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Telecommunication Switching Network

Tuhina Samanta

BEIT, 6th Semester


Introduction, elements of Tele traffic, Erlang's formula. Switching techniques - Electronics switching, generic switch and Engset formula, SD/TD/STS networks. Hybrid time and space division switching Telephone networks- Signaling, DTMF techniques, transmission, digital transmission requirements. Cellular Mobile Telephone System- Cell concepts, architecture, hardware procedures, GSM and CDMA standard, Data networks, Packet/Circuit Switching, LAN, MAN, WAN, ISDN, Broadband network, ATM concept and functionality. Services- FAX, Cable TV, Video on demand.

BEIT, 6th Semester

Telecommunication Switching Network

BEIT, 6th Semester

Basic Terms
Calling subscriber initiates the call Called subscriber call is destined to Setting up connection to required destination
information sent to serving exchange. May pass through several exchanges (all exchanges on route).

Signaling required to draw attention of the called subscriber

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Modes of Communication
One way communication involving two entities

An entity is capable of both transmitting and receiving but not simultaneously

Information transfer takes place in both the directions
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A Network with a Point-to-point Link

N entities, Number of links (L) = (n-1) + (n -2) + 1 + 0 = n (n-1)/2

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Communication Network

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A Telecommunication Network
Subscriber Lines Subscriber Lines




SS= Switching System
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Subscriber Lines

Subscriber Lines

Switching Network Configurations

Incoming Trunks N inlets Switching Network M Outlets Switching Network Subscriber Subscriber inlets outlets Inlet-Outlet Connection Outgoing Trunks

Symmetric Network (M= N)

N Incoming Trunks

Switching Network

M Outgoing Trunks

N subscriber Lines

Switching Network

Nonfolded Network Folded Network

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Nonblocking network
networks with N subscribers has N/2 simultaneous switching paths

Blocking Network
number of simultaneous switching paths is less than number of simultaneous conversation that can take place

Erlang(E) internationally accepted standard for traffic intensity

A switching resource is said to carry one Erlang of traffic if it is continuously occupied throughout a given period of observation
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Evolution of Switching System

Space Switch

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Manual System
Obtain the number to connect from caller Connect the call of the called line (inserting plug of cord circuit) Alerts the called customer Monitoring process called supervision

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Strowger Step-by-Step
Connections are set up in stages called progressive control. The uniselectors act as concentrator at each customer premise. The final is the expander.

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Crossbar Switching
Strowger switches require regular maintenance. Replace manual operated switch by matrix telephone relays called Matrix Crosspoints. The switch retains a set of contacts at each crosspoint. Contacts are multiplied together. Uneconomic as N inlets and N outlets requires N2 relays.
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Electronic Switching
Facilities controlled by customers
Call barring, Repeat last call, Reminder calls, Call diversion, Three way calls, Charge advice

Multiplex System

Space Division (SD) System

Connection is made over a different path in.

Time Division (TD) System

connection made over the same path but different instant in time.

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Speech Digitization and Transmission

Speech digitization

Line Coding
Properties Types of coding

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Time Division Multiplexing

Subdivide the capacity of a digital transmission system into parts in time. STDM Synchronous TDM
Time slots are assigned in repetitive manner

ATDM Asynchronous TDM

Assign capacity as and when needed

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Four Channel TDM Frame Structure

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1


Bit Interleaving

4 4 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1


4-bit word Interleaving

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Frame Synchronization
Extra frame bit is added, or some data bit treated as frame bits to ensure resume of new frame. For T1 channel structure, 24 channels are multiplexed having frame length of 193bits (24 8 + 1)bits. Average frame acquisition time Ft is important for frame synchronization
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Frame Synchronization
Assume Ft uses 1 framing bit per frame with alternating ones and zeros Ft = avg. time required to examine the required number of bits before a framing bit is hit upon Ft = avg. time required to test and ensure that chosen bit is a frame bit Ft = Ft Ft This implies bits are chosen one by one and tested sequentially
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Frame Synchronization
p = prob. of finding a 1 in a bit position q = p -1 = prob. of finding a 0 in a bit position If the first bit observed is a 1, then the probability that a mismatch occurs at the end of,
One frame = p Two frame = q.q = q2 Three frames = q.p.p = qp2 Four frames = q.p.q.q = q3p Five frames = q.p.q.p.p = q2p3 Six frames = q.p.q.p.q.q = q4p2

Hence Ft = p + 2q2 + 3qp2 + 4q3p + 5q2p3 + 6q4p2

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Frame Synchronization
Assume, p = q Then, Ft = p/(1-p)2 frame times Setting p =1/2 , Ft = 2 frame times = 2N bit times Average number of bits that must be tested before the framing bit is encountered is N/2, i.e.Ft = (N/2) Ft = (2N)(N/2) = N2 bit times
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Added Channel Framing

Recent technique use dedicated separate channel for framing Framing digits are added in a group CCITT multiplexing standard 32 channels per frame with one channel carrying framing information, one channel signalling information, and 30 channels for data N2 N For multibit frame code, Ft L bits
2(2 1) 2
N = length of the frame L = length of the frame code Assumption: 1 and 0 occurs with equal probability
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1. B.P. Lathi, Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, Oxford University Press 2. Thiagarajan Viswanathan, Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks, Prentice Hall India, 2007 3. Taub, Schilling, Principle of Communication Systems, Tata Mcgraw Hill 4. J. E. Flood, Telecommunications, Switching, Traffic and Networks, Prentice Hall, 1999.
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