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SUBSTANCE / MATTER - It has mass and occupies space.

Substances have three types -


1. Solid - Constant Volume & Fixed Shape.
2. Liquid - Constant Volume & Shape according to pot or container.
3. Gas - Volume and shape both are not constant depend on the pot or container.
Molecule : The smallest part of substance having all properties of substance and having free existence.
Atom : The smallest part of substance which is a unit in chemical reactions. It is not having free existence
and properties of substance (r = 10
-10
)
Structure of Atom :
Nucleus : Central part of atom having radius 10
-10
m. Total mass and total positive charge of atom is
concentrated in it or say protons and neutrons are present in it.
Orbital Electrons : Electrons is a negativity charged particles, the charge of electron is numerically equal
to charge of proton. The total charge of orbital electrons is equal and opposite to the charge of protons
present in nucleus. The electrons revolves around the nucleus in different orbits.
Orbital electrons are divided in two parts - 1. Bound electrons, 2. Free electrons
Bound electrons : The electrons except outer most orbit are said to be bound electrons. They are tightly
bound with nucleus or they feel strong force due to nucleus so they can not leave atom.
Free electrons : The electrons of outer most orbit are said to be free electrons. They are said to be free
because they feel least force or binding due to nucleus. They can leave atom by getting small amount of
energy by any means.
Free electrons decide the electrical and thermal conductivity of the substances.
The minimum amount of energy required by any free electron to leave atom is said to be ionization energy of
atom. The energy is different in different substances.
The binding of nucleus on free electrons is different in different substances.
The minimum amount of energy required in taking out any free electron from any substance is said to be
work function.
The work function of different substances is different. It is minimum for alkaline metals (Na, K) and
maximum for hard metals.
Substance
Molecules
Atom

Nucleus Orbital electrons



Bound electron Free electrons
Electrostatics
1. The branch of Physics, which deals with the bodies having stationary charge on them, is termed as
electrostatics.
2. When two particular or suitable materials are rubbed together they get the property of attracting light
bodies like piece of paper, straws etc. The materials in this condition are said to be electrified and
property developed is said to be Frictional electricity. The electrified materials are said to be charged
bodies.
3. CHARGING: - To create the excess or deficiency of electrons in any body is said to be charging.
4. EXCESS OF ELECTRONS Negatively charged body. (as per convention )
DEFICIENCY OF ELECTRONS Positively charged body.
5. Process of charging is made by
a. Friction
b. Condition
c. Induction
6. Glass, Flannel, Wool, Silk, Hard metal, Hard rubber, Sealing wax, Resin, Sulphur are rubbed former is
positive charged and later negatively charged.
7. Glass rod with silk Rod is Positive ,Silk is Negative
Ebonite rod with Wool Rod is negative ,Wool is positive
8. Negatively charged bodies will Increase its mass slightly and positively charged body will decrease its
mass slightly.
9. Sure test of charge of bodies is force of repulsion between the bodies, because force of attraction may
occur take place with natural force like gravitation.
10. Fundamental rule of electrostatics:- Similarly charged bodies will repel in between. but
oppositely charges bodies will attract each other.
11. Conservation Of Charge:-
a. Total charge of an isolated system remains constant.
b. Charge can neither be created nor be destroyed.
c. Glass rod is positive but Silk is equally negative
d. e
-

+ e
+
,

e
-
= electron , e
+
= positron
e. Charge is having pair production.
12. Quantistion Of Charge: - The minimum free possible charge is the charge of electron so charge of
electron is said to be fundamental charge or Quanta of charge. If any body is charged the amount of
charge present on the body will be complete multiple of charge of e
q = n x e n = 1, 2, 3,.......
e = charge of electron
13. Explanation Of Charging By Friction: - When two suitable materials are rubbed together
energy is used in overcoming the friction in between them, the energy is used in charging the body as
follows :
1. 1. The body having more loosely bound electrons in it will leave the electrons and the body having
less loosely bound electrons will gain the electrons.
2. The body having less work function will leave the electrons and the body having more work
function will gain the electrons
3. The body having higher electronic pressure will lose the electrons and the body having less electronic
pressure will gain the electrons.
q
1
q
2
r
q
1
q
2
Not Possible
Thus the body loosing the electrons will be positively charged and the body gaining the electrons will
equally negatively charged.

14. Coulombs law of force between the point and stationary charges :
(a). F q
1
. q
2
q
1
q
2
(b). F 1/(r)
2
(c). F may be attractive or repulsive.
(d) F is along the line joining the charges

2
2 1
r
q q
F
So
2
2 1
r
q q
k F
Where K = proportionality constant.
Depends on: -
1. System of measurement
2. Medium in which charges are kept.
A) When system is C.G.S. say charges are taken in stat coulomb or e.s.u. of charge
and distance is in cm then K = 1 for air
2
2 1
r
q q
F ( for air )
B) When system in M.K.S. say charges are in coulomb and distance is in m then
K = 9 x 10
9
Nm
2
/C
2
( for air )
2
2 1 9
10 x 9
r
q q
F (For air)
0
4
1
K

Where
0
is permittivity of air (
0
=
85 . 8
12
10

C
2
x N
-1
x m
-2
)
= 10
7
/ 4c
2
where is the velocity of light in air
2
2 1
0
4
1
r
q q
F

(For air)
2
2 1
4
1
r
q q
F

(For any insulating medium)


here = Absolute permittivity of medium
>
0
r

0
= Dielectric constant or Relative Permittivity or Specific inductive capacity
F F

r
= 80 for water
r
= 6 for glass
r
= for conductors

r
does not depend on the size and shape of medium.

r
is a number having no unit and
r
> 1
So =
0
x
r
2
2 1
0
4
1
r
q q
F
air

2
2 1
0
4
1
r
q q
F
r
md

F
air
> F
md
F
condctor
= 0 because
r
=
F
air
/ F
md
=
r
or F
md
= F
air
/
r
Permittivity Of Medium: - The ability of passing electric field of any medium and gives the
information of the value of force between the charges kept in the medium is said to be Permittivity of the
medium. Denoted by and Permittivity of air is denoted by
0.
1 stat coulomb (e.s.u.) =
9
10 3
1


coulomb.
1 e.m.u. of charge = 3 X 10
9
e.s.u. of charge.
1 stat volt = 300 volt
1c = 10
6
c.
1c = 10
12
p.c.
1c = 10
-3
k.c.
Question 1: - If the charges kept in air having force of 100 N in between .If they are kept in a medium
having
r
= 5 then the force will be

N
F
F
r
air
md
20
5
100


Question 2: - Coulomb is the unit of charge in M.K.S. system but it is not fundamental unit, fundamental
unit is Amp. Sec.
12
r
Question 3: - (a) Vector Form Of The Law q
1
q
2

F
12
r F
21
) (
12 2
2 1
12
r
r
q q
k F
12
F = Force on
1
q due to
2
q

) (
12 2
2 1
21
r
r
q q
k F
21
F = Force on
2
q due to
1
q
21 12
F F
12
r
= Unit vector from
1
q
to
2
q
21 12
F F
F
21
r
1
r
2
q
1
q
2
) (
12 3
2 1
21
r
r
q q
k F
Question 3: -(b) Vector Form Of The Law
21 2
21
2 1
12
r
r
q q
k F

) (
12 2
12
2 1
12
r
r
q q
k F

) (
2 1 3
2 1
2 1
12
r r
r r
q q
k F


( ) ( )
2 1 3
2 1
2 1
r r
r r
q q
k F


) (
21 2
21
2 1
21
r
r
q q
k F


) (
1 2 3
1 2
2 1
21
r r
r r
q q
k F


Question 4:
40 C r 4 C
Force on 40 C due to 4 C is F then force on the 4 C due to 40 C will be F
Question 5: - Any charge Q is to be divided on two bodies so that force between the bodies must be
maximum.
Ans: -The charge on each body must be (Q/2).
Question 6: - If unit of current is made double to existing unit and unit of distance is made half to the
existing unit then the value of
0
will be 32 times.
Ans: -Unit of
( ) ( )
( )
3
2 2
2
2
0
) m ( kg
sec amp
m
Farad
N m
c


Questions 7: - When medium between the charges is not same it is partly air and partly insulator.

r

0
Ans: -
q
1
q
2
t (r-t)
q
2
F
12
(r
2
r
1
)
F
21
F
12
r
2
2 1
0
) ) (( 4
1
t t r
q q
F
r
+


Questions 8: -Forces acting are same but medium are different
q
1 air
q
2
q
1
Dielectric q
2

r t
2
2 1
0
2
2 1
0
) ( 4
1
) ( 4
1
t
q q
r
q q
F
r


r
2

=
r
x t
2
r = t x r

r = r

x t
Distance in air = (distance in medium) x r

Definition of One Coulomb: - If q


1
= q
2
and r= 1 m and the charge are kept in air and F = 9
x 10
9
N then each charge is One coulomb.
(A) Force Due To Line Charge :
1. Consider any line charge having length L and (charge per unit length) / (linear change density
)
2. Take any point P having position vector r on which charge q is kept.
3. To find the force on q due to line charge we take a small segment AB of line charge having
length dl. Let the position vector of dl is r
1
and charge on it will be dl x
4. Force due to (dl x ) on q will be dF
2
1
r r
q ) (dl K


dF

5. Force on q due to complete line charge will be F.

L
dF F

L
dl q
2
1
0
r r
) (
4

L
1
3
2
1
0
) r (r
r r
dl) (
4
q
F

(B) Force Due To Surface Distribution Of Charge :
1. Consider any surface area S having charge per unit area .( = surface charge density).
2. Take any point P having position vector r on which charge q is kept.
3. To find the force on q due to surface charge we take a small surface segment or element
having
area ds. Then charge on this element will be x ds.
4. Now force due to ( x ds) on q will be dF
2
1
) (
r r
q ds K
dF


5. Total force on q due to surface charge will be F

S
dF F

S
r r
q ds K
F
2
1
) (

S
r r
r r
ds q
F ) (
) (
4
1 3
1
0

(C) Force Due To Volume Distribution Charge


a. Consider any volume V having charge per unit volume
b. Take any point P having position vector r and charge on it is q
c. To find the force on q due to charge on volume V we take a infinitesimally small volume
dV having position vector r
1
charge on it will be x dV
d. Force due charge( x dV) on q will be dF
2
1
r r
q ) dV ( K
dF

e. Force on q due to complete charge on volume V will be F.

V
dF F

V
2
1
0 r r
) dV (
4
q

V
1 3
1
0
) r r (
r r
) dV (
4
q
F


On The Basis Of Electric Conductivity We Can Device The Substance As
(1) Conductor : - a) They allow the charge to pass through them. In metals free
electrons are charge carriers. Positive charge is immobile. In electrolyte both
positive and negative particles are charge carriers.
b) If the conductor is kept in the electric field value of electric field induced in it is
equal and opposite to the electric field in which it is kept. So net value of electric
field in it will be zero.
(2) Insulator : - They do not allow the charge to pass through them because free
electrons are not present in them.
Dielectric: - (a) The insulators which transmit the electric properties without conduction and
value of electric force between the charges kept in them will be less than air.
b) If dielectrics are kept in any electric field, value of electric field induced is less than the
electric field in which they are kept. So there will be net electric field in them.
Conductor Dielectric
X
E
E
E = E' E > E' Or E
1
< E
E = Electric field in which kept. E' = Electric field induced.
Induced charged in any Di electric medium
q
1

= Q ( 1-
r
1
) or q
1
= Q -
r
Q


Electrostatic inductions: -
(1) Induced charges are equal and opposite and temporary.
(2) Induced charges are equal to inducing charge.
Principle of superposition: - Value of net force on any charge is equal to the vector sum of
the forces acting on it due to all charges.
F
1
= F
12
+ F
13
+ F
14
+
Electric Field : - The space around any charge q in which other charge q
0
feels any force
of attraction or repulsion is said to be electric field of charge q.
q
0
is said to be testing charge, it should be very small. So that it does not change the electric
field of source charge q.
Intensity Or Strength Of Electric Field: -
The ratio of force experienced by any testing charge and value or magnitude of testing
charge kept at any point in the electric field is said to be Intensity of electric field at the point.
0
q
F
E

E Vector quantity in the direction of force exp. by positive test



0
0
0
lim
q
F
E
q

charge and its unit is


C
N
E'
E'
0
q E F

Electric line of force: - The path of a free, Isolated, Unit positive charge in any electric field
is said to be electric line of force. Or, The curves in the electric field on which tangent drawn
at any point gives the direction of resultant forces exp. on at positive charge kept at the point.
Properties of Electric line of forces: -
(1) They start from positive charge and end at negative charge.
(2) They do not intersect in between if they will intersect there will be two tangents at
point which is impossible.
(3) They repel each other, they are like stretched string.
(4) They are imaginary but electric field represented is real.
(5) If the line of force are 11 and equi dance the E.F will be having uniform strength
(6) If the line of force per unit area are more the strength of E.F will be
Intensity Of Electric Field Due To Point Charge: -
+q +q
0
F
O r P
q = Source charge

2
0
) (r
qq
k F
q
0
= Testing charge
2
0
2
0
) ( 4
1
) ( r
q
r
Kq
q
F
E


r
r
q
E
) ( 4
1
2
0

(When air is medium)


r
r
q
E
r

) ( 4
1
2
0

(When other medium is present)


+ + +
3 2 1
E E E E
total

Intensity Of Electric Field Due To Circular Loop Of Charge Or Charged Ring: -

A' B'
dE sin
dE
r
P
dE cos
x dE cos
O
r

A' B' dE sin dE

a
(1) Ring having centre O radius a and q is the total charge which is uniformly
distributed over the ring.
(2) Point P is on the axis of ring at a distance of x from center O where Eis to be
find out.
(3) Charge per unit length on the ring =
a
q
2
.
(4) Charge on the small ring element AB will be
dl
a
q
dq
2
(5) Intensity of electric field due to dq charge at P will be dE.
( )
2
0
1
2 4
1
r
a
dl q
dE
,
_


dE will be along the line joining AB element with point P.

( )
2 2
0
a x a 2
dl q
4
1
dE
+

(6) We can divide the component of dE along OP and perpendicular to OP which will be
dE cos and dE sin respectively.
(7) We can have other element of ring A'B' which is diagonally opposite to AB and
electric field at P will be same in magnitude along the line joining A'B' with P. We
can divide the component of electric field along OP and perpendicular to OP. the
component perpendicular to OP will balance each other so electric field will be along
OP only.
(8) Electric field at P due to ring will be E

cos dE E
here
( )
2
1
2 2
cos
x a
x
r
x
+

( )

2
3
2 2
0
2
4
1
a x a
x dl q
E

along OP

( )

+

dl
a x a
x q
2
3
2 2
0
2 4

(9) If x=0 then E=0
(10) If x=a then E=
8
0
2 8 a
q

(11) x>>a E= 2
0
4 x
q

(ring is like a point charge)


Electrostatic potential and potential difference: -
(1) Any electric field is described by two quantities one is the intensity of electric field
which is vector quantity, Second is electric potential which is scalar.
( )
2
3
2 2
0
4 a x
x q
E
+

(2)
+q A +q
0
B

F

+q is a point source charge and q
0
is testing charge. q
0
feels a force of repulsion F
due to q.
(3) If q
0
is displaced from B to A work to be done against the force F. The ratio of
work done in taking a test charge from one point to the other point in electric field to
the magnitude of test charge is said to be potential difference between the points.
0
W
q
V V
B A

(4) As work is done by external agency so potential of A will be higher than the
potential of B.
(5) Any positive free charge moves freely from high potential to low potential where as
negative free charge moves freely from low to high potential.
(6) If point B is at infinity say out side the electric field then V
B
= 0
so
0
0
q
w
V
A

0
q
w
V
A

This electric potential at any point in the electric field is the ratio of work done in
bringing a test charge from infinity to the point in electric field, to the magnitude of
testing charge.
(7) If q
0
is taken unit charge than-
The potential of any point in the electric field is numerically equal to the amount of work
done in carrying a unit positive charge from infinity to the point in electric field without
accelerating.
(8) Unit of potential or potential difference-
[ ]
1 3 2
A T ML Volt
C
Joule
(9) Electric field is a conservative field so work done in moving the charge from one point
to other is independent of the path.
To Calculate Electric Potential due to a point charge: -
+q P +q
0
F
O B A
r dx
x
(1) +q is a point source charge due to which electric field is produced. Value of Electric
potential is to be find out at the point P which is at a distance of r from the point
O where +q is kept.
(2) Take a testing charge q
0
which is kept at A at a distance of x from O. Let a point
B close to A towards O at a distance of dx from A.
(3) Work done dw in displacing q
0
from A to B will be
dw = force x displacement (force and displacement are opposite in
direction.)

( )
( ) dx
x
q q

2
0
0
4
1

now work done w in bringing q


0
from infinity to P will be

r
dw W
W


r
dx x
qq
2
0
0
4
W
r
x qq

1
]
1


1 4
1
0
0

W
r
x
qq

1
]
1

1
4
0
0

W
r
qq 1
4
0
0

Now potential at the point P will be V =


0
q
w
r
q
V
0
4
1

(4) If q is kept in any medium then


r
q
V
r

0
4
1


(5) Potential due to group of point charge V will be
V = V
1
+ V
2
+ V
3
+ --------
Charges are q
1
, q
2
, -q
3
, -q
4
and distances are r
1
, r
2
, r
3
and r
4
then
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
r
q
K
r
q
K
r
q
K
r
q
K V +
Relation between E and V
+q A B F
O q
0
x dx
Test charge q
0
is moved from B to A then work done by external agent will de dw. Then
dw = F disp
dw = F (-dx)
F = E q
0
dw = - E q
0
dx
Now
0
q
dw
= -E dx
0
q
dw
is the potential difference of the points A and B Let the potential of A is V and Potential
of B is (V- dV)
so
0
q
dw
= V-(V-dV)=dV
dV = - E dx
or
dx
dV
= -E
E =
dx
dV

= negative potential gradient.


Hence electric field = negative gradient of electric potential
value of potential decrease in the direction of electric field
Unit of electric field
m
V
C
N

.
To Find The Value Of Electric Potential Due To Charged Ring: -
A B

dq r
a
P E
O x
(1) A ring having center O radius a and total charge q on it.
(2) Let point Pon the axes of ring which is at a distance of x from O.
(3) Take a small segment AB of ring having charge dqon it which is at a distance of r
from P.
(4) Potential at P due to charge dq will be dv=
( )
2
1
2 2
a x
dq
K
r
dq
K
+

Now total potential at P will be V



+
dq
) a x (
K
dV V
2
1
2 2
2
1
2 2 0
2
1
2 2
) a x (
q
4
1
) a x (
Kq
V
+

Now we can calculate the value of E as :


Equi Potential
Surface
( )

,
_

+

2
1
2 2 0
4
1
a x
q
dx
d
dx
dV
E

( )

,
_

2
1
2 2
0
4
1
a x
dx
d
q E

( )

,
_

x a x q E 2
2
1
4
1
2
3
2 2
0

( )
2
3
2 2
0
4
a x
x q
E
+

along OP
Equi Potential Surface: - The surface over which electric
potential is same is said to be equi potential Surface .

(1) Surface of charged sphere is Equi potential surface.
(2) If any charge is displaced on any Equi potential surface
the work done is zero.
(3) Lines of force are perpendicular to the equi potential
surface.
(4) Equi potential surface do not intersect.
(5) If equi potential surface are closed then electric field will be stronger
dr
dV
E
Electric Potential Energy: -
Any two charge are having force in between them hence work is to be done in taking
away or in bringing closer to them. This work is stored in the form of potential energy with
the charges.
Definition: - The electric potential energy of a system of charges is the work in bringing the
charges from infinity to near each other to form the system.
q
1
r q
2
To find the P.E. of the A B system we consider that
2
q
is at infinity then the potential at
B due to 1
q
will be
r
Kq
V
1

Now work done W in bringing the charge


2
q
from infinity to B will be

V q W
2 [W=Charge x Potential]

r
q Kq
W
2 1

Now Electric Potential energy of the system of


1
q
&
2
q
will be U
A B
r
2
r
1
O +q
r
23
q
3
q
1 A
B C

) ( 4
1
) (
2 1
0
2 1
r
q q
r
q Kq
W


1. If force acting bet the charges is repulsive and charges are brought closer so work is
done by external agency hence P.E. will increase. If the charges are taken away in the
above case work is done by system it self so P.E. will decrease.
2. If force acting is attractive & charges are brought closer P.E will & P.E. will if
charges are taken away.
3. 1
]
1

+
23
2 1
13
2 1
12
2 1
0
4
1
r
q q
r
q q
r
q q
U




Electric Dipole: If two equal and opposite charges
are kept very close to each other then the system formed -q
2
is said to electric dipole.
-q l o l +q P

Electric Dipole Moment: -


l q P 2

A 2l B
direction of P

is negative change to positive charge.


(1) When centre of mass of positive charge & negative charge of any molecule are at
different points, then the molecule become dipole.
(2) In atom centre of positive & negative charges coincide & so atom is not a dipole.
(3) When atom is kept in electric field the centers of positive & negative charges displace and
atom becomes a dipole.
Torque On Th+e Dipole In A Uniform Electric Field: -
Torque or Moment of couple acting on any electrical dipole kept in any uniform electric field :
1. Consider any electric field E in which any electric dipole is kept. In the dipole -'q' charge is at A +
'q' charge is at B. Let AB = 2l.
2. The dipole will become stationary keeping moment of dipole
P

parallel to
E

. In this condition
forces on -'q' and 'q' charges will be equal (E x q) but opposite in direction, so will be producing zero
resultant force.
3. If the dipole is kept in the electric field so that angle between
P

and
E

is ''. Then the forces on -'q'


and + 'q' charges will be equal (E x q), opposite, but not acting in a line so they will form a couple.
The couple will act on dipole to put the dipole in the condition when
P

||
E

.
Now moment of couple acting on the dipole will be .
r
12
r
13
If the dipole is kept in the electric field so that P

and E

are at any angle P


Net translatory force on the dipole is zero. There will be a couple acting +q
on the dipole which will try to put the dipole so that P

and E

are parallel. B E x q
Moment of couple = one force x perpendicular distance 2l E
= q x E x BC
= q x E x 2l x sin
= Px E x sin E x q -q A
E P


Work done in the rotating the dipole in an electric field :-
If the dipole is kept in the electric field so that P

and E

are at any angle then the moment


of the couple acting on the dipole will be

E P

= P x E x sin
If dipole is rotated by small angle d then amount of work done in this rotation will be dw
dw = x d
dw = P x E x sin x d
The amount of work done in rotating the dipole fromP

to P

and E

are at any angle will


be

0
dw W

0
d sin PE
[ ]

o
PE cos

[ ] ) 0 cos ( cos PE
=PE[-cos + 1]

[ ] cos 1 PE
Case I: - When =90
P

perpendicular to E



E P to E || P
W = P x E
Case II: - When =180

P to E || P
W = 2PE
Potential energy of an electric dipole in an electric field
-q E

+q P

Dipole is displaceced
from infinity
2l
Any dipole AB having moment P= q x 2l is brought from infinity in side the electric field E

.
So that P

and E

are parallel -q charge of dipole will move due to the force of electric field
sin
AB
BC
sin 2l BC C
90
but we need external agency for the motion +q. As q charge has to travel a distance 2l
more than the +q charge so net work will be performed by dipole itself.
Hence net work done by dipole in coming from infinity to the electric field will be W
W = (force on q charge) x Additional distance moved

l qE 2
E P W
so U
0
= -PE
In this position dipole will be in stable equilibrium in side the field.
(2) If the dipole is rotated by any angle the work done
W= PE(1-cos )
So P.E. in the condition will be
U = -PE + PE(1-cos )
= -PE cos
= - P

. E

(3) If = 90
U
90
= -PE cos 90 =0
In this case q and +q charge will move equal distance so net work done will be zero .
(4) If = 180
U
180
= PE unstable equilibrium
To find the intensity of E. F. due to electric dipole: -
On the axis of dipole
-q l o l +q P
|
A 2l B
r
(1) Consider any electric dipole AB having charges q & +q at a distance of 2l .Let o
is the midpoint of AB. Let any point P which is at a distance of r from o. Intensity
of electric field at P is to be find out.
(2) Let E
1
is the intensity due to +q charge & E
2
is the intensity due to q charge of dipole
then
2
0
1
l) (r
q
4
1
E

along OP
2
0
2
l) (r
q
4
1
E
+

along PO
(3) Resultant of E
1
& E
2
will be E= E
1
- E
2
1
]
1

2 2
0
l) (r
1
l) (r
1
q
4
q
E


1
]
1

+
+

2 2
2 2
0
l) (r l) (r
l) (r l) (r
4
q
E

1
]
1

2 2 2
0
) l (r
4rl
4
q
E

2 2 2
0
) l (r 4
2r 2ql

E
2 2 2
0
) l (r 4
2pr

E
(4) If r>>l or
r
l
is small or
2
2
r
l
0

2
2
2
4
0
)
r
l
1 ( r 4
r 2 ql 2
E

4
0
r 4
pr 2
E

3
0
r 4
p 2
E

To Find The Intensity Of Electric Field On The Equatorial Line Of Dipole: -


(1) Consider any dipole having q charge at A & +q charge on B. Let AB=2l and mid
point of AB is O. Let any point P on the equator of the dipole at a distance of r fromo.
Value of intensity of electric field is to be find out at P.
(2) Let E
1
& E
2
are the electric field due to +q & -q
Charge of dipole at P then
) l (r
q
4
1
E
2 2
0
1
+

along BP.
) l (r
q
4
1
E
2 2
0
2
+

along PA. r
(3). Resultant of E
1
& E
2
will be calculated by law of
parallelogram or by dividing the component of E
1
& E
2


so E = E
1
cos + E
2
cos
E =
) ( 4
1
2 2
0
l r
q
+
x 2 cos
As cos =
x
l
=
2
1
2 2
) ( l r
l
+
E =
2
1
2 2 2 2
0
) )( ( 4
2
l r l r
l q
+ +


E
1
E
P
A
B l l
+q
X X
r
F
2
E
1
E
1
/ sin
P
E
1
Cos
E
2
Cos
(4) If r>>l or
r
l
is small or
2
2
r
l
0

2
3 3
3
3
0
)
r
l
(1 r 4
P
E
+



(5)
1
2

eq
axes
E
E
P
Electric potential due to electric dipole at any point p(r, ):-
(1) Consider any dipole in which q charge is at A and r
1
r
2
+q charge is at B .Let middle point of AB is O .Let r
AB is O let AB=2l M
(2) Take any point P which is at a distance of r from -q +q
O and angle between P and r is . A O B
(3) Draw a normal from A on the backward extended N
PO which meets at N .Similarly draw a normal from
B on the line OP which meats the line at M .
(4) By AON cos =
l
ON
AO
ON

l l
So ON = l cos
By AON OM = l cos
Now r
1
= AP = r + l cos
r
2
= BP = r - l cos
(5) Now potential due to q & +q charge of dipole will be V
1
& V
2
) cos ( 4
0
1
l r
q
V
+

) cos ( 4
0
2
l r
q
V

Potential of the point P will be V


1
]
1

) cos (
1
) cos (
1
4
0
l r l r
q
V
1
]
1

+ +

) cos (
cos cos
4
2 2 2
0


l r
l r l r q
V

E =
2
3
2 2
0
) l (r 4 +
p

E = 3
0
4 r
P

E
2 E
2
/ sin
) cos ( 4
cos 2
2 2 2
0

l r
l q
V

) cos ( 4
cos
2 2 2
0

l r
P
V

Case I: when the point P is on the axis of dipole or say = 0


) ( 4
2 2
0
l r
P
V
axis


Case II: when P is on equilateral line
0
eq
V
Case III: when r>>l or or
2
2
r
l
0

3
0
2
0
4 4 r
r P
r
P
V
axis


P
0
eq
V
Intensity of electric field at any point (r,) due to any dipole r
[ ]

2
3
0
cos 3 1
4
+
r
P
E
- q +q
A O B
Electric Flux: - The number of normal Electric lines of force passing through any area
kept in the Electric field is said to be Electric flux.
If A is the Area kept in Electric Field E then flux = E x A
(1) (2) A
E
Flux = E x A Flux = E A cos

= E
.
A
(3) If E is not uniform then we take a small segment of area for which E is taken as
constant / uniform. Let the small area segment is dA and E is the E.F. in which area is kept
then flux d will be
dA E d .
For the complete surface the flux will be


A d E d

.
unit of
m
Volt
or
c
m N
2


E A