Sunteți pe pagina 1din 24

Telecommunication Switching Network

Tuhina Samanta

BEIT, 6th Semester

IT-602: TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS


Introduction, elements of Tele traffic, Erlang's formula. Switching techniques - Electronics switching, generic switch and Engset formula, SD/TD/STS networks. Hybrid time and space division switching Telephone networks- Signaling, DTMF techniques, transmission, digital transmission requirements. Cellular Mobile Telephone System- Cell concepts, architecture, hardware procedures, GSM and CDMA standard, Data networks, Packet/Circuit Switching, LAN, MAN, WAN, ISDN, Broadband network, ATM concept and functionality. Services- FAX, Cable TV, Video on demand.

BEIT, 6th Semester

Telecommunication Switching Network

BEIT, 6th Semester

Basic Terms
Calling subscriber initiates the call Called subscriber call is destined to Setting up connection to required destination
information sent to serving exchange. May pass through several exchanges (all exchanges on route).

Signaling required to draw attention of the called subscriber


BEIT, 6th Semester 4

Modes of Communication
Simplex
One way communication involving two entities

Half-duplex
An entity is capable of both transmitting and receiving but not simultaneously

Full-duplex
Information transfer takes place in both the directions
BEIT, 6th Semester 5

A Network with a Point-to-point Link

N entities, Number of links (L) = (n-1) + (n -2) + 1 + 0 = n (n-1)/2


BEIT, 6th Semester 6

Communication Network

BEIT, 6th Semester

A Telecommunication Network
Subscriber Lines Subscriber Lines

SS1
Trunks

SS2

Trunks

SS4
SS= Switching System
BEIT, 6th Semester

SS3

Subscriber Lines

Subscriber Lines
8

Switching Network Configurations


Incoming Trunks N inlets Switching Network M Outlets Switching Network Subscriber Subscriber inlets outlets Inlet-Outlet Connection Outgoing Trunks

Symmetric Network (M= N)

N Incoming Trunks

Switching Network

M Outgoing Trunks

N subscriber Lines

Switching Network

Nonfolded Network Folded Network


BEIT, 6th Semester 9

Tele-traffic
Nonblocking network
networks with N subscribers has N/2 simultaneous switching paths

Blocking Network
number of simultaneous switching paths is less than number of simultaneous conversation that can take place

Erlang(E) internationally accepted standard for traffic intensity


A switching resource is said to carry one Erlang of traffic if it is continuously occupied throughout a given period of observation
BEIT, 6th Semester 10

Evolution of Switching System

Space Switch

BEIT, 6th Semester

11

Manual System
Obtain the number to connect from caller Connect the call of the called line (inserting plug of cord circuit) Alerts the called customer Monitoring process called supervision

BEIT, 6th Semester

12

Strowger Step-by-Step
Connections are set up in stages called progressive control. The uniselectors act as concentrator at each customer premise. The final is the expander.

BEIT, 6th Semester

13

Crossbar Switching
Strowger switches require regular maintenance. Replace manual operated switch by matrix telephone relays called Matrix Crosspoints. The switch retains a set of contacts at each crosspoint. Contacts are multiplied together. Uneconomic as N inlets and N outlets requires N2 relays.
BEIT, 6th Semester 14

Electronic Switching
Facilities controlled by customers
Call barring, Repeat last call, Reminder calls, Call diversion, Three way calls, Charge advice

Multiplex System
FDM TDM

Space Division (SD) System


Connection is made over a different path in.

Time Division (TD) System


connection made over the same path but different instant in time.

BEIT, 6th Semester

15

Speech Digitization and Transmission


Speech digitization
PCM DPCM

Line Coding
Properties Types of coding

BEIT, 6th Semester

16

Time Division Multiplexing


Subdivide the capacity of a digital transmission system into parts in time. STDM Synchronous TDM
Time slots are assigned in repetitive manner

ATDM Asynchronous TDM


Assign capacity as and when needed

BEIT, 6th Semester

17

Four Channel TDM Frame Structure


1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1

Frame

Bit Interleaving

4 4 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1

Frame

4-bit word Interleaving


BEIT, 6th Semester 18

Frame Synchronization
Extra frame bit is added, or some data bit treated as frame bits to ensure resume of new frame. For T1 channel structure, 24 channels are multiplexed having frame length of 193bits (24 8 + 1)bits. Average frame acquisition time Ft is important for frame synchronization
BEIT, 6th Semester 19

Frame Synchronization
Assume Ft uses 1 framing bit per frame with alternating ones and zeros Ft = avg. time required to examine the required number of bits before a framing bit is hit upon Ft = avg. time required to test and ensure that chosen bit is a frame bit Ft = Ft Ft This implies bits are chosen one by one and tested sequentially
BEIT, 6th Semester 20

Frame Synchronization
p = prob. of finding a 1 in a bit position q = p -1 = prob. of finding a 0 in a bit position If the first bit observed is a 1, then the probability that a mismatch occurs at the end of,
One frame = p Two frame = q.q = q2 Three frames = q.p.p = qp2 Four frames = q.p.q.q = q3p Five frames = q.p.q.p.p = q2p3 Six frames = q.p.q.p.q.q = q4p2

Hence Ft = p + 2q2 + 3qp2 + 4q3p + 5q2p3 + 6q4p2


BEIT, 6th Semester 21

Frame Synchronization
Assume, p = q Then, Ft = p/(1-p)2 frame times Setting p =1/2 , Ft = 2 frame times = 2N bit times Average number of bits that must be tested before the framing bit is encountered is N/2, i.e.Ft = (N/2) Ft = (2N)(N/2) = N2 bit times
BEIT, 6th Semester 22

Added Channel Framing


Recent technique use dedicated separate channel for framing Framing digits are added in a group CCITT multiplexing standard 32 channels per frame with one channel carrying framing information, one channel signalling information, and 30 channels for data N2 N For multibit frame code, Ft L bits
2(2 1) 2
N = length of the frame L = length of the frame code Assumption: 1 and 0 occurs with equal probability
BEIT, 6th Semester 23

Books
1. B.P. Lathi, Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, Oxford University Press 2. Thiagarajan Viswanathan, Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks, Prentice Hall India, 2007 3. Taub, Schilling, Principle of Communication Systems, Tata Mcgraw Hill 4. J. E. Flood, Telecommunications, Switching, Traffic and Networks, Prentice Hall, 1999.
BEIT, 6th Semester 24