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1

Figura 1.1 Figura 1.2 Figura 1.3 Figura 1.4















Figura 1.7




Figura 1.5








Figura 1.8





Figura 1.6






Figura 1.9




Figura 1.11





Figura 1.12 Figura 1.10
SURUB
Filet strunjit Filet rulat

2
d
2
d
3

d
2

d
p

2
2
d
p
tg


Elicea desfasurata
Surub
(arbore)
Piese asamblate
(dar si piulita si contrapiulita)
prezon
piese
asamblate
element de siguranta (saiba Grower)
piulita
surub
piese
asamblate
element de
siguranta
(saiba Grower)
)
piulita
piese
asamblate
surub
Diametrele piulitei
a)

d
1

d
3

Diametrele surubului

Axa surubului si piulitei
b)

D

D
2

D
1

H
1

h
3

H

d

d
1
d
2

Surub

Piulita

90

p

e
H
4
H
2
H
2
H
d
3

6
H
r

60

60
r

d

d
1

d
2

D
1

D
2

D
3

Surub
Piulita p
30
3
r
d

d
1

d
2

D
1

D
2

D

Surub
p
t

t
1

t
2

Piulita
d

d
1

d
2

D
1

D
2

D

Surub
Piulita
p
30
p
d

d
1

d
2

D
1
D
2
D

Surub
Piulita
p
30
p
2
5 , 0
2
tg 1
tg 1
tg 2
tg
2 tg
tg
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2


(1.1)
2
3
t
d
4
F


(1.2)
3
3
12
t
d
16
M


(1.3)
at
2
t
2
t ech
4 +
(1.4)
at
necesar 3
F 4
d


(1.5)



















Figura 1.13
Figura 1.14













Figura 1.16







Figura 1.15

3
3
13 12
t
2
3
c
d
16
M M
;
d
4
F


(1.6)
ac
2
t
2
c ech
4 +
(1.7)
80%
suruburi
de fixare
40
filet fierastrau

2
filet triunghiular
sau trapezoidal
randament relativ ridicat, dar
prelucrarea este dificila
10 30 20
O
50
60%
40%
20%
100%
60
randament foarte mic,
dar exista autofrnare
suruburi de miscare
h
p
D
d
d
2
D
2
d
1
= D
1

d
3

H a
z
F

Sectiunea cu
tensiune
maxima la
ncovoiere n
spira piulitei
Sectiunea cu
tensiune
maxima la
ncovoiere n
spira
surubului
surub
piulita
F
F
M
tot
M
12
M
13
Q - forta la cheie
1 - surub
2 - piulita
3 piesa presata
prghie de
actionare
z
F
h
d
3
(pentru surub),
respectiv D (pentru piulita)
a
2
H
+
3
; F F
c
= 1,05 1,5. (1.8)
( )
as
2
2
1
2
s
H d
z
F
d d
4
z
F
p

(1.9)

,
_

+ a
2
H
z
F
M
i
(1.10)
surub
ai
2
3
i
i
6
h d
M



(1.11)
piulita
ai
2
i
i
6
h D
M



(1.12)
2
p
2 z p m + = p (z + 1) (1.13)
ai
3
2
at
2
3
as 1 2 at
2
3
a
2
H
6
d h z
4
d
z H d
4
d

,
_

+





(1.14)
d 8 , 0 m
d 54 , 0 p z m
d 75 , 0 p z m



(1.15)
F F
s
(1.16)
F F
s
(1.17)
t a
s
necesar
3
F 4
d



(1.18)
f a
2
f
d
F 4


(1.19)
s a
min
s
l d
F


(1.20)











Figura 1.17 Figura 1.18












Figura 1.19

Figura 1.20 Figura 1.21
Sectiunea A - 15 %
Sectiunea B - 20 %
Sectiunea C - 65 %
2
3
4
8
9
1
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
F
F
1 1
a) b) c)
F
F
l
m
i
n

d
F
F
F
s
F
s
F
s
F
s
4
a)
b)






Figura 1.23












Figura 1.22 Figura 1.24

4
D
p F
2
max max

(1.21)
s
max
i
F
F (1.22)
f
0
f
s
0
s
l
F
tg c ;
l
F
tg c

(1.23)

'

>


0 F
F ) 6 , 0 ... 5 , 0 ( F
0
0
(1.24)
( ). tg tg l F F F F ;
l
F
tg ;
l
F
tg
s 0 z
s
0
s
z
+ +



(1.25)
f s
s
z
c c
c
F
+
(1.26)
( )
s
s
ts
s
s
ts
s s
s
s
min
min
min
min
max
max
f s
s
z max 0 min
max
z 0 0 max
A
F
;
A
F
c c
c
6 , 1 ... 5 , 1 F F F F F
F ) 6 , 1 ... 5 , 1 ( F
F F F F F

1
]
1

+


+ +


(1.27)














Figura 1.26


Figura 1.25

l
f

l
s

l
s


p
1s
0s
2s
0f

l
f

l
f

l
f

1f
2f
l
f

p
D
D
F
0
l
f
l
s
l
f l
s

s f
O
F
s
f
caracteristica elastica a
surubului
caracteristica
elastica
a flanselor
p
timp
P
max
F
0

F
F
z

F
0

F
0
f
l
s
l
f
l
f
l
s
=l

variatia fortei din surub
variatia fortei din
flanse
1 1f

s
0
2
0f
2f


5

+



2
2
ts ts
ts ts
min max
m
min max
v
(1.28)
a
c
m
1
v k
c
1
c


(1.29)
( )
2
g
2
3
g
3
0
2
0 ch
D S
D S
3
1
F tg
2
d
F M

+ + (1.30)
l
A E
c

(1.31)



i
i
0 s
A E
l
F l
(1.32)

i
s s
c
1
c
1

(1.33)
( ) [ ]

+
+

2 f 1 f f
f
g
2
f f
f
f f
f
l l l
; D l S
4
A
;
l
A E
c

(1.34)
i i
i
i
s
W
I E
M
;
L


(1.35)










Figura 1.29
Figura 1.27









Figura 1.30 Figura 1.31










Figura 1.31 Figura 1.32 Figura 1.33
cota nula sau negativa


V
W
s

F

F
0

t
0
F
F
t
F
t
rem
F
t
t
F
F

F
z
F
z
F
F
0


L
s


l
f
l
f
D
g
S

S + l
f
S + 2l
f
?
F
z
F
z
F
F
F
0

6
s
s
i
L 2
d E


(1.36)
V
E W 2
E 2
1
V
W
E
;
2
1
V
W
s
2
s
s


(1.37)








Figura 1.36
Figura 1.34

Figura 1.35





Figura 1.38




Figura 1.37

Figura 1.39 Figura 1.41







Figura 1.42






Figura 1.40
Figura 1.43










Figura 1.44 Figura 1.45 Figura 1.46
( ) +
2
2
1 t
tg
2
d
F M (1.38)
n care:

,
_


sin d
k 2
arctg
2
; k coeficient de frecare de rostogolire.
gaura filetata
gaura de trecere
P
1
P
2
pasul 1 p
pasul 2 p
(decalat axial)

2
F
d
2

a)
b)