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# Stu dy ing

He r edi ty
(Ch . 8-3 – 8- 4)
 Punnett squares were invented by
Reginald Punnett.
 It is a diagram that predicts all of the
possible combinations of gametes in
a cross.
 Punnett squares with 4 squares are
used for Monohybrid crosses.
Ge notyp es

##  Mixing YY with yy will always give you

4 Yy.
 Mixing Yy with Yy will always give you:
 ¼ YY (Homozygous Dominant)
 2/4 Yy (Heterozygous)
 ¼ yy (Homozygous Recessive)
 If a Phenotype is dominant but the
genotype is unknown, a test cross is
performed with a homozygous
recessive individual.
 Probabilities can also predict the
expected results of crosses.
 Probability is the likelihood that a
specific event will occur.
 Probability =# of one kind of possible outcome
total # of all possible outcomes
 Ex. One allele for green seed color and
One allele for yellow seed color = ½
probability
 To find the probability of two
independent events, just multiply them
together.
 Ex. Probability that two pennies will
½ X ½ = ¼
 When several genes influence a trait,
the trait is called a polygenic trait.
 Ex. Horse with red hair mates with horse
with white hair; baby horse has red and
white hair.
 If intermediate traits between two
parents are expressed, that is called
incomplete dominance.
 Ex. Red flower with White flower = Pink
flower
 Another ex.  Curly hair with Straight
hair = Wavy hair.
 Codominance happens when both
traits are displayed.
 Ex. Black Chicken mixed with White
chicken  Black and White striped
chicken.
 Genes with 3 or more alleles are said to
have multiple alleles.
 Ex. Human Blood determined by 3
alleles:
 IA, IB, and i (recessive)
 People can have A, B, AB, or O blood
types.