABLB

. td,d=arcslnl-

d,l l=- 0 \21 /2


Figure 1-9. Correction factor.

Figure 1-8. Calculated Crane K-values for concentric conical diffusers are tabulated in Table l-6.

T./1 Dl (
_l_

\,-,/

,l

TWO.MITERED ELBOW

1.0

0
Figure 1-10A. Velocity heads for change of flow [6].

'*

12

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

n =number

or segments

ot

miters

1Eo
1

644+

mitered ell

smooth ell

.5

R/o

t.o

1.5

Figure 1-108. Velocity heads for change of flow [6].

h*":ns
Piping Fluid

Mechanics

13

2<.-

-V-

<*3
+s"(o<go.

an

az/og

Figure l-10C. Velocity heads for change of flow [6].

'4

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

on=

9/og

Figure 1-10D. Velocity heads for change of flow [6].

Piping Fluid

Mechanics

15

\sri \7
tAl
| |I
Ai= A2: A3

aR = or

/ag

Figure 1-10E. Velocity heads for change of flow [6].

16

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

on

or/ag

Figure 1-10F. Velocity heads for change of flow [6].

k-...n*
Piping Fluid

Mechanics

17

OR: O1/o3
Figure 1-10G. Velocity heads for change of flow [6].

'*

18

Mechanical Desisn of Process Svstems

o*= 02/o3

2----->

-_)>

Figure 1-10H. Velocity heads for change of flow [6].

k*--=*
Piping Fluid

Mechanics

19

--v'.
---)t

-->2

OR= 01/O3

Figure 1-101. Velocity heads for change of flow l6l.

' 'drF'

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

2--+

-llt----)3

Kzg

on=

oz/o,

Figure 1-10J. Velocity heads for change of flow [6].

it -

'I[||,,'

Piping Fluid Mechanics

21

or:

o.'

/o3

Figure 1-10K. Velocity heads for change of flow [6].

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Small pipe fittings have more surface roughness and abrupt changes in cross sections, making Kl insignificant at values of Nr" ) 10,000. For this reason, the new Crane method is recommended for pipe diameters 24 in. and less. Comparison of the methods for elbows is depicted in Figure 1-11. Table 1-3 lists Kr and K- values. The two-K method is preferred over the equivalent length method because in large, multi-alloy sysiems the equivalent length method could predict losses 300% too high, resulting in oversized pumps and equipment. With laminar flow, the equivalent length method predicts head losses too low. Also, in the equivalent length method, every equivalent length has a specific friction factor associated with it, because the equivalent leneths are derived from the expression L. = K D/t. The Hydraulic Institute's widely used K-factors are good for l-in. to 8-in. pipe, but result in errors in larger piping. The disadvantage of the two-K method is it is limited to the number of values of K1 and K- available, shown in Thble 1-3. For other fittings, approximations must be made from data in Table 1-3.

Table |-3 Constants for the Two-K Method I7l Filting Type Kl Standard (R/D : l),
screwed Standard (R/D

K0.40 0.25 0.20

800
1),

flanged/welded Long-radius

800

(R/D
typqs

1.5), all
1-Weld

800

90" Mitered
elbows

2-Weld

(R/D

: l 5)

4-Weld
5-Weld

(90") I,000 1.15 (45') 800 0.35 3-Weld (30') 800 0.30
(22t/2") 800
o.27 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.25
0. 15

Elbows

Standard all types

(R/D

(18") 800 : l),


500
500 500 500

: 1.5), all types Mitered, 1 weld, 45" Mitered, 2 weld, 22rlz"


(R/D
180'
Standard (R/D screwed Standard (R/D

Long-radius

: :

1),

l),

1,000 1,000 1,000

0.60 0.3s 0.30

flanged/welded

PIPE FLOW GEOMETRIES


In using Equation 1-4 the geometry of the flow area must be considered if the area is noncircular. In calculating the Reynolds number and the diameter for a noncircular cross section, the hydraulic radius is applied:
R11

Long radius (R/D : 1.s), all


types

etbow
Tees

Used as

Standard, screwed

Long-radius,screwed Standard, flansed or


welded Slub-in-type

hydraulic radius

cross-sectional flow area wetted perimeter

Runthrough tee
Gate,

branch 1,000
200
150 100

500 0.70 800 0.40 800 0.80


1.00

Screwed Flanged or welded Stub-in-type branch

0.10 0.50 0.00 0.10 0.15 0.25 4.00 2.00 2.00 0.25
10.00

This relationship applies to noncircular cross sections flowing full or partially full, oval, rectangulat etc., but
not to extremely narrow shapes, such as annular or elongated openings, where the width is small relative to the length. In such cases the value of Rs is approximately one-half the width of the passage. The value of 4RH is substituted for d in Equation 1-4.

Full line size,

p:

ball,
plug

1.0 Reduced trim,

300

p:0.e
p=0.8

500
1.000

Reduced trim,

Globe, standard Globe, angle or Y-type


Diaphragm, dam type

**"

: r,1*,

Butterfly

1,500 1,000 1,000

800

Check
Note: Use R/D

Lift
Swing

2,000

Thble l-4 provides hydraulic radii for various cross


sections.

Tilting-disk

1,500 1.50 1,000 0.50

= 1.5 values for R/D 5 pipe bends, Use appropriate tee values for flow through crosses.

45' ro 180'.

< - -8l

Piping Fluid Mechanics


Screwed
Regular

23

9d ell

Screwed tee

Line

Globe valve Screwod

flow

D
Long radius

K1
0.8

10

rfi-I|l

r\
}J
Flanged 90oell

6 0.3

K
Branch

I
T
0.3
1

10

flow
D FlangEd tee

Flanged

Gate valve Screwed

K o.2
0.1

0.3

0.6

I D

t\ \_t
20 Square-odged inlet [24]

Long radius

o.4
Branch

flow

p!"..ffi
Contraction o.4
p

o'?FidG,i\
0.8
Regular screwed 45oell

*Hl--

0.6

K=o.b
Inward ptojocting pipe

ffi'=.err-r,rf(fia-r]
Enlargemnt

0.4 0.3

0.3

0.5

/(=1.0

(:; /, *-1---lJ
K

Lonq radius flanged 4soell 0.3

K
0.1

0.00'
0.02
0.04

0.06
0_10

0.5 0.28 o.24


0.r 5

0.15&up I
For

0.09 o.o+

p= lmall diamete./larse dismerer K based on velocity in slnatter pipe


based on main pipe

Hydraulic inltitote [24]

(,

see

table

'Sharp{dged

for orifice. l40j

.........,......

crane

It2l

[,liller. based on water at 6

ft^

132]

Figure 1-11. Velocity head values for common piping components [1]. (Reprinted by special permission from Chemical Engineering, @ 1978, by McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.)

'd

24

Mechanical Design of Process Systems


E

Swing chock valve Screwed

n tLtLtt4

F nninqfricrlon lactor for fllribl. m6.tl

hc.

Il4l

flilj-ll-lH;E
Tvoictl

.T

,I
K
Flanged

0.6 '1

24

Nomimr LDr LE u tL tize {in.l {in.l 1/2 0.520 0.250 314 0.750 0.275 0.04t04 t.000 0.187 r 1.500 0.200 r1n 2.O@ 0,161 2 2.962 0.143 3 4.000 0.081 4
Head loss in conical diffuse6
1.2

dimh'ioo3

0. 9 o.12 0.08

106

Feynolds number, /VF"

4 6

10

tr9l

1.0

5
Angle valve
Scre$red

o.e

6l-

4l,t-

I r
0.6
1

P, des.

,I llIl
0.3

Head loss in circular

mite6
147l

63
Flanged
1

K= 1.2 (1 -cos0

Screwd return bend

Pf0g cock

valve lr9l

Buttertly

valve ll9l

Flanged return bend


0 0

to'
2o'

0.05 0.29

5"

to'
20" +0"

o.24 o.52
1.54 10.8

r.56
11.3

lo"
60"

206.0

6o'

I18.0

dk

anste ber@en pipe axis and plus cock axis

is

angle between pipe axit and llapper plate

Figure l-11. Continued.

Piping Fluid Mechanics

Table 1-4
\ralues ot hydlaulic radius (RH) for various Cross

Sections
Cross Section
RH

where Y 1214a12 : 0 for incompressible flow since a?- @, the term ar2 multiplied by the fluid density pl is the bulk compressibility modulus of the fluid and gives
the pressure change for the fractional change in density. Values of the bulk compressibility modulus for various substances are given in Appendix A. The term a1 is the velocity of sound waves propagated in a compressible medium.

As Equation 1-9 shows, the velocity of the fluid is


compared to the fluid velocity of sound in the term V1'l 4a12. If this ratio is small, compressibility effects can be ignored because the error is the difference between this term and unity. This analysis is valid only for barotropic fluids, which are typical of most industrial applications involving flow of gas through a nozzle and the flow of water in conduits or over obstacles. Compressibility effects of a fluid are small when the fluid velocity is small, compared to the fluid sonic velocity. If V1/al is equal to 0.3, the error in the velocity is less than I % when using the incompressible assumption. For ambient air, this limitation corresponds to a velocity of 300 ftlsec without causing significant error. The phenomenon ofnonsteady flow is somewhat more complex than that of steady flow. The acceleration or deceleration of liquid particles immersed in a two-phase solution is one such example. The time required for the nonsteady phenomenon to occur is compared to the time reouired for a sound wave to traverse the flow in which substantial differences in velocity occur. If the time dif-

L-

IN/ E+=

0.153 Di

ferences are small, then the incompressible Bernoulli equation (Equation 1-2) may be applied.

PIPING FLUID MECHANICS PBOBLEM FORMULATION


COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
The preceding analysis assumes steady and incomTo solve piping fluid problems a firm understanding of basic equations and units is essential. The units should be carefully defined and used throughout the calculations. Thble 1-5 presents reasonable velocities for various services used in mechanical systems. These velocities are only guides intended to give the reader foresight for trial

:::ssible fluid flow. This is a reasonable assumption :jce most liquids are steady flow, but frequently the as.-nption is valid for gases. Because some liquids and all :-ies are compressible, a criterion is needed to deter-,ne what percent of error is incurred assuming constant
:::1Slty. -\n estimate of the error can easily be made for a baro::pic fluid-a fluid whose density is a function of pres-

values and are only for mechanical systems; for such values of chemical processes the reader should consult chemical engineering sources.

.-::.
:

.:id

stream of velocity mat

Sabersky and Acusta [8] have shown that for a Vr, static pressure R and density

Viscosity
Widely misunderstood and often improperly applied, viscosity is perhaps the most recondite of all the properties associated with fluid mechanics. However, a clear conception of this physical property is critical to the suc-

(1-9)

26

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Table 1-5
Reasonable Velocities
Liquids
Service water mains General service water piping Boiler feed water piping Heat medium oils Feet per Second

2to5
2to6 2to6

Thus, ifone has a fluid such as a fuel oil (see Example 6-1), which for a given temperature has an absolute viscosity of 139.53 centipoise, we calculate the kinematic viscosity, z, in the English system of units as follows:

4 to l0 6 to 13

p=

139.53 cp at 90'F

54.725lb^/tr

Lubricating oils
Gases Low-pressure steam heating
and process piping

lb,-rT, (rry )r)cP /o.oooozol\ :2. iz, |1 r ., /= lbrsecr


(s4.72s)

ij!-.

Low-pressure steam mains High-pressure steam mains Steam engine and pump piping Steam turbine piping

70 to
150
100

15 to 70
165

165 to 400 100 to 150

E fP

to

330

r:

0.0017

:ft2
sec

Natural gas

Air, 0 to 30 psig
Forced draft ducts Induced-draft flues Chimneys and stacks Ventilating ducts

40 to 60 30 to 50
35

70

0.0017 -::0.00001076e

ft2

il

centistoke

159.261 centistokes

sec

cessful design of hydraulic systems and rotating equipment that transport fluids (see Chapter 6). Viscosity is the property of a fluid to resist flow. Consider how much more freely and easily gasoline pours from a container than does black strap molasses. In fluid mechanics terminology, the heavier, bulkier nature of molasses is caused by the fluid's high shear stresses. These high shear stresses make the molasses very resistant to flow. The fundamental measurement of flow resistance is the dynamic or absolute viscosity. In the cgs (centimetergram-second) system of units the basic unit of viscosity is the poise, which is equal to one hundred centipoises, (For a detailed explanation ofhow absolute viscosities of fluids are determined, the reader should consult a basic text on fluid mechanics.) The centipoise (cp) is now the standard unit of absolute viscosity, but because other units are still used, as illustrated in some of the examples scattered throughout this book, methods for converting to and from centipoises are provided. With the centipoise, one must be careful in using the English system of units when converting to the kinematic viscosity. Illustrating this conversion we have the following:

Since the kinematic viscosity is a function of the fluid density, the above value is only valid at the specified temperature of 90'F. In the metric system the kinematic viscosity can be obtained by dividing the absolute viscosity by the specific gravity. This is only for the metic system of units.It is a common mistake in using the English system of units to compute the kinematic viscosity by dividing the absolute viscosity by the specific gravity of the fluid. Equipment manufacturers often use other units of viscosity. One ofthe most widely used units is the Seconds Saybolt Universal (SSU). This unit represents the number of seconds required for sixty cubic centimeters of liquid at a constant temperature to flow through a calibrated orifice. For liquids of high viscosity a larger orifice is used and the unit applied is termed Seconds Saybolt Furol (SSF). It is customary to specify these units of viscosity at standard temperatures. The following are formulas for converting SSU's and SSF'S to centistokes. Below the value of 32 the SSU is undefined and below the value of 25 the SSF is undefined. Throughout this book, the centipoise and the centistoke are the standard units of absolute and kinematic viscosity, respectively. Where the need arises, the centistoke is converted to SSU. SSU to centistokes

p= z

= i.0 lb-sec/ft2 = 478.7 poise = 4.787 centipoise : kinematic viscosity, centistokQ2 : & 8", for the English system of units
fr-lh
lDrSeC'
aa---------a

absolute viscosity, centipoise

,/

t: :

Seconds Saybolt Universal centistokes

For32(t(99,
For

6.2261

Wnefe gc = JZ.|t

: - P7 t
- !1 t

w=

mass density of the

fluid, lb./ft3

t)

100,

o.zzu

*( ----L'

Piping Fluid Mechanics


SSF to centistokes

with COz in steam. The properties of the mixture are as follows:

::

Seconds Saybolt Furol

Rrr 25

( t(

39,

2.24r - -:- : t

lR4

p= p=
v v

e:

0.01322 cp 0.085 lb/ft3 0.0015 in.

10 PSig

5rt>40,

2.16t

= - -:-t

60

EXAMPLE l.l: FRIGTION PRESSURE DROP FOR A HYDROCARBON GAS.STEAM MIXTURE IN A PIPE
An amine still reboiler boils off a hydrocarbon gas{eam mixture that flows in a 3M ss line connecting the :eboiler with an amine still tower. It is desired to deterrine the maximum pressure drop in the line as shown in Fieure 1-12. The sas is a small tract of amine immersed

The velocity head approach is used in determining the friction pressure drop. The line shown in Figure 1-12 is coming off two nozzles on top of the reboiler and merging at a tee before entering the amine still tower. The dimensions shown are identical with both sides coming off the reboiler nozzles (exemplified by the word "TYR" meaning for both sides). To solve this problem, we must apply Equation l-4. To use this equation, we divide the connecting pipe into three components (see Figures 1-13-l-15)-an 18-in. f portion with W = 25,291 lbl hr a24-in. d portion with W : 25,291lblhr; and a24in. d with W : 50,582 lb/hr, Equation 1-4 is applied to each portion and the pressure drop for each is added to

Figure 1-12. Amine still reboiler hydraulics.

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

FLUID ANALYSIS FOR SINGLE PHAS FLOW

GAS OR LIOUID

coNFtq!84[!9X.

LINE NUMBER IE"6 PoRTt oN

- tr'6

scttEOULE

tcs

PAGE

_OF _

L,,

(z'.- a"\

r{z'-j"\ + (r'-et) ,

y-

rerzr\H

(o.,s$$

(=#l)

1'- z"

1, 1s.7

p7

+i,+81# f"*",i,"'(##) =

SERVICE
FoR sERvtcE

iE;G'dr;BrE-vEEcrw

E REYNoLDS

No=

ov

Ki= No oF ver-ocrri ems;


DEpENDENT ptpE FRtcrtoN

=.ov/, = rt6

K VALUES ILD = 5OK, D=rNStDE D|AMFTEFtfrll


FOR COMPONENTS:

)*,

?1.x ta" u FFUSER (cs/{rRrc). t6" t R 90' ELL =

PIPE ENTRANCE

80 o,079 o, oza
o,7

f=

lL= o,ot32? cp = o,O85 Lb/cu tl y= 1, I L'l I' = O,OOI5 in


p
in.

*=,..,u

D: 17' 50 [p= o, O?9 v = *9,18'1


|

psi

1y

NpE= 690,49/
Q=
W=

".

o,otl
2sz9t
tt/nr

Figure 1-13. Fluid analysis for single phase flow-gas or liquid.

Piping Fluid Mechanics

FLUID ANALYSIS FOR SINGLE PHASE coNFtquRAI!9!L


LINE NUMBER

FLOW

GAS

OR

L,.=

(i'-o') + (1'-t
""n #n"cr.z\

tv/1i']1

+ (rg'' rr"\ = 2+'- o

'tli =

2+076

++

..r-

'

("

raszgr\E(#c'"J
i,,''

Gfi],,)

21,++2

SERVICE

FEASOMBLE VELOCITY
FOR SERVICE

REYNOLDS

NO= DVM'

^.,2 KI=NO OF VELOCITY HEADSiK= .ov72 fl prpe rRrctroH = DEPENDENT

K vALUEs [LD= soK,D=tNStDE DIAMFTERlft]l


FOR COMPONENTS:

)*,

rwo 9d

LR ELt s

- K- o,1?o

= 21.C78 t' 6 = OOOI5 1n. /=p= - 23,5 ;n. o,O29 [p=


y

322 o.o?s P= y
lL=
o,ot

cp Lb/cu

ll

= 21a12
o.oll

1si

191"".

t+,t17.r25

w= ZS29l

Q=

tyn

flow-gas or liquid. Figure'l-14. Fluid analysis for single phase -gpm

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

FLUID ANALYSIS FOR SINGLE PHASE FLOW -

cAS OH

LtOUtD

CONFI6URAT1ON

LINE NUMBER

lt

Z''tt"

= 2,9l.1

Sh
=

"4q

<2."

rs'srz'tiF (=za!=ai

fo,oa,iS

h*l\ru.(ffi

r7,s84

K vALUEs ILD= 50K,D=tNstDE


FOF
COMPONENTS:

DTAMFTER

tftll

)*,

PIPE ExtT

coMatNtNG

FLOV'I =

TEE,

t2
2,2

lL= P= t= e=

O.ol32? co O.O?S Lb/cu tr ?-91'7 n' o,OOl5 in


psi .11rl"""

)*=

Ap= oQ6, 5'1, 884 V= t=


otol3
Q= 111r= So

04< !r- --:::_tn.

NRE= l.o2A,35+. esp

Sg2

.L/rrr

--gpm
Figure 1-15. Fluid analysis for single phase flow-gas or liquid.

Piping Fluid Mechanics

the other portions to give the total frictional pressure


drop for the line (For velocity head value of concentric conical diffusers, the reader is referred to Thble 1-6). The calculations are as follows.

Lr

:
:

Table 1-6
K-Values tor Concentric Conical Diffusers

6.167

ft
10-4)(0.01322)

d2(in.) d1(in.) L(in.)


p
(6.72

d(deg)

Kr

(8.384

x l0 6)-]!L It-sec

Sch

80

tl2

\ tz I =DVP: p :
,fl-05
Let
690,491.450

lr1:50)r, 1+r.+tzr
(8.884

a ro.oasl k sec rr;lb' n-sec

tlc 0.546 ls 0.546

0.302 0.423

Sch 80

3lc x
Sch

10-6)

3lt 0.742 0.423 1.500 6.104 tlz 0.742 0.546 1.500 3.746 4s 0.957 0.423 2.000 7.672 1lz 0.957 0.546 2.000 5.898 3lc 0.957 0.'742 2.000 3.081
tlz

0.126
0.036 0.225
Q.121

80

1X

_2 ron,^ [{g "0.014

f:

* _?r_] [3'7 NR"(f)"'l


: -2 logr0 [(2.317 x :
x
10-5)l
10
5)

0.022
0.318 0.153 0.040 0.373 0.225 0.099 0.009

1-6a)

Sch 80 I r/4
Sch

'0.014)-05

1.278 0.546 2.000 10.545 r.278 0.742 2.000 7.701 1.278 0.957 2.000 4.603

8.452

flPf =

(3.072

0.014

-8.537

80

(?.

r'.l#
* ,"--'l ,rol
,o.oss,

(l -4)

1.500 0.546 2.500 10.999 3lq 1.500 0.742 2.500 8.720 1tl2 x 1.500 0.957 2.5W 6.235 lUq 1.500 1.278 2.500 2.545

Sch

40

-ro,

:I

(0.014X6. 167X12) (17.50)

ft

(4e.487),

0.957 2x ll/c 2.067 2.067 1.278 3.000 7.556 llz 2.067 1.500 3.000 5.423

lc 2.067 0.742 3.000

12.758 3.000 10.661

0.436
0.297
0.131

0.055 0.406 0.237

fr lh
SC'lD6

H*)

lP1,

2.469 0.957 Itlq 2.469 1.278 ztlz x lt/z 2.469 1.500 2.469 2.067
40

Sch

3.500 12.474 3.500 9.796 3.500 7.957 3.500 3.292 3.500 14.816 3.500 12.944 3.500 8.221

0.143
0.013

9-929 O.t 24.078

L. :

40

Sch

tt

Similarly,

\R" :
_\p.

514,177.125 and

f =

3.068 0.957 1V+ 3.068 1.278 3 x lyz 3.068 1.500 3.068 2.067 2tl2 3.068 2.467
1

0.454
0.337
0.11 I

3.500 4.9@

0.028 0.559

0.014

40

Sch

+ o.72ol - [(0.014X24.07s) t (23.s0) I


(

o.

o8r

H ei

44zf

!(, * *-)

lV+ 3.548 1.278 4.000 16.484 lUz 3.548 1.500 4.000 14.833 3t/2 x 2 3.548 2.067 4.000 10.668 zth 3.548 2.469 4.000 7.151 3.548 3.068 4.000 3.440

0.449
0.210 0.093 0.010

fr lh
SC'lD1

c--,-..,&

32

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Table 1-6 continued

Table 1-6 continued


Kr

Size
Sch

dr(in.) dl(in.) L(in.) d(deg)

d2(in.) d10n.)
std

L(in.) 0.496
0.275

40 ltlz 1.500 4.026 4.000 18.406 2.067 4.026 4.000 r4.r74 4 x 2tl2 2.469 4.026 4.000 11.223 3.068 4.026 4.000 6.878 31lz 3.548 4.026 4.000 3.425
Sch

0.609 0.345 0.197 0.055 0.088 0.537 0.388 0.205 0.100 0.035

wt8

7.981 r7.2s0 15.000 17.997 10 10.020 r7.2s0 15.000 13.946 18 x 12 11.938 17.250 15.000 10.199 14 13.250 17.250 15.000 7.662 16 15.250 r7.250 1s.000 3.823 7.981 19.25Q 10.020 19.250 11.938 19.250 13.250 t9.250 15.250 19.250 17.250 19.250

0.125
0.058 0.008

2.067 Ztlz 2.469 5x 3.068 3t/z 3.548 4.026


402 40
Sch

s.u'l

5.000 17.338 5.047 5.000 14.940 5.047 5.000 1r.4r4 5.U7 5.000 8.621 5.U7 5.000 5.860

wt8

srd

10 12 20x 14 16

20.000 10.533

2.469 3.068 6 x 3tlz 3.548 4.026 5.047


Ztlz

6.065 6.065 6.065 6.065 6.065

5.s00 19.08 5.500 15.810 5.500 13.228 5.500 10.682 5.500 5.310

l8
l0

20.000 8.627 20.000 s.739 20.000 2.866

0.180 0.108 0.036 0.005

wt
0.257
0.151

std

10.020 2t.250 12 1 1.938 2r.250


0.194

0.023

403

Sch

3.068 7.981 6.000 24.168 0.726 3t/z 3.548 7.981 6.000 21.680 0.618 4.026 7.981 6.000 19.243 0.476 8x 5.V7 7.98t 6.000 r4.r52 0.229 6.065 7.98t 6.000 9.188 Q.O74
Sch

14 1,3.250 21,.250 20.000 11.537 22x 16 15.250 21.250 20.000 8.627 18 r7 .250 2r.250 20.000 5.739 ?0 19.250 2r.250 20.000 2.866
wt
std

0.092
0.030 0.004

40

4.A6 10.020 7.000 25.350 0.703


5.M7 10.020 7.000 20.807 0.514
6.065 10.020 7.000 16.409 7.981 10.020 7.000
0.295
0.051

10 12 14 24x 16 18
Srd

10.020
11

.938

13.250

23.250 23.250 23.250


0.169 0.079

l0x
Sch

r5.2s0 23.250 20.000 1t.537 17.250 23.250 20.000 8.627 20 19.2s0 23.250 20.000 5.739

0.026

wr

40

5.047 11.938 8.000 25.511 6.065 11.938 8.000 2r.535 12x 7.98t 11.938 8.000 14.319 10 10.020 11.938 8.000 6.885
13.250 13.000 t6.042 7.981 13.250 13.000 1r.692 14x 10 10.020 13.250 13.000 7.136 12 rr.938 13.250 13.000 2.892

0.674 0.197 0.027 0.449

26

Sch

40

12 r1 .938 25.250 14 13.250 25 .250 16 15.250 25.250 t8 r'1 .250 25 .250 24 .W0 9 .s94 20 19.2sO 2s.2s0 24.000 7.181 22 2t.250 25.250 24.0W 4.780 24 23.250 2s.2s0 24.000 2.388
14

.123 0.057 0.018 0.003


0

0.214
0.059 0.005 0.604 0.356 0.157 0.046
0.011

std

Wr
30x

16

wt6
16

std

l8

6.065 15.250 14.000 19.150

20 19.2s0 29.250 24.W0 12.025


24 23.2s0 29.250 24.000 7.181 26 25.2s0 29.250 24.000 4.780 28 27 .2s0 29.250 24.WO

0.174 0.044
0.014 0.002

x 10 10.020

7.98r 15.250 14.000

r5.U7

15.250 14.000 10.765 12 rr.938 15.250 14.000 6.793 14 13.250 15.250 14.000 4.096

Piping Fluid Mechanics Table 1-6 continued

33

APt,
d1(in,)

:
=

6.961 O.'

Size
Srd

dr(in.)
16

L(in.)

@(deg)

K1

Total Friction Pressure Drop for Line

AP

\\i

APl
AP1
0.141

APr,
pst

APr,

AP;,

(0.029

0.005

0.061)

18

20

6.695 O"'

_\

22

24 23.250 33.250 24.Un p.025 26 25.250 33.250 24.000 9.594 30 29.250 33.250 32 31 .250 33 .250
24.000 24 .NO

0.078
0.011 0.001

4.780

EXAMPLE t-2: FRIGTIONAL PRESSURE DROP FOR A HOT OIL SYSTEII OF A PROCESS TANK
A pressure vessel storage tank contains 6,000 gallons of filler coating that must be maintained at 370'F to be
used in the manufacture of roofing products. To maintain the coating mixture at the required temperature, external

Std

\\'t

16 18

20

24 23.250 35.250 24.W0 14.478 16x 26 25.250 35.250 24.000 12.025 30 29.250 35.250 24.000 32 3t .250 35 .250 24 .000 34 33.250 3s.250 24.000
1\l
Srd

0.207 0.128 0.032 0.010


0.001

jacket coils are placed on the outside shell and bottom head as well as four internal coils inside the tank with an agitator. The tank is depicted in Figure 1-16 and the hot

7.181 4.780
2.388

24 26 30 32 34 36

23.250 41.250 24.000 22.024 25 .250 41 .250 24.000 19 .47 | 29.250 41.250 24.000 14.478 31.250 4r.250 24.000 12.025 33.250 41.250 24.000 9.s94 35.250 41.250 24.000 7.181

0.4s4
0.339
0.161

0.098 0.053

0.024

:P,. = 0.005 psi '-. : 2.917 ft

\r. :
rP.-

1,028,354.250 and

f = 0.013
2.201

't:

(0.013x2.917) (23.s0)

(o.oss)

(s4.884F

-i1Fl",ooJ ft lb. r,.r r' --7-a-\J-.-/


SC'lD1

Figure 1-16. Process surge tank. (Courtesy of Tranter, Inc.)

34

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

oil system in Figures l-17, l-18, and 1-19. It is desired to determine how much frictional pressure drop will be incurred for the entire tank so that pump sizes may be
selected.

Bottom Head Hot Oil Supply

Hot Oil Entrance from the 2-in. Header and Flow Through Station 1. (Figure 1-U):

The tank is divided into two systems-the hot oil supply system and the hot oil return system. Each system connects to the three components-the four internal coils inside the tank, the outside shell jacket coils, and the jacket coils connected to the bottom head-and each of the three components must be analyzed separately.

gpm ,l/ "1,

z.s' Y t,,

30 spm

Bottom llead System


A 2-in. pipe header supplies hot oil to the six inlet jacket nozzles and returns hot oil from six outlet iacket nozzles. The supply nozzles are designated by an S and the return nozzles by an R. We will analyze the supply system. The piping system is divided up into "stations," which are points designating flow change due to separating fluid. Each line following a station must be analyzed separately because the flow rate decreases after the flow separates in the tee. We will consider the pressure drop from point A to B, since that path involves more stations and the maximum amount of pressure drop.
For Q

t
I

L
o p

: 36 gpm : 26.5 in., p = 0.15 cp, e : 0.0018 :2.067, p = 58.7 lb/ft3 : (6.72 x 10-4)(0.150) : 1.008 x 10-5
lb./ft-sec (36)

'

min \7.479 gal/ \60 sec

sd (___u, ){_1.'"

3.442 ft.lsec

g=11h"x31a"

C=11h"x1, D=2"xEa" E=2" x1"


F=2'x1112"

Figure 1-17. Process surge tank bottom head coils.

Pipiry Fluid Mechanics

___.1

Figure 1-18, hocess surge tank-shell coiis Qooking south).

35

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

rl

tl I r3t^ J
q.\

q7sm

{t {t -\| \t

0l I lI

\l
NI |\l t\l | \l

_l
-@

t\ tt\

Figure 1-19. Process surge tank-shell coils (ooking north).

fm&----*
Piping Fluid Mechanics

37

Nn"

_DVp_ P "I

?8\o"*"
(t.oo8

osD*
-tD'
n-sec

L:

4.0

ft
sar
rnin \7.479.9aU \60 sec/ \144 in.'/l

x lo )

v_

.io\ '--'

rc

\ltgi

ilrt I (J.JJbtrn.'t-......_l
67lr,,z.sost
12

2.869 ft/sec

:3,452,9\0

I
(1o
s

l{q!q'!) -z
roe,o

ffi
K

2.51

DVp

_\

12

/
x

a,sa.;,
sec

a,qsz,srol(D\

(1.008

10

4)

--l!' n-sec

:
K-factors

0.040

:
1

287

,7U

Pipe entrance Branch flow tee

0.78 0.46

(fl0.5

[/o.oora\ I z.st l\-0. i -2 logp 3r rzz

e8lJwtfi{-'

K=

:0.040
K-factors

+ (-0.78)

\-

.-

0.78

1.

90" LR ell Flow-lhru tee

:K: :K:

0.570 0.910
1.480

aP,:
_

(dLL.

D")#
(2.067) *
rzr
,.r6al
I

[to.o+oxz.zoelt

or,^ ''

[ro.o+orr+.orrtzt

Q.067)

*,.orol
()d. /)

I
I

rh rr2 / rfi2 \ /5R?\::11 M)\2:L | -" I '-' ,ftr.- -. ss62 \144 in.2/

.-^-. lb {r.6oe]' _^ ^-^.. fc I I ft, , l.fil


= n'

sec' \r+4 ln.'/

,rrta j:b:l'sec'lDf

lrql rr ft lb' -'--'-'sec2


APr,

lbr

0.126 n.t Station 2 to Station 3:

$rr :
-

0.186 psi

Z Hot Oil Fl.ow from

Hot Oil Fbw from Station 1 to Station 2:

..^. sal tlxl-l-ll '--'


18gpm

I min min V.a79 ga| \60 sec

I 1ftr ll

2.837 ftlsec

12.036)in.,

t tt'.1

\144 in.J

(ril!.lo Nn" : \r2 l


., -Q,-*-Q,l8
30

r' o.ru sec rss.zr P fi'


x
10
4)

(1.008 22t,657

-j:' n-sec

th

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

(flo

-z

'oc'o

oore\ a l\ r:+ 1 * z.st


[/o

I
I

1ft

[-

rnrsvltf

,,^, t"'

I ft3 \/1 min\ 'oi" \2.+zs s"il \60 '*/ = / t e'z \ (0.864)in.,tfr1n}/
ca1

4.457 ftlsec

:0.M2
K-values o 2-in.

ltlz-in. LR ell

Nn. =

t#)o,0.0",
(1.008

or.a

o . - "'

[(9

t' - e'i],u,

x 1o-) .lb' ft-sec

:
1u9'
1

226,889.525

Ir rr o\2 = l- -^"1 =
\2.M7

0.607

(o0

-r

rocro

lb''4 /
l\ o0s7

P4

* [ 3i tz26seo]flri
|

2.51

0.368

* _
.

0.8 sin [(5.423)(l


(0.368)

0.607)]

_ o.o'

:0.051

Flow-thru tee

K-values

Q*:18-:0.667-K:0.53
^R r.v

1)

lr/2-in.

x f-in.

reducer

sin ,. _ 0.8 --- [c(l -

et-

p,)] _

0.8 sin [(6.23s)(0.593)1


0.166

Dr:
or,,

o.oar + 0.53

0.611

: [,oq?!u1'uo]t't, * 0.u,,]
(J6. -. /)

Flow-thru tee

.-^

ftr

lb .^ ^^-.. n, / r ft, \ {r.6J /)' .*r- h44 i" j-l


z1zz.z1

!!y

. o, = _:_ 6 = 0.5lAn: Ar -_ _ = 1.0=K :0.87 Q*: * A3 Q: t2


Dr:0.:rt+0.87:1.181

Sec' lDf

APr,

0.063 Ott
Flow from Station 3 to Station 4:
6 gpm
,l

Z Hot Al

*r:I
+6
-oFm

(0.051x1.0x12)
(r .049)

r. 1811

r1

t!'

l2x't

I
I

,<o

rr lb

r,,,

,.t', fC / t t'
sec \t+a
fr-lh
SC'-lD6

---A

12

-spm

|
I

1"31

O.222 psr

Piping Fluid

Mechanics 39

E Hot Oil

Flow from Station 4

to Exit B:

(58.7)

rh
ft;

(3.612F

rr2/ rcz\ **- |rfri".,I

tcrrr!jq.SC'-lD;
APq

0.405 Ott

Total friction pressure drop from entrance A to exit B:


Path (Figure

1-17)
I
to station 2

L:2ft
1ft3 t-l sal /4\ \"/ min t-t \7.479 ga| \60 sec/ -

\/r -i"\

_ 3.612 ftlser

(0.533)in.'(+)

@ @ @ @ @

Entrance

A thru branch flow tee


station statioo 2 to station 3 station 3 to station 4
statioD 4 to exit B

APl psi 0.186 psi 0.126 psi 0.063 psi

Flow from Flow from Flow from Flow from

0.222 psi O.zlO5 psi 1.002 psi

a rsa.zr'tt' {o't'lo,r.utl'sec' I \12l :


1^
(o0.5

A4.449

Dot, =
Z

1.002 psi = Total frictional pressure drop from entrance A to exit B

Shzll mils-Soutft ride (Figure 1-18) Station

1-

=
I-values

0.055 35spm 2
3/a-in. reducer

l-in. x

sin [a(l - F1] _ ,. _ 0.8 _____7-_

0.8 sin [(3.081X1


(0.361)

- 0.601I

:
.
K

0.0'[8

3-90' LR ells

3(0.025X30)

:
1.0

2.25O

Pi1r exit

1q

o.7 o" =:.r : 42 : 0.167 Qr Kr = -0.032 Header entrance = K = 0.78 station 1 : K = -0.03 K : O.75 : 42 Q: epm 'L = 10ft;/ = 0.15cp;d = 2.067in. p:58.7 lb/ft3;6 = 9.9613 V = 4.016 ff/sec; f : 0.020; Nr, : 402,829 APr : 9.195 *' Station 235 gpm
28 gpm

E* :
&r, _ -

o.o+s + z.zso
l(0.055x2.0)(12)
to^szat

+ r.ooo = +
3.2esl

3.298

40

Mechanical Design of Process Systems Station

n. 1 Qr: ::] = JJ .-:0.200 Qr Kaz = -0'03 L = 5in. = 0.417 ft;d = 2.O67 in. Qa : 35 epm Y : 3.346 tusec; f : 0.020; Nn : 335,691 AP, : g.gg1 n"t
Station

5-

3-

9:1:o.soo 14

Qr L: 10ft Krz : 0.015 v = 1.339 ft/sec;,f : Nn":134,276 APs : 9.914 O.t

0.021

Friction pressure drop from station 6 to coil entrance

Q3

28 gPm

Q:.1 28

Qr L = 10ft d : 2.O67 rn. v : 2.677 ft/sec; K32 : Nr":268,553 f : 0.020 APr : 6.952 n.'
Station

:o.zs

-0.036

43
21 gpm

I Tspm
I

o^:Qt=ro Qr &r = 1.28


For 2-in.

14gpm

Q:1:o.rgr 2l
Q: &z = -0.030
Qr

L:5in.:0.417ft; d = 2.067 ln. : 21 epm V = 2.008 ff/sec; f : 0.021 Nn' = 201'415 AP+ : g.ggt O.t

K = O-129 K : 0.311 K : 0.048 K : 18(0.025) : 0.450 2-l1lz-in.90" LR ells, K = 2(30)(0.021\ : 1.2@ 1-1-in. 90" LR ell, K : (30X0.023) = 0.690 1-3l+-in. 90. LR ell, K : (30X0.025) : 0.750 Exit into coil, K : 1.0 Q = 7 gPm; L : 7 -25 f7 F.- = 5.168 !K : . For 2-in. { pipe, d 2.067 in.
lrlz-in.
1tlz-in. reducer, l-in. reduceq l-in. x 3/a-in. reducer, r/+-in. plug valve,

K: V=

L:7in.:0.583ft
1.049

0.669 fl:/sec

Piping Fluid Mechanics

4'l

Nr":67,138
AP

f:0.023

= 0.333 QR::r \J3

n.

0.0M psi

o For lrlz-in. d Pipe, d : !.610 in. L:3ft K : 1.571 V : 1.103 ftlsec; Nx" : 86,195; f : 0.023 : AP 0.016 psi o For 1-in. { pipe, d : 1.049 in. L:Zft K = 0.738 V : 2.599 ftlsec; Nq" : 132,292', f : 0.024 AP : 0.055 psi . For 3/a-in. { pipe, d : 0.824 in L :2ft K : 2.2O Y : 4.Zll ft/sec; Nx" : 168'416; f:0.025

Kr: -0.030 L: 10ft Qr : 21 gpm p:58.7 lblff; p :0.015 cp; e:0.0018; d : 2.067 \n. V = 2.008 tusec; Nr" : 201,415t f : 0.021 AP1 : g.g3g O.'
Station
2

AP

0.330 pst

Toral frictional pressure drop from station 1 to bottom shell

o, : Q' :
: v : :

o.5ool

.nil
!s\

is

llP

0.195 psi
\--

0.001 psi
i-!-Z

+ 0.052 psi +
\-!-

0.001 psi
--/-

station

station

2
+

station

3
+

station 4

Qr K:z = 0.015 14 gpm Q3 1.339 ft/sec; N3" AP 0.014 psi

L = roft

134,2'16:

f:

0.021

0.014 psi

(0.004

0.016

0.055 + 0.330) psi

Friction pressure drop from station 2 to coil entrance:

station 5

station 6 Total Drop for Shetl Coil on South


Side

I-t" :

O.OOS

psi

Shell

coils-Nonh side (Figure 1-18)

Sration

13
+ 21spm

;'il]

r 14 gpm

n. o" : lll = 1.0: K,, = 1.28 r)^ For 2-in. x 1-in. reducer, K : 2.538 1-in. x :/q-in. reducer, K = 0.048 3/4-in. plug valve, K : 0.450 Exit into coil, K : 1.0 For l-in. 90" LR ell, K = 0.690 For l-in. { pipe, d : 1.049 in.

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Ns.:132'292
AP
For

: 4fr, V = 2.599f1/sec; f : 0.024


Q
7 gPm, L K 0.738

EXAIIPLE l-3: FRIGTION PBESSURE DROP FOR A WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM
A gas turbine manufacturer specifies that the maximum back pressure on the unit used in this system be 10 in. of water pressure, therefore, the waste heat recovery
system should be designed so that the frictional pressure

0.079

2-i'].0

pipe:Q:7gpm,L: llft K:2.538 V : 0.669 tusec Nn":67'138.184 f : 0.023 Ap : 0.0t1psi


Nn":168'416 Ap

drop does not exceed 10 in. of water. The system is shown in Figure l-20.

Turbine exhaust dntq

for outside air ot 6l)'F

Temp. ofexhaust gas

795"F;

For3A-in.

opipe:d

V:

0.8241

L:

V= =

131 fusec 0.03

2 ft:

= 1.450

4.211 tusec

tt :

0.0759

f : 0.025 : 0.245 psi

.':. \0.4132) lb/n-hr --l= It-hr


D

th

.n

cp

L:

l2O

ft;

O.OOOO+Z

(commercial steel)

Total frictional pressure drop from station 1 to bottom shell

coil is

e= N""

0.00015
'|

sr

l-r AP

0.030 psi + 0.014 = \-!-\-.-/ station

psi

1
+

: :

VDP,

station 2

t'
2.108

a = 0.0759 lb {--!t ft-hr

\3,600 sec/

(0.011

0.079

0.245)psi

10-5

-lb ft-sec

station 3

sr

AP

0.3'19

psi

fl 1t.0)

a(4t.25)i".

Toml Drop for Shell Coil on North


Side

Nn:

sec

I | ft I {0.031) ! ftJ \12 in./


5)

(2.108

10

Maximum friction pressure drop in supply system is incurred at bottom head coil line with AP : 1.002 psi.

-.!!rr-sec

662,224

B{SS

STAC

i(

42'6 670 9a

4zV srD

Figure 1-20. Waste heat recovery system.

Piping Fluid Mechanics From Equation l-6a, For 42-in. d portion,

, : log,o I n o!goo38j -:* 10.00001I + :-: -2 ri rttot / t


f:0.0130
D=
41.25

K.*r

0.770 + 3.161 From equation l-4,

+ 0.340

4.271

op = ILL*
3.438

in. =

ft

\d -

rr)ey I2e,
to.oiU

.. t :
ior

fL D
K1/Np.

(0.0130)(120)
3.438

^,r..4

, "-,1 1- +,zt1l ur = [(0.0130)(I20) t(3.44) L I


AP

rt"
-19,

(r 3r .oo,12

il
sec'

From Equation 1-8,

2\32.2)

sec'

fr ".

(144)

fr2

ln.' --:-

+ K-

(l + '/d) {
section

0.271 psi

straight pipe, 42-in.

..

fL d

For l0

ft x

ft x

42-Lrr.

transition piece,

(0.0130)(120
3.438

30)

D:68.571 in.: L = 4.0ft: K:0.615

ii-\'alues

\:lr

es and Fittings

tsrtterfly valve
R.un-thru tee

I r

o, nKr K- nK800 800 0.25 0.25 150 150 0.50 0.50


Kr 950 0.75

* - [<o.ot:ot<+.ot | 5.714
= =
0.005 psi

(0.031r: (47.458), j , Itsec' o u,rl fr2 I :fr


ff2

th

2132.2)

1144) sec' ln.' =

AP AP

( _

qso r\ 0.770 -" | (0.75) / ll I _l 662.224 \ 4t.251 =

0.005 osi t27.912t

0.140 in. H2O AP thru heating coils Total


l .000 0.161 1.000 1.000
3. 161

'

in H,O ar 62.F '::::::L


t
psi

:
+

2 in. H:O 0.140

Itirer K-values

AP

7.564 tn.

in. + 2.000 in.

rl-in.dx30-in.d
l-rck exit

i.De entrance at turbine nozzle

OI

.lrste heat recovery unit entry duct

AP

9.704 in. HrO

<

l0 in. allowed

:rr

a rectangular duct,

i.=ab/2(a+b)
:-'r round pipe,

EXAMPLE I-4 PRESSURE DROP IN RELIEF VALVE PIPING SYSTEM


Relief valve piping systems are designed to have minimum pressure drop. In this application the plant rules stipulate that the pressure drop will not exceed 3 % of the valve set pressure. The system is to have two valves, shown in Figure 1-21. The relieving fluid is Freon 114 and the flow rate is W :243,755lblhr. First we compute the velocity heads, or K-values.

i. =

Di4

a+b
68.571

2(10)ft (4)fr

l0ft+4ft

_ < ",,

r,

in.

Equivalent circular diameter

Mechanical Desisn of Process Svstems The total pressure drop for 6-in. and 4-in. lines

Pr

Pr

3.869 psi

Set pressure

+ 5.935 205 psi

psi

9.804 psi

%^P:#:4.8vo>3vo
Consider moving 6-in. x 4-in. swages above gate valves and making 90" LR and gate valve 6-in., as shown in Figure 1-22. Recomputing the K-values we have

+
Figure 1-21. Relief valve piping system.

K : 30 fi : 30(0.015) : 0.4s0 K : 8ft : 8(0.015) : 0.120 Entrance, K : 0.780 Tee, K : 0.900 6-in. 90' LR ell, K : 0.450 6-in. gate valve, K = 0.120 6-in. x 4-in. swage, K : 0.019
6-in. 90' LR ell, 6-in. gatevalve,

D*:
For 6-in.
@

z.zas

line from entrance through swage, Lo

10

ft

6-in. tee

K:

6-in. x 4-in. swage nipple = 0

60

ft =

60(0.015)

AP = 4.869 psi: Ns. : l4,g3l,g2g V : 37.N2 ft/sec; f = 0.01741 Vo AP :4869 : 0.024 = 2.470 <37o
0.900
205

60'

6:d,:4.@6=o.ao+ ' d2 6.065


From Figure 1-7,

The pressure drop in the system in Figure 1-22 does not exceed 37o \p to the relief valve as the plant rules require, thus, Figve l-22 is the final configuration. Latet in example 2-5, we will examine the structural integrity of the system.

K:
k:
B

0.5(l

0.,141)(sin 30')05

0.194

1.019

4-in. d 90' LR elbow,


30

ft

30(0.015)

0.450

4-in. gate valve,

: I :

1.0

+r( = 8ft :
0.78

8(o.ol5)

o.l2o

Entrance,

K:

6-in. d line from entrance thru swage, Lo

ft

LtK : 0.'78 + 0.90 + 1.019 : 2.699 AP : 3.869 psi; Np" : 14,931,929 V : 37.002 tusec; f : 0.01741
4-in. line from swage to relief valve, L4

\-r

ft

AP

Dr

0.570 5.935 psi; NRe =22.494.325 :83.973 ftlsec: = 0.01913

= o.oso+o.l2o =

Flgure 1-22. Relief valve piping system.

The Engineering Mechanics of

Piping

45

NOTATION

Greek Symbols

: a. : AR : b. : c:
al

sonic velocity of sound waves in compressible medium, ft/sec rheological variable, dimensionless
ratio of branch area to header area, dimensionless rheological variable, dimensionless experimentally determined flow constant where c plE" for a Newtonian fluid inside diameter (lD) of pipe. in.

: 6:
d
"y

angle, degrees ratio of smaller diameter of pipe fitting to larger


diameter generalized viscosity coefficient lb'/(ft)Gec) absolute roughness or effective height of pipe wall

d= D:

f: F:
g:

inside diameter (ID) of pipe, friction factor, dimensionless

ft

cr

p= y=

irregularities, ft absolute (dynamic) viscosity, centipoise kinematic viscosity, centistokes angle, degrees

head loss, friction ioss or frictional pressure cm(kgr) droo. ft(.br) .

'. lb.

g.

REFERENCES

gravitational acceleration constant, 32.2 ftlseczl


cm/sec-

g"

1. Simpson, L.

L.

and Weirick, M.

L.,

"Designing

English system conversion factor, 32.17

2. 3.

Ha: He: = : : = = Nr" : P: Rn : u= v: Y: k K KL n'

lbt energy added by mechanical devices, e.g. pumps, ft(lb)/Ib.", cm(kg)/g. energy extracted by mechanical devices, e.g. turbines, f(lbr)nb*, cm(kg)/g. specific heat ratio (adiabatic coefficient), Co/C, velocity head, (ft)(lb)/lb* velocity head for a large fitting at Np" = o length of pipe or piping component, in. rheological variable, dimensionless Reynolds number, dimensionless
pressure,

Plant Piping," Chem. Eng., April 3, 1978. Metzer, A. B. and Reed, N. C. A.l.Ch.E. Jownal, vol. 1, no.434, A.S.M.E., New York, 1955. Rase, H. F., Piping Design for Process Plazts, John

4. Govier, G. W. and Aziz, K.,


5.

Wiiey, New York, 1963.

The Flow

of Complex

Mixtures in Pipes, Robert E. Krieger Publishing Co., Huntington, New York, 1977. Crane Co., Technical Paper No. 410 Flow of Fluids,
Crane Co., New York. 1981. HVAC Duct System Design, SMACNA,

6. SMACNA,

hydraulic radius, ft, in' average bulk velocity, ftlsec velocity, lblt(, kgrlcrfi height above datum, ft, cm

l!lt9,

kgrlcrfi

7. Hooper, B., "The Two-K Method Predicts Head Losses in Pipe Fittings," Chem. Eng., Ang. 24,
1981.

Vienna, Virginia 1981.

8.

Sabersky, R. H. and Acosta, A. J. Fluid Flow-A First Course in Fluid. Mechanics, The MacMillan Company, New York, 1964.

The Engineering Mechanics of Piping

Static and dynamic analyses require clear and precise c.efinition of terms-their misuse can often lead to mis:-;nderstandings, a problem the engineer greatly appreciThe application of engineering mechanics to piping "tes. :s mainly referred to in industry as "pipe stress analy-.rs." However, the term is not comprehensive enough recause engineers are usually more concerned about :orces and moments exerted on equipment than stress. Cerrainly, stress is a concern and is discussed along with

These forces and moments are controlled by structural supports attached to the piping using pipe supporrs ro control forces and moments in the pipe and attaching components bring up two fundamental concepts-stiffness and f lexibility-which are discussed later in this
chaDter.

rtier

phenomena in the chapter.

-{nother popular term used in industry is "piping flex-:ility analysis." The word flexibility can pose a prob-em because in the stiffness method of analysis

PIPING CRITERIA
In analyzing piping mechanics, the following parameters must be considered:

it is actu-

-:lh the structural stiffness of pipe supports, rather than :ieribility, that is important. For this reason the term -'piping flexibility analysis" is avoided. piping component is any constituent part of a piping -\ .-, stem, of any finite length of pipe-a valve, flange, el:\.\\\'. pump, or anything else within the piping system. llping is supported for various reasons-an obvious one -rng to counteract the force of gravity-and to begin to -:rderstand the applications we must start with some baa.: concepts. Consider a piping component as shown in Figure 2-1. i{:re we have a three-dimensional axis system with the : rmponent-a short length of straight pipe-subjected to
rrces and moments about each axis. The forces and moare considered as vector quantities and often ex::essed in terms of resultant vectors. For convenience u'ill express resultant vectors in terms of a resultant :.ror operator defined as follows: '
:

2. The design pressure and temperature. 3. The type of material. 4. The pipe size and wall thickness of each pipe
ponent.

1. The appropriate code that applies to the system.


com-

5. 6. 7.
8.

:.nts

::

The piping geometry including movements of anchors and restraints. The allowable stresses for the desisn conditions set by the appropriate code. Limitations of forces and moments on equipment nozzles set by API, NEMA, or the equipment manulacturers. Metallurgical considerations, such as protecting material from critical temperatures, like carbon steel below its transition temperature.

\.\.2)

: ,tll*-Z

(2-1)

-je -J

resultant force and moments change in magnitude

direction along the length of the piping system.


47

For any piping system, these criteria must be considpiping system, it is not always necessary. For example, a system having only two terminal points and pipe of uni form size does not require a formal analysis if the following approximate criterion is satisfied:
ered and satisfied. While it is sufficient to analyze a

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Figure 2-1. An element in a pipe wall is subjected to four


SIrESSES.

onlv code that is different from the ASME codes is the Geiman DIN code, where the basis of yield is different' The code basis and theories of yield are discussed later' Reeardless of what ASME codes are used, the user is cauti6ned that the codes are written by ASME to be euidelines and not design handbooks. The intent of the lodes is merely to set minimum rules and procedures for desrgn. This does not include operation ofplants' Operationil problems are not intended to be governed by ASME codes. Such problems as bowing of the pipe and geysering are considered operational and are not consrdered as design Phenomena. Pioine codes-are not the only ones with which the desien'eniineer should be familiar. It would be expedient utia n.t-pru if he or she is familiar with ASME Section

o?w""
where

(2-2)

vnl Di;. I and II.

D, =

y= -

L=
U

: C: :

outside diameter (OD) of piPe. in' (mm) resultant of total displacement strains to be absorbed by the piping system. in (mm) developed length of line axis between anchors, ft (m) anchor distance (length of straight line joining anchors), ft (m) 0.03 for U.S. units 208.3 for SI units, in Parentheses

Usually. however. the piping sysrem has either more rhan two terminal points or not all of the previous cnterla are met, and a formal analysis is required' After the first five criteria are considered the next and foremost factor to consider is Step 6-the allowable stress of the pipe. To determine this, one must reter to the appropriaie code that governs the piping system-' The following are codes applicable to industrial piplng ln the United States: ASME 83l.
I

high-Pressure steam lines) ASME B31.3-Ct emical Plant and Petroleum

Piping-governs -Power in the Power industries (e'g''

piping

RefinerY PiPing-governs PiPing sYstems used in the chemical

Also, the AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction\ Manual of Steel Construction is mandatory in the design of structural supports-a requirement that will be obvious later. 'The reader will notice a stark contrast between the ASME and AISC philosophies of codes' The AISC Manual of Steel Constiuaion is intended to be a design handbook and is considered as such. AISC' unlike ASME' covers all industries of steel construction, from the buildine of tall office buildings to major chemical plants ' Unlike ASME, the AISC codes give a commenta'ry on what bases are used in formulating the code and why much these bases were used' It cannot be emphasized too civil and mechanical crosses mechanics that engineering A States United in the known as aisiiplines ensindrine kniwleaee"of some of both is necessary to understand the overill perspective of piping mechanics' ln satisfuing Step 6 in the list of criteria, once the appropriate iodi is selected. the system must be analyzed io ditermine if any portion of the system exceeds the allowable stress given by the code' The allowable stress br the cide is' in the ASME and most foreign of fail"i;;; EoA... Uu."a on ttte maximu-m shear stress theory itrit tft"ory is based orfthe fact that a material yields "i". when the maxihum sheir stress equals the yield stress' data This theory is in good agreement with experimental for and rnO"i .,"ufv stati and iatigue stress conditions
reason has been adoPted' this --iince

and Petroleum industrY ASME B31.4-Zt qiid Petroleum Transportation

PiPing SYstems

ASME 831.5-RdiEeration Plnins . ^. ASME 83l .8-C,as Transmission and ulstrloution PiPing SYstems ASME Section |II-Nuclear PiPing' Most foreign codes are similar to the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) codes' particularlv as fai as the theoretical basis is concerned' lne

tnowledge of thi different theories of yield is pip-ing noi dir""tly pertiient to industrial applications of further for Ill r."ft-i.., the reader is referred to Faires are restresses what note to pertinent is It discussion. cuired bv the codes in analyzing piping systems' ' An element of pipe wall subjected to four stresses ls pressure shown in Figure 2:i. The pipe is under internal and the four stresses are as follows:

oL oc

: :

longitudinal stress circumferential or hooP stress

The Engineedng Mechanics of

Piping

49

rR

Jr

: :

radial stress
shear or torsional stress

The longitudinal stress is the sum of the following


dlree components:

l.

Bending stress induced by thermal expansion. For straight pipe:


oB

M : ,7 LM

Q-3)

For curved pipe:

M.| oe: _ LM
2. Bending

(2-4)

Direct shear stress is negligible and is not considered when caused by the piping temperature, because local yielding or "creep" reduces the stress at piping components. Local strain hardening restricts the local yielding and prevents the material from rupturing. This phenomenon of locai yielding reducing stress is termed "selfspringing," and has the same or similar effect as cold or hot springing. The operating stress ("operating" is used because it can be either hot or cold) diminishes with time. This change in stress is compensated for by the allowable stress range, which is the sum of the operating and down condition stresses and remains practically constant for one cycle. This sum is obtained as follows:

ot : f 0.25 o" i

O.25 oe)

(2-11)

stress induced by the weight of the pipe. (This stress should not be a consideration ifthe piping is properly supported and will not be considered in this analysis.) ,1. Longitudinal stress induced by internal pressure.

f :

stress range reduction factor

for cyclic condition

Total no. of full temp. cycles over expected life

"' = Pi

(2-s)

3ecause both longitudinal stress caused by internal pres.-re and bending stress act in the same direction,

< < < < <

7,000
14,000

22,000 45,000
100,000

:- =

oBL

oP

(2-6)

Expansion stress, caused by thermal expansion, must not exceed the allowable stress range, oo, and is defined:

lle

circumferential or hoop stress is caused primarily by

oe=[@s)2+4(o)2]

(2-tz)

::ernal pressure. Thus.

,- = P(D - 2Py) 2tE

(2-'7)

i ,: thin-walled cylinders op is negligible. However, for --::k-walled pipe, the following relationship may be --'d for determining the radial stress:
__ r,2P,
rozPo rozri2(Pi - Gt:'5r -il --l- _
Po)

The piping codes further state that the sum of the longitudinal stresses caused by pressure, weight, and other sustained loadings shall not exceed op. This also includes the longitudinal stress caused by internal pressure, op, defined above. When torsional stress becomes significant, as in many multiplane systems, the resultant fiber stress, or combined stress, is determined by the following:

(2-6)

t = llor+

op

[4(o1),

(o1

op)r]05]

(2-13 )

ic
,_

shere external pressure,

P6

0, we have

rilP; _ rotr,.P, h: - ri2 (ro, - ar,)r


is

PBIMARY AND SECONDARY STRESSES


(2-9) These two concepts are very important in analyzing piping mechanics problems. A more detailed discussion of the various types of primary stresses is given in Chapter 4. The reader is encouraged to review Chapter 4 for an understanding of pressure vessels, as well as this chapter for help in solving piping mechanics problems. Secondary stresses are called self-limiting or selfequilibrating because as they increase in magnitude, lo-

l::.ional or shear stress

-T
|

lZm

(2-10)

::ie

torsion is generated in a multiplane system.

50

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

cal yielding causes local deformation which in turn reduces the stresses. Self-springing is an example of this
ohenomenon. -

Primary stresses are not selflimiting because as they increase, local yielding does not reduce them. One example of primary stress is internal pressure. Under sufficient pressure a pipe will undergo local yielding and deform, but the stress will not diminish and the pipe wall deformations will be excessive and unacceptable. For this reason, it is necessary to assign lower allowable stress limits to primary stresses than to secondary stresses. This fact is extremely important, as prlmary and secondary stresses are evaluated differently' and have different allowable limits. It must be remembered that piping and vessel codes give allowable stresses only for primary sresses. Secondary stresses must be assigned allowable limits as shown in the following discussion.

---:>

Figure 2-2. Stress-strain curve.

ALLOWABLE STFESS RANGE FOR SECOI{DARY STRESSES


The most important secondary stresses are those induced by thermal expansion (or contraction) and surface discontinuities, the latter being more relevant to vessels. The most widely used approach in designing equipment' vessels, and piping is to keep the induced stresses in the elastic range. In the case of ductile materials, the elastic range is well defined by the minimum yield point. Ductilehaterials are often used in piping systems subjected to loads that induce secondary stresses. Materials that do not have a well defined minimum yield point are designed on the basis of their ultimate yield strength, which is the maximum tensile load divided by the original cross-sectional area of the specimen. The minimum yield point is the tensile load required to develop permanent deformation in the material. Materials that do not have a well defined minimum yield point are generally not used temperatures and in piping systems 'Thus, subjected to extreme to those materiapplies this discussion presiures. yield als with minimum Points. Consider the stress-strain curve shown in Figure 2-2' Here the metal specimen is loaded to point A and then unloaded. Because point A is the minimum yield point' no deformation occurs because the material is still in the elastic range. Now, consider Figure 2-3 where the material is loaded beyond point A' Because the minimum yield point is exceeded, plastic deformation sets in that permanently deforms the material to point B. When the specimen is unloaded, er is the amount of permanent deformation, denoted by point C. Point B' is the theoretical stress point if the material had not deformed to point B. Figure 2-4 shows a case where a specimen is loaded

Figure 2-4. Stress-shan curve.

The Engineering Mechanics of

Piping

51

inro the plastic region. For complete plastic deformation to occur, the entire area ofthe pipe wall must exceed the minimum yield point. This would not be acceptable in practice because of permanent deformation and the pos-

sibility of rupture.
There are acceptable cases where the loads will fail between Figure 2-2 and Figve 2-3. This condition is shown on Figtre 2-4, where part of the pipe wall is in the elastic range and the other part is on the plastic region. For cases where the portion in the plastic range is small compared with the portion in the elastic range, the amount of permanent plastic deformation is imperceptible. For this reason, the distance between points A and B m Figure 2-4 is small compared to Figure 2-3 because the portion of material in the elastic range limits the amount of permanent deformation . Thus , when the spec-

imen is unloaded, residual stresses are developed that cause reverse yielding when the material exceeds the compressive yield point. This is shown graphically in Figure 2-5. The specimen is loaded to point A and an excessive load deforms it to point B. At point B, part of the material is in the plastic range and the other portion is in the elastic range. When the specimen is unloaded, the stresses in the material go into compression shown at point C. Residual stresses caused by the combination of material in the elastic and plastic regions make part of the material exceed the compressive yield point and the specimen deforms from point C to point D. Upon application of the same initial tensile load, the material is loaded to point E. Point E is larger in value and, thus, to the right of point A, because the initial loading of part of the specimen into the plastic range causes strain hardenB

I
tl

,l

,l

ll

STBAIN

=>

Frgure 2-5. Stress-strain curve.

52

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

ing and, thus, increases the minimum yield point of the material. As excessive loads are applied, the minimum yield point E is exceeded and the material deforms to point F. As the material is unloaded again the initial process repeats itself and the stresses in the material move to point G and then to point H as the compressive yield point is exceeded. Point Q represents the stress in the loaded condition after several loading cycles, and point P represents the stress in the unloaded condition. It is possible that no significant plastic deformation will occur after many load cycles. However, should stress values of Q and P exceed the fatigue limit of the material, small cracks will propagate throughout the strain-hardened material. After the small cracks appear, further cyclic loading will result in brittle fracture failure. The stress magnitude P results from the specimen being unloaded when the load condition, point Q, is reached. Thus, since Q is the tensile stress opposite to the compressive stress P in the parallelogram OB'QR the sides OB' and QP are equal in iength. Therefore, Q : 0.5 B'. Fracture by strain hardening will not occur if the theoretical tensile stress B' does not exceed twice the minimum yield stress of point A, and the magnitude of Q does not exceed the ultimate yield strength of point A. When a ductile material, that is a material with a defined minirnum yield point, is subjected to repeated loading, a certain behavior occurs. When a component, such as a nozzle on a header pipe, is repeatedly loaded and unloaded, the strain hardening makes the material stronger from load cycle to load cycle. As the material becomes harder, it is better able to resist yield. However, the maximum point at which this repeated loading cycle can occur is 2oyp. The stress o : 2ovp is the limit ofthe maximum stress range. This process is called elastic shakedown. that is. the material "shakes down" to an elastic response, and undergoes deformations or strains induced by loads beyond the minimum yield point of the material. It must be noted that at elevated temperatures the value of 2oyp can be altered by hydrogen embrittlement. Carbon steel exposed to hydrogen at elevated temperatures can fail during elastic shakedown because the hydrogen combines with the carbon causing embrittlement. The relationship between the maximum stress range and the initial yield point can be expressed as

This analysis indicates that the allowable stress should be based on the yield point rather than ultimate strength. The material's ability to revert into compression and

limit itself to the amount of permanent plastic deformation is termed "shake down." The material "shaking down" limits the amount of deformation and, thus, has
an elastic response.

From this discussion, we see tlat there is a range of allowable stresses available. Direct membrane stresses are limited by oy, bending stress is limited by l.5oy, and a limited, one-time permanent deformation from A to B occurring from secondary stresses is limited by 2oy. Table 2-l gives recommended values for design allowable stresses. As shown in ASME Section VIII, Division I, paragraph UA-5e, different stress levels for different
stress categories are acceptable.

FLEXIBILITY AND STIFFNESS OF PIPING SYSTEMS


There are two basic approaches to piping mechanics-

flexibility and stiffness. The former approach is more common and easier to understand. Piping mechanics (more popularly known as "pipe stress") is often referred to as "flexibility analysis," but it will become obvious in the following discussion that such a term is not
complete. In the flexibility approach, the piping configuration is made more flexible by using loops that allow the pipe to

Table 2-1 Allowable Stresses'


Pressure Component Design Conditions l. Internal pressure . ....... oA 2. Internal Dressure plus therinal loading . ... . 1.25 (oa * op)

3.

Temporary mechanical

4. Hydrotest
1. Pipe supports
than
and connections other

overload

..... . . ...

oo X hydrotest factor

l.33oa < oy

Non-pressure Components Design Conditions

2. Bolting

bolts

.. ... .......

1.330a
Per AISC Manual of Steel Construction considerable

savinss in material can be

o1,s

incuried if high strength bols are utilized, such as


Zoyp (2-1,4)

where

MR : YP :

SA-193-87. Followins AISC guidelines in n6n


pressure components

maximum local stress range not producing fatigue failure, psi initial yield point of the matedal at the operatrng temperature, psl

will

result in prudent economical desisn.

'

Courtes) of American Socier) o[ Mechanica] Engineers

The Engineering Mechanics of

Piping

53

displace itself, resulting in lower stresses, forces, and moments in the system. This method is often the most desirable when relatively inexpensive piping material is used (pipe elbows can be very expensive in alloy piping) and space is available for the loop(s). However, the stiffness method becomes quite important when the flexibility method is neither practicai nor economical. When limited space reduces piping flexibility or makes it irnpossible or undesirable to use flexibility loops, restraining the piping using the stiffness of pipe supports becomes the alternative. This approach is gaining popularity with the increased use of modular designs of petrochemical plants, offshore platforms, and other industrial facilities. The following is a summary of the advantages of both
methods:
St iffne s s Me

A piping element has six degrees of freedom, three in translation and three in rotation, as shown in Figure 2-6. The amount of force or moment required to produce unit displacement in each degree of freedom at points all along the piping element is described mathematically as the stiffness matrix. K. which is defined as

P:KU
where we have an elastic element subjected to a set of n forces and moments

(2-ts)
the corresponding displacement of each by the matrix
P1

is described
(2-r6)

thod Ady anta

g es

l.

Requires less pipe fittings and is thus more economical than flexibility method, because pipe restraints required are far less expensive than the number of fittings they replace. In alloy piping
these savings are enormous. Requires far less space for piping, such as in modu-

Therefore, the stiffness matrix can be expressed p


U

as

(2-17)

2. 3. 4.

Iar skid-mounted plants, offshore platforms,


ships.

and

which can be in pounds per inch or foot pounds per degree. The relationship II
P

Method is safer because in case ofa failure, such as a leak in a weld crack, the pipe restraints can (and have) kept systems from blowing apart. Piping and system is more resistant to dynamic loads, such as vibration and seismic shock loads.

(2-18)

Flexibility Method Advantages

1. Utilizes simpler pipe supports, and requires less piping engineering skill. 2. Is more desirable in noncritical systems, e.g. exhaust and flare lines. 3. Many solutions do not require a computer. The
problems can be solved manually.
To better understand these two methods of piping me-'hanics, it is necessary to examine some basics of struc::rral analysis. Stiffness is the amount of force or moment reouired to :ioduce unit displacement. either translational or angu-

is defined as the compliance or flexibility matrix and can be in inches per pounds or degrees per foot-pounds. Thus, the stiffness K ofa system is the inverse of the system compliance or flexibility, C, that is, the piping system becomes more flexible, or less stiff than its initial

configuration

The system stiffness matrix, K, is made up of elements that are either direct stiffness or indirect stiffness components. The direct stiffness component K;; is the value of stiffness at the point i when the displacement U1 is produced by a force or moment P acting in the direction of
U1. The indirect stiffness Kij is the value

the point

-.lr movement. The simplest concept of stiffness is to ::nagine using X pounds to compress a spring one inch. Thus, the spring stiffness is in terms of pounds per inch. This simple example illustrates translational stiffness. Rotational stiffness can be thought of in a similar manner as a spring that resists rotational movement, foot-pounds rer unit degree of movement.

tion ofj, due to a force or moment at another point i in the direction of i. The indirect stiffness can also be thought of as relative stiffness-those stiffness values induced by forces and moments in the system other than the point in consideration. It is the combined grouping of the complete direct and indirect stiffness values that form what is called the "stiffness matrix." Each direct and indirect stiffness is considered in the matrix when all other matrix components are zero. Such as the system described in the followins:

j, with the displacement Uj acting in the direc-

of stiffness

at

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

translational stiffness for a beam element fixed on one end and pinned at the other end is

P:

tmi

lH ft: e ft [:

HniHtrHl iil] *11-u:J

Q-1e)

-n't :

3EI
t_3

For the 4-in. PiPe, K4

where the values K11, Kzz, Fv:z, K44, K55, and K66 are known as direct stiffness values and all the other compon"rrt. u." known as indirect stiffness values' Each value of U represents a unit displacement. The components ol (a'tial the stifiness matrix are ditermined by the nature force, bending moment, shear force) of the force or moment inducin! unit displacement U at or arvay froT the point in que.iion. To eifectively see how these stiffness io-pon"nt, ur. utilized in practical applications'.we will consider each type of force or moment rnduclng olsolacements, thai is, each component of the P matrix coriesponding to each value of the U matrix' Table 2-2 lists in"'airect'uatues of stiffness induced by direct and indirect loadings shown in Figure 2-6. For analytic derivations, the rlader is referred to Przemieniecki [2]' To illustrate how these concepts apply to piping mechanics, let us consider both a 4-in. schedule 40 pipe and we a 10-in. schedule 40 pipe shown in Figure 2-'7 He,re a to. are considering two pipe spool pieces subjected me that force F shown. Referring to Table 2-2' we see

x 106) ${r.zr) ------GD3 ini


3(29

in.o

S,Oal.OO

P m.

For the 10-in. PiPe,


3(29

x lo) |rtoo.s)
(48)' in

ln."

Kro =

'

r26,497.40Y
1n.

l/+ The force required to move the 4-in. pipe

in'

is

lh (5.687.66t .11 (0.25)

in.

1.421.92 lb

To generate the same amount of force in a 10-in' pipe the same length would have to move

|,421.92 lb

0.011 in.

zo,qsl.+o

! ln.

Figure 2-6. Pipe element.

The Engineering Mechanics of Piping

Table 2-2 Stittness Properties ot Piping Elements

*"t

rl'>'*-

->x

-(*--u
Kr::Kzs:0 _- = or,
^or tzEl il-+ e)L3

t"
A\l l,k r\
\.t

Ktt=Kr:?

AF

Kla:K2a:0

r,,:r,,:4E L
K:r:IQr:K5r=Iqr=0 Kzz=Kqz:6tr=lQr=0

^44:(l+o)L:

,.

l2Er

,, :
K53

-lzBl 11 1oy rr

,. : - tzEr ^" rJi) IJ(

: rqi = {1 + O)tr

Ky :

Koq

,=---.---=

.-=1+o)Ll

6EI

K..

f.r

-""/

\-1._________J

l--------9)'
/,
Tu

/P t"t --(.4-=-Y/^.lffil

,/

^.-_____________ TT T/ f-l

o-------4 "( \YI t<----_T+


r\55

&::ree:d#r,
-6FI Krs=K:r=illo)U

466

(4 + O)EI : .-);-L(r r:-=: 9,

Kes

Kso =

(2

L(l + O)

a)EI

Note: In all cases

and

lzBr
GALI

-K = cJ
L -:

lorsronal sunness

56

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

g
FOR ONE END PINNED AND THE OTHER FIXED
K1o

,r, 10Q SCHEDULE 40

K,, =

'

-3!.Ll1+olL'
a"q scHeoure

))

K4

Figure 2-7. Comparative stiffness.

In other words, if the pipe itself moved because of ther-

mal expansion and theie was a restraint of a given spring ."tttuioing the movement, the 10-in' pipe would "onrt-t onlv have to rnonJ0.0l I in. to exert ihe same force as the'4-in. pipe moving r/+ in' Thus' the l0-in pipe is the 4-in' pipe, which is a -ore tltun 2i ti-es stiffer than the .igrifi"-t point because it indicates that the larger oiloine. the'less it must move to exert excessive forces Iria rio."ntt on nozzle connections and pipe supports'

the p^ipfi". ,fti, example it is obvious that the largeroften fail i*. tt'" *t"ut"t itte stiffness' Piping designersmove very

piping does not have to toiealizJ that larger -greit


much to generate

ioads . This basic fact is important

in ttt" OE ign of-pipe supports, particularly using the


stiffness apProach. -

iarrvine^the analysis further. consider the two piping shown in Figure 2-8 This situation is "oniit,itu,iont similir to Figue 2-7 in that one end is fixed and the other pinnedi'e., both systems have the same boundary The segment-B-C is flexible enough to bend """Jit'i"".. with enough rotatidnal flexibility to consider tut "ld^:: piping is -luu' a pinned j6int. lf the temperature ofthe moves B-C f, the segment
M a: (-1.75)do,o'ft = -o.o70in'

The force required to move a 0.070 in. is

4-in

schedule 40 pipe
Figure 2-8. Pipe size makes a significant difference in nozzle
loadins.s.

Fq:

(5.687.66)

th

tO.OUOr in. =

398.14 lb'

The Engineering Mechanics of Piping

The force required to move 0.070 in. is


Fto

a l0-in.

schedule 40 pipe

Aluminum exchanger llange

oz6,4s7.40r

I to.ozol in. : tn.


:

8,854.82 rb

l ielding a moment of

vro:

(8,854.82)(4)

35,4r9.27tt-lbl2

l7,7o9.64ft-tb

at the nozzles A and B. The 4-in. force of 398.14 lb would nroduce a moment

of

\'r1

(3e8.14)

! :

na.ze

uv

at nozzles
u

It is clear that the 10-in. pipe would exert moments


ell above the allowable moments for most rotating and stationary equipment. To reduce the loading at the nozzle, the engineer is faced with two options-make the piping configuration more flexible or restrain the piping. To fabricate the piping configuration to within a tolerance of 0.070 in. would be well beyond the practical range of any fabricating shop. First, we will analyze a case where space is premium and there is not enough room to make the piping more flexible. This requires using piping restraints to transfer loads from the pipe to structural steel or concrete. Consider the piping system in Figure 2-9, where two aluminum heat exchangers are piped parallel to one another. Here we use the fewest 90' elbows needed to give the svstem enough flexibility to stay within the maximum aliowable stress range for the material at the given temperature. Piping restraints are then placed close to the heat 3\changers to transfer loads from the pipe to the steel instead of the nozzle of the exchanger. Now, we analyze the component that makes the system $ork-the pipe restraint at the equipment nozzle. The :estraint's function is to transfer forces and moments exerted by the pipe to the structural steel below, simultaneously allowing the equipment to move freely. This requires a more careful design of the piping restraint, as .\e are expecting it to do more. In this example the piping restraints must allow the exJhangers to move upward as shown in Figure 2-9. A restraint that resists moments by transferring the moments :iom the pipe to the steel is termed a moment restraining support (MRS). Different types of MRS supports are shown in Figure 2-10. An MRS can vary from a boiled plate connection shown in Figure 2-10A to a sophistiiated type in Figure 2-10C. MRS restraints' sophistica:ion is a function of how much rotation is resisted and iow much translational movement is allowed. The most

A and B.

Exchanger

Figure 2-9. An MRS support-restraint designed to reduce forces and moments on an aluminum olate-fin heat exchanser.

simple MRS restraint is the anchor, where the pipe itself or a pipe attachment is welded down to structural steel or immersed in concrete. In that case, it is resisting three degrees of freedom in translation and three degrees of freedom in rotation. In most applications, the moments
at nozzle connections can become excessive, and it is often desirable to resist rotation in one. two- or tlree axes while allowins translational movement. Resistine rota-

58

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

tion along three axes is, if not impossible, wholly impractical. An MRS allowing two degrees of freedom in
translation and resisting three degrees of rotation is quite complicated, although practical, very useful, and economical when the situation warrants. In designing such restraints Teflon and other materials with very low friction coefficients are desirable. Care must be made in assuring that such material selected can witlstand the forces and moments being resisted. If the material used is not resistant to shear, cold flow will result, leading to uneven surfaces and an improperly functioning restraint. In the engineering of MRS restraints, the principles discussed previously must continuously be applied. No support or restraint can be expected to be infinitely rigid along the degrees of freedom that are being restrained. Placing MRS devices in front of equipment nozzles will not stop all loading exerted by the piping, because all restraints have a corresponding stifftress value for each deg of freedom, either lbs/in. for translation or ft-lbs/deg for

Restrainl

KTX, KTY, KRX, KRY KRZ

rotation. The engineer must also understand what assumptions are being made by the piping stress program being applied. Almost all computerized pipe stress packages consider an anchor as six springs, three resisting translational forces of 10e lbs/in. and three resistine rotational forces of l0e ft-lbs/deg. There is no infinitel! rigid anchor in nature, but 10e lbs/in. is sufficient to be called an anchor in almost all applications. In modular plant design it is often desirable for the engineer to enter the actual stiffness of any anchor or restraint to obtain an accurate model of the piping system
being analyzed on the computer.

STIFFNESS METHOD AI{D LABGE PIPING


Large piping is rnore difficult to restrain than small piping because of the surface to be restrained. The terms "large" and "small" are quantified in the following discussion. The most common complication of restraining large piping is the phenomenon of shear flow, which occurs longitudinally and circumferentially. As illustrated in Figure 2-1 I , longitudinal shear flow transfers bending moments and shear forces to the equipment nozzle. In modular construction longitudinal shear flow does not become a problem until one starts using l0-in. pipe and larger. Shear flow can be resisted to some degree by making the attachment pipe size or structural member size close to that of the pipe, but is most often impractical. What is often desirable is to mount an MRS on opposite ends ofthe pipe, either top and bottom or offto both sides, depending on what space is available. In piping 30-in. and larger MRS restraints must be attached on four sides for the MRS effect to be effective. In pipe di-

-=a'/
C
Feslinl =
KTX, XRX. KRY KFz

Figure 2-10. Various designs of moment restraint supports (MRs)-arrows indicate direction of allowed movement.

--=4

The Engineering Mechanics of Piping Nozzle flange


I

_>

Hequrres

Uniaxial longitudinal shear flow nozzle tlange

Restraining pipe with MRS at AandB required with pipe sizes -normally 12" d and over

Requires

Biaxial longitudinal shear flow around points A and B

Restraining pipe with MRS at A, B, C & D required with pipe sizes -normally -30 " d and over

Figure 2-11. Longitudinal shear

flow-a

phenomenon of large pipe.

meters 8-in. and smaller, attaching an MRS on one side is sufficient for most modular construction. Circumferential shear flow, on the other hand, is not a lactor in most installations because torsion is very effeclively transferred to the structural steel by the MRS resralnt. Using piping restraints to transfer loads to structural iteel or concrete to lower loads at equipment nozzles is
'becoming quite popular and more widespread because
is more economical in modular skid design.

equipment, it is often more economical and desirable to design the piping to be flexible enough to reduce loadings on supports and equipment nozzles. For pipe racks, long headers, etc. this method is the only practical approach to solving piping mechanics problems. Tools used

in this approach include such well known devices

and

techniques as piping loops, cut short and cut 1ong, and expansion joints.

it PIPE LOOPS
The most common types of pipe loops used today are shapes, "2" shapes, and "L" shapes. Curves for these shapes showing stresses plotted against the loop dimensions are shown in Figures 2-12 and the equations are as follows:

Also, where

erpensive piping materials are used, the stiffness method can help reduce the number ofelbows used for flexibility end, thus, reduce the cost of the job because restraints and supports are far cheaper than piping elbows.

"U"

FLEXIBILITY IIETHOD OF PIPING HECHANICS

In non-modular skid construction (block-mounted plants) and areas where there is ample space to place

F1

A1B -ll-

tu,

t" :

in.o

60

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

rol

,I
I

8l

,l
Ry

6 5

it
3 2
1

tof
I

"I
I

"l
_l
Ry

1
3 2

Figure 2-12A. UJoop with equal legs'

The Engineering Mechanics of Piping

1o

Ry

4
3

ro
9

I
7

Ry

'|

to

12 14 16 1A 20 22
Ay

24

Figure 2-128. Uloop with one leg twice the other leg.

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

to

I
a
7

RY

5 1

3
2

Figure 2-128 (continued). UJoop with one leg twice the other leg'

10

a
7

6
Ry

2
1

180 ^

z&

Figure 2-12C. UJoop with one leg three times the other leg'

The Engineering Mechanics of Piping

6
Ry

"* o,

ooo

Fv

10 t2 tO t"o,

22242a303234

Figwe 2-12C (continued). U-loop with one leg three times the other leg.

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

to

I I
7

Rv

4 3 2

tao

oo

22o

10

I
a

6
Ry

15

2O o, ,o 1,

25

Figure 2-12D. Uloop with one leg four times the other leg.

The Engineering Mechanics of Piping

'to

I
a

2oo

300

400

500

500

700

800

Figure 2-12D (continued). UJoop with one leg four times the other leg.

-i1 n=*

Ry

Ab

Figure 2-12E. UJoop:

"2"

configuration.

Mechanical Desisn of Process Svstems

a 7 6

Ry

4 3
2
1

10 20 30 40 50 60 m

80

gOAv

IOO llo

l2O l3O lr|o 15O 160 17O

t8O

Ry

40o

A,

so "2"
configuration.

Figure 2-12E (continued). U-loop:

The Engineering Mechanics of Piping

"=E

Figure 2-12F. U-loop:

"L"

configuration.

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Figure 2-12F (continued). U-loop:

"L"

configuration.

Fv: AvB{lb, oo: -L , ,


SIF
A"B P osi.

L - fr. D =
172.800

rn.

the bend radius of an elbow of the pipe size being used. If you cannot put piping guides on the pipe coming down from the loop, then put them on the inside ofthe loop as shown in Figure 2-14.

Thermal movement (in./100 ft)Eo

Other configurations, such as and "L" shapes, are used in the normal routing of piping systems. It must be remembered that when these shapes are anchored on
opposite ends, the ratio of the shortest leg to the longest

"2"

1.0 (Verified by computer stress analysis)

should

fall in the range of 1.0 to 10.0 to avoid over-

Loops such as circle bends, double offsets, and other geometrics involving completed circular geometry should be avoided because they are impractical, expensive, and unappealing to clients due to their complexity. If excessive looping is required, the stiffness method should be used to produce a practical, economical solution. The use of both the flexibility and stiffness approaches in areas, where applicable, can yield very attractive and appealing piping designs. In pipe racks, the "U" shape loop is invariably the most practical shape to use because of its space effi ciency. "U" loops are normally spaced together (i.e., lines running together on a pipe rack are, where practical, looped together as shown in Figve2-13). It is desirable to guide the pipe on each side of the loop and at every other support thereafter as shown in Figure 2-14. Make sure the first guide is far enough from the loop to avoid jamming problems. Usually, this distance is twice

stressing the pipe. When analyzing the shapes by computer, any ratio can be used, but usually the aforementioned range is valid for most applications.

PIPE RESTRAINTS AND ANCHORS


Pipe restraints are used to counter forces of gravity, wind, earthquake, vibration, and other dynamic forces such as water hammer. The most common type is the gravity support, which merely restrains the force of gravity. A piping restraint can act in one or all degrees of freedom. As discussed previously, there are no restraints that are infinitely rigid-each has its own spring rate in each degree of freedom of translation and rotation. Even an "absolute" restraint has in each desree of freedom a rranslational stiffness of tOq lbs/in. aidior a rotational

The Engineering Mechanics of Piping

Line smallesl in size aod has least lhermal movement is placed on inside

Lrne tnat has greatesl lhermal movement and targesl size is placed on oulsade to allow lor movement

Figure 2-13. Optimum grouping of UJoops.

Figure 2-14. Guides are necessary for controlling movement

r: loops.

stiffness of 10e ft-lbs/deg. Such a restraint that restrains a pipe in all degrees of freedom is termed an anchor. Piping guides are restraints that counter movement in one or several directions but allow total freedom of movement in one or more directions. Total freedom is defined as a stiffness value of zero. An anchor, by definition, has some value of stiffness in every degree of freedom, even though the anchor itself can move. The movement occurs while the anchor is still resisting movement at a certain stiffness in each degree of freedom. Thus, the term "sliding anchor" in place ofa pipe guide is erroneous, because guides have a value of zero stiffness in one or more degrees of freedom. An anchor can restrain movement, although it may move. It is important to be cognizant of restraint terminology to avoid unnecessary confusion. The stiffness of a support is not only a function of the restraint material, but also a function of the structural steel or concrete to which it is attached. Even thoush very stiff in compression. concrete is not infinitely stifi. As shown in Figure 2-15, the pipe restraint has a stiffness value K,, the concrete a stiffness value of K6, and the soil a value of IG. Because Ka ) Ks, the concrete can sink or move in the soil if the concrete support is designed correctly or if subsidence occurs. Movements caused by soil conditions should be the responsibility of the piping engineer as well as the civil/structural engineer. The latter is responsible for limiting such movements as much as possible, and the piping engineer is responsible for entering these movements in the stress computer run or manual calculations. It was mentioned earlier that for a pipe restraint to be considered absolute in one direction it must restrain one billion pounds per inch of translation and one billion pounds per degree of rotation. However, very few pipe restraints in nature are so rigid (an anchor being a restraint in three degrees of translation and three degrees

of rotation).

If

the actual flexibility of the restraint is

modeled into the pipe stress analysis, more realistic reactions and moments are obtained. In the case of nressure vessels much work has been done in determining realistic spring constants for nozzles. For application to rotating equipment, the reader is discouraged from using these spring constants, especially on equipment made of brittle material such as cast iron. Also, these spring constants are to be used only for ductile materials. Nozzle loadings should be based on either manufacturer recommendations or applicable standards. For further details and discussion of nozzle loadings on rotating equipment Frgure 2-15. Conceptualization
-

of system stiffness. Each -::rponent of the system-pipe, pipe supports, concrete, and .::--has translational and rotational values ofstiffness (matri-.: ilbout each axis. These values can be modeled into the sys'.- as springs,

see Chapter 6.
To treat a restraint with elastic end conditions, only rotations are considered significant. Deformations induced by radial force and other translations are ignored, be-

cause their influence is insisnificant.

70

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

The basic relationship for rotational deformation nozzle ends is applying Equation 2-17 as

of

Angle of Twist Longitudinal


.. - : MD"K, " - tracransl : H,

..P
U

M " ler I e
=

(2-r7)
Circumferential

180 -l-l [DNkr I

where K : M = e : F :

KRX or KRY, ft-lb/deg


moment, ft.lb
angle of rotation, deg

:H: ,

MD"IC. .. " - {fadl?llSl


EI

I :
Dy kf

= :

modulus of elasticity of vessel metal at ambient temperature, Psl moment of inertia of vessel rLozzle, in.a diameter of vessel nozzle, in. flexibility factor, referred to in piping codes
as

where C1

Dg

"k"

The flexibility factor, kr, is a parameter that has had several formulations over the years. One widely used variant was that proposed by the "Oak Ridge ORNL Phase 3 Report- 1 15-3-1966 ." Since this document was oublished in 1966, several revisions have been made' the current ASME Section III Division I code gives detailed discussions on the flexibility factor. If one is desiening piping for nuclear systems. then that person str-oula only consult that code. Outside the nuclear industry the piping engineer rarely knows all the parametersthat are necessary to compute the flexibility factor of Section III. Also, the piping engineer in nomuclear work rarely knows which vendor will supply the piping components, thereby making many Section III parameters unknown. Therefore, the more elementary "ORNLI" factors are Dresented here, because they produce lower values for [, which, in turn, produce higher, more conservative values of K. These factors are as follows: Flexibility Factor

D= = E = modulus ofelasticity. lb/in I : moment of inerria of branch. in.a KL : longitudinal flexibility factor K : circumferential flexibility factor M : apPlied moment, in -lbs Or : longitudinal angle of twist, radians O. : circumferential angle of twist, radians t : wall thickness of vessel or pipe header' in. tB = wall thickness of branch, in
2

C. :

0'09 for in Plane bending O.2'l for out of Plane bending diameter of vessel or pipe header' in. diameter of branch' in.

In-plane bending refers to longitudinal bending in Ihe pipe header or vessel in the plane formed by the interseciion of the branch and vessel or pipe header centerlines' Out-of-plane bending refers to circumferential be.nding in a plane perpendicular to the vessel or pipe header. diameter. These rotational spring rates are necessary wnen the stiffness of an anchor must be considered in pipe

sfess analySis.

PIPE LUG SUPPORTS


These are about the most common pipe suppo(ts' The lug can provide a means for spring hangers or simple clevis-rod hangers. As simple as these supports are' a failure by one could result in loss of property or lives Thus, their simplicity should not allow one to take them for granted thinking that any design will suffice' Tie following method is based on the Bijlaard analysis discussed by wichman et al. [3]' Consider a pipe subiected to a load P (lbs), as shown in Figure 2-16 The lug

c","o"
Longitudinal

= K.:

(|i
lr\:
\T/

tD

Circumferential

K"

^. -,,8"8

Rotational Spring Rate r-onsitudinal

*.: #or*[ry*)
:
R"

Circumferential

Figure 2-16. Pipe lug support for a pipe with internal pres-

suie-primary and secondary

stresses must be added'

The Engineering Mechanics of Piping

connection is free of moments because the pin connection at the lug hole allows the pipe to twist in all directions. The usual oversight in designing a lug support is not considering the primary and secondary stresses, which must be added together and compared to the minimum tensile strength of the pipe material. First, we will
discuss the Bijlaard method, which is only concerned with secondary stresses. The pipe and 1ug geometries determine the attachment parametet B, and the shell parameter, k, by

^C^L,RU ' 2Rna

2Ru

r ff> r,,
rr

: [' - ](ui : [, - i(-

*,)] ')(' (B,B)os Q-20)

pq

< | .u

'ff),,

",]
(Btp)o:
(2-21)

where K1 and K2 are determined from Table 2-3. For circumferential stress, od, the circumferential membrane and circumferential bending stresses are determined by

f" - (f' ( f.l : r \P/RJ \R.V

.l

circumferenrial membrane stress

H (9 -

.,,".u'r.,ential

bending stress

Figure 2-17. Membrane force, Na,/P/R-, induced by radial


load P [3].

The membrane force, No/(P/R.), is determined from Figure 2-17 or Figure 2-18, and the bending moment, \1"/P, is determined from Figure 2-19 or F\gure 2-2O. Stress concentration factors must be accounted for in the surface discontinuity between the rectangular surface rfthe lug and the circular surface ofthe pipe. The memlrane stress concentration factor for Dure tension or :omoression is determined bv

Table 2-3
Radial Load P
Nd

N,
1.68

Md

Kr

0.91
1.48

1.76

t.2
r.25

K,

r.2

0.88

:<
:rd

t : r+l/ 6w/ \5
=,*(-t'\" \9.4wi

\0.65
I

(2-22)

the concentration factor for bendine stress is deter-

Table 2-4 Recommended Minimum Weld Sizes for Plates Thickness t ol Thicker Minimum Size, w' ot Fillet Plare welded (in.) weld (in.)

Sned by
(2-23)

; here w, the weld size, is given in Thble 2-4 for various :-ite sizes. These values for w are only recommended

t<Y2 tlz1t13/c 3l+<t1lt/z lrlz<t<211c 2t/c<t<6 6<t

3/ro

51rc
3/z

!2
5/s

72
100

Mechanical Design of Process Syslems

+ :H

(9)

'"'r"'o''"r

bending stress

The total longitudinal stress is thus found by adding


the two stresses,

N" ,, ,, o"T-^o

6M,

(2-2s)

The longitudinal stress and circumferential stress represent the secondary stresses in the pipe wall. These

primary stress which, in the case of internal pressure in the pipe, is the pressure stress. The pressure stress is determined by
stresses must be added to the
I tE z l:\

OD:

'2t

P"GD) .

DSI

Q-26)

Thus, the total stress for each secondary stress is as follows: oT

= q6+

op

Q-2',1)

oT:qx+op
where o1

Q-28)

<

2oa

oy

Often, with large piping, a simple lug will be overly


stressed because of localized stresses at the lug-pipe connection. When the lug attachment dimension, c, becomes small to the pipe radius, a clamp is normally put around

Figure 2-18. Membrane force, N-6/P/R., induced by radial load P [3]. and the engineer should use whatever sizes are actually to be used in practice. The total circumferential stress, ox, is determined by using these factors in the following equation:

the entire pipe with the lug attaching to the top of the clamp. This reduces localized stresses at the pipe wall by adding extra metal. This same principle applies to vessel nozzle reinforcement, which is discussed in Chapter 8.

SPRING SUPPORTS
These supports provide loading to a pipe that has undergone displacement. Simple supports are no longer useful if the pipe raises off and loads are transfered to other supports or fragile equipment nozzles. To ensure support for the pipe while it moves, a moving support is desired. The most practical device to fill this requirement is the spring.

*: "(9 **,(9

(2-24)

The longitudinal stress, ox, is determined in a similar way. The membrane force, N*/(P/R.), and the bending moment, M*/P, are determined from Figure 2 -17 or 2-18 and Figure 2-21 or Figure 2-22, respectively. These parameters are used to determine the longitudinal membrane and circumferential bendins stresses. where

Springs come

in two basic categories-variable

springs and constant springs. The former, which is by far the most common, provides loading to a pipe at a fixed spring rate, lb/in., but the amount of force to deflect the

\ : (\) (i'l = r-onnituainal membrane r \P/RJ \R.V

stress

spring varies with the amount of deflection. This force versus spring rate is a linear relationship and is the reason for a "variable" spring. The constant spring is a

74

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

T
.ol

Mx

.30 .35 .40 45

.50

Figure 2-21. Bending moment, M"/P, induced by radial load P [3].

-T

Mx

Flgwe 2-22. Bending moment, dial load P [3].

M"/l

induced by ra-

The Engineering Mechanics of

Piping

75

spring that will provide the same spring rate for any force great enough to cause initial deflection. Constant springs are used in critical installations where forces or deflections induced on the piping system are critical. These springs are considerably more expensive than the variable types and are usually avoided by piping engineers when not needed. Constant springs provide constant supporting force for the pipe throughout its full range of contraction and expansion. As shown in Figwe 2-23, this constant support mechanism consists of a helical coil spring working in conjunction with a bell crank lever in such a manner that rhe spring force times its distance to the lever pivot is always equal to the pipe load times its distance to the lower pivot. Thus, the constant spring is used where it is not desirable for piping loads to be transferred to connecting equipment or other supports. Variable springs are used where a variation in piping loads can be tolerated. As an example, consider the folIowing example shown in Figtre 2-24. The spring is above the pipe and is attached to it with a rod and clevis. This arrangement is called a spring hanger. As seen in Figure 2-24A, the spring supports the weight of the pipe and insulation. As the pipe heats up and expands it

moves upward. The amount of deflection, the amount of excessive force as

A, relates to
(2-29)

where

K: A=

F"

AK' lb
spdng constant of spring, lb/in.

deflection, in.

It is common practice to calibrate

the hanger in such a manner that when the piping is at its operating (hot or

cold) condition, the supporting force of the spring is


equal to the weight of the pipe. This means that the maximum variation in supporting force occurs when the pipe is in the down condition, when primary stresses are nonexistent because of no internal pressure. Therefore, in the cold position, the suppo ing force of the spring is

F:F"+WP
where

(2-30) pipe and insulation weight

WP

To reduce the amount

of variability, it is desirable to

use the smallest type of variable spring provided that the

deflections will not exceed those of the spring range. Typical spring sizes and ranges are shown in Table 2-5.

--F

(A) F=Wt
Cold Position
In thls case, hot

(B)

Hot Condition

= operating condition, cold = down condition

Flgure 2-23. A constant load spring support provides constant .rpport loading in critical situations.

Figwe 2-24. The "cold" and "hot" loading positions ofa variable spring hanger.

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

.eB

9
s

sg

!,i
to

sss
egfi E$$3m$Ege$$$$8$gE
E

g$
f;

bE89 EE$f;9Ffr;S FN&SRREhR 83RE $EHTEESgEP

s8E8
?bEr
5

9383

e$pEIgEE$EENFEFFEE* SHHEESFPEFFFFe$es$ErE

I
E

HHDF 8
8
a

ao

3EE8 FF FF gBE g gBfi Bg EE BEEEFE NShE

t5

a5

It)

ctt

(t

It

g$fi gfi FEFFFgEgHE g PbEF r58PS9gN HFHi F$$ff


E

dE

ao .(g

dl.N

Fc Ett
U'

8888 gEFgggFBi igE9Fggi 3[8i 3KtF838 Fxmt5H$fiRHR$ HEHiHS;gEEEPR:

89R

ri
I

I I I

889: PFFEEF:9EEEEFEFEEEEE

33I
8

l! '6.

;gEEEEEEE-FFEEEEgggEE EEEg FNF[g$EIHHEHEESTFf Ff R NKNS


$$$MEEfr EEdFFFPFH$JgEH

8
E

i$$$s$eH;$sg*HHEE$E$ 3Rf,N $HESHShgBSg;8s5$$t$$$


N&RNRREhE&

EFE$FSRHHF*fr $TRSft $*8ft RN633$g333EFRR33EbEBp

EsEpp:::$FFSppi33$EEq
EESF FPRESbS$8588839:P:&ft
&

j's
9E

83SE33633bEFFrRR8$$E3
s
S

ss
(, F F

g8

()

The Engineering Mechanics of

Piping

77

It is common practice to utilize the smallest spring


possible.

size

l/a in.)

will

cause such a spring to jam, as shown in Fig-

In critical and large systems, spring loadings should be eYaluated by computer analysis. Often, in large systems, piping movements are not intuitively obvious and errors can result because the entire system must be evaluated if a correct analysis is to be obtained. In most systems,
hand calculations are far too cumbersome. Occasionally, springs are used as moment resisting devices, as shown in Figure 2-25. In such an application, the spring preloads the pipe in a specific direction. As the pipe expands or contracts, the spring counters the rbrce created by the movement and, thus, reduces the moment at an end connection. Such a system in normal practice usually works in the operating mode but when ihe system shuts down the spring overloads the piece of equipment protected in the operating condition. Thus, if such a scheme is used, care must be taken to ensure that
Cre protected items are safe in both the operating and Jown conditions. These schemes can be avoided by use

rre 2-26A. To avoid jamming, a guided load column is used to prevent such a problem (Figure 2-268).
Springs are often used to support equipment to reduce nozzle loadings, which are discussed in Chapter 6.

EXPA]ISION JOINTS
These devices accommodate movement

in

piping

caused by temperature changes. Such items range from

special slip joints that only allow movement in the axial

..'i MRS devices where space does not warrant piping t-lexibility. lrcation of spring supports is of critical importance.

\\-hile springs should be placed where they will be most 3fficient, often such locations are undesirable from tle itructural engineer's viewpoint. The piping engineer :hould always be cognizant of available structural steel Lrr concrete and loads to be placed on structures. Most prings are supported from above at either mid spans or at elbows. Many times it is desirable to support the pipe tiom below. When using this type of spring, one must be .autious of pipe movement, as excessive movement ( >

direction to corrugated bellows joints that can be designed to accommodate movement in several directions. It is the latter type that we will concentrate on, as they are by far the most numerous and complicated of expansion joints. Corrugated bellows expansion joints have a bad reputation with some users because of ignorance. Many bellows expansion joints have been incorrecdy specified and the consequences attributed to the device itself. This is unfortunate because this device is invaluable when either re-routing the line is impossible or cold spring or other alternatives are not available. The surest way to avoid problems with bellows expansion joints is to have the piping (stress) engineer specify the unit and to procure the unit from a reputable manufacturer. The bellows expansion joint is like the MRS device discussed earlier because the more the unit is required to accomplish the more complex is its configuration. The simplest corrugated bellows expansion joint is the single

\ )

= momenl generated bY movement at Pl A


lvla

t"

= moment generated

by spring

)L2Nozzle

Direction oI Pt A movement

Figure 2-25. Utilizing a spring to counter a moment generated by piping is appropriate only when the spring movement, Ms, does ilot overload the nozzle or overstress the piping system when the latter is in the down condition and there is no movement at A. This condition is required after the operating condition is met.

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

: :
Figure 2-26'. (A) Enough piping movement will cock load flange andjam spring. Note: arrows indicate direction ofmovement. (B) A guide load column shown here will prevent situation in 1a--;. ttreie arJvarious designs for guide load columns, but for pipe movement greater than t/+" one should consider a column with rollers or Teflon on top;f the ioad flange.

grees of freedom except about the longitudinal centerline. In fact. no bellows expansion joint can accommodate torsion and any tendency for the pipe to exert a high torsional moment could seriously damage thejoint. External restraints are placed on the joint to restrict movement in one or more degrees of freedom. Such devices are tie rods or hinges that restrict movement or pressure thrust. Figve 2-278-E are examples of joints that are so restricted. Following the same nomenclature shown in Figure 2-10, we consider each joint in a threedimensional axis system. KTX, KTY, and KTZ are the translational stiffness values lb/in., about the X. Y. and Z axes, respectively. KRX, KRY, and KRZ are the rotational stiffness values, ft-lb/deg, about the X, Y, and

bellows type shown in Figtxe 2-27 A. This specific joint is shown with flanges welded on each end, but is available from manufacturers with pipe spool pieces on each end to enable the unit to be directly welded into a line. The piping engineer should try to utilize this type ofjoint whenever possible because of economy and simplicity of operation. The single bellows is free to move in all de-

not support its own weight so this joint would not be desirable where each end exceeds the maximum amount of pipe span shown, as calculated by the following equation:

L:0.131

: modulus of elasticity of pipe material, psi I = moment of inertia of pipe, in.a P : design pressure (psig) A : bellows effective area. in.2 K : axial bellows stiffness (KTZ in F\gure 2-21)
E
The maximum length of unsupported pipe implies that
the unit itself is within this length. Preferably, the joinr is close to one support or nozzle to avoid excessive deflec-

tron.

KRZ:

axes, respectively. For all bellows joints, (1.0 x 10') ft-lb/deg, as previously srared.

ln Figure2-27 A, we have finite values for KTX, KTy, KTZ, KRX, and KRI the joint is free to translate about three axes and rotate about two axes. The bellows does

Thejoint in Figure 2-278 has values ofKTX and KRy KTY : KTZ : 10e lbs/in. and KRX = KRZ = 10e lbs/deg. This means that the joint is free to translate in the X-direction and free to rotate in the y-direction and is rigid in all other directions. This type ofjoint is called a "hinged" joint and is self-supporting in the y-direction shown in Figure 2-27 . Placing high vertical loads on a joint must be approved by the manufacturer.
and

The Engineering Mechanics of The joint in Figure 2-27C has values of KRX and KRY irut absolute values of KRZ, KTX, KTY, and KTZ. Nor-

Piping

79

nally, these joints are used in pairs to allow rotation lbout two axes similar to swivel or ball joints and not
ellowing any translation. This action is seen in Figure 2-

t8.
The unit in Figure 2-27D is a pressure balanced uniersal joint. It is free to move about all degrees of move:nent except KRZ and is restricted by tie rods that bal.rnce pressure thrust. This type of joint is very common
r

aa

in engine exhaust systems. Figrre 2-278 depicts one of the most complicated expansion designs-an in{ine pressure balanced expansion 'oint. This joint eliminates pressure thrust, is self-suprorting, and does not require a change in the piping sys:em to install. It is desirable where structural supports .ire not available and a joint is needed because flexibility rs required of the piping.

Pressure thrust is the amount of force generated by internal pressure and is simply internal pressure times minimum bellows radius area (PA), lbs. This force can become quite high as the pipe size and the internal pressure increase. In many applications, the piping itself is anchored and the joint is allowed to compress when the thermal compression force exceeds the pressure thrust force. As seen in Figure 2-28, when movement in the form of lateral translation is desired (KTZ and KTY), tie rods are used to restrain the joint in the axial direction @). If tie rods are being used to overcome pressure thrust, then any equipment flanged to the joint

(KTZ:

should be able to withstand the load reouired to overcome pressure thrust. Generally. tie rods are only used to permit lateral movement. Bellows expansion joints can be restrained and combined in pairs or trios to perform certain tasks. It must be emphasized that just because a joint is free to move in

)
A

{:,

,-T

-.Fz

.%^

Ftgure 2-27. Types of bellows expansion joints: (A) flanged-flanged end simple bellows joint; (B) hinge bellows expansion ::nt: (C) gimbal bellows expansion joint; (D) pressure balanced bellows expansion joint; (E) "inJine" pressure balanced self'-:oorting bellows expansion joint. (Courtesy of Pathway Bellows, Inc.)

80

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

MOVEMENT HOT

-LATERAL

TUEJ:

lA: PG:

lntrmedlaleAnchor
Planar Guid6
Tied Univorsal Expansion Joint

Figure 2-28. Generally the use of tie rods is to allow only lateral movement. (Courtesy of Pathway Bellows, Inc.)

directions KTX, KTY, KTZ, KRX, and KRY does not mean that the corresponding stiffness values are small. As internal pressure and pipe size increase the values of KTX, KTY, KTZ, KRX, and KRY increase, because the bellows wall thickness increases to resist increased internal pressure. The bellows can be a single wall construction (single ply) or multiple wall construction (multi-ply) and the stiffness values vary with each manufacturer. Some people erroneously think that the purpose of using bellows expansion joints is to make the pipe stress
analysis unnecessary. Such is definitely not the case, because values of stiffness in each direction must be en-

PRESTRESSED PIPING
Piping systems are sometimes prestressed to reduce anchor and restraint forces and moments. This prestressing of the pipe is best known as cold springing, but is also called "cut short," meaning that the pipe is cut short a percentage of the amount of thermal expansion expected. The opposite is true in cold systems where the pipe contracts, so the pipe is fabricated extra long, with the extra length being a percentage of the amount of thermal conEaction expected. This procedure is best known as "cut long." Some refer to cut long as "hot springing," which may cause confusion because it is not as popular as the term cold springing and to some it means hot forming, which hds nothing to do with fabricating the pipe extra long. "Credit" may not be taken for prestressing the pipe in computing the stress in the piping system. Several piping codes are specific about this and, if the piping is over the allowable stress range, one cannot cut short or long to lower the stress. However, credit may be taken for anchor and restraint reaction forces and moments. The procedure of cutting short or long involves a percentage of thermal movement. The whole purpose of the prestressing process is to balance the forces and movements between the down and operating conditions. Thus, cutting short or long 1007o (i.e., cutting short or long the exact amount of thermal movement) is normally not done. Exceeding 100% is not recommended and doesn't make good sense. Normally, the amount cut is 50% and should not exceed 66% of the thermal movement' The reactions, R6 and Rp in the operating and down condi-

tered in each computer stress run so that

it

can be

vei-

fied that the displacement and piping loads are not

excessive to the equipment nozzles. As shown in Figure 2-28 a pipe can either be properly guided or anchored, and such restrictions should be modeled into the computer stress analysis. The piping engineer is encouraged to refer to the Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association (EJMA) t4l in accessing piping layouts when using bellows expansion joints. Also, it is desirable to specify the joint such that the manufacturer is required to meet EJMA requirements. One should follow EJMA guidelines and requirements, and include modeling restraints and stiffness values in computer stress analysis to verify that attached equipment is protected. Expansion joints are not cataloged items to be bought at random but rather

sophisticated pieces
expansion joints.

of equipment that must be

engi-

neered into the piping system. With this approach, the

user should not expedence any problems with bellows

The Engineering Mechanics of

Piping

81

tions, respectively, are obtained from the reactions R derived from calculalions based on the modulus of elasticity at ambient temperature, 8". The relationships are as follows:

Bellows expansion joints should be avoided if a more economical and practical method is available for providing flexibility oi restraint to the pipe. ln many ipplications, only the bellows expansionjoint will suffice, e.g., movement and vibration in straight runs of pipe at elevated temperatures between different pieces of equipment can only be compensated by bellows joints. How-

n":lr-?*l& - \ 3 lEo
Ro: XR
ot

ever, as the joint becomes more sophisticated and

thereby more expensive, other alternatives should be considered. Such alternatives lie in either the flexibility or stiffness methods Dreviouslv discussed.

R"

-t:

11

].
FLUID FORCES EXERTED ON PIPING SYSTEilS
When fluids move in a piping system, they import energy to the system when they are forced to change direction by the pipe. In other words, it requires energy to change the direction of a moving f luid . This fundamental fact is known as the impulse-momentum principle, exnressed as:

whichever is greater, and with the additional condition

that ---:
4
where

<

1.0

X:

: Ep : Ee : R:
E

cold (or hot) spring factor ranging from zero to one, one being 100% cold or hot spring
computed expansion stress. psi modulus of elasticity in the down condition, psi modulus of elasticity in the operating condition, psi maximum reaction for full thermal movement based on Ep which is the most severe

l)l \-]

ph

Mv,

Mv,

(2-31)

: Ro :
Rp

condition. lb- or in.-lb maximum reaction in down condition, lb or

in.lb
maximum reaction in operating condition, lb

or in.-lb These formulations are not necessary nor desirable when computerized stress runs are made. All reactions that result from prestressing the pipe are much more accurately made by a computer. However, one is not always privileged to use a computet especially at remote sites, so these formulations will yield conservative approximations to feactions. The biggest legitimate objection to prestressing the pipe is that often it is simply not done by the pipe fabricator or construction workers. The orocess is often difficult, especially in large pipe, and is unpopular with fabrication personnel. When schedules get tight and people fall behind on the schedule, there is a tendency to overlook prestressing the pipe. To avoid such a problem, some large engineering companies issue cold spring reports that are signed off by inspectors. However, such reports get lost fairly easily, unless a rigid system is implemented to treat them as control documents. There is certainly nothing wrong with prestressing the pipe, except maybe a little extra paperwork.

This states that the change in momentum in a system remains constant during the exchange of momentum between two or more masses of the system. Applying the equation to that of a pipe elbow shown in Figwe 2-29, we apply the principle to obtain:

Mvxr+DFxxt:MVy,
Mvyr+DFyxt=Mvy2
where t =
1

(2-32) (z-33)

for unit time

M=
6-

force in horizontal direction exerted by the bend on the flowing fluid, lb force in vertical direction exerted by the bend on the flowing fluid, lb horizontal velocity component at bend inlet, ftlsec vertical velocity component at bend inlet, ftlsec horizontal velocity component of bend oudet, ft/sec vertical velocity component of bend oudet, ft/sec
Wgi

g"

fluid

mass

weight of fluid in bend, lb, local acceleration due to grayity, approximately 32.2 ftl serz dimensional consiant 32.17 lb-ft/lb1sec2

the analysis of chemical rocket engines is suitable for estimating reaction forces. These calculations in such an analysis agree with those reactions comDuted bv other methods and have been found to be slightly conseivative. The method presented by Hesse [5] is desirable because of its simplicity and accuracy, and knowledge of the process fluid is limited onty to the specific heat ratio, k, and the molecular weight, M. The derivation and explanation of the formulation is given by Hesse [5]. Consider the nozzle shown in Figure 2-30. The reaction force developed by a fluid exiting the nozzle is given by the following:

F=
Figure 2-29. Pipe reactions induced by change of momentum of fluid flowing through elbow.

\cac"A,P. I

[/

" "'.2 l= ,l l-i ,lt\K-l/\K+u

\/

\,-,

',[' where \
Ca=

lo.t

*+tn-P.l
: -

(2-34)

When applying Equations 2-32 and 2-33 to relief valves, the fluid dynamics of nozzles must be considered. The dynamics and thermodynamics of fluid motion through nozzles is a very involved subject and rather than investigate the various theoretical methods in this book, we will only investigate the various results and discuss their merits. Relief valves can exert enormous forces when fluids exit the nozzles. Often, the fluid exits the nozzle at speeds exceeding Mach 1. Numerous private companies, as well as the ASME and API, have developed procedures to approximate such fluid forces. The ASME B31.1 gives a method for computing the reaction forces exerted by relief valves. The main drawback to this method is that it applies to steam only, because Code 831.1 governs only power piping. Steam is one of the most comprehensively defined substances, with all properties well known and published, but such is not the case with many chemical processes. The 831.1 method requires that the properties of the substance be we defined, to the point of being rather cumbersome to use. The ideal method would require the fewest number of physical properties, but still provide the necessary data. One such method that is very easy to use is the ApI formulation in API 520 Part II, paragraph 2.4, which is used for gases or vapors. This formula loses accuracy as the flow rate approaches Mach 1, so another method is desired for predicting reactions at all flow rates in processes that have poorly defined properties. The aerospace industry has done much research in the study of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics of nozzle flow. Because relief valves operate in a closed system,

nozzle correction factor l/2 (1 + cos o) 1.0 for most relief valves nozzle discharge coefficient, which 0.97 < Cd < 1.15, normally Cd > 1.0 specific heat ratio CplC"

nozzle inlet section throat-where critical condition exist = e = nozzle exit section ef = gffrat;rr exit section-where exhaust gas pressure first equals ambient pressure, Po

c=

l/r,
/ -'.--

7l\-

t
Figure 2-30. The relief valve mecharusm.

The Engineering Mechanics of Piping

cv:

(rJ05 = 0.95 to 0.98 nozzle adiabatic efficiency nozzle exit pressure, psia 14.7 psia ambient pressure nozzle exit area, in.2 nozzle throat area, in.2

cause the process is considered adiabatic making the to-

tal temperature constant. Thus,

rc =
and
'

t)l

r,. oF l-l + \K
r,t

critical pressure

P,

l---I \K -f l/

vc=V.=(skRrJo5=|\#',f

/"_,..-,f

(2-36)

critical pressure ratio, determined trom

G:
G=
T"

Figure 2-31 molecular weight of fluid, lb/mole gas flow rate, lb/sec, where
(2-34a)

Reaction forces produced by relief valves can become quite enormous and should not be overlooked. A structural failure of a relief system could well result in a catastrophe.

C.A,p" '[Rr.\k

- [r- {_z\:ll +u I
: ffir,, 't
I + l-.--1l
/r.

EXTRANEOUS PIPING LOADS


Vibration can be a real hazard in piping systems. Usually, vibration problems that occur with piping have two sources-pulsations generated by reciprocating equipment and wind. Pulsation shock phenomena on rotating equipment is briefly discussed in Chapter 6. The phenomenon of wind-induced vibrations on piping along tall towers is discussed here. Wind-induced vibration is caused by vortex shedding on the cylindrical surface of the pipe, and becomes a problem with piping more than about thirty feet long. Vortex shedding usually occurs with piping that runs up along the height of a vertical tower. Analyzing and solving vortex shedding vibration problems can best be handled by applying certain principles that include dimensionless parameters and experimental data. Sophisticated digital computer models are possible, and recently, vortex streets have been simulated with flow patterns around piping and structures. Such computer simulations are rigorous and expensive, so with current software they are impractical to use for all piping that may be exposed to wind. Several proposals have been made concerning vortexinduced vibrations around cylinders, but perhaps the most straightforward is the work by Belvins [6]. He developed a dynamic model for vortex-induced vibration using random vibration theory. The theoretical basis is a representative spanwise correlation and cylinder amplitude is presented as a function of the vortex forces. When the state of resonance exists, the amplitude of the correlated lift force on the cylinder is represented as a continuous function of cylinder amplitude. Also, at resonance, the spanwise correlation of the vortex force is presented as a function of the characteristic correlation length. This model is limited to the resonance of a singie mode with vortex shedding and a Reynolds number in

critical temperaiure

.T,

r\

M2 for adiabatic process

Substituting these exDressrons mto Equation 2-34, we


have

1 028A,P"

[-+ (#=
P,)

[' - (,:)*]]"'
(2-35)

A"(P"

Equation 2-35 assumes that the flow is isentropic and in addition to relief valves, includes turbines, compressors, jet engines, rockets, injectors, ejectors, and atomizers. Most nozzles used in current applications are either convergent or convergent-divergent, also known as DeLaval or Level nozzles. Convergent-divergent nozzles are used for high pressure ratios and supersonic flow, and convergent nozzles for low pressure ratios and subsonic flow. Thus, relief valves are Level types that can handle high pressure flow. Critical pressure of gas occurs at the point where the fluid velocity becomes Mach 1. This pressure is obtained at the minimum area of the nozzle and this minimum cross section is called the nozzle thrcat in the DeLaval nozzle. In the convergent nozzle, the cross section of minimum area is the exit section. The critical velocity can be expressed in terms of the inlet temperature be-

84
100

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

90
80 70 60

o"A,

10 8
7

Figure 2-31. Critical pressure ratro


versus area ratio for various fluid specific heat ratios (k).

80 lOO
'clPa

2OO

/rcO 600 80O

loOO

the rate of200 Nn" 200,000, where a well-formed vortex stret exists. Figtre 2-32 shows flow regimes of fluid flow across stationary circular cylinders, and illustrates how the vortex streets tend to separate as the flow velocity increases.

which is the numeric constant between the resonant frequency of vortex shedding (f) and the cylinder diameter (D), divided by the free stream velocity (V). This is analytically written as

Between the range 300 NR" 300,000 thi region is called subcritical because as Nx" approaches 300,000, the boundary layer becomes completely turbulent and the vortex shedding effect is lost. One parameter used in analyzing vortex phenomena is the Strouhal number(s),

<

f.D
Q-37)

For circular cylinders, the Strouhal versus Reynolds number is shown in Figure 2-33. In a structure, the ob-

The Engineering Mechanics of

Piping

85

ject of design is to avoid resonance. If the inverse of the Shouhal number < 1, where f is the natural frequency of the structure, then resonances with vortex shedding from the first, second, and third harmonics are avoided. This can be accomplished by adding mass, such as insulation, and putting pipe support spacing at uneven intervals. If pipe supports are spanned evenly, periodic wave motions can form, resulting in resonance.

The response of a right circular cylinder at resonance with vortex shedding is a function of the following: Damping
where 6.
and

:
:

(2zs)2 6. reduced damping

_ 2m(2rl)
pW

(z-38)

Etl_g

RcGrMa OF urrsEpARArEo FLO{.

energy dissipated per cycle | _ 4?r(total " energy of structure) Mode shape : VW: i for a rigid cylinder) Aspect ratio : LlD, L = length between spans

voRTrcas rfi rnE w^(.

'rwo

nEGrMEs

lr

wHrcH vofiTEr

PERTOOTCT'IY COVEFI|ED

R.

RII{CE BY

I/(E

l'r

LOW

PERIOOICITY GOVERNEO

R. RING'

'Y

VOR'IEI

II{ tiIOH

Eg-5-E!-l-3aq

IRAXSIIIOI NINGE

TO

IUiBU.

lOO<i.t

3r|ol voRrEx

sritEt

rs Frrl'tl

,,4.*

3,'o..' i. <35, o.

-u/////t

-W

e'

L^YE

BAS UIiOEROOXE

IYi?Y,",li,t

voirEx srREtr rs.PP.REnt


3,5rro'< R. <
cO

lt6%i!13i*,,*.*[i'"
t?l

R'SJA8LISITTEIT OF Tt1 TURAU.

IENI

IORIET SIREE' II]AI EvrDtT rx 3oo< i.? 3r|o: 'AS Ih'S IIME TIE SOUNDIRY LAYER

lno

THE uAr(

Figure 2-32. Fluid flow regimes across circular cylinder l7l.

The amplitude Ay/D can be approximated by loading the pipe with a uniform wind load and using the maximum deflection as Ay. This can be used in Figure 2-34 to estimate the damping at resonance for a given aspect ratio. This damping is then compared with the natural frequency of the piping. The natural frequency of the pipe, especially for complex geometries, is computed by modal extraction computer analysis or any other dynamic computer software that computes the natural frequencies of piping systems. For short straight spans, the natural frequency can be determined by comparing values obtained from Table 2-6 and with the resonance damping frequency in Figure 2-34. In practice, the greatest problem with vortex shedding occurs on tall vertical towers when pipe four inches and smaller is uninsulated and left hanging without support. It has been found that once insulation is applied to the pipe resonance vanishes. The following simple guidelines will enable you to avoid the vast majority of wind-reduced vibrations:

l.
2

Increase the flexural stiffness of the pipe so that its critical velocity is above the range of moderate

winds.

Use damping devices to restdct the amplitude of

vi-

bration.

3. 4.

Reduce the effective length of the member by using

5.
REVIIOLDS

Eh! R.

intermediate struts. Attach spoilers to the pipe to disrupt the flow near the tower surface; this impedes the formation of vortices and thereby eliminates the cause of vibrations. Span the piping supports at uneven intervals to prevent a periodic wave function from developing.

Figure 2-33. Strouhal-Reynolds number function for circular cylinders [7].

The analysis of wind-induced vibrations on tall vertical vessels is discussed in Chapter 4.

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Table 2-6 Natural Frequency ot vibration ot Beam Elements


Concentraled Load on Relatlvely Light Beam or Spring Uniform Load on Beam Supported Unitorm Load on Cantilever Beam

at Ends

ffi

. / \0.5 r - t l9l '- t\-Di

f:

(3.55XD)-0

f :

(3.89) (D)

0.5

f: D:

natural frequency of vibration. cycles per second maximum static deflection of member under its own weight plus any weights that vibrate with it

The Engineering Mechanics of Piping

or

r,rer r.re

= r stn

r3l s2/p#

Figure 2-34. Damping, d (dimensionless), versus amplitude, Ay/D (dimensionless).

88

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

]UIETHOD TO A IIODULAH

EXAilPLE 2.1: APPLYIilc THE STIFFNESS SKID.IIOUIITED


GAS LIQUEFAGTION FACILITY

guish between the types of equipment. The heat


exchangers HE-A and B shown in Figures 2-35 and2-36 are aluminum plate exchangers, and the cold separator and power gas volume tank are made of reasonably thick-walled stainless steel. Thus, the critical items are the aluminum heat exchangers. The line between points l0 and 25 in Figure 2-35 must be cut because the relative Z-movement between these points overloads the nozzles at points 5 and 30, creating a very high y-momenr and Zmoment, because the pipe wants to move in the -Z and *Y directions. These movements can be accommodated

Figure 2-35 depicts the preliminary piping design of a gas liquifaction plant mounted on a skid module. Space is severely limited, as the equipment and piping are limited by the structural steel skid supports, so such devices as piping loops are unthinkable. Expansion joints are not

allowed by the client, because high-pressure hydrocarbon gas is highly combustible and an expansion joint failure would mean certain gross property damage and possible loss of human lives. Therefore, the piping engineer

must utilize the stiffness of pipe supports to transfer loads from the piping to the structural steel rather than to the equipment nozzles. This transfer of loads is not total, but enough to guarantee that the equipment nozzles loadings will not exceed allowable levels. For the stiffness method to work, the piping configuration must be flexible enough for the piping itself to be within allowable stress limits set by the applicable code. This is the first significant criterion, because if the piping exceeds the allowable stress range in any part of the geometry, the system design is faulty. Conversely, the piping system can be well within the stress range and the equipment nozzles still be overloaded. Thus, the piping itself must have a certain amount of flexibility to be within code allowables. The piprng supports must be stiff enough to protect equipment nozzles from excessive loads. Here our case has been stated; adding additional flexibility is not acceptable. From computer calculations the original configuration in Figure 2-35 is found to be overstressed and the expansion stress exceeds the ASME 831.3 allowable stress range provided in Equation 2-4 for 3O4 SS pipe. Therefore, the piping must be changed to bring the maximum stress within the accepted stress range. This analysis includes the nozzle movements shown in the figure. Each nozzle is considered as an anchor. Figure 2-36 shows the final configuration after several iterations are made to determine what configuration would best suit the structural limitations set by the module skid. This configuration is found to have a maximum allowable well within the stress range of ASME B3 1 . 3 . To achieve this acceptable stess, a limited amount of flexibility must be added to the system. Thus, regardless which method is used-flexibility or stifftiess-a certain amount of flexibility is required to make the piping system operate properly. Once we have obtained the minimum flexible configuration required, we now focus our attention to the equipment nozzles. To consider this question, we must distin-

by using certain structural devices, such as shown in Figure 2-37. Even though flexibility has been added to the system to get the piping within the allowable stress range, the equipment nozzles are still overloaded by excessive moments above the X, Y, and Z axes-M;q, My,
and Mz. To counter the movements of the piping at the nozzles numbered 5 and 30 at HE-B and A, respectively, variable springs are placed to support the pipe while allowing the

pipe to move at the same time. One spring is placed at point 20 with a simple Y support added at point 56. These additional supports help reduce the moments at nozzles 5 and 30, but not enough. So, we must add MRS restraints (see Figures 2-9 ard 2-10) in pipe members 5l0 and 30-35. Each MRS is designed to allow nozzles 5 and 30 to move upward but to transfer moments M;, Mv, and Mz from the pipe to the structual steel below. Also, each MRS allows pipe members 5-10 and 30-35 freedom to nove along the axis so that we have the following restraints at each MRS: KTZ, KRX, KRY, and KRZ of Figure 2-38 (see Figure 2-10). Thus, we have

one translational and three rotational restraints, each with a stifftress value K in lb/in. or ft-lb/deg. The pipe and exchanger are free to translate along the X and Y
axes. One can readily see that the MRS restraints must allow nozzles ar points 5 and 30 to move upward, as the exchangers are bolted down to structural steel higher up on

the units. Restraining the nozzles from moving upward would anchor the unit at the nozzles and at the support point causing the exchangers to rupture. Pipe members 5-10 and 30-35 must be allowed to move along the x-axis for thermal expansion. We now have the conceptual model of what the solution looks like and the next step is to finalize the details. The MRS restraints are resisting forces and moments shown in Figure 2-38. It is necessary to design the restraints such that each has enough stiffness to transfer the loads to the steel and protect the nozzles at points 5 and 30. We will now compute the support stifftress values KTZ, KRX, KRY, and KRZ. Once these values are determined, they can be input back into the computer run and verified to be sufficient for the nozzles.

The Engineering Mechanics of

Piping

89

\,zr/
\\\ \\\ \ \

\/W \\
\

't 'a \\--l \p 2

\\ \'"

,r^

a o

o
'4

z
o_
tsJ

-4

7
7^

"3 2:1

,
t

4e.
2l/o
o.,

e-:x

$-

90

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

o
o
',',

ao

ct

o
.D

IL

9
z

The Engineering Mechanics of Piping

91

@ GnTNNELL slzE a rYPE

venncr

suPPoRT(sEE F|GURE 2-9)

@ GR|NIELL stzE 10 rYPE OHAr{GER suPpoRT

SPR|NG

Figure 2-37. Plan view of location of MRS supports.

TO OF

ENSURE PFOIEC'IoN CAF8ON STEE

L COSPONENTq LE GIH

OISIRIB(IIION OVER

\\

---

rtrslrL^r

--' +

IIDE
STSE SOPMRT PIPE

DIATES ASSEMELY }IOUSING

Flgure 2-38. Two-axial translationfree multiple moment restraint support

(BIAX-MMRS). Arrows indicate rections of freedom of movement.

d!

-_4

Mechanical

Systems

-tb
)o lb
ioo ft-rb

ro -x ' ;> [ rr-r-owso TRANSLATE tt !x otngcrtots

For Torsion

T
For Shear

12,800 ft-lb

._ _

4(R2

+ Rr + 3(R + r) +

12)

. I"igit'1 :"it jotffi''.


+
8.297)

,r:a:
Tc

(12,800)ft-rb

----

(r., J

(*,

4oJ0 in.o

4(10.976

9.545

316.194)
I

1.975 in.

12,563 psi

For Tensile Stress

Iq
rl4lc,

A_T-- $-Q.?
.'_-*

p_ - : A: "

1.20 t! 8.40 in.'

r+t prt

r,

Shear Distribution At Point

A-

O
(r,roonb

: :

22.83"

For a circular .thin-walled cross-sectron'

"=+:+i: :
rs
521-648

(ry)

in.'?(r.e75) in.

2R'zt cos

o 4
(0.432) cos (22

(40.49) in.a (0.432) in. n 16' -'\-

625 + 5.76 I

83")

7 '635

psi-max at neutral axis

For Bending

Mx Mz

:
=

-(1,100 lbx3.0) ft -9,500 ft-lb


R(Mx,
10,308

700

ft-lb

-4,000

ftlb
Q

(1,100) (7.635) (40.49) (0.432)

480.143 psi

At Point
5

B=
3.215

Mn : :

M, :
ftib

(-4,000)" + (-9'500)tlo

2t9.588t (0.432) cos (67.166')


(

1,100) (3.215) _ ' _ (40.49) (0.432)

202.182 psl

=; = ----r,j/ti.-= = 1o,114Psi

10,308 ft-lb

lY \ln/

/.^. \ rn'l

At Point

c480.143 psi

A:?)R'lo=r=

The Engineering Mechanics of Piping

<- rfi, .-- ll A ll --+ -;. <- {l lt __}

6r:1o,jr4+i/tg

Shear
Point

-r' l-,
'

oi:

1o,2s7 psi

A, Q :2(\8.59'17) (0.322) cos (22.83)


(l.100) ( l 1.039)
(12.5) (0.322\
7.358 psi

11.039

= r. + rr = 480,143 + 12,553
= 13,043.143 psi

'
o=

{_

* lf--lf __-f o:1oJ14 -143 lt e -----) O=seflpsi <--ll ll r = 13,043.143 psi

I43 psi

=
+

7.501 psi 520

r = rs + z1 :

9,138 psi

psi

9,658 psi

l_ rr----.lr <-- ll c ll ----+ 6r=uspsi <-rL_-Jr+


____+

7.501 [h.sor\' ^ -- .lo' 6 = -|1J! ll '--'l + {9-658)rl 2

[\21
psi

o : l4,lll.\57

<

17,000 psi allowable stress

r=202.182+12,563
7

= 12,765.182 psi

Therefore, use 8-in. Sch 40 A-312 TP3G4 SS pipe for the 3-ft pipe spool piece. From these calculations, we see that the minimum pipe size for the MRS is an 8-in. Sch 40, 3.0 feet in height. The stiffness values for an 8-in. Sch 40 pipe are as follows: From Thble 2-1, we have

Stress Elements

Point A is the most critical point.


,-,

KTx
r:

l2EI' . = (1 + O)LJ
8.625
2

ox

1ot oy [/o* - o"'l', ", -t\ 2 * 2 I ^Yl rov-0

+.JlJln.

lo,2s7 +
o

2 -l\ 2

[h0,257\':

lot f (13,043.14311

?1? : = : := L JI'.U

-: 4

0.120

<< | -

<D

:0

-t 19,143.674 psi
o"11

17,000 psi < 19,143.614 psi allowable stress, so, try 8-in. d Sch 40.
Bending ro.ms ir-ru

For ,4312 GR TP 304SS,

KTX

: :

12(2s.0

109

(72.5) in.4

(36.0)3 in.3

540,766.5 lb/in.

ll?:"

\ft/

KRX -_ KRZ

4(2s.0

106)

(zz.s) in.o

16.81 in.3

(36.0) in.

7,358 psi

:
or KRX
in

233,611,1ll.l in.Jb/deg

Torsion
(|

KRZ

19.467 .s92.6

-:*
qeg

fr-lh

2,800)ft-lb (12)

'
Tensile Stress

^ It

t4.313)in.

(72.5)in.3

9.138 psi

2(29.0

106)

KRY =

(36.0) in.
116,805,55.6 in.Jb/deg

--1

ln-'

(72.5) in.4

: :
r+r
Psr

l,200 lb

870GJ

or KRY

9,133,196.3 ft-lbldeg

94

Mechanical Design of process Systems

and 30. Further reduction in loads can be obtained bv adding springs abo',e the MRS restraints to counter ; negative moment above the Z-axis. Using springs above these supports is not always necessary, but in this case they are required because of the large vertical movement of points 5 and 30. A weight run should be made to verify that the springs do not ovedoad the nozzles durins
shur-down.

Entering these stiffness values into the computer run. we see thar lhe nozzle loads fall very sharply it points 5

therefore making such a unit sensitive to external loads. Always be careful when subjecting rotating equipment or vessels made of light material to excessive nozzle loads. In the final analysis the pipe loadings transferred by the MRS to the steel must be considered by the structural engineer. who must design the loundation accordingly. Sometimes it is necessary to model the stiffness of the steel foundation members when nozzle loadines become

critical.

The MRS restraints vary in design and are conceptually shown in Figure 2-10 and Figure 2-39. These iupports are made ol interlocking sliding plates wirh eaih sliding surface coated with high-strength Teflon. The precise details of such supports vary and are customized for each application. Looking to other parts of the piping system, we notice that nozzle 75 on the cold separator has a high moment about the negative x-axis. This moment is attributed to the aluminum exchangers (HE-A and B) moving upward and the cold separator shrinking downward. Because space is premium and we are "locked-in" and can't add any more flexible piping, we add a spring at elbow 65 pulling downward to counter the exces5ive neqative xmoment at nozzle 15. The spring is sized ro b6 acceptable for operating and shut-down modes.
Table 2-7 lists the forces and moments at each equipment nozzle. Upon reviewing Table 2-7 , you will notice the disparity in nozzle loadings. The aluminum heat exchangers,

HE-A and B, have lower loads, especially moments,

than does the cold separator or power gas volume tank. This is because each has acceptable loadings that are different. The cold separator is made of 23la-in. plate stainless sreel. which makes rhe loads shown easilv acceotable. {The method of determining whether such-loads ire acceptable on pressure vessels is discussed in Chapter 8.) Such loads would be very unacceptable lor the aluminum heat exchangers because aluminum cannol withstand nearly as great a load as steel and is not very elastic,

Figure 2-39. The BIAX-MMRS installed and in operation olant facilitv.

ar

Table 2-7 Equipment Nozzle Forces and Moments


Heat Exchanger A Heat Exchanger B
Process Vessel A Process Vessel B

t44.7
279.O

126.2

-255.9 -624.6

299.2

38.5

-2437 .8

0 854.4 94.6

293.9 684. I
914.O

0 0

2440.0

-6175.0

877 .1

-210.5 -553.4 4501.9 3163.0

210.5
553.4

8217.6 3306.8

The Engineering Mechanics of

Piping

95

EXAIIPLE 2-2: APPLYING THE FLEXIBILITY IIETHOD TO A STEAiI TURBINE EXHAUST LINE
A client has added a steam turbine to a chemical plant and has piped up the turbine with make-shift parts and existing pipe, plus a newly purchased bellows expansion joint. When the turbine technicians determine they cannot cold align the turbine with the exhaust piping, the client decides that the piping must be rerouted, but requests
an evaluation of the system, which is shown in Figure

240.
The system is modeled with a computer software package, and the results indicate that a moment about the yaxis in the magnitude of 31,000 ft/lbs is exerted on the turbine exhaust nozzle under operating conditions. Such a load is well above any turbine allowable. The reactions

along the other axes are moderate and the problem of alignment must be solved. The extremely high y-moment is caused by the thermal expansion of the pipe member extending along the z-axis from point 95 to point 145 almost Ze in. With this expansion along the positive z-axis, the pipe rotates about the positive y-axis from point 20 through the expansion joint at point 45 to the elbow at ooint 75. This torsion is transmitted to the turbine nozzle it point 5. Thus, the adjustable base elbow support at point 31 is entirely useless in resisting this vertical moment and the expansion joint at point 45 transmits all of the torsion motion to the turbine nozzle at point 5. An earlier section discussed the fact that these joints are totally rigid in torsion-a moment about the axis is parallel to the longitudinal axis, which in this example is the y-axis. In fact, with the vertical moment as great as 31,000 ftlbs the expansion joint at point 45 will either be destroyed or have a short service life because the bel-

li

lri

ii

d-o.^*
psia.

.u""'"'

Figure 2-40. Original piping configuration of 20-in. 0 steam line for turbine exhaust: temperature

300"4 pressure

16

Hg

96

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

lows are not designed to resist such high torsional moments. Thus, the diagnosis is to avoid the high torsion and stop the .8-in. movement at point 135. To do this- economically with minimum alteration to the piping, a bellows expansion joint is added at point 123 and.the shoe on the dummy leg is stopped in the *z direction (i'e'' movement in the 1z direction is stopped, and the vessel nozzle at point 85 is protected by the joint at point 123 ' An expansion joint is sized based on the manufacturer's standard dimensions for a 20-in. pipe and the joint stiffness values are as follows:

Turbine nozzle (Point

5)-530.8Ib, Fz

: : Mx :
Fx

46.51bs,

Fy

343'9 lb, Fr

634.l lb

1,978'2 ft-lb' Mz 1,198.4 ftlb, MY ftlb 2,430.0 745.3 ft-lb, Mr

Vessel nozzle (Point

85)-

Mx

F" = -46.4Ib, Fv = -3,311.8 lb' Fz : -3,348.5 lb, Fr : 4,709 9lb

KTX KRX KTZ

: KTY - 1,500 lb/in. = KRY : 200 in.-lb/deg : l2O lblin.


joint manufacturer'

: :

5,968.7 ft-lb, MY

5,0?6.0 ft-lb, MR

9,742 0 ft-lb Mz ' 12,501.9 ft-lb

The problem of turbine alignment is directly related to the inabilitv of the turbine technicians to adjust the pipe because of the pipe's inflexibility, which is caused by the suided base elbow at point 3l . The base elbow support is ieplaced by a spring depicted in Figure 2-41 and modeled into the compuier siress program. This mn is made with the added ixpansion joint at point 123 and. the spring at point 3. ihe following results were obtained from the computer run:

These values are provided by the

The loadings at the turbine nozzle are acceptable' (The basis for conaluding this is discussed in Chapter 6') The reactions at point 85 seem excessive and would be for a steam turbin;, but considedng the vessel is five feet in diameter and made of 3-in. plate, these loads are not ex-

cessive. Pressure vessel nozzle loading analysis is covered in Chapter 4, but one can deduce that pressure vessel nozzles tan withstand much greater loads than most tvDes of equipment. ''The svstim is implemented and in two days the turbine will be fired up and operating well. The concluding remarks are that the expansion joint at point 45 is accom-

plishing nothing and the capital expended for its purriu. wa$;d' ln fact, it would not hurt to move the "hu." unit, but this is not necessiuy since the high torsional moment has been eliminated. The expansion joint at point 123 was specified and ourchased for those stiffniss values previously listed' the final configuration is shown in Figve 2-42

EXAilPLE 2'3: FLEXIBILITY AIIALYSIS


FOR HOT OIL PIPING

A olant in a remote area of Brazil has an emergency need for a hot oil system. The plant manager has deter-

SPRIN6

I'
ipring :
300 lb/in.

1':l

.7

mined that a 3-inch Schedule 40 pipe is to be u-sed' based on plant requirements and available pipe trom local to design the piping and ensure it will ioui.".. w" not be overstressed. There are no electronic computers available anywhere near the plant and all calculations must be made without a stress program' For a hot oil header extending over some distance the flexibility approach is the practical method in this applifit" iiit" it to operaG at 550'F at 50 psig For-aj"ution. in. Sch. 40 pipe, d :3.50 in. A layout is n-rade o{ the system and preliminary loop is shown in Figure 2-43' The piPe is ASTM A-53B PiPe.

it"

Figure 2-41. Sketch of spring that replaces base elbow^supoon: installed load :713 lb. operatlng load = /uJ rD'

-":

3o : = 3.7 5

8.oo: Rv

:!:I:z.so La4

The Engineering Mechanics of Piping

97

-ttt *f,-tt^\.

t
I

,"_'-wJ_\
tN:z
Dlf,Ectro{s

Figute 2-42. Final piping configuration of 20-in. steam line for turbine exhaust: temperature
300"F, pressure

16 Hg psia.

From Figure 2-12A, Ah

220

: :

(4. I

l)

(_2.9._q

r72,800

x ltr) _ 689.8

(29.525t (30\ =-njaf =5u.urt "

From Table 2-1 and ASME 831.3 the allowable stress is

The available steel in the plant in the area the hot oil header is to be run is spanned 4.5 m or 14.76 ft, making tlre anchor points spaced at 18 m or 59 ft. Thus, =

oe

1.25(20,000)

0.25(18,100)

29,525.0psi

At:98
oB

59.0 ft. We change

l<

: Ia:

6.0

Rx =

&:

L'

5.0'

The maximum bending stress is on

: - = A,B [q] \L/ : 17,7M.9 psi :

tzzol toss.at tr.sol


30.0

(98) (689.8) (3.50) j-r:-l : ---10 :

7.886.7 psi

<

o^

Solving for total length

L',
ft

This is based on

L',
r^

L = 30 ft between guides. Solving for the distance between anchors. we have


rr7.704.9\lL-'l '

Qe,s25) (30)
7,886.7 112.3 fr
15

1t2.3

\L/

ft

(between supports)

7.5 supports

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Figure 2-43. (A) Initial piping configuration; (B) final piping configuration installed and operating.

Therefore, place a loop 6 ft x 6 ft (arbitrary dimensions) every seven supports. One could increase L' by making the loop larger (increasing Ia and La'1, but space limitations in this application prevent it. See Figure 2-43. The shess intensification factors (SID in the code were made equal to one because computer stress runs have verified that the curves are conservative enoush to make SIF : 1.0.

t = corroded pipe wall thickness. rn.


-'2
n
c

0.188 in.;

cr

L : l.z) ln.

: ft> t,u [' - i(,! -')rr - r,r] rB,B,ro,


['

EXAMPLE 2.4: LUG DESIGN


Referring to Figure 2-16, a lug is to be designed for a pipe with the following parameters: 8-in. { Sch. 40, C.S. 5A-1068 : -350'F, Pr = 500 psig P : 2,000 lb
Pipe

rrff< r.u =
wlth ; >
tt2
L,

-i(' -u,t),' - nr ] to,o,lo'


for Nd -* K, : for N; - Kz : for Md -- K, : for M" - Kz :
1.48

B B

Let
hole

3/s

in.,

L:

2tlz in., and the lug has l/z-in. d

p: 0:

: :

0.19 0.15 0.11 0.16

1.20 0.88
1.25

R. :

mean radius, in. From piping properties in Appndix

Nd
P/RM

Fisu.e 2-17 Fisure 2-19

R5?5+?qRt R.: ---- ; --'=

4.t52in.

Md

P-

-.

The Engineering Mechanics of Piping

*' : Eql[I t [P/Rml [R,tl


or,ao

= ,' r, (4.1s2) (o.322) =


{6) (2,0q0)

(2,000)

2,842.30

_ :
Total stress

(500) (7,981) 2(O.322) 6,196.43 psi 3g,5g6.Ot O.t 31,032.62 Psi

_ lrnrOl lotl _ ," t:t ,", : tu -i- : t-P l[-i,l A.yzt"


o{

E.*,.5.j2

Ci.rcumferential Stress,

: or :
o-t

oO

+ or : +
oP

ox

"t=*"Y*",ry
od

Using greatest value of o1,


o7

: :

12oa =

2(20,000)

40,000 psi

>

31,033 psi

(1.38) (2,842.30) 24,309.65 lb t/+-in. weld,

(1.36) (rs,o4s.72)

Thus, a lug with these dimensions is acceptable.

Bolt shearing stress

78

Letw :
K"

:'

I t l'" =, * I n q.r.r loo5 r.38 + ls.uwl lr:rroC =

Oolt or pin
10,186

_ area)

2,000

r(0.5)2 4

[-, I
t-ril

<

oB

Oolt allowable)

os

25,000 psi

.. x': t, + [-1l" = t-.lz1o.zzztlo" = r'36 lr,+w-l l*rcrr:l


Longitudinal Stress, o;

edge is to be a minimum
5-51.

The distance from the lug hole centerline to the lug of AISC Table 1.16.5.1, p.

Weld Size

Nx -.
Pi

R-

Fizure 2-18

-' P f,:-: ZvL


f* :
(2,000)

2(0.25) (2.50)

-'-"

2.000

1.600

!1r

*.:llolEl =,r' t [P/R,l [R,tl


:3,739.87

P- -

Fisure 2-2r

f*:0.707Eoe: E = Joint efficiency


14,140.0 psi

(4.rs2) (0.322)

Weldsize

: *: ft f* : 0.113 +

r/c-in. weld is acceptable.

6M-. -.-^

r..^r r-. | tz - tPltt']l -

[ur,-l

[rp]

/n ,....-r'2'000)
\0.322),

ta\t

EXAIIPLE 2.5: RELIEF VALVE PIPING


SYSTEM
Examine Example 1-4 relief valve system for external loadings induced by valve discharge. The gas properties

14,467.03

-. NY .. ox:K"itooti
qx

6M"

(1.38) (3,739.87)

(1.36) (14,467.03)

are as follows:

:24,836.19
Primary or pressur" ,1r"a,

k:c1c":1.451
: o. = I 2t N:
Ar =
243,755 lb/hr 28.89 in.2

T": M:

294"F
170.9

754"R

100

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Experimental data from Blevins[6] support the following formulations:

[r"ln'
l__:l

IMl

I : I :

0.15 damping factor for small pipe (4-in.


0.025 for large pipe

d<)

(>6-in. d)

0.1443 (1.15)

Cc:

't

I l ^ lrr.+srt

| ' l* v.45u I
|

\2451105

A
D
L:

o.o7 [^ (6. + 1.9)52 [-'-30

.^
(6,

o.7z
+

lo'5

(2-39)

1.9)Sl

I zs+ \n'

\r?ot
:0.055

ft, l-in.

Sch. 40 pipe

For a uniformly loaded member with simple supports,

From Figure 2-31 or from the following we determine P"


and P" as

5WL3 384EI

where 61

I:
=

0.0874 in.a; 50.40 lb

1.68 lb/ft (30)ft

G p-: ' ccA,


D =14

(0.055) (28.89)

710 =

42.6t3

12.569 in.

From Table 2-5,


(0.99X1.1s)(0.98)(28.89)(42.613)

[zrr.+sr,l_r

[
F

0.45r

v.4stl I

)#[,

_ l_ryq)l-,",,1"
\42.613/

-= r

3.55
(12'569)u r

l.trut

cvcles/sec

+(28.89) (4)

. 4mzf 'pD For air at 60'F,

(2-38)

: :

2,385.879 lb

Reaction moment at the vessel nozzle is

MR

(2,385.879) lb (8.5)

ft :

p:

0.076 lb./ft3 th itn :0.004&

20,279.9'12 ft-lb 0.140

The reactions at the vessel nozzle are discussed in Chap-

ter 4, along with external loadings on vessels.

.=
'1) --

ft ) - _:L sec2

ll.

EXAIIPLE 2.6: WIND-INDUGED VIBRATIONS OF PIPING

Air velocity under investigation


sec

25 milhr

36.65

ttl

A l-in.

@ Schedule

40 pipe is to run up a process

tower, and it is necessary to determine what span intervals are needed to avoid vibration resonance caused by vortex shedding induced by wind external to the pipe. Piping designers have the line supported at 3O-foot even intervals. The first problem with the layout are the even intervals for the supports. Piping spans subjected to vibmtion should be in uneven intervals to prevent sine wave oscillations that would be symmetric and pedodic, and thus self-destructive.

6,

: :

13.037;

Nn

2.54

x 1ff

From Figure 2-33,

0.18

rnus,

fi

:
=

o.tzo

Damping

tul#I"

tr.utt

Heat Transfer in Piping and Values from Figure 2-34 indicate we are close to resoftrnce, as we are within an L/D ratio of 5 and L/D = 30. Thus, we should experience resonance at 25 mph for the l-in. S Sch 40 bare pipe. The line should have more supports added at uneven intervals closer than 30 ft and the previous analysis repeated for a range of wind velocities . Such a problem can be approached with a computer program based on experimental data. As is obvious, vortex shedding vibrations is still a sub_jective phenomenon based on empirical data, but this example should assist one in protecting piping surrounded

Equipment

101

RD
R(x, y, fi
ro

z) :
T t U Z

by vortices.

z^
I{OTATION
OR

oc
OL

A: C= D: Ep : E" :

area, in.2

compliance, in./lb or deg/ft-lb diameter, in. modulus of elasticity in down condition, psi modulus of elasticity in operat-

o"
OR

OT

oy

reaction in down (non-operating) condition, lb vector resultant operator inside radius, in. outside radius, in. torsion, ftlb thickness, in. displacement, in. weight of fluid, lb. weld size, in. section modulus, in.3 section modulus of mean section radius, in.3 bending stress, psi circumferential stress, psi longitudinal stress, psi pressure stress, psi radial stress, psi torsional stress, psi yield stress, psi
shear stress, psi

ing condition, psi F = force, lbs G modulus of rigidity, psi I moment of inertia, ft' polar moment of inertia, fta J K stiffness, either translational (lb/in.) or rotational (ft-lb/deg) stress concentration factor for bending stress concentration factor for pure tension or compression KTX : translational stiffness along Xaxis, lb/in. KRX : rotational stiffness about Xaxis, ft-lb/deg KTY = translational stiffness along Yaxis, lb/in. KRY : rotational stiffness about Yaxis, ft-lb/deg KTZ : translational stiffness along Zaxis, lb/in. KRZ : rotational stiffness abovt Zaxis, ft-lb/deg L: length, in. M= moment, ft-lb P= force (lb) or moment (ft-lb) in stiffness matrix Pi= internal pressure, psig P"= external pressure, psig Pn: internal pressure evaluated at radius R, psig R: reaction, lb

F,M +

X,

+Y,+Z

forces

in +X, +Y, or *Z

or moments acting only

4M-X, -Y,-Z :

direction, respectively forces or moments acting on.ly in or -Z direction, respectively

-X, -l

K= K:

REFERENCES

l.
2.

5.

6. 7.

Faires, V. M., Design of Machine Elements, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1965. Przemieniecki, I.5., Theory of Matrix Structural Analysis, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1968. Wichman, K. R., Hopper, A. G., Mershon, J. L., Welding Research Council Bulletin 107, Local Stresses in Spherical and Cylindrical Shells Due to External Loadings, Welding Research Council, New York, 1979. Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association, Inc., Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association, Inc., New York. Hesse, W. J., Mumford, Jr., N. V. 5., Jet Propulsion for Aerospace Applications , Second Edition, Pitman Publishing Corporation, New York, 1964. Blevins, R. D., Flow Induced Vibration, van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1977. Lienhard, J. H., "Synopsis of Lift, Drag and Vortex Frequency Data For Rigid Circular Cylinders," Washington State University, College of Engineering Research Division Bulletin 300, 1966.

Heat Transfer in Piping and Equipment

Providing thermal energy to process systems and


maintaining desired temperatures are key responsibilities of mechanical design. Although they border on chemical engineering, the concern here is with the mechanical as-

pcts

of

process systems, and not with the processes

themselves. (Chapters 2 and 4 illustrate how mechanical design borders civil engineering in a similar manner.) Process systems require thermal energy for various reasons, and the most common are to accelerate chemical reactions; to heat products and services so the products remain liquid and do not clog piping or equipment, such as with asphalt and roofing materials, viscous fuel oils, and syrups; and to cool products and services, for example to protect epoxy from polymerizing. In piping systems there are three ways to transfer heat to the process service-tubular tracers mounted externally to the pipe, jacketing the process pipe with a larger pipe forming an annulus in which the heat transfer fluid flows, and electrically tracing the pipe. We will discuss the first two types of transfer systems.

5,000 centipoises or more. Such high-viscosity fluids are quite common with coating mixes used in manufacturing roofing tiles. Tracing such viscous mixtures with several tracers has proven to be so inferior to jacketed pipe that the disadvantages ofjacketed systems are offset. With a viscosify of 4,000 centipoises, one should consider jacketed pipe.

Most jacketed pipe is limited in commercially available sizes. Normally 8-in. by 10-in. is the largest size

JACKETED PIPE VERSUS TRACED PIPE


The difference between traced pipe and jacketed pipe is obviously the heat transfer area available on each. The two types are depicted in Figures 3-1a and b. Jacketed systems offer more heat transfer area, but are expensive and can be difficult to maintain. One common nroblem is cracks that develop from the thermal stresses that are incurred. Such cracks, which are difficult to locate and re-

pair, can cause the heat transfer and process fluids to mix, which can have catastrophic resulis. However. the disadvantages ofjacketed pipe must be weighed with the economics of adding tracers. A proven guideline is to use jacketed pipe for process fluids with viscosities of

front vi6w

Figure 3-1A. Traced pipe.

103

104

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Figure 3-1B. Jacketed pipe. (Courtesy of Parks-Cramer Co.)

Heat Transfer in Piping and

Equipment

105

DIMENSIONS
COMMON TO ALL
I

150 LB.'
Holes Holeg
BC 3.12 3.88 4.75 RF 2.00 2.84 3.62 3.62 4.12 6.00 7.50 9.50
11.75 14.25

3OO

LB:
BC 3.50 4.50
5.00 5.00
5.EE

stzE
Y2t1Y1

o
tPs 1r/a 1Y2

tPs
Y2

u
2.56 2.56

T
NPI

.oD
4.25 5.00

No.

Dia. 0.62
0.62 0.75

K 0.75
0.75

OD 4.88 6.12 6.50

No.

Dla, 0.75
0.E8 0.75

RF
2.OO

K 0.88 0.88
0.6E

3/tt1Yz

2.88 3.62 3.62


4.12 5.00

1t2
1Yarz

,l
'|

Vq \/+ 2

6.00 6.00 7.00

0.75
0.62

3.44
L/^

%
1

0.75
0.75 0.75 0.75

0.75
0.8E

0.88
1.00 1.12 1.25 1.44 1.62 1.88

1l2x2l2
2x3 3x4 4x6 6xE 8x10

1L/2

, 3 4

0.69
0.75

7.50 8.25
'10.00

2 3 4

4.69 4.44
4.31

7.50 9.00
11.00
'13.50

s.00 6.19 8.50


10.62 12.75

I
8 12 12 16

0.68
0.8E

6.62 7.88
10.62 13.00
'15.25

1 1 1

0.94
1.00 1.12 1.19

6.'l9
8.50 10.62 12.75

0.88 0.88
1.00

12.50 15.00 17.50

0.88 'L00

6
8

I
10

4.31

4.88

1Y2

16.00

.Flanges of higher pressure class and other facings available.

Figure

3-lB.

Continued.

Figure 3-1C. Expansion joints for jacketed pipe. (Courtesy of Parks-Cramer Co.)

106

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

DIMENSIONS
150 LB., DUCTILE IRON. STEEL
FLANGE DIMENSIOIiISi OD Holea mm. 152 178
190

srzE 1Y1r2

ID
tPs

A
BC
4.75 RF 3.62 4.12 6.00 5.00 6.19 8.50 10.62 12.75 o.75
0_88

T
mm.
610 635 645 660 673 4.69 4.44
4.31 4.31
'I '|
,l

lns.
6.00

No. 4

Dlao.75 0.75

lns.
24.OO

TIPT

1Y4
1Y2

3.44

3/t
3/q

1t/2f,Y2

7.@
7.50 9.00 11.00 13.50

25.00 25.38 26.00 26.50

M
3x4 4x6 6x8 8x10

4
8 0.75 0.88 0.88 1.00

28
279

7.50 9.50

1.00 't,12 't.19


1.38

6
8
12

3/$
406

'tl.75
14.25

27.U

16.00

u.25

470

4.8

1Y1

All dimensions in inches (ins.) unless otherwise noted. 'Flanges ol higher pressure class and other facings available.

Figure 3-1C. Continued.

carried in stock, but larger sizes can be specially fabricated. When a jacketed system is selected, a careful stress analysis should be made to ensure that the system is not overstressed. (Chapter 2 covers such stress analyses.)

what simpler than steam-traced systems, because steam traps and condensate return lines are unnecessary. However, hot oil can be expensive and if there is ample auxiliary steam available for tracing, steam is favorable for moderate- to low-temperature systems. When there is much piping to be traced, steam at the available temperature and pressure may condense into hot water before tracing the entire system. For these situations, only hot oil can be used. Thus, hot oil is used in tracing applications where steam is either not practical or not available. There are many types of hot oils marketed by various chemical companies as heat transfer fluids.

TRACIilG PIPING SYSTEMS


When process fluids have low to moderate values of viscosity 1g 4,500 cp), it is best to trace them with tubes containing hot or cold fluids. The tracing can be done with or without heat transfer cement around the tracer tubes (Figure 3-2). We will consider two methods for analyzing both systems. Usually, steam or hot oil is used to trace systems. Hot oil is used when the fluid to be traced is hotter than saturated steam at typical operating pressures, which would be about 350'F and above. Hot oil systems are some-

It is most

desirable and should be mandatory to use

heat transfer cement in tracing tubes on process piping, because it provides more heat transfer area. Heat transfer cements are available in all major countries and in

some of the larger Third World countries. However there are times of expediency in which traced systems must be installed without the cement.

Heat Transfer in Piping and

Equipment

1O7

Traced Piping Without Heat Transfer Cement


The modes of heat transfer in a system without heat kansfer cement are natural convection through the air space inside the insulation, and to a much lesser extent, direct radiation between the tracer and pipe or equipment. Since the tracer tube and pipe surface have very little surface contact, conduction is minimal. Any effect of film resistance to heat transfer between the air space outside the insulation and the inside insulation surface is negligible. The procedure for tracer design without heat transfer cement is outlined in the foliowing steps (see Figure 3-3 for parameters) :

Tr = aclual insulation thickness

Figure 3-3. Traced pipe with one tracer under bottom without

HTC.

l.

Assume a value of air space temperature equal to or greater than the minimum temperature of the process temperature inside the pipe.

2. Estimate the natural convection coefficient,

h",

from the tracer to the air space from Figure 3-4. 3. Calculate the equivalent cylindrical insulation thickness, T", as

'\ '"
4.

: {q'r=l)'" {9': =t) 2l\Di


I

(3-

l)

Determine the outside film coefficient of the insulation to atmosphere, h., from Figure 3-5 and calculate Uo from the following:
1

u.
Di
ho

T] kt

h.

(3-2)

:
=

ki
T"

:
=

inside diameter of pipe insulation, ft outside film coefficient from insulation to atmosphere, Btu/hr-ft2- "F thermal conductivity of insulation,

Btu/hr-ftz-'F

T,

Uo:

equivalent thickness of cylindrical insulation, actual insulation thickness, ft overall heat transfer coefficient from the air space to the atmosphere, Btu/hr-ft'-"F

ft

5. Formulate a heat balance around the air

sDace.

solving for the temperature of the air space. q:

- L) a: Q: ) (r)(Qr)
(v,xA")(t"
(hJ(AJ(n)(tt

(3-3)

t")

(34)
(3-5)

Figure 3-2, Various traced pipe configurations: (A) single traced pipe, with tracer under pipe, with heat transfer cement (HTC); (B) process pipe with two tracers with HTC; (C) one tracer on top ofprocess pipe with HTC; (D) process pipe with three tracers with HTC; (E) jacketed pipe.

where Ao

A, :
h,

: :

outside insulation surface area, ft2lft outside surface area of tracer tube, ftzlft convection film coefficient from tracer or heat transfer cement (HTC) to air space,

Btu/hr-ft

-'F

108

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

.c

1.o o.9

o.a
o.7

oo,ouTstDE D|aMETER OF CyL|NDER ltNcHESl h: NAIURAL


CONVECTTON
.o.25

FtLM COEFFICTENT

h.

o.5lt-l

.^.

Figure 3-4, Natural convection on horizontal cylinders.

a:
7

6 5

35710
Figure 3-5. Heat transfer outside horizontal pipes.

152030

50

OUTSIOE DIAMETER OF INSULATION IINCHESI ho=COMBINED OIJTSIDE HEAT TRANSFER FILM COEFFTCIENT

Heat Transfer in Piping and

Equipment

109

Qr

: heat transfer per lineal foot from air space to atrnosphere. Btu/hr-ft Qz : heat transfer per lineal foot from tracer to air space, Btu/hr-ft L : temperature of outside air, oF ti = temperature of tracer fluid, oF "y : safety factor; 1.3 for piping systems without
HTC, 2.0 for piping systems with HTC, 1.5 for vessels without HTC, 2.5 for vessels with
HTC

wall temperature. The contribution of radiation from the tracer and pipe or vessel to the inside wall ofthe insulation is negligible, as is the film resistance to heat
vessel

transfer on the inside insulation wall. The procedure for tracer design with heat transfer cement is as follows:

1. Determine the scheme of tracers to be applied us-

2.

lf ta > ti, then the system is adequate. The maximum spacing of tracer tubes for cylindrical vessels is calculated in the same manner except that a flat plate approximation (T. = t) is used to compute the heat losses, or Q values.

ing Figure 3-7. Calculate the metal wall area (equals wall thickness) A*; the outside surface area of insulation, Ao, the outside surface area of pipe, Ao, and the outside surface area of tracer tube or heat tfansfer cement

(Hrc).
Assume a value of the minimum pipe wall temperature, to, equal to or greater than the minimum process f luid temprature. 4. Assume a value of air space temperature, ta. 5. Estimate the natural convection coefficient, h",
3

Traced Piping Wlth Heat Transfer Cement


One mode of heat transfer in a system with heat transfer cement is conduction from the tracer tube through the pipe or vessel wall to the point of the wall most distant from the tracer. The thermal distribution of such a sys-

tem is shown in Figure 3-6. The other mode of heat transfer is the natural convection from the tracel and the pipe or vessel wall to the air space. Thus, the air space temperature is lower than the minimum process pipe or

from the HTC to air space. 6. Calculate T" using Equation 3-1. 7. Determine the outside film coefficient of the insulation to the atmosphere, h., from Figure 3-5 and calculate Uo from Equation 3-2. 8. Calculate the average pipe wall temperature tp and estimate t}le natural convection coefficient from the pipe or vessel to air space, ho, from Figure 3-4.

COLO SURFACE TEMPERAIURE

It2I

Figure 3-6. Heat transfer by radiatlon.

',{s-J[(!e"" I-e#9]

110

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Figure 3-7, Temperature distribution of a two tracer system.


(Courtesy of Thermon Manufacturing Co.
t

9. Formulate a heat balance around the pipe or vessel wall and air space and perform an iteration analysis solving for t" and te with the following steps:

: Qz:
Qr
Qn

(u.)(,\)(r"
(hJ(At)(tt

- t") (hPxApxtp * t")


(2Xq) (r)(Q:)

t")

(3-6) (3-7) (3-8) (3-e) (3-10)

temperature of air space, 'F ambient temperature,'F length of heat flow through metal, ft pipe temperature at point nearest tracer, 'F pipe temperature at point farthest from tracer.

.F

(I*)o.u,, * ,,,'

Q+)

Likewise for traced systems with HTC, for traced vessels, the maximum tracer tube spacing for traced vessels is calculated by the same procedure, except that the flat plate approximation (Te : t) is used to compute the heat losses, or Q values.

Qz+ Q:)Qr
where Am

(3-l
cross-sectional pipe wall area (equals pipe

l)

Condensate Return
Steam differs from hot oil in that condensate is formed by loss of heat energy. During energy shortages, the use of condensate return lines is normally justified. Considering the use of 1/2-in. tracers, normally a l-in. condensate subheader

= = k : n, : Q: = Q4 :
Ap ho

thickness), ft,/ft outside surface area of pipe, ft /ft convection film coefficient from pipe to air space, Btu/hr-ft2-oF thermal conductivity of vessel shell material,

Btu/hr-ft2-'F number of tracers, dimensionless


heat transfr per lineal foot from pipe to air space, Btu/hr-ft heat transfer per lineal foot from tracer to

a ltlz-in.

header from

will handle condensate from 2-8 tracers, 9-20 tracers, and a 2-in. sub-

pipe, Btu/hr-ft

header from 21-50 tracers. With a condensate collection and return system the steam supply pressure should be at least 100 psig. Even though these rules of thumb are well tested in field practice, the reader is encouraged to calcu-

Heat Transfer in Piping and

Equipment

11

late the condensate load for his particular needs. Consider the following analysis:
Total heat loss from steam tracer Qr For systems with HTC (by adding Equations 3-'7 and 3-9),

where hr8

enthalpy of vaporization (also called latent


heat of vaporization), Btu/lb

Qr:

Qq+Qz

(3-12)

The steam in the tracer is assumed to transfer energy as heat for a given mass of steam under constant pressure. A typical condensate return system is shown in

For systems without HTc,

Qr:Q:

(34)

Figure 3-8. When collecting condensate, care must be taken to prevent water harnmer caused by the mixing of condensate at different temperatures and pressures. To prevent water hammer in condensate systems, spargers and
steam separation kegs should be considered.
To size the condensate return lines, as well as the tracers themselves, use the methods presented in Chapter I for line sizing. In systems where a large quantity of condensate is formed by steam flashing, a condensate return

The steam in the tracer is assumed to enter the system as saturated steam at an initial temperature or pressure. Considering the amount ofheat loss over a given temperature range, the condensate load from n tracers on a given process pipe is

,ir

: $,
nnfc

rum

(3-13)

pump may be required. Normally, condensate return pumps are the horizontal centrifugal type. Pumps and their applications are presented in Chapter 6.

STEAM SUB

HOR.

COND.
HOR.

SEEDETAIL A(TYP.)

SEE FIGURE 3

COND HOR.

SEE

OETAIL

(wP.)
OETAIL-

Figure 3-8. Condensate return header in tmcer system. (Courtesy of Thermon Manufacturing

co.)

112

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Jacketed Plpe
Figure 3-9 illustrates details ofjacketed pipe. Forjacketed systems, it is customary to assume a temperature drop over a given length of pipe for hot oil. In applica, tions of hot oil heating a viscous fluid such as asphalt, 100'F drop per 100 ft, or I 'F per foot, is quite common. If one is not familiar with a given service, then a heat balance must be made, like those done for tracers, However, using a temperature drop over a given lenglh of pipe simplifies the analysis and has been proven in practice, because all examples cited are from actual, successful operating systems. The following steps illustrate one such method of designing jacketed pipe: Compute the overall heat transfer coefficient, U, by the following relation:

for Dy'D"

>

0.2

For an annulus, the hydraulic radius, Rs,


Rs Dr-i

d.o

(3-18)

in which

D:4Rs ._
NC"

(3-19) (3-20)

l.

and thus

u = Er*r+ln(ry'r'* ll-r kzr h


[h':
where

' .D(3-14)

Nru"k

(3-2r)

N*"

Y%
tt

(3-r5)

2. After solving for

hr:
Nr"

the overail heat transfer coefficient, determine the amount of heat transfer from the relation
(3-22)

r.86(NrJ"'(N",)

"LP) ($
(oeJ

k$'"

(3-

l6)

UA(LMTD)

: o.o2o Nr;'Nr

where

A:

0_17\

outside area of inner tube. ft2. and the LMTD is based on the assumed rate of heat loss per unit lengrh of pipe.

,1-

rooo

o socror.t

9d

LR

PE(rcESS IINE

PrJ:1r2, 2r3,3t4,/rt 6linl

ptt= t'ga,&1,4,

Figure 3-9. Standard fabrication details for jacketed piping.

Heat Transfer in Piping and

Equipment

113

END OF JACKE'T DETAIL

v2t. ss n

BING

PROCESS LINE IPI JACKETIJI

CUIOE

BAi

OETAII- BANS PLACEO EVERY rEN FEEi OF PR@ESS IINE

PrJlinl

z'z

GLJtoE BAR Srzlinl

4t6

31

-t

-le'9r-

r4r15 -2 rrYi6-r

z t" i,u
In

to

in tong

PFOCESS LITIE

rrNE srzE prJ

li.L

ll

Figure 3-9, Continued.

114

Mechanical Design of Process Systems To facilitate manual calculations refer to Figure 3-10 [1]. The concept of the logarithmic mean temperature differ-

The LMTD is solved using the following formula:

(GTTp)

, /crro\ ]n l-l
: :

(UrTp)

/1-r1r

\rjrTD /
mean temperarure difference

ence is widely explained in most basic engineering textbooks, so its explanation will not be presented here. The reader is referred to Kern [2] or Ludwig [3] for a formal

where

LMTD : logarithmic
GTTD LTTD

description of the significance of the LMTD.

greater terminal temperature difference lesser terminal temDerature difference

3.

Once the amount of heat transferred is determined from Equation 3-22. assuming a given temperature

Chart for Solving


MTD Formula
GTTD.LTTD -"- _ GTTD t-o8e LrrD

tm
90 80 70 60
^o@

,\,rn

.c,*
.rk@'

50 40

to,4

i5

tll
o

F
E

Greater Terminal Temperature Difference

Figure 3-10. LMTD chart.

(O

1978 by Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association. Repdnted by permission.)

Heat Transfer in Piping and

Equipment

15

drop, the amount of flow rate ofthe heating fluid is determined by

jacket (outside the tank) and exits through another side heating the vessel's contents. This can be seen in Figure

)-tzrirCoAt

(3-24) hot fluid flow rate, lb/hr specific heat of hot fluid, Btu/lb-"F hot fluid temperature drop

where rir
At

: : :

From this formulation we determine the flow rate required.

Before we analyze in detail these various components, we must first look at the overall heat reouirements of the vessel to determine how much heating surface is required. The controlling criterion in determining the amount of heating panel surface area of a vessel is the transient state, i.e., how much surface area is required to heat a given mass of fluid of specified properties to a

4.

Using Figure 3-11, the amount of pressure drop in


the annulus is determined and added to the Dressure

drop in the whole sysrem (which includes the piping connecting the annuli). The pressure drop for the piping other than the annuli is determined by using the methods presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 6 shows how to select and size the pumps to handle fluids that usually require jacketed services, such as hot oil.
Once the flow rate is determined, the hydraulic analysis made, and the pressure drop judged adequate for the size ofpumps selected, the jacketed system details can be

specified temperature within a specified time. Figure 3-13 illustrates a control mass inside a oressure vessel. Consider two transient boundary conditions in the vessel-the fluid resting at steady state and the fluid moving through the tank at a given mass flow rate. Thus, the following two criteria must be established before the heat transfer area required for a process vessel can be determmeo:

1. A vessel shown in Figure 3-13(a) contains a static fluid of X gallons at an initial temperature, Y'F. How many degrees of temperature per hour will the fluid mass rise for a given surface area of

designed.

Typical jacketed piping components are depicted in Figure 3-9. In extensively jacketed systems, valves can be procured that have jacketed spaces built in. These types of valves are recommended for services where jacketed pipe is required (p > 5,000 cp). Some of these valves are shown in Fieure 3-9.

2.

in Figure 3-13@), how many degrees of temperature per hour will be transferred to a given mass of fluid of defined properties flowing through the vessel at a constant mass flow rate with an initial temoerature of Y'F

clamped-on jacketed coils? Using clamped-on jacketed coils shown

These two criteria are established bv considerins the following relationships:

Vessel and Equipment Traced Systems


Systems that require piping to be either traced or jacketed likewise require similar components for vessels.

: : :

mcpat

(3-2s)

and

The complexity of traced components depends on the viscosity of the process fluids being handled. For highviscosity, non-Newtonian fluids special items must be added to vessels, such as agitators that are composed of blades and usually powered by electric motors. There are many reasons to use agitators, and one of the most common is to keep suspended particles in a non-Newtonian fluid evenly distributed to prevent particle settlement on the tank bottoms. There are two basic types of heating and cooling devices used for vessels-internal and external iackets that fit on the inside and outside of the vessel, respectively. These jacket types are shown in Figure 3-12. The hot fluid (normally steam or hot oil) enters one side of the coil and flows through the baffle (inside the tank) or

UA(LMTD)

(3-26)

Equating Equation 3-25 to 3-26, we obtain

At

UA(LMTD)
mCp

(3-27)

The U value, or overall heat transfer coefficient, is calculated on the basis of whether the panel of heat tracing tubes are clamped on outside the vessel or located inside the vessel. These overall heat transfer U values are determined through extensive laboratory tests and accumulated field experience. The U value used in calculations should be that recommended by the heat transfer panel manufacturer, as various panel designs are available and the calculation of the U value analvticallv can

116

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

rh" x1" s,ch.40 Jackeled Pipe


ol jacketod pipe (tiw 2010: lengrhs) and inclsde live 1" o.D. x.065" wal tubing jumpplus overs entrancs and exit losses. Warer @ 60'F. (16"C,)
curves based on 100 let

tt;
I

P-inchesoluater I

Flgure 3-11A. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of Parks-Cramer Co.)

't

Heat Transfer in Piping and

Equipment

117

,a" x1Y2" Sch.40 Jacketed Pipe


curues based on 1oo reet or racceled p'pe (rrv;20 o_ 3d" O o r 06s' wal lubing iump_ lengths, ano Include 'ive xit losses. Water @ 60'F O6'C) overs plus ntrance and

dl

o =

Figure 3-118. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of Parks-Cramer Co.)

I
1

18

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

f,
fi

{.
1" x 2" Sch.40 Jackeled Pipe
curyes based on 100 leel ol jackied pipe (livs
rive t4" o.D. x .065" wall lubrng jump_ rengrhs) and 'nclude and exii losses. water @ 60'F- {16'c.} overs plus entrance

20{"

E J
I

o = J

A P- inches

of water

Figure 3-1|C. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of Parks-Cramer Co')

Heat Transfer in Piping and

Equipment

119

1Y4"

x2" Sch.40 Jacketed Pipe

Cutues based on 100 leet ol jacketed ppe (lve 20:0" lenqths) and include live 74'O.D. x .065'walrlubrnq jump overs plus entance and exit Losses. Wate. @ 60"F. (16'C.)

P-psig

<'

ut

o =

inches ol

water 3

Figure 3-11D. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of Parks-Cramer Co.)

120

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

1r/a" x

2V" Sch. 4O Jacketed Pipe

ot jackered pipe (Uve 2010' r;'O D. ! .065" wdl tJbrng jumplengrl^sl dnd r clude rive'eet overs pr!s entrance and exl rosses waler @ 60,F. (16.c )
Curves based on 100

AP-psig

t
'to

= J

Figure 3-11E. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of Parks-Cramer Co.)

Heat Transfer in Piping and

Equipment

12'l

1Y2"

x2t/2" Sch.40 Jacketed Pipe

Curues bas6d on 100 teei ol jackered pipe (live 20!0" lenglhs) and incrude nve ya" O O x obs" wrll ruo,rg tuhpovers plls enrra.ce a.d ext losses. water @ 60"F. (16'c)

lD
I

Figure 3-11F. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of Parks-Cramer Co.)

122

Mechanical Design of Process Svstems

2" x 3" Sch. 40 Jackeled Pipe


Curves based on 100 leel ol iackeldd pipe (iive 2010" lenolnsl and nclude live 1" O.D. (.065'sall rubnq_Lmpovers plus entrance 3nd exit rosses water @ 60.F. 06"c.)

6 = J

inches ot water

Figure 3-11G. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of Parks-Cramer Co.)

Heat Transfer in Piping and Equipment

123

3" x 4" Sch.40 Jackeled Pipe


l6n9rhsj and Include l,!e I" o.D ^ 064 rali rlbr.g tuhp. overs plus enl.ance and exil losses. Water @ 60'F. (16'C )

curves based on 100 leer

ol jackeled pipe

(tive 20'0"

- psig

Figure 3-11H. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of Parks-Cramer Co.)

124

Mechanical Desisn of Process Svstems

3" x 5" Sch. 40 Jackeled Pipe


CLNes based on 100 leel ol iackeled pipe (live 2010" lengihs) a.d include live 1" O.D. x.065" walllubing jumpovers plus enirance and exil losses. Waler @ 60'F. (16'C.)

o = J

- inches ol waler

Figure 3-1 11. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of Parks-Cramer Co.)

Heat Transfer in Piping and Equipment

125

4" x 6" Sch. 40 Jacketed Pipe


Curues based on 100 leei oi jacketed pipe (uve 20'4" lengrhsl and ,ruluoe lve I' O D ^ 065" $Ell rlbrnq tunp. overs pius entrance and exn losses. Water @ 60'F. (16'C.)

o =

inches ol

wate. q

Figure 3-11J. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of parks-Cramer Co.)

Mechanical Desisn of Process Svstems

6" x 8" Sch. 40 Jackeled Pipe


curues based on 100 ieer
lenglhs) and inclLde nva I O o r 065'war' ruo ng Lmp overs plus enlrance and exil losses water @ 60"F. {16"c.)

oi

iackered pipe (nv 20a0'

AP-psig

,LENT )aa:

7
:,-:

t -

7.,
o(

j:

o(

E, o(ra
lo

=, a

':: AM tN/ \R

::::l::::l:

Park :s -l ,fal ne
JACKETET
NG

r:
t

::::l::.1:.::1.::t,:

SYST :l\4S

COMPONENTS

l,ill
A
P

'

,'1,,,,1,,

- inches ol

water q

Figure 3-11K. Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of Parks-Cramer Co.)

Heat Transfer in Piping and Equipment

127

8" x 10" Sch. 40 Jackeled Pipe


cu.ves based on 100 ieet ol tackeled prpe (rve 2oro, leng l-sl aro incrLde trr- t" o D. r 06r" do r_b'.q tu-p. overs pL!s enlrance and exrr tosses. water @ 60.F {16.c )

AP-psig

-/;;
JT

!r:::r'

T FTOW

i,? ,/..:
i:,1-,:

h-0b,

.1-=:

F=
t1=

/. /
F= t.-

l::::

t:
=, (r. o, =

lv
)1

c
@

7/.
/
ul

o =

L AMINAR
I

:l

Pe

k s-l fame I

':r:i::::l

:::l't

,l
!l

I
:

i. coMP ONEI {TS

:;::l ::l
...1..1

:::.[] .. .t.._
.

.1.-.

inches ol

water q

Figure

3-1

L.

Engineering data pressure drop through jacket. (Courtesy of parks_Cramer Co. )

128

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Moderate bracins for mediurn agitation -cooditions. All 5rac6 are from vessel wall and no circumIereotial rings are used.

Brrc$ 6ay be weldcd ot


,{4. desirable.

bolted, Hemocd edgc pcr mounting lug detail, page

Flexible hoses desirable her w-hen possible aod wnen lorces are Severe. Also particularlv imoorc ant, foi altematirig heiting

ano cooltnq

conorttons.

Speial bracing.for heavy


aertauon conorarons,

Figure 3-12A. Heat transfer internal plate or panel baffles inside a vessel. (Courtesy of Tranter, Inc.)

Heat Transt'er in Piping and

Equipment

129

'ffiFt*
\-*'/ ,(?,''l \t \ l[ [ l\
l\

,/ w*\ \ \ / _-.--\r\1
e

C=2%" MlN.

I
I

D ----v

HEADER SIZE

3RD. ST OF CHANNETS USED WHEN B DIM. EXCEEDS 7T'

OVER,AI.I WIDTH I(NO. OF PLATECOTL-|) (CJ.3',]

Figure 3-128. Schematic depicting how heat transfer panel plates heat up or cool down process fluid in tank. (Courtesy of Tranter. Inc.)

L-3S Luqs (typ)

ffi N
Figure 3-12C. Heat transfer panel plates designed to curved surfaces. (Courtesy of Tranter, Inc.)

fit

on

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

lead to erroneous results if the exact details of the Danel design are not known. Most panel manufacturers hesitate to reveal such detailed features, so the U values on the low side are recommended for situations where the panel manulacturer does not have a recommended U value. With high-viscosity fluids such as tar and asphalt at temperatures of 300-700'F. a good U value lor lnternal baffle panels is 9.60 and for external clamped-on panels a

value of 4.00 is reaSonable. After a U value has been selected, Equation 3-26 is solved, revealing the net temperature change per hour.
L 35 Llgs (typ) Cuslomer shoutd instatl al iifre ol instartairon.

This sketch shows tine conlact pfovrded by the 1?,,

iq
-i-

to

Figure 3-12C (continued). Heat transfer panel plates designed fit on curved surfaces. (Courtesv of Tranter. Inc.)

graphically illustrated later in Example 34. Once both transient conditions I and 2 are satisfied bv the selected heat transfer area, the detailed design of the baffle panels (both external clamp-on and inteinal) can be designed. This is best shown by example and done so in Example 3-5. Further applications of Equations 3-25 and 3-26 are given in Example 3-6. In this example a material handling problem is analyzed in which both steady state and transient heat transfer conditions are considered. After reviewing Examples 3-5 and 3-6, the reader is encouraged to always consider transient conditions of heat transfer in similar situations. Transient criteria, as revealed, usually govern to a large degree.

The second criterion involves the mass flow rate ofthe fluid through the vessel. To estabiish this criterion, Equations 3-25 and 3-26 are solved tosether to determine the temperature rise. The analysis o-f both criteria is
same

Figure 3-12D. Vessels with typical external heat transfer plate panels. (Courtesy of Tranter, Inc.)

Heat Transfer in Piping and

Equipment

131

Figure 3-12D. Continued.

-'-- -*-i
fluid x gallons

v'F

oF/min

Figure 3-13. Two schemes in which the heat transferred must be considered: (A) conrol rnass scheme; (B) control volume
scheme.

132

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

HEAT TRANSFER IN RESIDUAL SVSTETyIS

lleat Transfer Through Gylindrical Shells


Heat transfer through pipe supports, vessel skirts, and empty branch piping connections to hot or cold headers can cpuse critical stress problems as well as damage to equipment. Excessive thermal deflections can result in unacceptable loads on rotating equipment and vessel nozzles. In cryogenic service, vessel skirts can fail by brittle fracture if the transition temperature point between alloy steels and carbon steel is not considered. This section discusses the analysis procedures for analyzing heat transfer in such residual components as vessel skirts and pipe supports. The methods used have been tested with empirical data and have been used for several years in design practice. For derivations to the following method on heat transfer through cylinders, the reader is referred to the author's paper [4]. Vessel skirts are normally insulated on the inside and outside surfaces as depicted in Figure 3-14. In cryogenic applications, there are many reasons why a heat transfer analysis of the skirt is desirable. The primary reason is the one previously cited-to protect carbon steel components from fracture failure. Another reason involves economics-a tall skirt made of alloy steel is much more expensive than a similar skirt made mostly of carbon steel. Also, we will see how the skirt can actually deflect as a result of this heat exchange. Consider the skirt in Figure 3-14. The vessel is at either an elevated temperature or a cold temperature denoted at the shell-skirt juncture as t.. Thermal conduction

and convection are the controlling modes of heat transfer. The convection can either be considered as natural or free convection, or in the case of wind, forced convection. It has been found that using the free convection coefficient is the most desirable in many cases, since vessels are normally surrounded by other equipment and structures, making free convection more applicable. Assume that the temperature inside the skirt is the same as ambient temperature and wind chill factors are not present. Air seepage under the skirt and open apertures on the shell allow for equilibrium to be established with the outside temperature. The first step is to determine the free convection film coefficient for the outside surface of the oressure vessel skirt insulation. In normal conditions. the air temoerature inside the vessel skirt. ti. is assumed five degrees lower than the outside ambient, ts. The free convection film coefficient is found by iteration using the following
equatrons:

,, - [r, ln(r2lrr) -, qlnG!lt2) "--[ kl!r+

ln (r+/r:)

ta

1 l-' * k* -h.J

(3-28) (3-29) (3-30)

(Ua/ha

5)(!

t5)

t5

No,

=
:

[d3lgB I At |

(3,600)2]tp2

NN"

C(NG.NP.)-

(3-31) (3-32)

hl.s : G"i,NN,)/d

flll

@l

= =

insulation metal

.f
Figure 3-14. Vessel skirt insulation detail. Sometimes the inside insulation is left off.

Heat Transfer in Piping and Equipment

133

For free convection of cross flow around cvlinders.


the following constants hold [5]:

l0 < Nc.Np. < 10e, C = O.525, m :


lOe

tlc
)13

<

Nc,Np,

<

10", C

O.129,m

Pipe being analyzd slub pi6ce

-pip

These relationships are valid for applications for the refining, petrochemical, and gas processing industries. Now, for a cylinder with insulation on both sides, we use the final value of ha-5 after performing iterations from Equations 3-28 through 3-32 in the following equatrons:

"

^z

/2"r,.,\

\U,q,/

r tltt tr"'rrl [

l" (t ,ttj

1-3'll

^ - ll:+l lroho,ttn . t5) - k2', l\KmAny' [

\[

: ztQ

, [ ,, - (t/'i)lll
tl" {r./rr)
I"

l]L

(3-34) (3-35)

Substituting these parameters into the foliowing equation, we obtain the temperature distribution down the skirt length:

2(t.

, *

Zt

e-oo

5
=
(3-36)

"zrauJ

The difference between the process temperature inside the vessel and the outside ambient temperature is the main driving force of heat transfer. It is analogous to electrical EMF driving force or the potential energy of height differential from which a fluid is dropped and turned into kinetic energy. The degree in significance of convection is inversely proportional to the insulation thickness. The air around the outside insulation surface is in a state of local turbulence and for this reason the variance of the Grashof number down the outside insulation wall is insignificant. Experimental measurements confirm this fact. The reader will see in Examples 3-7 and 3-8 how to apply this method to vessel skirts. Piping that is supported by piping sections is treated in a similar manner to vessel skirts. Such piping supports are shown in Figure 3-15 in which the pipe supports and branch lines are subject to thermal gradients from a hot or cold process header. Figure 3-15a shows a stub piece used as a piping header support. The temperature gradient through the stub piece must be analyzed to determine if the Teflon slide beneath the base plate will be protected from the elevated temperature inside the process

Fragile piece ol

equipment

Figure3-15. (A) Stub piece used as header support: (B) process line is connected to a turboexpander. The line is supported by a short section of pipe welded to a base plate; (C) branch line from a header (hot or cold) connected through a shut-off valve to a ftagile piece of process equipment.

header.

If the process header is in cryogenic service, the stub piece must be analyzed to assure the design engineer

that the carbon steel structural members are adequately protected from temperatures below the transition temperature. Shown in Figure 3-l5b is a common situation in which a process line connected to a turboexpander is supported by a section of pipe welded to a base plate. If the pipe stub deflects enough (shown by 61), the thermal deflec-

134

Mechanical Design of Process Systems where c and m are determined as previously for skirts

tion could induce a sufficient bending moment on the turbine to cause serious mechanical damage. Figure 3-15c shows a branch line running from a hot
or cold pipe header to a fragile piece of equipment. Even though the valve on the branch line is closed, the residual temperature distribution through the branch line may be enough to cause the pipe to deflect and damage the equlpment. Referring to Figure 3-16, the procedure for determin-

h,j

= (k"r.Nr")/d
(u3/h;) (ti

(3-32) (3-29) (3-39)

tj :

- t.) + t" Atj : t3 - ti < 2'F

ing the temperature distribution through the empty branch pipe or pipe support is similar to the case of a vessel skirt. First, solve for the free convection film coefficient on the exterior surface of the pipe insulation. To do this, use the equation for the overall heat transfer coefficient:

Once Atj criterion is met, we can proceed with the final iterative value for the film coefficient, h.. With this final value. we solve lor the parameters Q, Z. and Z as

follows:

;"{$
/ r- \ r kJ, t't - ---tT l--^J lrrtr"tt:
rn

2nk1

(3-40)

ur:
t',

,"
1,,

- r( \ k(r,

(;)
-

,, ,"

(,:)

-n;/]
,

(3-37)

(3-41)

lll \r,

: l=l
=

to)

to

(3-38)

o
Once Q and Z are known, we solve for the temperature distribution with

No,

[d37,gB( lAt

l) (3,600),]/rr,

(3-30)

Nr" = C(Nc,NpJ'

(3-31)

tx

2(t. - Zte 'ao =-++L I + e2"au '

(3-36)

ts

900'F; ; 300'F

dia., sch.40, cs 3-in. calcium silicate

You will notice that the form of the final solution. Equation 3-36, is the same for the skirt problem with insulation on the inside and outside shell surfaces as the pipe problem with insulation on only the outside surface. The difference in the solutions is because of the boundary conditions, i.e., a cylinder with insulation on both inside and outside surfaces versus a cylinder with just insulation on the outside surface alone. The solutions to the basic differential equations are affected by these differences in boundary conditions. For further information on this subject, the reader is referred to the author's paper
For cases of tapered vessel skirts the cylinder section can be approximated by using an average diameter. This

t4l.

Figure 3-16. Empty branch pipe with one end uniformly subjected to three temperatures.

approximation is very close to actual results because skirts should not taper more than 15" (see Chapter 4). As a consequence of heat transfer along vessel skirts and pipe connections, thermal deflections will occur. The deflection equations are the same regardless of whar case is considered, whether it is a shell with insulation on the inside and outside surfaces or a shell with only external insulation. The values of Q and Z are determined from the appropriate equations of each respective case.

Heat Transfer in Piping and Equipment

135

The thermal deflection equations are dependent on the type of material considered since the coefficient of thermal conductivity is the governing property of the particular material being considered. Thking a differential ele-

+ +

(2.Oss (2.055

x ro ,7]L
l0o

l0-3) 1t. * ZY leuoorr


l06eo5(1

ment of a shell, we solve for the amount of thermal deflection by

e2lao

5)

1;

dL :

@(t)t(x) dx

(342)

(1.06 x l0-6)
106

(_
l8(t,

z),

Since the temperature varies over the shell length, we inregrate Equation 3-42 to obtain the total deflection, 6, as

'Ir
+

sech (LQo 5) tanh(LQ0 5)

arctan [sinh(LQ0 5)]l

o= jar- = JL crrrr(xr dx

(3-41)

The function, c(t), is the coefficient of thermal expansion for the particular material being considered. Values of the thermal expansion were curve fitted over a large range of temperature and a relation in terms of temperature was obtained for various materials. The function for t(x) is obtained from Equation 3-36 and is substituted

4Zi,-

Zt

tr

"..] ZrLl arcran rerq" )l + l^i. tv-' )


|

(3-45)

Like Equation 3-44, Equation 3-45 can be adequately handled using only the first three terms. The use of these equations will be demonstrated in the examples.

with d(t) in Equation 3-43. Then, the product of a(t)t(x) is integrated over a length L and we obtain the thermal deflection function for each particular material. For carbon steel, the expanded thermal deflection equation is as follows:
2[5.89

Residual Heat Transfer Through Pipe Shoes


Heat transfer through plate surfaces is much simpler than more complex surfaces, because they can be handled with one-dimensional equations that are simple to use. Based on Figure 3-17, we consider the heat balance down throush the shoe as follows:

(2.496

x l0 ,22)& 106e0.5

Z) arctan

(elo0

5;

(2.496 (2.496

x lo-)(t, (l09Qo 5(l

Z)2(e2l-ao5

1)

e2LQo

5)

x ro ,z'L

t0-

(6.536,l0-?)
(109

{rr,,

- zr
+ arctan [sinhtLQo'y]l

't--..

[sech(LQos.; tanh(LQo

-------l1
/
e:Loo

87r,

,a"-42t.

- 2f

\l

i
5i

etLao

For practical applications in the refining, petrochemical, and gas processing industries, sufficient accuracy may be obtained by omitting the last term beginning with (6.536 x 10-?) in the calculations. Similarly, for stainless steel, the thermal deflection equation is as follows:
6.,

-2, [;L..,* r.'o"r] * z,r] -l

B-441

2&

Z) [8.96 +

(4.1

Ix

10
5

)Z]

arctan

(eLQ0

5)

(106)Qo

Figure 3-17. Pipe supported on a shoe.

136 \

Mechanical Design of Process Systems (Heat loss by convection from'l shoe to outside l

/Heat conducted rhrough\


shoe to base

plate

/- \

air

Writing in equation form, we have for one-dimensional, steady state flow:

.-t

go"F

k.A,

l:l = hJp(ar)

(3-46)

sos'r
8o3'F
8O3"F

For the conduction process, At : ti - tp For the convection process, At : tp - to Substituting into Equation 346, we have

Ue.

(D'

l=hoAp(tp-r.)
'-888'F
(3-47)
8sa"F

Solving for to, we have

.F . _ k-A.t, + hoApl-to'^ 'n- 1L.a. + trrl"I-r


where

Figure 3-18A. Thermal gradient through pipe clamp, clevis,


and supporting rod.

A. : Ao = h^ = k: L:

(P

Base width

\ length of shoe. in 'z free convection coefficient for shoe to air,


Btu/hr-ft2-'F
thermal conductivity of shoe material,

x length of shoe) x 2,

in.2

Btu/hr-fc"F
shoe height, in.

Like the analysis for cylinders, the free convection coefficient, h., can be substituted with a forced convection coefficient. However, most pipe shoes are surrounded by enough obstructions to prevent a direct wind from blowing on the shoe for any length of time. Figures 3-18a and 3-18b show thermal gradients for various simple pipe
supports.

A'

0.131

ft'?

From Figure 3-4, ht Calculating T",

2.5

h {D' \Di

2t)
/

o.+rs

r. = l=l
u.

/r rr\

0.41e

0.256 ft

EXAMPLE

3-l: STEAM TRACING

DESIGN

kr

(2.0X0.04)

0.08

Determine the steam tracing requirements for an S-in. Schedule 40 gas-vapor line with a minimum process temperature of 140'F. The piping insulation is 2rlz in. caliium silicate, 9-inch nominal IPS. The system is to be designed for an ambient temperature of 0"F and a 15 mph wind. The tracing medium will be 150 psig steam,

From Figure 3-5, h"

4.5 (assuming At

50'F)

U. =

0.292

Formulating a heat balance for t}re system we have the

following:
Qr (ah space to
Q2 (tracer to

aid tlz-in. copper tubing without HTC will be used for

atm) :

tracing.
We first try using two tracers running alongside bottom of process pipe. Calculating the areas we have the

air space)

(0.292)(3.63)(140) : 148 Btu/hr (2.5)(0.131)(2)Q26) : 147

Btu/hf

following:

A" =

3.63

ft

The assumed number of tracers is inadequate for 1


1.3.

Heat Transfer in Piping and

Equipment

137

I.=9OO"F= PROCESS FLUID TEMPERATUBE

rr i-1 n-l
olo
'-

t___
I

H_-

ol
I

'{"1 ltll!'1-

*---l

Figure 3-188. Thermal gradient through PiPe clamP support.

Trying three tracers, we have

D.

Qr :

D" + 2ti :8.0


0.667

8.00

in.
+

0.667 ft;

+ 2(2.0)

12.0in.

1.0ft

148 Btu/hr

Q: =

221 Btu/hr

2(0.167)

,n [o.ooz

Since Qz
tracers.

> (f)Qr,

the system is adequate using three

0.667
At :

+ zro.roull
I

0.203 rt

A" =

2.095 ft'?lft; o 216

Ap

0.916 ft2lftl'

0.131 ft'?lft

A^:
EXAIIIPLE 3-2: HOT OIL TRACING DESIGN
A 3-in. schedule header contains asphalt which is to be maintained at least to 445'F. The 3-in. header is to be traced with hot oil (Ce : 0.50 Btu/lb-'R p = 58.7 lbl ft3 at 475"F). Determine the size and number of hot oil tracers required to maintain the asphalt at a minimum temperature of 450'F. For asphalt, Cp : 0.368 Btu/lb"F at 500"F. For most applications, l/z-in. copper tubing is the standard size for tracing operations. We select a l/z-in. 18 BWG gauge steel tube, At : 0.131 ftlft, k^ : 27.5 Btu-ft/hr-ft2-'n First we will try one tracer,

12

o.ol8 fr:
0.345

t' - j1 2n,

hr" tr"

0'690

2(1.0)

ft :

ft

0.33[ffiu'.*r,,J:
hr"

r't,
5.059

+ eh,:3.992 + (0.90)(1.185) :

1-0203+ u" 0.1


t, =

I
5.059

= u^:0.449

Now performing a heat balance we have


350'F and tn, : 490"F. Using Equations 3-6 through 3-11 with 70'F ambient,

Di :

3.50 + 0.50 :

4.00 in. :

0.333

ft

138
qt :
n,

Mechanical Design of Process Systems (0.449)(2.095)(350

- 70) :
z.z:o

263.383 Btu/hr-ft

_ 0., (sso -:sojo" = 0.s

: q2 :
qt

/ssn - rso\o :r.375 hp:0.5(""ffiJ

25

: 258.680 Btu/hr-ft Q.25)(O.131X550 - 345) : 60.4248tts/hr-ft q3: (1.383X0.916)(497 .50 - 345.00) : 193.191
(o.449)Q.095X345

70)

Btu/hr-ft q4

9z

t2.236t(0.t31x550
(

qr =
qa

1.375X0.916)(520

=
<

(2t l_:i_:- l{0.018X550

tr1 sl
\u.J+)/

350) = 58.583 Btu/hr-ft

445)

301.304 Bruihr_ft

350) = 214.1l5 Btu/hr-ft

q4

2q3

No balance

Qt

t)1 sl

(ffi/
=

ro

ott'tsso - +ro'

172.174 Btu'lhr-ft

jt

< 2qt

No balance

Since we have reached the minimum desirable temperatures for q and to, it is clear that the system will not balance using one Uz-in. tracer. Therefore, we will use two t/z-inch tracers. Referring to Figure 3-2b we consider the

Consider t"

300"F and te2 : 450oF.

following:

h,

- ruul : 2.364 '- l))u -'-' : 0.5 0.5 \ I

: D" = 8.645 in. :


D;
4.645

in.

0.387 0.720

ft ft

hp

0.5

(::L

roo)"'

r.+s+

ti:2in. :0.167ft
216.351 Btu/hr-ft

: qz : q3 :
qt

Q.364)(0.131X550 - 300) : 77.421 Bttlhr-ft 1.454)(0.916Xs50 - 300) : 266.373 Bttlhr-ft t)1 \\ q^ = t2) l-::-:l (0.018)(550 - 450) = 286.957 Btu/hr-ft \u.J4)/
70)
(

(0.449)(2.095X300

_ '1"

Di * 2tr , iDr + 2t,l lnl |:0.224 ' = _-_ 2 \D, l

A"

2r(0.360)

2.262 ft'?lft

h,":033[sffiffi,,t:,,,,
h- :
hr.

+ eh, :

1.996

(0.90X1.185)

3.063

qq

129t = No balance consider t" : 350'F and to, : 456"p


(0.449)(2.09s)(350

qt =

q2 = Q.236)(0.131)(550 q3 = (1.375X0.916)(500 \u.J+),/

70)

263.383 Btu/hr-ft 58.583 Btu/hr-ft


188.925 Btu/hr-ft

| * -l = U^ = 0.390 u" -0'224 0.1 3.063 t^ : 2tr(2.323) - 2(0.886)(2.323) : : 0.873 ft


r, : t' = 2n,
0 873
2(2)

10.479 in.

: 350) :
350)

= o.ztsft

I 'tt s\ 9" = Qt 1:::--: -1(0.018X550

450)

286.957 Btu/hr-ft

jq <

2q3

No balance
and te2 2.25

Consider

t" = 345'F

445'F

r,,

+10" = os(try#, =

A. = 0.018 ft: Ap = 0.916 ft?/ft consider t" : 350'F and to, : 490'F h, : 2.236i hp : 1'375 q : (0.390)(2.262)(350 -'t0) : 247.010 Btu/hr-ft q2 : Q.236)(0.131X550 - 350) : 58.583 Btu/hr-ft q3 - 1.175 )(0.916X520 - 350) : 214.ll5 Btuihr-ft
A, = 0.13t fP/fl:
(

r,": o.s({q::g)'" = 1.383

9a

t2\Qt l '1j". | (0.018X550 1d/


\u.z

/rt.\

490)

544.954 Btu,/h.:

Heat Transfer in Piping and Equipment

139

Consider
9r

350'F and tp2 : 500'F


70)

p=938.08

Co at

500'F; k:0.1

(0.390X2.262X350

9:

(2.236X0.131)(550 (1.375)(0.916)(525 -

#h

247.010 Btu/hr-ft 58.583 Btu/hr-ft

: 3s0) :
3s0)

V= V=

5o
-,"tut

(+, J (,-r', J Hg) J F*r'


'- lb 160 secl I t4.026)in. Ull sec 1,, ,n.7 '" ""ttr \ h, /

220.4r3 Bt'tlhr-ft

3.781 ft/sec

q. -

t1'7 al (2x2) l^'-:j" l(0.018)(550 \u.l r6/

500)

454.128 Btu/hr-ft

VDP ^, _

qr>2qandq2+q3>qr
Therefore, the system is balanced. For 100 ft of pipe,
9r or,
q

(j.781)
Nn"

b'rL\
{e38 08)ce

: : _

(100)f(454.128) Btu/hr-ft

45,412.8 Btu/hr

l\ ill *p

Nn"
22,706.422 Btu/hr for each tracer 22,706.422 Btulhr

3.242

<< 2,100 +

Laminar flow

For laminar flow, we have [2]

(0.5) Btu/lb-'F (50)'F (c08.2s7)

908.257 lb/hr

hrz

1.86(NnJr"(N,)'' (P)'i3

= -, _--

,r, .i, \ -- t I lz.+s 4l lll . rr / \ou mln/ nr \


(58.D*

H [:)."
=

(3-16)

In most instances, the ratio plpw

1.0. Thus, we have

'

t.ezy gpm

N".:f
/, , -,lo \
(e38.08)ce

Thus, we see that two l/2-in. tracers containing hot oil flowing at I .929 gpm is adequate to maintain the asphalt at a minimum temperature of 450'F. The next step in the design is to do a hydraulic analysis using the principles

l+l [o/
nr -^
Btu

to.:+r,oB-tu,

ofChapter 1 and size pumps to handle the hot oil. (Chapter 6 discusses how to select the pumps required to distribute the oil in the system.)

:
D

hr-fr-'F

,654.733

EXAMPLE 3-3: JACKETED PIPE DESIGN


A jacketed pipe shown in Figure 3-1b is to be analyzed. The process fluid to be heated is a film coating mixture used in the manufacture of roofins tiles.
1.0

4 026

/ rr'\

'" t,-rJ

0 336:

L=
'

loo

rt

hr.,

1.86(3.242)r

r (7.654.733)r

(H)

'

'(#)(10)#.F
,
1

ra ht z

ra

ln (ry'rr)

kz,:

f',, = 2.415-Tnr-rt'- - f
+

h:

For film coating in inner tube,

For hot oil in annulus, [6] recommends Btu -

Di/D.

0.664

>

0.2, and Perry

o=

95.909

lb/ftr: C-

0.34

lb-'F

NN"

0.020

^9,'*"1,,(*]'

140

Mechanical Design of Process Sysrems Now,

For the annulus,

Rs

hydraulic 1361r,

3 033

-ft

2 250

.-

0.392 in.

q q

UA(LMTD)
7.80)ftr(72.135).F

4Rn

1.566

in. =

0.131

"* ( : 0.75t Rr'' "ts


It-nr-

For hot oil flowing at 0.5 gpm

Nr" ''

q -- 6,381.625 lI ,, ,n" heat transfer -hr


q

required

(4o.ro7r

]9:99: - ),0n.24r (0.1s)( L566) Iu

ricpat

For hot

^, "p,

/rCo

oil, At =

toH

toc

100'F and,

,0.,r,a"

'\|i2.+ co / ,0.r, lb-'F


Btu " n7r "' ' hr-fC'F/fr n

rorR-r,'l

.' - ..r. Btu th-'F '


.nr m:-:
Now, 6,381.625
Rtrl

0.5

Btu

=
ooo).F

127.$21!
hr

lb-'F'

Nr" =

0.020(5,01 r.24D0.8(z.s3s)'t3

(0.*U*)*'

ze.r2r

1^

_ NN,k

Err' (29.121){0.071) ntu

hr-ft'/-"F/ft
0.131

th

ft

ftr

Btu rs.rs: hr-fC-"F

0.271 gpm required

For t/z gpm,

rr -

|13.033) +
L

(3.033) ln (2.2so/2.0r3)

2.4rs

1 l-' -, 15r$l

(0.5) _= (t00)oF I- = (235.428) _: hr lb-'F


'

lh

Rr"

Ri,r

or

ft']-hr-'F

q: :
outside surface area of inner tube

I1,771.400 Btu/hr

A: A-

heat transfer area

Thus, 0.5 gpm is a sufficient flow rate to transfer the required heat to the film coating mixture.

1.178

fPlft

117.800

ft, for

100

ft ofpipe

In hot oil applications it is common to assume that the hot oil decreases in temperature 100'F per 10 feet in jacketed and traced systems. For the film coating mixture,

EXAMPLE 3.4: THERMAL EVALUATION OF A PROCESS TAilK


A coating surge tank contains 6,000 gal of fill coating mix (see Figure 3-19). Two problems musr be solved: (a) how many degrees per hour can be obtained from a clamped-on jacketed system, when the fill coating mixture is static; (b) how many degrees per hour can be obtained from a clamped-on jacketed system, when the fill

tcn

: :

500'F and

t. :
to.

459'P

For hot oil,

ton

550'F and

459'P

LMTD

72.135"F

Heat Transfer in Piping and Flanged and dished head


@0O gal

Equipment

141

f.1.537 ol
12.82 lb/gal
cP=

4-internal heat transfer panels

= (92X0.8) = 73.60 ftz shell = (379.347X0.8) = 303.478 ft'?

: :

4(107)(12)/1,14

35.667 ft2

o'g+

The overall heat transfer coefficient, U-value, supplied by the panel manufacturer for applications to the fill coating mix is as follows:
Process Conditions (as determined by process engineers

COATING MIXTURE

or client for desired capability of tank): Initial temperature of coating mixture = 360'F Final temperature of coating mixture = 400'F For internal panels, U : 9.52 Btu/hr-ft2-'F For external clamp-on jacketing, U : 4.00 Btu/hr-ft2"F
Substituting into the previous equation for At we have

^, _ -' -

(9.52x35.667)(LMTD)

(4.0X377.078XLMTD)

(?6,110 ooxo 34l

at:7.410'F/hr
COATING MIXTUR AT TEMPERATURE t

Figure 3-19. Coating surge tank.

Referring to Figure 3-19 we can now determine how fill coating mix will rise using external clamp-on jacketing on surfaces of the flanged and dished head, the vessel shell, and four internal panmany degrees per hour the
els just considered:

Q coating mixture is flowing through the tank at 150 gpm


ar 360"F.

(60)

oal min lb " (150) ":' (12.82) : 'min 'gal hr -

From Figure 3-10, we have

Q
:104.869'F

x 0.34 Btu (t lb-'F'


39,229.20(t

360)'F

360) Btu/hr

LMTD

: (550-360)-(450-4oo)

Now,

: and Q :
with Q

[sso '" t4so

:ool
4ool

UA(LMTD)

39,229.20(t

360)

mceAt

(9.s2)(35.667)(LMrD) 1,847.862(LMTD)

(4.0)(377 .U

8)(LMrD) 39,229.20(t'
360)

360)

UA(LMTD)

39,229.2O(t'

,
m

UA(LMTD)
DLp

LMTD
th
gal =

2L.230(t'

360)

{6.000)gal(12.82)

Now, 76.920.00 lb

(550-360)-(450-r')

Using heat transfer panels shown in Figure 3-12 we compute the toial available heat transfer area as follows:

| 1550 '"t450-tl -

21.23(t'

3601

360)

142

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Solving for t,

wP:
1

wetted Perimeter

: (--.Jo*t*

(21.23r'
(110.394t',

,642.80)

39,841.956)
"t

ln (450

r')

* ,642.80) Letting y _ - 39,841.956) we have 1.0 : ln (450 - t'y


(21.23t' (l 10.394t'
Or el.0

WP:
A

cross-sectional f low area

0,68

in.'?

4a(W)

where

W: a:0.4125 in. W : effective heat transfer

length (see page 145)

eln

(450-r')Y

A:2Yr+2wY

in which 2.718

(450

t')Y

After several iterations, t' :


Thus, the temperature rise is

366.12'F

A = 2(O.4125)'? + 2(O.412r'1 : A 0.681 in.'l ^'' WP -1.158 in.


D : 4RH :
0.862 in.

0.681 in.2

at :

366.12'F - 360"F :

6.12'F

The amount of heat required for the system is

The equivalent circular cross-sectional area : 0.584 in.'?

r(0.431)'?

: Q:
Q
OI

UA(LMTD) (9.52)(3s.667)(LMrD)

The hot oil properties are as follows:

(4.0X377.078)(LMrD)

_ 550"F -

450'F

500'F {since we anticipale


in the plates)

1,847.862(LMTD)

Velocity of hot oil through baffles

7.913 ft/sec

Now,

p:

58.7 lb/fc 0.071

LMTD

1550

- 390) (450 - _366,12) = . lsso -:oo ln |


I

1t9.789.F

k:
Cp

Btu/hr-ftl"F/ft

o.5o Btu/lb-'F 0.15

[4s0

366.12l -l

in which Q 1,847 .862(129.7 89) 239,832. 162 Btul hr is the heat transferred to the coating mix.

'a =

/^ + . .. ," . \ rD/rl-nrl c- lz

'\

1Co I -

0.3b0 tb/lr-hr

EXAMPLE 3.5: THERMAL DESIGN OF PROCESS TANK


The coating surge tank of Example 3-4 is now analyzed for detailed heat transfer requirements. The flow rates through the various types of heat transfer jacket
plates are desired.

The maximum pressure drop permitted through the internal baffles, which are connected in parallel, is normally 10 psi, thus

VDp * l\Re -

(7.e*)

r-t

l(0.862) in. {-.1.

sec

l,rr.r, \ll ln./


Ib

l'

g (lql..'*)
rr-

\ I nr

0.360

ft-hr
Rr :j:

lntelna! Baffle Plates Film Goefficient


Some of the plates used are shown in Figure 3-12. Looking at Figures 3-20, 3-21, and 3-22 we determine the hydraulic radius as follows:

Nr" =

333'661

N"':

(0.360)

lh ,j:

(0.501
Btu

't <l<

lu.v/lr-

Heat Transfer in Piping and Equipment

143

From Kern

[],
,N,,,' ' (uJ"'"
Btu

- : = ro.o27r ([) ,t-.,.,


I /tl-

29 BTU/hr-t12-"F/fl ri :0.44in =O.O37 tt


K23:
r. =0.545 in = O.O45

thn

tt

r. = {0.027)

'hr-ft2-'F/f

ro.aozrin.

llrt l2 in.i
\

I
8

x
1.

(333,661f

(2.535)1/r (1.0)

. = qsl R? Btu

is the film coefficient located inside the tank

hr_fd_.F inside the jacket baffles

Actual Internal Baftle Hot Oil Plate

Film Coefficient Exte?nal to Baff les-Forced Convection


The coating mixture inside the tank is in a state offlow across the baffle plates made possible by agitator blades powered by an electric motor. From Perry [61.

rtt =

U.U9

i r\ir-:r.r.o\." /c-J'' "I l-ll l!l p \DJ \ / \k/

Approximated as Circular Tubes


Figure 3-20. Cross section of panel plate tube approximated
as a

'h9'^
ni =

("il'kl'
:
4

cylinder whose surface area is equivalent to the heat trans-

(3-48)

fer of contact area.

number of internal baffle plates

For coating mix, 10r < NR" < 2 x 106 The properties of the mix are as follows:

p:
A

95.909 lb/ft3 6,000 Co

14,400 lb/ft-hr

k=

0.1 Btu/hr-ft-'F

Other properties related to the internal baffle plate approximated as a string of cylinders with diameters equal to four times the hydraulic radius of the trapezoid plate sections shown in Figures 3-20 and 3-21.

\6 =

angular velocity of agitator, revolutions/hr 56

\. Lp

/-^ \ 11 lgel'nl
min

\ lhr

3360 revrhr

: =

diameter of agitator plate 10.0

65

in.

5.42 ft

HEATING AREA: A.
t= STRAIGHT SECTION BETWEEN CHANNELS

Dj

ft

D" = 0.862 in.

Figure 3-21. String of tubes.

144 k:
h,q

Mechanical Design of Process Systens 0.071 Btu/hr-ft2-.F/ft

or

0 0e (oo

r-)
['s

+:r't:'log.o

'qs
,

eoqJ'^'

lT -

^[
h:.+

[(o

r4){ r4.4oo)1,

(0.I) l

{lJ2l l]),'
110.0/
\41

[i^] o^ -*

t\2/
(1.0)

E'l I u * r" rn tr,rr,r - _r l 2ur k, h,


I
lr;h1

for these baffle plates,

n=

7, for which

18.334 Btu/hr-ft2-.F for all four baffle plates

Now, to solve for the overall heat transfer coefficient, U, we must develop the appropriate equation.

,, " -it\
[(jJto

7o

to:'

i:]
+
(0.045t ln (0.431 /0.32b)

--l

Let Ao

the overall area of plate length of plate,

LW

L=

W:

width of plate

I |

- art "'

I
18.334

[(0.326X949.883)

Referring to Figures 3-20 and 3-21 we have

UAa

(tr

ta) for baffle plate

Ar :

LW : wetted area : 2oD rL where W : werred perimeter (WP)


LJ

u = 29.492 Btu hr-ftr-'F


The baffle plate area for all four baffles is determined from the baffle plate manufacturer's dimensions, as follows:
Length of channel per

sr

| = '2 D" + r' . n = number of flow circuits


r'

baffle

51.'123

ft

To account for the residual heat transferred through the plate connecting the hexagon tubes we consider to be the equivalent radius of a cylinder that is the total surface

A= A:
A=

surface area

2210.431)i"

rsl.72t rr) {.:-tf) ln./


\rz

area of the baffle plate separating the hexagon tubes. Now,

lt.672 fe

D, :
Zor'

,o,u, distance between channels (Frgure 3-21)

For all four baffle plates,

= Dt

4(tr.672) ft2

46.690 ft2

It
2tr From above,

Heat Duty of lnternal Baffle Plates


For hot oil the anticipated temperature through each plate is 100'R as stated earlier, thus
2trlJ

q=

UA.

{f

I - t1) 2T(tr

\.r lzr
I
L

1t,

ta1

q:

UAAT (100).F

finl-2
in which

r" "-T-

Kt I

ta) n

r" ln (r./r)
--f

Rr', q - (29.492J, "-1:1, (46.690)ft, nr-It'- -f

137,698,1a8

f.! nr

U:

Outside Heat Transfel Jaeket Plates

D,Iq*r"lntr./r't * hrII k:
[r,hr-z :

In the case of external jacket plates, the heat transfer parameters are based on the dimension, shown in

Heat Transfer in Piping and

Equipment

145

-tgure 3-22, because it is this surface that is in contact rth the vessel wall. Consequently we can analyze the ^ : xfiguration in Figure 3-22 as a tube with circumfer::re'e of W. Hence, we have the following:

where

At =

tube cross flow area

i;r1 =

: .rhere rr :
Y7

1.375 in. tube inside radius, in.

At =

r(0.219)1

0.151 in.':

Velocity of hot oil through outside plates

: :

V2

:iom above,

Yz

3.134 ftlsec (determined from process data)

: = ;

175

0.21C in. or

D,

9.433 in.

internal cross flow area of baffle plate plate manufacturer's data)


(3.134)

0.62

ln.2 (from

The tube equivalent flow rate for the length W mapped :nto a circle or radius rr is by the continuity condition of iluid mechanics,

I
sec

vr-

(0.62) in.,

o.Lsrin:

= 6.448

:sec

vDp
I'r
(6.448)

lll'l a t0.438r in. I sec


\12
(0.360)

in.i

,s8

7, 'g i{rylecl in.1 \ | hr /

lL tt-hr

Nn"

138,150.85

Solving for the over-all heat transfer coefficient, U, we


have

w= 1.375 in
1.,1o.

PCo
k

2.535

w = eflective heat transfer area


For approximalion, analyze the ligure as a tube with a
2Tr

in which, rz = O.219 in., or D2

j = 'l.375

circumference

h,,
=
w

(0.027)

(H1.ol ,rrr,rro r5)0s (2.535),/, (1.0)


Btu

= 0.438

in.

h',, - = 77.260

hr-ft2-'F

Equivalent llow,
13 1341/|) 111

6.448 fusec

Perry [6] gives the correlation for heat transfer for jacketed walls to the agitated liquid as follows:

Thus for the equivalent tube, rz = 0.219 in. rs = 0.219 + 0.109 = 0.328 in. r+ = 0.328 + 0.375 = 0.703 in.

c,

''
h

: "(;)t')1'(9^k)'
5

(3-49)

where, tq

Dj

k
Equivalent Cylinder Figure 3-22. Panel total flow cross section. Contact length w is mapped into an equivalent circular tube whose circuinference equals w.
LP

N,

film coefficient at vessel wall (see Figure 3-22) inside diameter of the vessel, ft = 10.0 ft 0.1 Btu/hr-ft-'F diameter of agitator = 5.42 ft angular velocity, or rotation of agitator
3,360 rev/hr 95,909 lb./fC

146

Mechanical Design of Process Systems


14,400 lb/fi-hr

speciflc heat of coating mix viscosity at bulk temperature, lb/ft-hr viscosity at wall temperature, lb/ft-hr
see Table

.u=l t

(0.703

l(0.2t9)(71 .26)

(0.73) ln (0.328/0.219)

3-l

(0.703 )

ln r0.703/0.328)

II

I lr
14.06-l

Laboratory tests were made on the coating mix and the results showed that p6lp* : 0.65. Since the coating mix is a non-Newtonian fluid, it is strongly recommended that the physical properties be deterrnined by a qualified Iaboratorl,. the ratio p5lp* should reyer be assumed to be I .0 for a non-Newtonian fluid without laboratory tests of

: 8.141 Btu hr-ftr-'F


From manufacturer's drawings, the shell jacket plare

heat transfer area,

A,

is

fluid

samples.

For a disk. flarblade turbine agitator we find values for a. b, and M from Thble 3-1 as follows:

A:
Now,

37,043.82 in.'?

a:0.54,b = 2A,M:0.14 since40 ( l38,l5l < 3 x 105


substituting above values into Equation 3-49 we have the

A' : A' :

area of channels in all nine jacket shell plates clamped-on to outside of shell
257

.249

ftl
hot oil-coaring mix servicc
Rr'

following:

Ar = 100"F for
(s.42t(3,360.0X9s.909
(14,400)

,*,(,*)[

l,o.ur',o,o

q
or

{8.14lr

' . :i-_r25t.24o1ft nr-It'- t


-

(100)'F

,
h,,. '

:ltr+,+ool]"'
lto

14.060

Btu

q=

209

.414.44

Rr,'

--:
nr

hr-fC-'F

Thus,
II _

Heat Duty of Jacket Plates Clamped to Bottom Vessel Head


The bottom head panel sections are depicted in Figure

l-17. In Chapter 1, Example 1-2 we analyzed the hydraulics for the hot oil flow through the panels mounted
Table 3-1

Values of Constants for Equation 3-49


Feynolds Number

on the tank. From this analysis we determined the following velocities required to obtain l0 psi pressure drop through the panels:
innerpanel outerpanel

Agitator Disk, flat-blade


turbine
Pitched-blade

Range

: V: : V:

7.315 fi/sec 5.237 ft/sec

turblne Propeller
Paddle

0.54 0.53 0.54 0.36

2lz

0.14 0.24 0.14


0.21
0.

40<NR.<3x105
80<NR"<200 Nn" = 2000 3oo<NR"<3 8<NR.<105

Heat Duty for Bottom Head Inner Panels Similar to the shell panel plates above, we must compute the equivalent tube diameter and equivalent velocity. As determined above the equivalent radius is

2lt ,/3 2h

Helical ribbon

0.633 Vz

105

l8

rr :

0.219 in.

Heat Transfer in Piping and

Equipment
lroo;"r

147

S.lce the bottom baffles have the same flow area as the .rell plates, the cross flow area of the equivalent tube is

q '

uA

at = (8.s90). lr)-hr-ftr-'F
Btu

1r.+r+)n,

i = n(0.219) in.2 :
I

0.151 in.2

in which h,
for both two inner plates

re cross flow area inside the plate channel is found

::om the manufacturer's catalog to be 0.31 in.2. Since

:e

equivalent tube circumference is equal to the contact ::mension, w, as above we must compute the equivalent

..locity. Thus

Heat Duty for Bottom Outer Panels


(7.315)

-quivalent velocity

= Y.

-:' sec

(0.31)in.2
in.'z

0.151

tcutvatent \ etoclt\
{

(5.237rt0.31
0. 151

lu. /f

lt/sec

10.75l,(0.438r

/r\ r58.7 rr3.600


l-l

Nn.

0.160

\-

322,453.78

h,2 '-..

- {0.027) lfffl
1t6.303

/^ ^--\

rz.lo..lss.:41)0b r2.s35) '(1.01

\0.438/

.:

(0.027)

l9J11l r:zz.+s:.28)0" {2.535,r


\u.4J6/

'r { 1.0)

h,, =

, :tu^= nr-lt'-'f

:..:152.2ll
'hell
i.r.

Btu

hr-fP-"F

Similarly as for inner panels, same as

The vessel-side
panels,

film coefficient is the

for the

f'n,

.l.l+,SlO

--!$nr-rI'--t

Btu . : t+.gt+ hr-ftr-'F

Thus,

Thus,

, ' -|

(0.703) (0.73) ln {0.70Ji0.J281 mt(02lrr(15, rr1- -

,, "

| 0.703 _ tO) 9,( t 16:0l,

(t.trr:,

rn lo \0.219/
29

34'l

(0.703) ln (0.703/0.328)

29

I 14.914)

-,
u
A: A=
OI

ro.703 r ln

lu

/^ -^^\ /urI

2s

\0.328/,

'

I I'

r+.st+)

Eli, ' r, :8.590. :i^= nr-tt'-'t

: o.lg+ Bt' hr-ftr- "F


heat transfer area

heat transfer area of bottom head plates from rhe manufacturer's data the flow path length is 388.231 in. for one half of the head, hence,

Let

A:

4(1,014.389) in. (1.375)

in. =

5,579.140 in.2

1 = (18$.231)
OI

in. (1.375) in. (2)

1,067.635 in.2

A=
'1.414

38.'144 ft2 for all four outer panels

A: q:

ft2

area of the two inner head plates

heat duty

UA

At =

(6.394)(38.7 44)( 100)

24,772.333

ry hr

148

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Total Heat Duty of Tank


At maximum flow
lows:
rates the total heat duty is as fol-

Thus, the minimum hot oil flow rate in pipe header supplying the total hot oil to surge tank is 10 gpm, the actual flow rate is 16 gpm.

q=

137,698.148

Btu
hr

209,414.44 shell side


panels

Btu

hr

EXAIIPLE 3.6: TRANSIENT AND STATIC HEAT TRANSFER DESIGN


Roofing shingles are made by adding asphalt, filler material, granules, talc and adhesives to a plastic-glass sheet, which is the basic component of the roof shingle. The process is shown schematically in Figure 3-23. Granules are added last, after adhesives and talc. The sheet must be cooled so that workers can handle it with gloves. Cooling is accomplished by water sprays, circulating water through the rollers, and using radiant heat transfer to the surroundings. The sheet, once cooled to the desired temperature, is cut into specified dimensions by mechanical cutters and then packaged into boxes for
shipment.

internal
panels

6,368.11

Btu hr

24,772.333

Btu

hr

two nner
panels on

four outer
panels on

bottom head

bottom head

q=

378,253.631

P!! hr

From Example 3-4 the total heat duty required is

There are two aspects to this problem-static heat


transfer and transient heat transfer. First, we solve the static conditions and then the transient case to determine how fast the sheet can be cooled with the coolins svstem designed in the static case.

q-t
Now,

23g,832.rc28:
nr

q:

rh cp At
Elr"

Static Heat Transfer Analysis

373.253.631

"-

{0.50)

tb-'F

Rrrl :t:

7,s65.073
(

l!
nt

The static criteria to be determined are as follows:

l00toF

1. Specific heat of the composite sheet (Table 3-2).

2.
239

Mean temperature of the sheet leaving the granule

section flhble 3-3).


,832.162

:::
nt

Elr'r

flnln

(0.50) Btu { 100).F tb-'F


7,s65.073

4.796.64

th

nr

4.", :

P nr

/r.+a gur\

5s.7

! ftr
th

\ri/

Table 3-2

Specitic Heat of Composite Sheet Leaving Granule

Component wt.,
Glass mat

16.067 gpm

Asphalt

Filler
4.796.640 58.7.]9'

120.58

: nr

n'

\- r/
f

7.48 gall

Granules Thlc Adhesives

87.32 96.08

lb 0/o by wt. 6.30 L9785


2',7.4220

Component

Cp

o/o

ol

Cp

0.2

o.4
0.217 0.20

o.395'7 10.9688
8.217 4

I 2.03
6. I

3"t.8682 30.1740 1.9200 0.6375

6.0348

o.2
0.50

318,42 10000

4.0128 0.3188 29.9483

C, =
10.187 gpm

)q t;0-

q4R

0.299 Btuilb-'F

Heat Transfer in Piping and

Equipment

149

Table 3-3 Mean Temperature ol Sheet

3.

Heat to be removed from sheet and amount of wa-

ter required.

Leaving Granule Section Q = mcp At for each component Temp. of component Component prior to mixing Cp Eo by wt. 0.2 1.9785 80'F Glass 400'F 0.4 2'7.422 .A.sphalt 400'F 0.22 37 .8682 Filler
Granules Talc Adhesives

a.

At:313.63 -212 = Specific heat of sheet :


weight of sheet

t- :

313.63'F (from Table 3-3)

101.63"F 0.299 Btu/lb-'F

0.9375lb/ft2

80"F

80'F 400'F
.8682)(0.22)(400

0.2 o.2 0.5

30.17398

Thus, the amount of heat to be removed per square foot is


mCpAt
Btu/ft'?

r.92
0.63"75

(0.9375X0.299)(101.63)

29.49

.t 2t

(1.978s)(0.2X80

(37

t^) + (27.422)(0.4)(400

t.)

t,)

(30.17398X0.2)(t. - 80) + (1.92)(0.2Xt(0.6375X0.5)(r. - 80) 31.656 - 0.396 t,

b. Sensible heat loss through rollers Btu/hr

3.0

106

10.969

t^ +

3332.402

8.331

t.

80) + + 4387.520

c. Heat loss through forced convection and radiation of heat passing through air medium is determined as follows:

6.035 t. 25.50

482.',784

0.384

t. -

30.720

0.319

t.

where

t. :

313.633'F

At

313.63 90 223.63"F = temperature difference between sheet and ambient air

t ]
|I

FINAL
COMPONENT

Figure 3-23. Process of manufacturing roof shingles.

'150

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

For convection,

Q:

hAAt

For 600 shingles/hr (or 144,000 Btu/hr) the heat removal would be : (144,000X0.9375)(O.299)(313.63 - 125)

For flowing air, h,in


Use

= h."^ :

:
2 Btu/hrlft2/.F 50 Btu/hr/ftrl.F

7.614 mm Btu/hr

Thus. Total heat

h. =
t2

> removal
q:

Heat removal requtled

23 Btu/hrtfP l"F
and the cooling system is adequate.

/6R {r ";:-'(l)

s.708

fr2

For vaporization,

29 Btu/ft,

For radiation,
|

Qv
,l

104,400.00 Btu/min

h,

F.Fo lo(tr"

- t':")l (tr t - tz)

For water, h1,

1,000 Btu/bb

At 600 fpm, we have,


0.90; o

Fe:1.01 F": e = h. : (0.90)(1.0)

0.173

10-8

1r)4 400

;*;

104.40 lbi

min

amounl of water required

Thus, 104.40

g
mtn
th gal

h,

1.857 Btu/hr/ft,/"F

gpm =

12.518 gpm

8.34:

Total Heat Removal


hr

Thus, the water pump to be used is to be sized gpm at a terminal exit pressure of 200 psi. 1.857

for

13

: Q = h1A(At) :
h" + h.
Btu/hr

23.000

24.857 Btuthttfet"F

Transient Heat Transfer Analysas


This method is based on the Fourier analysis of unsteady-state heat conduction. The following assumptions
are made:

(24.8s7X5.708) (223.63)

3r,729.464

l.
Water Required for Cooling
Let Qv

2.

The composite sheet is approximated by a material of average conductivity. The sheet is infinitely long and is an isotropic rigid

solid.
heat removed by vaporization

The heat removed for a sheet 6 feet wide moving at 100

ftlmin
Qv

is (100)(6) frrlmin (29) Btu/ft2

17,400 Btu/min

For a sheet velocity of 600 ftlmin,

Figure 3-23 shows a view of the roofing slab. Assuming that the material is a composite sheet approximated by an integral sheet of average properties, the temperature distribution is at all times symmetric about the midplane of the slab, thus x = 0 at the center of the sheet. From Fourier's law of conduction,

= 104,400.00 Btu/min Qv : 6,264,000.00 Btu/hr Total heat removal : 6,264,000 + 31,'729.464


Qv

= -k-dX

AI

Q=

3,000,000

9,295 ,729 .464 Btulhr

The heat transfer across x = 0 is zero and at the midplane of x : 0 the sheet behaves as a perfect insulatoran adiabatic surface. Consequently, the solution to this problem applies to a slab that is perfectly insulated at one

Heat Transfer in Piping and

Equipment

151

Iace, initially at a known temperature, to, and then exposed on one face to a

fluid at a constant temperature,

tr.

k p Cp
1

0.30 (0.9375)(0.299)
U.UO/

1.070 ft'?lhr

Temperature of the sheet

= 314'F

t"

Gmperature of the spray water

90'F

ti

r = 0.90(0.094), .070
or

hr =

0.2146

min

Here we are spraying water on the sheet and we wish to determine the time required for the sheet to reach
125'F.

0.:314-9O=224"F
0,L=o

125

-90:35"F

r = 26.'756 = 2'7 sec for 90'water Approximate length of sheet exposed to nozzle splay : 150 ft Velocity of sheet : V, For V, : 600 ft/min,
150

l c.
| rn.

,=r
:

35 =-=0.156 224

ft

600 ftlmin

0.25 min

15 sec

Thickness of sheet

3/ro

in. in which

L:
300

:/:z

For

V.

400 ftlrnin,

0.094 in.

150

ft

For water,
Surface coefficient (worst condition)

400 frlmin

0.375

min

22.5

sec

Btu/hr-ftl"F
The length of the cooling section and the velocity of the sheet are both fixe.d. The only parameter not fixed is the
temperature of the water.
Thus,

k o'30 : hL= (300X0.094)


Np.

o.ott

Fourier number

From Figure

3-24, NF"

0.90

d7 L-

r:

NroL2
ct

o.oo417

m/L2
Figure 3-24. Heisler's main chart for the infinite slab [7].

152
(Nr o),"o

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

'a

(o oo4l7j(

o7o'

(0.094)'

0.505

For a Fourier number of 0.505,

(*).,,-,,
Let

oo,o

t" :
r
t,\

lequirad water temperature

l)5 Jl+ -

lyzed, -200"F, - 100'F, and -50'F. The skirt is made of Type 3(X stainless steel and is insulated on the inside and outside as shown in Figure 3-28. The insulation is sized for the most extreme process temperature that the vessel will be exposed to, -200"F. Data used in the example are given in Figure 3-25. First, determine the natural convection film coefficient for the skirt. The temperature inside the skirt, ti, is assumed to be five degrees lower than the ambient temperatute, t5.

uo

:
=

in which

temperature of water.

t* = -11.86"F

and is well below the freezing

[', 'L(no,r

.,.

O*4,

u'i,r:.',n)

iJ-'

I
[7.r1s

r l-, -hJ

Thus, for a cooling section of 150 feet long, the sheet moving at 600 ftlmin cannot be cooled to 125'F since the theoretical value of t* is below freezing.

Assume h4,5

0.275

At V,

= r=

Lr-tn, O.3"75 min :


499

u4:0.093

0.0063 hr 0.7568

{Nro),.u.r

=
=

(0.0063X 1.070)

^: (u.u94r
0.180

.:

--j--- =

l;l

ln\
r

lts 314 and

t*

t* :

83.51'F for a

sheet velocity

of 400 ftlmin

Thus, the sheet can be reasonably cooled while moving at 400 ftlmin. If a velocity of 600 ftlmin is desired, additional water sprays must be added. However, one must balance the sheet velocity against the cutting machines and workers' capability to handle the additional material. It is found in most roof shingle plants that 400 ftlmin is an optimum velocity. As demonstrated, the transient heat transfer analysis is mandatory in evaluating a system.

EXAMPLE 3-7: HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH VESSEL SKIRTS


Calculate the temperature distribution down the length of a vessel skirt. The vessel contains a cold process fluid that varies in temperature because of cyclic process conditions. Three operating temperatures are to be ana-

= 60"F = 3048-in. :2.573lt /, = 367,b-in. = 3.073 ft f3 = 37%-in. - 3.135 ft /4 = 435//6-in. : 3.635 ft A^ = (tt - r,2) = l.z0glt, F - 1(460+ 60) = 0.00'1923 1 = 0.07633 lb/tt3 p = 0.04339 lbfit h k*, = 0.01466 Btu/h ft "F kyz 8.0 Blu/h ft.F ka t = kg-'q = 0.14 Btu/h ft'F
G t1
NP'

4 = 55'F

= 0'712

Figure 3-25. Cryogenic pressure vessel with internal and external insulation on the skirt.

Heat Transfer in Piping and Equipment

153

,. =

[*J

(tr

- ts) + ts

#[",('[4
ra-1nl.2gsr

- -, 'f5)

- t, ll

:l /o.osl\ l{-))+bU
\0.275i

['-h
63sx0 27sx-1 69)

'(;-.,Jll 0
14

s8.31'F

l'3
t

L-t5:58.31 - 60 = -1.69"F \o, = [d37,gB( Atl)(3,6o0)2]/p,


|

,,1.

sa.:

r
ln

55.00

|ln

l(7 .27)3(0.07

6T)' Q2.2)(0.00r923)(r.69)(3,6tJ0)21 (0.04339f

[ \3.13s/
Z:65.1O2"F1ft2

Iturr\t-t

t-l
\3.073/

Na,:1,613,'720,723
where

2te

213.6tt)

7.27 ft

z:?

Nc,Np,

(1,613,720,723)(0.7 12) > loe

1,14g,9tt,ttt

Q For t. :

=6s'1o2
1.126'7

57.781'F

-299'P

C= N", :

0.129

andm

r/:

2(t.

Zle*oo
5

I + e2*qo
C(Nq,Np,)0.129(l,148,969,155)r/3
(fqi,

+z
57.78.1

=
n.1 ' =

135.

11

t. _
0.2125

(-515.56)(2.89)-+ 1 + (2.89y'

I.") d (-s)

(0.014661(l35.ll)
7.27

Similarly for:

IOOqII ti - l#l

-60:
=

t, : -

100'F,

s8.29"F

_ t. "

-515.56X2.89)r + (2.89)"

57.781

58.31

58.29

0.02

and for

t, : -50"F

:4.275

r _

(-215.56x2.89). + 5? ?Rl l + (2.89t^

For a cylinder with insulation on both sides,

.:[ffH][dil.*-.19]
I I t_ = t_t"ro. [(8Xl.2oe, li
z

Figure 3-26 shows these distribution curves. The axial deflection of the skirt will now be calculated using the first three terms of the stainless steel deflection equation (Equation 3-45). The hyperbolic terms in the equation are not necessary when the steel temperature is greater than -300'F or less than 1000'F,

r+r

!
t

rl
';T#"'J

_ *._ ^

2(t.

Z)ls.sa + (4.i1

10-3)Zl arctan ielo0

5;

/z.sz:\

-f

(2.055 (2.055

l0-3\z2L

[l '" \'otr-/
Q:
r.1267 ft'?

100

x l0-rxr" - Z)2(e2oto' - l) 106 eo 5(1 * e2lao )

154

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

EXAMPLE 3.8: RESIDUAL HEAT TRANSFER


A section of carbon steel process pipe is shown in Figure 3-15c. Three conditions will be analyzed for process fluids at 900"F.600'F and 300"F. the basic analysis is the same as used in Example 3-7 beginning with the iteration procedure to find the natural convection film coefficient. Note that it is assumed that the temperature inside the empty pipe header, t1, is 130'F and that the ambient temperature. t.. is 60'F

U:

: :

[(r: ln (r1r')/k.) + 13 ln (r3lrr)/ki + '/h"] (0.s26 In (0.26710.2527)t25) + 0.526 ln


(0.526/0.276)10.027

+ r/h.l

: Let
U3

[12.565

+'/h"]
0 '0137

: Ut :
h"

'

1.0 Btu/hr-ft2-'F

-200 -160

120 _80
Temperatur,

.F

_40

0 m 40

60

t: = (U:/h")ftr - to) + t,, = (0.07371 1.0)(130 - 60) + 60 :

65.16.F

Figure 3-26. Temperature distribution for the three shell-skirt


Junctron temperatures.

At=t:-L=5.16'F }'16, : [d3e,gB( lAt l)(3,600t]/r., : (1.052t(0.0763r2(O.O01923)(32.2) x (3,600F(s. l6)l/(0.0433eF : 14,920,198.65 Nc,N", : (14,920, 198.65X0.7 12) : 10,623,181.44
NNu
where,

(1.06

\ to o) [0,, _ 2,, 106 t","


t
arcran [.,inh rLeOstfll

C(Nc.NPr).

[sech rLQ05) tanh (LQ05)

rElt

0.525andm:r/+
0.525 (10,623,181.44)\ra = 29.97 (k"i,/d)NN" : (o.ot466n.052) 29.57

.,82rt,

For

t. : : 6.5 -200"F. Q =
0.00701
0.00718

tr --l - -Zt l;'". arcran reLo"'tl - 4zlt. tQ"' )


1.1267,2
0.00013

- 2f ,a'-

ezroo:

\l

+ ela

0.4t77 (U3/h;)(ti

+60
.I L'L

-t.)+to = (0.073110.4177)(130 72.35

60)

'72.35"F

t3 t3' = 65.16 Let

57.781 and L

too large, try another tdal valve for hn.

-7.19'F

: 6., :
6,,

+ 0.00004 +

V:
t3

h"

: :

0.49 Btu/hr-ft-'F rt(.r2.565 + r/0.49): 0.0687

Btu/hr-ft

-'F

fr :

0.08616 in.
see that

-200'F that -20"F is obtained at x : 1.75 ft. At about 2.0 ft and below, the skirt could be of carbon steel construction and considerable material savinss could be obtained.

From Figure 3-26 we

for the worst case ofts =

At :9.781"F Nc, :28,279,559.99 Nc.Np, : 20 ,r35 ,046 .7 |

(.0.0684'710.49) 70

+ 60

69.781'F

Nr, h"'

At:'

= \, =

0.4901 Btu/hr-ft-"F (0.0684710.490r) 70 69.'781 69.779 =

+ 60 =

0.002'F <

69.779"F 0.1

Heat Transfer in Piping and Equipment


h

155

= a = a =
z

0.49 Btu/hr-ft-'F
2?rki/[kMAM

(r4 .233)(3s4 .3s2)(1 .497)

ln (ry'ra)]

2r (0.027

)I

[25 (0.0387

(0.52610.27
I

4
Z
tx

= | [2rl(k.A.)][r3h.(t3 - t") - kit3/ln (ry'rJl : I l21rt[25 (0.0387) [0.s26(0.49)(69.78 60) -0.027 (69.78)/ln (0.52610.276)1 : | -2.607 | : 2.60'1"F1ft'? : zlQ : 9.587'F + Z ^= t2 (i. - Zt.'oo1lt 1-.:roo51; : iZ t,, - 9.587)e''0 "'7'o 5/11 + e2r'02?210s)l
+
9.587

6)l

) In

(0.521

x ltr)
10-3)(125 ,565 .623Xr82.902)

O.272

fr

(2.496

(0.521

109(184.902)

+ +
1

0.0008 2706.95

(6.s36

x 10-')

[558,494,713.0

2000884.26

+'74,115,250.451

6".

0.0155

ft :

0.1860 in. axial deflection

For

t, :

900'F,

I.780.83 (1.313)' ^ \87 -. | '' : tl + 1.313)'?1 r q For t. : 699'P 1.180.83 0.313)r, . + 9.587 ' = lr + (l.3l3y'l For t, : 399'P
(

This example shows that residual heat through a closed branch line can be significant enough to cause thermal movements, which can result in high stresses. These thermal deflections are particularly important when space is limited and the piping system has little flexibilIty.

580.83

ll+

+ 9.587 (1.313),.1 -'

(l.3l3l

Curves depicting t, are shown in Figure 3-27. Unlike Example 3-7, the slopes of the curves change much less, almost approaching straight lines. Axial temperature gradients along a section of piping produce thermal deflections. The pipe support will now be analyzed for thermal deflections. The surface temperature, ts, of the branch pipe at the point of the contact with the header is 600'F. The average temperature inside the pipe may be calculated from the 600"F curve in Figure 3-27 which shows a temperature at a distance x of five feet to be 294'F.

t; =

(600

+294)t2:447"F

Through the process of iteration, h. : 0.68 Btuihrft-'F at the average internal temperature of 447"F. This was obtained using the natural convection iteration technique described in Example 3-7. Using the same techniques, Q = 0.2719 ft 2, Z : 66.7916'Flftz, and Z : 245.6476"F. To calcuiate the axial deflection, substitute these values into the expanded thermal deflection equation for carbon steel, Equation 3-39. Note: Values for the arctan used in the equation must be calculated in radians. Calculate the arctan m degrees and convert to radians in which the relationship is 2zr radians : 360 degrees. Using equation 3-39,

X distanc,

ll
a

Figure 3-27. Temperature of a branch pipe connected to


3-15C.

header through a closed valve plotted from the pipe to valve connection every six inches for a distance of five feet in Figure

156

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

EXAMPLE 3.9: HEAT TRANSFER TIIROUGH PIPE SHOE

A l2-in process header shown in Figure 3-28 is supported by a shoe 14-in. long. The process fluid is at 750"F and it is desired to determine the temperature of the bottom of the shoe base plate where Teflon is mounted to accommodate pipe movement. The Teflon cannot withstand a temperature in excess of 400'F. Referring to Figure 3-28 and using Equarion 3-47 we
have

ffi

Rtrr /< rs ;- z\ 126.0), ": r.-l irr r750) "F nr-rr--r \ t++ In. /
0)
[126

(3.0)

hr-r' 'c (1ffi]

rP

(3 0]

#"
_

(,-,-ttt{,"J

r,'(,i)r, rm,'-

hr-ft'z-'F \144 in.J

Bru /nz t_t

in.,\ tt. ^ . /ro.o\ ^l t_t ttl " t2 \ / 'J

, 'r' : k,,, : L:
h"

k.A.r, + hoAplto .D (k,A. + h""AI)


3.0

h=

306.303'F

Btu/hr-ftl'F for

carbon steel in still air

Thus, the Teflon on the base is adequately protecte. The amount of heat loss through the shoe base plate :.

26.0 Btu/hr-fr-'F 10.0 in.

q =

h"Ap (tp

t")

A. = (0.375X14) : 5.25 in.2 Ap : (8.0)(14) : ll2 in.,

in :) (r.0) ,,' {rob.J'3 l:u - frrz in.J '- -'hr-ftr-"F " '\r++

e').F

504.706 Btu/hr

L:90'F
NOTATION

y'lgscu

ao

5"cAlcruM srLrCATE
INSULATION

A- = Ao : Ao : At =
A_

area
ft2

of metal in pressure vessel shell or pi5

outside surface area of insulation, ftzlft outside surface area of pipe, ft'?/ft outside surface area of tracer tube or HTC

ft2lfr
specific heat, Btu/lb-'F outside diameter of a pressure vessel, ft diameter, ft, in. inside diameter of pipe insulation, ft, in. outside diameter, in. inside of outer ring of annulus, in. outside diameter of inner ring of annulus. :: inside diameter of tracer tube, in.
acceleration of gravity, 32.2 ftlsec2

/-

to =9oo F

D;

D: :

D,L= I

oin

h-

P=0.375in

ho' :
ho

= ht : :

BASE }IIDTH

=8in
Figure 3-28. Heat transfer through pipe shoe.

h4-s

natural convection coefficient at OD of ::: piping insulation, Btu/hr-ft2-'F corrected value for h", Btu/hr-ft'?-'F convection coefficient, pipe to air space, B:hr-ftr- o F convection coefficient, tracer or HTC to "..: space, Btui hr-ft2-'F convection coefficient between the outsj.: vessel insulation and ambient air, Btu/hr-::-

Heat Transfer in Piping and

Equipment

157

\5' = corrected convection coefficient, Btu/hr-ft2ki = ki =


insulation conductivity, Btu/hr-ft-'F thermal conductivity ofair inside empty pipe,

k, : : N51. : Np. : Np" : Q: Qr : Qz : Q: : Q+ : t" : t; : tj : t, :


N6. tj(
to,
t3, t4,

Btu/hr-ft-"F thermal conductivity of vessel skirt or pipe,

X: Z: Z=

distance of plotted temperature points along the vessel skirt or piping, ft heat transfer factor, 'F/ft2 heat transfer factor, ZiQ, 'F

L=

Btu/hr-ft-'F length of branch pipe, ft


Grashof number, dimensionless Nusselt number, dimensionless Prandl number, dimensionless Reynolds number, dimensionless heat transfer factor, ft 2 heat transfer from air space to atmosphere,

Greek Symbols

0: 6.,, 6,, :
?: p: p:

volumeric coefficient of thermal expansion,

,IK

axial deflection of carbon or stainless steel skirt or pipe, in. safety factor for traced pipe absolute viscosity, lbift-hr
densiry, lb/ft3

Btuihr
heat transfer from tracer to air space, Btu/hr heat transfer from pipe to air space, Btu/hr heat transfer from tracer to pipe, Btu/hr

:
=

t3' : t4' :
At

t5

: At' : Atj' : U3 :
U+

air space temperature, oF process fluid temperature, 'F air temperature inside the vessel skirt, pipe support or branch pipe, 'F surface temperature of the branch pipe at contact point with the header, or operating temperature in a pressure vessel, "F temperalure at distance x along the vessel skirt, pipe support or branch pipe, 'F ambient temperature, oF temperature and corrected temperature at OD of the pressure vessel insulation, 'F temperature and corrected temperature at OD of the pressure vessel insulation, 'F tr - t in piping example, ta - t5 in vessel skirt exarnple, 'F t4 - ta' in vessel skirt example, "F t3 - t3' in piping example, "F overall heat transfer coefficient at OD of pipe insulation, Btu/hr-ft'?-'F overall heat transfer coefficient at 14. Btu/hr-

REFERENCES

QEMA), sixth edition, New York, N.Y, 1978. 2. Kern, Donald, Process Heat Tiansfer, McGraw-Hill
Book Company, 1950.

1. Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Standards of the Tubular Manufacturers Association

3. Ludwig, Ernest E., Applied Process Design for


Chemical and Petochemical Plazls, volume 3, second edition, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston,
Texas, 1983. Escoe, A. Keith, "Heat Transfer in Vessels and Piping," Hydrocarbon Processing," January, 1983, vol.

4.

62, no.
Texas.

l,

Gulf Publishing Company,

Houston,

ftr-'F

Chapman, Allen 8., Heat Transfer, third edition, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1974. 6. Perry, Robert H. and Don Green, Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, sixth edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1984. 7. Heisler, M. P., "Temperature Charts for Induction and Constant Temperature Heating," Transactions of the A.S.M.E., vol. 69 (1947), pp.227-236.

5.

The Engineering Mechanics of


Pressure Vessels

The specifuing, design, and construction of pressure containing vessels varies all over the globe. Each adopted code that has been used for any significant
length of time has proven to be workable because its use has resulted in safe, economic designs. The main differences in codes are the theories of yield that are used for determining maximum allowable stresses, material spec-

ifications. and basic procedures. With increasing international competition and cyclic economic conditions, there is a growing need to emphasize economics and familiarity of foreign codes, and avoid unnecessary overdesign that relies on only one set of codes and standards. This chapter emphasizes the optimization of economics and safety. If you choose to be conservative in your design, you can be; however, if you are bidding in a highly competitive market, you can use these methods to produce a safe, economical design. International competition and economic condltions have caused engineers to restructure their thinking that a good design uses only enough material that produces a safe and economical product. Thus, this chapter's philosophy is to optimize engineering design within code rules, whatever the code. Overly conservative design that results in excessive material use becomes unproductive and expensive when one is competing in the world market today. A thorough treatment of vessel engineering and its concomitant aspects of static and dynamic phenomena would fill several volumes. To present this broad subject with clarity. various physical phenomena are briefly discussed and references are made to sources that give detailed theoretical explanations. lt is not this boo-k's purpose to give a trearise of static and dynamic problems. but rather descriptions of proven practices. The theory of these problems is always available, but proven solutlons are not-hence, the reason for this book.

The first problem you face in designing a vessel containing pressure is how to physically make the components and assemble them. In the petroleum refining industry (CPl-Chemical Process Industry) and allied industries, the most practical and economical method is welding. We will refer to welding later in more detail, but first we will look at the vessel from a pure engineering viewpoint assuming perfect welds with given efficiencies. Some have proposed bonding pressure vessels together with glue, as is done with aircraft components. The main disadvantages to bonding are

2. Glues that exhibit high tensile and


strengths are very expensive.

1. Clean surfaces are required for

assembly.

compressive

3.

Chemical bonding, especially in thick-walled vessels, takes much longer than any welding process.

Another form of assembly that has been even more seriously considered than bonding is threading components and screwing them in place. Even though this may appear to be simple, the process becomes enormously expensive with large diameters. Thus, welding is the most practical and economical means of assembling pressure vessels for the foreseeable future.

DESIGNING FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE


The two factors that must be considered in the desisn for internaf pressure are crr??ponent thickness and quatiry of weds. Before either of these two factors can be addressed, you must know what the vessel is to contain. This chapter only considers gases and liquids. Vessels,

159

160

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

silos and bins containing solids are discussed in Chapter

In the design for liquids under pressure, the most severe condition of coincident pressure and temperature expected in operation must be considered in computing shell thickness. This is fairly universal in codes throughout the world. The intent ofthe statement is that the most frequently occurring liquid level should be considered. For example, if a vessel is filled to a certain level "A' 75% of the time and a higher level *8" 25% of the time, level "A' should be used for design purposes. The normal liquid level to be used for vessel design and its quantitative value should be determined by the process engineer. For upset conditions each code allows an increase in allowable stresses under temporary conditions, and you should consult whichever code is to be used for exact amounts allowed. It is recommended that a value of 30 psig or 10% be added to the operating pressure for design pressure. This practice varies with each company throughout the industry. Once the internal pressure is determined it must be decided how the vessel is to be welded. The factors affecting this decision are as follows:

design temperature and pressure. The value of the MAWP at the two conditions gives the exact range of temperature and pressure that the vessel can withstand if the owner decides to use it in another application. The reader is cautioned to consult his respective code on the practice of using a vessel for another application. The following example illustrates how the MAVr'P is applied: An ASME Section VIII Division I vessel is made of SA 240-304 SS, design pressure : 500 psig, design temperature : 150'F. The vessel has a shell thickness of 1.00 in. and a ioint efficiencv of 1.0.
MAWP (NAC) = (18,800)

(1.00)

(1.00.)

(21.00)+(0.6)x(1.00)
870.4 psig

MAWP (Design)

(18,300)

(1.00)

(1.00)

(21.00)+(0.6)x(1.00)
847.2 psig

l.
2. 3.

Size of vessel-whether rolled plate or seamless pipe is used. The toxic nature of the fluid to be contained. The economics of fabrication as to whether a full joint efficiency is necessary.

The 18,300 psi is obtained by linear interpolation of the allowable stress values in Table UHA-23 of the ASME Code.
The vessel owner knows the maximum allowable pressure for the shell at the new and cold condition as well as the design condition. It is a common practice to limit the

One can appreciate the degree of types of welds required for a vessel. A slug catchel which acts as a scrubber handling a non-toxic substance, does not require the same caution as a vessel containing cyanide gas. The quality of a weld joint is determined by a radiographic inspection. Full radiography includes a complete X-ray inspection (1OO% for butt weld and 907o for single-welded butt joint) and spot radiography implies 85 % for buttjoints. See Thble 4-1 for maximum allowable efficiencies for arc and gas welded joints. The reader is strongly urged to consult whatever code happens to govern. Listed in Thble 4-2 are the joint efficiencies for the various welded combinations for pressure vessels under

MAWP by the head or shell and not by the flanges or openings, only the MAVr'P is determined by the flanges or openings when the vessel is to be reapplied in another application or a design oversight is made. Finally, in computing the minimum thickness of the shell or head, mechanical allowances must be considered. In the manufacture of heads, the metal is thinned on forming the section (a forgery process). This forming allowance must be considered when the nominal thickness is specified. When a minimum thickness is specified to the head manufacturer, the forming allowance is not considered because it is the manufacturer's responsibility to ensure the minimum thickness.

ASME Section VIII, Division I[1]. Any discussion on designing for internal pressure must include maximum allowable working pressure, which is the maximum gauge pressure permissibie at the top of the completed vessel in its operating position for a designated temperature. This pressure, MAVr'P, is normally specified on two conditions*new and cold (ambient) (NAC), and design. "New and cold" implies the MAWP for a new vessel (non-corroded) at atmospheric condition, and "design" implies the vessel corroded at

DESIGNING FOR EXTERNAL PRESSURE


The design for external pressure of vessels is fairly standard in the ASME and codes of other nations. The procedures for determining minimum shell thickness,
spacing, and section properties of stiffening rings are straightforward and simple. Because there is much published material on external pressure design, the subject is not discussed here. The reader is ursed to consult the
oressure vessel code to be used.

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

161

Table 4-1 Maximum Allowable Joint Efficiencies for Arc and Gas Welded Joints [11 Degree ot Examination
(a)

Fully
No.

(l)

Type ol Joinl Description Butt joints as attained by double-welding or by other means which will obtain the same quality of deposited weld metal
on the inside and outside weld surfaces to agree with the requirements of UW-35. Welds using metal backing strips which remain in place are excluded. Single-welded butt joint with backing strip other than those included under (l). Single-welded butt joint without use of backing strip. Double tull fillet lap joint Single firll fillet lap joins with plug welds conforming to UW-

Radio"

Limitations
None

graphed
1.00

Examined
0.85

(b) Spot

(c)

Not Spot
Examined 0.70

(2)

(a) None except as in (b) below (b) Butt weld with one plate off-

0.90

0.80

0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50

(3) (4)

set-for circumferential joints only,


Circumferential joints only, not over 5/a in. thick and not over 24 in. outside diameter l-ongitudinal joints not over 3/8 in. thick. Circumferential joints not over s/r in. thick (a) Circumferential joints for attachment of heads not over 24 in. outside diameter to shells not over

(s)

t7

t/2 in. thick (b) Circumferential joints for the attachment to shells ofjackets not

(6)

Single tull fillet lap joints without plug welds

over s/a in. in nominal thickness where the distance from the center of the plug weld to the edge of the plate is not less than 1r/2 times the diameter of the hole for the plug. (a) For the attachment of heads convex to pressure to shells not over s/e in. required thickness. only with use of fillet weld on inside of

0.45

shell; or (b) for attachment of heads


having pressure on either side, to shells not oyer 24 in. inside diameter and not over t/+ in. required thickness with fillet weld on outside of head flange only.

162

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Table 4-2

Joint Elficiencies for Arc and Gas Welded Joints per ASME

T1 = T2 =

Joint Types H, C, and L Type 1 Joinl (ASME UW-12) Type 2 Joint (ASME UW-12)

Asterisk (+) denotes which joint type governs.

Illustration of weld joint locations Typical of Categories A, B, C. and D-see ASME Section VIII Division I.

Radiograph

L-

Type

Welded Head (Non-Hemispherical)-Welded Shell Head Thk. Calcu. Shell Thickness Calculations E. Cir. Stress E. Long Stress

C-

H'
Spot

T1 I .00

T1
1.00

T2

0.85

0.90

L00
Spot None Spot Spot Spot Spot None

0.85
I I I I
I I I I

None
Spot Spot

Full
Spot

None None Full

None

Full
Spot

1.00

0.85
1.00

None
Spot Spot Spot Spot Spot Spot Spot Spot Spot
100
I I I

I I
I I

0.85

0.80

0.80

100

0.85

spot
Spot Spot

I I
I I I I I

None Full
None Full None Full None Part
*L

None None None

Full
Spot

None

Full
Spot

1.00

I I

0.85
1.00

I I I I

Weld soverns in circumferential stress calculations.

i'[echanics of Pressure 'FL^ rrI E-^r-^^-r-^ LrrSrrr!!rur6 rr.

Vessels

163

Table 4-2 continued


Welded Head (Non.Hemispherical)-Welded Shell Head Thk. Calcu. Shell Thickness Calculations E. Cir. Stress E. Long Slress

L' C' None Part None Part None None None None
*L

Fadiograph Type

H.
Spot

Tl

f2

None Spot None Spot

None

Full
Spot

Spot None None Full None Spot None None

0.85
II rl YI
O.70

0.80

0.85 0.70 0.70

0.6s

ii

ii i!

0.80

0.65

Weld governs in circumferential stress calculations.

Welded Head (Hemispherical)-Welded Shell Radiograph


TYPE

Head Thickness Calculations E. Cir. Stress


Vo

H=Tl H=Tl H=T2 H=T2 L- C' H' C=Tl C=T2 C=Tl C=T2 Full Full Full 1.0 0.90 0.90 0.90 FUU Full Spot t {
Joint

Tt

f2

Shell Thickness Calculations E. Long Stress

T1

T2

FullFullNoneiiii
Frrll sn^IFrrll ' "" _____i!::_____i_

!ll!
0.p0

Full Spot Spot O.ps 0 p0 0.90


Full Spot None Full None Full

Spot Full Full 1.00 Spot Full SDot { Spot Full None i :------------- _--------=--:- | spot Spot tu i Spot Spot Spot 0..85 Spot Spot None Spot None Full Spot None Spot
I

0.90

| t
I
r

0.80

100

0.85

0.80

100

0.85

0.80

100

None Full None Full None Full None Spot None Spot None Spot None None None None None None

Full
Spot

None

Full

Spot
None

0.85

0.80

0.80

Full

None

0.70

164

Mechanical Design of Process Svsterrrs

Table 4-2 continued

Radiograph

Shell Thickness Calculations

Type

C=Tl

H=T1

H=T1

Full Full Full

C=r2

Full
Spot None

00

H=T2 H=T2 Tl C=T2 0.90 0.90 0.90


C=

E. Cif. Stress
o/o o^n

T1

E. Long Stress 12 1.00 0.90

T1

Spot Spot Spot


None None

0.85
I .00

Full
Spot

0.80 0.90 0.80 0.90

None

0.85
1.00

Full
Spot

0.70

Seamless Head Thick. Calcu. Radiograph


TYPE

Head-Welded Shell
E. Cir. Stress

Shell Thickness Calculations E. Long Stress

T1
Full
Spot None 1.00

T2

Full

0.90 0.80 0.90 0.80 0.90 0.80 0.65

Full Full
Spot

0.85

1.00

1.00

0.90 0.80 0.90 0.80 0.90 0.80 0.65

0.90
+
I I

0.85
1.00

Full
Spot

Spot Spot
None None None
*L

L00
0.85
1.00

0.80
i
I
I

None

0.85
I .00

Full
Spot None

0.85

0.70

i
I

0.65

0.85 0.70

* C weld governs on head and longitudinal

stress calculations. Weld governs on shell circumferencial stress calculations.

Seamless Head Thickness Calculations

Head-Seamless Shell
Shell Thickness Calculations E. Long Stress

0.80
! C Weld go\ern5 ior head dnd longnudinal slre,s calculalion\.

0.85

0.80

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

165

Table 4-2 continued


Seamless (Non-Hemispherical) Head-Seamless Shell Head Thick. Calcu. E. Cir.

Shell Thickness Calculations E. Long Stress


1.00

Stress
Full
Fart
Spot

0.90

1.0

0.85 0.70

0.80
0.65

\one

Seamless (Non-Hemispherical) Head-Welded Shell

Shell Thickness Calculations


Radiograph
TYPC

Head Thlck.

c'
Full
Part
Spot

Calculatlons
100 85

E. Cir. Stress

E. Long Stress
1.00

Full Full

1.00

0.90

0.90

Full Full Spot Spot Spot Spot


None

I
I I

None

Full
Part
Spot

r00
I

0.80
I I

85

None

Full
Part
Spot

I I I

None None
None

I
0.65 0. 70

t
0. 65

None

Radiograph Type Full Full Full


Part
Spot

Welded (Non-Hemispherical)-Seamless Shell Head Thick. Calculations Shell Thickness Calculations

-Tl
1.00

E. Cir.

120.90

Stress
100

1.00

0.90 0.80 0.90 0.80 0.90 0.80 0.65

Full Full Spot Spot Spot Spot


None None
None None

I
I
I
I

None

6 -)
100

0.85
1.00

Full
Part
Spot

I I

0. 80
I I

0.85
85 100

None

Full
Part
Spot

1.00

----:0.70

None

U. 65

6)

0.85 0.70

*H

Weld governs in head calculations. + C Weld governs in loogitudinal sfress calculations.

166

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

DESIGN OF HORIZONTAL PRESSURE VESSELS


The analysis of horizontal pressure vessels converges on the design for internal pressure and vessel supports. This chapter only considers metal, cylindrical vessels, and focuses on the supports of horizontal pressure vessels.

L. P. Zick [2] of the Chicago Bridge and Iron Company developed the method of analyzing supports for horizontal cylindrical shells in 1951. We will not derive the method, but rather summarize it in a seneral discussion along with guidelines and useful praciices thar make the design of such items more straightforward. Horizontal vessels should be desisned to withstand internal and external pressures. and support reactions produced by the vessel weight and additional loads from ladders, platforms, piping, etc. Zick [2] showed that supporting horizontal vessels by more than two saddles is not only inefficient, but incurs additional undesirable problems. Figures 4-1 and 4-2 illustrate a horizontal vessel supported by two saddles. LONGITUDINAL BEITIDING STRESSES

/'\-

,\l ---,..T.,-

-- - '\
.

" >\.----r< ]''..- 9--7


Figure 4-1. Horizontal vessels are
r = mean radius, ft supported on saddles. The saddles can be supported on concrete piers shown in Figure 4-2.

A horizontal vessel supported on two beams is the same as a beam overhanging two supports. The maximum longitudinal bending stresses occur at the supports themselves and at the center of the vessel, as shown in Figure 4-3. Zick [2) and Brownell and Young [3] give a
detailed derivation

ts

of the equations for longitudinal

bending stresses at the saddle and at mid-span. This analysis is summarized in the following:

At

Saddle

qr =

oa1 allowable stress in tension. psi o"r = B = allowable stress in compression. psi
Figure 4-2. Horizontal vessel with saddles on concrete piers.

longitudinal bending stress at saddle

For tension,
01

Eoan

op

where

E:
op

welding joint efficiency


pressure stress, psi

or the allowable stress in compression is


o1

The allowable stress for compression is based on the accepted formula for buckling of short cylindrical columns, which is

<

Bl2

where

r
D

/"\i,\[, - (,1,'*,(i)] \-rt \;i f

= radius of cylindrical shell, in. thickness of cylindrical shell, in. modulus of elasticity of shell, psi
B factor in the ASME vessel code, psi

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

Referring to Figure 4-3, oy occurs at either lBl6 + 0l2l degrees or zero degrees at the shell acting in the longitu-

2A :

arc, in radians, of unstiffened shell in plane saddle

effective against bending

dinal direction. This only applies to unstiffened shells. The vessel must meet the allowable with or without oressure.

":-t*-[..(,

l-

,AL I *ll 3L
+ I +

*'-

At Mid-span
"41 ll
IJ

o:

longitudinal bending stress at midspan

The longitudinal bending stress at midspan has the same

(4-r)
Thneential Shear Stress
where

(4-3)

CA

= 0:

A, H, L, Q, r, and t.

are defined in Figure 4-3. corrosion allowance, in. angle of contact of saddle with shell, degrees (Figure 4-1)

l.

For shell stiffened by ring in the plane of the saddle,

* l<a \ 4 = _al1 +:Ol 180

_ _ /r- "r"- - rrr-tAr\ L-H


(0.r8)Q ze
lA-)
|

u\ /

(4-4)

\r2

o3

<

0.08ou1

N
|| tt/

\ --il \ --T.-11
l-/

Figure 4-3. Bending moment diagram for a horizontal vessel developed by Zick l2l.

zT\-[ll ll/r\rr., | \lll ffi-[" V-t-+ 'Y

168

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

;&p

Figure 4-3. Continued.

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

Vessels

169

I I

Figure 4-3. Continued.

17O

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

z z

6
=

o.os-

o z

z
UJ

)
t-

z gJ ,'u o'o2=
E

1.O

RATIO A/r

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

Vessels

171

Unstiffened shell with saddles awav from head (A

If A/r>1,
where d

>R)

''v- - 11-ctr \ L+H

/L-H

-2A'l
/

then K6 : K3/4 Otherwise, use Figure 4-3.

then deg

K6:

O.42Z2e-a

ot710

(4-11)

If A/r < 0.5,

:in," I '(\7r-@+slnqcosd/
',r'here

,o-r,

..

0sin0
2

1t

-[

sin 6

cos P

sin 0
R

1=

r,#

(;

rq],

& B in

degrees

(4-6)

r! :
,j.
15

tangential shear stress, located at an angle of B/20

Shell stiffened by head,

.ltu\
\-/

shear stress in head

This stress occurs only when t}re shell is stiffened by the head and when the head is located less than one shell radius from the saddle. The rnaximum shear is located at
an angle

. - r(#)'+
^/^\: srnpcosp, i

2cos2B
(4-12)

of (l9l2O)P

as shown. (4-7)

.lslnpl

\B

Q lsin o[ "- sinocoso \l + tin r(rr-C{)1" \"-" ""oso/l


-1. Shear stress in shell,

o,

circumferential comDressive stress

This stress is located at the horn of the saddle If o; ( outr, it is not necessary to take credit for the wear plate.

"6

q [.in rI o- rino.oro \l - r(t5-CA)tn \" - " +.sindcose/ I


3

(4-S)

o7

<

l'50

ou1

06 is the same as 05 and also is located at (19/20)0. With rhe shell stiffened by the head, then

Additional Stress in Head When Used as a Stiffener

o6

0.8o"1

"s

3Q I
3'-1u
oall

Circumferential Stress at Horn of Saddle


08 S

6e,1

Lr .o, + sin "

sin']"
cos

(4- 13)

"l

For shell stiffened by head the maximum circumferential stress at horn of saddle is,

IfL>8R,o7: 4( :

CA) (b
CA)'?

-a
1.56(r(r

Wear Plates-Ring Compression in Shell Over Saddle

CA))u)

-,'QIu = 2(r If L < 8R, o

p.s)

(t

CAXb

1.56(r(t

Ca;101
(4-14)

@
_
12&QR

-a
oe

{ '1':'" \7r-q+slnacosq/

}o"(0.5o,

ring compressive stress in shell over the saddle

L(t

CAf

(4_lo)

This stress is located at O

7r

172

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

This stress is compressive and acts in a radial direction between the saddle and shell. The limitation of this stress
IS

Table 4-3

Allowable Stress Values


Longitudinal Bending Stress
DP ot T op : o' i, a

0.5ori"ra

o4 E. where

E = joint efficiency

where oyi"rd

the yield strength of the saddle material (metal or concrete)

02 +op =
03' o5'

02

ff
<

'o'' r
< <
1.5
0.8
oall

Location ot Saddle Supports


For thin wall vessels with large diameters, it is desirable to locate the saddles close to the head, where A = ID/4, using the stiffness of the head. Although arbitrary on what a thin shell is, and Zick [2] does not define the term, a shell is generally regarded as ',thin" when D/t > 100, where D shell diameter and t shell thickness. For shells where D/t < 100 and the distance from the head tangent to head tangent is rather large (approximately L/r > 10), the saddles are best spaced when the longitudinal bending stress at rhe saddle, or, equals the longitudinal bending stress at midspan. o2. Undei no circumstances should the distance from the saddle center line to the head tangent, A, exceed 0.25L. A listing of allowable stress criteria is siven in Thble 4-3. Each of the previously menlioned stress values should be evaluated with this table and the appropriate

Tangential Shear Stress

q4 06

0.8

Circumferential Stress at Horn Saddle

o7 oe q

o"1

Circumferential Stress at Bottom of Shetl

0.5

(or1-i") *

Compressive Yield

Zick Stlffenang Rings


When the Zick stresses in a vessel become excessive and the location of the saddles no longer is a factor because the stresses are below the allowable stress, then two options are available-increase the vessel wall thickness or add stiffening rings. Almost always it is more desirable to add stiffening rings because it is cheaper to add a few rings than go to a larger size shell thickness, particularly with expensive alloys. Also, if the vessel is subjected to external pressure , the Zick rings can act as external pressure stiffening rings as well as Zick rings. Referring to Figure 4-3, if two Zick stiffening rings are located on each side of the saddle, then
Ln,n :

ir

code.

Wear Plate Deslgn


One of the first things to consider when designing a horizontal vessel is the need for wear plates. Too often these plates are "auromatically" included with no lhought given to their necessity in each application. Wear plates involve material and labor expense and are a waste if not needed. Wear plates are not required if two criteria are met: The circumferential stress at the horn of the saddle must be less than 1.5 times the allowable stress, and the ring compression stress in the shell over the saddle musr bi less than one half the minimum yield strength. These cri-

l.Jb Vfl, It
r, ft

Lr* :

The stress in the ring is

teria can be written as follows:


o1 oe

_- _ -KuQ nAWhere
Z

KuQr ,
n7,

1 7.5 o^x ( 0.5 o, 6n

Table 4-4 shows minimum allowable shell thicknesses required for horizontal vessels without wear plates. The values are based on using a fluid 1.75 times the weight of watet and the metal has a minimum yield of 30,000 psi and an allowable stress of 17,500 psi. For vessels in seismic regions wear plates should always be used to minimize stress concentrations at saddle plate-shell juncture.

= l-/c for ring in the plane of the saddle, tn.' z : I,-,/d at saddle horn at tip or flange of :
"

I*-

r
K6

: : : :

stiffener ring, in.3 moment of inertia of stiffening ring about axis x-x, in.a (includes wear plate thickness if one is used) cross-sectional area of stiffening ring, in.2 number of stiffener rings per saddle mean vessel radius, in. previously defined

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

175

Table 4-4

Minimum Shell Thickness Required lor Horizontal vessels Without Wear Plates

lD (in.)

78
8

84

90

96

102
I I

108

114

120

132

144

156

l0
t2 t4

r/s in.

r/r

in.
lllro in.
5/r in.

_r?ro in.
9/ro in. t2

l6
l8
20 30 40 50 60
65
Nots 1. The above table is based on the following: a. vessel is tully loaded with a fluid of specific gmvity of 1.5. b. The ratio of the shell outside radius, R., to shell thickness, t, is R-lt c. vessel weight is computed with not (a.) and hemispherical heads. d. Vessel material has the following properties: d,i" y,.rd = 30,000 psi and o.rr* = 17,500 psi 2- In seismic zones 3 and 4 wear Dlates should be used.

rYrt in. ll/rc in.


r/+ in.

?/x

in.

in.

tn,

Is/r6 in.

lYro in.

78 in.

in.

>

'72.

174

Mechanical Design of process Systems

In compression, oro is negative,

oleAB(0.5o.,
In tension, o,6 is positive,
o'e

oo

o.1 [tension]

where B

= o", :
op

ASME compressive stress (see ASME Section


8 Division

l)

compressive yield stress (see ASME Section g Division 2) internal pressure stress (includes wear plate thickness if one is used)

In defining the parameter K7, it must be noted that the Zick stiffening rings can fit on either the inside or outside of the vessel shell. Many clients object ro the rings
being external to the vessel surface because of aesthetici. However, after insulation is applied, the rings are no longer visible. We will consider rhe rings in both ways. The constant K7 is defined as follows:

strengthened with stiffener or web plates. but often too many are used. which increases laboi and material costs. In the past, saddle plates have been purposely over-designed to guard against uncertainty. This is no longer required, since literature on flat plate theory has increased with mounting experimental data. One such organization that has engaged in extensive research is U.S. Steel [4]. Figure 4-4 shows a typical saddle configuration for a horizontal vessel. Section A-A shows that only an effective portion of the member will resist compression. shear. and bending loads because when rhe member is loaded, the outside fibers ofthe web plates and the center of the saddle plate -shown by rhe sh;ded areas in Figure 4-4-go into the plastic range. The rest of the plate area

is still in the elasric range because of residual

stresses

that were created by non-uniform heating during rolling or welding. Presently, this "effective" area can be determined only by experiment. Equations 4-9,4-10, and 414 are used in saddle design as follows:

b":KL
where b"

(4-15 )

For a ring in the plane of the saddle+ 1.0 0.340, 0.303,


0
0

K; =

Kr:

0.250,0

: : :

effective width, in. plate buckling coefficienr for either compression, shear, bending, or a
combination of these loads (see Figures 4-5,

120"

150'
180.

where

K. :
Kb Ks

i : : :

4-6, 4-7, 4-8,4-9, and 4-10). c, b, s, or a combination of these characters, plate buckling coefficient for compression,
dimensionless plate buckling coefficient for bending, dimensionless

For rings adjacent to saddleFor internal rings,

\:
Kr:

-1.0
(o.271, l.0.2r9, [0.140,
0

plate buckling coefficient for sheaq


dimensionless

0 0

: : :

120"

150' 180'

We now have

For external rings,

4(t - CA)[b" +

-a
1.56{rrr

CA))o']
(.4-9)

-1.0
(0.27 | , 0

_
0

;:--.
-

1.)K.

rf L >

8R

Kz:

10.2t9, {0. r+0,

: 120. :150' = 180'

o
4(t
CA) tb"

1.56(r(t

CA)

fI
(4-10)

STEEL SADDLE PLATE DESIGN


Once the shell conditions have been met. the saddle plates must be analyzed. The main phenomenon encountered with saddle plates is local buckling with the plates undergoing bending, compression, shear, or any combi-

-.lt*'gl.,rrL L(r - LA)'


4ft

<

8R

cA) tb.

1.56G(t

CA)f

5l

nation of these loadings. Normally, saddle plates are

'(

7t- (\

I1

cos ol

sln a cos

-l

(4-r4)

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels


d"
t/ll

175

lffl
- b"-:l f I t---------1
\r .,-.-lN
b
I

'.-lF 1 l"'l*" '-ff *lJL.._"1 I


|

-.T----

sections A-A and B-8, shaded areas are in the plastic range.

elevation view

Figure 4-4. Horizontal vessel saddle support detail.

Figures 4-5 to 4-10 are courtesy of United States Steel Corporation. USSC makes no warranties, express or implied, and no warranty as to the merchantability, fitness fot any particular purpose, or accuracy of the information contained in any material reproduced herein from its Steel Design Manual. In the event of any liability arising out ofthe publication of such material herein, consequential damages arc excluded.
E E

I
I

--r
--i

--'t------------- cAS

r- -F

--'l-----------_---l CISE 4

F5

ri\
\\'
\

_.1-...---------.1= casE 5 F -l ---loaoEo


EDGES

FtXE0

z.

LOADED EDGES SIMPLY SUPPORTEO

i\

\\.
ta.'a

Figure 4-5. Buckling coefficients for flat plates under uniform compression. (Courtesy of U.S. Steel [4].)

176

Mechanical Design of Process Systems


aaTro oF
EENDING STBESS

-TOU\IFOR\,I COVPBLSSION ST-8ESS,


LOAD ING

MJNII\,4UI\,IBUCTI.NGCOLfFICITNI.'I,
UNLOAOED
Sll\,4PLY

SUPPonTED

EDGES

UNLOADED EDGES FtxED

\l

T--

.]
t7/

tl

-t!ft.
{PU8E BENOING)

3H.
,.1

jr:=-2l3r,r
\

5.00

\V {, = 1/3r, Y -tK F----E y H "=o

2.OO

't.00

Fry]= !l r, = r/3f I E/
\t_-_____tr/
Ir

0.50

r-r____-_r_: F= f: = f, t=
.VALUES

I,

rp,,.. . -... "^iiil.* --.....,--jtoN)

4.0

GIVEN AAE BASED ON PLATES HAVING LOADED EDGES S{I\4PLY SUPPORTED AND ARE CONSERVATIVE FOR PLATES HAVING LOADED EDGES FIXED.

plates under compression and bending. (Cour_

Figure 4-6. Buckling coefficients for flat

tesy of U.S. Steel [4].)

i
j

LONC EDGES FIXED,SHONT ED6ES SIMPLY STIPPOfi TEO

Figure 4-7. Buckling coefficients (Courtesy of U.S. Steel [4].)

for flat plates in

shear.

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels Figure 4-8. Buckling. coefficients for stiffened plates under uiform compression (one longitudinal stiffener at mid-point).
,Courtesy of U.S. Steel [4].)
14 13 12

177

0.6 0.8

1.0 2.O

2.2

tl
I

z
tr
U

o o

z
f F

1.O 1.2
34

1.4

2.8 30
2A

3.0
I

810

12 14 16
O

18

NONDIMENSIONAL PABAMETER,

26

24 22

:
o
(, =

20
18

t6

12

35 40 45 50

55

NONDIIUENSIONAL PAsAMETER. d

Figure 4-9. Buclding coefficients for stiffened plates under uniform compression (two longitudinal stiffeners at third points). (Courtesy of U.S. Steel [4].)

178

Mechanical Design of process Systems


0.6 0.8

1.0 1.2 1_4 1.6 1.8

2.O

2.8
3.0

z
q
n

o
j

Figure 4-10. Buckling coefficients for stiffened plates under uniform c_ompression (three Iongitudinal stiffeneis at quarter points). (Courtesy of U.S. Steel [4].)

NONDII\,4ENSIONAL PARA]\IETER, d

no web plates are used then b" : t,. It is very comfor engineers and designers to use the we6 plate width, b, instead of b". This is wrong. The only time b" : b is when t, = b, as is true for a solid concrete saddle. With steel this never happens, as values of b can be as great as 24 in. and obraining plate that thick is impos_ sible (ar least on this Dlanet). Values ofb" depend upon K, and t,. Since the value of t. is known, the real independent variable in Equation 4-15 is K,. Once again referring to Figure 4-4. we analyze the

If

mon_

compression for the fixed-free case, when multiplied by

jected to compression, bending, shear, or a combination. the plate buckling coefficienr is equal [o rhe effecr:ve width that is determined by the residual stress crirerion, which is as follows:
ti-

t., yields approximately the effective width, b", that is used for residual stress. In other words, if a member is known or suspected to have residual stress and is sub-

saddle configuration for end (boundary) conditions. Sec-

d,t,

tion B-C is considered fixed-fixed in Fisure 4-5. since it js stiffened by sections A-B and C-D. S=ections A-B and C-D are considered fixed-free since the outer web Dlate is not stiffened by another section. The fixed-free condition is the most critical because it is more susceDtible to buckling. and rhus ha: a lower value oi the plaie buckling coefficient than the fixed-fixed case. [t is interestins to note that the plate buckJing coefficient for uniforri

ldit.+2r*(b-l)l

(4-16)

The general equation in which the saddle plate stress distribution is defined is as follows:

o{:

K,

zr2

\,

(4-17 a)

rztr - 4ld'1" --l

\\/

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

179

shere di

saddle plate length normal to vertical axis

of

stiffener (web) plate, shown in Figure 4-4. modulus of elasticity, psi


Poisson's ratio effective saddle width, in. saddle plate thickness, in.

thickness of saddle plate, in. effective width of saddle plate that is perpendicular to the web plate, in.

with

d.=d,(0.25+0.91\)

Substituting the elastic buckling stress


-1-17a into

in

Equation

\:lll
o,

\dJ

maximum unit load the stiffener can carry as


a column, psi

, or:6y-7

o*2

1o.,

J(r

= or-

,. oy'l-l Jol /")

/, \2

Horizontal Reaction on Saddle


o,,

\7-D

;; ;; "' ,l[

o.l2

(4-17b)

gives the relationship of the plate buckling stress in the inelastic range. This equation is based on the conservarive assumption that a plate will always buckle before the yield stress is reached. However, U.S. Steel [4] states that plates will deform plastically without buckling because of strain hardening. This process is similar to the "elastic shakedown" described in Chapter 2. In most applications, as already cited, saddle plates are reinforced with stiffener plates. A simplified analysis can be made to design saddles by using

As shown in Figure 4-i 1, the load Q has a horizontal component exerted on the horns of the saddle. The saddle must be designed to p{event the horns of the saddle from separating. To accomplish this make sure that the minimum cross-sectional area at the lowest point on the saddle can resist the horizontal force component. This force is as follows:

- ^h * cos 0 - 0.5 sin'z0l


l't-lJ+sInPcosP.l

(4-

l9)

The effective cross section to resist the horizontal force is As, shown in Figure 4-11 and calculated as follows:

Fs:

n(A,

2b"t.)o.

(4-18)

where Fs

A, n

: : :

buckling load for compressive loading, LBq


section area of stiffener, in.2 number of stiffeners

Ae

: iRl l;l t, :
outside vessel radius

where R

t
1
Figure 4-11. The load distribution on a saddle.

R/3

180

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

SADDLE BEARING PLATE THICKNESS


.Designing bearing plates for saddles requires knowing what type of foundation the vessel will rest on. For concrete the following analysis applies. Consider a bearing plate with the dimensions shown in Figure 4-12. From ACI Standard 318-77 par. 10.16.1. the allowable bearing strength on concrete is

Table 4-5

o=

@10.85

'J

e,r

(3

/,r

\o

(4-20)

For bearing on concrete (ACI 9.3.2.e) 0 a;

:0.70

3000 psi

in which

(0.70)(0.85)(3,000)41

,
,' :

:1:-3,L,,: \Ar
(,A

L-1,1"

17 26 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 s4 s7 60 63 66 69 72 76 84 95

Bearing Plate Thickness Values tor Various Saddle Loads L1 L, Q.ax (tbs) t (in.) Bp (psi) o,(psi)

l-"

r4-1rl

4 2,858 0.165 42.029 108.852.563 4 5,043 0.178 48.490 162.100.694 4 8.103 0.2t0 67.525 t85.744.857 4.25 .13l 0.241 79.365 213,447.893 4.25 16,007 0.277 1U.62r 232,042.324 5.'75 20,418 0.350 91.050 320.269.t3r 5.75 25,387 0.3?6 lo5.t22 344.024.233 5.75 33,523 0.4t7 129.557 367.1-1.7.375 5.75 40,154 0.442 145.486 39t.528.914 5.75 s9,549 0.508 r9r.784 439,028.224 5.75 68,777 0.531 209.846 462,776382 s.75 84,203 0.573 244.067 486.523.,736 5.75 101.759 0.6t4 280.908 5t0,270.399 5.7s 114,664 0.637 302.145 534.016.463 6.75 t28.417 0.715 275.721 637,918..163 6.15 143,003 0.738 294.245 665.0.1s.973 6.75 174,748 0.794 340.639 701,285.2,75 6.75 210,035 0.828 370.432 773.70r.873 6.75 2s0,290 0.850 390.316 873.271.364

Using a factor of safety of 1.6, Equation 4-21 becomes Thus, the maximum stress in the bearing plate is

*=r,

rs.63 A,

(eir2Mtl!)"'
op

Using a minimum yield strength of 30,000 psi we have the allowable stress for bending, per AISC recommendatron, o.n

=;

M= ,\2r"1\tl

riq\/bj
(4-))\

"

-,

lil
\6i

0.66

o,

0.66(30,000)

19,800 psi

Qt" lo'.,n. ,: I \24.600 Lrl


where b : Q:
Lz

A-)

7l

load on saddle, lbs bearing pressure

BP:

Q ao' = LrLz

Table 4-5 depicts values various saddle loads.

of bearing plate thickness for

DESIGN OF SELF.SUPPORTED VERTICAL VESSELS


Ar=LrLz
Az=LoL+
Figure 4-12. Bearing plate dimensions.

Today's tall, cylindrical process towers are self-supporting, i.e., they are supported by a cylindrical or conical shell (skirt) with a large base ring attached to a con-

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

Vessels

181

,'rete foundation or steel structure with anchor bolts embedded in the concrete or steel. Normally, a vertical \'essel must be at least thirty feet tall to be classified as a "tower." This height is used because thirty feet is the old first wind-zone demarcation in code use. However, smaller vertical vessels are governed by the same design criteria, but are not usually referred to as towers. The various phenomena that affect towers in normal operation make their design complex and worthy of experienced engineering personnel. Therefore, towers should never be taken lightly by any design office, because a failure could result in massive loss of material and possibly lives.

bined with the bending and tensile (or compressive) stresses. Writing this expression we obtain,

the internal stress in the circumferentiai direction is com-

"= -(.*J'H-(x)
where

(4-27)

Z: A:

section modulus of the shell cross section, area of the shell cross section, in.2

in.l

Substituting Equations 4-24, 4-25, and 4-26 into Equatior 4-27 produces

,
-

MINIMUM SHELL THICKNESS REOUIRED FOR COIIBINED LOADS


High-speed electronic computers now provide detailed, exact solutions to complex mathematical probIems, and so have replaced the "strong arm" approximations of yesterday. An example is solving the equations of the moments of inertia and section modulus. Before the advance of computers, the following expressions were used to quicken computations on a slide rule or a small electronic calculator:

: * (ryf - (":zlur.. _
- \4,/=

ipo\ /
\nrtO" \

to

"i o^lra

, h- iLr, _
\

"J

@-zB)

-t DitrDr D,:t/
(4-29)

= \",tnt
or

,(

2w
*

Ot1

'

to o"t'.1 /po\ / \ - \+r/- \norD,-r D,rrD"r - D,2r/

I = nR3t; exact: I: #,o""


Z

D'a)
.I

(4-24)

= \""fr5

,(

2w \ * t1

(4-30)

rRztt exact

= z = ,a (gd

ar'"'D

4-15 |

Referring again to Figure 4-13, we summarize the following:

A=

?Irt;

exact: A:

l,o" -

D,)

(.4-26)

1. For the tension or windward side,

Using R as the mean radius minimizes the error and using R as the outside radius results in considerable error. Solving for the thickness or stress with the exact formulations involves iterative analysis, which is a key attribute of today's computers. The minimum shell thickness required for internal or external pressure alone is often not sufficient for addi tional stresses induced by bending moments and weight loads. Bending stress is a result of static wind, dynamic wind gusts, vibration or seismic response spectra. In design the engineer takes the largest bending moments induced by one of the following: wind, vibration or seismlc. Referring to Figure 4-13, we analyze the stress element depicted. The maximum stress resulting from internal pressure occurs along the x-axis, i.e., the hoop stress is twice the longitudinal stress. Wind, vibration, and/or seismic forces cause the shell to bend about the z-axis, so

'

/po\ /
\ +t

ro

or

\"(D"

lzwl + DJ/

\rrr D"

o"v
-

\
D,2t /

D,tt D"2

(4-31)

16 D.M . - /.o\ I \ ' \+, /- \ro{D" --J,DJ + D-l-,/

- /zw\ \"r(DJ-D)/

t4-1)\

2.

For the compression or leeward side,

/po\ i
\4tl

\"(D" + D)/

lzwi

ro \Tt(D" + D,XD.r

o.r,a
I

D,r)/
/4-11)

182

Mechanical Design of Process Sysrems

o
u,

U'

3lt ld"d l^'l


'

l-lo

ll,
/

l-

clF
stN =ll x l= 1t--l --r'l tr
I

ll'
'E'

o
-3

tt Gt q) o

,. f---l -\'l II< l<-l

l<1_

tt, lo

^i^ Lo-l I
s-^

th at

--41ll < lr>- I

" lci r \ | lr

Nls

ci

> E-

o i.;

o"

/ irlol<rrl
I

tk

q)

to C'

tt

!'<f r.u 3
o)

bp
o.

EO

,ll lll - !l < l<L flti -t'i1

3 ielo Rl+--i- ",* ;l*

' {i ll I' -rdo[<rlt ti --lx


!:J

i i.- - l'' o ^ "-'l= ' I ' o- +

^r

"

Rlr

t
I

a,l

o rl)
E(/, o
o-

-\1il <lKlr

il= "-1 - ' f---------1r

^, i rine* )
t-l I
x ol o- td

E" O,o

3 5x

r N il+ "_12 ^l .Jt I/ ql - +;l it I:+

Fl_

o r

i -tu

..-t-''_ Ir

Y\ . pl*
o
q)

a9 or l:
U'|,,l

!:

(1,

IL

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure


OT

Vessels

183

._ - /ro\

'

\4"/-

ro

o.rra

\"r(D" + DJ/

lr*\

\""(DJDJ(DJ

+-3/

\
(4-34)

the cost-plus contractors seek to standardize designs and use lower pressure vessel code allowables. As with wear plates on horizontal vessels, most lump-sum contractors would elect to omit them whenever possible to save material and labor costs. This phiiosophy is becoming increasingly popular with recent economic upheavals and

3. For

vacuum vessels the maximum stress occurs on the compressive side, such that Equations 4-29 and 430 become

increasing international competition. Types of skirt supports are shown in Figure 4-14. Figure 4-14b shows the most common and desirable skirt, since the shear is eliminated by the type of attachment. This type is used primarily on short vertical vessels.
The skirt is designed to resist loadings caused by bending and the tower weight. Writing the expression that describes this we obtain

- l2wl \"(D. + DJ/


and

(4-35)

ro o"r',r \ . \ / ' - /po \4")-F',D.+ qnD"' i-DI/ _l 2wl

Substituting Equations 4-25 and 4-26, as before, we obtain


(4-36)

\"t(DJ

DJ/

16MD.
7r't(D" + Dr(D"2 +

2W

Di) ,

irr(Do

(4-37)
D,)

SUPPORT SKIRT DESIGN


The design ofvessel skirts is one area in which designers disagree philosophically. Lump-sum contractors seek to use higher allowables and thus less material, whereas

l6MD"
no(D" +

5tD"'+ D-5 "'@. + D)

2W

(4-38)

Once again, Equations 4-37 and 4-38 must be solved by iteration. Normally, these equations do not govern the skirt thickness, as the reaction of external bolting and

IAINIGHf CIRCULAF CYLINDBICAL SKIBT

l\l Jt tE,
l
16I

t,/

EXTEiNAL LAPPING SKIRI

Figure 4-14. Skirt designs.

184

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

cations where external chairs shown in Fisure 4-15 ire used. See Brownell and Young [3], for a derivarion ofthe reaction expression. The skirt thickness required to re_ sist the reaction of external chairs or comp;ession ring for a chair of the type in Figure 4-15 is determined ai

compression rings is not considered. The stresses in the skirt shell that result in compressive loading on the compression ring and bolting chair can be quite high in appli-

W: W. :
WE

Fi :

see below

yessel weight, lb

= N=

operating weight, lb empty weight, lb number of anchor bolts

follows:

The minimum initial bolt load required to maintain compression between the base plate and compression ring exist when o" 0. Thus, using Equation 4-40 and substituting o. 0 we have

,=176[#r]",,,
where
t

(4-3e)

-'
f,:

8M

r
m
F.

B
G11

: skirt thickness, in. : radius of skirt, in. : bolt spacing, in. or 28 in Figure 4-15 = uplift bolt load, lb : radial distance from outside of skirt to bolt

N(D", +

D. -

D,1

____:

W,
N

(4-41)

The required bolt area is

circle, in., Figure 4-15


gusset height, in.

[*")No,

*'
(4-42)

Equation 4-39 is normaily the controlling criteria for a skirt with external chairs. Howeveq for a skirt with or without external chairs, Equation 4-38 must be satisfied.

where BC ou

: bolt circle diameter, rn. : allowable anchor bolt stress, psi M : in.lb

ANCHOR BOLTS
Anchor bolts are one of the most important aspects of tower design, and, unfortunately, are often not taken seriously enough. Consequently, many problems related to towers during construction or operation can be linked to anchor bolts. Wind and seismic loads are dynamic and result in cyclic loading of the anchor bolts. For this reason, I will only present the method for analyzing preloaded anchor bolts. Initial preload is significant since pre-torquing the bolts reduces the variable stress range the bolts experience during cyclic loading. The tower weight and bolt load allow firm contact between the compression ring and concrete or steel such that the support base rotates about the neutral axis of the contact area, as shown in Figure 4-16. Referring to this figure we see that under a moment M at the base plate-concrete juncture the maximum and minimum stress is
_

Equation 4-42 is one of the major differences in designing a tower under a lump-sum contract versus cost-plus. Most cost-plus designers use vessel code allowable stress values that are based on a factor of safety of 4:1. This large a factor of safety is intended for components containing pressure. Thus, using vessel code allowable stresses for bolts leads to large anchor bolts, which is undesirable because more concrete is required and larger

bolts are much harder to torque, requiring bigger


wrenches and being more susceptible to galling. To keep anchor bolt sizes down follow AISC euidelines for bolting- since anchor bolts are purely stirctural in nature. Table 4-6 provides the allowable stresses for boltins

per AISC

" = H).
where A"

[oJ

- (**J
o,r;

(4-40)

f,to"t

strength material will still be less than rhe addirional c6ncrete and labor costs associated with a larger bolt. Certainly. if one pays more for high-strength stleel, he should be permitted to use the larger allowable, as given by AISC. Normally, 40,000 psi is used with A325 and 193-

high-strength bolts are used in most applications. A307 bolts are used where bolt loadings are not large and the bolt size need not be massive. When bolt sizes get large (231a to 3 in.) or it is desirable to reduce the bolt size. then Al93-B7 or A325 bolts are used. One can see from Table 4-6 that A325 has more than twice the allowable stress value as A307 bolts. The extra cost of the hieh-

l5l. Type 4325 bols and ASTM Al93-87

87 bolts.
The spacing of anchor bolts is another critical parameter. Spacing the anchor bolts too close to one another

I,=#(D"4-D,4)

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

185

f*-

"---|

r? lzA,l

1I

t[ liill
F-r:-'-_i
NOTES:
all dimenslons in inches BTHK to be evaluated by

IT

Iil
k----il--+l

r-*-l

J IIL

eouations 4-57 or 4-60 all welds to be size

"t"

BOLT
'I

SIZEABCBH
'l

GH

tl'

'l1la 1q8
1112

11la

2tl+
21h
23lq

31lz 'l4a 14q 1112 2 3{+ 148 17k '1518 21k 4221s1c2112 41lq 21la 2118 148 2sla 2sl+ 4tlz 21lc 21la 2 5 2112 21lz 2th 31lq 51lz 24c 23lc 21h 31lz Sslc 3 24c 23lt 34a 61lc31l+334118 Srla 4112 61lz 3rlz 3 7 3glc 31lc 31lz 4gla

4e 9e 4e llz 112 5lB 3lc 3l+ 4e 1 11k

31lt
33/e 33lq 41le

41lt
5
51lz

53lc

64a
71lz

CHLLJMNP 31lz 31la 3 6 9e 51lz 5 3{+ 6 Ye 53lq 51lc 31lz 3 5112 33t+ 3qo 4 6 4t 6 33lq 4318 7 4q 61lq 53lq 4 41lq 41la 4112 8 3lq 6112 6 7 6tlz 4eh 4alc 43lq 9 1 Stlq 51lz 6 10 1 7112 7 Telc 7112 53lq 5718 6112 12 1 7 13 11/e 81lc 74c 64a 6 '14 11lq 8112 I 61+ 6{e 71lz 16'l1la98r/+777slq

1'tlq th 7112 1lq 81|q4 5h6 9 '12 {e 13 {e 144rc8 16 1lz 18 llz

74s3 731rc3

3 3 5

6 7
9 10

Figure 4-15. Typical designs and dimensions of chair and base plates

186

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

ANCHOB BOLT

FOUNDATATION

MAXIMUM TENSILE UPLIFT FORCE- q

MAXIMUM COMPBESSIVE
FORCE = nFc

JI

<l zt<

E.
I I

I I +-

COMPRESSIVE FOBCE

TENSILE FORCE DISTRIBUTION


CENTROID

DISTRIBUTION CENTROID

Figure 4-16. Anchor bolt loading force distribution.

prevents the strength of the bolting in the concrete from becoming fully developed. It is advisable to set the bolts at least 18 inches apart. To accommodate this minimum spacing a wider base ring with gusset plates can be used or the skirt can be tapered with a conical skirt. As shown in Figure 4-14, with a tapered skirt the apex angle should not exceed 15 ".

factor. The modulus of elasticity of steel is approximately 30 x 106 psi and that of concrete approximately 2.O to 4.O x 106 psi. Defining the ratio of the two as n. we wnte
F

(4-43)

BASE PLATE THICKNESS DESIGN


Base plate design involves the loadings passed on from the tower to the foundation. The base plate is a circular ring plate used to distribute these load-s around the cir-

since E.

:o"
os
s

and

E. :

cumference of the bolt circle. Anchor bolts normally vary in diameter from one to three inches-bolts smaller than one inch are more likely to strip or shear off; bolts larger than three inches require large wrenches and create excessive problems for construction personnel. For these reasons it is desirable to attemDt to adhere to the one to three inch size range. In the case of a concrete foundation, the relative strength of the concrete to steel becomes a significant

and e,

e. because
os(induced)

of the base plate-concrete bond we


noc(induced)

have

(4-44)

Listed in ?ble 4-7 are values of the moduli ratio n and the various concrete mixes from Brownell and Young [3]. Figure 4-16 shows a detail ofthe compressive force of the concrete, F", multiplied by the value of n shown
opposite the maximum tensile stress, Fr of the base plate
steel.

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

187

Table 4-6

Bolis, Threaded Parts, and Rivets Tension [51 Allowable loads in kips
Bolts and Rivets Tension on gross (nominal) area Nominal Diameter. d. in.
ASTM
Fi
3la

4s

'l1la

11la in.'?

13ls

11lz

Designation
A307 bolts A325 bolts A490 bolts .\502-l rivets A502-2,3 rivets

Ksi 0.3068 20.0 44.0 54.0 23.0 29.0


6.1 13.5 16.6
'7.1

Area (Based on Nominal Oiameter),


0.4418 8.8
19.4

23.9

0.6013 \2.O 26.5 32.5


13.8
r7 .4

0.7854
15.'7

0.9940
19.9
43.'7
53.',1

1.227 54.0
66.3

1.485 29.7
65.3

1.767 35.3
77 .7

34.6

42.4
18.

to.2
12.8

8.9

22.8

22.9 28.8

?8.2 35.6

80.2 34.2
43.1

95.4 40.6
51.2

The above table lists ASTM specified materials that are generally intended for use as structural fasleners. For dynamic and fatigue loading, only A325 or A490 high-strength bolts should be specified. See AISC Specification. Appendix B. Sect. 83. For allowable combined shear and tension loads. see AISC SDecification Secl. l 6.3.

Threaded Fasteners [51 Tension on gross (nominal) area Nominal Diameter. d. in.
ASTM

Designaiion
A.r6

F, Ksi

F, Ksi
58 65

Ft

1
5.9 6.6
7.1
12. i

11ls

11la

13/8

'l1lz

Ksi

0.3058 0.4418 0.6013 0.7854 0.9940 1.227 1.485


19. I

4572. Cr. 50
A588
A,149

2t .5
23.
I

8.4 9.5
10.2
I

l l.5

r5.0
16.9
18. r

19.0

23.4
26.4

t2.9
r

2t.4
23.0

3.9

28.3

28.4 31.9 34.3

1.767 33.1 38.0 40.8

d<l

I <d <

lr/:

92 8l

120
105

39.6 31.7

7.5

23.8

3l.l
3.1.5

12.6

Thc abole lable lists ASTM specified nulc.iul\ !!ailirblc in round blr sr(xk rhat lrc genrr!lly intcnded lirr u\c in rhreaded appljcaoons such rs rie rods. cross bracing and similar uscs The rensile capacir! ol thc lh.cadcd porlion ol an upsrl r(xl shall bc largrr lhan lh! b( ) lrca rrnrs 0.6F.. F, = specified minimunr tensilc strcngth oflhc lasrener nutcrill. t. = 0.llF, = allowable tensile srress in rhrcldcd iasrener.

Table 4-7 Design of Supports lor Vertical Vessels


Values of Constants

[31

C"
0.050
0. 100 0. 150

C", Z, Function of k
Cr

q,

andJasa

ZJ
0.490 0.480 0.469 0.459 0.760
o.'766
o.7'7

Average Values ot Properties ot Three Concrete Mixes Water Content oi n U.S. Gallons 28-day Ultimate 30 x 106

0.200 0.250 0.300 0.350 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.550 0.600

0.600 0.852 1.049 1.218 1.370


1.510

3.008 2.881 2.772

2.66r
2.551

per 94Jb

0.776
0.7'79 0.781

Sack ot Cement
7tlz
63/c

Compressive

Streigth,
2000 2500 3000

psi

Ec

Allowable Compressive

Strength, psi
800 1000
1200 1400

1.&0
1.765
1.884

a Ana 2.333 2.224

o.418
0.438 o.427 0.416 0.404 0.393
0.381

2.t t3
2.000
1.884

2.000 2.113 2.224

0.783 0.784 0.785 0.786 0.785

l5 t2
10 8

6
5

3750

r.765

0.369

o.784

'188

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Equation 4-44 is shown as a linear proportion by the straight line shown in Figure 4-16. Even though the tensile strength of the bolt is, by Equation 4-44, equal to the ratio n times the concrete allowable comDressive strength. it is not necessarily evenly distributed about the neutral axis as shown in Figure 4-16. This "offset factor," known as the "k Factor," is determined from

f
(ER)(SFC)

(4-53)

os
(d

- kd)

noc

kd

After computing an initial value of k, this process should be repeated five times in order to converge on a value for k. Once a value for k is determined, we now solve for the maximum induced stress at the outer periphery in the
concrete,

ork =

I
tro"

(4-4s) oq.*,
using

: (sFC)t*X**]
L
=

(4-s4)

D"

(skirt OD)

given value of Z. Normally, k = 0.333, C" : 1.588, C. = 2.376, Z = 0.431, and j : 0.782 to start the process. Then the following equations are solved:
rt--/\

Equation 4-45 is solved by iteration using the following steps: Thke values for C", C,, Z, and j in Thble 4-7 for a

, ln.

(4-s5)

we solve for the base plate thickness, BTHK,

/^^\ M _ (W,r(z)l!!l " lt)l

BrHK = L
where ou1 psi

[tf,]"'

(4-s6)

(4-46)

allowable working stress for base plate metal,

rJrl;l
\'.1

.. lBcl

''
Ir =

(Ah)N

r(BC) / -\ rt,r l!91c,


F

(4-47)

(4-48)

fc:
BPW

fi +wE

\2/

base plate

width, in.
(4-4e)
(4-s0) (4-51)

Bpw:(D.)-(Di)
2

tz

BPW

t;

By using Equation 4-56 one assumes no gusset plates on the base plate-skirt connection. To reduce the required base plate thickness in Equation 4-56 the additional strength of gusset plates can be used, because with the gusset plate stiffening the base plate at the skirtjuncture. the base plate between the gusset plates can be considered as a rectangular, uniformly loaded plate with two edges simply supported (at gusset plates), a third edged fixed (skirt side), and the fourth edge free. The deflections and bending moments are tabulated by Timoshenko [6] and are shown in Thble 4-8. The process of using gusset plates to stiffen the base plate is begun by making the number of gusset plates equal to the number of anchor bolts. Doing this we write

(c.)(1,000)

NG : let NG:
5U=

number of gusset plates N bolts


(4-57)

modulus of elasticity of base plate metal, psi compressive strength of concrete, psi, denoted in
Thble 4-7 as o"

-/IIat NG + N bolts

J|L = --

f,

(h
circle and

/^l
(Enxt ))

(4-s2)

RAT:! SG
M- :
M,'
1E,1o"1.""(SG)'? (4-58)
(4-59 |

(]Jrc.r

where SFC :

compressive stress on concrete at the bolt

lE,1o"1."-(L)2

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

Vessels

189

Table 4-8

Maximum Bending Moments in a Bearing Plate with Gussets [61


M,

COMPRESSION RING AND GUSSET PLATE DESIGN


bt2
I

{' = b/2\
\v

=r

Typical designs and dimensions of chair and base plate designs are shown in Figure 4-15. The compression plate
thickness is determined by
f^^ : where

0
0.0078f"b,

-0.500f"1,

o.0293f"bl
0.0558f"b,

-o.428f"t, *0.319tP
-o.22'7 f:r2

I rr,rc I
t _____________

::-

l4('.rr(A
BS : Fi : o.11 :

BSI

(4-63)

0.w72f.b,
0.123fJ2
0. 131f"b,

-0.119f"F
-o.124f"t2 -0.125t"t2 -0.125f"1,

0.133f"b,

-0.125f"t2

and C are dimensions in Figure 4-15 1.25 nominal bolt size

0.133f"b,

bolt uplift force, determined by Equation 4-61 allowable stress of compression ring metal, psi

= :=

gusset spacing (x direction) inches.

bearing-plate outside radius minus skirt outside radius (y direction)


lnches.

The gusset plate thickness is determined by the following:


18,000 Gw ta

(F,)ta

=0 - l"'i=' I,J|.ru

a],,2/F \

\4-@l

where tc: Gw: GH:


Where o"1*n,; is determined by Equation 4-55, using the greater of M, and M, we have by

gusset plate thickness, m. gusset plate width, in. (A in Figure 4-15) gusset plate height, in. (see Figure 4-15)

The minimum skirt-to-base plate weld size is determined

ornN
where

lortalo

'
or

(4-60)
Mr
in.-lb/in.

. *:
Fw
and

[+r'a

[_oJ

["o*l =

] - [w. I
[.o"j

M,

(1.33Xo"r)(0.55)

This iteration can be repeated as many times as desired to reduce the base plate thickness. In normal practice, it is unusual to use more gusset plates than anchor bolts. The bearing pressure on the base plate must be checked to prevent exceeding the allowable compressive stress of the concrete. Computing the uplift force on each anchor bolt we have,

: w = 2F*
where o"1

weld size

(4-65)

-'
o^ -_

N1D"z

96MD" WF ,, a P:; N'''


12MD"
21,
DSI

: M: D.r :

smaller of the allowable stress values for the


base plate and skirt metals moment at base plate induced by wind or

seismic forces, in.-lb outside diameter of skirt, in.

(4-61)

ANCHOR BOLT TORQUE


(4-62)

N" WF ----:: + -----: +

A" A.

-.weight and wind o" ( 1,200 psi for where, M : ftJbs A" =
t-

There have been many recipes proposed for the computation of bolt torque over the years. The mystery of bolt loads is unveiled by such authorities as Bickford [7] and Faires [8]. Their extensive research into bolt loading produced the following recommended formulation:

where

r[(D")'?

(D)'?]

T:

CDFi,

in.lb
0.20 bare steel 0.15 for lubricated bolt nominal bolt diameter, in. anchor bolt uplift force, lbs

(4-66)

where
(DJa]

r[(D")a

C: C: D=
F1

64

190

Mechanrcal Design

ol

Procg55 g151snlt

2.3<+<2.6

groutl-i

-f-concrete

Boltom of sleeve or top of concrete

L = 17Du

Figure 4-17.

"J"

and

"L"

type anchor bolts are used for small vessel..

In most tower applications, Fel-Pro C5A is a very


common bolt lubricant. The field of bolt desisn and bolt lubricants is almost as involved as tower desien and the

interested reader is relerred to the excelleni work of Bickford [7]. Figure 4-17 shows the two most common types of anchor bolts, "J" and "L." For large towers where large loads are anticipated, the bolt in Figure 4-18 is used.

orout -,L

T_

WIND ANALYSIS OF TOWERS


Analyzing wind loading on towers requires combining loads induced by wind, internal or external pressure, and weight. Such an analysis must be made to ensure that the tower shell thickness is sufficient to withstand the combined loads. Wind and seismic analyses are completed separately, with their respective bending moments being used to determine the tower shell thickness values at each section. Before examining the design criteria, let's consider the following terms:
ow
concrele

op

o"

= =

stress due to wind or earthquake stress due to internal or external pressure stress due to weisht

Figure 4-18. Straight type bolt-used for large vessels, cially towers.

espe-

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

Vessels

191

Referring to Figure 4-13, we see that the stress ele:lent in the shell is affected by the combined loads more ::r the longitudinal direction than the circumferential di:ection. However, for the longitudinal axis the internal rr external pressure stress is governed by the relation

such that the leeward side governs, then

loo-o*-o*l < Bfactor


If
Equations 4-70 and 4-71 hold,
oo

-4t

PD

(4-67)

,rhere D
P
op
T

: : : :

mean diameter of vessel, in.

internal or external pressure, psi Iongitudinal stress, psi


shell thickness less corrosion allowance, in.

- o*,1 ) o"1E where ou1 : allowable stress in tenslo, for a given material at a given temperature and pressure E : weld efficiency
lo* -f
Another form of Equation 4-71 may be determined by rewriting the equation as
op

There are two conditions where Equation 4-67 is used to combine stress values:

o*,

L. Combination of wind (or earthquake) Ioad, intemal


pressure, and weight of vessel. For windward side,

or

P(R,
(4-68)

\'s:qw+op-o*r
For leeward side ,rLs

0.40

_ -;Rl W

-TI
(4-73)

Inwhrchfi{
W69)

op

ow

- owr ) 1oo-o*-o*,1 l>


l

pn,tl r [: w - t.zo L fSp" I

Comparing Equation 4-68 with Equation 4-69 we have


ow

+ op-

o*,1
l oo

(4-70)
(4-7

Equation 4-73 is another form of Equation 4-71, in terms of the vessel dimensions, where W is the total weight of the tower above the section being analyzed.

:f and only

if

o*,1

t)

2.

Combination of wind (or earthquake) load, external

which is true for most applications, when the internal pressure stress is greater than that induced by the weight of the tower above the section. However, for a few cases, the stress induced by the weight is greater than Ihat induced by internal pressure for low-pressure thickivalled applications. The thick walls at low pressure could be for controlling tower deflections due to wind. For these limited cases the allowable stress is that determined by UG-23 (b) of the ASME vessel code, which is known as the B factor. The B factor is commonly associated with external pressure, because the case of the weight stress exceeding the internal pressure stress is rare, but it must be emphasized that the B factor is the allowable value of stress for longitudinal compressive loading like that encountered in towers. Thus, the B factor is more comprehensive than its external pressure application would indicate. Therefore, if Equation 4-71 is
reversed and
o.,

pressure and the weight of the tower-

On windward side
OWS

= O*-Op-O"n

On leeward side

OLs:

-O*

op - O*,

For most applications with external pressure we have ols

>

ows

| - o* -op-o*, ) rw-op-owt oo*0


Since the value of oo is for external pressure, we must apply the B factor in Equation 4-67 . After these criteria are satisfied, we turn our attention to the determination of wind loads that induce o".

|>

lool

(4-72)

192

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

WIND DESIGN SPEEDS


The procedures for determining wind design speeds for structures, towers, and stacks varv from Counirv to country, depending on how well records have been kept. The wind velocity is a function of the temperature gradient and terrain roughness. The first representation of a mean wind velocity profile in horizontaily homogeneous terrain is the power law, first proposed in 1916. This law
states

2.

ing hit by one is extremely small; however, nuclear sites are designed to withstand tornado winds. Using site and structure factors calculate the design wind speed. The factors on rhe ANSI l98Z tesr
used are as follows:

,t: r.\r:)"
where Vo

(4-74)

3.

Z. =

: Q:

mean wind speed at a reference height Z reference height (normally 33 fr orl0 m) a constant dependent upon roughness of

(a) Importance Coefficient, I, a hospital or nuclear plant would be designed moie conservatively than a barn on a farm. (b) Variation of wind speed with building height and surrounding terrain. (c) Gust response factor. (d) Velocity pressure coefficient, K2. Test a model of the tower and its surroundings in a wind runnel. Even though rhe 1972 ANSI stindard does not mention this, the 1982 version sDecifies certain requirements lor wind tunnels.

Z=

terrain
height above ground

three optional methods of determining wind design loads on a structure are given [11]. These options are as fol-

and the Standard Building Codes [10]. The ANSIA58.1- 1982 differs from the ANSI-A58. I - 1972 in that

Other proposals have been made to determine wind speeds. Simiu [9] states that the logarithmic law is a supenor representation of strong wind profiles in the lower atmosphere. What is relevant to the reader is to be familiar with whatever standard is used. The discussions and examples presented in this text are slanted toward those standards in the United States. However, the technioues and base principles of engineering are applicable to all countnes. In the United States there are four basic codes soverning wind- ANSI A58. | 1982. the Uniform, thi Basic,

These three options are new to both the ANSI-ASg. I standard and to the three building codes-the Uniform. Basic. and the Standard. The larrei three codes do not au-

tomatically adopt newly revised ANSI standards, thus making for inconsistency in wind code provisions in the United States. The basic wind pressure in the ANSI-A5S .l-19j2 rs
q3a= pv2l2

0.00256

v3o
lb/ft,

(0.5X0.00238)(5,280/3,600fV30
@-'75,

where q.s

: V36 :

basic wind pressure at 30


basic wind speed, mph

ft,

above grade

The effective velocity pressures of winds for buildings and structures, qF, is

lows:

9r :
where

KzGrQ:o

(4-76

l.

Choose a design wind speed (50-year mean recurrence interval) off the U.S. map provided on the document. The national map is a graphic display of isopleths (lines of equal wind speed) of the maximum values of the mean speed for which records have been kept. i.e.. basic wind speeds rhat can be expected to occur within a particular period. This "particular period" is called the return period. The problem with a nalional map consisting bf isopleths is that localized wind speeds can vary as much as 30 mph over the speed shown on the isopleth (particularly in mountainous regions).

K2 = velocity pressure coefficient that depends


Ge

upon the type of exposure and height Z above the ground dynamic gust response factor

In the 1982 ANSI-A58.1 Code the effective velocin pressure for wind is partially a combination ol Equarion.
4-7

and 4-76, 0.00256 KzGV)2 basic wind speed, mph importance factor I

qz

V=

: I:

\417)

Hurricanes are fairly well accounted for on these maps. Tornadoes are considered to be nonexistent, because it is not economically feasible to design an entire building for tornado wind speeds. The reason for this is that the probability of a structure be-

A value of V can be approximated for the United States from the isopleths shown in Figure 4-19. One of the major differences between the ANSI A58.1-1972 and 1982 is how the velocitv Dressure coefficient, K2, is determined. In the 1972 Cod'e the value ot

J
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

Vessels

193

o; -; e. b \.E oot;9 \

\\ ;]
\

\px
i4'

"E /\,r\ * *tid i

a'*-w* *
ird\

\\

3. iaEg o-i=H9

b9;.0 *-t!cb ; !b69


.s i ii :#

\F 9!.o : R: '-+!- 2 : \8. E i a; f : ]{ .: IEE:

^;it 9\i !ii.s -

i-'q -i Hf;n* s :,'' s 18 ;:

" I

: ; ; :

$ " !;i;
o-!o
let

g;ni: I -* l(U*963
6
6 r. E'= o

-:

i" f i:.E ?i 4:' ig >iif o


-6
r
5
6 o

z
O

No

.9
TL

.l

!L

rl' I jll\

194

Vechanical Design of Process Syslem,

Table 4-9 Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficient, Kz


Height above Ground Level, Z 0- l5
20
25

[1 1l

o.t2
0. 15 0.1'7

30

40 50
60 70
80

0.19 0.23 o.27

0.30
0.33 o.37 0.40 0.42 0.48 0.53 0.58 0.63 0.67 0.78 0.88 0.98

90
100 120 140 160 180

o.37 0.42 o.46 0.50 0.57 0.63 0.68 o.73 o.77 0.82 0.86 0.93 0.99
1.05
1.1
1

0.80 0.87 0.93 0.98


1.06 1.13

1.20 .27

r.32 r.37
1.46 1.52 1.58 1 .63 1.67
|
.'7

l.

19

| .24

200 250 300

350 400 450


500

r.07
1. 16

t.24

1.16 1.28 1.39 1.49 1.58 1.67 1.75

1.29 | .34 1.38 1.45 1.52 1.58 I .63 1 .68


1.',79

1.7 5

1.81

1.87 1.92 1.97 2.01

1.88 1.97
2.O5

2.12
2.

l8

2.10 2.18 2.25 2.31 2.36

2.4r

K7 is a linear function of the height Z from heights of thirty to nine hundred feet. This results in a triangular wind distribution on the tower. In the 1982 Code the
value of K2 is a parabolic function (can be approximated with a step function) for wind loading depicted in Table 4-9 and for dynamic gust response, K7 is governed by lhe power law, Equation 4-74.

where a

velocity of sound

0 in our case, because winci

speeds are extremely low compared

to sonic

speeds

This equation shows that there is a relationship dictated by the dimensions of the parameters involved. Applying dimensional analysis makes the equation

,r*
Kz=

lz\2'

\r,)

forz > ls feet


@-78)

-tpvt, -t;

P(Y2!2

,}:.

forZ <

15 feet

where each of the two components is a dimensionless parameter. The equation can be solved for the first dimensionless combination by

where values of Z" and d are given in Thble 4-10. The parabolic function is a reflection of the old classical approach used in the ASA 58.1-1955, but is a more refined distribution. The treatment of K2 in the dynamic gust response analysis is a new development in U.S. codes. The force exerted on a tower immersed in a movins fluid is a function of the properties ol the tower shapi and properties of the fluid. The fluid properties of importance are the viscosity, density, and elasticity. Writing this relationship in functional form we have

r _ - /pvi\ pv+-'\r/
and

(4-19

F = f(p, Y, I, p, a)

Equation 4-79 implies that the parameters F/(pVri: (pYllp) have certain definite values that will be equa. if a geometrically similar body with the same orientatio: is moved through the same fluid or another fluid fo: which pVflp has the same value as the first body. Tsi such bodies are said to be dynamically similar and dr namic similarity is the key to wind tunnel tests. Assumins
that p has no influence on the force F, we can deduce

fror

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels Equation 4-79 (see any basic fluid mechanics text) and obtain

195

Table 4-10 Exposure Category Constanls [111


Exposure Category

4
3.0 4.5

Do

2
Cp

c
pYz12

7.0
10.0

D
(4-80)

1500 1200 900 700

0.025 0.010 0.00s 0.003

orF:

where Cp is a dimensionless empirical constant. Equation 4-80 states that, for a body of given orientation and shape that is immersed in a moving fluid, the force experienced is proportional to the kinetic energy per unit volume of the motion of the fluid (p/2)V2 and a characteristic area f2. Cp is a dimensionless quantity that characterizes the force and

r/h =
1.8

O.O21

is called the /orce coefficient. Two bodies that are immersed in moving fluids are said to be similar (geometric similarity) if their Reynolds numbers are equal. Then the flows are dynamically similar and have equal force coefficients. The Reynolds number pVl y. is called a similairy parameter. Figure 4-20 shows the influence of the Reynolds number, corner radius, and surface roughness on the force coefficient on various bodies. The values of Cp are determined empirically and are shown in the figure. Sometimes this coefficient is referred to as the drag or pressure coefficient. Kuethe and Schetzer [12], use the Kutta-Joukowski theorem to show that the force per unit length acting on a right cylinder of any cross section whatever is equal to pVf and acts perpendicular to V. The symbol f is circuIation flow about the cylinder and | = r'DV. The KuttaJoukowski principle is exemplified in Figure 4-211131. Here the pressure distribution around the cylinder is maximum ninety degrees to the air flow. Depending upon the relative stiffness of the tower sections and mass distribution. this perpendicular lorce vector can cause a phenomenon known as ovaling, which will be discussed
later.

---j ''--!1,
lz'
0-4

r/h = 0.167

(b)

1.2

I
I I
o.4

,-"-01

t/h=

0.333

1.2

In computing the wind forces on a tower, Equation 480 takes the following form in using ANSI A58. 1- 1982:

t/h=

O.5

F:

q2GCpAg

(4-81)

whele qz

G:
Cp

:
=

wind pressure at height Z, EgrJation 4-77,

tO. 2

4
sanded

8105 $rface
srrface

4
Ae
(d)

ato6 2

8tO7

lb/fc
gust response factor for main wind-force resisting systems of flexible structures force coefficient cross-sectional area of tower and other attachments, ft2

---Smooth -

Ar =

The gust response factor, G, when multiplied by the


mean wind load, produces an equivalent static wind load

Figure 4-20. The curves depict the influence ofthe Reynolds number, corner radius, and surface roughness on the drag coefficient, square to circular cylinders; r is the corner radius and K is the sand grain size [9].

196

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

112

p!2

Figure 4-21. A sequence ofpressure fields forming around a cylinder at Nq6 = I 12,000 for approximately one third of one cycle of vortex shedding (Flow-Induced Vibration by R. Blevins. @1977 by Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc. Reprinted by oermission.)

that would induce deflections equal to those of a gusty wind. MacDonald [14] refers to this approach as a quasistatic loading analysis. Quasi-static means that at any instant the stress and deflection induced in the tower are the same as if the instanlaneous mean wind load were aoplied as a static load. Thus. the significanl factor is identifying the single highest peak value of instantaneous mean wind speed, or that is, predicting the future worst peak value. Baker and others found at the end of the nineteenth century that there is a simple relationship between the gust frontal area and gust duration. This relationship provides a means of determining the size of the gust, and is illustrated in Figure 4-22. The figure indicates that the worst wind condition for a Darticular tower is not necessarily the maximum value of the wind velocity, but rather the highest wind speed of the particular size of gust capable of totally enveloping it. To compensate for this in a simple quasi-static analysis, ANSI A58.1-1982 gives rhe gust factor as

Table 4-1 1

Probability ol Exceeding Wind Design Speed P" = 1- (1 - P")N

Probability Design Lite ot Structure in N years P, 1510 15 25 50 100 0.10 0.100 0.410 0.651 0.'194 0.928 0.995 o.999 0.05 0.050 0.226 0.401 0.537 0.723 0.923 0.994 0.01 0.010 0.049 0.096 0.140 0.222 0.395 0.634 0.005 0.005 0.025 0.049 0.072 0.118 0.222 0.394
D_

Annual

probability of exceeding design wind speed dunng n years, where P : l-(1 - p.)" annual probability of wind speed exceeding
given magnitude (Table 4-l l) exposure factor evaluated at two-thirds the mean height of the structure

tJ:

L,.o.l +t

lp

\p

11

?tr.,/s

\r2
|

_ 11
e-82)

+ 0.002ci

2.35(C,- )0 5 (Zl301rt"

where

p:

structural damping coefficienr (percentage of critical damping). For normal working stress conditions, 0.01 < P < 0.02 for towers.

S:

structure size factor (Figure 4-23) average horizontal dimension of the building

or structure in a direction normal to the wind.

ft

(see Example 4-2)

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

r97

Iv
MEAN VELOCITY: V

|-J
GUST DURATION 3

l'--4-l ^,--l
OUnOt'O".?

EFFECTIVE GUST DIAMETER

5
15

)165

tt

Figure 4-22. Diagram of relationship between gust duration and gust diameter.

For a tower with many obstructions, such as piping, ladders, platforms, and clips that are comparable in size to the vessel, the gust response factor can be determined by:

,I

r.:

"

= "--\/t.zsp
n r<

r.l.:zr,),s \' ' * 1+ o.oolc/

(4-83)

0.9

:r[o3ora

^
0

20

30 r0 5060

80

t00
hlftl

200

300 a005006008001000

2000

Figure 4-23. Structure size factor, s [l

l].

The gust response factors given in Equations 4-82 and 4-83 are for flexible structures, such as towers, where the height exceeds the minimum horizontal dimension at least by five to one or the structure exhibits a natural frequency less than one. The fact that the tower may have a natural frequency less than one is significant. Simiu and Scanlan [9] point out that for natural frequencies greater than one, the response spectra are dependent on the structure's height. However, for natural frequencies less than one, the spectra distribution has little influence on structural response, and the magnitude ofturbulent fluctuation components, such as wind gusts, at or near the natural frequency of the tower could significantly affect the structural response. For this reason Equation 4-82 should be used for towers with particularly low natural frequencies. Figure 4-24 shows a plot of wind gust velocity versus the structural response of a structure. The cyclic loading

198

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

platform

Figure 4-24. Quasi-static structural response spectra versus wind velocity [ 14].

DE

= effective diameter
of area resisting wind

induced in the tower can result in fatisue failure of various vessel components. Equation 4-81 contains the last parameter that must be defined, Ar, the total cross-sectional area of the tower and attachments that are perpendicular to the wind. This area is computed by first determining the equivalent diameter of the area facing the wind. This can be expressed
AS

De

(vessel OD)

+ 2(vessel insulation thickness) + (pipe OD) + 2(pipe insulation thickness) + (platform projection)

(ladder

projection)

(4-84)

Equation 4-84 does not consider extraneous equipment attached to a tower, such as reboilers. The engineer must

Figure 4-25A. Effective diameter can vary with height.

add the OD of the reboiler, plus twice the insulation thickness, plus any other equipment diameters to Equation 4-84. Doing this and multiplying by a length over which D" is effective determines As. Figure 4-25 shows the effective or equivalent diameter.

FJ,

WIND-INDUCED MOMENTS
After the wind pressure distribution is obtained from
Equation 4-77 , the distribution of section force vectors is obtained from Equation 4-81. The force vectors, shown in Figure 4-26, act through the centroids of the pressure

+ (F" + M. + (F, + Md + (F, +


Mb

Ma+F"(2,-Z;+F,"rb
FbXZb Z") Fb + FcXZc
Fb

+ F. + Fi(Zd

+ F,r" Zd) +

Fdtd

Z") + F"t"

or in a general equation,

distribution sections. Referring to Figure 4-26, we see that the wind moment distribution is obtained from the wind force vectors through the following relationships:

M" = M"-1 * (2" -z 4n_t'Ll,t,, -r\-p


1

-t c;

i:

(4-85

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

199

insulation OD

d = plattorm angle
Figure 4-258. Wind area and force calculations for conical sections.

WIND.INDUCED DEFLECTIONS OF TOWERS


Thll process towers and stack are treated like cantilever beams in computing deflections induced by wind. Like a cantilever beam, when the tower deflects it translates and rotates at the same time. These translations and rotations are most expediently computed by the method of superposition. The three cases to consider in the superposition are a cantilever beam with a uniform load, an end load, and an end couple. These three cases and their accompanying equations are shown in Thble 4-12. The first case of the uniform load reDresents the wind load on the side of the tower, the second case o[ the edge load represents the wind shear at the various shell sections, and the third case of the end couple represents the case of couples produced at the shell section junctures by the translation and rotation of the upper sections. This combined loading is shown in Figure 4-26. Adding the three cases we obtain the following: 6, '

/i = section length, ft Qi : wind shear at each section juncture Mi : moment induced by wind profile, in.-lb
For rotation we have

^,

_\?,'l

l\-r.l

/n- I \
o

Er, \6 *q,r,_,,) 2 l
:
y

"{w,r,

(4-87)

Total deflection

"=F

,s

+F

,t.

(4-88)

WIND-INDUCED VIBRATIONS ON TALL TOWERS


Chapter 2 discussed the phenomenon of vortex shedding inducing vibrations in piping systems. This chapter
focuses on the nature and techniques of analyzing vortex

llY{*!{,*M') Er\8 3 2l
61

(4-86)

where

!1

W1

= : : :

lateral translational deflection of section length of section i concentrated wind load (wi/), lb

i,

in.

shedding. Over the years many researchers have made wind tun-

wind profile, lb/ft

nel tests, proposed various analytical procedures, and conducted field tests of various structures subjected to wind loads. Wind-induced vibration was first noticed on

Mechanical Design of Process Svstems

Table 4-12 Cantilever Beam Formulas


Formula

Uniform
Load End Load End

w--.'

dITTtrM

T1i
4 2

^ :

w!2
6EI

:
= =

wf'
8EI

Q/' 2El

Qi,
3EI

Couple

,-\

T-)
w/,

:vd EI
EI\6
A=

lul{
2ET

wl2
6EI

, , Mo{ -2EI-Er'

iw{ -, wr +M)

A:0t,

' I\- olr

\2"1 "tw.t I'+ w/ I'+M| Er, l\6 2

tall stacks by Baker at the turn ofthe century. Since then, many advances have been made in the field of aerodynamics allowing designers to adequately design tall structures. This chapter discusses tall process towers and Chapter 5 discusses tall stacks. The differences between the two will become more clear in the following discussion. Staley and Graven u5l summarized the state ofthe art of wind vibrations. Their studies indicate that even though vortex excitation of higher modes has been obtained in wind tunnel tests, existing free-standing stacks have always been observed to vibrate during vortex excitation at a frequency and with a mode shape associated with the fundamental mode. Furthermore. the shaDe of the dynamic lorce amplitude or existence of nearly constant frequency over the height of the stack (or "lockin") implies that dynamic response will almost entirely be induced by the first mode. Staley and Graven concluded that all higher modes should be neglected in the dynamic analysis and that the frequency and associated critical wind velocity ofthe fundamental mode should be considered. For this reason the Rayleigh method is the industrially accepted method because it is used to determine an approximate value for the lowest natural frequency of a conservative system based on an assumed confisuration of the first mode.

What is clear in wind tunnel tests and field observations is that at low Reynolds numbers the tower is dynamically stable, vulnerable only to forced vibrations and at higher Reynolds numbers a possibility of self-excited vibration will be present. From many field observations it can be concluded that the first peak vibration amplitudes occur at the critical wind velocity Vr, which corresponds to a Strouhal number of 0.2 with the forced vibration as the basic source of excitation. Thus. it is sisnificant that the peak amplitudes of vibration determined by forced vibration theory are in very good agreemenr with field observations. This will be seen later in this chapter in Example 4-4. Even though the Rayleigh method is the industrialll accepted method for the present, there are other methods used to describe the vibration phenomena of tall process towers and stacks. One such method was devised by N. O. Myklestad, a great pioneer in the theory of vibrations. The Myklestad method used in cantilever beams is essentially a Holzer procedure applied to the beam problem. Its strong point is utilizing field and point transfer matrices to obtain relations that govern the flexural motion and vibrations of lumped-mass massless elastic beam systems. This method is used in such applications as aircraft wings where the structural component is sub-

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

Vessels

2O1

jected to high Reynolds numbers. Since we have already delineated the difference between cylinders subjected to high and low Reynolds numbers and the fact that modes higher than the fundamental mode can be neglected, the Myklestad method has lost favor to the Rayleigh method. We are primarily interested in forced vibration peak am-

magnification factor we must consider some basic principles. Consider Figne 4-27 in which a system with a single degree of freedom is subjected to viscous damping and an externally imposed harmonic force. The spring is denoted by stiffness k, the friction coefficient by c, mass by m, displacement by x, impressed force as F sin cJt so, we have

plitudes of relatively low natural frequencies. Although the Myklestad analysis is excellent for relatively clean aerodynamic surfaces such as wings and missiles, its practical use in process towers with attached ladders, platforms, and piping is questionable. Even for stacks. low Reynolds numbers allow for the fundamental mode to dictate. Before the Rayleigh method is applied to our analysis, let us summarize some basic precepts. Equation 4-80 calculated the pressure force exerted on a cylinder by a static wind. When dynamic effects settle in maximum actual amplitudes, these amplitudes often exceed those under static conditions. The net result is to multiply Equation 4-80 bv a masnification factor. To understand the

-X+.x +ki:

Fsin<rt

(4-89)

From the theory of differential equations we know that the solution of Equation 4-89 is the superposition of the general or complementary solution of the homogeneous Equation 4-89 and the particular solution of the same relation. Writing this in equation form we have

X=X"*Xp
where X" is the complementary function and Xo is the particular solution. This classical differential equation is

T"
*, = ]+ r|",1
lr-eol

I*
i -7- -,
I

,-il]ur=
,=

-r

r6" _L,r
6!

--l[:

4_.=o"lr,-.+r,.1

r-i-

14.=s\"

-r

[.

l)'.

I _-r
4_; qlL,.+r,-,+r, .l

6.

.L A

olFrt ==

4-.=qlq.,+ r'.+t'-..r.-"1 Figure 4-26. Schematic diagram of wind loadings and deflections of a tower.

IA L*

202

Mechanical Design of Process Systems we have

x.,
f
fStru"t = forcing function

(.4-9t)

"T -,,f-1_12r*

The maximum actual amplitude X of forced vibration is obtained by multiplying the static deflection X,, b1

damper-represents tower's stiffness

Figure 4-27. The vibration of a tower is modeled as a sinsle degree of freedom. which i5 exposed to an exrernally impos=ed harmonic force and subjected to viscous damping.

fraction X/X,,. The fraction or ratio X/X* is called the dynamic magnification factor, D. These formulations indicate that the nondimensional amplitude X/X,, and the phase angle, 0. are functions of the frequency ratio r and the damping factor f and are plotted in Figure 4-28. These curves indicate that the damping factor has a large influence on the amplitude and phase angle in the frequency region near resonance. From Equation 4-91 we see that at resonance the dynamic magnification factor, D, is inversell proportional to the damping ratio, or

n-'

solved in numerous sources and will not be delved into here. See Vierck [6] for a complete discussion of the solution. The final solution takes the form of the followlng:

X(t)

e t''(A

cos (,Dt

B sin

ropt)

{t -l t+ (r'tt

X., sin (c,rt - d)

(4-90)

t:

c/c, 2(mk)ri2 is the critical damping factor that is the criteria for critical damping such that I : nonvibrating motion : overdamping I : harmonic vibration : underdamping a few percent of c. for a tall, slender structure such as a tower static deflection of the spring acted upon by the fbrce F/K c,,,/o : frequency ratio of forced vibration frequency to free vibration frequency

E E

K M
Letting

X:

.(T

-l t+ (2rt

Freouencv

r.tio.

(;/o

and tan 0

I -r

Figure 4-28. The dynamic magnification factor versus the frequency ratio for various amounts of damping. (From Slructural Dynamics by M. Paz. @ 1980 by Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc. Reprinted by permission.)

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

Vessels

203

The damping ratio, , is not known and extremely difiicult to measure at best. A practical method for experimentally determining the damping coefficient of a system is to initiate free vibration, and measure through decreasing amplitudes of oscillatory motion, as shown in Figtre 4-29. This decrease or decay is termed the logarithmic decrement, 6, and is defined as the natural loga-

The force coefficient can be readily obtained from Figure 4-29. Equation 4-92 yields the maximum transverse force per unit area of the projected surface of a cylinder at resonance. Equation 4-93 may be rewritten with the velocity in miles oer hour as

rithm of the ratio of any two successive peak amplitudes, X1 and X2 in free vibration. Expressing this in equation tbrm we have

F=
and

0.00086(CrD)(H)V1'?, for air at 50'F

(4-94a)

^x,

F=
x2

0.01I l3pCrDVr'?(dH)

(4-94b)

The evaluation of damping from the logarithmic decrement is given analytically by

These equations apply when the top third of the tower

is the controlling length. Often, the top fourth of the


stack may be best to use as the controlling length. An example ofthis would be a section on top ofthe tower that is one fourth the total tower height and is significantly greater in diameter than the section below (see Example 4-4). Thus, for the top foufih of the tower Equation 4-93 becomes

X(t) :

Ce-fdr cos(@Dt

cr)

It can be shown [17] that the dynamic magnification factor, D, and the logarithmic decrement, A, are related using the previous expression as
^T
(4-92)

F=
and

0.00065(CrDXd)(H)Vr'?, for air at

50'F

(4-94c)

Most research data available for practical use are presented in terms of the logarithmic decrement, 6. Table 413 provides values of 6 versus D for various structures.
These values are acceptable for use process towers and stacks.

0.07728pCeDVr'?(dH)

(4-94d)

in actual design of

where d =

Applying the dynamic magnification factor to Equation 4-80 we have


CeDpV2fz (4-93)

H= Vr : Vr :

T: p:

outside diameter of either upper r/: or r/+ of tower, ft total height of tower, ft first critical wind velocitY, 3.40d/T, mph first period of vibration, Hz density of air at any specified temPerature,

lb/ft

z
= 9

h
6

Figure 4-29. The Reynolds number versus the drag coefficient for a circular cylinder tet.

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Table 4-13 Conservative Values for Logarithmic Decrement and Dynamic Magnilication Factor for Tall Process Towers Logarithmic Decrement
6

Dynamic Magnitication
Factor
D

Low damping: rocky-stiff

soil, low-stressed pile


support, or structural frame Average damping: moderately stiff soil, normal spread

0.052

0.080

High damping: soft soil, fbundation on highly


stressed friction piles

o.t26
Structural Coefficients l1 critical damping factor
lbi-sec ln.

25

A:

Steel frame

Working stress
Near yield

Low stress levels (a) 0.005 ( c ( 0.010 (b) 0.005 < c ( 0.010

Reinforced or prestressed concrete

C. =

(a)0.01 <c (0.02 (b)0.01s < c < 0.03

c":2(Mk)05=28I).' ' \386/


C:
"
damping factor

(b)0.0s<c(0.10

(a)0.M(c(0.06

tower stiffness, Ib/in.

D.M:

^ tLl \c./ : r/6


tower mass

k:
W=

c
tower stiffness, lb/in. total tower weight, lbr

For tall, slender towers of constant diameter, the first period of vibration is given by the expression

the static equilibrium point. For the potential energy o; the system, the reverse is true. Thus,

T:

(l/0.5l)(WHa/gEI)o

(4-95)

(K.E.)-,,

= (PE.).,- =

total energy of the system

where

g= H:

32.2 ftlsec total height of tower, ft

The Rayleigh method applies only ro undamped systems, but is found to be sufficientlv accurate for comDuting the fundamental frequency of process rowers. e;en though towers have varying shell thicknesses down the Iength that result in unevenly distributed mass and stiffness. The Rayleigh method is basically the conservation of energy, i.e., the total kinetic energy of the system is zero at the maximum disDlacement but is a maximum at

will readily yield the natural frequency of the system. To estimate the period of vibration using the Rayleigh method the tower is considered as a series of lumpec masses. These lumped masses are determined by consid ering the weights of
The resulting equation

1. Shell and

heads

2. Trays and internals 3. Manways and nozzles 4. Insulation and fire proofing

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

Vessels

205

These are summed for each section and the overall :ower is considered as lumped masses at the centroid of :ach section along its entire length. The assumption is nade that the stiffness is constant along the entire length Jf the tower; an assumption that greatly simplifies the ;omputations for the various deflections of the section :entroids. The more sections, the greater the overall ac.-uracy achieved. Such a beam with lumped masses is shown in Figure 4-30. For such a simple, one-mass, vibrating system, Timoshenko et al. [19] have shown that rhe angular natural undamped frequency (rad/sec) for
such a system is

M,

: wr () * *, * nJ + w,(?.
. *,(?)

")
(4-9e)

- :
or T_

lewv\o'

(4-96)

\wv'/

Integrating Equation 4-96 numerically across the section


centroids of the tower results in
[BOMry"

+ Wzyb + ... + W,y.)/(W1y] + w2y3 + ... + w"yillo 5

(4-e7)

The moments obtained are used to determine the deflections induced by vortex shedding. The method of deflection computation is based on the area-moment (conjugate beam) method applied to a cantilever beam. In this method the slope of the elastic bending curve of the actual beam is equal to the shear at the same point on the conjugate beam, which is an idealized beam corresponding to the actual member. The deflection y of the actual beam (or tower) at any point relative to its original position is equal to the bending moment at the corresponding point on the conjugate beam that has the same M/EI area of the actual beam. Figure 4-31 shows weights of the vessel sections distributed about the section centroids along with beam lengths used in the analysis. The conjugate beam method of computing deflection is demonstrated in Table 4-14. For an indepth analysis of the method the reader is referred to Higdon et al. [20]. The examples presented at the end of this chapter will clarify

,"

[(i -")/(,8 *,,)]"

(4-98)

this approach.

The section weights, Wi, are computed by using cumulative weights down the tower. Summing moments about the base in Figure 4-30 we obtain the moment distribu-

OVALING
Ovaling is a resonance phenomenon more common in stacks rather than process towers. However, towers exhibit this phenomenon mostly during construction, before insulation and appurtenances are added to the vessel. To avoid ovaling, the designer should consider the following guidelines. The cylinder is considered as a ring that has a natural
freouencv

tion in the tower as follows:

Mr=0
+ M, = W, lKr -\21

/-

-\ K2l

of
vE
(4-100)

u. = w, lI1 +n.
\2

, Kil )l

* *,lvr-*,\ -\ 2

''

7.58r.

6oDt

Figure 4-30. A tower modeled as a sectionless beam with distributed lumped masses.

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Table 4-14A Vibration Deflections Based on the Coniugate Beam Method

,f

+ t'+
t-, I r_,

+*t*t
L, l- 15
' -1.
|

+
I

+
I

l)

w.w"vqq

Xs, = o,
Mr

r,
=
W1L1

t4r
E'It

M,
ZE)l)

S,

+A, = A,

ia, + e,\ \?/

Pt*l.z:

Itt

Lr=Pr
M2

, -'

RI+R'
2

rr

19
EzI:

/v.
\E,I,
2

M,\
Err,/

52*41 :,A2

/a, +

t?,

a.\
P2

Pz

* ir:

r:

XL2:
M1

xL2:
52

W1(L1

*L)

+ w2L2

-2

R,

+R.

I:

M: E:I:

irur, \E.I2

M, \ E,I,/

53+A.4

= Aj

14i14)

Ptl p+:
Pr

pt

\21

XL3:
wr(Lr + L2 + L1) +W2 (L2 + L3) + W:L,

xL3 =
S1

Lo=l+R" 2

'.

Mr lM.,M.\ EoL, \E5I5 E4I4/


2

Sa A,=Aa

/eo +

lrl

el
Pa

Ptr ps:

pt

-v
For cylindrical
shells,

xl-o =

xl-a =
So

M,:Mi r+Li

\-w Ll
l:
l

/ M,*,
FT
\E,
+

M, I E,l,/

_ Ri +Ri+r r '2

rli+ 2

s'

+D
S:=Ar
A"

/Ai +

Irl

Ai*ri
P1

Pi

irr+r

: I

xl-i = S

xL; :

I. v. /u.-' M"\ s" E"r. \E"I" E"I"/


2

lil

xLn:
M"+r

S"

M"+L"

xFw, L,l

see Table 4-16C. bending moment diagram oi conjusate beam slope of real beam elasric curve -- shear of conjugate beam moment diagram of real beam : load diagram of conjugate beam y1 fu)(12), in.

Co_mputation

deflection of real beam

of lateral y deflections. For formulas of y

Table 4-148 Beam Method-Section Break Method Deflections Based on the Coniugate Vibralion

lttrttl
w" Mi
Mr

w'r li

w.{

Y "Y

V
Ds, = o,
= Mrdx/Eili

M/Eili Mr ErIt

Pi

p = M;d2xlE;11

:0

Ir

Mr 2El1

sr

+Ar:Ar

/e' +

l?l
s2

xLq:P1

Mj -

/W,lr(r

+ ^\ r(?l

Ir
= W,Lj

M,
EtI,

/vt, M2\
\t'313
2 l'212l

+ A,

A/

\21

{rf
xL2 = P'

Pt

't pt :

ttz

_M,

'

2r..
52

xL2 = M, = w,lR' , R,

\2

r!\-w,fIL$,\ 2l '\ 2 l

Ir

Er

/Mr\E.I.
2

Mrl
Err',/

53+A*:4,

lA, +

lrl

Aql

Pr*t.,:/:
P3

Wr(Lr + Lr) + WrL2

xL3 =
ra+45:Ad

Ri u, ' = w l/! +R, +Ri*w,(R,+ 2l '\ 2


\2
I

t"

MJ EoL

It, r, \ lrvrl f, wlrl \E4I4 E4I4/


2

/eo + ,+,\

\)

Po*/r: = lr
P4

W1(L1

L2

+ Lr) +

W2L2

xL4:

xL4 =
54

M,:w(q+*,**.*&\ 2l \2
+w,l&+n.+!l '\2 2l
+ w.lR. + &l -\21

15 l&

E:I:

/tut, , tuto \ \E+ E.L/


2

s5

Dsi

f,L,+a"\ lrl
xL5:
P5

Ps

*ro = rs

xL5 =

55

, lvl" = lvl^ r+L"

sr --, W,-l r,

I,

M"
Ik

/tut"-,

\EJ"

tnl" -, E t/\

_jI
2

L" =

P^

xL":S"
M.+
r

S"=A"
@ : ebrupt section break k : n + (number of abrupt Infigureabove,k=n*1
section breaks)

= M"+L"

<Fw,
t:l

y = (pi)(12) ft

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Table 4-14C Centroids ol Shell Volumes

':'(T i

b(4a

3t)

Conical Section

3H(D": v

6[{D"r

- Di) + 8Hr@., - Di") tano -Dit - 2H{D., - D.,) randj

k-t--l

The vortex shedding frequency is given by

process columns, because these vessels usually hare


(4-101)

f ,"D
where

0.2v

many external, attached appurtenances. What is more commonly done with towers is to stiffen up shell sectiont to offset ovaling resonance. See Chapter 5 for more information on ovaling.

45 mph or 66 fps

If for any section of the tower fi < 2f,, ovaling vibration is imminent. The resonance wind velocity that would
theoretically induce ovaling is
60 f.D
(4-1o2)

CRITERIA FOR VIBRATION ANALVSIS


While there is no absolute parameter available for determining whether a vibration analysis is required, there are certain guidelines for designing towers.

where s

Strouhal number

0.2 for this application

1. If the critical wind velocity, V1, exceeds 60 mpf.


then a vibration analysis is not required. Very feu cases of severe vortex excitation have been ot served for wind velocities in this ranee.

To counter ovaling vibration, ovaling rings or helical strakes are added. These normallv are not oractical for

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

Vessels

209

2. If the first critical wind 3.

velocity, V|, is greater than the wind design speed, a vibration analysis is not required. The limiting minimum height-to-diameter ratios H/ d are as follows:
H/d H/d

z- 4-_}

q-

> >

H/d

13 unlined 15 lined 15 process

stacks stacks

)
)

(4- 103)

columns

++ q
+

4.
lows:

The Zorilla criterion for vibration analysis is as fol-

LD,
20

ZW

vibration analysis must


be performed

" -' analysis should- ". r, vibration <,^, ( o_.-'il


--LDI
vibration analysis need
not be performed

(4-lo4)

25 <
5.

If

+i
:

the total force on the tower induced by the first critical wind velocity V1 does not exceed l/rs of the operating (corroded) weight W or

:oViHd ')"

1"

w
cussed

o15

(4- 105)

.1+_

Further guidelines and procedures for stacks are disin Chapter 5.

q-

SEISMIC DESIGN OF TALL TOWERS


There are several ways to analyze earthquake forces imposed on a structure. The procedures outlined in the Uniform Building Code [10] are the simplest and most straightforward, but do not account for all of the significant dynamic properties of structures. Large, complex structures, such as so-story buildings, nuclear power plants, large dams, and long suspension bridges, require

++'--+---1

a more thorough dynamic analysis. Fortunately, the UBC method is accurate enough for most tall, process
tower/stack design problems and is presented here. In seismic analysis the design spectrum is not a specification of a particular earthquake ground motion; it is a specification of the strengths of structures. For this reason the tower must be ductile enough to absorb energy without ultimate yield. This implies that for the structure to absorb energy that exceeds maximum design conditions the overall structure deformation will be ductile

r+_
Figure 4-31. The vibration ensemble in which each section weisht is located at the section centroid.

210

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

practical design procedures are simplifications of the complex dynamic phenomenon used as'.quasi" static criteria applied with elastic srress limits. The Uniform Building Code 1982 [10] requires thar all freestanding structures in seismic zones to be desisned and constructed to with5tand a total lateral force t-base shear) given by

rather than brittle. The result is that while more risorous analyses are very helpful in determining design ciiteria.

I : g=

moment of inertia,

ft

32.2 ftlsec2

When Equation 4-108 is applied to sreel wirh a value of E 30 x 106 psi we have

1=

17.65e v

/ \, t::-t0-")

l[)'^1tz*o'' r
\D",i

(4- l09

V:

ZIKCSW

(4- 106)

and for

29

106 psi,

where Z

: I : K : c : s = =

seismic zone factor (see Figure 4-32) occupancy importance factor : I for all process towers and stacks structure type coefficient structure period response factor slte structure interaction factor total operating weight of tower above ground

(4-110)

where D,,,

mean diameter of tower, ft

The structure type coefficient,

K, is as follows:

For a tower with uniform cross section and tapered (conical) skirt the following relationship can be used in computing the fundamental period:

K= K=

2.0 for vertical vessels on skirt supports 2.5 for vertical vessels on skirts when
t,h.n

= 2" (o qod)"
6=

(4-111

>

1.5

tskin

where

The structure period response factor, C, is determined by

the calculated deflection at top of tower induced by 1007" of irs weight applied as a laleral load

^l : L -sec T = structure period of vibration, sec, with c","" : 0.12


where 15"rF

(4_107)

For short, stiff structures, such as horizontal vessel supports, in lieu of making a period calculation, the response factor C may be taken as equal to C."". For most industrially accepted design methods, the effects of the soil-structure interaction are considered. This is done in the Uniform Building Code by using the ratio of the fundamental elastic period of vibration of the tower, T, to the characteristic site period, T,. Formulations used to determine the fundamental natural period ofvibration for seismic response vary as to the type of structural cross-section considered. The generally accepted equation for towers of uniform cross-sec-

With towers of varying cross sections and attaching equipment, a method used to determine the fundamental frequency was developed by Warren W. Mitchell in an unpublished work [21]. The solution is based on the Ravleigh method ofequating porenlial and kinetic energies in a vibrating system. The resulting formulation is readill useful in computing fundamental periods of cylindrical. tapered-cylindrical, and step-tapered-cylindrical structures common to the petrochemical industry (CpI). The formulation is as follows:

,: ln)' \,F-4DfEo, +
\100/
a.y

(4 Il2r

where

T
H
w

tion is
'l--

: =

t.re
LI

lrql" \EIei
.

(4- 108)

where

E_

fundamental period, sec total heighr, ft weight per unit of height, lb/ft shell thickness, in. modulus of elasticity, psi

period, sec overall height of tower, ft distributed weight (lb/f0 of each section concentrated loads attached to the tower at any level, that add mass but do not contribute to the stiffness of the tower modulus of elasticity (106 psi) for each
section

coefficients for a given elevation depending on the ratio of the height of the elevation above grade to the overall height of the tower (h,/H)

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

Vessels

211

3
E

xllo
;llo ll0 o||o ; o ''ll,r
ollR

Ell' !l]f; tl

"ll:
oLJ

nt
ol ol Ll

.
65 !o 6
R

6l
NI

-R5C

ol

6l

212

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Ao, A.y

differentials in the values of a and .y, from the top to the bottom of each section of uniform weight, diameter, and thickness. 6 is determined from
each concenttated mass. Values of and "r are shown in Table 4-15.

VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SHEAR


FORCES
For towers having an overall height-to-base-width ra-

a. 6.

tio greater than 3.0, a portion of the total earthquake

In applying Equation 4-ll2 the following factors


should be considered:

force. V. shall be applied ro rhe top of the tower aciording to the following relationships:
For,

n Ifa tower's lower section is several times wider in diameter and shorter than the upper sections, then the tower's period can be more accurately determined by computing the upper section's period, assuming that the tower is fixed as to translational and rotational displacement. If a tower's shell diameter or thickness is

;<3.0,F,:0
3.0<: < 6.12. F. = l)
h

0.07

TV

(4-ll4)

significantly larger than that of the supporring skirt, the period calculated by Equation 4-112 may be overly conservative for earthquake design and a more accurate method may be desirable. D For conical tower sections the Mitchell eouation can'coefficients not be used because of lack of data for the a, B, and 7. The Rayleigh equation (Equation 4-97) is more comprehensive and ubiquitous in application. Once the fundamental period of vibration is determined, the numerical coefficient for the site structure interaction (seismic site-structure resonance coefficient),

;>

6.12, F,

0.lsv

where F,

h: D=

V=

total force applied at top of structure overall height of tower, ft diameter of tower, ft total base shear from Equation 4-106

The remainder of the total seismic force is distributed and applied to the mass distribution in the structure according to the following equation:

S, can be determined. As previously stated, the soilstructure interaction is considered in most industrially accepted methods. The value of S is determined by the following formulas:
For T/T,

F^

tt/ 1, : (V F,) """


r, LJ "I\

14-1

l5

\-w

1.0,

1.0

+: T,>
+
1.0,

0.5

l:l

/ \. ITI'

\T,i

(4-l l3a)

where F* : W* = h, =
Ewh

For T/T.

lateral force applied to a mass at level x, lb weight of mass at level x, lb height of level x above the base (normally measured from bottom of the base plate of the tower), ft the sum of the products of w" and h, for all the masses within the structure, ftlb

1.2

0.6

I T,

0.3

E)'
\r,/

(4-l l3b)

The seismic moments are computed from the following


expression:

s > 1.0 (c) (s) < 0.14


The characteristic site period, T,, falls into the following

M:
where

V, L, _,

F*,C;

(4-116)

Lr,-, :

length of section below shear force,

ft

tlme:

0.5 < T. < 2.5

sec

When T. is not properly established, S is taken as 1.5,


except when T exceeds 2.5 seconds, S can be determined by assuming a value of 2.5 seconds for Ts.

c - lil lrl-+ \+/Lri+rlr,+r;I


4-3.

Ci - L,lZ for a cylinder /.\f 2 ^ ^21 zrrr' + rr'l

foracone tsee Figure 4-33r

For an illustration of seismic analysis, see Example

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels Table 4-15 Coefficients for Determining Period of Vibration of Free-Standing Cylindrical Shells Having Varying Cross Sections and Mass Distribution'
nx
H I .00 0.99

213

h"
H

2.103

8.347

2.02r
1.941 1.863 1.787
1

8.12l
7.898 .678 '7 .461 7 .248
7
'7

0.98 0.97 0.96


0.95

l .000000 1.000000 1.000000 l .000000 1.000000

0.50 0.49 0.48


0.4'7

0. 1094

0.0998 0.0909 0.0826


0.0'749

0.9863 0.9210 0.8584 0.7987

0.95573 0.95143 0.94683 0.94r 89


0.93661 0.9309'7

.'7

t4

0.94 0.93 0.92


0.91

1.642 1.513 1.506

.O3'7

1.440
1.377 1.316 1.256 1 .199

0.90 0.89 0.88 0.87 0.86 0.85 0.84 0.83 0.82


0.81

6.830 6.626 6.425 6.227


6.O32

0.999999 0.999998 0.999997 0.999994 o.999989 0.999982


0.9999't I

0.46 0.45 0.44 0.43 0.42


0.41

o.74r8
0.6876 0.6361 0.5872 0.5409 0.4971
0.455'7 0.416'7 0.3801

0.0678 0.0612
0.0551

o.92495 0.91854
o.911'73

0.0494

0.0442
0.0395
0.0351 0.0311
o.o2'7 5

0.40 0.39
0.3 8

0.90448 0.89679

0.888&
0.88001

1.143
1.090 1.038

5.840 5.652 5.467 5.285


5. 106

0.988 0.939

4.930 4.758
4.589 4.424 4.261

0.999956 o.999934 0.999905 0.999867 0.999817 0.999154 o.999614


0.9995'76

o.37 0.36 0.35 o.34 0.33 0.32


0.31

o.0242 0.0212
0.0185
0.0161

0.3456 0.3134 0.2833

0.2552
0.2291 0.2050 0.1826 0.16200 0.14308 o.12516 0.10997 0.09564
o.0826'7 0.07101

0.87088 0.86123 0.85105 0.84032


0.82901

0.892
0.847 0.804 0.762 0.722 0.683 0.646 0.610 0.576 0.543 0.512
0.481

0.80
0.'79

0.999455 o.999309

0.78
0.'77

4.1o2 3.946
3.794 3.645 3.499 3.356 3.217
3.081

0.999t33
0.998923 0.998676
0.998385

0.76 0.75 0.74 o.73 0.72


0.7

0.998047 0.997656 0.997205 0.996689


0.996101

0.30 0.29 0.28 0.27 0.26 o.25 0.24 o.23 0.22


o.21

0.0140 0.0120 0.010293 0.008769 0.00-t426 0.006249 0.005222 0.oo4332 0.003564 0.002907 0.002349 0.001878
0.001485

0.81710 0.804s9

0.79t4
0.7716 0.7632 0.7480
o.'7321 0.7 r 55 0.6981

0.70 0.69 0.68


0.6'7

2.949

0.20

0.66 0.65 0.64 0.63 0,62


0.61

0.453 o.425 0.399 0.374 o.3497 0.3269 0.3052

2.820 2.694
2.57

o.995434
0.99468 r

0. l9 0. 18

0.993834 0.992885
0.99183 0.99065

0.17
0.

l6

2.3365

2.2240

2.1r48
2.OO89

0,60 0.59 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.52


0.51

o.2846 o.2650 o.2464 o.2288


o.2122
0. 1965 0. l8l6

1.9062
1.8068 1.7107
1.61'7'7

1.52'79

0.98934 0.98789 0.98630 0.98455 o.98262 0.980s2 0.97823


0.97 573

0. 15 0. 14 0. 13

0.12
0.11

0.001159 0.000893 0.000677 0.000504 0.000368 0.000263 0.000183 0.000124


0.000081 0.000051

0.06056 0.05126 0.04303 0.03579 0.02948 0.02400


0.01931 0.01531

0.6800 0.6610 0.@13 o.6207

0.5992
o.57 69

0.01196 0.00917 0.00689 0.00506


0.00361

0.5536 0.5295 0.5044 0.4783

o.4512
0.4231 0.3940 0.3639 0.3327 0.3003 0.2669 0.2323
0. 1966

0.1676
1.1545

1.4413 1 .3579
I .217 5

0.97301

0.97W7
0.96688 0.96344
0.959'73

0.1421 0.1305 0.1196

1.2002 1.1259
1.0547

0.10 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02


0.01 0.

0.000030 0.000017 0.000009

0.0000M
0.000002
0.000001

0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.

o.00249 0.00165 0.00104 0.00062 0.00034 0.00016 0.00007 0.00002 0.00000 0.00000 0.

o.159'1

0.1216
0.0823 0.0418 0.

'vi,cher

rormura:

r- ,, E wA. . ,ruiE t {#l ti--S;;-

pB

214

Mechanical Design of Process Systems


r"o=

OO SMALL END

r-= OD LARGE END

TRUNCATED CONE

that the cone-to-cylinder stresses computed by the equivalent circle method are very close in magnitude to those computed by more exact methods. Because of its close approximate answers and simplicity, the equivalent circle method is normally the method used for treating conical sections in towers. The method will only be outlined here, as others l22l have already derived it. Figure 4-33 shows how the sections of a truncated cone and a conical head are approximated by an equivalent circle, which is used to compute the section modulus and moment of inertia. These formulations are used in tower design and are demonstrated in the examples that

,."=[*&l

follow. Conical shells used in tower sections have a half anex anglecv ( 30degrees. Whenh. ( 0.10H, rhecon..an be approximated by considering two cylinders shown with dotted lines (Figure 4-34). In pracrice, stiffening rings must be used when required by the vessel code.

CONICAL HEAD

Figure 4-33. The equivalent radius for cones.

L
T'
t\/2

TOWER SHELL DISCONTINUITIES AND CONICAL SECTIONS


Most vessel codes do not discuss the analytical computation of tower shell discontinuity stresses, which are prevented by welding stiffening rings to the outside shell of conical sections. In addition, most codes do not consider discontinuity stresses on cylindrical shell sections. The ASME Section VIII Division I uses a safety factor of four to one to compensate for not computing these
stresses.

Conical sections can be tieated quite simply by utilizing the equivalent circle technique. Bednar [22] shows

Figure 4-34. When h" ( 0.1 H, the cone can be approximated by considering the two cylinders shown with dotted lines.

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

215

EXAMPLE 4-l: WEAR PLATE REOUIREMENT ANALYSIS

o:

:
=

37.845 psi
02

o2-r:
o7

oo

: =

1,715.34t0r'

A horizontal vessel containing hot oil is to be completely analyzed using the Zick method to determine wear plate requirements (Figure 4-35).
Vessel

circumferential stress at horn of saddle

8R

8(1.750)

14.00

+ L < 8R
o.u5

material

Saddle material

: :
=

5A-516-70
5.4.-36

Temp:300'F
Design pressure

Q : 7,828.981 cA:0

lb

R-

l5oo
t.750

0.857

=k

671 psi 120"

7,828.981

4(0.94r)[0.375

1.s6[(21)(0.94)]0

5l

r:lrso-91 =tzo' \21


t l5e I .r = __: l:: + 301 : 180

_
1.396

l2(0.05x7,828.98 1)(l.7s0) (10x0.941)r

\12

rad

-284.547
80.0'

928.358

|,212.905 psi <

<

1.25 dr,rr

21,875

From Equation 4-1 at the saddle,

ring compressive stress in shell over saddle


7,828.981

., = 10*13910)
or =
oo
50.501 psi

_ [t# (, ,,1] [H#]

(0.941)[0.375

1.56[(2 1X0.941)]0rl

: -!D
:
or + op :

.I

I
I.990

: iilllt'.t :
1,728.00psi

lr -

- cos(u4)
+
sin

(l t4) cos (l14,

1,67i.50

os

865.678 psi

<

<

19,000

psi

0.5 o,

orr

At Midspan
From Equation 4-3

tial

Since the ring compressive stress and the circumferen-

stress at the saddle are less than one half

of yield

stress and the allowable stress, respectively, wear plates

are not required.

'

3(7,828.981X 10.0) ?r(21.0)11.0)

o 600]

EXAMPLE 4-2: MEGHANIGAL DESIGN OF A PROCESS COLUMN


cess column shown are as follows:

10'-o'

A detailed mechanical design is required for the proin Figure 4-36. The design criteria

I ol
i-l c\t

*l

Design temperature: - 150"F Design wind speed 100 mph Internal pressure at top head: 150 psig Internal pressure at boftom head: 162 psig Shell material: 304 SS

-l

Skirt material: 436


External pressure requirement: None

PWHT: Yes

o-o
Figure 4-35, Horizontal pressure vessel containing hot oil.

Radiograph: Full Ambient temperature

lO"F min, 100oF max

Wind distribution is to be computed from ASNI-A58.11982:

216

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

towER ANo

TNTEFATS

(Nor

ro

scAL)

VIBBATON ENSEMALE

WINO

ENSEMBLE

I
'..

Ill;,
r rrtl ltttr _!_rt-!-!
I ltt I rtt
r

SHELL AND HEAT EXCHANGER

TTJBE

l:'

-7
-'..

"oo -------+
t$
'roP

aEo

I
1.,

,tt __ _.j--L___

l-------lr:
-------llir* I:

___i-L__

____--L__

,"r"*""

csruliiinny

-T
-ti

I I

BOTIOMBEO

.__i1___
F.-i-----+r

-Tl "-*.-,J:l
N.RMAL LrourD

l*IU

l"l
I

--l

ri
-f

.."r.

FI

+-

Figure 4-36. Tower analyses ensembles.

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure


9z

Vessels

217

0.00256 Kz (IV)'z;

= 100 mph

Effective Cross-sectional Area (Figure 4-37)


Top portion of tower,

Kz

:2.58

D" = 66.5 tn. + (12.75 +


Kz

12)

in. + (12.75 + 1l) in.


12 in. pipe

2.58

/r

s\'"

IZJ

for

z<

rs ft

12 in. pipe

plus insulation

plus insulation

Tower is in Exposure Category C, for which

+
\-7-

12

in.

127.00 in.

.0, Ze

900,

D" =

0.005

ladders
and

.At 15 ft,

platforms Bottom portion,

l1\''' = o.rot K,:2.58f \900/

D.

47.O il:'.

(12.'75
11)

+ r2) in.
12

ForZ)15ft,
K, '. :
2.58

+
\0286

(12.75

in. +

in.

107.50 in.

l:l

/ 7

\900/

Gust Response Factor

For 15 ft and under,

V=

100 mph,

h=

104.292

ft,

f:
0.01

0.981 Hz

qz

0.00256(0.801)(Iv)':

Structural damping coefficient

From Thbles

and 5 of A58.1-1982,

/szzor\ c = 1""'-- I { l27.ool


\r04.2921

I=
az

1.0

0.00256(0.801)( 1001

20.506 lb/fC, (100F

z<

15

fr

.(t+*)(ro75o) = 11s3s5
From A.58.1 Table A9,
f

o, '" = 0.00256(2.58)1"

I 7

\D
I

286

\900/

s:

1.00

I7
66.048

(eoo-1 . z > ts rt

\0.286

- 0.5 Ih (10.5X0.981)1104.2921 r:_=#=lu.t4J (1.00X100) sv

tz'?erre1*
u'r","*-rr*I.$
'*"u'o''on

1i'0

PtpE

6" THtcK INSULATION

ffJ Y
Figure 4-37. Effective cross sectional area.

214

Mechanical Design of Process Systems


1o4,292ft

\ t'? /: 9: h 1o4.292

ir rs.:os\

o.oe5:c

I 18.305

+9.859

_>..

ffi:
ID_

#----->r
ooo"
6.145

0.0055,

y=

fly :

(10.743)(0.0055X0.145)

0.009

*--->..
o

oo.*,(fr-o|"'",0r,,. =

: l.l

For a tower with many attachments and connecting piping,

cG=

0.6s
0.65

, [g!q * [(3 32x0 147)l?(l l)105 0.01 I { (0.002X9.85s).1


1

(4-83)

q--->E
30'oo

1.076

1.726

*+r-

From Simiu[9],

9:9zG
Figure 4-38 shows the wind pressure distribution q plotted along the tower length.

\+-{)-->
f00t
l5.oort

'|

+;

Centroid of a Spandrel Segment


The centroid ofa parabolic segment is shown in Figure 4-39. Applying the general equation, Equation 4-117, to our case we obtain

Figure 4-38. Wind force distribution (q) along tower is para bolic above 15 feet. Section wind force distributions are combined into a force vector located at the centroid of the wini
section.

. t^ \ i _ tn + Ql llaqn I ngn.tl ,.t 2(n + 2(}\ \dqn + nqn r/

.t

.r

(4-117)

From Figure 4-39 we obtain a general expression for the composlte area,

Using this equation we compute the wind force distribution. From Figure 4-20, Cr = 0.6. Solving for sectior properties we have the following:

t7 -7 .\ Af - ::l-----:l--I {dqn + nqn r). lb/ft (n+q)

(4-118)

aa '" :66.048
Section

I7

1.-l

\2t1

\900/

Solving for the wind resultant force acting through each centroid we obtain,

A
104.292

F:

AO"CI

Z:

tt

)|
) l^l
NINI

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

Vessels

219

$l-

ilI

il:

-l ;l
il@

st?l .l+l Nlcl


,_l-l Nt -,I

IN

ql

^,1 :l
qo 6 F I (JO (l
N
I

1l --t^

tN+

!L!

^lN rf.f ^

r',.'NS
I Lr-'
t:-o

YI
Ntd

1F
N.

T-l '-l
ol

I.t

re ihl

r<

=x":
g^1

Nir++

.el
E
(!

"l

Q,ni+++ u,-

Jii

rl gil

Ll rN

!L

>

tL>

-___t91

:l' :-^ ldl o* l.


l

<t)

tl

- t: F[? 'iYrl <ft

dlB
tl

o.l' nu' xl d;d

rr llld ! ilisl N' ll tql

,Yl.l

^l

q)

tt

'i! | -;N

(G q
.9 =N

-----i:--

Rt

--J9

'l i l'l Nl. rl-l \t


IN
ll

oo

tN

lt

IN

:*
()+
'N

220

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

9z

66.048

/rr}4 rq?\0 --l 28o

l:: :

\vwi :
/ qR \0
286

Section D
35.659

q":48.852
6r.547

q"

(l.726X3s.659)

9n-

726t

l:;l

166.048)

e"-r
60.461

: (r.726)ffiul- (66.048):44.573
(12.75 )[(7X48.8s2)

(6.292)l(7)(6t.s47)

(2)(44.s73)l

(2)(60.461)l 610.739

2+7
385.735 lb/ft

r9r [r2rrzrror.5+zr r- r2x60.461)1,. .^.. 2t2 . A, [ {ix6tJ47) + {2x60r'61) l'" "''


3. 151

,,., ,., nL 0@e8sz) nL a)@e8sz) + t2\44.s1rll"'''l


11211t11+r.tsz1
{2

x,r4.571)l

6.430

ft

ft
Section E

Section B

q" =

60.461

o.

, = 1l.726] l^il

/ qn

\o

286

\vw/

(66.048)

s9.007

(66.048):43.097

(8.00x7)(60.461) ^_

(2X59.007)l

+
165.919

(2X43.097)l

:48 I

103

lb/ft

-s
:

(2)(7)(60.461)

J2

(7x60.461)

+ +

(2

X59.007,,l {8.00} (2)(59.007)l

s l{zxzlt++.stz) + )(43.097)l (3.7s z: tl nl 0e4.sb + (2)@3.097 0)t44.s7,


(2

t)

4.009 ft

1.881

ft

Section C

Section F

q"

59 007 4s.352

q.-, = (t.i26) (*#)""' (66.048) =


(43.50X7)(s9.007)

(66.048)

39.943

(2)(48.852)l

+
296 .713lblft

(2)(39.943)l

2,468.640 lb/ft (2)(48.8s2) (2X48.8s2) ]

(2X7X59.007) + z: zl 32 [ +
1

(7)(s9.007)

,0, ,0,

nl 32 |

eI(2)

(7
('7

)(43.o97) )|43.097)

+ (2X39. 943) + 12)(39.943)]n

oo,

22.128 ft

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

Section G

Section J

q"
C"

39.943 35.347

| = (1.726) l-:::::l
\vlru/
(3.00)ft?X39.943)

/ro

oo\0

28o

(66.048)

: 38.378

9n_r

: :

35.347

^ :

(2X38.378)l

At

q(2"

530.205 lb/ft

Z" ,) =

(3s.347X15.0)

118.786

lb/ft

ll :
2

z.so r,

z -

e [r2rtrr32i+rt rle9.:]s{ c.oo, : 32 | e)e9.943) + {2x38.378)l '- --'

1.506

ft

Now solving for the section forces we have

Section H

F=
FA

ArD"Cr

q"

9"_r

38.378

":
=

(385.7rs) ('']=oo) 12 /

,0." :
=

2,44e.4r7 tb

(1.726)

/r?

l:::-:::; \7wl

on\o

2s6

(66.048)

36.63s

FB

(481.103)

{'t]^ool to.ut

\ rl

3.055.004 lb

(3.00)t(7x38.378) ^_

(2X36.635)l

Fc
FD

:
=

(2.468.&0) {l?lq. ^

0l

\tzl

(0.6)

t5,675.864 lb

ll).972lblft

(6r0.73e)

{toLtol ,0.u, =

i -

:
:

e l2IlI38.3Z8rj i?I36.61s)l ,r nn, 321 (7x38.378) + (2)(36.635t'- "-'


1.507

\12

3,2E2.i22 rb

Fr -=
FF

n65.919r l'07

501

ft

\12l

ro.ur

Eel.8r5

rb

=
=

es6.ii3)

(ue- ) ,0 u, : \ 12 /
=

,5e5. r55 rb

Section

F6

q":36.635
q"_r

(u8.786) {'ol=to) to.u,t \ Lz I

638.475 lb

(1.726)

lj':Y:l \vUU/

/, <

^^\o

286

t66.048)

35.347

(!Z t\ r, " = (n3.e7z) i2

/'

,o

u,

612.6oo rb

(2.00)[(7)(36.63s) ^_

(2X35.347)]

Ft = (72.6si) I'ol=tol to.u, = r2

3e0.746 lb

72.697

lblft
)

Fr
(3

(s30.205)

Ito],to) ,0.u, =

- s[(2) (7 (36. 63 s) + (2) 5.347 ) Z=-l (7X36.635) + (2\(3s.347)


32 32[
1

\12

2,84e.852 lb

,r.oo,

Fc

1.003

ft

31,,141.650 lb

222

Mechanical Design of Process Systems "OD 16 BWG TUBE

Solving for section moments we use the following expresslon:


n-

M"=M" t+(z^,-z^)DF,_,
+
M^
Ms Mc

af\

F,z.
:
7,718.113 ft-lb

(4-8s)

:
=

(2449.417)(3.151)
7,718, 113

+ (2449.4r7)(8.oo) (3,055.004X4.009) : 39,560.960 ft-lb


tt-tt

39,560.960 + (5504.421X43.5) + (15,675.864)(22.128) = 625,g7g.rt


625,878.792

MD : ME

+ (2r,180.285)(12.75) (3,282.722)(6.430) : 917,035.328 ft-lb

Figure 4-40. The tube bundle is modeled in banks ofconcentric circles used to approximate the section moment of inertia. The tube bundle enhances the section stiffness.

: : :

9r7,035.328 + (24,463.007)(3.75) + (891.815)(1.881) : 1,010,449.109 ft-lb


1,010,,149.109

Mn

(1,s9s.155)(3.s2s)

(25,354.822)(7 .00)

I,193,555.784 ft-lb

Mc

1,193,555.784

(26,949.9'77)(3.OO)

(638.475X1.506)

|,275,367 .258 tt-tb

For l-in. OD i6 BWG tube,

Mu:
Mr

1,275,367.258

+ (27,5 88.4s2)(3.00) + (612.600Xr.491) : 1,359,046.001 ft-lb


(28,201.052X2.00) (390.746X1.003) 1,415,840.023 ft-lb

= :

1,359,046.001

+ +

+ +

I : A: K: n :

0.0210 in.a

metal cross section metal area

0.191 in.2

number of tubes per circle number of circles

Mr

1,415,840.023

(28,591.798)(15.0) (2,849 .8s2)(',7 .s0) 1,866,090.883 ft-lb

Thus, from the parallel-axis theorem the composite moment of inertia is

Section Moments of Inertia


Section

a-rl+-in.

I:

DKIG + AL)
I
are tabulated in Table 4-16.

,. "

" ffs+.sol, _ ile\"] 64 1\t2 I \12/J


b-3/a in.

: 0.756

Values of
rta

For enclosing shell, :/a-in.

t, 23,676.070 in.'

Section

64'1s+.zs)o

"

(54.00)41

The shell and tube heat exchanger section moment of inertia is approximated by a set of concentric circles of tubes. The concentric circle pattern approximates that of the exchanger tube sheet. Using the parallel-axis theorem, we arrive at the section moment of inertia. Referring to Figure 4-40 we analyze the exchanger as follows:

)-l = Lt'
: :

rr4.i35.44r in.a + 23.676.070 in.'


138,411.511 in.a

or for the total cross-sectional area

Ib

6.675 fC

The Engineering Mechanics of pressure Vessels

Table 4-16 Values of I for Tube Bundle

16.364.299
14.127 .503

t6,364.299
30,491.802 s2,880.927

12.104.531
10.284.531

;
10

;i#.uZr
14.50

17.00

89.000

0.191
0.

0.021

86

r.765.174

8.574.543 7. r38.100 5.871.903

6r,45s.470
68,593.s70 74,465.473

.7s,230.641

210.250

l9l

o.021

85,937.106 88.197.856 89,860.696 91,063.953

9l,901.445
92,456.266

t7
18

Jf,

92,79t.181
92.980.407
93.074. 195

t9

t6

2l

l0
t55

93.109.836 93.119.576 93.120.846

2t,6t4.595

l1:1.735.1,+1

Section

c-

I/z-in.

)ectlon

t-rA-tn.

rL

/s+ oo\*l - 64 " [/ss.oo\[\ t2 / \12 /J

,=.[+:1!f 64 l\ 12
:
1.1 10 fta

I \12lJ

_/+z.ool.l

1.533 ft4

Section

d-5/s-in.

Section

g-r3/r6-in. t
142.001"1

_/+:.oo\.1 ,: "[or4f l\ t2 I \t2lj


64

,r ll43.62sl- _ - 64 L\ t2 I \ t2 /J

0.917 fta

1.208 fta

Section

e-

t/ro-in.

sectron moments Section h

Referring to Figures 4-36 and 4_41 we calculate the of inertia as follows:

r= :

L[(r#| (:gl
I

.013

ff

,.r:(

26.193

21.812s

cos 6.934"

\t-

24. I80 in.

224

Mechanical Desisn of Process Svstems


lso

Deflections

$ lo

ydla

Ia

+
h. a"\

xo.zoztl ! _ tb.292tt ltz.++s.+n "' g (i.157 x lo") [I

2.416

10-s

ft
[(e,oss.oo+)(a.oo)

.:

(8.oot
(2.787
10'9

(:2,449.4I7)(S.OO) -3-21
reo=21.8125 in rho=26.1925 in

{Z,Zrr. r r:l1

3.088

x l0

ft

tto:29.1109 in
1o=

51.o in

Figure 4-41. The equivalent radii for the skirt sections.

. '

(43.50)'? I (15,675.864X43.5)

(6.402
+ '32-)

10') [

(s,s04.421)(43.5)

+ Q2lOo

soo)l

:
t /.- rol .-\+ | ,- dol ^.\q ot. | lr+6 l= - l4o '' - 64[\12/ \12ll
1

0.055 ft

l.5i3

frr

(3 ,282
('1

.722)(t2
8

.7

5)

Section i

+
27.856 in.

(21 , 180.285)(

l2.75)

razs,ttt.to4]

2l

/zs.rrr + zo.rs:\ r-* = t___t \ 2 cos 6.934' /

0.017

ft

(3.'/r,
"[/ss.zr,z\* /s+.oaz\tl 64 L\ 12 / \ 12 /l
Section

(4230

x r0) t

[tal

r. s

rs)t:.zs)
8

j
:s.rrr\

, (24,463.OO7)(3.75) -J-rl
=
0.002

(917,03s.328t

'' L '

/sr.oo +

2 cos

6.934' /

l/so.uor\t hs.ozo\*l j' "" "1 | = ll"" '" 1 '1 " 64 12 12

(7.00),
7.846 fta
(4.

L\

635,10)L

[(r,sqs.rssxz.oo) t8

iI

(2s ,354.822)(7 .0O)

Values

of each section's wind force, shear, bending

, (1,0r0,449.109t -2)

moment, and moment of inertia are summarized in Thble 4-17 for the entire tower.

0.006

ft

1l
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

Table 4-17 Force, Shear, Bending Moment and Wind Summation of Section Moment of lnertia

Section a

Fr (lb) 2.449.4t7

Qi (lb) 2.449.417

Mi

(ft{b) 7,118.113

li (fta) 0.756
6.6'7 5

El (lb-ft'?)

3.157
2.78'7

3,055.004 15,675.864
3,282.',722

5.504.421
21. 180.285

39,560.960
625,878.'192

1.533

891.815

24.463.00'l 25,354.822 26.949.971

917.035.328
1,010,449. 109

0.917
1.013

6.402 3.829 4.230

638.475
612.600 390.746 2,849.852

27,588.452
28,20 r.052

1,193,555.784 1,275,367.258
1,359,046.001

1.110
I .208

t 4.635 ^ 5-045 x
6.402
3 .27

x x x x

10'q

lOto
10!) 109

t}e
loa
101r

1.533
2.54',7
7 .846

28,591.798

3l,441.650

1.415.840.023 1,866,090.883

x 1.064 x
6
><

10'
1010

l0t'r

(rJ8i ,, 109 t
t26.s4s.s71

(6.2e2)(8.00) [ (3,05s.004)(8.00)
6 (2,,149.4

3'l

t3.0t

1.19J.555.7S4)l

7x8.00)

?.718.I r3l
I

0.001

ft
[(612.oo](3.0u/

3.899

10 5ft

, -'

13.oo1r
(6.402
t-

lOa)

A'r:-l

14.2e2X43. s0) [ ( 1s,67s.864)(43. s)

(6.402

lOY) [

(27,s88.4s2X3.0)

, (r,27s,367.25U]| -)l
=

(5,504.421)(43.s)

39,560.960]

0.001

ft

0.027

ft

":
:
orn:-l

12.001/ [(3e0.7abx2.00) 8 tr.oo+. ro9[


+ '32ll
2.626 (28,201.052)(2.00)

^ ^' ,,:

15't

.792yr2.7s11(3 ,282 .122)(12 .'t s)

oJ29

. lo) [

(r,3s9,046.001t

(21 , 180.2

85X12.75)

625.878 792

x t0 a ft
I (2.849.852)( 15.00)
L

0.148 ft
I

"

(15.00), (J.276 l0'9

^ 't-

r70.542rr3.75,1{8q1.815)r3.?51

r+.::ot
_
r

tolL
2

(28,59r.798)(r5.00)

, 1,415,840.023)l -21
(

24 .46 3 .001 )\ 3 .15

, _ q tr,u:S.:28

0.006 ft

0.060 fr

226
_ ^ -)6

Mechanical Design

ol

Process Systems

r74.292n7.00) [{ t.5q5.155x7.00)

(4.6iai

"

ro1

Tower Section Stress Galculations


Section

a-ll+-in.

(2s,354.822)(7.00)

1 I -,010,449.t09]
?1

For tension on the windward side, using Equation 4-

0.124 ft

/po\ /
\4tl Dt

\?r((D" -

ron^na
D,XDa

+ Di,

^1

(8r.2s2)(3.00)[(638.4 75X3.00)

(5!45 x rO

l-

\"<n. * o,
E

lzw\

(26 ,949 .977)(3 .0O)

* , "--'---"1 ,oa aaa ,ool

150 psi,

1.0,

t:

0.25 in.,

T : -100'F,

0.060 ft

w
Di

0.423 kips

54.0 in.,

D"

54.50 in.

^ _ 184.2s2t(3.00r fr6l2. 60x3.00) -r8-(6J02^toq)L6


+
(27,588.452)(3.0)
2

[rrsO.Orrs+.orl I r6(54.50,{l2r{7.trA.rr:rl t {4x015) I = [.{015x t08J0)6J86.2t]

,ra ao., -'"1 ,aol -''''" ', o= o=

2(1.8t4) I -[ tr(0lsxl08 d
8,100

0.052

ft
l3s0.7 46)(2.o0)
|.

161.009

42.57

8,218.43 psi tension on windward side


7

(87 .2s2)(2.oo)

(1.( )64 064

t0ro) t0ro)

q=

,896.42 psi compression on leeward side

+l(28,591.798X2.00) + 1,359,046.001] 2
:
O.O23

Internal pressure circumferential stress,

ft

o^=

'

PD

2t

1s0.0)(54.0)

2(0.2sX1.0)

: ^ '" _ :
rt ": (89.292x 15.00) [(2.849.8s2r 5.00)

16,200

psi

<

18,800

o"

The circumferential stress governs in this section and is less than the allowable stress.
Section
[t

rJ.276 < tolor

b-

:/a-in.

(2S,s91.798)(1s.oo)

I 1,4r5,840.023.j

r:o.orrs+.orl

0.067 ft

L(4)(0.37s) I

\-,1 * \-,r L/" L/


0.088 '7 .787

-1

, [ 16(54.75)(39.s60.960)(12)

[r{ 0J7s x 10850X5-9{3J63)l

ft + ir.

0.561

ft =

0.649

ft

[ :rrs.zor.oor I
t.(0 3is,(t08

itl

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

5,400

550.16

237.30

Section

e-l

l/re-in. f,

5,712.86 psi tension


4,612.5 4 psi compression

o=t-l [rrso.otr+z.or] [ {4x0.688) I


16(43.3?5)(1,010,,149. 109)(12) *[ -t r(0.688)(85.375X3,645.39r)

(150.0)(54.0)
2(0.375)(1.0)

:
o"

10.800 osi

< 18,800:
Section

zw,sor.sztt I -I t"(0.o88x85.3?tl q o

c-\lz-in. (4x0.s)
I

t
I

2,289.24

12,509.56

482.98

0r = t-l

Ir rso.olrs+.orl

= 14,315.82 psi tension < 18,800 psi : o : - 10,703.30 psi compression

o,

rorss.oolrozs.s
(t

sot os. ool (5.9a [-lr(0.

78.isu'l2t]
1
.

o"

oo) I

'-

(lsq'Pl!4? oo)
2(0.688)

4,578.488 psi

: o:
o

lzot.tzz.oll
t"rcJ0l t0r)l

Section

f-:/+-in.

4,050.00

6,497 .53

440.@6
18,800

krso.olt+z.orl [ (4)(0.75) I

10,106.884 psi tension

<

r=

-2,888.176 psi compression


(150.0x54.0) 2(0.s0x1.0) 6.luuDSl

Iro(+s.soxr, ts:,555.7s4x12t I

"(0Jsxs550)(3,6562s0)

o^ = ::

'

q: o:
o

Izr+o.sst.sssl I

t"(oisx8s5o)l

2,100.00

13,533.81

466.199 18,800 psi

Section

d-s/s-in.

l5,l67.61psi tension

<

o:t-l krso.ox+z.orl [ (4)(0.62s) I

=
_

-11,900.01 psi compression (1s0.00x42.00) _ 4,200.00 psi


2(O.75)

*l -t

(L 6)

(43.25) (9 r7,03 s .328\ (12)

op

r(0.688)(8s.375)(3,&s.39r)

- t-l

zt+:,+rs.oor I

Section g-t:71u-in.

lr(0.688t(85.375r1

2,520.00

11,320.361

470.584
18.800

o:1-l krso.otr+z.orl l(4)(0.813) I

13,369.777 psi tension

<

psi

o,

9,290.944 psi compression

=[

(r2) |,27 s,3 s.367 67 .258) .258)(t2 6(43. 625) (1,27 116(43.625)(
1.

"(0-813X85525X3'667140

(150'0x42'o)
2(O.62s)

5.o4o.oo osi

Izt+s.ozl.+ssr I t"(0-8t3l8s.6rtl

228 = o: q:
q
1

Mechanical Design of process Systems


,937

.2'l

13,319.972

439 .64

14,817.602 psi tension

<

18,800

psi

da

-ll,822.342 psi

compression

D": : D; : :
A.

OO of base plate
111.50 in.

106.75

2(2.375)

ID of

base

plate

98.00 in.

=
2221

111.50

2(6.j 5)

All section stresses are less than the allowable stress of 18,800 psi. Thus, the tower thicknesses are acceptable.

-rn2 - nll = '-o------14

.302 in '

fr4l " "",' - "' : I. = -/na 64

3.059.323.380

SKIRT AND BASE PLAIE DESIGN


First we determine the size and number of anchor bolts reouired.

/vl) " = iryl). \A.i iv). \A./ \2r.i


_ '
_

(4-,11

8MD,, N(Di + Dl)

W.
N
1

(4-.+

^,: [+-*]/*".

(4-42)

(8)(12X1,866,090.883X1 (.12)(22,036.250) 70,219.061 Ib

1.s0)

63,815.727

Using an A- 193-87 high-strength bolt with an allowable stress of 40,000 psi per AISC and assuming a bolt circle of 107 in., the required bolt area, ,4.6, is
[{4){ l2){ 1.866.090.8S3)

(12)(70,219.061)
2,22t .302
(

63,8rs.721

2,22\.302

I
:

toz

*,. ,rrl "---) ^.

1.866.090.883X12)(l I L50) 2(3,059,323.380)

(12X40,000)

l.o I I ln-'

: 379.340 + 28.'129 + 408.069 o. : 816.138 psi < Fb : 1.33(900) = I,197 psi


o"
The concrete bearing strength criteria are met, so we ca. continue to the base plate design.

We select a lsls-in. d bolt of 8-thread series with a minimum root area of 1.680 in., Thus, using Figure 415, the new bolt circle becomes

BC

102

in. + 2(.2.375)

106.75 in.

The new required area becomes

[*tgg(

-63,81s.727f

l2)(40,000)

- D, _ lll.50 - 98.00 22 = 6.'75 : Base f, width = BP t


=
I

p"

W
(4_1j

1.615 in.'?

<

1.680 in.2

lo.
20,000

lJOrr sDaclng

r( 106.75
t2

=
19

allowable working stress for steel, psi

,000 psi

21.947

in. >

18

in. minimum

oJo,
0.333

Maximum bearing pressure on contact area:

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

Vessels

229

1.588, C, = 2.376,2 = 0.431, of Equation 445 using Thsix iterations 0.782, and J ble 4-7, we obtain a value of k of 0. 186.

with k

0.333,

c"

Equation 4-64 becomes

ti

- 0.845 ta 0.901 in

0.046

For

0.186, 655.834 psi and o, = 26,850.892 psi The allowable stress in the base ring = 36,000 psi 3,000 psi The allowable shength in the concrete

o.

k=

tc =

Make gusset plates

15116

in. thick

Using Equation 4-54 and solving for the maximum induced stress in the concrete,

Calculating the minimum skirt-to-base-plate weld size we have from Equation 4-65 4M

^
o.1.,"y

:
:

r6s{ o,o, [zro.tg.]xtoo.zsr

+ o.zsl 2(0. r83x 106.75r I

-n2

*(* irun'n n. \rDsr/


s83rl rll02.00tr I
61.815 727 lrt102.00)

769.139 psi

f. octmar lo5 nlfu\ : L l-l I o,ll I


,lJ 111.50

(4-56)

.
:

kt

r2X r ,8oo,090.

2,939.611

For wind or earthquake,

102.00

_,

?<n

i-

o*

: :

1.33 o.(0.55) 9,290.05 psi

1.33( 12,700X0.s5)

weld

size w

2.939.611 (2)(9290.0s)

0.158

BTHK

t4.75t l

I v?6q lqrlo " '""| = L 20.000 I


fr
r

1.613 in.

Use at least a 3/re-in. weld on each side of skirt.

Make base

15/8

in. thick

Anchor bolt torque is determined by Equation 4-66. For lubricated bolts with Fel-Pro C-5A,

Solving for the compression ring thickness using Equation 4-63 we have

: T:
C
or

0.15

(0.15)(1.62s)(64,605.803)

15,747.664 in.-tb

(b4,605.803x2.37s)

[4{20.000)14.75

^-^-

1.25I

1.625'1].j

T:

1,313

ftlb

with torque wrench

Make compression ring :/+ in. thick

Checking the skirt thickness for reaction of the bolting ring against the skirt we have from Equation 4-39,

Using Equation 4-64 and Figure 4- l6 in calculating the compression ring thickness, we have
t-! ztE
1.500

t
r= t =

1.76

/ \.. l--_5- I r' '


\m(GH)o"11/

pp

(4-19)

18.000

G*r"

{F,)tl

@-64)

l. /o

(70.2le.06rx2.3zsr [ t_
t, q x

l'

Q.672

Fi

':a'4? 'z0"000)l in. < r3lroin. skirt thickness at chair

"00X

/rozl' t'z /

'

64,605.803

Grr

9.00 in.;

G* =

4.25 in.

Skirt thickness meets chair ring reaction cnterla. A sketch of the skirt and chair design is shown in Figure 4-42.

230

Mechanical Design of Process Systems


NOTE:TOFOUE BOTTS 1313 tr-|bs WttH FEL-PRO C-sA USING TOROT'E

f 11td

^-$.-87

BoLls

Figure 4-42. The skirt detail.

Section Gentroids
Referring to Figure 4-21 we have the following:
Section a

Section c
ROO y.=;=4.00ft

Lz
b(4a

2.50 + 4.00

6.50 ft

,F-l
toio

-30

Section d

tot r.rt>

3(0.25)

_ 2.00 : r.w tt lo= Z L: : 4.00 + 1.00 :


Section e

5.00 ft

ul"r"'", - o.rr) t :
Lr =
s.857

in. =

0.488 ft

- '-2
L.+

24oo
1.00

=
+

l2.ooft

0.488

ft + :_: =
z

50

2.988 fr

12.00

13.00

ft

Section Section b

f
1.3?5

v :2'75 : -2
L5

ft

t,=+=2.5ort

12.00

1.375

13.375

ft

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

231

Section g

Ltt =

6.125

1.875

8.00

ft

i," = '"2 Ld

8oo:4.ooft
1.3'75

Section m

+ 4.00 :

_
5.375

7.00
2

ft

Section h

Lr:

1.875

+ 3.50 :

5.375

ft

v,=17s=0.875ft "2
Li

Section n

4.00 + 0.875

4.875

ft

'"2
L13

3.00

Section

i
l.75oft

3.50

1.50

5.00 ft

t, '2 :350:
La

Section o
D".
D3,

0.875

+ l.'75 =

2.625 ft

Section

j - Di) r 8{D" D, ) ran a

= 43.625,D,.: 42.125, D". : r,903.r41, Di, = 1,774.516,


arctan

D,. D;.

1.500 in.

- Di :

t28.62s

'mol
D.,

,, _

3HrDl

o=

/roz.oo

| \

2(240.00)

+:.

ou

s\
I

6.934

- Di, = 43.25 - 42.00 = 1.25 D;. - Di : 1,870.563 - 1,',761.00 = t.\ cr = arctan lll : Ze.-scs'
\t2l

3(36)(128.62s) + 8(361(1.50) tan (6.93,1) 6[128.625 + 2(36X1.50) tan (6.934)]


106.563

:
y.

18.556 in.

3(12X106.563) + 8(I\2(1.25) tan (26.565) 6[106.563 + 2(12)(1.25) tan (26.56s)]

= 1.546 ft Lr,r = 1.50 + 1.546 = 3.046 ft

: t =
Lq

6.247 rn. Section p 0.521 ft 1.750

(1.0

0.521)

2.229 ft

D.,
DZ"

:
=

52.381 in., D1

Section k

2,743.'t9s,
D3.

: Dl. :

50.756 in., D". 2,s'76.r97,

Di.

1.625

j'^

:
=

) ?S '1-'
2

- Di = 167.598 in.
+

6.125 fr 6.646

3(204X167.598)

6[167.s98

+ 8(2}4)r(t.625) tan (6.934) 2(204)(r.62s) tan (6.934)]

Lro

0.521

+ 6.125 =

ft

Section I
3.75

"2

= l.X/l tf

: I13.044 in. yp : 9,420 tt L,. : (3.00 1.546) + 9.420 : Lro : 17.00 - 9.420 : 7.580 ft

10.874

ft

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

2.625' 4.a75 5.375'. r3.375' 13.00'

.9 9 9 | i q H E ! $ R 3 H: H s ;^x^x^^x^^^;^;xx l .' P N :.
Figure 4-43, The vibration ensemble of lumped masses.

.. 9 q ;i I qS p

Vortex.lnduced Vibration
Referring to Figure 4-43 we have the following:

* : 6r?ffir,rral :
687 ,472

4.523

x
x

ro-5

M.:0 Mb: (0.423)(2.95 8) : 1.251 *o-t M" : 1.251 + (1.814)(6.50) : 13.042 kip-ft Ma : 13.042 + (15.201X5.00) : 89.047 kp-ft M" : 89.047 + (16.192X13.00) : 299.543kip-ft Mr : 299.538 + (29.004)(13.375) = 687.472 ktp-ft Mc : 687.46'7 + (30.813Xs.375) : 853.091 kip-ft Mh : 853.086 + (35.084X4.875) = 1,024.126 kip-ft Mi - |,024.r2r + (36.016)(2.625) = 1,118.668 kip-ft Ivl = 1,118.663 + (37.s32)(2.229) : r,202.322 ktp-ft M,. = ,2o2 .322 + (37 .913)(6 .646) : | ,454 .292 ktp-tt Mt : |,454.292 + (43.171)(800) = 1,799.660 kip-ft M. : 1,799.660 + (4s.028)(5.375) = 2,M1.685 kip-ft M" : 2,041.685 + (47.662)(s.o0) = 2,279.995 Y,tp-ft M. : 2,2'79.995 + (50.684)(3,046) : 2,434.379 kip-ft MF = 2,434.379 + (s 1.937X10. 874) : 2,999. r42 kip-ft Ms^, = 2,999.142 + (63.816)('7.58) : 3,482.867 kip-ft
1

(4.32

x
"

10)(1.533)

1.038

10

8s3,091

,4

?)

lft"t,

r Sll' - 1.288 '

10-4

t _ = t' A !" '<ro

(4.32

r Jx) = 1.546 l'118 668 : 1.689 r


x
l0e)(1.533)
|

1.O24.t26

to

' '

lo

.202.322

14.32

.lo"ltt.gtot
_14?|v|^4

'
r,, -

I L<L )A) (4.32 r t0")(0.917)

{, - = E.I,

M' (30 ,

x
lOe

tO")tb/in.,(t44tin.b/ft,

4.320

x x x

\blf

(4.32

f'7q9'660 4.tt2 t x 10,X1 .013) -

ro

"

1,251

(4.32

l0)(0.756)

:
=

3.830

x x x

10-7

!,,. '
<r4

\4.32

204l'685 -4.258xlo1 ^ l0')(1.1l0)


r
169 x l0 /' 10\1108) - -' '
1_70 00<
4

13,042

(4.32

10)(6.675)

4.523

l0-1

(4J2

&=

er+;ffi1j3,,

r.345

1o

, r,<

2,434,379

(4.32

l0)( 1.s32)

--r.u78xl0a

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

2'99q'l42 = r,- = (4.12 \ I0'X7.011) r. . (4.121482'q67 /


10)(7.01l)

q.902

,.

ro

''
a

s,,
Sr+

t4.258 + 4.369x10 "r(5.00)


2

_ 2.t57 ,, l0

l.l5o

Io

(,1.369

3.678)( r0-4)

(3.046)

1.226

x l0 r

/. + l,l ,\ , ^ = 18,*t Li J, l-l \rl


(3.83

Sr: =
)(2.958)

(3.678

x x

10

1+
2

9.902

x l0 ) (10.874)

x l0
2

5.665 10

x l0 '
?)l

2.538
Sro

10-'
10 r)
(7.58)

S:=

t(3.83

x l0 ) + (4.523 x x
10
6

(9.902

x l0 5 + 1.150 x
x
10
1

(6.s0)

:
2.?15 [(4.523

8.111

x l0
10
5

?)

+
2

(1.345

x l0-)] (s.00)

a =q+\-q:s+,1
j=n

3.476

Ar
10

[(1.345

x l0-) + (4.523 x

)] (r3.00)

A: =

:
Ss:

3.814

x l0 4 x
10

t(4.523

t + (1.038 x

l0-4)l

(13.375)

:
5" ') -

9.966
,-1

10

011

- !?88110'-,5325,
+
1.546)(10-1

b.2sr
6.908

l0

(1.288

(4.875)

x l0 I

: 8.111 x l0 8.111 xl0-4+2.538xl0r:3.349xl0 l = 4.575 x l0-r $ : 3.349 x l0 3 + 1.226 x l0 I At : 4.575 x l0-r + 2.15'7 x 10 r : 6.?32 x 10 r As : 6.'732x l0 3 + 2.249 x l0 3 = 8.981 x 10 l Ao = 8.981 x l0-3 + 3.113 x l0-r : 1.209 x l0 r 1.704 x 10 3 = 1.379 x 10-2 N : 1.209 x 10 2+ 2+3.506 x 10-1 : 1.414 x 10 l As : 1.379 x 10 As = 1.414 x 10-2 + 4.246 x l0-1 : 1.457 x 10 r r No : |.45'7 x 10 2 + 6.908 x 10 a = 1.526 x 10 r Arr : 1.526 x 10-2 + 6.251 x 10-1 : 1.589 x 10 Arz : 1.589 x 10 '? + 9.966 x l0 a - 1.688 x l0 Ar: = 1.688 x l0 2 + 3.814 x 10 a = 1.'726 x 10 + 3.476 x l0-5 : 1.730 x l0-' N+: 1.726 x l0-2 Ars : 1.730 x 10 2 + 2.115 x l0 6 : 1.730 x 10': Aro = 1.730 x 10 2+5.665 x 10 r = 1.730 x 10'?
a
2 2

s8

: :

(1.546

L689)(10

e.625)

4.246

r0-l

/\ p lA'+ = '\21 r,.

A'.

lr-,

s,

(1 689

+ L457Xl0r) e.2zg) =
+
3.671)(

3.506

x r0 I x
10 r

: (ry,
8.111
( .262 t,, \.349

)(7.58)

3.s74

"
(

ro

Sro =

(1.457

10-) (6.646)

1.704

P,. :

x x

10

t
,

+ 3.349

10

10.874)

Sr

9!\?9(8.00)
(4 112

:
(s.37s)

3.113

x ro l x
1.o

l0-2
+ 4.575

s,, =

+ t258xl0

z.z4g

r
:

x10r
x l0
r

l0 1 (3.046)
I

1.207

234

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Pr.:( 4.575 x l0-3


: P,r:(
=
2.827
6.7

+ 6.732

10-

,
x
10 _d

(s.00)

Pr:( :

L730

l0-2 + 1.730

10

_n

-) (6.s0)

10-2

1.125

x l0-, x
10-, + 1.730

32

x
v

t0-3 + 8.981

J
10

15 175I

r
: : tt5 : : pro : : pB : :
p16

730

x l0-

(2.958)

4.223

l0-z

5.117 3.074 3.074 2.569 2.569 3.776

x l0 ']

P'':( :8

8.981 .v

l0-r +

1.209

,
.428

(8.00)

1Q-2

P'r=( 1.379 x
=
9.281
1.414

l0-1 + 1.414

,
lO-'z

x l0-

(6.646)

x
x

P":(

l0-z +

1.457

10-

T
3.2( .200

(2.229)

10

Pr:( : Pr:( :

.457 X 10, + 1.526 'r.4

x l0

(2.62s)

1.915 1.526

10-2

xl0,
x l0
2

+ 1.589

l0 -i

(.4.87

5)

7.593

1.589 x l0 ' + 1.688 x l0P.:l '\ , 8.807

(5.37s)

10-'

Pr:( /r.osa x
=
2.283

ro t +

1.726 x. 10 -,\ )

(r3.37 s)

x l0 3 ft : y(16) : 0.037 in. x 10-3 + 2.262 x t0-2 x 10-2 ft : Y(15) : 9.39t n. x 10'? + 1.207 x I0 x l0-2 ft : V(t4y = 9.45, .r. 3.'176 x l0-2 + 2.827 x l0-2 6.603 x 16-z 1 : y(13) : 0..792 in. az = 6.603 x 10'? + 4.223 x 10 : 1.083 x l0-rfr : y(12) : 1.399 1r. p11 : 1.083 x l0-r + 8.428 x 10 ' : 1.925 x 10 ! ft : y(11) : 2.310 in. p.6 : 1.925 x l0-r + 9.281 x l0-2 : 2.854 x 10 ' ft : y(10) : 3.425 'n. : 2.854 x 10-r + 3.200 x l0-2 : 3.174 x 10-' ft : y(9) : 3.809 in. = 3.174 x l0-r + 3.915 x l0 : 3.565 x 10-'ft: y(8) : 4.278 in. : 3.565 x l0-r + 7.593 x 10 , : 4.324 x 10 I ft : y(7) : 5.189 in. : 4.324 x 10-r + 8.807 x l0-2 : 5.205 x 10-r ft = y(6) : 6.246 tn. : 5.205 x 10-r + 2.283 x 10 ' : 7.488 x l0-r ft : Y(5) : 8.986 in. : 7.488 x lO-t + 2.246 x 10 | : 9.734 x l0 rft: y(4) = 11.681 in. : 9.734 x 10-r + 8.650 x 10-2 F3 : 1.060 x l0-'ft : y(3) : 12.720 in. : 1.060 + 1.125 x l0 : r.r72 ft : y(2) : 14.064 ir'. , Pl : 1.172 + 5.117 x l0 : r.224ft: y(1) : 14.683 in.
2 2
2 I

x l0

P":( : P,:( :

|.726 x. t0

+ 1.730

10

_n

)
,\ l0-

13.00)

2.246
1.730

x x

l0-1
10-, + 1.730

Section weights and displacements for computing the tower's period of vibration are listed in Table 4-18. The first period of vibration, T, is determined as follows:

(s.00)

8.650

> l0-2

,=r"\E leDwv

(4-98)

--__-4
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

Table 4-18 Tower Vibration Def lections


Dellection Section

(in.)

w (lb)
423
1,391

wy

(in.lb)

Wy' (lb-in.'?)
91.194.771 5,134.3'70 2,165,995. r 81
2'7

14.683

6.2 r0.909
t9 ,563 .024 170,282.640 I1,575.871

14.064 12.720
11.681

13,387
9l I

t35,217 .749

8.986 6.246

12.812
4.271 1,516

e 1

5.

189

1,809
381

t15,128.632

fi,299.0r4
5

I,034,545.887
70,5'73.64r

4.278
3.809

22,162.219 3,98'7 .096

rr4,999.754

t] .056.797
2r ,994.85',/ 4,469 .368

3.425
2.310
1

,774.444

| ,304.925

s )sR
1.857

12,145.980

.300

2.414.100
2.086.128 1.368.966 385.924
439.523

0.792 0.453 0.308 0.037

2.634
3.O22

28,057.214 3,138.330 1,652.213


62Q.142

)s?

l 18.865
16.262

20,493

D*, = 3l6,t2s:ss

D*r,:3.g64,78s.40.

(386.4)(386,129.39s)

:
Hz

The second critical wind velocity, V2, is


1.024 sec/cycle

Yz

6.25

Vr

65.163 mph

f : l/T :

0.976

Hz =

0.981

From Equation 4-94a and Table 4-13 we have


the initial assumed value

F,

: 0.00086(0.6x60)(4.583)(104.292)(10.37 r, = 1,592.930 lb

Considering the upper third of the tower as being the effective length for vortex shedding the first critical wind velocity is as follows:
T_
104.292
3

34.764

ft

if we have a problem with vortex-induced vibrations, we must compare the force amplitude of 1,592.93 lb against the corresponding maximum wind force amplitude for the same region (either top l/r or r/+ of tower-in this case, the top r/:). Using Figure 4-39 we have the following:
To determine

54.00

+
t2

1.00

L:
4.583

34.764

ft, from

above

ft

1M.292 tt-34.764

ft :

69.528

ft

3.40 d

(3.40)(4.s83) ft

n. = al 716x15 659)
o"

61 547 lb/trl
286

1.024 fi
sec

se:

cycle

,=

/60 srr\o 1l.726)

l"-^^"^-"I

\900/

(66.048)

10.375 mph

9" r

54.808 lb/ft2

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

_
F=
or

(34.7 64)l(7)(6r.

+ (2+7)
s47)

(2)(54.8o8)l

:2,087.559

t2087.559r

/r rr nn\ l'-;;""1 \ rz I

Finally, if the Reynolds number is greater than approxa vibration analysis is not required, because in these regions the vortices break-up. In our case.
imately 350,000,

(0.6)

= l?

)55 000 rhNn"

DcVp

F*,0

13,256 lbr

>

1,608.56

lbr

where
F"

D. :

Since F*;"6

F,iu.",ion,

the wind stresses are greater

0.071

effective wind diameter at top r/: or r/+ o: tower : 127.0 in. critical wind velocity = 15.292 ft/sec

lb./fc

lhan those at resonance vibrarion, so no further vi6ration analysis is required. If the vibration amplitude force had been greater than

1.285

x l0 5lb-/ft-sec
11-

the maximum wind force, further investigation would have been required. Dynamic stresses ar the-crirical wind velocity can be approximated by taking the ratio of the vibration force amplitude, F", to the maximum wind force amplitude, F1,, and multiplying this ratio by the bending stress term in Equation 4-29. The pressure stress, which is a primary stress, and the weight load stress in tension are unaffected. Shear is not considered in the equation because it is almost always negligible. Defining the ratio of vibration force amplitude to the maximum wind force amplitude as R. Equirion 4-29 becomes

N"" :

/rzzoo\ rh "f fi tts.292t /n\ lj:i--:, l:' lrO.Orr,) l " I \ Lz \sec/


(1.285

894,215

1o-1 ;lb. It-sec

Since N*" : 894,215 > 350,000, a vibration analvsis is not required since we are outside rhe range of vortex formatron. Vortex formation has been observed at NRe > 3.5 x 106, but wind velocities encountered would not cause Reynolds numbers that high.

oD:

t(?J--[**"un#.J
= \",rO. +

ANS|-A58.t-1982

Equivalent Diameter Approach versus

.l 2w \
DD7

In determining wind loadings in this example we used the formulation to compute wind forces:

p:

q.CC,A,

(4-81

where

oo
oD

= dynamic stress, psi < static allowable stress

Staley and Graven [15] state rhar when dynamic


stresses are combined with axial compressive stress. the result can be compared to the allowabie sutic srress. The same is generally true for tension, but one must be cognizant of discontinuity stresses at the locations or irregilar changes of geometry, such as welds. The latter can be

of its random nature and unpredictable motion.

avoided by using stiffening rings. Certainly a more accurate and detailed analysis, such as the octahedral shear stress theory of yield, can be used, but such a detailed analysis can be avoided in most tower designs. A detailed fatigue analysis is mandatory in many aipplicarions and should always be used in case of doubt. Weaver [24] discovered in wind-tunnel tests that vortex sheddins cannot prebently be analyzed as a response spectra beiause

computed using the total width of the tower, insulation, ladders, platforms, and attached piping as an equivalent or effective diameter of a cylinber. called the effective or equivalent cylinder. This iquivalent cylinder represents the total wind area. Suih an analysis is called a quasi-analysis, because it is not exact. The equivalent cylinder concept used for conical sections is similar when compared to the exact analysis of a cone. The ANSI-AS8.1-1982 uses a more refined and equally complex analysis to determine the wind loadings. The relationship used for wind force is as follows:

in which Ae is

F:

q7G2CrA61

+ qzcciArr

where G2 Acr
416

:
=

This greatly complicates the study of vortex excitation by use of finite element methods, but efforts are being made.

gust response factor for cladding and compo, nents calculated at heisht Z area of insulation tclaJdingt of tower. and al. external attachments such as platforms. lad ders. and piping rhat resist wind area of the tower shell itself that resists winc

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

The term G7 is given in Table 8 of ANSI-A5S.1-1982 rhat is determined by the following expressions:

where G21u"ry
tower.

average value of G7 across the height of the

Gz

:
:-

0.65

3.65 Tz

Also, rarely is y as great as 0.5, making the inequality


above more credible. After applying the real numbers for several cases, it is seen that the equivalent diameter method using the

L1

2.35 (D")os (z/3o1tt"

For category A,

D" = 0.025,o:3.0,2e
For category B,

1,500

D.

0.010,

q - 4.5.22:

1,200

For category C,

D" = 0.005,

a :7.0,2e:

9OQ

ANSI-A58.1-1982 gust factor for flexible structures, G, is more conservative than the ANSI method of using the two gust response factors G2 and G. Thus, being more conservative than ANSI A58.1 1982, one meets the minimum requirements ofthe standard, as it is stated in the title, "minimum design loads for buildings and other structures." Certainly, using the formula for lattice structures, Equation 4-83, is a conservative approach. For designing a tower without a computer software package, the equivalent diameter method is recommended. In such a design, one is faced with numerous
calculations, which leads to a greater possibility of error. Also, the use of two gust factors with one varying in height adds considerable complexity to the problem. When using a high-speed electronic computer the use of two gust factors would be a very good method to use, although cumbersome to verify. Certainly, some could argue that with less conservatism a cheaper vessel is produced. Such a consideration must be analyzed in each separate circumstance. For some, the additional manhours may offset the economics of the vessel or time may be the ruling criterion.

For category D,

D.

0.003,q

10.0,

ze =

700

G2, which is used for cladding and components, varies with height and is a parabolic distribution. The term G is used with the tower shell and only is constant along the height of the tower. Comparing the two methods we set Equation 4-81

equal to the comparable expression given by ANSIA58.1-1982.

q/GC,A,

q7G7C,A,

qrCc,e,

EXAMPLE 4.3: SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF A VERTICAL TOWER


A client has a vertical tower that is to be moved from a Dlant in Jackass Flats. Nevada to a location northeast of Los Angeles, California. The vessel must be analyzed for seismic zone 4 to determine if it can be moved. This result is to be compared to a wind analysis for an 80-mph
wind.

We now define the following variables:

Acr

. Arr
Ar

Ar
from which

qzcCA:q2C,A1(xQ.+yG)

Seismic Analysis

G-xGzayG G1t -y; > xc'

V=

ZIKCSW

(4- 106)

Now, for many, if not almost all cases,

c>G,
This is certainly true as one moves up the tower in computing Gz. It can be safely said that

Gau,er

For zone 4,2 : t,I = 1, K : 2.0, W : 15,571 lb Since the tower is not of uniform thickness, equation 4-108 cannot be used. Either the Rayleigh equation (Equation 4-97) or a modified form of the Rayleigh Equation, the Mitchell Equation (Equation 4-112), can only be used. For illustration purposes the Mitchell Equation will be applied and then compared to the more accurate Rayleigh method.

238

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Using values in Table 4-15 we determine the values to be used in Equation 4-112. Connecting piping exerts a concentrated load o12.7 kips at the support point midway in Secrion @-@. using the values in Table 4-15 we construct Table 4-19,
where

Solving for V we have

v:
h72 D2
Fr

(1)(1X2.0X0.078X1.434X1s,571)

3,484.0 lb

Using Equation 4-114 to find F,, we have the following:

A = !twa" + *Btt;

36

+ Fr =

0.15V
s22.60

n:
111
\2

Ee(,f,)'.a,

(0.15)(3,484.0)

Using Table 4-18 we have

From Equation 4-115 we obtain

F- : (V 0.673 sec/cycle

Ft) -YYhY

13.484

522.60)

w)hv

u00/

D*'*" i=
I

515,380

Using the more accurate Rayleigh method, Equation 4-97 , the value of T is

0.0057 wr,hy

0.734 sec/cycle

in which the Mitchell Equation is in 8.3 % error (which is

To solve this equation we must set up the table shown

quite normal). For application ofthe Rayleigh Equation


see Examples

in Thble 4-20. After determining the values for W, h",


W)h). F,- and V, we solve for the seismic moments using Eouation 4-116:

4-2 and,4-4.

Now, we must solve for the bending moments induced by the seismic forces. First we find the base shear using Equation 4-106. To accomplish this we have the followrng:

MM3 : Ma : M5 : M6 = M7 : Ms :

Vxi Ly_r

Fx Ci

M,

1""'r

(r.i" -

l:125
l.U

1.t25

< t.5... K -

2.0

Flexibility facror

= C: -]= 15(l1tr':

O.OZA

The characteristic site period, T,, is determined by soils consultant to fall within the following range:

: : Mrr :
M,
M16

M12:

(0.30)(5.083) + (0.49)Q.s42) (0.49)(7.50) + (1.19X3.75) (1.68)(5.417) + (0.18X2.708) = (1.86X2.00) + (0.09x1.00) = (1.95X8.00) + (0.28)(4.00) = (2.23X4.00) + (0.16)(2.00) (2.39X10.00) + (0.32)(s.00) (2.71X10.00) + (0.22X5.00) 28.200 (2.93)(9.083) + (0.23)(4.542) 27.658 (3.16)(8.00) + (0.10X4.00) 25.680 (3.26)(2.917) + (0.01)(1.458) 9.524

: 2.770 2.'770 : 8.138 10.908 9.s88 20.496 3.810 24.306 16.72o 4r.026 : 9.240 50.266 : 25.sm 75.766 : 103.966 : 13r.624 : rs7.304 : 166.828

Dt

0.5<T.<0.55
To be safe, we

will

use the lower value

of 0.5. Now,

- ;; = _ ls u.)u :

O ?14

1.468

> 1.0 in which Equation 4-tl3b

applies. Thus, we have

The wind moment for an 80-mph wind was calculated ro be 106,716 ft-lb. Since 166,828 ft-lb > 106,716 ft-lb seismic phenomena govern. The skirt and base plate analysis is identical for seismic and wind analyses. Just as in Example 4-2, the seis-

1.2

+ 0.6 El

\TJ

0..

El'
\TJ

: s:
S

mic forces and moments are used instead of the wind forces and moments. In the case of this tower a thicker base plate was welded on, the number of gusset plates were doubled, and anchor bolts of a high strength alloy
were used to meet the seismic criteria. In an earthquake zone other than zero, a comparison of seismic to wind should always be made.

1.2 +0.6(1.468)
1.434

0.3(1.468f

t
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

Table 4-19 Numeric Integraiion ol Period ot Vibralion, T sec/cycle

whv kipsfft
1

Aa
H

WAa +
WAB/H

l9l'to"
u0i

.00

2.103 0.597 0.054


1.506

1.000 1.000
o.567 5.840 o.219 0.045

1.000

0.091

0.923
2.'7

1.000

0.878 0.820 0.939

0.079

1.000
0.998

1.000

0.100 o."t45 0.610

0.329

0.033 0.998

1.234

10-6

0.t42
0.1r7
0.125 0.607
0.161

0.067 0.543

0.010 0.997 0.997

9.541

x l0

o.278
0.265 0.097 0.552
0. 168

0.035 0.986 0.016 0.973 0.973 0.986

0.0010

0.0015

0. 161

0.r24
o.414
0.0,14

0.020 0.904 0.904

0.0080

0.155 0.276 0.285


0. 151

0.037 0.007 0.007 0,0004 0.0004 0.040

0.006

0.021

o.763
0.002 0.504
0.0001

0.763 0.0649 0.504 0.1175

0.3t2

0.160

0.160

0.380 0.000

0.0412

A:0.,140

B:0.261

240

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Table 4-20

Wind Load Distribution x"'o-ri. Lzt


ztttp

w\-r kips \:
.':

!r 72
63.2 56.7

w,h, ffi
207

Fx
l. l9

v,
0.49

*,1-u
2.770 8.138 9.588 3.810 16.720

*,oTi

2.770
10.908

3.289 0.542

.86

1.68

-\3

30.73
15.05

0. 18

+
+ +

->s,* i
+2s.k1.0'

1.86

20.496 24.306
41.026 41.026 15.766
103.966 131.624 157.304 166.828

0.284
1.0

53.0

0.09
1.95

48.0
42.0 15.0 25.0
15.5
'7

48.00
27 .09

0.28 2.23 0.16 2.39

-l

0.645

/:
--> rsr
..:
1.613
'+

9.240
2s.500 28.200
27

56.46

0.32
2.7
1

G
1.550

+
+ +

38.75
40.01
17

0.22 2.93 0.23 3.16 .658 0.10 3.26 25.680


0.01

2.581

2.493
1.109
15.571

.O

.45

1.5
5

l .66 15.38

9.524
3.27

3.270

-+

o
5l

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

Vessels

241

EXAMPLE 4-4: VIBRATION ANALYSIS FOR TOWER WITH LARGE VORTEX-INDUCED DISPLACEMENTS
A phone call from a plant manager reveals that an existing tower needs to be analyzed for wind vibrations. The tower was designed, built and installed overseas and is vibrating so badly all the natives drove off the plant site in fear of the tower falling over. The tower with the appropriate wind load distribution is shown in Figure 4-44. The tower is divided into wind zones at 30 ft,40 ft, and 75 ft and according to shell diameter and thickless. The variation of wind zones based
on the shell diameter and thickoess is necessary since the

D.

54.25

in. =

4.521

ft

Zone 6-Section 2

: D. :
D"

[24.50 33.50

in. + 2(4.5) in.] + [3.50 in, + 2(4) in.]


in. + 11.50 in.

D" = 45.00 in.

3.75 ft

Zone 7-Section I D.
D"

:
=

136.625

[3.50 in.

in. + 2(4.5) in.l + [6.625 in. + 2(5) in.] + 2(4.5) in.] + [6.625 in. + 2(5) in.]

tower's section moment of inertia will vary. To begin the analysis we start with defining the effective diameter of each section as illustrated in Figure 445. Thus we have the following: Zone 1-Sections 7. 8. and 9

46.625

in. + 16.625 in.

12.50

in. + 16.625 in.

D.

104.875

in.

8.740

ft

Moments of Inertia

D"

[32

in. + 2 (4) in.] + [6.625 in. + 2(3.5) in.] [2.375 in. + 2(3.0) in.] + [4.5 in. + 2(3) in.]
13.625

r:#(D".-Di)
\ : :
hl36.62s)4
0.283 fta

D" = 40.00 + D"

8.375

10.50

72.5

in.

6.042

ft

(36.000)41

5,876.389 in.a

Zone 2-Section 6

De:[32in.+8in.] + 14.5 in. I : 4.042 ft


Zone 3-Section
5

2(2)

in.l

48.5 in.

Transition Piece-Section 2

Referring to Figure 4-45,

5" :
D" D"

[25.25 in. + 2(2.5) in.] + [3.5 in. + 2(3.5) in.]


30.25 50.25

[4.5 in.

2(2.5) in.]

,"r:(
req

18.375

12.375

2 cos 26.565'
17.

in. + 9.50 in.

10.50 in.

190

D.q

34.380 in

in. = 4.l88ft

Zone 4-Section 4

r, = #(34.380)4 Iz

(33.630)11

D" : D" :

5791.250 in.a

0.279 fta

25.25 in.
2.521

2(2.5) in.

30.25 in.

ft
3

\ : :

1,

Kz4.sq4

e4.00)11

r,400.ri2

in.a

Zone 5-Section

0.068

fc
(24.00)11

9" =
D"

125.25

[3.5 in.
34.25

in. + 2(4.5) in.l + [4.5 in. + 2(2.5) in.] +

2(3.5) in.]

\ = L64Kz4.i5)o 0.103 fta

2,133.181 in.a

in. + 9.50 in.

10.50 in.

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

* ";

".".

'

%: *,*

l\'
'"*

T(

Figure 4-44. Tower wind ensemble.

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

ry'essels

Wind Moment Calculations


Sections

and 2

M2

es8.4zs)

(#.

tr.r) * o,uno.rrrr(U)
+
4,450.00

+ 4,450

Mz: Mz :
Figure

lL,99O.762 + 18,158.661 34'599.423 ft-lb

445. Tfalsition

piece of section 2 of Figarc

444.

Sections 2 and 3

M3

(788.425)(15.2W

17.0O)

Q,690.r72)(6.75

+
M: M:

17.00)

+ 4,450 + (1,453.50)

tt

ht\
+
12,354.75

:
=
=

25,394.381

63,891.585

4,450

106,090.716 ft-lb

I.

: 1 (24.00)41 : g- [(25.ooy :
0.139

2,888.744 in.a

Section 3 and 4

fll

lvl4

(788.425)(32.209

+ +

(2,690.172)Q3.75 (1,453.s0X10.00)

10.00) + 10.00)

u.= fir<zs.zsf =
0,177

@4.oof1

3,667.316 in.a

+ Q21.5s2\lrl

rroi

tr

+ (268.541(+)

Section 7

Referring to Figure 446

_ ," - lrs.as + n.azs\ :14.174in. '* =

\-ffi/
=

D.e

28.348 in.

f,11zt.z+ty4

(27.72141
0.130

b:
I8

2,704.843 in.a

fll

= #rc2.00)4 =
0.565

(30.00F1

r1,i1r.wzin.a

fll

r,

:
=

fftfrz.oof
0.2t00

- eo.6zr4l :

8,2e2.684n.a
Figure 4-46, Section 7 of Figure 4-44.

ff

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Mt:33,278.631 + 90,793.305 + + 3,607 .76 + 402.821


Mq

4,450

14,535.00

Sections 7 and 8

147 ,067

.517 ft-lb

M8

(788.425X67.292

Sections 4 and 5

M5

(788.425X42.2o9

+ +

+ B.O) + (2,690.172)(43.7 s + (1,453.50x10 + 8.0) (721.552)(5 + 8)


8.0) + 4,450
(268.547x1.5
(3e.328)

+8) + (2,690.172X68.833 + 8) + 4,4s0 + (1,453.50X35.083 + 8) + (721.552)(30.083 + 8) + (268 .547)(26.583 + 8) + (349.41 l)(21.083 + 8) + (39.328Xr7.583 + 8) + (522.662)(4.542 + 8)
+
17s4.042t

l:l \zl

/n\

+ + M:

8)

(J4s.41)

l:l
\21

Mr =

lll \zl

59,362.095 + 206,693.985 + 4,450 + 62,621.t41 + 27,478.86s + 9,287.16r + 10,161.920 + 1,006.128 + 6,555.227 + 3,016.168
390,632.690

Ma

ftib

:
=

39,586.031 + 139,216.401 + 4,450 + 26,163.00 + 9,380.176 + 2,551.197 + 1,397.&4 + 19.664

Sections 8 and 9

Me

Q 88.425)(7

M5

222,7&.113 ft-Ib

Section 5 and 6

M6

(788.425)(50.209 + 8.0) + (2,690.172)(5r.75 + 8.0) + 4,450 + (1,453.50)(18.0 + 8.0) + (72r.5s2)(13 + 8) + (268.547X9.5 + 8) + (349.411)(4 + 8) + (39.328X0.5 + 8)

5.292 + 2.9 17) + Q,690.r72)(.1 6.833 + ).:917) + 4,450 + (1,453.50)(43.083 + 2.9t7) + (721.5s2x38.083 + 2.9t7) + Q68.547)(34.583 + 2.9t7) + (349.41r)(29.083 + 2.917) + (39.328)(25.583 + 2.917) + (522.662)(r2.sQ + 2.917)

-,
Ms

17s4.042\A

+ 2.gt.l,) + ,Zt+.OOr(2.717\

\z

+
Mo

rs22.662t

lll
\21

/^\

61,661.931 + 214,541.217 + 4,450 + 66,861.00 + 29,583.632 + 10,070.513 + 11,181.152 + 1,120.848 + 8,079.832 + 5,215.709

:
=

401.003

45,893.431

+ 37,79r.00 + t5,152.592 + 4,699.573 + 4,192.932 + 334.288 + 2,090.648


ft-lb

160,737.'177

+ 4,450

Ms

413,166.837 ft-lb

M6

2'7Q,892.241

Sections 6 and 7

Wind Deflections

M?

(788.425Xs8.209 + 9.083) + (2,690.r'12)(59.75 + 9.083) + 4,450 + (1,453.50)(26.0 + 9.083) + (721.552)(2r + 9.083) + (268.547)(17.5 + 9.083) + (349.411X12 + 9.083)

'
:
!z

t4.176

1B),
t0"x0.28J)

[r:.+ZS.:SZtr

r:) , +,+sOl

0.00113

ft
(17)'

Mz

{3e.328X8.s

r 9.083) + rszz.ooz, (9 983) \z I


7,138.785

(4.r76

l0)(0.068)

l{2,+tt.serot

t3

.o)

: :

53,054.695

+ +

+
+

185,172.609

2t,706.449
691.504

+ 4,450 + 50,993.141 + 7,366.632

(r,4s3.5_0)(17.0)

2,373.669

M7

332,94'1 .484

ft-lb

l1+,vzz.ost11ro1 Y:: Ar?6t-To"xorort :

(10F

821

+34,s2s.42]:

0.04081

ft

E
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

Vessels

245

, *

ff

(99o.o99xro) _

106,090.721 _.-l:

001658

fr

622.662t8t , 'T + 222.764.1131 r ".. ,., . "l = 0.t3055 rt


.

(4J?6

(sf
(8f

t06x0x9)t

ks,szz.rso)(s)
3

-'6 -

(56.50X9.083) ft6.833.596)(9.081)
14.176

x t0\0260)t

(388,738)(8)

* '

t+'t.OOt.SZ]

2 l-= 0.00989 ri
3

(572 730x9 083)

6l

2io.8s2.z41f

0.143 ft

Af?6 x ro)(oJ??)-t
+
t522.66UG)

ko,:ro.s:+Xs)
(71.583X8)

(4.176

ft2,+oo.rz r'11r;

10)(0.565)

8
x

* '

Zzz.lo+.tnl

Lz

)-

0.0r I 15 ri

+(7s4'y2)(8) + n2,s4i.481:

6l

0-09071 rt

(4.176

10)(0.260)

-'* :
0.012

3.58r(2.g t67 [rS. rOO.:OStrZ.l rOrr x to"1o,+ogt 2 tuo 1+,


17

(572.730)(9.033)

[tr.+oo. rzox t' - ,aJ6 v 1g\05sr[ .l

(8),

82j

+270,8s2.24rf
a r

ft

+
18

(7s4.042)(8)

821 +

332,s47.481

0.00507

ft

(2.gt667tt [rt. roo.:os x z.r reor I t+.tzo x ronxo,+oott :

: total deflection at top of vessel : \LtA, 2y, + \: 0.743 ft : 8.910 in. at top for static gust wind
I

* 121!!!)t2!tfr)+ J90.632.691 = 0.05r74 ft 6)

Referring to Figure 4-47 , we determine

t274.u2\2.st667,
(13.5)(

-" -

821 l7)

39!.632.69]

0.00201 ft

(4.176-,.

looxol68)t

[tf.+la.sertr t r r
z

(1'453 50)(17)

6l

ro.rnn.or]:

0.05519

ft

'

(30.50Xr0) ft+.erz.owxror \4.176 x 10"x0.103)[ 2

, 't
+

(990'0?9x

6l

t0)

106.090.721

:
r

0.07709 rr

,4.

17,6,

(40.50)(8) [rs.lzz. rvolr x to\rn t rorl Z

:0 M, : (4.71)(6.961) : 32.786 kip-ft Mz : 32.786 + (4.823)(8.789) : 75.u5 kip-ft M4 : 75.175 + (7.533X13.25) : 174.987 kip-ft Ms = L'74.987 + (10.013X9.00) : 265.104 kip-ft M6 : 265.104 + (12.023)(8.00) = 361.288 kip-ft Mi : 361.288 + (14.253X8.862) : 487.598 kip-ft Mr : 487.598 + (ri.693)(8.221) : 633.032 kip-ft Ms : 633.032 + (21.233)(5.458) : 748.922 l<tp-tt Mrc : 748.922 + (23.143)(1.458) = 782.664 ktp-tt
Mr

-, --- 6

{388.738x8)

, l+/,uo , ,, + ".1.s2l =
I

0.09560 fr

T:M/I
Mt T, '' = tz 32'786
0.279

'

(48.s0x8) ft6.310.934)(8) (4.176 x t0')(0.177)[ 2

rv.5t2.54

246

Mechanical Design of Process Systems


T^

:M.:
I3

75,t75 _ I,105,514.71
0.068
17

T4

:Mo:
r4

0.103

4,987 _ 1,698,902.91

=
T6

M'=
I5

265,104 _ |,907 ,223.02


0.139

:Mu=
I6

361,288

o.t77

,041 ,r7

.14

-q-

T-

:Mr:
11

487598 _
0.130

3,7 50,7 53.85

---->4.71k
T8

:Mt=
Is

633,032
0.565

_ _

,r20 ,4r0 .62

-------e
Tro
s.

:M,:
Ie

'748,922
0.400

1,872,305.00

=M'o= Ie
=
M dx/I

782,@ n /An - 1,956,660.00

--r.2.71k
Sro

(1,956,660.00

1,872,305.00)

(1.458)

------)
----------->2 .48x

:2,791,315.49
(1,872,305.00

+
2

t,r20,410.62)

->

------e
2,23k

2.01k

(5.458)

8,167 ,120.93

^"2

3.750.753.85) \'-_:___:__________________:__________rv,,,r

(1.120.410.62

^ ^^"

-> -------
S7

:20,022,921.55

(.3,75O,7s3.8s 664 017

2,041,175.r4)

(8.862)

344k

-->

-----e
(s)
(;\
S5

: ,5

15

-----l3.54K

Sr:
_

(2,O41,175.14

+
2

1,90',1

,223.O2) (8.00)

' \-"/ ----------> 1.91x


Figwe 4-47. Tower vibration ensemble.

15

,793 ,592 .64

(1 ,907 ,223

.02

+
2

| ,698 ,902 .9r) (9.00)

16,227,566.69

t
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure
ry'essels

Sr:

(1,698,902.91
,579 ,266 .73

+
2

1,105,514.71)

(13.25)

. _ lE_----_-2=

(10,958,436.42
172,393,524.9

30,98r,357.9't)

$.22t)

18

$=
Sz:

(1,105,514.71
5,374,593.25

+
2

lr7,512.54)

(8.789)

^ rt

--------------T(56,645,395.32

(30.981.357.97

+ s6.&5.39:.32)

$.862)

:388,274,143.9

(117,512.54\
a

6.961\

Po:

+
2

72,438,9U .96)

(8.00)

Q9,002.40

516,337 ,533.2

Ps:
e, = Ds, =
1M1

(72,438,987 .96

88,666,554.65)

dx)/!
P4

724,974,941.7

2,791,315.49

(88,666,554.65

107.245,821.4)

2,791,315.49
10,958,436.42

8,t67,120.93

z
1

,,..., lr5'zJ)

:
20,022,921.55

,297

,919,492

10,958,436.42 30,98r,357 .97


30,981,357 .97

P::

(to7,245,821.4
966,202,r7 5.0

+
2

t2,620,4t4.7)

(8.789)

+ + + +

25,ffi4,037.35

56,&5,395,32

56,&5,395.32
72,438,987.96
72,438,987 .96

15,793,592.&

Pz=

(112,620,414.7
785,374,239.6

+
2

113,029,417.1)

(6.961)

16,227 ,566.69

88,666,554.65

88,666,554.65

18,579,266.73

rc7,245,82t.4

tu,245,821.4 +
112,620,414.7

5,37 4,593.25

: 2,034,868.99 w : 2,034,868.99 + 37,523,072.96


ttto

39,557 ,941 .95

lL2,620,414.7

409,002.40

ps

:
=

rt3,o29,4r7.r

39,557,941.95 211,951,466.9

+
+

172,393,524.9

pt

o=(*,

: :

211,951,466.9
@0,225,61O.8

388,274,143.9

)u

t4 =

,_^. ---:---------:- | l -4)x) Pro: 2.79t.315.49.2,O34,868.99

: t'.s : :
lt4
458)

ffi0,225,610.8 |,116,563,144 |,116,563,144


1,841,538,086 1,841,538,086

+
+

516,337,533.2

724,974,941.7

Q,79r,3r5.49 + 10,958,436.42)
37 ,523

1,297,919,492

3,139,457,578

,U2 .96

14

= 3,139,457,578 + 966,202,175.0 = 4,1O5,659,753

248
p2

Mechanical Design of process Systems

: :

4,105,659,753
4,891,033,993

785,374,239.6

r,,:

t:0]1'868 (4.32 x l0r)

li :4.it0x

r0

aft =

0.006in.

'
Yz:

l44Ei
4,891,033,993 144(30 x t05
4,105,659
,7

The tower section weights and displacements are combined in Thble 4-21 to determine the period of vibration of the tower.

: l.lJ n = lj-)v

ln.

First critical wind velocity, V,

53

(43' x tOt
3,1,39,457 ,578

: :

0.950

ft : ft =
ft : ft :

11.405 in.

-..T

3.40 d

(4.32

l0e)

0.727

8.721 in.

";-=re.24tt L= 16

q6

t5 -

I,841,538,086

1bt =

0.426

5.1 15 in.

. = (,+*) $740) +(,uaA.,r',


From Equation 4-101, at resonance

= ,.,,,

":z1 |,1t6,563,r44 :
(43' x iort
600,225,610.8

0.258

3.102 in.

fy V,

vortex shedding frequency to 91)(7.1221

natural frequency

@tt]ott
Y8:
J92rr,951,466.9

: : :

0.139

ft : ft :
ft

1.667 in.

: fvD S :

U.l

34.540a
Sec

$8 16 w2t16

0.049

0.589 in.

23.550 mph

Considering the top portion (Section 1) we have


0.009

39,557 ,94r.95

= 0.1l0 in.

v-

(o

eT(lfa)

u.z

423s

L sec

2E.eo mph

Table 4-21

Values for Determining Tower's Period of Vibration


Detlectlon 1_!:-!
13.59

w
4.7 r0

8.72

710

5.r2
3.

2,480
2,010

l0

1.67

0.59 0.11 0.01

2,230 3.444
1 54n

64.008.90 1.289.33 23.63t .20 .60 6.231 .00 3.724.10 2,029.60 389.40
19.10

869.880.95 14.711.26 064.06


65.01 l.7 t

19.316.10 6.219.25 1.197 .46 0.19

1.9i0

Dtr :
First Period of Vibration, T

114,02s.23

Dwy, =

r,182.443.81

ILwy' i 11. t82.441.8r) r = z,r \/etrwv = zr 1/(386.4X114,020.23, = J


tou t

1.03 sec/cycle

of=

O.9j Hz

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure Vessels

Since the field measurements indicated an air velocity at resonance to be 30 mph and a stack deflection of 13 inches, this analysis agrees with empirical results. From the calculations for the first critical wind velocity, it appears that the larger diameter of Section t has a larger influence on this deflection. For this reason we use the top I/+ of the tower rather than the top 1/:. Now,

r\36)\'l

)z

_ o,12r'lst.zq _

2 |

15l.2ar1l

l(361 j

59.948.76 trl.3

259.52 gal in one head

From Equation A-1 in Appendix A the partial volume of liquid in the cylindrical portion is calculated.

Y1

6.25;

Vr

(6.25)(28.90)

180.63 mph

., :
=
Y:

(72)2(150)(l2t

A tower that has been fabricated and installed in the field is beyond design changes. Unlike stacks (see Chapter 5), vortex strakes are difficult to install on many towers and impossible on others. Shortening the tower height is impractical, since the tower's internals are necessary (unlike a stack). Consequently, the only resolution is to mount guy wires to the tower's upper section (normally 2/3 the height). Except for special applications, guy wires are to be avoided in practice. They use a lot of space and plant maintenance people sometimes must temporarily remove one or two to gain access to an area for equipment installation or some other reason. Problems then may arise in keeping the tower from falling over during this temporary time interval, remembering to reconnect the guy wire(s), and making sure the wires are properly tensioned once they are reconnected. Despite these disadvantages, guy wires were essential in this application. EXAMPLE 4.5r SADDLE PLATE ANALYSTS OF A HORIZONTAL VESSEL
A proposed horizontal vessel design shown in Figure 448 is fully loaded with corn syrup used by a confectionery manufacturing plant in Fayetteville, Arkansas. The corn syrup has a specific gravity of .y = 1.4 un6 . ut 90"F. The thickness of the head and shell is t/z in. since the corn syrup is at 90'F, there is practically no thermal
expansion of the vessel, so only uniform compression is considered in evaluating the saddles. Even though a Zick analysis indicates that the vessel is grossly overstressed, the saddle in Figure 4-48 is to be evaluated. To analyze the saddle plate, refer to Figure 4-48 c. Each section of the saddle plate, A-B, B-C, C-D, is considered separately. Each section supports a portion of the vessel weight indicated by the dotted lines. Sections A-B and C-D support equal weights. Section

2
40,483.32 gal

lott+0.+St ^ --l

L 180

9,351 ,647 .46 in.3

Total fluid volume above Section

A-B

is

4O,483.32 gaI

2(259.52) gal

5,481.22 ft3

4t,002.36 gal

The total fluid weight is then

Wres :

Wrco

t5-48t.22t fr' tOZ.qt Ib,

rr

.+r

478,839.22 tb

Metal Weight Above Each Section, A-B and C-D For outside surlace on h.ud, thuiur" V, ir,. tt'i.k,
2r\36
.25 )(7 2 .5

), _

"<t?.r,lsr.t+

62,434.25 in.3

The inside volume in the head was determined in computing the fluid volume as being 59,948.76 in3. The metal volume in one head is then

VM

62,434.25 in.3

59,948.76 in.3

2,485.49 in.l

For two heads,

Yu =

2(2,485.49)

4,970.98 jn.3

The metal volume in the cylinder portion above Section A-B is determined as follows:

A-B

and

C-D Ri

For outside surface,

4.27

ft :

51.24 in.,

6.0

ft = i2rn.

_
=

(72.5)2050)(12)
2

vessel above Section

From Appendix A, Equation A-8, the fluid volume in A-B is as follows:

l""l;';"' - o'r]

9,512,090.41 in.l

250

Mechanical Desisn of Process Svstems

I50

It

TAN/TAN

lrot
I

lI

A,
i-8
wi=3 46

i\

f.i.,--" i"['i"'
ABCD
lcl

tl

tttl

Figure 4-48. Horizontal vessel containing corn syrup.

The inside volume was determined in computing the fluid volume as being 9,351,647.46 in3. The metal volume in the cylinder is then

rr AB -

vvcD -

525,651.36 lb

262,825.68

lb

V:

: -

9,512,090.41 in.3 160,442.95 ir.3

Section 9,351,647.46 in.3

B-C

Similarly to Section A-B, for the head, the liquid volume is determined from Equation A-7 in Appendix A.
is

The total metal volume above Section

A-B

vM

4,970.98 in.r

160,442.95 in.3

165,413.93 in.3

r : {#["

r- -

t#l :

135,483 43

in3

The metal weight is

For total volume,

v = 2(135,483.43) :
wy =
1r65.413.93) in.J (0.283)
rn.J

270,966.86 in.3 for one head

.lb, =

46,8t2.14 lb

For both heads,

Combining with fluid weight the total weight,

v: v : :

2(270,966.86)

54r,933.73 in.3

: :

46,812.14 lb + 478,839 .22 lb 525,651.36 lb

Liquid volume for cylinder portion is


r(72)'?(r50)(r2) in.3
10,611,534.46 in.3

For each saddle,

2(9,351,647.46) in.3

{
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

rGssels

251

The total liquid volume above Section

B{

is

vru

484,029.86 in.3

3228.72 in.3

487,258.58 in.3

Vr :

10,611,534.46 in.3 11,153,468.19 in.3

541,933.73 in.3

The total metal weight above Section

B-C

is

Metal Volume Above Section B-C For outside surface on a single head, usin Equation
A-7

Ws =

-^^-. (487.258.58)in.i (0.2833)


137,894.18 lb

.^

lb
ft3

- r(7?.s\2[rt * - tr#J :

The total liquid volume above Section B-C is

B7,oe7.7e

in.3

The inside volume was determined from calculating the liquid volume as being 135,483.43 in.3 Thus the metal volume for a single head is

(11.151,198.I?)in.r w, -_ | rn.3
,723

(62.4)

(1.4)ftj

:
Wr

563,869.78 lb

Yu

137,097.43 in.3

135,483.43 in.3

1,614'35 in.3

The total weight above Section

B-C

is

137,894.18

lb +

563,869.78

lb

701,763.96 lb

For two heads,


Vr,,r

For each saddle,

2(1,614.36)n.3

3,228.72 in.3

Wrc:Q:

701,763.96 lb

350,881.98 lb

The metal volume for the cylindrical portion is determined using Equation A-l and the total volume ofa cylinder as follows:
rQz.0)2(15O't02') (72)z(r50X12)

Saddle Plate Buckllng Analysls


The critical buckling stress for a plate is determined from Equation 4-17a.
(4-r7a)

V:

19,963,181.93 in.3 for inside volume

For outside volume,


r(72.5)?(150)(12)

(72.5)2(rs0)(r2)
2

where

ldi ts

+ 2hG

1)

*f0a6.'12"\

- 0.551I
-

h = 0'50 in'
(12x3.46X0.50)

V=
Vr,a

20,205,196.86 in.3

(12)(3.46X0.s) + 2(0.sxls

1)l

The metal volume is

= 0.59
19,963,181.93 in.3

in.

20,205,196.86 in.3 242,O14.93 in.3

AIso,

For both sides of centerline in Figure 448 c,

: Kt. h = (1.28X0.5) = 0.64 in. (use.0.597 in.)


b.

(+1s)

Yu =

2Q42,014.93)in.3 484,029.86 in.3

Combining both the cylindrlcal and head metal weights we have

Adding more length to web plate will net. increase the local buckling strength for pure compression. The same also holds for bending and shear. Substituting the value of b, above into Equation 4-17a ws have

252

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

vc,_ -,-____ x - 106) :4.980.860psi ,,1, _ 1l l(3.46x l2 )1,


(1.28)r, (29

Horizontal Reactlon Force on Saddle


From Equation 4-19 the horizontal reaction is

\ e/\ 0.s I
tJo.

Substituting this value into Equation 4-18 we determine the buckling load for compressive loading as follows:

F:Q
o=

z-

Fs
FB

: :

- B * sin B cos p

n(A, +

2be

(4-18)

(4)[7.5 + 2(0.597)(0.5)

161,321.389 lb

(rso

-:)

'r -f = no"
+
350.881.98 z

Since 161,321.4

lb <

262,825.7

lb <

350,881.98 lb

we must use more stiffening plates t/z-in. saddle plate. Now

if

^ v:

2(262.825.68)

438,266.67 lb

we are to use a

FB."

351,000 lb

8s,294.56 lb

The effective area resisting this force is

From Equation 4-18 we have


351,000

:
n

n[7.5

2(0.597X0.5)]o".

^"

= (,u),. =

(9

(o 5o)

12 ss 1n,

This results in a stress of


351,000

8s,294.56 tb: _ ^-^ ^_ /'uJ6 60 PSr o= tzttg irtl

The effective plate width normal to the web plate axis is

d"

di (0.25

Referring to Table 4-6, the allowable stress for A-36 is 0.60 o, : 22,000 psi. Since 7,058.86 psi < 22,000 osi. the saddle is sufficient for the horizontal reaction.

0.91\'?)

where

\ = (l)[9" \w,/ \o*i


^ =

1{OTATION

(u*;)(':'-'*f':
+
0.91 (0.41)'?)

oo'
16.74
1n.

w"

(3.46)(12)(0.25
10.392(

dimension from saddle centerline to tansent head (Figure 4-2) ft, in. effective area of concrete, ft2

of

n=
o^, -8= FB

l2)

16.74

7.449 -use E stiffeners

BP

BPW
C

l5l'ooo

43.875.0 osi

(8)[7.5 + 2(0.597X0.s)](43,875.0)
2,842,W7.0 lb

CA:

c.:

plate width (Equation 4-15) in. bearing pressure, psi base plate thickness, in. constant for bolt torque (Equation 4-66), dimensionless; friction coefficient (Equation 489) dimensionless; structure period response factor (Equation 4-106) dimensionless corrosion allowance, in.

critical damping factor (Equation 4-90), dimensionless

Since 2,&42,047

lb > >

351,000 lb, eight stiffeners are

cs=

sufficient.

compressive strength of concrete (Thble 4-7), psi

The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure

Vessels

253

D= Dr : D. :
D,

diameter (Equation 4-27), in.; dynamic magni fication factor (Equation 4-9 1), dimensionless

qF g:o

effective wind diameter (Figure 4-22), in.


outside diametet in. inside diameter. in. welding joint efficiency (Table 4-2), dimensionless: modulus of elasticity. psi wind force (Equation 4-94) bold uplift force (Equation 4-39), lbr natural frequency of a ring (Equation 4-100), Hz vortex shedding frequency Equation 4-101, Hz dynamic gust response factor, dimensionless gusset plate height (Equations 4-39 and 4-63), ln. gusset plate width (Equation 4-63), in. depth of vessel head (Figure 4-2), in. moment of inertia (Equation 4-24), in1 ;occupancy importance factor (Equation 4-106), dimensionless

: :

E:

velocity pressure of wind on structures (Equation q-i6), rcJf( basic wind pressure at 30 ft, lbrift'? Strouhal number used (Equation 4-102), dimensionless; structure size factor (Equation 482)

F; : f. :

F=

f, : Gr :
Gg

G* : H:

I:

: t6q : t8 : tr, : ( : vo : vr :
Tr
v30

T=

bolt torque as defined (Equation 4-66), in.-lb exposure facior for wind (Thble 4-11), dimensionless

compression plate thickness (Equation 4-63), in. gusset plate thickness, in. head thickness (Equation 4-7), in. shell thickness (Equation 4-1), in. theoretical ovaling velocity (Equation 4-102), mph or ft/sec first critical wind velocity (Equation 4-94),
mph

I" =

K: k:
K' =
Kz : L:

moment of inertia crete, in1

of effective area of

con-

W=
x.t

coefficient of buckling for shear (Equation 415 and Figure 4-3), dimensionless dimensionless parameter for concrete (Thble 47) plate buckling coefficient (Equation 4-15), dimensionless

xO =

y=
Z:

L" = m: Mc : Mr : N:
P

M:

velocity pressure coefficient (Thble.4-9 and Equation 4-78) length of a horizontal vessel from seam to seam (Figure 4-2), ft, in. effective column length (Equation 4-19), in. bending moment, in.lb, ft-lb bolt spacing (Equation 4-39), in. compressive bending moment in the shell of a horizontal vessel (Figure 4-2), tt-lb tensional bending moment in the shell of a horizontal vessel (Figure 4-2), ft-lb number of anchor bolts (Equation 440), dimensionless

Z=

basic wind speed at thirty feet used as design wind speed (Equation 4-75), mph vessel weight (Equation 4-40), lbr static deflection of a spring acted upon by a force (Equation 4-90). in. displacement as a function of time (Equation 490), in. total lateral displacement of tower (Equation 4-88, Figure 4-21), in., ft elevation or height above a reference point, such as the ground (Equation 4-74), ft reference height in which basic wind speed is considered (30 ft or 10 m), ft

Greek Symbols

a : ir A= 6; =
d B=

(tr 1180)(012

+ B/20) (Equation 4-6), de-

grees

: :

Pu

buckling load for compressive loading (Equation 4-18), lb6; probability of exceeding wind design speed during n years (Thble 4-11) and Appendix A), dimensionless annual probability of wind speed exceeding a given magnitude-see (Appendix A), dimensionless mean radius of shell (Figure 4-2), ft, in. inside vessel radius (Equation 4-13), in. outside vessel radius (Equation 4-73), in. inside radius of vessel (Figure 4-2), ft

(180 012), degrees (?./180x5di 12 30), degrees lateral translational deflection oftower, (Equation 4-88 and Figure 4-26), in. angle of contact of saddle with shell (Figure 41), degrees, radians; rotational displacement

R: Ri : & : r: Q:

\ = less p : radius of gyration : (I/Af 6 = general term for stress, psi o" : allowable stress values (Table 4-3) psi d. : allowable stress induced on concrete (Equation
.5

of tower (Figure 4-26), degrees (t/bxE/ocil used in Equation 4-18, dimension-

ogp

reaction at saddle (wl2),

lbl

4-40), psi; general tern for compressive stress (Equation 4-16), psi critical stress in a flat plate defined in Equa-

tion 4-15, psi

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

:
oE oP

: : : : :

o.
ow oy

z=

elastic buckling stress (Equation 4-16), psi; 28-day ultimate compressive strength of concrete (Thble 4-7), psi stress due to weight, lbr pressure stress induced by either internal or external pressure, psi; longitudinal stress in Equation 4-67 , psi tensile stress in steel, psi stress induced by wind or earthquake response spectra, psi minimum yield stress for a ductile material, psi Poisson ratio for a given material, dimensionless

Building Officials, Unlform Building Code, Whittier, California, 1982. 11. American National Standards Institute, Inc., "ANSI A58.1-Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures- 1982," New York. 12. Kuethe, A. M. and Schetzer, J. D., Foundations of Aerodynamics, John Wiley and Sons, New York,
1959.

10. International Conference of

13. Blevins, R. D., Flow-Induced Vibration, Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., New York, 1977. 14. Macdonald, A. J., Wind Inading on Buildings, Applied Science Publishers, Ltd., London, England,
1980.

d:

concrete bearing parameter (Equation 4-20),


dimensionless

REFERENCES
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII Division I , American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York. 2. Zick, L. P., "Stresses in Large Horizontal Cylindrical Pressure Vessels on Two Saddle Supports," Welding Research Journal Stpplement, 1971. 3. Brownell, L. E. and Young, E. H., Process Equipment Design, John Wiley and Sons, New York,
1959.

'

l.

4. U.S. Steel,

Steel Design Manual, U.S. Steel, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1981. 5. American Institute of Steel Construction, Manual of Steel Construction, Eighth Edition, AISC, Chicago,

Illinois.

1980.

6.

5., Theory of Plates and Shells, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1959. 7. Bickford, J. H., An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bohed Joints, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1981. 8. Faires, Y. M., Design of Machine Elements, The Macmillan Co.. New York. 1962. 9. Simiu, E. and Scanlan, R. H., Wind Effects on Stuctures, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1978.
Timoshenko,

15. Staley, C. M. and Graven, G. G., The Static and Dynamic Wind Design of Steel Stacks, ASME 72Pet-30, New York. 16. Vierck, R. K., Vibration Analysis, Harper and Row, New York, 1979. 17 . Paz, M., Structural Dynamics, Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co. New York, 1980. 18. Australian Standard 1170, Part 2-1983 SAA Loading Code, Part 2-Wind Forces, p. 55. 19. Timoshenko, S., Young, D. H., Weaver, W., Vibration Problems In Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1974. 20. Higdon, A., Olsen, E. H., Stiles, W B., Weese, J. A., and Riley, W. F., Mechanics of Materials, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1976. 21. Mitchell, Warren W., "Determination of the Period of Vibration of MultiDiameter Columns by the Method Used on Rayleigh's Principle," an unpublished work prepared for the Engineering Department of the Standard Oil Company of California. San Francisco, California, 1962. 22. Bedna\ H. H., Pressure Vessel Design Handbook, Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co.. New York. 1981. 23. Boardman, H. C.. "Stresses at Junction ofCone and Cylinder in Thnks With Cone Bottoms or Ends," Pressure Vessel and Piping Design, coTlected, papers, ASME, N.Y., 1960. 24. Weaver, William, Jr., "Wind-Induced Vibrations in Antenna Members," American Society of Civil Engineers, Paper No.3336, Yol. 127, Part 1, N.Y.. N.Y., 1962.

Appendix A

Partial Volumes and Pressure Vessel


Calculations

PARTIAL VOLUiIE OF A CYLINDER

v" '
L

RiL

|to' _ ,inol 2 \180' rl

panial volume

In snaoeo regron

shown (A-l)

: R:

length of cylinder inside radius of cylinder

Examplg lFigure

A.tl

--x^L?-q -ait '


I
Figure
der.

-/.\

J- __

For a cylinder with 144-in. ID find the partial volume of a fluid head of 60 in., if L : 100 ft:

|= w.+r (721!zoo) v, ': 2 ["tlggrsri r80 - sin (160.81")l


[
Yp

A.l.

Sketch for calculating partial volume of a cylin-

7,707 ,650.2 in.3

33,366.5 gal

PARTIAL VOLUIIE OF A HEIIISPHERICAL HEAD


rry':(3Ri -D) ,, rP _ - ------------J (A-2)

r(3sft3(50)

l00l

64,140.85 in.3

277.7 ga|

Example
For horizontal volume in Figure A-2b find partial volume for a head with Rr 50 in. and y 35 in.'

V. =

partial volume shown in shaded region

Example
for a head with Ri
For vertical volume in Figure A-2a find partial volume 50 in. and y = 35 in.:

277 .7

138.85 gal

255

256

Mechanical Design of Process Systems


(a)

Example-Spherically Dished Horizontal


Head
A spherically dished head with a 114-in. @ OD is spun from l-in. plate. Determine the partial volume of l0 in. of liquid. From vessel head manufacturer's catalog we determine the following: IDD
K, =

16.786 in. (Figure A-5), 2(1.0) )O.U ln.

193

1n.

ll4 z

a: L:

159.43"
108

-=-:

2.78

- 16.786:91.2r

in.

Figure A-2. Partial volume of vertical hemispherical (8) Partial volume of horizonral hemispherical head.

head.

-_r--T

-lY' ll I lv tl
t?
PARTIAL VOLUMES OF SPHERICALLY DISHED HEADS

ln,
I

--.-{-}

--

Horlzontal Head
The partial volume of a horizontal head (Figure A-3) is

v="lJGt:lT-{p-v-F
Vertical Head

ryl

(A-l)

Figure A-3. Partial volume of spherically dished horizontal


neaqs.

The partial volume of a vertical head (Figure A-4) is

-. v:
or

--:--:----------

?rv(3x2

v2)

(A-4)

,,

rry2(3o
3

v)

(A-5)

Figure A-4. Partial volume


heads.

of spherically dished

vertical

n
Appendix A: Pressure ry'essel Formulations

Yi

= 6.786"

Figure A-5.

r=\:.,O/l-

1..,fi082

--61s6-,P

J(lo-s:

5FF

(91.21)(562

6.7862)
168.37 gal

38,893.21 in.3

Example- Spherically Dished Vertical


Head
For the same head above, determine the partial volume

of a head of liquid of 9 in.

55.456 in.

u_r(9)[3(55.a56f+g'z]

14,874 in.3

64.4 gal
End View of Horizontal Head

PABTIAL VOLUTES OF ELLIPTICAL HEADS


The exact partial volume of (Figure 4-6) is as follows:
a

Flgure A-6. Partial volume of horizontal elliptical

horizontal elliptical head

u = (I93)'-(Rl - n1i
6RI

(4-6)

Vertlcal Elliptical Heads


Volume of top portion @ of Figure A-7 is

oR't[" t'I v^: - 2 r - 3GDD),1


Volume of bottom portion
.

(A-7)

is

v^=

2r(tDD)R''? rRl ' '


-

_______:

2 l'

I lv

uj

3(IDD)'?j

(A-8)

Figure A.7. Partial volume of vertical elliptical head.

258

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Horizontal Head Exampte


Find the partial volume of a 2:1 (Ri/IDD = 2) elliptical head that is 108-in. OD. The level of the liquid ii 35 in.. and the head is spun from l-in. plate.

A
vertical head

IDD:
rng:

108

2(1.0)

26.50 in.

From Equation ,4-6 and Figure A-8 we have the follow_

IDD

-X

., t :

(IDD)

a r-6R v{K,' - yi.f

a:138.80":2.42 v_
V:
(19.0)12.42t 6(53) 17,512.94 in.3
.,?r

s _ / rEtrl
75.81 gal

B
horizontal head

Vertical Head Example


For some head above, determine the partial volume for vertical head with 19 in. of liquid. Using Equation A-g we have the following:
a

2r(lDD)R,2

_ "n, [, 2I''

_ y,, I
3(rDD4

c
vertical knuckle region

,, - 2rQ6.50)(53.U2
V= V
77,951.81 in.3 76,641.06 in.3

zrt53.0) [

-z-'lteo-

1310.75 in.3 331.78 gal

H=IDO-KR

D
horizontal knuckle region

Figure A-8.

Figure A-9. Partial volumes of torispherical heads: (A) vertical, (B) horizontal, (C) vertical knuckle region, (D) horizontal knuckle resion.

Appendix A: Pressure vessel Formulations

PARTIAL VOLUilES OF TORISPHERICAL HEADS


For Figures A-9 and A-10, Figule
4F10.

Vr : knuckle volume Vo : dish volume KR : knuckle radius

y IDD

: : p:

height of liquid inside depth of dish inside dish radius

For vertical heads (Figure A-9c) the knuckle-cylinder partial volume is

v-: ?
., vD _
-

<t, +

4rM2

ri2)

(A-e)

The partial volume of the dish region of a vertical head is


?ry(3x2

y2)

6-

(A-10)

The total partial volume in a vertical head is


?rY(3x'z + Y'z) oH (r^2 + 4ru2 v": '" + 12) " + ' 6'" 6

(A-11)

wherey:IDD-KR
Horizontal Todspherical Hcad$
Partial Volume of Dish

(Figure A-l

l)
(A-12) end view of dish volume

Vo:o {F:1tr - vG, - R-5 _ L(&, - yf )

Volume of Knuck-Cylinder Region @ (Figure A-12)

Figure A-11. Sketch for example partial volume calculation of horizontal torispherical head.

vo = *FI9 + Rr

KR)

(*,

K*)'l

(A- 13)

The total partial volume for a horizontal torispherical head is as follows:


V1

: V6+

V6

- \GI:TF - L(&'? 2
*

yf)

"[#

+ Gi

KR)

+ (&

KR),]

(A-14)

wherel: p _ IDD

Figure A-12.

260

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Horlzontal Head Example

head made to ASME specifications (KR ) 0.60p and KR > 3th, tr, = head thickness) is spun from l-in. plate. The head is horizontal and the liquid level is 35-in. determine the partial volume. From the vessel head manufacturer's catalog and Figure A-12 we determine the following:

102-in. @ OD flanged and dished (torispherical)

The head is vertical and the liquid level is 18-in. Determine the partial volume. From the vessel head manufacturer's catalog we determine the following:

p
R,

132 in.,

KR = 3 in.,IDD = 20.283 in.

p=
R,

96 in., KR

6.125 in.. IDD

llR trl -', 5l = '-- - 2. = 67.50 in.; =-"

17.562 in.

too
z =

x = 67.50

- (31 -

H2lo5

66.446 in.

50in., L = 96.0 - 17.562 = 78.4J8 in.


For kluckle-cylinder region,
r,,

From Equation A-14 we have

vr = Q.532) vaq6t--rsry
(78.438)(50'

uOai-

tcl
f

Rr in.

:61.50;ri

Ri

KR

67.50

3.00

64.50

67.50 + 64.50 rm=-=ob.ul

15')

,
(50.00

/.) < r1, 14(6.125) T JT

120.283
)9,11

(3.0

+ 15.0)l :2.283 in.


4(66.0)2

+
Vr =

(5o.oo

6.12s)

6.125f1
)

14.091.,14

in.r =

147.59 ga.

" -l-'' l(67.50), + vv = -() o

(64.5011

Vertical Head Example


and dished) head nor made to ASME specifications is spun from 1llz-in. plate.

z(17.283)[3(64.500)'? 6

(17.283)'?]

138-in.

d OD F&D (flanged

Yv = 31,247.726 in.r + 115,645.832 Vv = 146,893.558 in.r

in.3

635.903 gal

Appendix

A:

Pressure Vessel Formulations

INTERNAL PBESSURE ASIIE FORIIULATIOI{S

wtrH ouTsrDE DlllENslol{s

Cylindrical Shell Longitudinal Joint

i=

PR oE + 0.4P

D_ oEt '-R-O3t
Circumferential Joint

'-

PB"

2'E + 1AP

2oEl
Ro

1.4t

2:l

ElliDsoidal Head

t=

PDo

2oE + 1-BP

D.

2oEl - 1.8r

Sphere and Hemispherical Head

t=

PRo

o_

2oEl

2dE + O-8P

ASME Flanged and Dished Head when UR = 16qh

_ 0.885P1 '-;E+o-sP
When

^
UB <

qEt

0.885L

0.8t

161b

PLM

2oE+P(M-0.2)

2oEt ^ ' ML-(M -0.2)

Conical Section
PDo r= - 2 cos o(oE + 0.4P)

^ Y=-

Do

2SEl cos a - 0.8t cos c

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

INTERI|IAL PRESSURE ASME FORMULATIONS WITH INSIDE DIMENSIONS

Cylindrical Shell Longiludinal Joint

t=

PRi oE

0.6P Circumferential Joint

I'ti

+ u.bt

t=

PRi

2oE + O.4P

' -F;- o.4t


2:1 Ellipsoidal Head

1-\ ilt-----Ti

^
l'-

2oEl
Or

-'------t

+ 0.2t

Sohere and Hemisoherical Head

2oEl
R + 0.2t

ASME Flanged and Dished Head when UR = 16E3


sE

0.1P

0.885L + When UR

0.lt

l-_,
FOR VALUES OF

<

16?e

SEE SUPPLEMENT

t=

'-"'
2oE

O.2P

^
Conical Section

2oEt LM + 0.2t

t=

PDi

2 cos d(oE

0.6P)

o_ ^

2oEt cos a
Di

+ I.2t cos a

a
Appendix A: Pressure Vessel Formulations

263

Supplement for ASME Formulations


1. For a

For elliDsoidal heads, where the ralio ol lhe major axis is other than 2:1, reler to ASME Code Appendix 1-4(c). 4. To use the lormulations tor a conical section in the table, the half apex angle, r, shall not exceed 30". lf d > 30o, then a special analysis is required per ASME Code Appendix
1-5(e).

cylindrical shell, when the wall thickness exceeds one half the inside radius or P > 0.385dE, the lormulas in ASME Code ADDendix 1-2 shall be used. For hemispherical hsads without a straight flange, the efficiency of ihe head-to-shell joinl is to be used if it is less than the efficiency oI lhe seams in the head.

when

For an ASME flanged and dished head (torispherical head) Ur< 1643 the lollowing values ol M shall be used:

Values ot Factor M
UT

1.00 1 .00
7.OO

Ur
M

1.41

1.25 1.03 7.50 1.44

1.50 1.06 8.00 1.46

1.75
1

2.00
.10 9.00 1.50
1

.08

8.50 1.48

2.25 1.13 9.50 1.52

2.50
1.15 10.0 1.54

2.75 1.17 10.5

3.00 1 .18 11.0


'1.58

3.25 1.20
1

3.50 1.22
'12.0

4.00
1.25 13.0 1.65

4.50
1.2a 14.0 1.69

5.00
1.31

1.5

t.co

1.60

1.62

1.72

5.50 1.34 16.0 1.75

6.00

't.36
164s 1.77

6.50 1.39

. The maximum allowed ratio: L-t=

D. When Ur

>

16?3 (non-ASME Code construction), the values of M may be calculated by

M=

/ fL\ oit.!;/

xrl

-@

Appendix B

National Wind Design Standards

A standard is a collection of current practices, past experiences, and research knowledge. Standards that are developed by consensus groups (e.g., ASTM, ANSI), trade associations (e.g., AISC, ACI), or government groups (e.g., HUD, CPSC) carry more authority than other standards because they reflect wider ranges of materials. The ANSI A58.1-1982 is a collection of information that is considered to be the state-of-the-art in the design of buildings and other structures. Local and regional building codes adopt portions of the ANSI standard for their own use. These local and regional codes are developed to represent the needs and interests of their respective areas and are written in legal language to be incorporated into state and local laws. Because these building codes are regional or local in scope, they often do not include everything in the ANSI standard, which is national in perspective. For this reason, one must be certain that a local code written for one area is applicable to the site being considered. The ANSI standard does not have as much authority as the ASME vessel codes, and, unfortunately, does not have a referral committee or group to officially interpret

One of the most widely accepted international standards

is the Australian Standard 1170. Part 2-1983. SAA Loading Code Part 2-Wind Forces. The Australian Standard I 170 is more applicable to the process industries because in it are shape factors for geometries that are more common in that industry, e.g., circular shapes. However, before applying the shape factors of the Australian standard to the ANSI or any other national standard, one must be very careful to correctly convert the factors. This is because the codes have different basis upon which these factors are deiermined, and a direct application of other parameters is not possi ble. This is discussed later after we discuss the basis for the various standards.
CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING WIND SPEED
Wind is caused by differential heating of air masses by the sun. These masses of air at approximately one mile above the ground circulate air around their centers of pressure. At this altitude, the velocity and direction of the wind is almost entirely determined by macro-scale forces caused by large scale weather systems. Below this gradient height, the wind is modified by surface roughness, which reduces its velocity and changes its direction and turbulence. A secondary criterion, except for extreme wind conditions, is the temperature gradient, which affects the vertical mobility of turbulent eddies and therefore influences the surface velocity and the gradient height. Therefore, the exact nature of the surface wind at any point depends, first, on the general weather situation, which determines the gradient wind and the temperature gradient, and, second, on the surrounding topography and ground roughness which, together with
265

the document. Therefore, one must make decisions based on past experience and accepted methods of design. The ANSI standard (Paragraph 6.6, p. 16) states
that in determining the value for the gust response factor a rational analysis can be used. A note below the-paragraph states that one such procedure for determining the gust response factor is in the standard's appendix. The note at the top ofthe appendix (p. 52) states clearly that it is not a part of the ANSI 458.1 mirninum design standard. What all this implies is that one may follow the guide of the ANSI standard's appendix or use another rational analysis, which includes another wind standard. Thus, one caz use another standard for design purposes.

266

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

the temperature gradient, modify the gradient wind to the surface wind. Wind motion is further complicated by the rotation of the earth, which induces additional forces that cause the air moving across the earth's surface to be subjected to a fbrce at right angles to the wind velocity vector. These additional forces are known as Coriolis forces. Each country has adopted its own standard for measuring wind velocity. The U.S. National Weather Service and U.S. codes use the fastest-mile wind sDeed. which is defined as the average speed ofone mile of air passing an anemometer. Thus, a fastest-mile wind speed of 120 mph means that a "mile" of wind passed the anemometer during a 30-second period. Other nations, namely Australia and Great Britain, use the two-second gust speed. This is based on the worst 2-second mean as measured by a cup anemometer. The mean gust speeds are recorded over a period of time such that a mean recurrence interval is determined. The mean recurrence interval is the reciprocal of the probability of exceeding a wind speed of a given magnitude at a particular location in one year. The risk, or probability, R, that the design wind speed will be equaled or surpassed at least once in the life of the tower is given by the expression

Figure B-1. Cup generator anemometer.

will be exceeded during the life of the structure. The United States and Australian wind codes use the 50speed

R:l-(l-P,)" where P, : annual probability of exceedance (reciprocal of the mean recurrence interval) n : life of the tower or stack
The risk that a given wind speed of specified magnitude will be equaled or exceeded increases with the period of time that the tower is exposed to the wind. Values

year recurrence interval. The instrument for measuring the wind in the United States, Great Britain, and Australia is the cup-generator anemometer shown in Figure B-1. This device is operated by the wind striking the cups, which drive a small permanent alternator. The indicator, which incorporates a rectifier, is simply a voltmeter calibrated in miles per hour. In most recent cup-generator models the generator output is used to activate a pen-chart recorder which provides a record of continuous wind soeed.

WIND SPEED RELATIONSHIPS


As stated previously, another method can be substituted for the appendix in ANSI A58. l. What this means is that another code could be used instead of the appendix. To do this one must be careful to utilize the correct conversion factors between standards. To accomplish this we refer to Figure B-2. For a 100-mph fastest mile wind speed in ANSI 458.1 we wish to determine the equivalent fastest mile wind speed for a 2-second gust using either the Australian or British code. From Figure B-2 we read from the ordinate 1.54 fior 2 sec. Knowins that one mile ol wind moving at 100 mph will pass thi anemometer in 36 sec, we read 36 sec on the curve and arrive at V,/V3666 = 1.30. Thus, the equivalent fastest
mile wind speed is

of risk of exceeding design wind speed for a designated annual probability and a given design life ofthe structure are shown in Table B-1. For example, if the design wind speed for a tower is based on an annual probability of 0.02 (mean recurrence interval of 50 years) and the projected tower life is 25 years, there is a 0.40 probability that the design wind

Table B-1 Probability of Exceeding Wind Design Speed

Pr = 1-(1 -

Po)*

Annual Probability

Design Lile of Structure in N Years

0.10 0.05 0.01

PAI

5
0. 100

l0

15

25 50

100

V - t;:^lrl00) \1.30i V:

/r

sa\

mph

tt8.4

mph

0.005

0.410 0.651 0.794 0.928 0.995 0.999 0.050 0.226 0.40t 0.537 0.'723 0.923 0.994 0.010 0.049 0.096 0.140 0.222 0.395 0.634 0.005 0.025 0.049 0.072 o.tt8 0.222 0.394

for a 2-sec gust. For I l0 mph, the values becomes


(1.18)(ll0) mph

129.8 mph

a
Appendix B: National Wind Design Standards

Figure B-2, Ratio of probable maximum wind speed averaged over t seconds to hourly mean speed.

Thus, the 1.18 factor would have to be used in the 2-sec gust code if that code were to be substituted for Appen-

dix A of ANSI A58.1-1982. Similarly, the Canadian code we must convert to obtain an equivalent fastest mile wind speed from the mean hourly. The mean hourly implies that the wind moves an average of 100 mph across the anemometer in a period of 3,600 sec. Reading Figure B-2 we have V'/Vru* = 1.6. Thus

lj:

ozor

which yields an equivalent velocity of 76.9 mph. With the Canadian code one must use 0.769 in use of shape constants and the various other parameters when using with ANSI A58.1. A comparison of the major wind codes is given in Thbles B-Z, B-3, B-4, and B-5.

ANS| A58.r-1982 WIND CATEGORIES


In the ANSI A58.1-1982 there are four wind categories-A, B, C, and D. The categories are described as follows:

Category A-A very restricted category in which the wind speed is drastically reduced. Most petrochemical and power facilities do not fall within this category. The wind force is reduced because the structure is considered to be among many tall structures. One example would be a ten-story building in downtown Manhattan, New York, where the taller buildings would block the stronger air currents. Category B-A classification that encompasses some tall structures, but not enough to block the majority of wind gusts. An example of this category would be a tower in the midst of a large petrochemical facility where there were other towers that would block some of the wind force. A forest surrounding a tower is another example. Category C-The most common classification for petrochemical applications. This category is open terraln where the tower would receive full impact from the wind with minimum ground resistance to the wind. An example of this category would be an open field or an alrDort. Category D-A classification for wind moving over water. A beachhead, in which there is flat beach up to a row of buildings would be in Category D. Miami beach, from the ocean front up to the facade of hotels, is a good example. Behind the hotel fronts would be Category C. Another example of this classification would be a tall vertical vessel on an offshore structure.

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Table B-2 Malor U.S. and Foreign Building Codes and Standards Used in Wind Design
Code or Australian Standard I 170, Part 2-Wind Forces

Standard

Edition
1983

Organization
Standards Association

Address
Standards House

of Australia
1972

80 Arthur Street/North Sydney,

British Code of Basic


Data for Design of Buildings

British Standards Institution Building Research


Establishment

N.S.W. Australia British Standards Institution


2 Park Street

(cP3) Wind Loading Handbook


(commentary on CP3) National Building Code ofcanada (NRCC No. 17303)

1974
1980 1980

National Research Council of Canada


National Research

London, WIA 285, England Building Research Station Garston, Watford, WD2 7JR, England National Research Council of
Canada

The Supplement to the National Building Code of Canada (NRCC 17724) ANSI A58.1,1982

Ottawa, Ontario K1A OR6


Canada 1430 Broadway New York, New York 10018 5360 South Workman Mill Road

Council of Canada
1982 1982 1982

American National Standards Institute

Uniform Building Code


Standard Building Code

International Conference of Building Officials Southern Building Code


Congress International

with
1983 rev.

Whittier, California 90601 900 Montclair Road Birmingham, Alabama 35213


17926 South Halsted Street Homewood, Illinois 60430

Basic Building Code

1984

Building Officials and


Code Administrators International, Inc.

Table B-3 Reference Wind Speed

Feference
Averaging time Equivalent reference

(SAA,

Australian 1983)
second

British (BSl, 1982)


2-second

Canadian (NRCC,

1980)

2-3

Mean hourly 76.9

United States (ANS|, 19s2) Fastest mile


100

gust speed
118.4

gust speed

I18.4

wind speed to fastest

mile 100 mph

'l'*"1iil
Appendix B: National Wind Design Standards

Table B-4 Parameters Used in the Maior National Standards

Australian
Parametel

British

Canadian

United Siates
1982)

,1
4
Yes Yes 2-sec gusts
3

Wind Speed
Terrain roughness

4
Yes Yes

4
None
Yes Fastest mile

l,ocal terrain Height variation Ref. speed

None
Yes

2-sec gusts Tbbles in

Mean hourly Figures and tables in


commentaries

Wind Pressure
Pressure coefficients

appendix includes figures Gusts Magnitude Spatial correlation Gust frequency Gust speed Reduction for large area Dynamic consideration

Thbles, includes figures

Thbles, figures and notes

Gust speed None Dynamic consideration not included

Gust effect Gust effect

factor factor

Gust response factor Area averaging Dynamic consideration

for h/b

>

Dynamic consideration

for h/b > 4 in. or for

for h/b

>

h>
Analysis procedure

400

ft

This standard is consid- Overall a very good code, its weakest part ered by many the best is the lack of dynamic for use in the process
industries. Figures and tables are easy to read. The standard actually provides the user with equations to cutves. The analysis procedure
consideration
.

An excellent wind Although the appendix


is technically not constandard. The analysis procedure sidered a part of the is straight-forward standard, it contains figures difficult to read, and the docunamely Figure 6. For ments-code and many structures the supplement contain tables and fig- data extend beyond the ures easy to read. limits of the curves in Figures 6 and 7. In the method in the appendix, one must assume an initial natural frequency, resulting in an iterative process. This method is extremely difficult in designing petrochemical towers without the use of a computer.

is straight-forward.

270

Mechanical Desisn of Process Svstems

Table B-5

Limitalions of Codes and Standards


Code or Standard

Australian Standard
I 170, Part 2- 1983 National Building Code of Canada

Statement of Limitation "Minimum Design Loads


on Structures"

Location Title
Guide to the Use of the Code Section 1 (Scope)

"...EssentiallyaSet
of Minimum Regulations . . ."

(NRCC,

1980)

British CP3

". . . Does Not Apply to Buildings. . . That Areof Unusual Shape or Location
For Which Special Investigations May Be Necessary . . ." "Minimum Design Loads . . ." "Specific Guidelines Are Given For. . . Wind Tunnel Investigations . .. For Buildings. .. Having

United States

ANSI A58.I

Title
Paragraph 6. I

Uniform Building
Code Basic Building

IrregularShapes..." "The purpose . . . is to provide minimumstandards..."

Section 102
Section 912.1 Preface

Code (BOCA, 1984)


Standard Building Code, 1982 (SBCCI, t982)

"The Basic Minimum Wind Speeds


Provide Minimum Requirements . . ." "The Building Official May Require Evidence to Support the Design Pressures Used in the Design of Structures Not Included in This Section."

Are Shown in Figure 912.1 . . ." "The Purpose of This Code is to

Article 1205.2(a)

Appendix C

Properties of Pipe

272
Th6

Mechanical Design ol Process Systems

PROPERTIES OF PIPE
tollowilg tormulqs dre used in lh computorior of th6 volues
,bo\|'n in lhe toble:

t weighl

weight ol lPcler pr foot (pou!ds) squqre leet ou&id ludoco per loot squorc leet inside surlace Fr loot inside drea (squdre hches) dred o{ rnetcd (squore irches)
moment ol

ot pipe per toor (pouDds)

10.6802(D-0

Tlr lsEilic ste6ls rnay be sbout 5% les!, dDd the crEte.itic stdin_ legs sleels qbout 27o greate! thon the values shown in tbiE tqble which ore bcsed ort weigbts lor cdrboIt steel.

= : =

0.340sd,
0.2518D

* achedule numben Stordord weight pipe qnd schedule rlo qte the scrae in oll sizss lhrough lo-isdr; lrom lz-ilch thtough 24-irch, stqndard {eight pip6 has d croll thicloess oI %-ircb.
Extro BtroDg woight pipe ond schedule
gO dla the sdEe in oll sires lhrough 8-i[ch, llom 8-inch thlough 24-trch. ertrd strong weight

0.26r0d 0.785d,

0,785(Dr-d?)

ir6rtia (inches.)

0.049r(D.-d)

saction moduluB (inches3)

A^E o'

0.0982(D.-ci.)
D

pipe bos a wall thicloess oI ){-incb.

lodius oI gyrqtion (i!ches)

0.25t/D,'D,+--

d D R, t

An = oted of Eetql (square i4ches)

Double nr(l 3troDg weight pip6 bss no c-orrespodding schedule auEbe!,

= = = =

inside didoeter (incbs) outside diqrnter (incheB) radius ol gFcrion {iiche3)

o: ANSI836.10

stel pipe schedule Dub.brs

b: ANSI

836.10 steel pip DoDilrol

woll thichress dosiglqtio!

pip woU thickness (inches)

c: ANSI
Bq

836.19 6tdiDle3s steel pipe schedule uuEbols

piF .ize
ou|lide

nordnol

achedule

wcll
thick. in. I0s
0.01s 0.068 0,0s5 0.06s 0.088 0.119 0.065 0.065

i!3ide
dioErin"
0.307 0.269

inside metdl rq. rn


0.0740 0.0568

in
%
0.405 40
80

sq.

in

stoight outaid6 inlide F!Il, surtdce, aurldce, Ib* po! tl Per lt


0.r06
0.106 0.106
0.141 0.111 0.111

li

sq

tt

Feiqht o[ wcter
psr It.

moDttl
OI

aoction

rardiur

inertic,
0.0m88
0.00108

Eodulu&
0.00437 0.0052s 0.00600 0.01032 0.01230 0.0139s 0.0285 0.01737 0.02160 0.02s54 0.0285

gyrclior|,

iE
0.0321

srd

xs
srd

40s 80s

0.2I5
0.410 0.364 0.302

0.036{
0.1320
0.1041

0.0548 0.0720 0.092s 0.0970 0.1250 0.1574 0.1582

0.0804 0.0705 0.0563 0.1073 0.0955 0.0794 0.1859

0.186 0.215 0.315 0.330 0.425

0.127t
0.1215

0.0216 0.0157 o,0512


0.0451

0.00t22
0.00279
0.00331

0.llt6
0.1694 0.1528 0.1547 0.2750 0.2169 0.2090 0.199r
0.27S0

%
0.540

l0s
40

40s

80

xs.

80s

0.0716 0.396 0.2333 0.1910 0.1405 0.3959 0.357 0.304 0.2340 0.1706 0.0499 0.655 0.614 0.s33 0-132
0.2961

0J35
0.538 0.423 0.568 0.739 0.538
0.571 0,851

0.0310

0.003?8 0.01197 0.00585 0.00730 0.00862 0.0120

ss
% 0.675
40 80

0.7I0
0.545

0-220

0.I716
0.1011

;;;
xs

l0s
40s 80s

0.0st
0.126 0.065 0.083 0.10s 0.147 0.187
0.294

0.493 0-423
0.710

0.12{6 0.16t0
0.2173 0.1583 0,1974 0.2503 0.320 0.383 0.504

0.t77 0.r77 0,t77


0.220 o.220 0.220 0.220 0.220 0.220 o.275 0-275 o.275 0.275 0.275 0,215

o.t427
0.1295 0.1106 0.1853 0.1765 0.1628 0.1433

0.0827 0.0609
0.171

% 0.840

40
80 160

;;

r0s
40s
80s

xs

0.674 0.822 0.sd6


0.466

r.08
1.304 1.714

n(s

0.t220
0.0660 0.2409 0.2314

0,252 0.920 0.884 0-821


0-7 42

0.1547 0.1316 0.1013 0.0740 0.0216 o.2a82


0.2661 0.2301

0.0I431 0.0r710
0.02010

0.m4I
0.0407 0.0178 0.0s27 0.0s77 0.046? 0.0s66 0.0706 0.08s3 0.1004 0.1104 0,0760

0-2892
0.2613

0-022t3
0.02125 0.02451 0.02970 0.03?0 0.0448 0.os27 0.0s79 0.0500 0.0757

0.2505 0.2402

0.2rs2 0.3{9
0.343 0.334
0.321

0.06s
10

0.20u
0-2321 0.333 0.435 0.570 0.718

;;;
xs xxs

l0s
10s 80s

0.083

0,684 0.857

i.050

s0
160

0.113 0.154 0.218 0.308 0.065 0.109


0.133 0.179

0.2t57
0.1913 0.1607 0.1137 0.310 0.2872 o,2746 0.2520

l.r3l
1.414
1.937

0.614
0,434 1.185 1.097

0.r875 0.1284
0.0641

0.304

0.1d79

2.441 0.868
1.401 1.679

0.28{0
0.443 0.428 o.121 0.107 0.387

1.t03
0.915

0.3{4
0,413 0.494 0.639 0.836
1.076

10s

I
J.3t5

40 80

40s 80s

I.049
0.s57
0.815

0.86{ 0.t19
0.522

0.344 0.344

0.478 0.409
o,37 4

0.ll5r
0.1329 0.1606 0.1900

0.087{
0.1056

0.3{4
0.344 o.314 0.434 0.434
0.434

2.t72
2.444
3.659
1.107 1.805

0.31t
o.2261 0.1221 0.797

t60

xxs

0.250 0.358 0.06s

0.599
1.530

0.28r8
1.839 1.633 1.496 1.283

0.213{ 0.r570 0.{01


0.378
0.361

0.t2s2
0.140s 0.1038

0.2t37
0.1250
0.1934

0.36t 0.55{
0.5s0 0.540 0.s24 0.506 0.472 0.649 0.634

0.326
u.531

r%
I.66'0

40 80 160

l';
*ts

r0s
40s 80s

0.109

t.142
1.380

0.7tl
0.618

0.r60s
0.1s48

0.140

0.669

0.r91
0.250 0.382

l27A
1.160 0.896

r,057
0.631 2.161

0.88r 1.I07
1,534 0-375

0.{34 0.43{
0.434
0-497

0.335 0.304 0.2345 0.463 0.440

2.273 2.991 3.765

o.24t8
0.{58 o.2r32
1.067

0.2316 0.2913
0.342 0.411

0.2839
0.341

5.2t1
1.274 2.08s

rt4
1.900

r0s

0.065 0.109

t.770
1,682

0.ts80
0.2469

2.222

0.613

0.497

0.962

0.1663 0.2599

*Couftesr of ITT Gtinncll.

F
Appendix C: Properties of Pipe

PROPERTIES OI' PIPE (Continued)


noainail
prpe !ir( outride diotreter
iE"

.chedule

trcll
tbicLi|r.
40s
0.145 0.200

!uEber'
b {0
80

inside dicnroler, in1.6r0


1.500 1.338 1.100

i!!ide
Bq.

metcl
qted,
aq.

6q

lt

sq

lt

outride inaid
surtdce, BUttdc, per It Frft
0.{97
0.497
0.421

w6ight
per It,

weiEhl
ol wlter p! lt,

!adiu!
ol inertiq, modulus, 9l.rc_
UoE

i|r.

i|l.

lbt

inJ
0.882 0.765 0.608 0-112 0.218 0.123 0.310

in.r
0.326 0.623 0.605
0.581

2,036

rh
J.900

xs

80s

t-761
1.406

160

0.28r

0.7ss r.068 1.429


1.885

2.718

0.{97
0.49? 0.197 0.497 o.622 o.822 o,622 0.822 o.822 o,622 0.622

xxs

0.400 0,525 0.650

0.8s0 0.600 2.215

0.s50 0.567 0.283 3.96 3.65 3:36 2.953 2.240

2-287
2.551

0.393 0.350 0.288 o.223 0.157 0.588 0.565


0.541

3.63r
4.859 6.408 7.710 8.678
1.604

0.39r
0.483 0.568 0.6140 0.6340

0.{12
0.508 0.598 0,6470 0.6670 0.2652 0.120 0.s61

0.s19 0.5200 0.4980 0.817 0,802

;; ;;
2.3r5
80 160

l0s
40s 80s

xs xx!;

''''.

...'

0.065 0.109 0.154 0.218 0.343 0,436 0.552 0.587 0.083 0.120 0,203 0.276 0,375 0.552 0.6?5 0.800 0.083 0.120 0.216 0.300 0.437 0.600 o;125 0.850 0.083 0.120 o.226 0.318 0.636 0.083 0.120 0.188

o.472
0.116

1.7I6
1.582 1.455 1.280 0.971

0.3t5
0.499
0.666 0.868

2-ts7
2,087
1.939 1.689

r.075 t.417
2.190 2.656

2.638 3.553
5.O22

0.r81
0.756 0-729 0.703

r.503
1.251 1.001

t.774 t-229
0.187

3.I99
3.641 0.128
1.039

o.622
0.75s 0.753 0.753 0.753 0.753 0.753 0.753 0.753 0.916 0.916 0.916 0.916 0.916 0.916 0.916 0.916

0.508 o.442 0.393 0.328 0-262 0.709 0.690 0.646 0.60s 0.451 0.399 0.334 0.873 0.8s3 0.803 0.759 0.687 0.602 0.537 0.471

0.73t
0.979
1.104

7.141
9.029
10.882 12.385

0.769 0.533
0.341 2.49S

I.163 1.3I2
1.442
1.5130

r.2140 1.2740 0.4s4 0.687

0.6t10
0.64d0 0.988 0.975

2.709 2.469 2.323 4,75 4.24 3.55

2.175
3,531

;; :..
2% 2.875 80

l0s
40s 80s

0.710 0.988
1.530 1.925

t.701
2.251 2.915 4.03 4.663

xs
)0(s

ta:

2.t25
1.771

5.793 7.661 I0.01


13.70 15.860

2.076
1.837 1.535 1.087

L064
1.339 1.637 1.s98

0.9d,
0.924 0.894

2.464
1.825

t.525

0.792
0.554 3.78

t.275
3.334 3.260 3.068 2.900 2.62A 2.300 2.050
1.800

t,276
4.73 8.35 7.39 5.42 4.15 3.299 2.543

5.2t2
0.891

t7.729
3.03 4.33 7.58
10.25 14.32 18.58

2.353 2.872 3.0890 3.2250


1.301

0.84{
0.8140 0.7860 1.208
1.195 1.164

2.1490 2.2430 o,144


1.011

;i d;
3

l0s
10s 80s

t.274
2.228 3.02
4.21

3.6r
3.20 2,864 2-348

ta22
3.02

t.124
2-228 2.876 3,43 3.7150 3.9160 0.980
1.378

80
160

xs

3.500

3.90 5.03
5.99

r.136
1.091 1.o17 1.0140

xxs

3.17 7.073 r.021

1.80t
1.431

2t.487
24.Os?

-'
5S 3y2

t.103 5.0r
4.81 4.28 3.85 2.530

6.5010 6.8530
1.960

0.9840 1.385 L.312

3.834

*Un

40 80

;;

r0s
40s 80s

3.t60
3.548 3.364 2.728 4.334

ll.l0
9.89 8.89 5.845
14.75 14.2S 13.35?

1,463

xs

xt(s
tGs

2.680 3.68 6.721


1.152

t-017 t-o47 t-041 t.047


1.047

1.00{ 0.98{
0.929 0.881 0.716
1.135

3.47 4.57

9.ll
12.51

22.450

2.756 4.79 6.28 9.8480

2.351

t.337
1.307
1.2100 1.562 1.549 1.5250 1.510

3.t4
4.92d0
1.249

l.l78
1.178 1.178 1.178 1.178

{.260

l.ll5
1.082 1.054

6.{0
8.560
10.?9

2.8u
3.96 5.8500 7.23
9.61

;;
80

4.t24
4.826 3.826 3.s00 3.438 3.152 2.900 2.650 5,345 5.295 5.047 4.813 4.563 4.313 4.063 3.813 3.563

2.547
3.-17

6.17 5.800 4.98 4.48 4.160


4.O2

1.162
2.600.0

s;;
XS

40s 80s

0237
0.337 0.437 0.500
0.531

t2-73

3.21

I1,50
10.33

{.{l
6.283 6.62

r.002
0.949 0.916 0.900 0.825
0.75S

l{.98
18.96

t.477
5.18 s.6760 5.90 6.79 7.1050
1.445

4.5N

t20
t60

t.178
1.178 1.178 1.178

9.62r
9.24 7.80 6.602 5.513 22.11 22,02

2r.360
22.51

12.71t0
13.21

l-1250
1.416

)c;
5S

0.674 0.800 0.925 0.109 0.134 0.258 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.7s0 0.875 1.000

Lr0
9.294

t.178

27.51 31.613
35,318

r5.29
2.864 2.391 9,73 9.53
16.6610 17.7130

t.371
1,3380 1.3060

t0.384
1.868

].l78
1.t56

0.694
1.399 1.386 1.321

7.8720
2.498 3.03

;; -:.
80

10s

xs
,ots

4os 80s

20.0r 18.t9
16,35 14.61

2.245 4.30

l.{s6
1.455 1.156 1.456 1.456 1.456 1.4s6 1.456

?,77

6.95 8.43

r.929 t.920
1.878 1.839 1.799

t1.82
20-74 27,01 32.98 38.55

I5.17

5.{5
1.43 9.25
10.80

6.lI
7.95 9.70

t.260
1.195

t.89
7.09 s-82
4.9S1

20.68
25.74 30.0

t20
r60

Ll29
1.064

!.760
1.6860

t2s7
I1.413

t1.34
12.880

!2.10
36.6450

l{.328

0.998 0.933

{3.8I0
t'|.'134

1.232

39.11l0

13.1750 14.0610

t.6s20

274

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

PROPERTIES OF PIPE (Conti:rued)


pipe size
schedule

wqll
ihickin,
5S

irgide
diamin.
6.407 6.3s7
6.187

inside
sq. rn.
32.2 31.7

metcl
sq, ia.
2.231 2-733

Bq

lt lt

sq

lt

outside pe!

inside
per

weight weight per It. per lt,

of

lt

lbt

inertiq,

lu5,
in.1 3.58
4.35 6.8400

radiu3 sYrotion.

lb
r3.98
13.74

in.'
1I.85
14.40

in.
2.304

0.109 0.134

1.734

t.677
1.664 1.620 1.588

5.37 9.29 15.020

t0s
40
6

t.734

0.2IS

30.r00
28.89
26.O7

4.4I0
5.58 8.40
10.70

t.734
1.734

r3.I00

22.6600

sld

6.625

80 120
160

40s 80s

r0.280
0.432
0.562

6.06s

t8.s7
24.5',1

l2.sI
I1.29
10.30

28.t4
40.5 49.6
5S.0 66.3

5.76I
5.501

I.734

23.77

t.734
1.734

I.508 L440
1.358

8.50 t2.23
14.s8 17.81

2.295 2.2700 2.245


2.195 2.153

36.39

0.7t 8

5.189
4.897

21.t 5
18.83

r3.33
15.64

45.30 60.076
66.084

xxs

0.864 1.000 1.125 0.109

1.134

r.2s2

4.825
4.37S 8.407 8.32S 8.187 8.125

18.192 r5.025 55.5 54.5 52.630 51.8


51.2

17.662

t.134
t.'t34
2.258 2.258 2.258 2.25a

l.2l I
1.145

I9.429
2.916 3.94

9.16 8.17 1.284 6.SI7 24.07


23.59

2.104
2.060 2.0200

20.0s
21.1120

72.1190 76.5970 26.45


35.4

23.1244 6.13

L98s0
3.01

2.201
2.180

s.9l
13.40 1s.640

l0s
8 8.625
20 30 40 60 80 100

0.148 0.219

a.2l
11.9000
13.3S

3.00
2.9700

5.800
6.58

0.2s0

2.150 2.127

22.38
24.70

22.900 22.48

5t.3200
57

-7

2.562
2,S53 2.938 2.909

std

;;
80s

0.211

8.07t
7.981 7.813

0.322
0.406 0.500 0.593

50.0 47.9
45.7

7.26 8.40

2.2s8
2.258 2.258 2.258 2.258 2.258 2.258 2.258 2.258

2.t13
2.089 2.045
1.996 1.948

22.t8
21.69 20.79 19.80

28.55
35.64

63.4 72.5 88.8

14.69 16.81 20.58 24.52

xs

7.625 7.439
7.189

I0.48 t2.76
14.96

43.39
50.87 60.63 74.69 81.437

I0s.7 12t.4
140.6

2.879 2.847
2.847

r20

I
8.625

t40
r60

0.7I8 0.8I2
0.906 1.000 1.125 5S 0.134

43.5 40.6
36.5 34.454

t8.84
17.60 16.69 15.80

28.t4
32.6

t1.84

7.00I
6.813
6.625

ls.s3
2t.97
23.942 26.494
4.52

I.882 L833

t.784
I.734
1.669

I53.8 I65.9
177.1320
190.6210

35.7 38.5
41.0740

2.777 2.748
2.',1t90 2.6810 3.75

14.9{5

6.375

31.903 86.3
85.3

2.2s8
2.815
2.815 2.815 2.815 2.815

90.I1{
r5.

I3.838
37.4 36.9 36.2 35.8 3S.0

44.2020
11.8S

to.482
10.420 10.312 10.250 10.136 10.020

I0s
20 30 40

0.16s
0.219

5.49
'1.24

0.250
0.307

83.52 82.5
80.7

8.26

2.744 2.724 2.10 2.683


2.654

ts

63.7
100.46

18.70

24.63
28.04 34.24 40.48 54.74 64.33

I4.30 I8.69

3.74
3.72 3.71 3.69

Ir3.7
137.5 160.8

2l.r6
29.90
39.4

I0.07

std

4;;
80s

0.36S 0.500

78.9
7

ll.sl
16.10

2.8r5
2.815

l0
10.750

60

xs

80

0.593
0.718 0.843

9.750 s.564
9.314 9.064 9.000 8.750 8.500

4.7

7L8
64.5 63.62 60.1

I8.92
22.63
26.24

2.815
2.815

2.623 2.553 2.504


2.438

34.I
32.3

2t2.0
244.9 288.2

3l.l
29.5

45.6
53.2 60.3
82.O4

I00

76.93
89.20

t20
t40
160

2.815
2.815 2.815 2.815 2.815

2.373
2.36

0.875
1.000

27.!4
30.6

92.28
.04.13

2e.0 27.6
26.1

324
333.46 399

3.60 3.56 3.52 3.50 3.43 3.39

l.I2s
L2s0
1.500

8.250
7.75D

56.7 53.45 47.15

34.0
37.31

2.191 2.225 2.18


2.03

68.4 ?4.3 79.65 89.04 19.20 22.93

u5.65
126.82

43.57 6.17 7.t I 9.84


12.88 14.s8 15.74 19.24

2.8I5
3.34
3.34 3.34 3.34 3.34 3.34

t48.I9
20.99 24.20 3s.38 43.7'l
49.56 53.S3

24.6 23.2 20.5 s2.7 52-2

424.t7
478.59

0.I56

12.438

t2t.4
120.6

;i
30

10s

;,; 4;;
80s

0.180 0.250 0.330


0.375 0.406

I2.390 t2.2s0 t2.090


12.000

3.24 3.21

t22.2 I40.5
r91.9 248.5 219.3
300

4.45

t.44
4.42
4.3S

u7.9
114.8
I

30.r
39.0
43.8
47.1

3.t1
3.14 3.13
3.08 3.04

{9.7
49.0
48.S 47.0

l3.l

4.38

40

I1.938

III.9
I00.4
106.2 101.6

t2
)2.750

;;
80
100 120

0.500
0.562 0.687

I1.750
11.626

3.34
3.34

65.42
73.16 88.51

362
401 62.8 74.5 80.1

4.37 4.33

2r.52
26-O4 28.27

46.0
44.0

4.3r
4.21 4.25 4.22

I1.376

3.34
3.34 3.34 3.34 3.34

2.978
2.94 2.897
2.AA

475
510.7

0.7s0
0.843 0.875

I1.250
11.064 11.000 10.750 10.500

99.40
96.1

96.2
07.20 10.3 25.49 39.68

43.r
41.6

31.5
32.64

562
s78.S

88.r
90.7
100.7 109.9

t.000
1.125

140

L250
r.312

I0.250 10.t26

95.00 90.8 86.6 82.50 80.5

4t.l
3S.3

36.9

4I.l
45.16
47.1

3.34
3.34 3.34

2.414 2.749 2.68


2.651

642
701

1-t7
4.13 4.09 1.01

37.5
35.8

53.6
60.27

75s.S

34.9

781

r22.6

Appendix C: Properties of Pipe

275

PROPERTIES OF PIPE (Continued)


noEit'al
pipo rirc
outside

.chedule

wqll
tbicLitr.
0,156

ilride
diqra-

|tumbr' b
t0s

idside
aq,

|rretol
aq.

sq

tt

outgide

rq It iagide

lreight

weisht
ol
pe! ll,

didr!ter

i|r

i!13.6S8 13.624 13.580 13.562 13.S00 13.438

in

in

lurlcc,
per

auddc6, !'er IL

aeclion !adiu! modu- qryr6-

lt

perlt
3.S8

tbt

inerlid,

lu&

Uon

lb
63.1

in.
194.6

inJ
2't.8 30.9
32.2 36.5

ia.
{.90

t47.20
145.80 144.80 111.50 143.1 141.80 140.5

3.67 8.16 9.10 9.48


10.80

23.O

0.r88
0.210
0.219

3.57

27.7

3.67
3.67

3.55

30.9
32.2 36.71

62.8
62.1 60.9 50.3 59.7

216.2

l0
20

0.250 0.281

3.55 3.53
3.S2

225-l
255.4
285.2 314 344.3

l2.ll
t3.42
14.16 16.05 18.62 19.94

4t.2
45.68

0.312
0.344 0.375

3.67
3.87

l4
14.@o

;;
40

13.3I2
13.250

t39.20
137.9

0,{37
0.469

13.r25
13,062 13.000 12,814 12.750 12.500

r35.3
134.00

3.67 3.67
3.67

3.50 3.48 3.41 3.44


3.42 3.40 3.35 3.34 3.27 3.17 3.09 3.01

50.2 54.57 63.37 67.8


72.09 84.91 8S.28 108,13 130.73 150.67

40;I 4{.9 t9.2


s3.3
61.2 69.1 80.3 84.1

;;
80

0.s00
0.593

0.625
0.750

t32,7 r29.0 t27.1 t22.7


109.6 103.s

2t.21
24,98

3.67 3.67 3,61 3.67 3.57 3.67 3.67 4.19

s8.7 s8.0 57.5 55.3 50.0 47.5 45.0


42.6

429
156.8 484 589 687

4.88 1.57 4.57 4.86 4.85 4.91 4.83 4.82 4.80 1.79 4-74 4.74
4;13

26.25 38.5 44.3


50.1

98.2
117.8

t00 I20
140
160

0.937
1.093 1.250 1.406 0.165

12.t28

825
930

ll.8r4
rr.500
11.188 15.670 15.624

I32.8

t70.22
189.12 28 32

98.3
192.90 a,2L

2.929 4.10 4,09 4.06 4.03 3.99


3.93

tt27 l0l7
257

l{6.8
159.6 32.2

4.69 4.63 4.58 4,53


4,48

0.188

19r.70
188.7 185.7 182,6 116.7 169.4 160.9 152.5 144.5 135.3 129.0

9.3{
12.37 15.38

4.ls
4.19 4.19

83.5 83.0
81.8 80.5 79.1

292
384

io
30

0.250 0.312

r5.500 r5.376
15.250 15.000 14.688

42.05
52.36

48,0
5S.2

473
562

l6
16.0@

40 80

0.375 0.500
0.843 1.031

18.4I
24.35 31.6 40.1

{.I9
4.19 4.19

6458
82.17
107.50 136.46

70.3

732 73.4 69.7


66,1 933

9I.S
144.6 170,6 194.5 220.0

r4,3t4
r3.938
13.564 13.126 12.814

4.I9
4.19
4,19

r00
120
140
160

r.218
1.437

48.5 s6.6 65.7


72.1

3.85 3.75 3.65


3.55 3.44

lt5?
r365

r64.83
192,29 223.64

l5s6
58.5

5.18 s.13 s.37 5.30 5.24 5.12


6.31

4.19

I760
1894 368

{.I9
4.7
L

3.35 4.63

24S.ll
31

236,1
40.8

0.165

t7,670

i;
20

l0s

0.188 0.2s0
0.312 0.3?5 0.437 0.500

t7.624
17,500 17.376

245.20 243.90
210-S 237.1 233-7

9.24
10.52

I06.2
105.7 104.3 102.8 101.2 99.9

4.71 4.71

{.61
4.58

4t7
549 678 807

r3.94
11,34 20.76

17r50
t7.126
17.00

l8
r8.o00

30 40

230.4 227.0
223.7

24.t|
27.49 30,8

0.562
0.750 0.937

r6,876
15.500 16.126 15.688 15.250 14.876

1.?l 1.?l
1.71 4.71
4.7 4.7

60
80 100 120 140
150

213.8
204.2 193.3 182.6 173.8

{0.6
50.2
61.2 71.8 80.7 90.7 11.70 13.55

4.55 4.52 4.48 4.45 4.42 4.32 4.22

47.39 59.03
70.59

46.4 61.0
89.6

6.30 6.28
6.2S 6.23

82.06 93.45
104.?5

93I
1053

I03.4
117.0 130.2 168.3

6.2r

s8,4 97.0 92.7 88.5 83.7 79.2 75.3 71.0

tt72
1834 2180 2499 27sO

138.r7
170.75

203.8
242.2

l.ls6
1.37S

4.tI
3.99
3.89

207.96

| |

244.t4
214.23
308.51 40

217.6
306 336

6.10 6.04 5.97 5.90


5.84

1.562 1,781

4.71

r4.438
1s.634

t53.7
302.40

3.78
5.14

3020
574

5,77 7.00
6.99

0.r88

s.24
5.24

13t,0
130.2

s't.4
56,3

i;
20 20

10s

0.218

I9.564
19.500 1s.250

;;
xs

0.250 0.500
0.593 0.812 0.875

300.60 298.6 291.0


283.S

15.5r

5.24
5.24

23.r2
30.6

20.000

30 40

r9.000

5.24
5.24

r8.8I4
r8.376
18.250 17.s38 17.438

278.0
265.2

60
80
100

1.03r
1.281

252-7
238.8

36.2 48.9 52,8 61.4 75.3

5.12 5.I I 5.04 4,97 4.93

46
52.73

t29.5
126,0

757

75.7

6.98
6.94 6.90 6.79

78.50

lll4
1457 1704

n t.4
I45.7
170.4 225.?

t04.I3
r22.91 r66.40
178.73

t22.8 t20.4

4.8r
1.78 4.70 4.57

lls.0
1t3.4
109.{

5.24 s.24 5.24

22s? 2405
2772 3320

208,87

t03,4

240.9 277.2 332

276

Mechanical Desisn of Process Svstems

PROPERTIES OF PIPE (Continued)


notlrindl pip6 .iz
schedule

woll
thick-

idrids
di(rm-

idaide
sq in.

met(ll
aq

6q

It

outside

rn.
20 20.000

b
r20 I40
160

i!L
1.500 1.750 1.968 0.188 0.218 0.250 0.375 0.500 17.000 16.500

in

po!It, sutldce, 6urlcce, tbf per lt perlt


5.24 s-24
5,24

sq lt ir16ide

weight

rroight
pe! ll,

Ino|'lent aection ol noduinrti(r, lus,

tcdiut
gytq-

tior
in.
6.S6

lb
98.3 92.6 87.S

ia..
3760 4220 4590
766
88S

227.0 213.8
202-',l

47.2
100.3

4.45 1-32
4.21

296.37 341.10
37S.01

376 422
459 69.7

6,48 6.41 1,71

I6.064 2L.824

Iu.5
12.88

367.3
365.2 363.1 354.7

5.76
5.76

44 5.65 5.63 5.56


5_50

t59.1
158.2 157.4

i;
20 30 22

t0s

2I.564
21.500

io
xs

t4.92 17.t8
25.48

5.?6
5.76 5.76

l0l0
1490 1953

80.4 91.8
135.4

7.10
7.63

2r.250
21.000 20.?s0 20.500 20.250
19.750 19.2s0 18.750

87

I53.7
150.2 146.6

22.000

;;
80

0.625 0.7s0
0.875 1.125

346.4 338.2
330.1 322.1

33.77

l15
143 170 197

4t.97
50.07
58.07

5.76 5.76 5.76 5.76 5.76


5.76

100

120

I.375 I.625
1.87s

306.4 231.0
276.1

73.78 89.09
104.02

s.43 5.37 5.30 5.17 5.04


4.91 4.78

l{3.1
r39.6
132.8

2400 2429 3245


4029 475S

t77.5 2t4.2
zs1 -2

7.56
?.52

295.0
366.3

7.17
7,33 7.31

25r
303 354 403 451 63.41 94.62 125.49 140.80

t26.2

432.6
493.S

u9.6
113.3

I40 r60

I8.250
17,750

261.6
247.4

2.t25
0.250

1t8.55 I32.68
18.65

6054

5.75 6.28
6.28

4.65

t07.2
188.0 183.8 180.1 178.1

550.3 602,1
109.6 161.9

7.23 7.15 1.07 8.40


8.35 8.31

l0
20 30

srd

0.375 0.500 0.562

0.62s

io

0.687

::
24.000
60 80 100

0.750 0.218
0.875 0.968

23.500 23.250 23.000 22.876 22.750 22.628 22.500


23.564

434 425 415

l3l6
1943 2550

27.83 41.4 s0.3 54.8


16.29

6.09

6.28
6.28 5.28

4ll
406

402
398 436.1 388.6 382 365

6.28 6.28 6.28


6.28 6.28 6.28

6.02 5.99 5.96 5.92 5.89 5.83 5.78 5.48 5.33 5.20 5.06 6.68 6.64
6.61 6.54 6.48

2r2.5
237.0
281.4 245.2 309

2840
3140

t56.03

vt.r?
186.2{ s5
216 238.11

t78.2 t74.3 t72.4


r88.9
165.8 158.3

8.29 4.21
8.2S

3420

37I0

8-22
8.41 8.18

lt52
42S6

22.250 22.064
21.564

I.218
1.531

63.54 70.0 47.2

96.0 3s4.7
388

t20 t40
160

l.8I?
2.062 2.343 0.2s0

20.938 20.316
19.876 19.314 25.500

344
328

r08.I
126.3

6.28 6.28
8.28 6.28 6.81 6.81 6.81

3t0
s10.7 505.8 500.7
490.9 481.1 471.4

r42.1
159.4

296.36 367.40 429.39 483.13 5{1.94

4650 5670
6850

Lt5
8.07
7.96

473

1{9,3
141.4 134.5

57I
719 788 126.6

t27.O 221.1

7830 8630 9460

7.87

7.r9
7.70
9.10 9,08 9.06 9.02

10

0.3I2

25.376
25.250 25.000

I9.S5 25.18

I646
20?6

2t9.2 I03 r36


217.1

r59.7

srd
28 20

xs

0.37s 0.500
0.625

30.I9
40.06
49.S2

2418
3259

I90.6
250.7 308.7 364.9

2t2.8
208.6
204.4

26.000

24.750
24.500

0.750
0.875

59.49
69.07

6.8I 6.8t
6.81 6.81 6.81

l6s
202
235 267 299 74 92

40I3
4744
54S8 6149 6813

8.98
8.93 8.89 8.85

6.4I
6.35
6.28

L000

l
l0
srd
20
2A

l25

24.250 24.000 23.750 27.500


2',1.376

461.9
452.4

78.54
8?.91

200.2 I96.1
192,1

4I9.9
4?3.0
524,1

443.0 594.0 588.6


583.2 572.6

6.22 1,20

8.80

0.250

21.80

0.3I2
0.375 0.500

27.t4
32.54 13.20

7.t7
7.33
7.33 7.33

xs

27.250 27.400
26.7S0

lll
183

28.000

30

0.625 0.750
0.875 1.000

562.0

s3.75
64.21

7.07 7.00
6.94

26.500 26.250
26.000 25.750 29.500

2ta
253

54I.2
530.S

74.56 84.82
94.98

Ll25
0.250 30

520.8
683.4 617.8 672.0

6.8t 6.7r
7.85

288 323
79 99
9

257.3 255,0 252.6 244.0 243.4 238.9 234.4 230.0 225.6 296.3 293.7
251.2

2098

t49.8
185.8

9.8r
9.79
9,7',1

260r
3105
408S

5038 5964 7740 s590


258S 3201 3823

221.e 291.8 359.8 426.0

9,72 9.68 9.61

{90.3
552.8 613.6
172.3 213.4 2S4.8 335.5

9.60
9.55 9.51 10.52 10.50

23.37
29.19 34.90 46.34 57.68

l0
srd
20 30

l0s xs

0.3I2
0.375 0.500 0.625

30.000

25.316 29.250 29.000

7.85 7.85
7.85

7.72 7.69 7.59 7.53

t0.48
10.43 10.39

z8.'ts0

650.5 649.2

r58

7.8s

286.2 281.3

62I3

4t4.2

Appendix C: Properties of Pipe

277

PROPERTIES OF PIPE (Continued)


nomincl
pipe si:e
outside

schedule

woll
lhickneat, ilr.
0.750 0.875 1.000

inside
didtn-

inside
sq. in,

rrlelal
Bq.

sq It

sq It

diamelet, b
40 30

in.

oulside sultcce.
per ft
7.85 7.85
7.85 8.38 8.38 8.38 8.38

inside
per

weight
per Il,

weight
ol per ft moduIug,
in.3

rddius
gYra-

It

lbf
234
272

inertid,

tb
276.6 27 t.B
267.O

in.'
137

tion, in.
10.34

30.000

28.s00 28.2s0 28.000


27
.',t

637.9 620.?

68.92 80.06

7.44
7.3S

49t.4
566.2 63S.4
't

8494 9591 10653

10.30 10.25

6I5.7
604.7 779.2
7'13,2

9t.l

7.33

3t0
347

1.t25
0.250

50

t02.05 24.9s
31.02

262.2
337.8 335.2 332.5 327.2 321.9 319.0

t0.2

r0.22

31.500

8.25 8.21

85
106

3l4

196.3 243.2 291.0 383.8

l0

o.312

3r.376

3891 4656

tt.22 u.20
I
I

rio
20 32 30

0.375

3t.250
31.000 30.750

766.9 754;1 742.5

31,2s
49.48 61.59 73.63

8.18

XS

0.s00 0.62s
0.688 0.750 0.875 1.000

Lll
8.0s
8.02 7.98 7.92 7.85

t2'l
168

6l{0
7578 8298 8990

l.l8 l.l4

8.38
8.38

209

473.6
518.6

32.000

10

30.624 30.s00 30.2s0


30.000

736.6
730.5 718.3 706.8 694.7 881.2

230
250
291 331

I LoS I1.07
11.05
I

8.38
8.38 8.38 8.38 8.S0 8.90
8.S0

85.52
97.38 109.0

3t6.7 3l1.6
306.4 301.3 382.0 379.3
3',18,2

561.9
648.2 730.0

t8372

l.0I

n680
1302s

10.95 10.92 11.93


I

LI25
0.2s0
10

29.750
33.500 33.376

7.ts
4.77 8.74

371
90

814.0

26.50
32.99 39.61 52.62

371s
4680

22t.9
275.3 329.2 434.4

0.312

s74.9
867.8 855.3 841.9 835.9 82S.3

tt2
135

l.9l

srd
20
34

0.375

33.2s0
33.000 32.750

8.70
8.64 8.54
8.51

s597
7385 9124 9992 10829

II.89
I1.85

XS

0.500
0.625 0.688

LS0
8.90 8.90 8.90 8.S0 8.S0 8.90 9.42

l?s
223 245
310 353 395 96

370.8

30 40

65.53
72.O0

365.0
359.5 354.1 348.6 343.2 429.1 426.1 423.1

34.000

32.624
32.500

0.7s0
0.875 1.000

78.34

s36.7 587.8 637.0


735.4 830.2 924.1 249.S 309.1 370.2

I1.80 I1.78
r 1.76

32.2s0
32.000 31.7s0 35.500 35.376 35.250 35.000

8r6.4
804.2

91.0t
103.67 116.13

8.44 8.38 8.31 9.29

l2s0l
141t4
15719 4491 6684 8785

tt.12
I

I.I25
0.250

79r.3
98S.7

I.63

28.1r
34.S5 42.01

12.64

l0
2D

;,;
xs

0.312 0.37S 0.500 0.625

s82.9 975.8
962.1 948,3 934.7

9-42 9-42
9.42

s.26
9.23 9.16

ll9
143

t2.62
12.59 12.55

I90
236

4t1.1
4I

36.000

30 40

34.750
34.500 34.250 34.000 33.750 41.500

69.50
83.01

9-42
9.42

s.l0
9.03

l.l

t0a72
I2898 I4903

48S.I 604.0
716.5
82',1.9

t2.51
12.16 12.42 12.38

0.750
0.875 1.000

920.5 907.9
894.2 1352.6

96.50
109.96

9.42 9.42
9.42 10.99 10.s9 10.99

8.97 8.90
8.89

282 324

405.3 399.4 393.6

374
419

I685I
r8763

s36.2
1042.4

Ll25
0.250

123.I9
32.82
49.08

387.9 586.4 s79.3 s72.3

t2.34

I0.86
10.80

l12
167 222 330 438 544

7t26
to627
14037

339.3
506.1

I4.73
14.71 14.67 14.62 14.59 14.s0

srd
20 42 30

0.375
0.500 0.6?5

41.250
41.000

r336.3
1320.2 1304.1 1288.2

xs

65.I8
81.28
97.23

I0.73
10.67 10.60 10.47

42.000

40

0.750

I.000
1.250 1.500

40.7s0 40.500 40.000 33.500


39.000

t0.99
r0.99
10.99 10.s9 10.99

565.{
558.4
544.8

17373
20589

668.4 827.3 985.2


1289.5 1582.5 1865.7

I256.6 r22S-3
1194.5

r28.81 I60.03 I90.S5

27080
33233

10.3{ t0.21

649

53t.2 5I7.S

t4.41

3918I

t4.33

278

Mechanical Desien of Process Svstems

INSI'LATION WEIGI{T FACTORS

To determine the seight per foot of any piping insulation, use the pipe size and nominal insulation thickness to find the insulation l'eight factor F in the chart shorvn belorv. Then multiply F by the density of the insulation in pounds per cubic foot.

Erample. For 4" pipe rvith 4" nominal thickness insulation, F : .77. It the insulation density is 12 pounds per cubic foot, then the insulation rveight b .77 x 12 : 9.24lb/tt.

Nominal
Pipe Size

Nominal Insulation Thickness

1%"
.057 .051 .066

2rA"
.16 .29 ,29
.31

3%"
.40 .39 .48 .47

4"

4%"

5%"

6"

I
r%

.10
.11

lt/i
2

.30 .38

.080

.r4

.21

.59

2%
3

.091

.19 .23

.r0
.30

.36 .34
.41

.46

.58 .66 .63

.70 .68

.83
.81

3%
4

.54

.39

.cr
.58 .64 .80 .93

.96

.97 1.10

.24

6 8
10

.34 .38 .59

.45 .66

.88
.97

t.04
r.13
1.36

.34
.43

1.17 1.32

1.20 1.34 1.56

1.75
1.99

t2

.50

l4
18

.68 .70

.88
.90 1.01

1.07

1.52
1.3.{ 1.49
1.7

1.99 1.81 2.01


2.O7

l.l I
1.24

.74
.87

2.29
2.51

\.\2
1.23

|.37
1.50

1.64

1.92

2.24 2.34 2.58 2.82

2.50 2.62 2.88 3.14

20 24

.70 .83

.96 1.13

1.79

t.44

2.10

2.09 2.44

2.40 2.80

2.73 3.16

3.06 3.54

3.40 3.92

LOAD CARRYING CAPACITIES OF THREADED HOT ROLLED STEEL ROD CONFORMING TO ASTM A.36
Nominal Rod
Diameter, in. Root Area of Thread, sq, in. Max. Safe Load,
lbs. at Rod Temp. of 650"F
.068

lz

v4

1r/e

r%
1.293
1.7

2y4

21/2

2y4 4.619

3r/q

3'h
7.918

,126 .202

.302 .419

.693

.889

44 2.300 3.023

3.?19

5.621 6.724

610 1130 1810 21L0 3??0 4960 6230 8000 11630 15700 20700 21200 33500 41580 50580 60480 ?1280

Appendix C: Properties of

Pipe

279

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

l"

prpe r.sr3' o.D.

z i. z

E-I 4/ a^

A /\ w {l\
u-r'

t_J-----,

\]J
Temperature Range

'F

z
F

tr{agnesia

Calcium Combina-

tion

FiberSodium

z
,t

&

ffi
T}
'-11

type is ueight in weight is veight factor for


Boldface
insulation. conditions and do not constitute

pounds. Lightface t]'pe benerth

Instrlation thicknesses and weights are based on average

Njs
4l

{|s.:ssr
7
F

thicknesses oI materials. Insulation Neights are based on 85/6 magnesia and hvdrous calcium silic&te et 1l lbs,i cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and Neights of sums of ihe inner layer of diatomacecus earth at 2l lbs/cubic

recommendation

for

specific

combination covering are the

z .(

N /9N

foot and the outer layer at


foot. Insulotion rveights include allorvcnces for wire, cemerrt, canvas, bands and paint, but not
special surface finishes. 11 lbs,/cubic

on flanges, valves or fittings,

To find the weight of covering

multiply the \veight frctor by the

@ tr\ qJ +

uoight.pcr foot of covering nsed on slrarght prpe.

Neights from the nranufacturer. Cast iron valve $eights are for flangcd end valves; steel $eighLs for welding end velves. valve and fllnge $'eights include the DroDorlion.l \leieht of bolts

Vf,tve \veights 3re rpproximate. When possible, obtain

Fsc

AII

flanged

fitting,

fl&nged

* 16 lb cu. ft. density.

or siudi to make up all joiots,

280

Mechanical De:ign

of

Process Systems

l/a"

wen r.660, o.D.

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

z
F

t+,!

f'^

z
3 F

HJ
-4L. E:::t ttl
n_Lt

\LJ
Tenrpcraturc Range "F

{- i--r

! ! o z

Ma,gnesia

Nom. Thick.,In.

Calcium
Silicate

uon

FiberSodium

I effi
z

ffi

pounds. Lightface type benerth

Boldface type

is s'eight in
Jor

weight

is weight factor
for

Insulation thicknesses and weights are based on average


conditions and do not constitute

insulation.

fs-is$
! T:lii--qF

/A 4
,N

.-al

silicate &t 11 lbs/cubic foot. The listed ihicknesses and i{eights of combination covering are the 6ums of the inner layer ol diatomaceous earth at 21 lbs/cubic

of ma,terials- Insulation weights are based on 85% magnesia and hydrous calcium
thicknesses

recommendation

specinc

foot and ihe outer laycr at


11

/>

lbs/cubic foot.

Insulstion weights include alIowances for wire, cement, csnvas, bands end peint, but not
speeial surface finishes, -

@ l[' +

1.<3
)

on flanges, valves or fittings,


on strargnt prpe.

To find the weight of covering

multiply the weightfactor by the werghl per loot ol coverrng used

Valve weights are approximate. lVhen possible, obtain

rc

$'eights from the manufacturer. Cast iron velve weiqhts arc for flanged end valves; sGel weights for weldins end valves.

valve and flange weights include the Drooortionrl weiqht of bolts or si,udi: to make up all joinl,s. * 16 lb cu. ft. density.

.All flanged fitting,

flanged

Appendix C: Properties of

Pipe

281

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS


Schedule No. Wall Designation 40
80

r.eoo" o.D.

l/2"

Ywn

160

srd.
.145 .88
.E

XS
.200

xxs
.28r
4.86
.61 .400 6.41 .41

L Lic

kness-In.

Pipe-Lbs/Ft lVater-Lbs/Ft IJJ

3.63 ,77 1.1

fl.2

L.R. 90' Elbow


S.R. 90' Elbow

1.{

1.8

{"u n z^"

.6

.3
.2 .6
1.3

E E
e

r-i\ (, F!-+

{_O

L.R. 45' Elbow


Tee

.8 .2

3.1
.6 .6

3.7
.6

/.,e^
Lt_!
(----1--l

Lateral
Reducer

5.4
1.3

.6 .2
.3

.7 .5
.3

1.2

\IJ
2 N

c"p

.7

Temperature Range 'tr'

t00-1c9 200-299 300-309 400-499 500-599 600-699 700-799 300-s99 c00-3c9 1000-1009 1100-1200
1

\om. Thick., In. Lbs/Ft


CombinaNom. Thick.,In.

r%
1.35

2 2-52

2r/6

2%
3.47 214 4.20
2

2%
3.47

3 4.52
3

3 4.SZ

.84

.84

3.47

4.52 3

2)i
4.20

2%
4.20

3 5.62 3 6.16

z FiberSodium

Lbs/Ft \om. Thick., In. Lbs/Ft


Prc-rsure

5.6t
2%
4,16

5-62
3

I
1.07

r%
1.07
1.E5

lr/4
1.85 Steel

2 3.50

2rz
4.76

1.07

3.50

6.16

psr

Raiing

Cast Iron
125 250 7
150
3C0

400 9

600 9

900

1500 19

2500

sffi$

Screwed or

3.5

l9
1.5 19

3l
34
1.5

ivcight

oounds. Lichttace hDc bencath is

Boldface

tlpe is rfeight

in

rveight' iactor lor


and
average

:ffi
,a I /

Slip-On \Yelding Neck Lap Joini


9
E

insul:rtion.

t2
9
10

t2
9

l9
1.5

1.5

*eights arc based on


thicknesses

Insub.tion ihickncsses

ss]s
d}.'.=N!
.'11
,tJ

l9 l9
1.5

l9
19

3l
1.5

conditioris and do not constitute

Blind
S.R. 90" nlbow

7 1.5
10 13

t0
1.5
26

3l

D recommendation for specific of m$terials. lnsulation Neights are bcsed oD 8570

1.5
23

3,?il*'11 ll'9"lxli:l:","'.*'"is,3
46

3.8

3.9

rd s scights cights of listed thiclinesscs cn(l ing are the combin.tion covering
sums of t,he inner lrver of dirlbsr'cubic cubic tomaceous earth at 2l lbs: lD,J'er 5n 5t :cr lD,l'er fooi and the outcr

e,\
z tc

L.R. 90' Elbow


45" Elborv
Tee 9

t44\ lF -ll

3.4

l1

23

39
70

11 lbs/cul)ic foot.

3.5
30

t7
5.6

20

ccment. ctnlo$lnccs for 'iviro, ccmenl. rint, but not vcs, bllncls {Lnd plint,
hcs. sulf.rce linishcs. strccial -

bs includc alInsulltion weights

5.8
70
.1.5

1=<l
* k33

flanged l3onnet
Gxte Flanged Bonneb Clobe or Angle Irlanged Bonnet Check Itressure SeaI
30

t25
170 5

lt of covcring To find the rvcight fittitrgs, on tlonlles, vxlvcs or fittiogs,


on stftLisht lliDc.

6.8
40

fr, tor bv the multipll; tlic wciFht frctor uscd \\cighi t)cr foot of covcring :ovcring'uscd
siblc, obtoin matc, Whcn Dossiblc, irnufarcturcr. rvoights from thi mtnufacturcr.

45
4D

Vxlvc-

:rlrptori\\(iihts rrc arc apptori-obtlin

3uu
J<[J
FSO
'

ll0
42

Rorrret-Crie
Pressurc Seal

42

1.9

'eights rre for Cast iron vtlve weights lllnged cnd vrlves; stccl \eights for rveldine cnd valvcs.

Bonnet-Globe

.ights include includc valve rnd 1|rngc ivcights l)olts cight of ol l)olts the l,rorntlion l N(iglrt :rll ioints. up:rll or sluds to m.tku up ioints,

flanged ;ing, flanged .\ll flriised fitting,

16 lb cu. ft. density.

242

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

2"
!r

ptpn

zs. B, o.D.

IVEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

u'N

z z

u,r'
d-J.-t

Ih

-r--r-\

{_L_!

/> fin
Temperature Range oF

z
F

Magnesia

Calcium

5 Combinatron

FiberSodium

Nr$
z

pounds, Lighifbce type bdneath

Boldface tyDe

is

weisht in
for

lnsutailon.

weigit.

b weight factor

+fi$ N*s
cr.i-s
/A, /a)
,-61

Insulation thicknesses and weights are based on average conclrtrons and do not constitute & recommendation for
soecific

thicknesses of materials. I_nsulaiioo veights are based on 85/o magnesia and hydrous calcium silicate at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and weishts of combination coverinc are the sums of the inner laler of diatomsceous earth at 2l lbs/cubic

foot and the outer layer at


z

/D
IN' '{I

,N

, Insulaiion weights include allowances Iol wlre, cemen!, canspecial surface finishes. To 6nd the weieht of coverinc

1l lbs/cubic foot.

vas, bands and oaint. but not

1.<l
't

@ rfl
[],._/

on flanses. valvds or fittinssi multiply tlie weight factor by tIe weight.per foot of covering used
on-slr&lghl prpe.
weights from th; msnuiacturer. Cast i.on valve weights are for flanged end valves: sGel weiehts for ielding end vaives.

valve wergnF are approxlmate. When possible, obtain

+<t
FsO

valve and flange weigF* inclide the prcportional weight of bolts or 6tuds to make up all joints, ' 16 lb cu. It. density.

All

nsnsed fittios.

flanced

fr
Appendix C: Properties of

Pipe

283

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

2.87s"

o.D.

2/2"

Ywn

7
F

z
-l

E'

A w {T\
u-r'

'

/-A q-!_, \]J


Temperature Range "F Magnesia Calcium Combinatron

F--1 -/.>\

z
f

FiberSodium

ffi
z

pounds. Lightface type beneath

Boldface

weight

type is s'eight in is weight factor for

insulation.

$q1$
Nl-s$

conditions and do not constitute

weights are based on average


recommendation

Insulation Lhicknesses

and

N
.-al

T.A
a-4

A
,N

thicknesses oI materiels- Insulation weights ere based on 85/6 magnesio and hvdrous calcium silicate at ll lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses end rveights of combination covering are the sums of the inner laver of diatomaceous eerth at 21 lbs/cubic

for

specific

foot and the outer b,yer at


1l lbs/cubic foot.
for rvird, cement, canvas, bonds and peint, but not
lowances special surf&ce linishes, -

L4
.|-{

Insulation weiqhts include al-

multiply the ileight factor by the


weight per foot of covering used on straight pipe. Valve 1Aeights are approxiweights fron the manufscturer. Cast iron velve weiqhts sre for flanged end valves; sGeI *eights for welding end valves. All flanged fitting, flanged valve ond fiange iveights include the proportional \ieight of bolts

on flanges, valves or fittings,

To find the weighi of covering

'l

@ flr)
+<i

mate. Whe[ possible, obtain

t4
lb cu.

o! studs to make up &ll joints,

+ 16

lt.

density.

284

Mechanical Design

of

Procesr Systems

3"

"t"" Schedule No.

B.boo' o.D.
40

WEIGHTS OF I'IPING N{ATERIALS


EO

1C0

Wall Dcsignation Tlrick ness-In .

std.
.216 7.54 3.20

xs
.300 10.25

xxs
.438 14.32 2.35
.600

Pipe-Lbs/Ft
\1'xter-Lbs/Ft

2.86 6.1 .8
.5

t8.56 l.E0

W
|4 {I/
3

L.R. 90' Elbow

4.6
.8 .5 .3

8.4
.8

lo.7
.8

zr\ E {it : {1\ r.'.'g


rl F4q (-r__)

S.R.90'Elbow
L.R. 45' Elbow
Tce

4.4
.3 .8
.3

5.4
.3

7.4
.8

12.2
.8

14.8 .8

Lsteral
Rcducer

l9
1.8

3.7
.3

4.7
.z

.3 .1.8

.3 .5

\JJ
?
z
Magnesia
Calcir.rm

cup

3.7
.5

.5

.5

'li nrpcrrlur. ncngc'F


\orn. Thllk., In. LLs Ft \ont.'.t'hick., IIL II-1i Ft

100,14r 200-:0c 300-3c9 100-lm 500-599 600-699 700-7s9 800-80s 900-g?9 1000-1099 1100-r200

1k
2.08

2%
4.07

3%

3%

Y Silicete

t-25

3.01

3.01

5.24 3 6.94 2
3.9E

s.24
3

5.24 3 6.94
3

2\
5.07
1

3%
9.17

3%
9.17

6.94 3 6.99

FiberSodium

\om. TLick., In.


Ll's, Ft
Pressurc Rating
psr

I
1.61

1rz
2.74

1tz

2 3.9E

3%
8.99

3%
8.99

1.61

1.61

6.99

t-cst lron
125 250
17 150 9
1.5

Steel 300 400


20
1.5 19 1.5 1.5 19 1.5

600
20

900
1.5

1500

2500 102

rffi
O

Screwed

ot

t7

6l
38 1.5 36 38
1.5

Slip-On

$eieht is weight fachor for


insul&tion.

pounds. Lightface type bene3th

Boldface iype

is

u'eight in

s{

r-Fn

ils

Welding Neck l,ap Joint

tl
1.5

6l
1.5 60 1.5

ll3
1.5 99 1.5

N-i.s
qF{i.llqn

l9
1.5

1.5

Blind
S.R- 90' Elbow

l0
26

l9
46

l0
32

20 53 63

24 1.5

24
67

6l
1.5

r05

.onditions and do not constitute nstttule sPecific a recommendetion for specific Insulethicknesses of materials. Insula>n 85% 857a tjon Neights are based on macnesia and hvdrous calcium
the rre th cornbination covering are diasums of the inncr layer of dit )s/cubic tomrceous earth at 21 lbs/cubi
11 lbs,lcubic foot. rot. The "ili;r. 't l1 lhs/crrhin foot ights of o listed thicknesses and $eights

Insulation thicknesses and average weighis are based on ave.age

2
E

98

l^a
/'11

3.9
30

4
50

3.9
40

4.1 4.3
46
E1

4.3

r50 4.6

< E BJ

B,N u /9N
.:
ti]

L.R. 90' Elbow


45" Elbow

4.3

4.3
41

4.3
2E

tvcr at a Ioot and the outer laJcr


for \rire, cenrent, crn no ves,.blnds and Irrrirrtr buL not
coverinl To hnd the Neight of covefnlg
al l rLInsulation rveights include

60

93

3.6
39

3.8
102

3.9

135 4 23E

lorvences

67
6

l5l
260
5

ll---J

Tee

5.9
66 7

5.9
70

6.2

6.9
410 5.5 495

strccrcl surlace nnlsnes. -

,k
j

{-<t
r\J

Flanged Bonnet
Gate tr'langed Bonnet

125
95 70 +.4

t55
1.8

fittings, on flanges, valves or fitting: )r bv b\ the th multiply the Neight factor


rng usei usect welghl per loot ol coverlng on straight pipe.

Globe or Angle Flanged Bonnet Check


Pressure Seal Pressure Seal

t2l
7.2 46
100

60

t55
1.8

4.3
60

r20
4.8

t50
4.9
208

440

spproxi Valve weights are approxrobtair mate. When possible, obtain

7.2

5.n
235
180

+<t

rc

Bonnet- Cate

acturef. weights from the ma,nufacturer. fo Ls are for Cist ilon valve weiehts weight flansed end valves; steet. weights for weldine end valves.
s include includ valve and llanse rleiqhts bolt of bolts the proportionlel \r eight.of Il joints. or studs to mirl(e uP all Jorntt

All flrnged 6tting,

flange. flanged

r35

Bonnet-Globc

* 16 tb cu, ft. densitY,

Appendix C: Properties of

pipe

28.tt

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS


Schedule No. 40
EO

4.ooo'o.D.

3/2"

ewr.

Wall Dasignation Thickness-In. Pip-Lbs //Ft Water-Lbs / Ft

srd.

XS
.318

xxs
.636 22.8s 2,53

9.tr
4.28

t2.51
3.85

fr?
ut {J-/

L.R. 90' Elbow


S.R. 90' Elbow

6.4
.9

8.7
.9
.6

l5.4
.9

4.3
.6

: {l\ 3 /)\

z^, F [/)
El#

L.R. 45' Elbov


9.9
Tee
.9

4.4

t2.6
.9

20
.9

Lateral
Reduce!

26 1.8 3.1
.a .3 1.4

/.-N Irt

6.9
.3 .6 1100-1200

cuP
Temperature Range
agnesta

2.t
.6

2.a
.6

'F

r00-199 200-209 300-399 400-499 500-599 600-699 700-799 800-899 900-999 1000-1099
1

Nom. Thick., In.

1%
1.83

2%
4.EE

2ti
4.88

3%
7.80 316

314 7.80

3%
7.80

srlLcate

Lbsi/Ft
Nom. Thick., In.

r.E3

3.71

6.39 3

6.39 3
8.7

tit 6 z

)mbina-

2%
6.49
1 1

3%
r0.6

3%
10-6

Lbs/Ft
Nom. Thick., In.

E.7l
2

r0.6
3

FiberSodium

r%
3.65

1X

3
E.66

3%
r0.62

3%
10.62

Lbs/Ft
Pressure Rating psr Screwed

z.4l
Cast Iron

2-41

5.07

5.07

8.66

Ste"l-_150 13

,ffi
3S4

t25
13

250

300
21

400

600

900

r600

Slip-On

or

2500

2l

lvelglrt.
32

Pounds. Llghtf:rce

Boldface _tvpe

itS

Welding Neck Lap Joint Blind


14

l4
1.5
13

msul& on.

is

\aeight fcctor for

is *eighi in t)pe benecth

"

NIM

2l
25

26 1.5
35

26
1.5

condlt)ons xn.l Jo noI constiiute

Insulation thicknesses and \eights are lssFd on averagc


recommendation

Efsfs$ O ,'4

23

15

1.5
49

2td E-q

8.R.90'Elbow L.R. 90" Elbow


45"
Tee 40

4.L
4.4 62 4.4 54 4.4
39
70

82

4.3

<.: E Ptn

BN O /. 3\
1"<3

m:rgnesir and hvdrous lrlcium silicsle rt I I Ibs'cul,ic foot. The listcd thickncsses :rnrl \.eiqhts of combination coveriDg ar:e the sums of the inner hier of diatomil(eous e.Lrth at,21 lbs/cubic

thicknesses of rnetcriu,ls. I_nsrrhtion lveights are b:rscd on 8b7,

for

specific

Elbor

3l
54
6 a2

5l
86

Ioot and thc outer lll,!.er at


75

3.9 8.2
6
90 155

t33
6.4
180

vas, blncls &nd Dcint, but, not


360
5

Insulltion $eights inclutle al, Iowances ioa wlre, cement, can-

11 lbs:cubic foot.

Flanged Bonnct Gste Flanged Bonnet Globe or Angle

t43
137

7.1
74

5t0

4.8

HKP
fqJ

7.7 7.3
125

160

Fhnged Bonnet
Pressure Seal Pressure Serl

To firrd ihe $eigl,t of covering fiftincs. multit,lj thc $eight f"(bor l,v thc wuight per foot ol cov|jrinlj'usc(l on straiqht DiDe. Vxlvc \,eigl,ts rrc epprori-

spcciu.l surface fi nishes.

on llrnges, vxlves or

7.7

t2s

+<t

Bonnet-Gate Bonnet-Globe

t40 | 295 2.5 | :.8

3E0

th_e mtnuiacturer. ( ust iron v{Llvc Neiq}rts arc lor flangtd entl velvesistaci leishts Ior rveldirrg end vdves.

rveights from

ma,te. When possible. obtlin

* 16 lb cu. ft. density.

or studs to mcke up:rll joints.

,\ll fluhged fit tins, fllrnsc,l vxlve xnd flxnge rrcigl'rs inclu,le thc proporlional weight of bolts

286

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

4" prcn 4.500' o.D.

1YEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

\\ attr-l-bs/I t

f'2 !x
tr2
z
F

HI
e-

{i\

t-i .t

{,\

\IJ
'l'cmtx,miurr lLrngc'Ir

z
F

Ilagnesia
Celcium

I
z

Coml)inl- Nom.'l'hick., In.

iion

FiberSodium

$'eight

Boldface type is rveight in pounds. Lightf:lce tl'pe benextlr


insulation.

is weight lactor lor fol

l Stits

Insulation thicknesses end weights are based on average


conditions and do not constitutc

recommendation

spccific

thicknesses of materials.

z
F

/A

/''ll

magnesia and hydrous calcium silicate &t 11 ibs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and \\'eights of combination covering are the sums of ihe inner layer of diatomaceous earth
11

tion weights are based on 85t;

Insull-

et 2l lbs,/cubic foot and the oute! la\.cr at


lowances Ior uire, cement, canspecial surface finishes. -

,N />

lbs/cubic foot. Insulation weighL includc al-

vas, bands and paint, but not

@ +
,lr1

F{3

on flanges, valves or fittings,


multiply the we;ght frctor by thc
Neight per foot of covering uscd
on straight, pipe.

To find the weight of covering

mcte. When possiblc, obtrin

Valve wcights arc approrii-

rc

lveights from thc manuf&cturer. Cast iron valve lvcights &rc for flanged end valves; stecl \cights for lelding cnd valves. All fleriged fittins, flanged valve rnd flange rvcights inciude the proportional rveight ol bolts or studs to make up all joiDts.

" 16 lb cu. ft. densitv.

C
Appendix C: Properties of

Pipe

287

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

5.563"

O.D.

5"

PtPe

(-!j
z
F

z
B

w fl-\
4'e.
c_i_)
a-1--r
Tcmperature Range

15.6

r7 .7

,-'1-l

'F

z
F

FiberSodium Combina-

tion

Magnesia

Calcium

ffir$
z

$'eight
lreights

BolJfrce type is rreight in pounds. l,ighbf.lce tYpe beneeth

is weight lactor
rre

for
and

insul.rtion.

s{lrs
$sj-N$
Els:i-:5$

of m&teri3ls. Insuhtion weights :rre based on 85% magnesia and hvdrous calcium silicate at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The
thicknesses

besed on everage conditions and do not constitute recommendotion a for specific

lnsulation thicknesses

z
F

/r4
,N

/11

listcd thicknesses and \'eights of combination covering are the sums of the inner layer of diatomoceous earth at 2l lbs/cubic

Ioot and thc outcr l&r-er at


1l lbs/cubic {oot.
lorvances

z ti

/>

Insulotion l eights include al-

t{
J

ll' IH 'll

vas, bands and p&int, but not


special surfrrcc {inishes.

for {ire, cement, can-

on llanges, volvcs or fittings, Vdve rveights arc


opproxi-

To find the rveight of covering

multitt]'thc wcight f$ctor by thc


\reight pcr foot of covoring used on straight pipe.
Flanged Bonnet Check

++3
* 16

@ 0

rc
lt
cu.

weights from the manuflcturer. Cast iton valve rveights are for flonged end valves; steel rleights for welding end valvesAll flangetl Iitting, flrnged vslvc and flange weights include

mate. When possible, obtain

ft.

or studs to rnake up all joints.


density.

the proportional weight of bolts

288

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

6" ,t n

6.625. o.D.

WEIGHTS OF PIPING X{ATERIALS

gJ-f
z

{n {1\ E:cl
a-1J
E_=_=r
!._!____,

'

\t/

Tcmpcraturc llange 'F

2 Calcium o
F
D

Ma,gnesia

liom. Thick., In.

Combinltion

tr'iberSodium

Boldface

4q-x$
z

beneath tr.pe oounds. Liehtface ' q eight is - weight iactor for insulation.

iype is

weight in

sfil$
dN-s
{Jss;s

Insulation thicknesses and weights are based on average


conditions and do not constitute

# 4l
,N

,41

thicknesses of matedals. Insulation weights &re based on 85% magnesia and hvdrous calcium s;liAte at 1l lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and weights of combina,tion covering are the sums of the inner layer of diatomaceous ea,rth at 21 lbs/cubic

recommendation

for

specific

foot and the outer layer at


11 lbs/cubic foot.

Eq-A

/9s
'{t

Insulation $eights include al-

lowances

lt'

vas, bands snd paint, but not


sDecial surface finishes. -

for rriie, cement,

can-

t{3
3

on ffanges, valves or
multipit
the
u

ir)

+<i

6ttings, eight frctor b-\' the !\eight per foot of covering used on straight pipe. Valve $eights are {rppror mate. When possible, obtain weights from the manufecturer. Cast iron valve weights are for flenged end valves; steel weights

To find the $eight of covering

ffi

for selding end valves.

vclve and flenge Neights in.lude thc DroDortronal wcight of bolts

All

ffanged titting, flanged

or studi to mrke

ut rll

joints.

* 16 lb cu. ft. densitJ'.

il
Appendix C: Properties of

PiP.

249

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

8.625. O.D.

8"

"r",

A
z
F F

T,Jr'

e,

/t\
rFr

lA

{T\ r';J

uJ

\iJ
Temperature Range

'F

1r00-1200

z
F

Magnesia Calcium Combina-

2 tron

FiberSodium

ffi
2

ireiglrt.

Roldfrce tlpe is $eight in tvoe beneath trounds. L;qhtfcce '


;s

\rcight

iacLor lor

s{tlts
$s

Insulation thicknesses and rlcights cre brsed on rveruge


conditions cn.I do not corstitute

is A

!N
z
F

rA A /> ela

of materills- Insulation \reights cre based on 85lo magnesia and hydrous cslcium siiicate at 1l lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and leights of combination covering are the sums of the inner loyer of diatomaceous eadh at 21 lbs/cubic loot snd the outer lol er at
thicknesses

recommendation

for

specific

Insulation rveights include allowances for uire, cement, canvas,.b!.nds ond paint, but not
sDectal surlace nnrshs. -

1l lbs/cubic foot.

1-{3

on flanges, vrlvis or fittings,


on strarqn! prDe,

To find the weisht of coverins

t4 s^
FsO

multiply the \aeightf&ctor by the \Yeight.per foot of covering used

Yalve rvciIhts cre appro\imcte. l\rhcn possible, obtxin


for \\elding enLl valves.
flanged end

+<t
* 16 lb cu. ft, density,

\leights from th6 manuflcturer. Cast ilon valve iveights ore for

vrlves;stecl \\'eights

vslve and flongc Neights jnclude the proportionlrl lveight of bolts or studs to make up all joints.

All

flanged

fittine,

flanged

290

Mechanical Design of Process Systcms

10t'prpe

,o.zso"

\VIJIGIITS OT PIPING I{ATDRI,\i,S

\\-rtcr-Lbs

'

l'

IA
z k
(,

E.-I
.l

//\ w {i\

4'd',
!-l_, t,t!
Trmprrx6url 11''ra. "P

z Calcium
uon

N'Iagnesia

Combina-

\om. Thick., In. \om.

FiberSodium

TlLn k., I rr.

ffi
A,/TmA z qIS I l\S
We)ding Neck

pounds. Lightfece t) pc benertll

Boldfcce

type is neight in
$eight, Jsctor for

$cight.

lnsut& on.

is

N-ls
ry--rp
z
F

conditions and do not constitute

Insulrt,ion thicknesscs and iveights arc based on avenge


rccommendrtion

,--ll

thicknesses of matcdcls. Insul:rtion \ieiqhts are bascd oir E59. magnesii and hldrous calciuni silicate at 1l lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and $eights of combination covering are the sums of the inner laler of diatomeceous earth at 21 lbs/cubic

for

specific

foot and the outer laver


z

s,t

/>
tP ql

11 lbs/cubic foot.

Insulation \Yeishts include alfor rdr;, cement, cenvas, bands and paint, but not
lowonces special surlace frnishes,

J-<3
'l

on flonges, valvds or
multipll

To find the wejsht of coverine


the neight f:rctor

@
ll.J

6ttings] bt the Neight per foot of covering used on strsight pipc.

rc

++l

\r0iqhls from thc n)rnufscturcr. Crrst iron rrlvc $cights rfe for 13rngcd t'nrl \.l|lvcsi stccl Neights fot l-clding end vrlves. -\11 flrngcd fitting, fllnged vslve and flcngc $eig)r1s inrlude thc propottionul \eight of bolts or studs to rn.rke up all joints.

matc. \\'hcn- possil)le,

|alve \rcishts ore luorori-;l)trirr

* 16 lb cu. ft. densitl..

Appendix C: Properties of

Pipe

291

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS


Schedule No. 20 .250 33.36 30
40

rz.75o"
r00

o.D.
140

12"
160 1.312 160.3

prpx

60

80

I20
1.000

Wall Designation

std.
.330
43.E

XS
.406 .500 65.4
47 .0

Thickness-In.

.562

.687 4,r.0

Pipe-Lbs/Ft

.843

1.125

49.6 49.0

53.5
48.5

73.2 46.0

Wster-Lbs/Ft

5l.t0

8E.5 1t07.2

r25.5
39.3

r39.7
37 .5

49.7

4r.6

34.9 375

{?

7fh F:- J,l '


7

nuj

L.R. 90' Elbow


S.R. 90" Elbow

lr9
80 60

t57
3 104

2
7a 167

L.R. 45" Elbow

1.3

IEl
1.3
360

r32 Lateral
Reducer
180

273

5.4

5.4 44 .7
38

33
30

94

Crp
Temperature Range 'tr'

t9

r00-199 200-299 300-399 400-499 500-599 600-699 700-7s9 800-899 900-999 1000-1099 1100-1200

{-iryTiu Y
Silicate

Nom. Tbick.,In.

1%
6.04

1%
6.04

2 E.13

2tz
10,5

3 12,7 3 17.7

3%
15.1

4%
17.9

4%
20.4

Lbs/Ft Lbs/Ft
Nom. Thick.,In.

t7.9
4
26.7

20.4

{ 7
z

tion

uomotna- Nom. Thick., In.

3%

4 26-7 4

4%

4%
31.1

2t.9
2%
14.20

3r.l
5

Fiber-

1%

1%
5.22

lrl

1%

r%

2%
14.20

Sodiuo

Lbs/Ft
Prcssure Rating psr

Cast lron
250
150 7L 137 88

r
300 400 164
1.5 163
1.5

24.@
2500

a.g

32.&

32,&

Bs$
"
o

Screwed or

Slip-On Welding Neck

t.5

l1()

!stu
Nls
lA
s\"ssF

26r 1.5

2t2
1.5

Lap Joint
96 177
11E

164
1.5

t87
261 669

| | | 272 | 1.5 I 286 |


600

900 388 1.5

1500
E20

l6u
1919 1.5

BoJdface t1'pe pounds. Lightfaco

ldsulallon.
843

tlpe bencxth \reigl,f. js reight frctor for Insulrtion thickncsses and base<l on aver:rte
suecific

is rvciqht in

434
1.5

r.5
902 928

neights are

433 475 1.5 1474

1573 1775

209 509

341
E15

1.5 |

,-{t 2Ld ,. Al

S.R. 90' Elbow

265 375

453 5.2

345 5 485

6.2 624 6.2


414 469

EA z&4
j

L.R. 90' Elbow


45" Elbow
Tee

6.2
235

6.2
3E3

6.2 4.3
513

l59E

6.2
4.5
943

foot and thc outer la\'er at


Insuhtion rvcights includc al, to\l'anccs lor $lrc, ccncnt, canspccial surface firishes. To lin,l bhc ur'rglrt of coveling on flxrgcs, vrlvcs or fittirrae. mult;l'h tl,c \reiglrt i,, tul l,\.the \\(iAht l)cr foot ol coverirrg uscd on strrlalrt DrDc.
11 lbsTcubic foot.

tliicknesses of materirls. Iirsul:rtion Neighis are l,rsrd on E5% mrgncsiu and hrdrous calcium silicxte at lL lbs/'cubic loot. The listed thickncsscs and Ncishts of combinrtion covering aie the sums of thc inner loier of dirrtomlceous ctrth at 21 lbs/cubic

& Iccommendatio4 fot

conditions and do not constitule

4.3
403

4.3
684

4.3 754 7.8


1015 5 1410

dflq 1.{3

8.3
1420

I rr24 4.7 | 4.8 136 t


8.7
2155 7

?0s

9.3
2770 4650 8

v:rs, hanrls lrnd Drint, but not

Flanqed BonDet Flaneed Bonnet

687

l29a
4 r200 9.5. I160 9.5

7.a

*@
rqJ

Globi or Angle

80E

9.4
674 9.4

7r0
5 560

Flanged BoDnet Check


Pressure Seal Pressure Seal den6rty,

720

1410

{={t
'
16 lb cu.

7.2 1975 5.5

2600 8 2560
6

3370 8

ts0
ft.

Bonnet-Gate Bonnet-GIobe

45t5
7

Crlst iron vtlye wciqlrts &rc lor flangctl end v0lves: stccl \eichts Jor rrcltiine cnd vclves. -

r'cights from the m:rnuilrcturcr.

m:*c. \1'herr possil'le,

Vrtr

rrcights

rtc

errnloriobt:rin

vnlvc rn4 lixfigc \rcigirts include thc proportionrl Ncight lcight of bolts or studs to make mrkc up rrn all rll joints. ininlq

.\lt

flerrgcd fitting, fl:rnged

292

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

14"

ptnE

14" o.D.

1VEIGHTS 0F PIPING IIATERIALS

{?
z
|.

EJJ /-\

{t}

fh

t -=;t

\t/
Temnr.r:1turc Rrngc Nlaguesia

'F

2 Calcium
F

Conlbina-

Nom.

Thick.,In.

tlon

Fibe!Sodium

ffi
z

tlpe is rrcight in $eight is \eight f.rctor tor


pouncls. Lightface tl'pe bencalh

Boldlacc

insulation.

6{rls ds]s
Elsisp

$eights arc besed on

Insulation lhicknesscs

thicknesses of materials. Insulation tieights al.e based on E5fi magnesia and hvdrous ralcium silicate at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The

conditions and do not constitute recommendalion for spccilic

and average

z
|.

D' .{

t&

/A ,-11 // ,\

listed thicknesses and rveights of combination covering are thc


sums of the inner laver of dia11 lbs,/cubic foot.

tomaceous e:rrth xt 2l lbs/cubic foot and the outer lal er et

lnsulaiion weights include al-

lorvances

vas, bands and paini,, bui not


special surfece finishcs.

Ior uire, cement,

can-

+.{

on flanges, valves or fittings,


multipl]

To find the $eight of covering

@ r)

the \\'ejght facior by the lYeight pcr foot oI covering used on straight, pipe.

mete. When possible, obtain


tor rYelding end valvcs.

Valve rveights are approri-

+<t

scigbts from tha manufrcturer. CasL ilon valve Neights are for flanged end vrlvcs; steel *eights

rc

vrlve end frcnge $rights include the proportionri \rcighi of holts or studs to meke up all joints.

All

flanged frttiDg, *

flanged

16 lb cu.

ft.

density

I
Appendix C: Properries oi

Pipe

2gl

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

ro'o.o.

16t'

prpt

G
t4

L!_r'

z
F

z
B

{l\
!+i

L4J

f>\

e4'4

r't\
f--.+--l
Temperature liange

'F

1100-1200

! i

Xlagnesia Calcium Silicate

6
z

tion

Cornbina-

Sodium

Se
z

Bo i.lce t\.pe is rveielrt in ttpe benesth rferqht is \\eislrt frctor fof


pounJs. Lightfi, e

s{-N

Nis
s\sf
z |.

Insulation thicknesses and ireights .Ire bascd on avcrrge conditions and clo not consiir.u[e

lnsul&lton.

recommendrtion

d
,N

tion \\'eights are brsed on 859% magnesil and hydrous cllciui silicate rt ll lbs/cuLic [oot. 'Ihe

thicknesses of materiais. Iirsul:r-

for

succitic

tomsceous eorth at 2l lbs/cubic foot and the outer layer at

combrlctlon covering ace the sums of the inner laier qI dia11 lbs/cubic foot.

Iisted thicknesses and seights of

!!!q

_ Insuiation
To_

weights include allovances Ior wirc, cemnt, canspecrat surlace hnlshes.

vas,.bands and-' pxint, but not find Lhe weight of covering fittines.

1"<3
E

@ fi1

weight flctor bl the werght.pcr foot uf covcriDg uscd on strxrqht DlDe, Valve rri-iel,ts al,rrroxi-

on llxngcs, vnlves or
multipl] t|e

^re 0l,tcin m.Ltc. \\'hcn I'ossil)le,


weights from
Cast iroD
th_e

+<t

l4

vrlve $cishts cre for flangcd cud valvesi stiel $eiehts for rvelding end v:rlves.
vclve and flxngc ncights i clude the proportionrl weight of bolts or studs to make up all joints.

manui:rciuror-

AII flrngcd fitting,

frxnged

'

16 lb cu.

ft. density.

294

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

18"

prpo

18" o.D.

WEIGI{TS OT' PIPING MATDRIALS

{.!-r'
z
F F

z
B

&\
\JJ
'fonrl)erllturc

{T\ -t\"

a-+-!

f>\

I-5:I

lhrlac'Ir

2 Calcium o
F f

Magnesia Combin.r- .\oro. Thi, k.,ln. tron

FiberSodium

ffi
z

pounds. Ligbtl.rce insulation.

Soldface i,r'pc

is rrcight in
tlpc
benecth

tcigl,t is scight factor c


for

for

stfN$

Insul&tion thicknesses and Fcights arc bascd on average


conditions and do not constitute thickncsscs of mstcriols- Insulstion $eights &re b:rsed on 85% rnagnesia and h)'drous calcium silicate at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The listed thickncsses and rveights of combinction covcling arc the sums oI the inner layer of diatom&ceous clLrth at 21 lbs/cubic

Nls
qN
7
F

lecommcnd:ltion

specific

r7
,N
4!44

foot and the outer laycr at


Insulqtion $'cights include al, ]O$an(:os 1or \\-rre, cemcni, canves,.1'ends and- pflint, but not
Slrcr-li1l sUl I3CC IlnlSnCS.

11 ibs/cubic foot,

D',

.S

B--rl

on flrngr-s, valvcs or fittings,


multitilj
Neight t)cr foot of covering used on.sirlrigLt pipe,

To find the rvcight of covering


the $ c;glrt fxctor by the

@
IU

v srvc \{crgn[s crc apl)roxlmate. \Vhen possiblc, obtain

+<t

\\cights from the manuf&cturer. Cast ilon velve \Yeights &re for for
flanged end valves; stecl weights u clding end valvbs. fl:rnged fitting, flanged

rc

valve and fiange \\riHhts include the proportion:rl \cight of bolts or studs to make up all joints. * 16 lb cu. ft. deDsity.

All

Appendix C: Properties of

Pipe

295

WEIGTITS OF PIPING ]TATURI,\LS

zo"

o.D.

20"

ptpp.

Pipe-Lbs/ I t $ atcr-l,bs,,lft

L=I
f-l LJ-!

f\ w {l\

to

F4'1

Tempcrriurc llrnge "F

1100-r200

Magnesis,

Calcium Combina-

!ton

FiberSodium

4dJ$
z

\\ciglrt. is Neiglrt flctor for


curditions rLnd do not roD-qtituie l reconrmt'ntlrtiori for. spccific thickncssrs ol nlrtolirls. Iirsula-

pounrls. Liglrtfrce t) po bcnerth

Roldfrce tvpe is \\'cight in

$fu
Njis
qlss,rs

$cights rrc b.rscd on avcrrqe

Insulrtion

thit knesses rnd

tion rveights ruc brscrL on 55.,1 rn:rgncsio :rnd hldrous rllrium

A
le-{
,N

/Ai

,-8.

comlrinotidl covoring rio the sums of the irrner l:uer of rlirtornsceous crrth rlt 21 lbs (ul)ic

silicllte rrt 1l lbs ruhit foot. The listc(l tl\i(,lincsscs r!n(l rvcislrts of

Ioot .rnd thc outcr la|er rt


11

hsu|rtion Noights irv.ludc r1lorvlrnccs for ivir{], (cmont. (1!n-

ll)s'(ul)i0 foot.

vrs, brnds url


sp(,(

prLint, but, not su frlco {inishos. To liud tho \\ c;ght of covcring ,rrr l1lLrrg' s, vrl!(s or fittirrgs,

ill

@ flr\
+<{
'
16 Ib cu.

Flanged Bonnet Globe or Angle

leig[i lrcl foot JI coverirrA uscd orr stlLlight l)il)c. |itlvu $1 i{lrts rlc rr)r,ro\i-ol,trin nrxto. \\'lrrn possil,lc,
fllugctl cnrl v:rlvcs; stccl Neights for lel<lins end vulvrs.
vlllve &n(l llllngc ryci'alrts il)(ludc thc prol)ortionrl \ycight of l)olts or studs to mrke up ull joir)ts.
n1'ights from thc nlxnulllcturcr. OlL\t, irorr vxlvc NoigLts urc for

rnLrltitlt tlrt $eielrt hrrtor l,r thc

rc

-\ll fitngcrl Iitting,

ilrrngcd

ft.

deDsity.

296

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

24" ptpB
\\'rll

24, o.D.

\YItIGIII'S OF PIPING IIATEITL\LS

Dcsigrr,rtiou

1,!J

f,.d

t-

{i} 1_'*,.1
14'1

t\

{G

/i\ -t Lr----t
\*t"J
'I-cnDer:lturc llcngc "F

i--t

Magnesia,

Norn. TLick., In.

Calcium Conrbine-

tiolr

FiberSodium

ffi
z
j

,t\pe tJpe benexth pounos, Lrgnlttce


lleight.

Boldfrre

is weight in
and

is $eight factor

for

+r[1$

\reights are based on average

Insulation thicknesses

N+S
l:N
/14 ,N

recommendction for specific of msterials. Insuletion $cights are b.rsed on 857, magncsia and hydrous calcium silicste rt 1l lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and \eiqhts of combination covering are the sums of the inner laver of diatomaceous certh at 2l lbs/cubic
thicknesscs

conditions &nd do not constituie

/>

ffi
3

.{ l,, D---S

ll lbs/cubic foot. Insulation *eights include al, loNMces 1ot wlre, cement, canspeciel surface finishes. To find the geieht of coverins on Banges, vrlvis or 6ttinss] muJtipll the rreight factor by the \aeiglrt.lrrr foot ol covering used on sLrsrght DlDe. \'Rlvt $ciehts rre annroxi-obtain mxtc. \\'hen- possiblc,

foot and the outer laver at

vas, bands and paint, but not

@ fi1

J-<t

rc

vxlve ar)d {lrngc seights include thc proporiiunxl \reight of bolts or sLuds to mekc up all ioints. * 16 lb cu. ft. deDity.

lor \reldrng end vslves. A)l flerrged tittins, 63nsed

\'eights from thi manuflcturer. Cast iron valve \icights :rre for frengcd end v:rlvcs, steeJ *eights

I
Appendix C: Properties of

pipe E7

W!]I(;I]TS OF PIPING MATERIALS

za"

o.o

26tt

prpt

fif
7
F

IL4J

u-r'

E=:l
F

{l}

,TI ri\ r-r--r

-4\"

u/
Celcirrm = irrltcate o
F A

Temperature Range
llagnesi.r

'F

tion

;r:r:::::
FiberSodium

ffi$
S{''l$ N-l-s
d\slN|]
z 3

t4
aglg

/'41

,N />

B,s Ht

canvas, bands and paint. but not special surface finishes. To find the weiqht of cover-

foot and the outer laver at i1 lbs/cubic foot. Insulation weiphts include allowances for w_ire, cement,

Insulation thicknesses and weights are based on average conditions and do not consaitute a recommendation for specific thicknesses of materials. Insulation weights ale based on 85% masnesia and hydrous calcium siiicate at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and weights of combination covering are the sums of the inner later of diatomaceous ealth it 21 lbs/cubic

ror lnsulalron.

Boldface tvDe is weisht in pounds. Lighiface typ"e beneath weight is weight factor

F<]

@ lll')
FqJ

+<f
*
16 lb cu.

weights from manufacturerCast iron valve weights are for flanged end valves: steel valve and flange welghts include.the prolo.rtiohal weight oI oorls or studs to make uD
densit\-.

covering used on straiqht Dipe. Valve weishts are aoorbiimate. When- possible. bbtain

ing on flanges, valves or fittor by the weight per foot of

tings, multiply the weight fac-

weights forweldinqendvalyes. All flanged fittlng, flanged

ft.

all joints.

298

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

28"

prpn

28" o.D.

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

ff
F

z
F

{i\ E::I
-4\.
t-t-! f---Fr

f^ w

&?

\iJ

Temperature Range "F


trIxgnesia

Cclcium Combina!ron Fiber


Sodium

&
EN
z
F F

ffi
A

Nis

weights are based on average conolllons and do not constltute a recommendation for specific thicknesses of matebased on 8570 masnesia and hydrous calcium silicat4 at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and weishts of combination coverind are the sums of the inner lafer of diatomaceous earth at 21 lbs/cubic

rot lnsulatron. Insulation thicknesses

Boldface type is weight in pounds. Lishtface tvDe beneath weigii is weighi'factor


and

rials. Insulation weiphts are

#
,N /9N
D',

foot and the outer laver at 11 lbs/cubic foot, Insulation weiehts include allowances for wlre, cement,
ing on flanges, v-alves or fittings, multiply the weight factor by the weight per foot of
canvas, bands and paint. but -6nishes. hot special surface To find the weisht of covei-

'il F-Jl

l"<3
ll

@
m
li
cu. ft. density.

+<i
l

rc

weightsforweldingend valves. All flansed fittins. flansed valve and-flanse wiiehts "include.the propo-!tional- wei ght ol Dolts or studs to make ur)

weights from manufacturer, Cast iron valve weishts are for flanged ehd valves; steel

covering used.on straight pipe. v arve welghts are approxtmat. When possible, obtain

16

all joints,

if,
Appendix C: Properties of

Pipre Ag "rpe

\ 'EIC I ITS ()F'PIPIN'; IIIATFIRTALS

Bo'o.D.

30"

45

u-r'
z

ii

lj:I

{i\

i .4\"

\tJ
-!----l
Temperature Range \Iagnesia
Calcium

'F

FiberSodirrm

ffi
z

Boldface ti,pe is weight in pounds. Lightface type beneath wight is weight factor
IOr lnsulailon.

sf,J$

Nl$
{f.,-::r:q} z
F

4l

,\
7

B,s

i;>t
\
ltl
.ll,

Insulation weights include allorvances for w-ire, cement, canvas, bands and paint, but not special surface ffnishes. To find the weight of covering on flanges, valves or fittings, multiply the weight faccovering used.on straight pipe. v alve werEhts are approxr-

nation covering are the sums of the inner layer of diatomaceous earth at 21 lbs/cubic foot and the outer layer. at 1l lbs/cubic foot-

based on 85i. maqn-sia and hydrous calcium siticate at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and weights of combi-

Insulation thicknesses and weights are based on average conditions and do not constitute a recommendation for specific thicknesses of matelials. Insulation vreights are

tor by the weight per foot of

u> /
@t
e$-+
* 16 lb cu. ft. density.

mate. When possible,;btain weights from manufacturer. Cast iron valve weights are for flanged end valves; steel valve anO nanqe werghts rnweights for weldingend valves. All flanged 6tting, flanged

clude,the proportionai- wei ght oI, oolEs or studs !o make up alI Joln!s.

300

Mechanical Design of process Systems

32"

prcn

82, o.D.

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

{!-r'
z
F

2 b

L-Li

{l\

I i)

f,t\ ri\

E:-:t

\tJ
Temperature Range
Magnesia Calcium Z Siliccte

.F

5 tion

UOmOrna-

FibrSodium

$fu
fs],m
qJt.rrr.:qs

ffi

Boldface type is weight in pounds, Lightface type beneath weight is weight factof weights are based on average conditions and do not constitute a recommendation fo! specifrc thicknesses of hate-

for insulation. Insulation thicknesses

and

rials. Insulation weights are based on 85% magnesia and


hydrous calcium silicat at

z
F tr

d
D' .f B_{i
9.4

/.4

AI

nation covering are the sums of the inner layr of diatomaceous earth 11 lbs/cubic foot.

lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and weights of combi-

11

at 21 lbs/cubic foot and the oute! layer at


allowances for wire, cement, canvas, bands and paint, but not special surface finishes, To find the weight of covering on flanges, valves or fittings, multiply the weight factor by the weighi per foot of

Insulation weights include

Fdl

@
D
lt
cu.

+<i
'
16

mate. When possible, obtain weights from manufacturer. Cast iron valve weights are for flanEed end valves; steel

covering used on straight pipe. Valve weiEhts are approxi-

rc

weights forweldingendvalves, All flanged -fi tting, flanged varve ano nange werEhts lnclude the proDortional weisht of bolts o; stjuds to make-up
density.

ft.

all joints.

!r
Appendix C: Properties of

Pipe

3Ol

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

84'o.D.

34"

prpt

z
F tr

z
F

b {T\
"t\ \IJ

TJ-/

//\" E_=_=iI

Temperature Range "F


Magnesia Calcium

FiberSodium

ffi
2 3

for insulation. Insulation thicknesses

Boldface type is weight in pounds. Lightface type beneath weight is weight factor
and

stits
Sql-s$

weights are based on average conditions and do not constitute a recommendation for specific thicknesses of mate-

rials. Insulation weights are based on 85% magnesia and


hydrous calcium silicat at

N
z
t
F

11

/AJ /14

.-al

nation coverine_ are the sums

lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and weiehts of combi-

AI

A
|i'a

of the inner laier of diatomaceous earth ai 21 lbs/cubic foot and the outer layer at 11 lbs/cubic foot. allowances

Insulation weights include

+.{
+<i
r
16 lb cu.

canvas, bands and paint, but not special surface finishes. To find the weight of covering on flanges, valves or frttings, multiply the weight fac-

for u'ire,

cement,

tor by the weight per foot of


covering used on straight pipe. Valve weights are approxi-

@ a

mata. When possible, obtain weights from manufacturer. Cast iron valve weights are for flanged end valves; steel

rc
ft.
deDsity.

weights lor weldingend valves. All flanged fitting, flanged

valve and flange weights include,the proportional weight oI Dolrs or stucts to make uD

all joints.

302

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

36tt

prpo

s6, o.D.

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

Water-Lbs/Ft

f.;

L.R.90' Elbow

{t/ /\ I tt
{} dJ
L_r-!

tr

; 44"

\tJ
Temperature Range "F

Ilrgnesir
z
F

Crlcilrm.

J Com !ton
z

FiberSodirm

ffi
6{-,l$

IOr lnsulatron_ Insulation thicknesses and

Boldface type is weight in pounds. Lightface type beneath weight is weight factor

N*S
$:T,\1I

conditions and do not constirecommendation for specific thicknesses of mate-

.,r,eights are based on average

tute a

.4 /.4
F

/.--tl

,\
z

hyd.ous calcium silicate at 11 ibs/cubic foot.The listed thicknesses and weights of combination covering are the sums of the inner layer of diatomaceous earth at 21 lbs/cubic foot and the outer layer at 11 lbslcubic foot, allowances

rials. Insulation weights are based on 85% rnagnisia and

ll' 'rl F--+l

Fd3

ing on flanges, valves or fittings, multiply the weight factor by the weight per foot of
mate. When possible, obtain weights from manufacturer. Cast iron valve weiqhts are
weights forweldingend valves. All flanged fitting, flanged valve ano nange werghts rnclude the proportional weieht of. bolts oi siuds to make'up
coveri ng used.on straight pipe. v arve wergnrs are approxl-

canvas, bands and paint, but not special surface finishes. To find the weight of covet-

Insulation weights include for wire, cement,

F{]

fi^l

+<l
FsO

for flanged end valveis;

steel

all lolnls.

304

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Alphabetical Conversion Factors


TO CONVERT
I

NTO

MULTIPLY 8Y
2.998 x l0'o

TO COI{VERT

ll{T0
Sran-cal/sec watts toot-lbs/sec
hoasepower

MULTIPLY BY 0.0700
3.929 x 10-. 0.2931 12.96 0.02356

Abcoulomb Acre acres acres acres acre-feet

Statcoulombs Sq. chajn (Gunters)


Rods

t0

Square links (Gunters)

160

Btu/hr Btu/hr Btu/hr Btu/min

horsepoweahrs

acre'feet amperes/sq amperes/5q amperes/sq ampetes/sq amperes/sq amperes/sq

sq. hectometer sq feet sq meters sq mrles sq yards cu feet ga ons


cm cm
In.
rn.

Hectaae or

lx1O5
.4047 43,560.0
4,O47. 1.562 x

8tu/min
Btu/min
Btu/man

kilowatts
watts

0.01757
17.57

Btu/sq ft/min

4,840,
43,560.0 3.259 x 6.452

l0 '
105

Bucket (Br. dry)


bushels bushels bushels bushels bushels bushels bushels

watts/sq in. Cubic Cm.


cu

o.t22l

ft

meter

amps/sq amps/sq amps/sq amps/sq amps/sq

In.

cu in. cu meters liters


pecks

1.818 x 10 1.2445

2,t50.4
0.03524
35.24

cfi

meter

l0l

0.1550
1,550.0 6.452 x 10 3,500.0 0.03731 1.257

pints (dry) quarts (dry)

4.0
64.0 32.0

mete.

meter cm anps/sq in.

10.

.
Calories, gram (mean) Candle/sq. cm 8.T.U. (mean) Lambeds Lamberts sq meters Fahrenheit grams 3.9685 x

ampere,hours arnpere-hours ampere-turns

coutonbs
faradays grlberts amp-turns/ In.

10-:

ampere-turns/cm ampere-turns/cm ampere-turns/cm ampere.turns/in.


ampere-turns/ In,

amp{urns/meter amp-turns/cm amp-turns/meter grlberts/cm


Salberts/cm

2.540
100.0

Candle/sq. inch centares (centiares)


Centigrade centigrams

3.142 .4470

t.257
0.3937
39.37

(C'x9/5)+32
0.01 .3382

1.0

ampere-lurns/tn, ampere-turns/metet ampere-turns/meter ampete-tufns/metel Angstrom unit Angstrom unit


Angstrom unit ates ares

amp/Iurns/cm amp{urns/in. gilberts/cm


tncn Meter Micron or {Mu)

0.4950
0.01

Centiliter Centiliter Centiliter

ounce ftuid (US) Cubic inch


drams

o.0244
0.o1257

centiliters
centimeters centimetels
centrmeters

liters
feet inches kilometers meters

.6103 2.705

0.0r
3.281 x

3937 x 10-' I x l0-r'

10-'

0.3937
100.01
5

Acre (US)
sq. yards
acreS

1x 10-.

.0247

centimeters centimeters
centameters

119,60

o.02471
100.0 1.495 x
76.O

Astronomical Unit
Atmospheres atmospneres atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres almospheres almospheres atmospheres

sq meters Kilometers

centimeters centimetels
centimeteFdynes centimeteFdynes centimeter-dynes centimeter-grams

miles millimeters m ils


yards

6,214 x LO-r 10.0

Ton/sq. inch cms of mercury ft of water (at 4"C) in. of mercury (at 0.C)
xgs/ sq cm

10

cm-8rans cfi-dynes
meter-kgs Pound-feet

.007348 33.90
29.92 1.0333 10,332. 14.70 1.058

l-094 x 10-I 1.020 x l0-' 1.020 x 10-. 7.376 x 10 |


980.7
10 -5

centimetergrams
centrmeter-gfams centjmeters of mercury centrmeters of mercury centimeters of mercury centimeters of rnercury centimeters of mercury centameters/s?c

meter-kgs

pound{eet
atmospneres feet of water kgs/sq meter

kgs/sq meter tons/sq ft


B

7.233 x 0.4461 136.0

l0-5

Pounds/sq in.

0.01316

pounds/sq ft

Barrels (U.S., dry) Earrels (U,S., dry) Barrels (U.S., liquid)

cu, Inches quarts (dry)

7056.
105.0
42.O

barrels (ojl)
oars

ga

ons

gallons (oil)
atmospheres oynes/sq cm kgs/sq meter

bars
Dars

0.9869
106

bars
bars

Batyl

Eolt {US Cloth)


BTU

pounds/sq ft pounds/sq in. Dyne/sq. cm.


Meters

1.020 x 10. 2,089, 14.50 1.000 10.409 1.0550 x 10'o 77a.3 3.931 x 1,054.8

centimeterc/sec centimeters/sec centimeters/sec centimeterc/sec centimeters/sec centimeters/sec centimeterc/sec/sec centimeters/sec/sec centimeters/sec/sec centimeters/sec/sec
Chain Chain Chains (surveyors' or Gunter's)

teet/min leet/sec kilometels/hr


knots

Pounds/sq in.

0.1934
1.1969 0.03281 0.036

meters/min
m

0.1943 o.02237
3.728 x 10-. 0.03281

iles/hr

fiiles/min
feet/sec/sec

kms/hrlsec
meters/sec/sec

0.036
0.01

miles/hrlsec
Inches meters yards sq cms sq mils Radians sq inches

o.02237
792.0O

8tu 8tu
Btu

Liter-Atmosphere
ergs

20.12
22.OO

loot-lbs joules
gram-caiones hofsepower-hrs

btu
Btu

10 |

circular mils circular mils


Circumference

5.057 x 0.7854 7.854 x

l0-.
10-'

8tu
Btu Btu
Btu

/hr

krlogram,calories xrogram-rheters krlowatt-hrs foot-pounds/sec

o.2520 r07.5
2,928 x

circular mils
Cords

lO-.

o.2162

Cord feet Coulomb coulombs

cord feet cu. feet


Statcoulombs laradays

8
2.998 x 10 1.036 x 10-!

L
Appendix D: Conversion Factors
305

(Continued). Alphabetical Conversion Factors


TO CONVERT coulomb9/sq cm coulombs/sq cm coulombs/sq in. coulombs/sq in. coulombs/sq meter coulombs/sq meter cubic centimeters cubic centimete6 cubac centimeters cubic centimeteas cubic centimeters cubic centimeters cubic centimeters cubic cent;meters cubic leet cubic feet

INTO
coulombs/sq coulombs/sq coulombs/sq coulombs/sq coulofibs/sq coulombs/sq
cu feet cu Incnes in. meter cm meter crh in.

MUI.TIPLY BY

101

0.1550 6.452 x 10-' 3.531 x 10 5 0.06102 10-6 1.308 x 10-. 2.642 x 10-. 0.001 2.113 x 10-l 1.057 x 10-' 0.8036

10-.

cu mete6
cu yards gallons (U. S. liq.)

liters pints (U.S. tiq.) quats (U.S. liq.)


bushels (dry) cu cms cu inches cu meters cu yards gallons (u.S. liq.) quarts (U.S. liq.)

CONVERT degrees/sec degrees/sec degrees/sec dekagrafis dekaliters dekameters Drams (apothecaries' or troy) Drams (apothecaries' or troy) Drams (U.S., fluid or apoth.)
TO
olams drams drams Dyne/cm

INTO

MULTIPLY BY
0.01745 0.1667 2.778 x LO .
10.0

radians/sec revolutions/min revolutions/sec


gGms

liters
metets ounces {avoidupois} ounces (troy)

10.0
10.0

0.r371429
0.125 1.7718 27.3437 0.0625
.01

cubic cfi. grafis


grains ounces

cubic feet cubic leet


cubic cubic cubic cubic cubic teet feet feet feet feet

-24320.O |,728.O
0.02832 0.03704 7.44052

Erglsq. millimete.
Inch of lVercury at 0'C Inch of Water at 4'C grams

oyne/sq. cm. Dyne/sq. cm.


Dyne/sq. cm. dynes
oynes dynes

liters pints (U.S. liq.)

2432
59.84 29.92

joules/cm joules/meter (newtons)


kilograms
poun0a t5

9.869 x 10-' 5 2.953 x . 4.015 x 1.020 x 10-r

l0 l0 l0-'
l05

cubic feet/min cubic teet/min cubic teet/min cubic feet/min cubic feet/sec
cubic feet/sec

cubic inches cubic inches cubic inches cubic inches cublc inches cubic inches cubic inches cubic inches cubic inches cubic meters
cuDrc meters cubic meters cubic meters cubic meters cubic rneterc cubac meters cubac meters cuorc meters cubic yards

cu cns/sec gallons/sec liters/sec pounds of water/min million gals/day Sallons/min


cu cms cu feet cu metets cu yards gallons

472.0
o.1247

dynes dynes
dynes

pounds

0.4720
62.43 0.646317 448.831 5.787 x l0-. 1.639 x 10-s 2.I43 x 10-5 4.329 x t0-3 0.01639 1,061 x 105 0.03463

oynes/sq

cfi

1.020 x 10-. 7.233 x 10-, 2.248 x lO 6


10_6

oars

Etl Erl

Em, Pica
erg5 erg5 ergs ergs ergs

um. tncnes tncn um,


Dyne

114,30

45 .4233 cm/sec
1.000 9.480 x 10-r' 1.0 7.367 x 10-i 0.2389 x 10-' 1.020 x 10-: 3.7250 x 10-la 10 r 2.389 x l0 -rr 1.020 x 10 | 0.2778 x 10 -'o 5,688 x 10 ' 4.427 x lO-6 7.3756 x l0-l 1.341 x l0-ro 1.433 x 10 -, 10- r0

lite.s
mal-feet pints {U.S. tiq.) quarts tU.S. liq.) bushels (dry)

Btu dyne-centrmeters

o.ot132
28.38
106

foofpounds
gram.cmS

cu cms cu feet cu inches cu yards eallons (U.S. liq.)


laters

35.31 61,023.0 1.308 264.2

horsepower-hrs loules kg-calories kg-meters

pints (U.S. liq.) quarts (U.S. liq.)


cu cms cu feet cu inches cu meters Sallons (U.S. ljq.)

r,000.0
2,113.0

ergs ergs
105

kilowatlhrs
watt'houts

O.2J78x IO tt

r,057.
7.646 x
27.O

Btu/min ft-lbs/min
ft-lbs/sec
horsepo\der

cuFic yards cuorc yatos cubic yards


cuDrc yards

46,656.0

o.7646
202.O

kg-calories/min kilowatts

liters pints (U.S. liq.) cubic ftlsec gallon5/sec lrters/sec

cubic yards/min
cubic yards/min cubic yards/min

quarts (U.S. ljq.)

764.6 1,615.9 807.9 0.45 3.367 12.7 4

farads Faraday/sec faradays faradays Fathom fathoms

mrcrofarads Ampere (absolute) ampere-hours


coulombS Nleter

106

feet

0 Dalton
days Gram

leet
1.650 x 1.0-r. 86,400.0
0.1 0.1 0.1

centimeters
krlometers meters mrles (naut,) miles (stat.)

decrgrams

seconds grams

deciliters
oecrmeters degrees (angte) degrees (angte) degrees (angle)

Irers
meterS

{eet feet feet feet feet

qua0ranr5
raclrans Seconos

0.01r1t
0.01745 3,600.0

teet feet of water feet of water feet of water

millimeters m ils
armospneres rn, of mercury

9.6500 x lcr. 26.80 9.649 x lcr. 1.828804 6.0 30.48 3.048 x l0-r 0.3048 1.645 x 10-. 1.894 x 10 . 304.8 1.2 x I Cl. 0.02950 0.8826

kgs/sq cm

0.03048

306

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

(Continued). Alphabetical Conversion Factors


TO CONVERT
feet of water feet of water feet of water
I

r'lT0

MULTIPLY BY
304.8 62.43 0.4335

TO CONVERT
g.ains grains grains grains
{troy) (troy) (troy) (troy) grains/l.J.S. gal Srains/U.S. gal graans/ lmp. gal
Srarns

INTO
grains (avdp) grams ounces {avdp) pennyweight (troy)

MULTIPLY gY
1.0

kgs/sq meter pounds/sq ft cms/sec feet/sec

leet/nin
feet/min teet/min
feet/ rn in feet/ rnin

poLrnds/sq in.

0.06480
2.0833 x 10-1

0.5080
0.01667 0.01829 0.3048 0.01136 30.48 1.097 0.5921
14.29

kms/hr
meters/min

parts/million
pounds/million gal

0.04167
17.118 142.86

miles/hr
cms/sec

parts/million
dynes grains

14.286

feet/sec feet/sec teet/sec feet/sec feet/sec leet/sec

kms/hr
knot5

grams grams
Srams Srams Srarns

meters/min

leet/sec/sec
feet/sec/sec feet/sec/sec feet/sec/sec feet/ 100 feet
Foot

miles/hr miles/min
cms/sec/sec

0.6818 0.01136 30.48


1.097

grams grams
Srams Srams

kms/hrlsec
meters/sec/sec

miles/hrlsec
per cent graoe Lumen/sq. meter Btu
ergs

0.3048 0.6818
1.0

candle

10.764

foofpounds
foot-pounds

r.286 x 10 l
107

grarns/cm grams/cu cm grams/cu cm grams/cu cm


grams/ liter
Srams/

foofpounds
foot.pounds foot-pounds

gram-calories np-nrs joules


Kg-ca{ones

1.356 x 0.3238 5.050 x

l0 '

liter

grams/ liter

grarns/liter
grams/sq cm gram'calofle5 Sram-catofles gram-calories gram-catofle5 gram-calones

foo!pounds
foot'pounds/ min foot-pounds/ min

kg-meters kilovr'att-hrs

Btu/min
foot-pounds/sec kg-calories/ min

toot-pounds/min

toofpounds/min
foot-pounds/man

kilowatts

3.24 x 10-. 0.1383 3.766 x 10 , 1.286 x 10 ! 0.01667 3.030 x 10 -' 3,24 x 10 . 2.260 x lO- 5 o.o7717 1.818 x 10-' 0.01945 r.356 x 10-' 0.125 40.0 660.0

980.7 15.43 joules/cm 9.807 x 10-! joules/rneter (newtons) 9.807 x 10-r kilograms 0.001 milligrams 1,000. ounces (avdp) o.03527 ouhces (troy) 0.03215 poundals 0.07093 pounds 2.205 x 10-r pounds/inch 5.600 x 10-l pounds/cu ft 62.43 pounds/cu in 0.03613 pounds/mil-foot 3.405 x 10-' graans/gal 58.417 pounds/ gal 8.345 pounds/cu ft 0.062427 parts/mallaon 1,000.0

pounds/sq tt

2.0481
3.9683 x 4.1868 x

8tu
ergS

10-!

l0'

foot-pounds horsepower-hrs

3.0880
1.5596 x 1.1630 x 1.1630 x

10 .

gram-calo es gmm-calories/sec
gram-centimeters gram-centimeters gram-centimeters gram-centimeters gram-centimeters

kilowatt-hrs
watt-hrs

l0-.
l0-3

foot-pounds/sec foot.pounds/sec foot-pounds/sec {oot-pounds/sec foot-pounds/sec


Furlongs

8tu/hr
Btu/min
horsepower kg'calories/man

Btu/hr
Btu
ergs

kilowatts miles (U.S.)


rods

joules kg-cal kg-meters

9.297 x 10 . 980.7 9.807 x l0-! 2.343 x 10-r

t4.2a6

l0

-5

furlongs turlongs

feet

Hand

Cm.

10.16
2.47

gallons Sallons Salrons gallons Sallons gallons gallons (liq. Br. Imp.)

cu cms cu feet cu inches cu meters cu yards

3,785.0

0.1337
231.0 3.785 x 10-' 4.951 x 10-1 3.785 1.20095 0.83267 8.3453 2.228 x lO- I

necrares hectares hectograms

sq feet grams

1,076 x 10' 100.0

hectoliters
hectometers hectowatts hennes Hogsheads {British) Hogsheads (U.S.) Hogsheads (U.S.) horsepower
ho15epower

liters
meters watts

r00.0
100.0 100.0 1,000.0 10.114

liters
gallons (U.S. !iq.) gallons (lmp.) pounds oJ water cu ft/sec

gallons (U.S.) gallons of water


gallons
/m

mrllihenries cubic ft. cubic ft.


Sallons (U,S.)

8.42184 4?.44
33,000. 550.0

in

Bt!/min

gallons/min
gallons / m in gausses gausses gausses gausses

liters/sec cu ftlhr lines/sq in.


weoers/sq cm webers/sq in. webers/sq meter ampere-turns

0.06308
8.0208

6.452 10 |
6.452 x

10-l

10-.
0.7958

gilberts

gilberts/cm gilberts/cm gilberts/cm


Gills (Britash)

amp-turns/cm

amp{urns/jn
amp{urns/meter cubrc cm. liters pints (liq.)
Radian

0.7958 2.021
79.58

gills gills

t4?.07 0.1183
0.25

Grade

Gins

drams (avoirdupois)

.0t571 0.035s7143

horsepower horsepower (metric) (542.5 ft lb/sec) horsepower (550 ft lb/sec) horsepower horsepower horsepower horsepower (boiler) horsepower {boiler) norsepower-nrs norsepower-nts norsepower-nrs horsepower-hrs norsepower-hrs

foot'lbs/ min foot-lbs/sec


horsepower (550 ft lb/sec) horsepower (metric) (542.5 ft lb/sec)

0.9863
1.014 10.68 0.7 457
7

kg-calories/min kilowatts
watts Btu
ergs

45.7

Bt!/hr

kilowatts loot-lbs
gram-calories

33.479 9.803

2,547.
2.6845 x 10r' 1.98 x 1Cl' 641,190. 2,684 x 10.

joules

1|

Appendix D: Conversion

Factors T7

(Continued). Alphabetical Conversion Factors


TO CONVERT
horsepower-hls horsepowet-nls horsepower-hrs hours houls Hund.edvreiShts (long) Hundredweights (long) Hundredwei ghts (short) Hundredweights (short) Hundredweights (short) Hundredweights (short) t1{T0 kg.calories kg-meters

i,ULTIPLY BY
641.1 2.737 x LA o.7457 4.167 x 10-t 5.952 x 10-t 112 0.05 1600 100 0.0453592

TO CONVERT kilograms/sq cm
kalograms/sq cm kilograms/sq cm

INTO

MULTIPLY 8Y

kilowatt-hrs
days

pounds tons (long) ounces (avoirdupois) pounds

tons (metric) tons (long)


I

kilograms/sq kilograms/sq kilograms/sq kilograms/sq kilograms/sq kilograms/sq kilograms/sq

heter
meter

meter meter

0.0446429

meter rneter mm kilogram-calories kilogram-calories kilogram-calories kilogram-calories

inches inches inches inches inches inches


anches of mercury

centimeters
meters

2.540
2.540 x 1.578 x 25.40

kilogram.calories

miles millimeters mtls

10-r 10-,

I,000.0

inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches

ol mercury
of of of of

mercury mercury mercury mercury of water (at 4'C) ot wate. (at 4'C) of water (at 4'C) of water (at 4'C) oI water (at 4'C) of water (at 4'C) lnternational Ampere International Volt

yards atmospneres feet of water kgs/sq cm kgs/sq meter

pounds/sq ft pounds/sq in.


almospneres inches of mercury Kgs/sq cm

2.778 x lo-1 0.03342 1.133 0.03453 345.3 70.73

kilogram-calories kilogram-calories kalogram meters kiiogram meters kilogram meters kilogram meters kilogram meters kilogram meters

o.4912 2.458 x 10 I 0.07355


2.540 x 10-1 0.5781

ounces/sq In. pounds/sq ft pounds/sq in.


Ampere (absolute) Volts (absolute) Joules (absolute)
JOUIeS

kilolines kiloliters kilometers kilometers kilometers kilometers


kilometers kilometers kilometers

5.204 0.03613 .9998


1.0003 1-593 x 109.554 x 10'

lnternational volt lnternational volt

"

)
joules joules joules joules ioules iouies/cm joules/cm joules/cm
joules/'cm
JOules

joules/cm

Btu ergs foot-pounds kg-calories kg-meters watGhrs grams dynes joules/meter(newtons) poundals pounds
K

9.480 x
107

10-'

2,778 x lO-' 1.020 x 10. 10t 100.0 723.3 22,44

0.7376 2.389 x 0.1020

l0-'

kilograms kilograms kilograms kilograms kilograms kilograms kilograms kilograms

kjlograms/cu meter kilograms/cu meter kilog.ams/cu meter kilograms/cu meter kilograms/meter


KaloSram/sq. cm, kilograms/sq cm kilograms/sq cm

dynes 980,665. grams 1,000.0 joules/cm 0.09807 joules/meter(newtons) 9.8Q7 poundals 70.93 pounds 2,205 9.842 x 10-l tons (long) tons (short) 1.102 x !0 ' grams/cu cm 0.001 pounds/cu ft 0.06243 pounds/cu in. 3.613 x l0-' pounds/mil-foot 3.405 x l0-'o pounds/ft 0.6720 980,665 Dynes 0.9678 atmospheres 32.81 leet of water

kilometers/hr kilometers/hr kilometers/hr kilometers/hr kilometers/hr kilometers/hr kilometers/hr/sec kilometerc/hr/sec kilometers/hrlsec kilometers/hr/sec kilowatts kilowatts kilowatts kilowatts kilowatts kilowatts kilowatt'hrs kilowatt-hrs kilowatt-hrs kilowatt-hrs kilowatt-hrs kilowatt-hrs kilowatt-hrs kilowatt-hrs kilowatt-hrs kilowatt-hrs
knots
t(hots

mercury 24.96 ft 2,048. in. 14.22 atmospheres 9.678 x l0-' bars 98.07 x 10 ' feet ot water 3.281 t 10 2.896 x 10-1 inches of mercury pounds/sq ft 0.2048 pounds/sq in. 1.422 x 10 t kgs/sq meter lcl' Btu 3.968 foot-pounds 3,088. hp-hrs 1.560 x l0 I joules 4,185. kg-meters 426.9 kiiojoules 4.186 kilowatt-hrs 1.163 x 10-' Btu 9.294 x l0 I ergs 9.804 x 10t foot-pounds 7,233 joules 9.804 kg-calories 2.342 x 1O-' kilowatt.hrs 2,723 x lO'. maxwells 1,000.0 liters 1,000.0 centimeters lot feet 3,281, inches 3.937 x 1Cl. meters 1,000.0 miles 0,62f 4 millimeters lO yards 1,094. cms/sec 27.74 feet/min 54.68 feet/sec 0.9113 knots 0.5396 merets/ fltn lt.t / miles/hr 0.6214 cms/ sec/ sec zl,Ia ft/sec/sec 0.9113 meters/sec/sec 0.2718 mifes/hrlsec 0.6214 Btu/min 55.92 foot-lbs/min 4,426 x W foot-lbs/sec 737.6 horsepower 1.341 kg-calo.ies/min 14.34 watts 1,000,0 Btu 3,413. ergs 3.600 x 10rt footlbs 2.655 x 106 gram-calories 859,850. horsepower-hrs 1.341 joules 3.6 x lcl. kg-calories 860.5 kg-meters 3.671 x lot
inches of

pounds/sq pounds/sq

xnols
knots

at212'F. 3.53 tuon62'to272'F. 22.75 teet/hr 6,080. kilometers/hr 1.8532 1.0 nautical miles/hr statute miles/hr 1.151
pounds of water raised

pounds of water evaporated from and

308

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

(Continued). Alphabetical Conversion Factors


TO CONVERT
knots
KNOIS

INTO
Yards

MULTIPLY 2,027.
1.689

8Y
m

TO CONVERT
microhms ohms

INTO

MULTIPLY BY

lhl
L

feet/sec
miles (approx.) Miles Kilometers
8aus5e5 Sausses

icroliteIs
(naut.) (naut,) (naut.) (naut.) (statute) (statute)

liters
meters

Microns

miles (naut.)

feet
kilometers
meteas

10-. 10-. 1x 10-.


6,080.27 1,853.

Ljght year lines/sq cm lines/sq an. lines/sq in.


lanes/sq in. lines/sq in. links {engineer's)

league Light year

9.46091 x 101!
1.0

3.0 5.9 x l.0r:

0.1550
1.550 x 10-r

miles miles miles miles miles


males

miles (statute) yaros

l.l.516
2,027. 1,609 x 6.336 x

webers/sq in.
webers/sq meter tncnes Inches bushels (U.S, dry) cu cm cu feet cu inches cu meters cu yards gallons (U.S. liq.)

l0-l

centimeters feet
Inches kilometerc

l0'
10

1,550 x
12.O

10-'

links (surveyor's) liters


lrterS

Iiters liters liters


Ite15

7.92 0.02838 1,000.0 0.03531

miles miles miles miles miles

{statute)
(statute) (statute) (statute) (statute)

r.509
r,609. 0.8684
1,760. 44.70 88. 1.467

metels
males (naut.)

yaros

6r.02
0.001 1.308 x

l0-!

liters
lrters

o.2642
1.057 5.886 x 10-' 4.403 x r0 ' 1.0

pints {U.S. liq.)


quarts (U.S. cu ftlsec
laq.)

liters

liters/min liters/rhin
Lumen Lumen

gals/sec
foot-candles Spherical candle power Watt Lumon/sq. meter

lumens/sq ft Lumen/sq. ft.

miles/hr miles/hr miles/hr miles/hr miles/hr miles/hr m iles/hr miles/hr miles/hr/sec miles/hr/sec rniles/hrlsec
males/hr/sec niles/ min
miles/
m

cms/sec

teet/min
feet/sec

kms/ht
kms/min
knots

l.609
o.o26a2

0.8584
26.42 44.70 1.467 1.609

rfieters/min

miles/min
c|hs/sec/sec feet/sec/sec

kms/hrlsec
meters/sec/sec cms/5ec teet/sec kms/min
knots /rn in

.079s8 .001496
10.76

0.4470 2,642.
88. 1.609

in

lur

foot'candles
M

0.0929

miles/min miles/min miles/min


mil-feet milliers Millim;crons Milligrams milligrams

0.8684
60.0 9.425 x 1,000. 0.001 1.0 0.001 0.001
0.1

miles/hr
cu inches
kilograms meters gra ins
Srams

10-.

kilolines
megarnes megohns
megohms

0.001
1C|'

l0-.
10r'

1x 10-t
0.01543236

mrcrohms ohms

1oi
100.0 3.281 0.001 5.396 x 6.214 x

nilligrams/liter
millihenries

parts/million
henraes

rneters meters meters meters meters meters meters meters meters

centimeters feet
tnches kilometers miles {naut.} miles (stat.)

millilite|s
millimeters millimeters

liters centimeters leet


inches kilometers me(ers
m m

10-' 10-'

millimete6
millimeterc millimeters millimeters millimeters millirneters million Sals/day m ils

3.281 x

10-t

0.03937

l0-.

millimeters
yards
varas

r,000.0
1.094 1.179

rles

0.001 6.214 x 1.094 x

10-'
10-!

meters/min mbterc/min meters/min


meters/man meters/man

cms/sec

teet/min
teet/sec kms/hr
knots males/hr
feet / min

3.28r
0.05458 0.06 0.03238 0.03728 196.8 3.281 3.6 0.06 0.03728 100.0 2.237 9.807 x
105

rls yards cu ttlsec

lnils
rTr

centimeters feet
IncneS

tls

meters/min melers/sec

mils

mils
miner's inches
Manims (U.S,,

fieters/sec
meters/sec meters/sec
me(ers/5ec

feet/sec kilometers/hr kilometers/min


miles/ hr

Minims (British)

fluid)

melers/sec meters/sec/sec meters/sec/sec meters/sec/sec metrs/sec/sec


meteFkilograms

miles/min
cms/sec/sec ft/sec /sec

kms/hrlsec miles/hr/sec
cmdynes
cm-8lams pound-feet farads
Srams meEonms

meterkilograms meterkilograms
mrcrotarad micrograms mtcronms

1CP

(angles) (angles) (angles) {angles) myr;agrams mytrameters mynawattS

kilometers yaros cu ft/min cuDtc cm. cubtc cm.


deSrees

2.540 x 10-' 8.333 x 10-! 0.001 2.540 x 10-3

1.54723

2.778x 1O-,
1.f,

minutes minutes minutes minutes

0.059192 0.061612 0.01667


1.852 x 2.909 x 60.0 10.0 10.0 10.0

quaorants radians seconds kilograms kalometers kilo,,ratts


N

10-.

l0-r

l0-.
nepers Newton
Dynes

decibels

1x105

Appendix D: Conlersion Factors

309

(Continued). Alphabetical Conversion Factors


TO CONVERT
0
OHlvl (lnternational) ohms ohms ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces
ounceS
OHIVI (absolute)

MULTIPLY

BY

TO

CONVERT

INTO

MULTIPLY 8Y

1.0005

megohms

10-,
10. 16.0

ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces

(fluid) (fluid)

mrcrohms drams grains grams pounds ounces (troy) tons (long) tons (metricJ cu inches

2a349527 0.0625 0.9115 2.790 x l0-5 2.835 x 10 5


1.805 o.02957

pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds

(troy) (troy) (troy) (troy) (troy) (troy) (troy) pounds of water pounds of water pounds of water pounds of water/man pound-feet

ounces {avdp.) ounces (troy) pennyweights {troy) pounds (avdp.) tons {long) tons (metric) tons (shoft) cu feet cu Inches
ga

12.0 240.0 0.a22457 3.6735 x 10-r 4.1143 x 10 0.01602 27.64 0.1 198 2.670 x 10-r 1.356 x 10' 13,825.

3.7324x 1o-'

'

Ions

liters
grains grams ounces (avdp.) pennyweights (troy) pounds (troy)

pound{eet pounds/cu pounds/cu pounds/cu pounds/cu pounds/cu pounds/cu pounds/cu pounds/cu pounds/ft
pounds/ in.

(troy) (troy) {troy) (troy) (troy) Ounce/sq. inch

480.0
31.103481 1.09714 20.0 0.08333

cu ltlsec cm-dynes cm-grams meter-kgs

0.1383
0.01602

ft tt

ft

grams/cu cm kgs/cu meter poun0s/cu rn,

t6.02
5.787 x 5.455 x 2.768 x 1,724. 9.425 x 1.488
178.6

10-'

ft
an.

pounds/mil{oot
gms/c(1 cm

10-'

ounces/sq rn.

0ynes/sq. cm. pounds/sq in.


P

4309 0.0625

in. in. in.

kgs/cu meter pounds/cu ft kgs/meter gms/cm gms/cu cm

l0'
10
6

pounds/mil{oot

Parsec Patsec

parts/million
parts/mill,on

Miles Kilometers grains/U.S. gal grains/lmp. gal

19 x 10u 3.084 x 10rr

0.0584
0.07016 8.345 554.6 9.091901

parts/million
Pecks (British) Pecks (Britash) Pecks (U.S.) Pecks (U.S.) Pecks (U.S.) Pecks (U.S.) pennyweights {troy} pennyweights {troy) pennyweights (troy) pennyweights {troy) pints (dry) pints (liq.) pints (liq.)

pounds/million gal

cubic inches
liters
bushels cubic inches

liters quarts (dry)


graans

8.809582 8
24.O

pounds/mil-foot pounds/sq ft pounds/sq ft pounds/sq ft pounds/sq ft pounds/sq ft pounds/sq rn. pounds/sq in. pounds/sq in. pounos/sq In. pounds/sq in.

almospneres feet of water inches of mercury kgs/sq rneter pounds/sq in. atmospheres inches ot mercury kgs/sq meter

2.306 x 1Cr6 4.725 x lO-' 0.01602 0.01414

4.882
6.944 x 2.307 2.036
703.1

10-!

0.06804

pounds/sq ft

144.0

ounces (troy) grams pounds (troy)

0.05 4.1667 x 10-r 413.2 0.01671 24.47 4.732 x 10-' 6.189 x 10-' 0.125 quadrants (angle) quadrants {angle) quadrants (angle) quadrants (angle) quarts (dry) quarts (1,q.) quarts (liq.) quarts (laq.) quarts (liq.) quarts (liq.) quarts (liq.) quarts (liq.)
deg/ees

o
minutes
rad ra ns

cu rnches
cu cms. cu feet cu inches

90.0 5,400.0

pints (liq.) pints (liq.) pints (liq,) pints (liq.) pints (liq.) pints (liq.)
Planck's quanturn

1.57I
3.24 x 105 67.20 946.4 0.03342 9.464 x 1.238 x o.25 0.9463

cu mererS
cu yards ga||ons

seconds

cu Inches
cu cms cu feet

liters
quarts (liq.)
second Gram/cm. sec. Erg

o.4732
0.5 6.624 x 10-11 1.00 14.5833

cu rnches
cu rneters cu yards

rotse
Pounds (avoirdupois) poundats p0unoals pounoars pounoats poundats pounoars pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds (troy) pounds (troy)

l0-.

10-!

ounces (troy) dynes grams

t3,826.
14.10 1.383 x 10-1 0.1383 0.01410 0.03108 44.4823 x 7,000. 0.04448

8aIons liters

joules/cm joules/meter (newtons)


kilograms pounds drams
dynes

.ad ians

degrees

lcl'

radtans radians radians

mrnutes quaoran(5 seconds

3,438.

0.6366
2.063 x 9.549 0.1592 573.0 9.549
105

grains grams

joules/cm joules/meter (newtons)


krlograms ounces ounces {troy) pounoars pounds (t.oy) tons (short)
grarns grams

4.448
0.4536 16.0 14.5833

radians/sec radians/sec radians/sec radians/sec/sec


rao rans / sec/ sec

revol!tions/min
revolutions/sec revs/min/rnin revs/min/sec
revs/sec /sec quadranls radtans oegrees/ sec

radians/sec/sec
revolutions

0.1592
360.0 4.0

32.t7
1.21528 0.0005

revoru!ons
tevolr.rtions

6.2a3
6.0 0.1047 0.01667

5,760.
373.24177

revolutions/min revolut,ons/min revolutions/min

dians/sec
tevs/sec

310

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

(Continued). Alphabeticel Conversion Factors IO


CONVERT INTO

MULTIPLY BY
1.745 x 0.01667

TO CONVERT
square square square square square square square square square

INTO

MULTIPLY 8Y
6.452 x
10 -6

revolutions/rhin/min revolutions/min/min avolutions/min/min revolut'ons/sec revolutrons/sec revolutions/sec revolutions/sec/sec revolutions/sec/sec revolutions/sec/sec


KOO

radians/sec/sec revs/min/sec revs/sec/sec


oegrees/ sec

l0

mils
mrls yards yaros yards yards yards yards yards sq inches actes
sq

10-'

2.778x lO-.
360.0
6.283 60.0 3,600.0 60.0 5,029
16.5

cfis

radians/sec
revs/mrn radians/sec /sec

2.066 x 10-a 8,361. 9.0 0.8361

sq inches sq meters
sq males

revs/min/min
revs/min/sec Chain (Gunters) feet
grains minutes quadrants radrans Kilogram
Pounds

sq millimeters

3224 x 1O-, 8.361x 10'

Rod I\reters Rods (Surveyors' meas-) yaros

rcds

T temperature

Scruples seconds (angle) seconds (angle) seconds (angle) seconds (angle) Slug Slug Sphere square centimeters square centimeters square centimeters square centtmeters square centimeters square cenrmelers square centameters square feet square feet square feet square feet square feet square square square square square square square square square 5quare square square square square square square square square square square

20
2.778 x 10-. 0.01667 3.087 x 10-. 4.848 x 10-6 14.59 32.17 1.973 x 10r 1.076 x l0-r

temperature ("c) + 17.78 temperature temperature (" F) tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons tons
(long) (long) (long)

('c) +213
('F) +460

absolute temperature ('C) temperature ('F) absolute tenperatlre ("F)

1.0 1.8 1.0

-32

temperature ('C)
kilograms pounds tons (short) kilograms pounds kilograms ounces ounces (troy) pounds pounds {troy) tons (long) tons (metric) kgs/sq meter pounds/sq in. pounds of water/hr 1,016.

2,240.
1.120 1,000.

Steradians

ci.cular mils
sq feet sq inches sq mrles sq millimeters sq yards actes

0.1550
0.0001 3.861 x 100.0 1.196 x 2.296 x 1.833 x
929.O

10

rr

l0-. \o-'
l0!

(metric) (metric) (short) (short) (short) (short) (short) (short) (short)

2,205.
907.1848 32,000. 29,156.66 2,000. 2,430.56 o.a92a7

circular mils
5q crhs

144.0 sq merers
5q

0.09290
3.587 x 10-r 9.290 x rd 0.1111 1.273 x 106 6.452 6.944 x 10-! 645.2
106

mles

(short)/sq tt (sho.t)/sq ft tons of water/24 hrs tons ol water/24 hrs tons of water/24 hrs

0.9078
9,765. 2,000. 0.16643 1.3349

gallons/min
cu ft/ hr

feet
Incnes Inches Inches Inches Inches Incnes kilometers kilometers kilometers kilometers kiiometers kilometers kilometers meters meters metets
meteas

sq millimeters sq yards

circular mils
sq cms

sq feet sq millimeters sq mrls acres sq cms sq ft sq Inches sq miles sq yards acres sq cms
sq feet

Volt/ inch Volt (absolute)

Statvolts

.39370 .003336

7,716 x 247.1
1otr

I0 '
w
watts

10.76 x 106 1.550 x l0'


106

Btu/hr 8tu/min
ergs/sec

3.4r29
0.05688
107.

0.3861 1.196 x 2.471 x

foot-lbs/min
106

44.27

fooflbs/sec

0.7374
0.01.433

l0

10

'

watts

norsepower horsepower (rnetric)

1.341 x 1.360 x 10-! 0.001

l0-'

meters meters

square miles square rniles square miles square square square square square

sq rncnes sq mrles sq millimeters sq yards acres sq feet sq xms sq meterc sq yards

10.76 1,550. 3.861 x l0-' 10. 1.196 640.0 27.88 x 106

Watts (Abs.) Watts (Abs.)


watt-hours

kg-calories/min kilowatts B.T.U. (mean)/min. joules/sec.


Btu
erSs

0.056884
1

watfhours
watt-hours watt-hours watt-hours watt-hours watt.hours watt-hours

foofpounds
Eram-caloneS norsepower-has

3.413 3,60 x l0ro 2,656.

2.590
2.590 x 3.098 x
1,973.
106 106

859.85
1.341 x

l0-1

millimeters millimeters millimeters millimeters mils

circular mils
sq cms sq {eet

sq Inches

circular mils

1.076 x l0-r 1.550 x 10-l 1.273

0.0I

Watt (lnternational)
webers webers

kilogram-calories kilogram-meters kalowatt-hrs Watt (absolute) maxwells

0.8605
0.001 1.0002

lo

kilolines

l0'

I
Appendix D: Conlersion Synchronous Speeds
Synd'ronout Spced

Factors

311

Frsoucncy

120

N;;|T;G;TREOUENCY

FNEOUENCY

50 Gyclo
2

50.y.ls
3000
t 500
|

60
1500 12

.ycl.

50

cy.lo

3600

't71.1
r

112.9 136.4
t

lg00
1200
8

750
500 375 300 250

11 15
18

63.6 56.5

000

30.1

900

750
600
500

t50
141
r

t2s
t20

t0 l2 l1
t6 t8
20

720
600

50

38.5 33.3

rr5.4

514.3
450

128.6
375

214.3 187.5
166 -7

51

lll.t
t07.t
103

56
5S

2s.6

400
360

121.1

.5

300

150

60 62 61 66 68 70

t20
l

100

272.7

136.4

l6.l
09. I

96.8 93.7 90.9


88.2

2l

300

250

t25

1r2.5
| t

276.9
257 .1

230.8 211.3
200

It5,4
|

07.1

05.9

30

210

100
93

r02.9
100
97 .3

85.7
83.3

225
31
35 38

-7

72 71 76

2
200

.8

176.5 166.7

8l,l
78.9 76.9
75

91.7 92.3

189.5
180

t57.9
t50

78.9
80

,t0

90

Courtesy Inge$oll-Rand Co.

312

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Temperature Conversion
NOIA Thc c.ntlr .olsm'| of .'rmbcrt in boldl.ce r.ter3 to the tempe.ot'rre i. degree3, irher Cenriorodc or fohre.heir, which ii i! dcti..d ro convcrt into th. othe. .col.. lf .o.v.dine from Fohrenh.it ro Ce.ligrode degreei, lhe equivolen. tempe.oture will be found in rhe tefr coiumn, whit if Gonve.ri^s trom d.er.er Cenligrodc to desrc$ Fohrenhi.t, th. on.wer wi be found in thc cotumn on rhe righr.
Cenligrod. C.ntisrode
Cenligrode

C.nti9.od.
32 53 54 55 55 57 58 59 60

Fohr.6h.it

-273.t7 -268 -267 -257 -25l -216 -210 -231


-2t8
-212 -207
-20 |

-159.f
-,150

-20.6

-5
0

23.0

32.0

ll.l
11.7 12.8
r

125.6

-aao -,r30 -a20 -a00 -390

t27.1

5a.t
60.0
62

I
-16.7
-16.
1

l3l

t29.2
.0

.8

-ato
-3!0

-t5.6
-15.0

2 3 a
6 7

3.3

132.8 13,(.6 r36. a 138.2


|

65.6
68.3 71.1

37 .1

-t1.t
-t2.8

4r.0 t2.g
11.6 46.1 14.2
50 .0

39.2

l3 .9 15.0 15.6
r

t1.1

t30 f35 lfo ra5 t50 t55 t50


t65 t70
175

266 275
281 293
302

3l

?20

73.9 79.1 s2.2 85.0


.g .6 93.3
a7 90

-3t0
-360 -350 -330 -320

!
-12.2
11.7

6.l

40.0

6r
52 63 5a 55 55

t41.8
113.6 115.4
117 .2

16.7
9

-ta0 -3to
-300 -290 -2ao

-196 -190 -184 -179 -173

-Ll

tl

t0

17 .2 t7 .8

tt0 tt5
t90 t95
200

329 338 317 371

t2
t3 t5

5r.8
53.6
55.1
57 .2

-10.6 -10.0

t4 l5

-8 .9
459.1

-9.1

59.0
60 .8

18.3 18.9 19.4 20.0

149.0

5f
58 69 70

r50.8

96.r
98 .9

205

40t
410

t52.6
l s4 .,(

2t0
212
215

t00.0
r02 r04
107
I

-r69 -r68
-162

-2r0

-2It

-l5l

-157

-260 -250 -240


130

-151 -136 -100

-8.3
5.7

tf

t8
20

l9
2l

-5.6
-361 -316
-310

7t.6

62.6 61.1 66.2 68.0 69.8

20.6 2t .l 2t .7
22.8 23.3 23.9 2a.1 25.0 25.6

all

7l
72

155.2 158.0 159.8


161 .6

119
12e

220 225
230

t37
116 161

,3
75 75 78 79
EO

lt3
116

t0

163.4 165.2
167.O

233 2ao 2tl5


250
255
7.50

-116

-t10
-r31

-2to

-220

-1.1

?3 24
75

73.1 75.2
77 .O

68.8 170.6 172.1


|

l8 t2l
r

t73
192
,a9l

121 127

500
509

-t23 -l l8

-129

-200 -190

26.l
26.7
27 .2 27 .a

-l t2 -107

-t!0

25

78 .a

171.2 t76 .O
't77 _g

t29
r35
r38

265

2fo 2t0
245

80.6

-t60
-r50 -rao -t30 -t20

-r70

2f5
290 295
300

5t8
527

-271 -256 -236 -220 -202

-tol -96 -90 -81 -79 -73.3 -67.8 -62.2


-59,a
-53 .9 -51 .l 18.3

-l -{.6

2a
a9

.7

82 .1 81 .2

EI a2
E3

536

o.0 0.6

3l

86.0
a7 .a

28.3 28.9
29 .1

l4
65 86 a7 88 89

r8l

t79.6
,1

r4I
r43
l,a6 t,a9

r83.2
185.0 186.8
r |

89.6

-rr0
r00

-t81
-166

t.l

9l
34 35

.,(

30.0 30.6

t5{
r60
166
171

3t0
320 330 340
350

563 572 590


608

93.2

3t
31

-90
30

-t30.0

-ta8.o

95.0
96.8

.l

8s.6
90.1

626 611

36

-l

12.0

2.a 3.9 1.1 5.0 5.6 6.7 7.2 7.5 8.3 8.9 9.4
10.0

.7

37 39

-lt

3l
40

98.6
|

32 .2

90

00 .,(

32.8

-70

-t03.0
-91 .0

9l
92.

102.2 | 0,( .0 105.8

192.2 194.0 195.8 197.6


|

177

33.9
31.1 35.0

t82 t88
193

360 370

680 698

93

99.4

3t0
390 400

-65 -60

-85.0
-76.0 -58.0
-67 .0

{t
12
a3 44 45

94
95 95

201 .2

r99
201

716 731 770


806 821

-15.6 -12.8 -10.0


3,t.a -31 .7

-5t

50

6.I

147.6 | 09.1

35.6
36. I
37 37

203.0 201.8 206.6 208.1 210.2 212.0


230

2t0
216
221

at0
420 430

-{5 -{0
-35 -30
25

-19.0
-40 .0 -31 .0

ln.2
111.8
1 1

97
9E

113.0 16.6 18.1 .2 .8

15 47
48 a9 50

99

727

t00
105

-13.0

40.6 43.3
46.1

l|0
5

-26.1

-20 -10

-23.3

-I5

-,(.o
.4.0

120 .2

239

t0.6

5t

122.0 t 23.8

48.9 51 .7

t20 r25

215
257

213 219 251 260

:lao ,150 460 1fo aEo a90 500

812
860

878 896 914

932

forhulot ol thc right moy olro be urcd conyerling Centi!.odc or tohrcnhir inlo the orhcr i.ole.,

Des,ee3 c.r.. .c =

j er +

rot

-ro

Dcsre3 Fohr.,

.F

: ! r. + rot -.0
9

=
Dcaree! Kelvin,

| et-r'r
223,2

c +32
+159.7

"K:oC +

Desre.. non&lne,

't :of

Courtesy Ingersoll-Rand Co.

Appendix D: Conrersion

Facrors

313

Altitude and Atmospheric Pressures

Ke/'q
Hs Abr. -5000
,{500

Hg Ab3.
903 .7

PSIA

-1526

-t373
-1220
-1068

-1000 -3500 -3000 -2500


2000

77 75 73

25 21 23
21

7l
70 58 66 61
20

-9r5
-763 6t0
-,f58

35.00 31.12 33.84 33.27 32.70 32.11 3l .58 3t .02

889.0 871.3 859.5 845. t 830.6


816 .1

17.18 17.19

I6.90
r6.62
|

.229 .209
.188 .169
.

6.3,r

r19

t9

t6.06
15.79 r5.51

.129
.

-t500 -t000
-500
0
500

-305
0

6l
59 57

l8 l7

t09

802.1

.091

t6 t1
12

30.t7
29.92 28.86 28.33
27 .82

l5 .23
773.9
760.O

.071

11.96

.o52
.0333

r4.696
11.43 14.16
13 .91
|

t53
158

716.3
733 .O

.0t5
.956

r000

t500
2000

6t0
763
915
1068

52

t1

719.6 706.5
693.9 681 ,2 668.8

.975
.960 .943

3.66
3.41

2500
3000 3500

50 a8 15 13

l0
9 7 5

t7

4000
,1500

1220 1373

27.32 26.82 26.33 25.84 25.37 21.90 23.99

t
r

3.17
2.93

.926
.909 .892

6s6.3
611.1 632.s 609.3 586.7 561.6 513.3 522.7
A29 .0

l2.69

t2.t6
12.23

.876 .860
.828 .797 .767

5000

0.95

6000 7000
8000

l
'|

1526

I .7
_9

l83l
2136
2111

{t
3S 3

1.3 1.5
I

34

3l
23

I I

23.t0
22.23 2l .39 20.58

rL3,(
l0
,91

.78

9000
10,000 15,000

2716
3050

10.50

.738

20,000
25,000

30,000 35,000 40,000 45,000 50,000 55,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 t00,000
120,000 1,{0,000 160,000 180,000

2.a 3.8 1.7 5.7 6.6 7.6 8.5


10 .4

610? 7628 9153 1O,67i


12,2O1

-t4
-30
18

-5

t0.10
8.29 6.76 5.46 1.37 3.17
2.73

r6.89
13.76 .12 8.903
7

.7to
.A7 5

319.5
2A2

.l

.38,(

-11 -57 -57 -57 -57 -55

226.1
't79 .3
111 .2

.307
.2A1

66

.060

t3,730
15,255

t6/81
18,306

-70 -70

1.375 3.111

t.l

?.t5
r .69

87

2.7t2

.5

.r5l
9 .0935 .0238 .0458 .0285 .o179

68.9
51.2

.4
|

3.3

2t,357
2A,108 27,159 30,510 36,612
62

15.2
17.1

52

2.135 1.325 18.273 |

| .05
.651

2t.0
8.36
3.,(5

.,(06

t8.9
22.8 26.6 30.4 31.2
37 .9

-57
_26
28

-59 -16

5.200-' 3.290-'

12/11
18,8t 6 51,918

I -t6
-t9
12 66

I .358-r
5 .917-7

200,000
720,O00

61,o20 67,122 73,221 79,326


85,128

t9 -3
11

2./16-7 1.284-' 5.816-r 2.523 ' 9.955-. 3.513-r

ft

t.5l

:!:

.255

ot

t,

gt-t

3.26-I | .48-I

240.000 260,000
2S0.000

1t .7 45.5 19.3
53.1

86

t29

-90 -88

300,000
,{00,000 500.000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000

56.9 75.9
91.8
I

1.{3-r

6.A1-' 2.53 ' 8.92-! 3.67-'

91,530 122,010 152,550

3.737

'

9.19.
l .60-'
,r.06-' 1.30-t s.08 r 2.08-l
3.56-6 1.50-6

l,{

r52
189

t,400,000
1,600.000

224 266
30,{

366,t 20 127,110

| ---l-r 83,060 - |I 211,080 -305,100 -|

6.3

t.1-,
| .6-r

5.9-.

5.1-'
2.0-,
8.2-r0

,{88.t60

3.8

10

r.800.000
2.000,000

312

5!9,r80
610,200

| .8-ro

9.65-'
1

L 2-r'

.57-'

2.31-e

ooro t6h N^s^ srodord {t9621. n.np.rorur. o.d bc'oi.t.' ^inoph.r. or. oppori6". to. n.qcriv. 6ftrud.,, ..T.np.rorur.t fi. ov.rog. crr,rin, .r 40. torirud. ond or! round.d ro .v.n iunh.3. lN.soriv. .rpon..t iho,! nu6b..6t rpo.d rh. d.rimot lotit mu b. iovld to ri. t.0. Courrdy hs.EollRand Co-

Mechanical Design ol Procesr Sysrems

o\

tr
b
8

a5

q
E

b
6 A

:o ao

;E
8
d
E

EI >!

b
R

-o

I(l)
o,

6 b

9p EO -: a:
Eg

8 q

t5

ou

iR

oer

t'g

b
8

z
o
P tr 0 F
C)

F ao

I
6

tt
.o

z t!
(9

t e

ol i +

.:ra

sj

8p Et
r=

):

:i s6

3
E
-o

oq

J9

5E Ee

lo u3snnN NfAl

I
Index

ACI bearing strengths, 180 American Institute of Steel Construction. See AISC. Anchor bolts analysis, preloaded bolt, 184, 186 bolt area, required, 184 bolt loads, allowable, 187 bolt load, minimum required, 184 bolt spacing, 186 common types of, 190 large bolts, undesirability of, 184 loading force, distribution of, 186 loadings induced on, 184 lubricant, 190 philosophy, design, 184 size and number, 228 stress in, 184, 186 tension on gross area, 187 torque, anchor bolt, 189-190, 229 ASME Piping Codes ASME 831.1, 48 ASME 831.3, 48 ASME B3I.4, 48 ASME B3I.5, 48 .ASME 831.8,48 ASME Section IlI, 48. Also see Pressure vessels. for piping, 48 for pressure vessels, 48 ASME Section VIII, Division II for piping, 48 Aspect ratio, 85
Baseplate design, 186-189 anchor bolt size range, 186 bearing pressure on, 189 concrete foundation for, 186 concrete mixes, 186, 187

concrete modulus of elasticity of, 186 concrete and steel, relative strength of, 186 gusset plates, 188* 189

k-factor, offset, 188 steel, modulus of elasticity, 187 steel-concrete moduli ratio, 186 tension on gross area, 187 torque, anchor bolt, 189-190, 229 Bernoulli equation, 2 Bingham, 6-7 Boundary conditions for saddle plate design, 178 Buckling coefficients for saddle plate design, 175-178 Centroid, section,212 Circumferential stress, moment, 170 Codes, vessel differences in, 159 foreign, 159 Cold-spring,49 Colebrook equation, 4. Also see Friction factors. Compressible flow
adiabatic

flow, 2

compressibility effects, 24 introduction to, l-2, 24 isothermal flow 1 modulus, bulk compressibility, 24 non-steady flow, 24 sound, velocity of, 24
steady flow, 24 Concrete mixes for baseplate design, 186-187 Concrete modulus of elasticity, 186 Conical sections, 199, 224

Cost-plus contractor, 183

Creep,49 Critical damping factor, 202, 2O4 Critical pressure, 83


315

316

Mechanical Design of Process Systems Heads

Critical temperature, 83 Critical wind velocity, 236


Damping coefficient, 2OZ 2M

manufacture

of,

160

Deflections, windt 199-2Ol , 242 Degree of freedom, 201 Discontinuity, 236

thickness of, 160 Heat transfer

Drag, 195,203 Ductile materials, 50, 52 Dynamic magnification factor, 201-204


Dynamic response, 200

EJMA. Sze Expansion joints, bellows. Electrical tracing, 103


Equivalent length, 2
Expansion joints

bellows, corrugated, 77 gimbal joint, 79 hinged joint, 78-79 inJine pressure balanced, 79 multi-ply, 80 pipe span, allowable, 78 pressure thrust, 78-79 single ply, 80 standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association (EJMA), 80 stiffness, rotational, 78 stiffness, translational, 78 tie rods, 78-79 reasons for, 78 universal joint, pressure-balanced, 78
Fanning equation, 3

control mass, 115, 131 control volume, 115, 13l electrical tracing, 103 Fourier number, 151 Grashof number, 132, 134, 153 in jacketed pipe, I 12- I l5 LMTD (log mean) chart for, 114 definition of, I 14 Nusselt number, 132, 134, 153 in pipe shoes, 135- 136 application of, 156
heat balance for, 136 temperature distribution

in,

136

in pipe supports, 133 in piping temperature distribution in, 134 typical applications of, 133- 134 Prandtl number, 112, 139-140 in process systems, 103 in residual systems applications of, 132 deflections, thermal, 134-135 overall heat transfer coefficient, 134
tubular tracers. See Tracing. in vessel skirts application of, 152- 154 coefficients of, 132 convection, significance of, 133 free convection, 133
rate

Fluid Mechanics, piping. See Hydraulics.


Fourier number, l5l Friction factors, 4 Colebrook equation, 4 laminar flow, 4 Moody friction factors, 4 Prandtl solution, 5

of,

133

turbulent flow, 4 von Karman solution,

temperature, distribution oI, 132- 133 Heat transfer design example, 148-150 static analysis, i48- 150 transient analysis, 150- 152 Heisler's chart, l5l
Hesse formula, 82

Gimbal joint, 79 Grashof number, 132, 134, 153 Gusset plates, 188-189 Gust (wind) effects, 194-196, 236-237 Guy wires, 249
Head

Horizontal pressure vessels saddle bearing plate design, 180 ACI bearing strengths, 180 bearing plate thickness, 180 factor of safety for, 180 saddle plate buckling analysis, 251 252
saddle plates

-*T co'\J 'rv foot of, 2 pressure, I

5oo

r{ 'll"i, '

application of , 249 -252 boundary conditions for, 178 buckling coefficients for, 175- 178
design

static, I velocity. See Velocity head.

of,

174- 179

effective area, 174, 178

l:;:..
effective width, 113, 178, l'79 horizontal reaction, 119, 252 stiffener plates, I74, 179
STTESS

criterion for residual, 178 elastic buckling, 179 inelastic buckling, 179 U.S. Steel design method, 174-179 web plates, 174 wear plate requirements, 215 Zick analysis, 166, 215 bending moment diagram, 167 constant, circumferential bending moment, 170 introduction to, 166 saddle supports, location, criteria for, 172 shear stress, 171
shell

yield-pseudoplastic, 6 7 piping, reasonable velocities in, 25 problem formulation, 24 two-K method, 8,21 viscosity,24-26 Incompressible flow. See Hydraulics. Internal pressure, 159- 160
Jacketed pipe

annulus, hydraulic radius for, 112 applications of, l12-115, 139 140 details of, 104-106, I 12-l l3
expansion joints for, 105- 106 heat transfer, I 12- I l5 coefficient, film, I l2

coefficient, overall, 112


rates of, I 12- 115 pressure drop in, I l5- I 17

stiffened by head, 171 unstiffened, saddles away from head, 17l

stiffening rings, 172, 174


STTESS

rules of thumb for, 103


versus traced pipe, 103- 106 Joints. expansion. See Expansion joints. Laminar flow, 4. Also see Friction factors. Lumped-mass approach, 204-205

allowable compressive, 166 circumferential compressive, l7 I circumferential at horn of saddle, 17l


head used as a stiffener, 171

Lump-sum contractor, 183

"Hot-spring," 49 Hydraulic radius, definition of, 2i


tabulated values, 24

Maximum allowable working pressure, 160 Mitchell equation , 210, 212


Moments equations

Hydraulics basic equations, I Bernoulli equation, 2

modified form of,


compressible flow adiabatic flow, 2

for, 198 of inertia, for tube bundle, 222-223 wind-induced, 198 Moody friction factors. See Friction factors.
Myklestad method, 200-201 Non-Newtonian fluids. See Hydraulics. Nusselt number, 132, 134,153

compressibility effects, 24 introduction to, l-2, 24 isothermal flow, I modulus, bulk compressibility, 24
non-steady flow, 24 sound, velocity of, 24 steady flow, 24

Ovaling, 205, 208


Pipe loops, 59-68 Pipe lug supports , 70-12, 98-99 Pipe materials ductile materials, 50, 52 non-ductile materials, 50 plastic deformation, 50 52 stress-strain curves, 50-51 Pipe shoes, heat transfer in, 135-136 Pipe supports, heat transfer in, 133 Piping codes. See ASME. Piping expansion joints. See Expansion joints. Piping mechanics
anchor, pipe, definition, 58

incompressible flow, 1 non-Newtonian fluids

Bingham,6-7 introduction to, 5-7


Metzer and Reed, 7
pseudoplastic, 6-7 rheological constants, 8

rheopectic,6-7 thixotropic, 6 7
time-dependent, 6-7 time-independent, 6-7 viscoelastic, 6-7

API,47

318

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

equipment nozzle loads, 94


extraneous piping loads

"cold spring" for, 80


vibration applications for, 100- 101 natural frequency of beam elements, 86 vortex shedding, 83,87 resonance,83 Reynolds number, 195, 200, 2Ol, 236 Strouhal number, 84-85

stiffness beam element, 54

vortex force, 83 vortex streets, 83 flexibility (compliance) matrix, 53 flexibility method, 59-68, 8l advantages of, 53, 68 application of, 95-98 "hot-spring," 49 nozzle flexibility factors, angle of twist, 70 circumferential, 70 longitudinal, T0 Oak Ridge Phase 3 Report, 70 rotation deformation of, 70 rotational spring rate, 70 pipe loops, 59-68 pipe lug supports , 70-72, 98-99 pipe restraints moment restraints (MRS), 5'7 -59, rotational 58, 68 translational,58,68 pipe roughness, 5
prpe stress

concrete,69 matrix,53-54 method,8l advantages,53,68 applications of, 88-94 piping elements, 55-56, 69 translational, 54 Pipe Stress. See Piping mechanrcs. Piping systems adiabatic process, 83 API 520 Pafi 2, 82 ASME 31.I, 82 critical pressure, 83 critical pressure ratio, 83 critical temperature, 83 Hesse formula, 82 impulse-momentum principle, as applied to a pipe elbow, 8l nozzle correction factor, 82 nozzle discharge coefficient, 82 nozzles,83
Prandtl number,

ll2,

139-140

77

, 88-94

Pressure vessels ASME Section VIII Division components, 159- 160

I,

160

circumferential bending/membrane, 7l "cold-spring," 49 creep,49 "hot-spring," 49 internal pressure, circumferential stress, 49 longitudinal stress, 49 pipe weight, bending stress, 49
pressure, 72 prestressed piping, 80 primary stress, 49-50, 72 range, allowable, 42 residual stress, 5l secondary stress, 49-52, 72

design, philosophy of, 159 external pressure, 160 heads, 160 horizontal saddle bearing plate design, 180 saddle plate buckling analysis, 251-252 saddle plate design, 174- 179 application of , 249-252 boundary conditions for, 178 buckling coefficients for, 175- 178 effective area, 174, 178 effective width, 173, 178, 179

self-spring,49 "shakedown," 52 thermal expansion, 49 torsional or shear stress, 49 self-spring,49 shear flow, 58-59 spring supports, 72, 75, 76 guided load column, 72 jamming of, 77

horizontal rcaction, 179, 252 stiffener plates, 174, 179 stress, criterion for residual, 178 stress, elastic buckling, 179 stress, inelastic buckling, 179 U.S. Steel design method, 174-179 wear plate requirements, 215 web plates, 174 Zick analysis, 166, Zl5 bending moment diagram, 167 compressive B-factor, 174 constant, circumferential bending moment, 170 head used as stiffener, 171 saddle support location, 172

b"l- !
shear stress in head/shell, 171 shell moments equations
171

319

stiffened by head, l7l unstiffened, saddles away from head,

for, 198 of inertia, for tube bundle, 222-t3


pressure sections, centroids vectors, section force, 198

of,

198

stiffening rings, 172, 174 stress, allowable compressive, 166 stress, circumferential con.rpressive, 171 stress, location of, 168- 169 tangential shear, 167- 171 wear plates, 171- 172 internal pressure component thickness, 159 maximum allowable working pressure, 160 quality of welds, 159 upset conditions, 160 vertical anchor bolts analysis, preloaded bolt, 184, 186 bolt area, required, 184 bolt loads, allowable, 187 bolt load, minimum required, 184 bolt spacing, 186 common types of, 190 large bolts, undesirability of, 184 loading force, distribution of, 186 loadings induced on, 184 lubricant, 190 philosophy, design, 184 size and number, 228 stress in, 184, 186 tension on gross area, 187 torque, anchor bolt, 189-190, 229 ANSr-1982,215 baseplate design, 186- 189 anchor bolt size range. 186 bearing pressure on, 189 concrete foundation for, 186 concrete mixes, 186, 187 concrete modulus of elasticity of, 186 concrete and steel, relative strength of, 186 . gusset plates, 188- 189 k-factor, offset, 188 steel, modulus of elasticity, 187 steel-concrete moduli ratio, 186 stress, compressive, on concrete, 188 thickness, baseplate, 188 centroid, section,212 combined loads on, 181 compression plate, 189 cone, truncated, equivalent radius for, 214 conical head, equivalent radius for,214 conical sections, equivalent radii for,224 earthquake, See Seismic design. loads, wind and seismic, 190-191

wind-induced, 198 wind pressure, distribution of, 198 section properties of, 181 seismic analysis of, loads, combined, 190-l9l
seismic design baseplate design, 238

coefficients, Mitchell, 210, 213 coefficients, structure type, 210 criteria, quasi-static, 210 criteria,238 Mitchell equation, 2lO, 2lZ compared to Rayleigh equation, 237 -238 occupancy importance factor, 210
period

characteristic site, 238 numeric integration of vibration, 238-239 of tower, 210, 2lZ Rayleigh equation, 212 compared to Mitchell equation, 237 238 seismic zone factor/map, 210-211 site structure interaction factor, 210, 212
equation for, 212 shear forces earthquake force, total, 212 lateral force, equation for, 212

vertical distribution of, 212


seismic moments, equation for, 212 skirt design, 238 structural period response factor, 210

Uniform Building Code, 209 210 self-supporting, 180 skirts controlling criteria for, 184 design of, 183, 185 cost-plus contractor, 183 Iump-sum contractor, 183 stress equation, 183 supports, 183, 185

thichess, 183- 184 stress, bending, 181


combined loading,
181

compressive B factor,

l9l
181

compressive, leeward side, discontinuity, 236


elements

in,

182

tensile, windward side, l8l vacuum, 183 towers centroids, section, 230-231

32O

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

definition of, 181 equivalent circle method, 214 section moment of inertia, 241-243 skirt and baseplate destgn, 228-229 anchor bolts, 228 anchor bolt torque, 229 compression ring thickness, 229 skirt thickness, 229 weld size, minimum for skirt-to-base plate,
229

mode shapes, 200 Myklestad method, 200, 201

skirt detail, 230


stress, discontinuity

criteria foq 2 14 for conical sections, 214 stresses, wind section, 226-228 transition piece, 241, 243-244 vibration ensemble, 216 of lumped masses, 232, 246 wind deflections
modes of, 199 schematic diagram of, 201 superposition, method of, 199 wind ensemble, 242

vibration, wind-induced angular natural undamped frequency, 205 applications of, 232-236, 241-249 area-moment method, 205-207 conjugate beam. See Area moment. controlling length, 203 critical damping factor, 202, ZO4 critical wind velocity, 208-209 , 236, 248,249 total wind force, 209 Zorilla criteria, 209 damping coefficient, 203 damping ratio, 202-203 degree of freedom, single, 201 differential equations for, 201-2OZ dynamic magnification factor, 201-202, 2O3,

2M
dynamic response, 200
example of, 232-236 first period of, 204

force amplitude, 235 force amplitude, dynamic, 200 forced vibration theory, 200
frequency

natural,248 ratio,202 vortex shedding, 208, 248 guy wires, disadvantages of, 249 Holzer procedure, 200 lock-in effect, 200 logarithmic decrement, ZO3-204 lumped mass approach, 204-205

ovaling,205 natural frequency of, 205 vibration due to, 208 wind velocity, resonance, 208 period of vibration, 234-235, 248 phase angle, 202 Rayleigh equation, ZOO, 201, 204, 205 resonance,236 Reynolds number, 195, 20O,201,236 soil types, 204 stresses, dynamic, 236 tower fluid forces on, 203 model for, 201-202 moment disrribution in, 205 stiffness, 205 vibration ensemble, 209 of lumped masses, 232 vibration, first peak amplitude, 200 vortex shedding, 199 vortex strakes, 249 wind tunnel tests, 236 wind analysis of, loads, combined, 190-191 wind design speed ASA 58.1-1955, 194 ANSI-A58.1-1972, 192 basic wind pressure, 192 effective velocity pressure, 192 gust response factor, dynamic, 192 ANSI A58. 1- 1982, 196, 236-237 effective velocity pressure, 192 gust response factor, 192 importance coefficient, 192 velocity pressure coefficient, 192 wind speed, variation of, 192 wind tunnel tests, 192 centroid of spandrel segment, for wind section, 218 coefficient, drag, 195 structural damping, 217 conical sections, 199 constant exposure category, 195 cross-sectional area, effective, 217 cylinder, pressure fields around, 196 equivalent diameter method, 236-237 vs. ANSI-A58. 1- 1982, 236-237 exposure lactor. 196 fatigue failure, 198 flexible structures, defined, 197 gust duration, 196 vs. gust diameter, 197 gust frontal area, 196

ii
l:r.=

gust response, dynamic, 194 gust response factor, 195, 196,217,236-231


gust size, 196 isopleths, 192- 193

Kutta-Joukowski theorem, 195 loading analysis, quasi-static, 196

30,32 41. 1,19-l{l"t. l-!:. 145,147 non-Newtonian fluids. See Hydraulics. Non-Newtonian fluids. Strouhal coefficient vs., 85 vortex shedding, for, 83-85
Newtonian fluids, 21,
Saddle plate design, 174- 179

logarithmic law, 192 parabolic area, centroid of, 219 parabolic function, 194 peak values, types of, 196 power law, 192 probability of exceeding. 196 response spectra, 198 return period, 192 similarity parameters, 195 structure size factor, 196, 197 surface roughness, 195 tower
cross-sectional area

application of , 249 -252 boundary conditions for, 178 buckling coefficients for, 175- 178

of, 198 fluid force exerted on, 194-195


gust velocity vs. structural response, 197

effective area, 174, 178 effective width, 173, 178, 179 horizontal react\on, 179, 252 stiffener plates, 174, 119 stress, criterion for residual, 178 stress, (in-) elastic buckling, 179 U.S. Steel design method, 174-179 wear plate requirements, 215 web plates, 174
Seismic design baseplate design, 238

natural frequency of, 197 wind area section properties, 219 wind force distribution, 218 wind distribution parabolic, 194, 218-219 triangular, 194 wind load applications of, 215-231, 241-245 equivalent static, 195 mean, 195 weld size, skirt-to-base plate, 189 welding, joint efficiencies for, 161-165,172 Zick analysis, 166, 215 bending moment diagram, 167 compressive B-factor, 174 constant, circumferential bending moment, 170 head used as stiffener, l7l saddle support location, 172 shear stress in head/shell, 171
shell

coefficients, Mitchell, 210, 213 coefficients, structure tYPe, 210 criteria, quasi-static, 210 compared to wind, 238 Mitchell equation , 210, 212 compared to Rayleigh equation, 231-238 moments, equation for, 212 occupancy importance factor, 210 period, characteristic site, 238 period, vibration numeric integration of, 238 239 tower,210,212 Rayleigh equation, 212 compared to Mitchell equation, 231-238 seismic zone factor/map, 210, 2ll
shear forces earthquake force, total, 212 lateral force, equation for, 212

vertical distribution of, 212


site structure interaction factor, 210, 212
equation for, 212 skirt design, 238 structural period response factor, 210 Uniform Building Code, 209-210 Skirts, 185 controlling criteria for, 184 cost-plus contractor, 183 design

stiffened by head, 171 unstiffened, saddles away from head, 171

stiffening rings, 172, 174 stress, allowable compressive, 166 stress, circumferential compressive, stress, location of, 168- 169 tangential shear, 167- 171 wear plates, 171- 172
Residual systems, heat transfer

171

of,

183

in, 132-135 in piping, 154- 155 Reynolds number, 195, 2OO, 2Ol, 236 drag coefficient vs., 203

lump-sum contractor, 183 stress equation, 183 supports, 185 thickness, 183- 184

322

Mechanical Design of process Systems

Strouhal number, 84 Reynolds number vs., 85 vibration, vortex shedding, 84-85, 200, 20g Supports, 72,75,76. Also see p\ping mechanics. Thermal design. See Heat transfer tie rods, 78-79
Towers

heat transfer, rules of, 107 modes of heat transfer, 107

outside film coefficient, 107 overall heat transfer coefficient, 107 procedure for design, 107

of vessels and equipment


agrtators

definition of, l8l equivalent circle method, 214 section moment of inertia, 241-243 skirt and baseplate design, 228-229 anchor bolts, 228 anchor bolt torqte, 229 compression ring thickness, 229 skirt thickness, 229 weld size, minimum for skirt{o-base plate, 229 skirt detail, 230 stress, discontinuity criteria for, 214 for conical sections, 214 stresses, wind section, 226-228 transition piece, 241, 243t244 vibration ensemble, 216 of lumped masses, 232, 246 wind deflections of
modes of, 199 schematic diagram of, 201

centroids, section, 230-231

film coefficients for, 143 of, 115 applications of, 130, 140- 148 film coefficient, vessel-side, 147
use heat duty of, jacketed heads, 146 heat transfer coefficients, reasonable values of,
130

transient, I l5 criteria for, 115 importance of, 130 internal baffle plates, heat duty of, 144 jacketed walls, heat transfer film coefficient, 145 jackets, types of, 115, l28,13l non-Newtonians, use of, 146 plate channels, equivalent velocity of, 147
reasons

for,

115
4

Turbulent f|ow, Velocity head

- Also see Friction factors.

introduction,3,8
199

superposition, method

of,

wind ensemble, 242


Tracing

method,3 two-K method, 8, 21 values of, 9-20, 21, 22-23, 30-32


Vessels. See Pressure vessels.

of pipes
applications
136- 139 condensate return for, I l0 condensate load, determining, 1l I

of,

guidelines for, 110-l spargers, 1l I

ll

separation keys, I l1 typical layout, 111 water hammer, 11 I hot oil, application of, 137-139 steam, application of, 136-137 versus jacketed pipe, 103- 106 with heat transfer cement, 106, 109- I 10 advantages, 106

procedure for, 109

film coefficient, natural convection, 108 heat balance for, I l0 heat transfer rates of, I l0
without heat transfer cement, 106-109
advantages of, 106 disadvantages of, 106

109

equivalent insulation thickness, 107


heat balance

Vibration, wind-induced angular natural umdamped frequency, 205 applications of , 232-236, 241 -249 area-moment method, 205-207 conjugate beam. See Area moment. controlling length, 203 critical damping factor, 202, 204 critical wind velocity, 208-209 , 236, Z4g-249 total wind force, 209 Zorilla criteria, 209 damping coefficient, 203 damping ratio, ZO2-203 degree of freedom. single. 201 differential equations for, 201,202 dynamic magnification factor, 201 -202, 203, ZO4 dynamic response, 200 example of, 232-236 first period of, 204 force amplitude, 235 force amplitude, dynamic, 200 forced vibration theory, 200
frequency

fog

107

natural,248

,!i

lri:r
ftIio, 202
sust response factor. 192

vortex shedding, 2O8' 248 suy wires, disadvantages of' 249 i{olzer procedure, 200 lock-in effect, 200 losarithmic decrement, 203 -204 lumfed mass aPProach, 204-205 mode shapes, 200 Myklestad method, 200, 201 ovaling,205 natuial frequencY of. 205 vibration due to, 208 wind velocitY, resonance, 208 period of vibration, 234-235, 248 ohase angle, 202 ilayleigh-equarion. 200. 201. 204 ' 205 resonance,236 Reynolds number, 195, 200, 2O1' 236 soil types, 204 stresses, dYnamic, 236 tower fluid forces on, 203 model for, 201-202 moment distribution in, 205 equations for, 205 stiffness,205 vibration ensemble, 209 of lumped masses, 232 vibration, first peak amplitude' 200 vortex shedding, 83-87' 199 vortex strakes, 249 wind tunnel tests, 236 Viscosity, 24-25 von Karman solution, 5 Vortex shedding,83-87 aspect ratio, 85 cylinders,83 damping vs. amPlitude, 87 guidelines for, 85
mode shaPes, 85 reduced damPing, 85

irpottun." coefficient.

192

wind speid, variation of' 192 wind tunnel tests, 192 : i -r centroid of spandrel segment, for wind section' coefficient, drag, 195 structural damPing, 217 conical sections, 199 constant exposure category, 195 cross-sectional area, effective, 217 cvlinder, pressure fields around, 196 equivaleni diameter method, 236-237 vs. ANSI-A58.1- 1982, 236-231 exposure factor, 196 fatigue failure, 198 fle;ble structures, defined, 197 gust duration, 196 vs. gust diameter, 197 gust frontal area, 196 iurt t.rpon.., dYnamic. 194 iurt ,.tpont" factor. 195. 1c0.217.236-237 gust size, 196 isopleths, 192- 193 Kuna-Joukowski Theorem. 195 loading analysis, quasi-static, 196 losarithmic law, 192 paiabolic area, centroid of, 219 parabolic function, 194 peak values, tYPes of, 196 power law, 192 probability of exceeding, 196
iesponse sPectra, 198

velocitv pressure coefficient, 192

return period, 192 similarity parameters, 195 structure size factor, 196' 197 surface roughness, 195 tower
cross-sectional area

of,

198

fluid force exerted on, 194-195 gust velocity vs. structural response' 197 iatural frequencY of,
197

Weld sizes
recommended values, for Plates, 71

skirt to baseplate, 189 Welding, joint efficiencies for, 161-165, 172 Wind design sPeed ASA 58.1-1955, 194 ANSI A58.1-1972 basic wind Pressure, 192 effective velocitY Pressure, 192 qust response iactor. dynamic. 192 ANsl A58. l-1982, t96, 236-231 effective velocitY Pressure, 192

wind area section Properties, 219 wind force distribution, 218 wind distribution parabolic, 194, 2t8-219 triangular, 194 wind load applications of, 215-231, 241-245 equivalent static, 195 mean, 195

Yield,

159

octahedral shear stress theory, 236

324

Mechanical Design of Process Systems

Zick analysis, 166, 215 bending moment diagram, 167 compressive B-factot 174
constant, circumferential bending moment, 170
head used as stiffener, l7l saddle support location, 172 shear stress in head/shell, 171 shell

unstiffened, saddles away from head, 171 stiffening ings, 172, 174 stress, allowable compressive, 166 stress, circumferential compressive, 171 stress, location of, 168- 169 tangential shear, 167- 171 wear plates, l7l-172

stiffened bv head.

l7l