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Charles Michael Te Herrera February 1, 2011 Groupmates: Ria Imperial, Aleena Espinosa Maam Rea Abuan Frank Ilandag,


Date Performed:

1. Other than D-glucose and D-mannose, provide three pairs of stereoisomeric aldohexoses that will give identical osazones. PAIR 1: D-Allose and D-Altrose



PAIR 2: D-Gulose and D-Idose



PAIR 3: D-Galactose and D-Talose



2. Can the Seliwanoffs test be used to differentiate sucrose from fructose? Why? No, this test cannot be used to differentiate the two. Seliwanoffs test revolves around the principle of differentiating aldohexoses from ketohexoses. Fructose is a known ketohexose, which produces a positive bright red result upon testing. Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of both glucose and fructose. Given this fact, sucrose would also yield a positive result due to the presence of the ketohexose fructose. Thus, both would produce a bright red solution within the same time interval, making it impossible to differentiate the two.

3. Give a molecular explanation for the role of starch as an antidote for iodine poisoning. Starch is composed of two main components amylose and amylopectin. In order to understand the nature of starch as an iodinepoisoning antidote, the structure of the former compound must be analyzed. Amylose is a helical shaped organic compound with wide spaces within its structure. It is this free space within amylose that allows iodine molecules, specifically triiodide ion complexes, to bind with the starch polymer. Trapping these ions would thus decrease the amount of iodine exposed to the body, effectively reducing toxicity. 4. Why can we not utilize cellulose, the most abundant organic material on earth, as food? Cellulose is a material commonly fount in plant walls. It cannot be digested by humans due to the lack of the enzyme cellulase, which enables digestion of the 14-glycoside bonds present in cellulose. While we lack the necessary enzymes for digestion of the beta acetal linkages, we do, however, possess enzymes for the digestion of 14-glycoside bonds in our saliva known as amylase. This enables us to break down starch in various foods into simple sugars, accounting for the sweet taste in potatoes and other starchy food. Production of cellulase is strictly found in only a limited range of animals, including ruminants and termites. This is usually through the formation of a symbiotic relationship with bacteria that are capable of cleaving the beta linkages.