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BASIC ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF MOS AND CMOS CIRCUITS

A MOS transistor is a majority-carrier device, in which the current in a conducting channel between the source and the drain is modulated by a voltage applied to the gate.

Symbols

Figure 1 : symbols of various types of transistors.


An MOS transistor is termed as a majority-carrier device, in which the current conduction in a conducting channel between the source and drain is modulated by a voltage applied at the gate. In nMOS the majority carrier are electrons. A positive voltage applied on the gate with respect to the substrate enhances the number of electrons in the channel and hence increases the conductivity of the channel. If gate voltage is less than a threshold voltage Vt , the channel is cutoff (very low current between source & drain). In PMOS (p-type MOS transistor) majority carriers are holes. Applied voltage is negative with respect to substrate. Symbol Definitions Vt: the threshold voltage of an nMOS or a pMOS transistor. Vtn: the threshold voltage of an nMOS transistor. Vtp: the threshold voltage of a pMOS transistor. Vds: the voltage difference between the drain and the source for an nMOS or a pMOS transistor. Vdsn: the voltage difference between the drain and the source for an nMOS transistor. Vdsp: the voltage difference between the drain and the source for a pMOS transistor. Vgs: the voltage difference between the gate and the source for an nMOS or a pMOS transistor.

Vgsn: the voltage difference between the gate and the source for an nMOS transistor. Vgsp: the voltage difference between the gate and the source for a pMOS transistor. Ids: the current between the drain and the source for an nMOS or a pMOS transistor. Idsn: the current between the drain and the source for an nMOS transistor. Idsp: the current between the drain and the source for a pMOS transistor. Vin: the input voltage. Vinp: the input voltage for a pMOS transistor. Vinn: the input voltage for an nMOS transistor. Vout: the output voltage. Vdd: power supply. Vss: ground. Four modes of transistors Enhancement mode nMOS transistor: Vtn > 0 If Vgs > Vtn, the transistor starts to conduct. The number of electrons in the channel increases so that Idsn increases accordingly. If Vgs < Vtn, the transistor is cut off and Ids is almost zero. Depletion mode nMOS transistor: Vtn < 0 (in the textbook it is referred as -Vtn and Vtn > 0) Even if Vgs = 0 > Vtn, the transistor is on. If Vgs < Vtn < 0, the transistor is cut off. Enhancement mode pMOS transistor: Vtp < 0 (in the textbook it is referred as -Vtp and Vtp > 0) If Vgs < Vtp < 0, the transistor starts to conduct. The number of holes in the channel increases so that Idsp increases accordingly. If Vgs > Vtp, the transistor is cut off. Depletion mode pMOS transistor:

Vtp > 0 Even if Vgs = 0 < Vtp, the transistor is on. If Vgs > Vtp > 0, the transistor is cut off. Conduction characteristics of MOS transistors

Devices that are normally cut-off with zero gate bias are classified as "enhancement- mode "devices. Devices that conduct with zero gate bias are called "depletion-mode"devices. Enhancement-mode devices are more popular in practical use. The n-channel transistors and pchannel transistors are the duals of each other; that is , the voltage polarities required for correct operation are the opposite. Most CMOS integrated circuits at present use enhancement mode transistors.