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Analele Universit ii Constantin Brncu i din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr.

3/2009

POLUAREA PRODUS DE INDUSTRIA PETROLULUI I PROTECIA FACTORILOR DE MEDIU


Nicolae ILIA, prof.univ.dr.ing. Universitatea din Petroani Angelica DRGHICI, dr. ing. cercettor t. gr.III - INCD INSEMEX Petroani Dan DRGUOIU, drd.ing. Universitatea din Petroani Sebastian GHERLAGIU, drd. ing. Universitatea din Petroani Alina CORNESCU, drd. ec. Universitatea din Petroani
Rezumat: Ca parte a procesului de aderare la Uniunea European, Romnia, s-a aliniat cerinelor pe care dezvoltarea economic durabil le presupune, corelnd dezvoltarea economic cu luarea de msuri concrete de protecie a mediului, n acest scop fcnd eforturi de a transpune acquis-ul comunitar, la nivelul legislaiei naionale. n lucrarea de fa ne-am propus ca, prin corelarea abordrilor clasice cu cele moderne, s cercetm aspectele principale ale impactului industriei petrolului asupra mediului, cu precdere pe domeniul rafinrii. Cuvinte cheie: poluare, industrie, petrol, mediu

POLLUTION GENERATED BY PETROLEUM INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION

Nicolae ILIA, prof.univ. PhD, Eng. University of Petroani Angelica DRGHICI, PhD, Eng. researcher - INCD INSEMEX Petroani Dan DRGUOIU, PhD Student, Eng. University of Petroani Sebastian GHERLAGIU, PhD Student, Eng. University of Petroani Alina CORNESCU, PhD Student, ec. University of Petroani
Abstract: As part of the adhering process to the European Union, Romania aligned to the requirements involved by durable economic development, correlating economic development to concrete environmental measures taken, efforts being made in this sense in transposing Community acquis to the level of national legislation. In this paper, we proposed to study, correlating the classical approaches with the modern ones, the main aspects of the impact of petroleum industry on the environment, especially refining. Keywords: environment pollution, industry, petroleum,

1. Pollution sources in petroleum 1. Surse de poluare din industria industry petrolului


Surse de poluare a aerului Emisiile de ageni de poluare a aerului n rafinrii provin, n principal, de la urmtoarele surse [2]: procese de combustie; instalaii tehnologice; facle; parcuri de rezervoare; turnuri de rcire i bazine separatoare cu suprafa deschis; utilaje dinamice, tuuri de prob, ventile, flane, conducte; rampe de ncrcare descrcare; mijloace i reele de transport auto i ci ferate. Air pollution sources Air pollution agent emissions in refineries come mainly from the following sources [2]: combustion processes; technological installations; flares; reservoirs parks, cooling towers and open surface separation basins; dynamic machines, testing nozzles, valves, flanges, pipes, charge-discharge ramps; means and networks of road and railway transportation. Pollutant release in atmosphere fall

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Emisiile de poluani n atmosfer sunt de dou feluri: - dirijate (evacuate prin couri de dispersie sau tubulaturi metalice, guri de ventilaie, guri de aerisire, evi de eapament etc.); - difuze (evacuare necontrolabil nregistrat la manipulri de substane i produse cu volatilitate diferit, ncrcare descrcare rezervoare, neetaneiti etc.).

into: - directed (exhaust by dispersion chimneys or metal tubing, ventilation holes, exhaust pipes etc); - diffused (uncontrollable exhaust seen in manipulation of matter and products of various volatilities, reservoir chargingdischarging, lack of tightness etc.).

Fig. 1.1 Petromidia, one of the two Fig. 1.1 Petromidia, una dintre cele dou rafinrii ale grupului Rompetrol (Emisii de refineries of Rompetrol group (Pollutant emissions from fixed sources) poluani de la surse fixe) n condiiile de funcionare a instalaiilor, emisiile de gaze rezult din procesele de combustie i procesele tehnologice. Referitor la procesele de combustie, fiecare cuptor dintr-o instalaie tehnologic este o surs major de ageni de poluare care se gsesc n gazele rezultate prin arderea combustibililor (dioxid de carbon, oxid de carbon, oxizi de sulf, oxizi de azot, compui organici volatili, n principal hidrocarburi, particule solide de diverse dimensiuni). De asemenea, n rafinrii mai au loc i alte procese de combustie dintre care se pot meniona: regenerarea catalizatorilor de cracare catalitic, producerea sulfului n sobe Claus, operaiile periodice de decocsare a serpentinelor cuptoarelor din diferite instalaii tehnologice, regenerarea periodic a In the conditions of installation functioning, gas emissions result from combustion processes and technological processes. Regarding combustion processes, each furnace in a technological installation is a major source of pollution agents to be found in gases resulting from fuel burning(carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compound, mainly hydrocarbons, solid particles various size). Other combustion processes also take place in refineries, of which we could mention: catalyst regeneration of catalytic cracking, sulphur production in Claus furnaces, periodic catalyst regeneration of other catalytic processes, mud incineration from residual burning of acid tars. Table 1.1. shows the technological

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catalizatorilor din alte procese catalitice, installations and released pollution agents: incinerarea nmolurilor de la epurarea apelor reziduale, arderea gudroanelor acide. n tabelul 1.1. sunt prezentate instalaiile tehnologice i agenii de poluare emii: Tabel 1.1. Instalaii tehnologice Ageni de poluare Distilarea atmosferic i n vid Hidrocarburi, gaze necondensabile emise de sistemul de vid; Hidrofinarea fraciilor distilate Hidrogen sulfurat de la purjare, aromatice inferioare; i hidrotratarea distilatului de vid Cracarea catalitic Gazele de la regenerator conin poluani (oxizi de azot, oxizi de sulf, monoxid de carbon, pulberi); Reformarea catalitic i Benzen, toluen, xileni; extracia aromaticelor inferioare Alchilare Acid fluorhidric; Desulfurarea gazelor i Hidrogen sulfurat i oxizi de sulf; recuperarea sulfului Cocsarea ntrziat Particule de cocs, gaze din apa folosit la tierea cocsului; Solventarea uleiurilor Furfurol din secia de recuperare a solvenilor; Deparafinarea uleiurilor i Amoniac din secia de rcire, metil-etil ceton,benzen, dezuleiere toluen din secia de filtrare i recuperare a solvenilor; Oxidarea bitumului Gaze evacuate din reactoarele de oxidare care conin oxizi de carbon, oxizi de sulf, hidrogen sulfurat, hidrocarburi, compui oxigenai; Rafinarea cu chimicale Oxizi de sulf, acid sulfuric; Aditivi Gaze de reacie care conin acid clorhidric i hidrogen sulfurat. Table 1.1. Technological installations and released pollution agents Technological installations Pollution agents Atmospheric distillation also in vacuum Hydrocarbons, incondensable gases released by the vacuum system Hydro fining of distilled fractions and Hydrogen sulphide from purging, inferior hydro treating vacuum distillate aromatics; Catalytic cracking Gases from the regenerator contain pollutants(nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, carbon monoxide, powders); Catalytic reforming and extraction of Benzene, toluene, xylems; inferior aromatics Alkylation Fluorine hydric acid Desulphuration of gases and sulphur Hydrogen sulphide and sulphur oxides; recuperation
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Delayed coking Refining oils Dewaxing oils and oil removal Bitumen oxidation

Refining with chemicals Additives

Coke particles, gases in the water used to cut coke; Furaldehyde in solvent recovering section; Ammoniac in the cooling section, methyl-ethyl cetone, benzene, toluene in the filtration and solvent recovery section; Gases exhausted from oxidation reactors containing carbon oxides, sulphur oxides, hydrogen sulphide, hydrocarbons, oxygenated compounds; Sulphur oxides, sulphuric acid; Reaction gases containing chlorhydric acid and hydrogen sulphide Water pollution sources By the complexity of processing processes, by a continuous flow activity and especially by high installation capacity, refineries use large amounts of water, which leads to large waste water quantities. In most of the processes, the effluents resulted are very polluting as a result of water contamination with gases, liquids or solids. Residual water in a refinery is the result of summing up waste water coming from a multitude of primary processing processes to which crude petroleum is submitted, as well as fractions submitted to other secondary processing processes in view of a superior use. Water pollution used in refineries depend on the quality of the petroleum and on the way of its processing in view of obtaining products with certain characteristics. According to the sources of origin, waste water in refineries can fall into: technological water, cooling water, meteoric water and household water. Depuration of waste water includes two large groups of successive operations: - retaining and/or transforming noxious matter in non-noxious products; - processing matter resulted from the first operation in various forms(mud, emulsion, foam etc). As a result of the depuration process

Surse de poluare a apei Prin complexitatea proceselor de prelucrare, printr-o activitate n flux continuu i, mai ales, prin capacitile mari ale instalaiilor, rafinriile utilizeaz cantiti foarte mari de ap, fapt care conduce la un volum mare de ape uzate. n majoritatea proceselor, efluenii rezultai au un grad mare de poluare ca urmare a contaminrii apei cu gaze, lichide sau solide. Apele reziduale evacuate dintr-o rafinrie sunt rezultatul nsumrii apelor uzate provenite din multitudinea de procese de prelucrare primar la care este supus petrolul brut, ct i fraciunile supuse unor procese de prelucrare secundar n scopul unei valorificri superioare. Poluarea apei folosite n rafinrii depinde de calitatea ieiului i de modul de prelucrare a acestuia n vederea obinerii unor produse cu anumite caracteristici. Dup sursele de provenien, apele contaminate din rafinrii pot fi clasificate astfel: ape tehnologice, ape de rcire, ape meteorice i ape menajere. Epurarea apelor uzate cuprinde urmtoarele dou mari grupe de operaii succesive: - reinerea i/sau transformarea substanelor nocive n produi nenocivi; - prelucrarea substanelor rezultate din prima operaie sub diverse forme (nmoluri,

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emulsii, spume etc.). n urma procesului de epurare rezult produsul petrolier returnat n rafinrie, nmol i apa tratat. Surse de poluare a solului i a apelor subterane ntre factorii de mediu, solul are o importan major, fiind un loc de acumulare a elementelor poluante. n ceea ce privete activitatea desfurat n cadrul sectorului de explorare i producie a ieiului, poluarea solului poate avea drept surse conductele ce alimenteaz parcurile schelelor, la care se pot produce scpri accidentale de iei i ap de zcmnt, cum este cazul Schelei Poeni, Sucursala Videle a Petrom. De exemplu, ca urmare a exploatrilor tradiionale ale Schelei de Extracie Boldeti - Scieni, solul a fost poluat cu iei i ap srat de zcmnt. Caracteristica principal a polurii cauzate de rafinrii i combinate petrochimice const din aceea c sursa de poluare este activ, de cele mai multe ori, pe o perioad scurt de timp, ns are o intensitate important, agentul poluant fiind constituit de regul din fracii petroliere nguste. De asemenea, n cele mai multe dintre cazurile de scurgeri accidentale de produse petroliere, suprafaa de sol afectat este mult mai mic dect suprafaa contaminat a primului acvifer ntlnit de frontul de poluare. Produsele petroliere fiind nemiscibile cu apa, se adun la suprafaa pnzei freatice n straturi ce variaz de la civa milimetri la zeci de centimetri sau, n anumite zone, chiar la 2-3 metri. O alt parte din produsele petroliere din sol se amestec cu apa subteran, fcnd-o inutilizabil pentru consum sau grdinrit. Stratul de produs poluant se deplaseaz mpreun cu pnza freatic, cu viteze i pe distane mari, extinznd aria de poluare. Un alt pericol este reprezentat de vaporii de produse petroliere, care se pot acumula n subsoluri de imobile, provocnd explozii sau

the petroleum product returned in the refinery, mud and treated water result. Source of pollution of the soil and underground water Among the environmental factors, soil is essential, being a space where pollution elements accumulate. As far as activity in the petroleum exploring and production is concerned, soil pollution sources can be pipes feeding oil field parks where accidental petroleum and water leaks can occur, such as Schelei Poeni, Videle branch of Petrom. For instance, as a result of traditional exploitations of Boldesti Scaieni Extraction Oil field, soil was polluted with petroleum and salted water from the seam. The main characteristic of pollution generated by refineries and petro-chemical plants lies in the fact that pollution sources are active most of the time, for a short period of time, but intense, the polluting agent being as a rule of narrow petroleum fractions. In most of the cases of accidental leaks of petroleum products, the soil surface affected is much smaller than the contaminated surface of the water layer found in the way of the polluting front. Petroleum products not being miscible with water, gather at the surface of the water layer in the range of a few millimetres to tens of centimetres or even, in some areas, 2-3 meter high. Another part of the petroleum products in the soil mix with underground water, being thus impossible to be used for drinking or gardening. The layer of polluting product moves along with the underground water, with high velocities and on long distances, extending the area of pollution. Another danger is represented by petroleum product vapours that could accumulate in basements, generating explosions or asphyxiation. In case of soil pollution, most of them are caused by problems in underground, such as fissures of pipes or fuel deposit walls. Soil pollution can be [3]: - Direct, due to solid or semisolid residue

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axfixieri. ntre cazurile de poluare a solului, majoritatea sunt cauzate de probleme aprute n subsol, adic fisurri ale conductelor sau ale pereilor depozitelor de combustibili. Poluarea solului poate fi [3]: - direct, datorit depunerilor de reziduuri solide sau semisolide provenite din desfurarea proceselor tehnologice; - indirect, din cauza agenilor de poluare emii n atmosfer, purtai de vnt, care se depun pe sol i sunt splai de precipitaii, infiltrndu-se n subteran. Surse poteniale de poluare direct a solului i a subsolului pot fi parcurile de rezervoare, separatoarele vechi din staiile de epurare, bazinele de decantare, batalurile de lamuri i gudroane, rampa C.F. de ncrcare i descrcare, conductele subterane, reele de canalizare etc. Reziduurile solide, nedepozitate corespunztor, care pot polua solul, provin din [4]: impuriti solide antrenate n iei, nmoluri de la epurarea apei uzate i de la tratarea apei brute, reziduuri solide provenite din operaiile de ntreinere i curire, cenu de la incineratorul de nmoluri, cocs de la instalaiile de cocsare sau de la decocsarea cuptoarelor, praf de catalizator. Rezervoarele de iei sau de produse petroliere au o suprafa mare de contact cu solul. La corodarea fundurilor rezervoarelor pot aprea scurgeri de produse petroliere. Scurgerile n cantiti mici nu pot fi puse n eviden i ele pot impurifica solul. La spargerea unui rezervor plin, produsul deverseaz n incinta parcului n care este situat recipientul. Produsul deversat este colectat n sistemul de canalizare i recuperat la instalaia de epurare a apelor uzate, dar i n sol se poate infiltra o parte din produs, datorit unor fisuri ale canalizrii.

deposits coming from technological processes; - Indirect, caused by pollution agents released in the atmosphere, carried by wind, deposited on the soil and washed away by precipitation, being infiltrated in the underground. Potential sources of direct pollution of the soil and subsoil can be reservoir parks, old separators in depuration stations, decanting basins, slime and tar clearing tanks, charging-discharging railway ramp, underground pipes, sewage networks etc. Solid residues, not deposited properly, which can pollute the soil, come from[4]: solid impurities engaged in petroleum, mud from waste water depuration and treating natural water, solid residues coming from maintenance and cleaning, ash from mud incinerator, coke from coking installations or from furnace decoking, catalyst powder. Petroleum or petroleum product tanks have a large contact surface with the soil. In case of tank bottom corrosion, petroleum product leaks can occur. Small amounts of leaks cannot be identified and they can pollute the soil. When a full tank is broken, the product is spilt in the park where the tank is found. The spilt product is collected in the sewage system and recovered at the installation of used water depuration. But also in the soil part of the product is infiltrated, due to fissures in the sewage system.

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2. Factorii care influeneaz pierderile de hidrocarburi (iei i gaze, ap-srat) cu impact major asupra mediului.
Procesul de exploatare a zcmintelor de hidrocarburi este extrem de complex, de unde se poate deduce o multitudine de factori care influeneaz pierderile i anume: tehnologiile utilizate, avariile, erorile umane, factorii de mediu. Sursele cauzatoare de pierderi Analiznd literatura de specialitate, dar si numeroasele cazuri concrete ntlnite in PETROM se poate sistematiza urmtoarea schema a surselor care genereaz pierderi de producie petroliere (titei, gaze si apa srata). a) Sistemele de extracie: construcie, mentenanta, uzura, avarii b ) Sistemele de colectare si transport: construcie, mentenanta, uzura, avarii, neetanseitati c) Sistemul de separare: tipul sistemelor (erupie libera, erupie artificiala(gaz-lift), pompaj), tehnologie, mentenanta, uzura, defeciuni, avarii d) Statie de compresoare(pentru pierderile de gaze): construcie, mentenanta, neetanseitati, avarii. e) Statii de injectie apa reziduala in zacaminte (pentru pierderile de apa sarata): construcie, mentenanata, neetanseitati, avarii f) Sisteme de tratare si depozitare titei: construcie, mentenanta, neetanseitati, avarii g) Instalatii de procesare gaze (dezbenzinare uscare gaze): tehnologie, gaze evacuate, avarii, neetanseitatii. h) Sistemul de vanzare distribuie gaze: netanseitate, avarii, mentenanta i) Tehnologii vechi utilizate: neetanseitati, avarii, mentenanta Analiznd aspectele analizate anterior avem urmtoarele clasificri a tipurilor de pierderi: a) Pierderi accidentale:

2. Factors influencing hydrocarbon (petroleum and gas, salted water) leaks with major impact on the environment.
Hydrocarbon exploitation process is extremely complex, a multitude of factors influencing losses, namely technologies applied, deficiencies, human error, environmental factors being deduced from here. Sources causing losses Analyzing the literature of speciality, but also a multitude of concrete cases met in PETROM the following scheme of petroleum production(petroleum, gases, salted water) loss generating sources can be systemized a) Extraction systems: design, maintenance, wear, deficiencies b ) Collecting and transport systems: design, maintenance, wear, lack of tightness c) Separation system: system type(free eruption, artificial eruption(gas-lift), pumping), technology, maintenance, wear, deficiencies, damages d) Compressor station(for gas losses): design, maintenance, lack of tightness, damages e) residual water injection stations in seams(for salted water losses): design, maintenance, lack of tightness, damages f) Systems of petroleum processing and deposit: design, maintenance, lack of tightness, damages g) Gas processing installations(gasoline removal gas drying): technology, exhausted gases, damages, lack of tightness h) Gas distribution selling system: lack of tightness, damages, maintenance i) Old technologies used: lack of tightness, damages, maintenance The previous analysis gives the following classification of loss types: a) Accidental losses: - pipe break, corrosion, lack of tightness of pipes and installations

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- spargeri conducte, coroziuni conducte, neetanseitati conducte si instalaii - pori datorati calitii materialelor conductelor - blocri de supape de sigurana - purjri colectoare pentru eliminarea apei sau clorhidratilor. b) Pierderi tehnologice: - curatiri conducte de amestec, colectoare pompare titei, colectoare gaze, SRMuri, instalaii, batale, rezervoare, revizii tehnice - purjri conducte si instalaii: nou construite, extinderi, reparatii - refulari SOL-uri, conducte, instalaii - eliminri gaze neutralizate: CO2 , H2S etc. - splarea SOT- urilor si SOBurilor.

- pores due to pipe material qualities - blocking safety valve - collecting purging to remove water or hydrochloride b) Technological losses: - cleaning mixing pipes, petroleum pumping collectors, gas collectors, regulating and measuring stations, installations, clearing tanks, reservoirs, technical revisions - purging pipes and installations: newly built, extensions, repairs - SOL exhaust, pipes, installations - neutralized gas removals: CO2 , H2S etc. - SOT and SOB washing.

3. Gestionarea deeurilor industria petrolier

n 3. Waste management in petroleum industry

Fig. 1.2 Platform petrolier Instrumentul de implementare in Romnia a politicii UE in domeniul deeurilor este Planul Naional de Gestionare a Deeurilor, ntocmit pentru o protecie eficienta a mediului de lunga durata. Astfel sunt create condiii de: - conservare a resurselor naturale ca urmare a reducerii cantitilor de deeuri generate (principiul aciunii preventive)

Fig. 1.2 Oil platform Implementation instrument in Romania of EU policy in the field of wastes is the National Plan of Waste Management, drawn up for an efficient long term protection of environment. Conditions are thus created by: - natural resources conservation as a result of reducing generated waste amounts(principle of preventive action) - diminution of the impact on the

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- diminuarea impactului asupra mediului si sntii umane (principiul precauiei) - accentuarea responsabilitii generatorilor de deeuri (principiul poluatorul pltete) - realizarea unei reele integrate si adecvate de instalaii si facilitai de eliminare a deeurilor. Organizarea gestionarii deeurilor de producie este responsabilitatea celor care le-au generat. Productorii de deeuri industriale isi folosesc facilitatile proprii de colectare/ transport/eliminare sau contracteaza servicii respectiv cu firme specializate si autoriate conform legii. Strategia declarata oficial de ctre managementul Petrom asupra activitii de extracie si procesare a ieiului nu mai include faciliti de depozitare finala a lamurilor petroliere (fraciile lichide sau inflamabile de deeuri periculoase) de tipul batalurilor de slamuri existente, urmnd a fi prevazute facilitai de procesare a lamului direct la principala sursa de produceresondele de extracie, deversri accidentale de produse petroliere, depozitele si parcurile de rezervoare de produse petroliere. Astfel conform declaraiilor reprezentanilor Petrom, pe lng nchiderea batalurilor menionate in HG. 349/2005 toate batalurile existente vor fi desfintate progresiv pe perioada 2007-2009. Materialele stocate in bataluri urmeaz, sau sunt procesate prin separarea in trei fracii principale respectiv: titei - care este inclus in fluxul de producie curenta, apa care este reinjectata mpreun cu apa de sonda extrasa in mod curent si fracia solida care este / urmeaz a fi supusa unui proces de bio-remediere . Prin prelucrarea ntregii cantitati de lam depozitata si eliminarea implicit a sursei poteniale active de poluare, Petrom va asigura studii de teren detaliate pentru amplasamentele batalurilor si va asigura ntocmirea unor proiecte pentru remedierea zonelor afectate de activitile anterioare.

environment and human health (principle of precaution) - emphasizing responsibilities of waste generators(the principle polluter pays) - developing an integrated and adequate network of installations and waste removal facility. Organization of production waste management is the responsibility of those that generated it. Industrial waste producers use their own collecting/transportation/removal facilities or contract services with companies according to legislation. The strategy officially declared by PETROM management regarding petroleum extraction and processing does no longer include final depositing facilities for slimes(liquid or flammable fractions of dangerous wastes) of such as existing clearing tank type, slime processing facilities being foreseen directly from the main source of production extraction wells, accidental spilling of petroleum products, deposits and reservoir parks Thus, according to the declarations of Petrom representatives, besides closing up the clearing tanks mentioned in Government Order 349/2005, all existing clearing tanks will be progressively taken out between 2007 and 2009. The material stocked in clearing tanks is processed by separation in three principal fractions: petroleum which is included in the current production flow, water which is re-injected together with the well water currently extracted and the solid fraction which is/will be submitted to biorehabilitation process. By processing the entire amount of slime deposited and the implicit removal of the potential active pollution source, Petrom will provide detailed field study for clearing tank placement and will provide projects for the rehabilitation of the affected areas by previous activities. The affected soil will be thus subjected to a similar bio-rehabilitation

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Astfel si solul afectat va fi supus unui proces similar de bio-remediere. In urma procesului de remediere slamul va fi adus la un stadiu in care va putea fi refolosit sau utilizat ca material de umplutura . In paralel pentru a se reduce slamurile, Petrom a planificat implementarea unei noi strategii de producie, plecnd de la tehnologii ce au fost testate ncepnd cu 2007 i au drept scop prelucrarea slamurilor chiar la locul de producere a lor (beciuri de sonda, decantoare, rezervoare). Astfel plecnd de la premisele de prelucrare descrise anterior se testeaz tehnologii pentru separarea slamului in trei componente (titei, apa de sonda si fracie solida) In acest context, riscurile de mediu vor fi reduse drastic, ntruct doar partea solida din lam (decontaminata, avnd caracteristicile unui deeu inert utilizabil ca material de construcie), urmeaz a fi transportata pentru depozitare finala sau valorificare ca materie prima in cadrul unor activiti economice.

process. Subsequent to the rehabilitation process, the slime will be brought to a stage where it could be reused or used as filling material. In parallel, to reduce slime, Petrom planned an implementation of a new production strategy, starting from technologies tested beginning with 2007 with the aim of slime being processed in the very place they are produced(cellar, decanter, reservoir). Thus, starting from the previously described premises, technologies are tested to separate slime in three components(petroleum, well water and solid fraction). In this context, risks for the environment will be seriously reduced, since only the solid part of the slime (decontaminated, with the characteristics of an inert waste that might be used as construction material) will be transported for final depositing or to be used as prime material in economic activities.

4. Concluzii
Emisiile de ageni de poluare a aerului n rafinrii provin, n principal, de la urmtoarele surse: procese de combustie; instalaii tehnologice; facle; parcuri de rezervoare; turnuri de rcire i bazine separatoare cu suprafa deschis; utilaje dinamice, tuuri de prob, ventile, flane, conducte; rampe de ncrcare - descrcare; mijloace i reele de transport auto i ci ferate. Reziduurile solide, nedepozitate corespunztor, care pot polua solul, provin din: impuriti solide antrenate n iei, nmoluri de la epurarea apei uzate i de la tratarea apei brute, reziduuri solide provenite din operaiile de ntreinere i curire, cenu de la incineratorul de nmoluri etc. Principalii poluani ai aerului

4. Conclusions
Air polluting agent in refineries mainly come from the following sources: combustion processes; technological installations; flares; reservoir parks; cooling towers and open surface separator basins; dynamic machines, testing nozzles, valves, flanges, pipes; charging-discharging ramps; road and railway transportation means and networks. Solid residues, inadequately deposited, which can pollute the soil, come from: solid impurities engaged in petroleum, mud from waste water cleaning and treating crude water, solid residues coming from maintenance and cleaning operations, ash from mud incinerator etc. The principal air pollutants coming from petroleum refining are: sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile 156

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provenii din rafinarea petrolului sunt: dioxidul de sulf, oxizii de azot, compuii organici volatili (fenoli, hidrocarburi etc.), acizi, iei, monoxid de carbon, aldehide, amoniac, pulberi. Efectele poluanilor specifici rafinrii petrolului degajai n atmosfer se pot manifesta asupra: omului (deteriorri serioase ale strii de sntate), vegetaiei Poluarea produs de industria petrolului i protecia factorilor de mediu (cloroze i necroze, reducerea fotosintezei i a transpiraiei), apei i solului (creterea aciditii apei, a opacitii acesteia, afectarea faunei i florei acvatice, a florei spontane i de cultur etc.), construciilor (degradarea accelerat a materialelor de construcie, coroziunea, mtuirea, gurirea metalelor etc.) i instalaiilor (apar probleme la instalaiile electrice datorit corodrii contactelor i a cablurilor etc.). n urma diferitelor aciuni omeneti, inclusiv a activitilor desfurate n industria petrolului se modific, att cantitativ, ct i calitativ, substanele care ptrund n ape, producndu-se poluarea apelor, ceea ce duce la un dezechilibru al mediului ambiant. Substanele poluante prezente n apele uzate provenite de la diverse tipuri de instalaii din rafinrii sunt impurificate cu iei, fraciuni petroliere, acizi naftenici, fenoli, compui cu sulf, oxigen, azot, sruri etc. Astfel, deversarea de ctre rafinrii a unor ape uzate cu un coninut mare de poluani poate afecta apele receptoare, n special prin modificarea pHului, prin consumarea oxigenului dizolvat sau printr-o toxicitate care afecteaz calitatea apei receptorilor, respectiv flora i fauna acestora. Produsele petroliere poluante, n special hidrocarburile, prezint risc de nocivitate, afectnd calitatea apelor subterane, care devine improprie utilizrii pentru mult vreme (apa potabil, pentru irigaii sau diverse utilizri industriale). De asemenea, prezint riscuri pentru sntatea uman, pentru mediul bio

organic compounds (phenols, hydrocarbons etc.), acids, petroleum, carbon monoxide, aldehydes, ammonia, powders. The effects of pollutants specific to petroleum refining released in the atmosphere affect human health, vegetation. Pollution generated by petroleum industry and environmental protection (chlorozis, necrosis, photosynthesis and transpiration reduction), water and soil (increase water acidity, it opacity, water flora and fauna, spontaneous and cultivated flora etc.), constructions, corrosion,, installation(cause by corrosion of contacts and cables etc.) Due to various human actions, including activities in petroleum industry, substances that go into water are modified both from a quantitative and qualitative point of view, leading to water pollution, leading in its turn to an imbalance of the ambient environment. Polluting substances present in waste water coming from various types on installations in refineries are contaminated with petroleum, petroleum fractions, naphtha acids, phenols, sulphur compounds, oxygen, nitrogen, salts etc. Thus, waste water spilling from refineries, with high levels of polluters can affect collecting water, especially by pH modification, by consuming dissolved oxygen or a toxicity affecting collecting water quality, their flora and fauna, respectively. Polluting petroleum products, especially hydrocarbons are noxious, affecting underground water quality, which becomes unusable for a long time (potable water, water for irrigation or various industrial use). There are also risks for human health, for bio environment and vegetation, aromatic compound with mutagen and cancer generating character and last but not least, affect environment safety, with explosion and fire risk, when petroleum products floating on the water layer get in the basement of buildings.

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i pentru vegetaie, compuii aromatici avnd un puternic caracter mutagen i cancerigen i, nu n ultimul rnd, afecteaz securitatea mediului, prezentnd riscuri de explozie i de incendiu, atunci cnd produsele petroliere care plutesc pe pnza freatic ajung n subsolul diverselor construcii.

5. Bibliografie
1. Gherlagiu, S. - Impactul industriei petrolului asupra mediului, Raport de doctorat nr.2, 2009 2. Mady, Roca, Studiu pentru identificarea surselor de poluare i nominalizarea poluanilor din prelucrarea ieiului, Contract I.P.I.P., Nr.653, 1992. 3. Gh., Neag, Depoluarea solurilor i apelor subterane, Editura Casa Crii de tiin, Cluj Napoca, 1997. 4. Rauta C., Carstea S.- Prevenirea si combaterea poluarii solului, Ed. Ceres, Bucuresti 1989.

5. References
1. Gherlagiu, S. - Impactul industriei petrolului asupra mediului, Raport de doctorat nr.2, 2009 2. Mady, Roca, Studiu pentru identificarea surselor de poluare i nominalizarea poluanilor din prelucrarea ieiului, Contract I.P.I.P., Nr.653, 1992. 3. Gh., Neag, Depoluarea solurilor i apelor subterane, Editura Casa Crii de tiin, Cluj Napoca, 1997. 4. Rauta C., Carstea S.- Prevenirea si combaterea poluarii solului, Ed. Ceres, Bucuresti 1989.

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