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Cursul4

4
IPv4iIPv6
October25,2011

Obiec9ve

DHCP
ICMP
IPv6
PPPiPPPoE

Cursul4

DHCP
Rol
Funcionare
DHCPRelay

DHCP
DynamicHostCongura9onProtocol
FolositdeostaiepentruaideterminaautomatadresaIP
EstenecesarunserverDHCP
Acestapoateunrutersauuncalculatordedicatdinreea

Deceesteu9lDHCP?

AdresIP?

IP:192.168.0.1

DHCP

Broadcast
Unicast
Broadcast

Unicast

1.DHCPDiscover
2.DHCPOer
3.DHCPRequest

4.DHCPAcknowledgment

DHCP1.Discovery

1.Discovery
2.Oer
3.Request
4.Ack

ClientultrimiteunbroadcastUDPpereeaua
local
ServereleDHCPdinreeaaucongurate
DHCPpoolscarereprezintdefaptseturide
adresecepotasignateclienilor
LaprimireaunuiDHCPdiscover,ecare
serverrezervpentruclientulrespec9vo
adresIP
Peunserverpotconguratemaimulte
DHCPpools;reeauadincarevaalocat
adresaestealeasnfunciedeIPul
interfeeipecaresaprimitcererea

DHCP2.Oer

1.Discovery
2.Oer
3.Request
4.Ack

DuprezervareaIPului,serverultrimiteun
rspunsunicastclientului
Rspunsultrebuiesconinurmtoarele
cmpuri:

AdresaMACaclientului
Adresaoferitdeserver
Mascadereeaaadresei
Durataleaseului
AdresaserveruluideDHCP

Leaseulreprezintduratade9mppentru
careadresaIPesterezervatclientului

DHCP3.Request

1.Discovery
2.Oer
3.Request

Clientultrimiteunbroadcastpentruaspune
dacofertaesteacceptat
Clientul9eadresaIPaserverului.Deceeste
necesarunmesajdebroadcast?
R:Potexistamul9pleservereDHCPnreea.Toate
trebuieinformatedealegereaclientuluipentrua
puteaeliberaadreselerezervatenprimeledou
faze.

4.Ack

DHCP4.Acknowledgment

1.Discovery
2.Oer
3.Request
4.Ack

Serverulitransmiteclientuluicprocesulsa
ncheiatiadresaiafostatribuitpedurata
leaseului
Dacleaseulseapropiedeexpirare,clientul
poatecereoprelungire
Existposibilitateacalaexpirareclientuls
cearadresapecareaavutonainte
Deceesteu9lpstrareaadresei?

nAckpottrimiseialteinformaiicerute
declient:
Defaultgateway
ServereDNS
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DHCPrelay
ExistsituaiincareserverulDHCPnuestenreeaualocal
Deoarecemesajulesteunbroadcastctre255.255.255.255
acestanupoatetransmisnaltereele
RedirectareauneicereriDHCPsepoatefaceprincongurarea
DHCPRelayperuteruldinreeaualocal
CerereaDHCPvaredirectatctreIPulserveruluideDHCPdin
altreea
Discover

?.?.?.?

Gateway
10.0.0.1
90.0.0.1

DHCPRelayctre
90.0.0.2

90.0.0.2

DHCP Server
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Cursul4

ICMP
CeesteICMP
U9litarulping
U9litarultraceroute

CeesteICMP
Reelelesuntstructuricomplexecesuntpredispuseladefecte
Comportamentulreelelorpoatesnuentocmaiceldoritde
administratori/u9lizatori(deexemplubinecunoscutulnumerge
netul)
ProtocolulICMP(InternetControlMessageProtocol)esteu9lizat
niden9careaeroriloraprutenreele
ICMP
Esteunprotocoldenivelul3
ConsideratunprotocolauxiliarIPului
SemnaleazprilorimplicatencomunicaiiIPeventualeeroriceaparla
acestnivel
MaiestefolositipentruatransmiteanumiteinformaiispeciceIPului
(TermsofService,FlowControl,etc.)
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Exempledeerori
Pachetulajungelaunrutercarenugsetedes9naiantabelasa
derutare;pachetulestearuncat
EmitorulesteinformatprintrunmesajICMPDes9na9onUnreachable

PachetulafostprinsntrobuclderutareiTTLulajungela0;
pachetulestearuncat
EmitorulesteinformatprintrunmesajICMPTimeExceeded

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U9litarulping
Scop:Testareafuncionriicomunicaieidenivel3cuodes9naie
Funcionare:EstetrimisunmesajICMPEchoctredes9naiei
seateaptprimireaunuimesajICMPEchoReply
Exemplu:

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U9litarultraceroute
Scop:Vericareaciipecareoiaupachetelectreodes9naie
Funcionare:Setrimit,pernd,mesajeICMPEchoctre
des9naiencepndcuunTTLde1;dupceseprimetemesajul
deICMPTimeExceededsenoteazsursaacestuiaisetrimiteun
noumesajcuunTTLincrementat(Obs:uneleu9litarefolosesc
UDPpentruadeterminacalea)
Exemplu:

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DincursulanteriordezavantajeIPv4
Adreseinsucientepentruafacefacreterii
numruluidedispozi9vecuacceslaInternet
Antetcomplicat
Nusuportpachetededimensiunifoartemari
SuportreduspentruMul9castiIPsec
NATintroducemulteprobleme

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Cursul4

IPv6
AvantajeleIPv6
Formatantet
AdresaIPv6

AvantajeleIPv6
IPv6afostdezvoltatcuscopuldearezolvaproblemele
protocoluluiIPv4
Spaiudeadresemultmaimare
Suportsimplicatpentrumul9cast
Adreseautocongurabile
SuportpentruIPsec
Antetecient
Jumbograme(pachetedepnla4Gb)
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Formatulantetului
Version

TracClass

FlowLabel

PayloadLength

NextHeader

HopLimit

SourceIPAddress(128bits)

Des9na9onIPAddress(128bits)

Data
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Numerehexazecimale

Numerenbaza16
Cifrelesuntreprezentatedesimbolurile09iAF
8bii(unoctet)potreprezentaicadoucifrehexa
4biipotreprezentaicaosingurcifrhexaaspel:
Bii

Baza16

Bii

Baza16

0000

1000

0001

1001

0010

1010

0011

1011

0100

1100

0101

1101

0110

1110

0111

1111

F
20

Numerehexazecimale
Transformainhexazecimalurmtoruloctet:
6

01101011

TransformainhexazecimalurmtoareaadresIP:
11000000

C0

10101000

A8

01011101

5D

00001010

0A

192.168.93.10

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AdresaIPv6
128bii
Reprezentatncifrehexazecimale:
2001:0db8:1f70:0000:0000:0de8:7648:06e8
Zerouriledinfaaecruigruppotomisepentruascurta
adresa:
2001:db8:1f70:0000:0000:de8:7648:6e8
Unsingurircon9nuudezerouridinfapoateprescurtat
ca:::
2001:db8:1f70::de8:7648:6e8

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SubnetareIPv6
Iden9ccuIPv4laniveldebit
Datoritnumruluimaredeadrese,poatefolositurmtoarea
convenie:

2001:0000:0000:0000:02D0:58FF:FEA9:1901
Parteadereea

Parteadehost

Procesuldesubnetareselimiteazlaparteadereea
Cemascdereeaareadresademaisus?
R:/64

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Exerciiu
Subnetaireeauaurmtoaren32desubreelededimensiuni
egale

2001:0000:0000:0000:02D0:58FF:FEA9:1901/16
R:
32desubreelepotcodicatecu5bii

2001:0000:0000:0000:02D0:58FF:FEA9:1901/16
00000000(binar)

Soluiaeste:
2001:0000:0000:0000:02D0:58FF:FEA9:1901/21
2001:0800:0000:0000:02D0:58FF:FEA9:1901/21
2001:1000:0000:0000:02D0:58FF:FEA9:1901/21
2001:1800:0000:0000:02D0:58FF:FEA9:1901/21
2001:F800:0000:0000:02D0:58FF:FEA9:1901/21

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TipurideadreseIPv6
Adres

Rol

Loopback

::1

Testareas9veiTCP/IP

Globalunicast

2000::/3

Transmisiiunicast

Linklocal

FE80::/10

Comunicaiinacelai
segmentdereea

MulYcast

FF00::/8

Transmisiictreungrup

Broadcast

???

Rutdefault

::/0

Folositnrutare
(detaliincursul6)

EsteoadrescencepecuFEB7oadreslinklocal?
R:Da.Doarprimii10biitrebuieseaceiai.
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Adreseeui64
PermitecreareadeadreseunicentrunLANporninddoardela
adresadereea
CreeazoadresIPv6dehostdelaadresadereeaiadresa
MACainterfeeizice:
Biideumplutur
.fe

AdresMAC
00.d0.58.a9.19.01

00.d0.58..fe.a9.19.01
Adresadereea
2001:0000:0000:00A0

Inversarebit7
02.d0.58..fe.a9.19.01

2001:0000:0000:00A0:02D0:58FF:FEA9:1901
26

DincursulanteriorTopologieexemplu

192.168.17.35/26
B
192.168.17.64/26
A

SW1

192.168.17.31/27
C

27

TopologieexempluIPv6
PotexistamaimulteadreseIPv6peaceeaiinterfa
Fiecareinterfaareioadreslinklocalgeneratautomatpe
bazaMACului
FE80::2D0:58FF:FEA9:1902/64
2001:0:0:1::B/64
FE80::2D0:58FF:FEA9:1901/64
2001:0:0:1::A/64
A

SW1

B
FE80::2D0:58FF:FEA9:1903/64
2001:0:0:1::C/64
C

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NDP

NetworkDiscoveryProtocol
Includeurmtoarelefuncionaliti:

Autocongurareaadreselor
Descoperireaechipamentelordinreea
Determinareaadreselordenivel2
Descoperireagatewayului
Descoperireaadreseidereea(prexului)
Descoperireaadreselorduplicat

FolosetemesajeICMPpentruandeplinifuncionalitile

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ICMPv6
ProtocolcendeplineterolulICMPpentruprotocolulIPv6
5mesajeICMPv6suntfolositedeNDPpentruaoferiservicii
automatenreeaualocal
Router
Solicita9on
(133)

Folositdestaiipentruacereinformaiituturorruterelor
dinreeaualocal

Trimiseperiodicderuteresaucarspunslacerereaunui
RS
Router
Pebazaacestormesajeostaieiconstruietedinamic
Adver9sement
listaderuteredefault(defaultgateway)
(134)
Folositnstatelessautocongpentrudescoperirea
prexuluireelei
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ICMPv6
Neighbor
Solicita9on
(135)

Folositpentruadescoperiadreselelinklocalalevecinilor
cndsecunoateadresaIPv6(similarARP)
Folositpentruadeterminadacexistconec9vitatecu
unvecin
Detecteazadreseleduplicaten9mpulprocesuluide
autocongurare

TrimisecarspunslaunNS
Trimiseautomatatuncicndarelocoschimbarea
Neighbor
Adver9sement
adreseidenivel2
LaprimireaunuiNAecarenodiactualizeazlistade
(136)
vecini

Redirect
(137)

Folositederuterepentruaindicahosturilorcpentru
des9naiadoritesterecomandatfolosireaunuialt
ruterdinreea
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Autocongurare(stateless)
RFC2462
Nunecesitnicioconguraresuplimentarnreeaualocal
OferdoaradresIPglobalidefaultgateway
PentruDNSialteinformaiiestenecesarinstalareaunuiserverDHCPv6

Pai:
1. SegenereazadresalinklocalprinconcatenareaFE80::/64cueui64(saucu
unalttokengeneratpe64debii)
2. Setesteazdacadresalinklocalesteunic
3. Daceunic,seasigneazadresalinklocalinterfeeizice
4. SencearcdescoperireaunuiruterlocalprinascultareaRAurilorsau
forareaunuiRAprintrimitereaunuiRS
5. RuterulrspundenRAcu9pulautocongurriidinreeaualocal(Cmpul
MdincmpulAutocongFlagsdinmesajulRA)
6. Dacefolositautocongurarestateless,segenereazadresaunicprin
concatenareaprexuluiprimitnRAcuul9mii64debiidinadresadela
pasul1
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Autocongurare(stateless)
0.Stareiniialreea

Fa0/0

SW1

Ruter
(fr DHCP)

B
InformaiiIPv6peA:

AdresFa0/0:

StareFa0/0:Shutdown
Listruteredefault:

Listprexe:
FE80::/10

33

Autocongurare(stateless)
1.GenerareadreslinklocallaridicareainterfeeiFa0/0

Fa0/0

Generatlinklocal:
FE80::02D0:58FF:FEA9:1901/64
InformaiiIPv6peA:

SW1

Ruter
(fr DHCP)

B
AdresFa0/0:

StareFa0/0:Up
Listruteredefault:

Listprexe:
FE80::/10

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Autocongurare(stateless)
2.Testareaunicitiiadreseilinklocal(DADDuplicateAddressDetec9on)

NA

NS
Fa0/0

InformaiiIPv6peA:

NA

Esteunicadresa?
FE80::02D0:58FF:FEA9:1901/64

SW1

Ruter
(fr DHCP)
UnNAetrimisca
rspunsdoardac
adresaeunduplicat

AdresFa0/0:

StareFa0/0:Up
Listruteredefault:

Listprexe:
FE80::/10

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Autocongurare(stateless)
3.AdresalinklocalunicesteasignatinterfeeiFa0/0

Fa0/0

Adresaesteunicdecipoate
adugatpeinterfa.
FE80::02D0:58FF:FEA9:1901/64
InformaiiIPv6peA:
StareFa0/0:Up
Listruteredefault:

SW1

Ruter
(fr DHCP)

B
AdresFa0/0:
FE80::2D0:58FF:FEA9:1901/64
Listprexe:
FE80::/10

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Autocongurare(stateless)
4.StaiaAcereunRApentruanuateptaupdateulperiodic

RS
Fa0/0

SW1

Ruter
(fr DHCP)

B
InformaiiIPv6peA:
StareFa0/0:Up
Listruteredefault:

AdresFa0/0:
FE80::02D0:58FF:FEA9:1901/64
Listprexe:
FE80::/10

37

Autocongurare(stateless)
5.RuterulrspundecuunRAncareicomunicstaieiprexeledinreea,
adresasalinklocalifaptulcpoatefolosistatelessautocongura9on
A

RA
Fa0/0

SW1

Ruter
(fr DHCP)

B
InformaiiIPv6peA:
StareFa0/0:Up
Listruteredefault:
FE80::2D0:D3FF:FE25:C02/64

AdresFa0/0:
FE80::2D0:58FF:FEA9:1901/64
Listprexe:
FE80::/10
2001:0:0:1234::/64
38

Autocongurare(stateless)
6.Agenereazadreseglobalefolosindprexeleobinutenpasulanteriori
ul9maporiunedinadresasalinklocal
A

RA
Fa0/0

SW1

Ruter
(fr DHCP)

B
InformaiiIPv6peA:
StareFa0/0:Up
Listruteredefault:
FE80::2D0:D3FF:FE25:C02/64

AdresFa0/0:
FE80::2D0:58FF:FEA9:1901/64
2001::1234:2D0:58FF:FEA9:1901/64
Listprexe:
FE80::/10
2001:0:0:1234::/64
39

Autocongurare(stateful)
NecesitcongurareaunuiserverdeDHCPv6
DHCPv6esteu9ldoarnasigurareaunorserviciisuplimentaren
reea(adresareaIPesterezolvatmultmaiuordestateless
autocong):

ServereDNS
ServereWINS
DomeniulDNS
ServereNTP
A

SW1

Ruter
(cu DHCP)

B
40

ARPIPv6?

Dincursulanterior:
CeesteARP?Laceniveldins9vaOSIopereaz?
DeceestenecesarARP?
Cumfuncioneaz?

ntroreeaIPv6,avemaceeaiproblem:cumputemaaadresa
MACdac9madresaIPv6?
ARPnuesteosoluie
Dece?CedefecteaveaARP?

UnnouprotocolaluatrolulARPuluipentruIPv6:NDP

41

Determinareaadreseidenivel2
OperaresimilarcuARP
FoloseteNSiNApentruadescoperiadresadenivel2:
NeighborSolicita9onpachetmul9castcareconinecerereaadreseide
nivel2
NeighborAdver9sementrspunsulceconineadresa
FE80::2D0:58FF:FEA9:1902/64
2001:0:0:1::B/64
B

FE80::2D0:58FF:FEA9:1901/64
2001:0:0:1::A/64
A

FE80::2D0:58FF:FEA9:1902/64
2001:0:0:1::C/64

SW1
1.NS

2.NA

42

Cursul4

PPP
Funcionare
PPPoE

PPP
PointtoPointProtocol
Funcioneazlanivelullegturdedate
OferfuncionaliticenusuntspecicatedeEthernet:
Auten9care
Criptare
Compresie

Estefolositpestenumeroasemediizice:
Liniiseriale
Liniitelefonice
Fibrop9c

Funcioneazattpestecircuitesincronectiasincrone

44

PPPoE
FolositdeISPuripentruacombinafuncionalitilesuplimentare
alePPPcuinfrastructuraEthernet
CadrelePPPsuntncapsulatencadreEthernet
RolulPPPestedeastabiliconexiunicudispozi9veleceintrn
reea,oferindaspelsecuritatesporit

Ethernet

PPP

IP

Auten9careicriptare
Transportcadrepesteinfrastructurazic

45

Cuvintecheie
PPP
PPPoE

Request
Ping

ICMP

Echo
Request
NS

ICMPv6
NA

RA

Oer

DHCP

Relay

Acknowledgment

Traceroute

Echo
Reply
RS

Discover

DHCPv6
Mul9cast

NDP
Autocongurare
IPv6
Linklocal

Jumbogram
DAD

46

TheEnd

?
R

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