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Technical Writing is used to give an account or description of an aspect of a particular art, science, trade, or profession, learned by experience, study,

observation, or investigation. Three Elements Involve in Technical Writing 1.Problem or Subject Matter that is not popular knowledge but rather is specialized in that it belongs to art,science, medicine, engineering, architecture, business, or the like.2.Study, investigation, observation, analysis, experimentation, and measurement to be able to collect accurateand precise information about the problem or subject matter.3.The organization and presentation of the information thus gathered so that it will be clear and meaningful tothe intended readers. The final product of this three stage process is a technical report. Characteristics of technical writing 1.Technical writing treats of subject matter related to science and technology.2.Technical writing is characterized by certain elements such as its scientific and technical vocabulary, its use of graphic or visual aids and its use of conventional report forms.3.Technical writing observes impartiality and objectivity.4.Technical writing uses certain complex writing techniques.5.Technical writing has practicality and power. Qualities of a technical paper 1.The writing is marked by a nonsense approach to the subject that it treats. It is single-minded and earnest.2.The purpose of the paper is usually spelled out in the opening paragraph or two.3.The vocabulary tends to be specialized.4.Sentences are highly specific and fact filled.5.When appropriate to the material, numbers and dimensions are numerous, are usually in Arabic form and areexact rather than rounded to the nearest whole number.6.Signs, symbols, and formulas are present if required and the terms may be listed and defined in accompanyingglossaries.7.Graphs and tables may reinforce and expand upon the surrounding discussion.8.Documentation and credits appear in notes and bibliographies. COMPARISON BETWEEN TECHNICAL WRITING AND LITERARY WRITING Literary writers cater to mans affective sense while technical writers cater to mans cognitive sense. LITERARY WRITINGTECHNICAL WRITINGPURPOSE It entertains or amuses the reader.It provides useful information.It suggests the writers messageIt direc tly informs the writers ideas or messages.It imparts a lessonIt gives instructions or directions.It broadens a persons outlook in life.It serves as a basis for decision making. SUBJECT MATTER

It focuses in mans life or experience includingthe intricacies of the human heart.It focuses on the subject related to business,industry, science, and technology. LANGUAGE It makes use of figurative or imaginativevocabulary or language.It employs specialized jargon whichincludes technical or scientificterminologies.Words or expr essions are beautifullyinterwoven so that they are rhythmicallysounded.

POINT OF VIEW In treating the subject, the writer may useeither the first and second points of view.In technical writing the preference is thethird person point of view. TONE It is emotional, personal and subjective.It is objective, unbiased, or impersonal. PROPERTIES OF TECHNICAL WRITING The ABCs of Report Writing by Paul Zall (1980) Accuracy A technical paper should be free from errors. A misplaced element or misstated fact could make months, even yearsof labor worthless. Accuracy of statement depends not only on individual words but on the way sentences are puttogether, the way the paragraphs are developed, and the way the report as a whole is balance. In conclusion, atechnical writer should guard himself against being misunderstood. Brevity A technical paper should be short or brief and makes use of concise expressions. A technical writer should begin withhis main point and then show why it is sound. Emphasize the highlights of your work, cut out irrelevant comments,immaterial excursions and meaningless statements. Coherence The elements of a technical paper should be logically consistent. Sentences, paragraphs and groups of paragraphs holdtogether by means of appropriate transitional devices which a writer uses in the composition. Confidence

A report writer should develop on his paper the sense of reliability and trust. He should be sure enough to know moreabout the subject than anyone else at that time. If he convinced that he is saying is right, he should say it. If not, heshould go back to see where the problem lies and how he can correct it. Dignity Dignity refers to the quality or state of being worthy, honored, or esteemed. Grammatical constructions in a technical paper should be complete. This can also be achieved with straightforward expression and with summarized,simplified and well organized information. Emphasis A report writer should know how to stress major points. As a matter of course, the writer must indicate the mostimportant ones and never expect the reader to find it out for himself. He should tell the reader what is important andlead him from point to point by using a straightforward style plenty of guideposts and transitional aids. Facility Facility is making the report easy to read and understand. For facility, report writing should observe pacing, sequence,arrangement, and continuity. PACING is presenting technical and unfamiliar information in small segments, explained, defined or illustrated before more of such information is presented. SEQUENCE is leading the reader from familiar to unfamiliar, from the simple to complex, from the wholeto the parts. ARRANGEMENT is emphasizing and balancing important parts to show their proper relationship andimportance. CONTINUITY is showing that the thought of one part to another should be clearly established, illustratedor stated.

Grammatical Correctness It is the rule of the thumb that whatever kind of writing a person does, the application of grammatical rules is a must. Honesty Honesty in writing is chiefly acknowledging the use of other peoples information or work either in footnotes or intext. This can also be shown by telling the readers, ones successes and failures. Illustration Illustration material referred to as graphics or visuals which includes charts, diagrams, tables, photos and other whichis used to elucidate, clarify and support the writers views, precept, idea, or the text given. Judgment This can also be referred to as qualifying or weighing the materials that he had gathered. These can be done byconsidering these criteria: (1) most ample; (2) most relevant or pertinent; (3) most simple in explaining the facts withleast additional evidence; (4) most harmonious with the rest of the data and information. Knowledge Knowledge which is more than a collection of data, involves interpretation and the formulation of conclusions. Logic Logic is thinking straight. It is the process of showing the relations among groups of things and classes of groups.Fundamentally, it is the way of doing classification putting things in their proper slots.By thinking logically, one can avoid the following trouble spots:1.Statements must not contradict each other.2.Words must be used in a consistent sense.3.Statements must move in one direction, whether space, time, or relation.4.Statements must make sense.5.Judgments must not be based on too few data.6.Cause and effects should be clearly distinguished from simple sequence.7.An authority should not be accepted if he is biased or he is not an expert in that particular field. Mechanical Neatness Mechanical Neatness connotes the general appearance of the report. It involves putting the report in perfect shape neatly typed and well margined. A presentable and neat report reflects that the writer gave enough time and effort togive the very best. Normal Procedure

Normal procedure is following or conformity to the acceptable arrangement of the different parts of a report. Reportreaders are used into finding information presented in standard fashion. If someone departs from this, readers tend to be confused. Objectivity Objectivity is the writers assuming a detached, impartial point of view. He writes not impress but to express hisideas, beliefs or perceptions on the topic he is working out. He should treat his subject matter the way he sees or observes it. Planning This gives purpose and direction to what he has to write. It involves thinking ahead of what on has to do. When to doit, how to do it and who is to do it. Qualification Qualification is explaining the circumstances surrounding the work because they might have affected the results to bereported. It also includes the evaluation of ideas, facts, or statements to be included in the development of the report.

Revision Revision is more than checking the spelling, punctuation marks, spacing and margin. An effective report is one that is published and refined to its perfection. The secret of good writing is rewriting. Qualification Straight Sentences It is a good practice that the sentences to be employed must be limited to only one idea or two closely related ideas. Thoroughness Thoroughness is treating the subject fully for the report to have a lasting value. He has to make sure that he has saidenough to satisfy the readers needs and achieve his objectives. Unity Unity implies that all details and facts in the report are clearly relevant to the main point under discussion. The mainobjective of a unified report is to let the readers feel that they have read everything essential to the subject undertaken. Veracity

Veracity means truthfulness. Thus, a good technical paper never misleads or misinterprets. Viewpoint The viewpoint is established with the first sentence and should be maintained throughout the report Word Choice You point Zest