Where
0
is permittivity of air (
0
=
85 . 8
12
10
C
2
x N
1
x m
2
)
= 10
7
/ 4c
2
where is the velocity of light in air
2
2 1
0
4
1
r
q q
F
(For air)
2
2 1
4
1
r
q q
F
0
= Dielectric constant or Relative Permittivity or Specific inductive capacity
F F
r
= 80 for water
r
= 6 for glass
r
= for conductors
r
does not depend on the size and shape of medium.
r
is a number having no unit and
r
> 1
So =
0
x
r
2
2 1
0
4
1
r
q q
F
air
2
2 1
0
4
1
r
q q
F
r
md
F
air
> F
md
F
condctor
= 0 because
r
=
F
air
/ F
md
=
r
or F
md
= F
air
/
r
Permittivity Of Medium:  The ability of passing electric field of any medium and gives the
information of the value of force between the charges kept in the medium is said to be Permittivity of the
medium. Denoted by and Permittivity of air is denoted by
0.
1 stat coulomb (e.s.u.) =
9
10 3
1
coulomb.
1 e.m.u. of charge = 3 X 10
9
e.s.u. of charge.
1 stat volt = 300 volt
1c = 10
6
c.
1c = 10
12
p.c.
1c = 10
3
k.c.
Question 1:  If the charges kept in air having force of 100 N in between .If they are kept in a medium
having
r
= 5 then the force will be
N
F
F
r
air
md
20
5
100
Question 2:  Coulomb is the unit of charge in M.K.S. system but it is not fundamental unit, fundamental
unit is Amp. Sec.
12
r
Question 3:  (a) Vector Form Of The Law q
1
q
2
F
12
r F
21
) (
12 2
2 1
12
r
r
q q
k F
12
F = Force on
1
q due to
2
q
) (
12 2
2 1
21
r
r
q q
k F
21
F = Force on
2
q due to
1
q
21 12
F F
12
r
= Unit vector from
1
q
to
2
q
21 12
F F
F
21
r
1
r
2
q
1
q
2
) (
12 3
2 1
21
r
r
q q
k F
Question 3: (b) Vector Form Of The Law
21 2
21
2 1
12
r
r
q q
k F
) (
12 2
12
2 1
12
r
r
q q
k F
) (
2 1 3
2 1
2 1
12
r r
r r
q q
k F
( ) ( )
2 1 3
2 1
2 1
r r
r r
q q
k F
) (
21 2
21
2 1
21
r
r
q q
k F
) (
1 2 3
1 2
2 1
21
r r
r r
q q
k F
Question 4:
40 C r 4 C
Force on 40 C due to 4 C is F then force on the 4 C due to 40 C will be F
Question 5:  Any charge Q is to be divided on two bodies so that force between the bodies must be
maximum.
Ans: The charge on each body must be (Q/2).
Question 6:  If unit of current is made double to existing unit and unit of distance is made half to the
existing unit then the value of
0
will be 32 times.
Ans: Unit of
( ) ( )
( )
3
2 2
2
2
0
) m ( kg
sec amp
m
Farad
N m
c
Questions 7:  When medium between the charges is not same it is partly air and partly insulator.
r
0
Ans: 
q
1
q
2
t (rt)
q
2
F
12
(r
2
r
1
)
F
21
F
12
r
2
2 1
0
) ) (( 4
1
t t r
q q
F
r
+
Questions 8: Forces acting are same but medium are different
q
1 air
q
2
q
1
Dielectric q
2
r t
2
2 1
0
2
2 1
0
) ( 4
1
) ( 4
1
t
q q
r
q q
F
r
r
2
=
r
x t
2
r = t x r
r = r
x t
Distance in air = (distance in medium) x r
dF
5. Force on q due to complete line charge will be F.
L
dF F
L
dl q
2
1
0
r r
) (
4
L
1
3
2
1
0
) r (r
r r
dl) (
4
q
F
(B) Force Due To Surface Distribution Of Charge :
1. Consider any surface area S having charge per unit area .( = surface charge density).
2. Take any point P having position vector r on which charge q is kept.
3. To find the force on q due to surface charge we take a small surface segment or element
having
area ds. Then charge on this element will be x ds.
4. Now force due to ( x ds) on q will be dF
2
1
) (
r r
q ds K
dF
5. Total force on q due to surface charge will be F
S
dF F
S
r r
q ds K
F
2
1
) (
S
r r
r r
ds q
F ) (
) (
4
1 3
1
0
V
dF F
V
2
1
0 r r
) dV (
4
q
V
1 3
1
0
) r r (
r r
) dV (
4
q
F
On The Basis Of Electric Conductivity We Can Device The Substance As
(1) Conductor :  a) They allow the charge to pass through them. In metals free
electrons are charge carriers. Positive charge is immobile. In electrolyte both
positive and negative particles are charge carriers.
b) If the conductor is kept in the electric field value of electric field induced in it is
equal and opposite to the electric field in which it is kept. So net value of electric
field in it will be zero.
(2) Insulator :  They do not allow the charge to pass through them because free
electrons are not present in them.
Dielectric:  (a) The insulators which transmit the electric properties without conduction and
value of electric force between the charges kept in them will be less than air.
b) If dielectrics are kept in any electric field, value of electric field induced is less than the
electric field in which they are kept. So there will be net electric field in them.
Conductor Dielectric
X
E
E
E = E' E > E' Or E
1
< E
E = Electric field in which kept. E' = Electric field induced.
Induced charged in any Di electric medium
q
1
= Q ( 1
r
1
) or q
1
= Q 
r
Q
Electrostatic inductions: 
(1) Induced charges are equal and opposite and temporary.
(2) Induced charges are equal to inducing charge.
Principle of superposition:  Value of net force on any charge is equal to the vector sum of
the forces acting on it due to all charges.
F
1
= F
12
+ F
13
+ F
14
+
Electric Field :  The space around any charge q in which other charge q
0
feels any force
of attraction or repulsion is said to be electric field of charge q.
q
0
is said to be testing charge, it should be very small. So that it does not change the electric
field of source charge q.
Intensity Or Strength Of Electric Field: 
The ratio of force experienced by any testing charge and value or magnitude of testing
charge kept at any point in the electric field is said to be Intensity of electric field at the point.
0
q
F
E
r
r
q
E
) ( 4
1
2
0
) ( 4
1
2
0
dE will be along the line joining AB element with point P.
( )
2 2
0
a x a 2
dl q
4
1
dE
+
(6) We can divide the component of dE along OP and perpendicular to OP which will be
dE cos and dE sin respectively.
(7) We can have other element of ring A'B' which is diagonally opposite to AB and
electric field at P will be same in magnitude along the line joining A'B' with P. We
can divide the component of electric field along OP and perpendicular to OP. the
component perpendicular to OP will balance each other so electric field will be along
OP only.
(8) Electric field at P due to ring will be E
cos dE E
here
( )
2
1
2 2
cos
x a
x
r
x
+
( )
2
3
2 2
0
2
4
1
a x a
x dl q
E
along OP
( )
+
dl
a x a
x q
2
3
2 2
0
2 4
(9) If x=0 then E=0
(10) If x=a then E=
8
0
2 8 a
q
(11) x>>a E= 2
0
4 x
q
(2)
+q A +q
0
B
F
+q is a point source charge and q
0
is testing charge. q
0
feels a force of repulsion F
due to q.
(3) If q
0
is displaced from B to A work to be done against the force F. The ratio of
work done in taking a test charge from one point to the other point in electric field to
the magnitude of test charge is said to be potential difference between the points.
0
W
q
V V
B A
(4) As work is done by external agency so potential of A will be higher than the
potential of B.
(5) Any positive free charge moves freely from high potential to low potential where as
negative free charge moves freely from low to high potential.
(6) If point B is at infinity say out side the electric field then V
B
= 0
so
0
0
q
w
V
A
0
q
w
V
A
This electric potential at any point in the electric field is the ratio of work done in
bringing a test charge from infinity to the point in electric field, to the magnitude of
testing charge.
(7) If q
0
is taken unit charge than
The potential of any point in the electric field is numerically equal to the amount of work
done in carrying a unit positive charge from infinity to the point in electric field without
accelerating.
(8) Unit of potential or potential difference
[ ]
1 3 2
A T ML Volt
C
Joule
(9) Electric field is a conservative field so work done in moving the charge from one point
to other is independent of the path.
To Calculate Electric Potential due to a point charge: 
+q P +q
0
F
O B A
r dx
x
(1) +q is a point source charge due to which electric field is produced. Value of Electric
potential is to be find out at the point P which is at a distance of r from the point
O where +q is kept.
(2) Take a testing charge q
0
which is kept at A at a distance of x from O. Let a point
B close to A towards O at a distance of dx from A.
(3) Work done dw in displacing q
0
from A to B will be
dw = force x displacement (force and displacement are opposite in
direction.)
( )
( ) dx
x
q q
2
0
0
4
1
r
dw W
W
r
dx x
qq
2
0
0
4
W
r
x qq
1
]
1
1 4
1
0
0
W
r
x
qq
1
]
1
1
4
0
0
W
r
qq 1
4
0
0
(5) Potential due to group of point charge V will be
V = V
1
+ V
2
+ V
3
+ 
Charges are q
1
, q
2
, q
3
, q
4
and distances are r
1
, r
2
, r
3
and r
4
then
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
r
q
K
r
q
K
r
q
K
r
q
K V +
Relation between E and V
+q A B F
O q
0
x dx
Test charge q
0
is moved from B to A then work done by external agent will de dw. Then
dw = F disp
dw = F (dx)
F = E q
0
dw =  E q
0
dx
Now
0
q
dw
= E dx
0
q
dw
is the potential difference of the points A and B Let the potential of A is V and Potential
of B is (V dV)
so
0
q
dw
= V(VdV)=dV
dV =  E dx
or
dx
dV
= E
E =
dx
dV
.
To Find The Value Of Electric Potential Due To Charged Ring: 
A B
dq r
a
P E
O x
(1) A ring having center O radius a and total charge q on it.
(2) Let point Pon the axes of ring which is at a distance of x from O.
(3) Take a small segment AB of ring having charge dqon it which is at a distance of r
from P.
(4) Potential at P due to charge dq will be dv=
( )
2
1
2 2
a x
dq
K
r
dq
K
+
,
_
+
2
1
2 2 0
4
1
a x
q
dx
d
dx
dV
E
( )
,
_
2
1
2 2
0
4
1
a x
dx
d
q E
( )
,
_
x a x q E 2
2
1
4
1
2
3
2 2
0
( )
2
3
2 2
0
4
a x
x q
E
+
along OP
Equi Potential Surface:  The surface over which electric
potential is same is said to be equi potential Surface .
(1) Surface of charged sphere is Equi potential surface.
(2) If any charge is displaced on any Equi potential surface
the work done is zero.
(3) Lines of force are perpendicular to the equi potential
surface.
(4) Equi potential surface do not intersect.
(5) If equi potential surface are closed then electric field will be stronger
dr
dV
E
Electric Potential Energy: 
Any two charge are having force in between them hence work is to be done in taking
away or in bringing closer to them. This work is stored in the form of potential energy with
the charges.
Definition:  The electric potential energy of a system of charges is the work in bringing the
charges from infinity to near each other to form the system.
q
1
r q
2
To find the P.E. of the A B system we consider that
2
q
is at infinity then the potential at
B due to 1
q
will be
r
Kq
V
1
1. If force acting bet the charges is repulsive and charges are brought closer so work is
done by external agency hence P.E. will increase. If the charges are taken away in the
above case work is done by system it self so P.E. will decrease.
2. If force acting is attractive & charges are brought closer P.E will & P.E. will if
charges are taken away.
3. 1
]
1
+
23
2 1
13
2 1
12
2 1
0
4
1
r
q q
r
q q
r
q q
U
Electric Dipole: If two equal and opposite charges
are kept very close to each other then the system formed q
2
is said to electric dipole.
q l o l +q P
A 2l B
direction of P
parallel to
E
. In this condition
forces on 'q' and 'q' charges will be equal (E x q) but opposite in direction, so will be producing zero
resultant force.
3. If the dipole is kept in the electric field so that angle between
P
and
E

E
.
Now moment of couple acting on the dipole will be .
r
12
r
13
If the dipole is kept in the electric field so that P
and E
Net translatory force on the dipole is zero. There will be a couple acting +q
on the dipole which will try to put the dipole so that P
and E
are parallel. B E x q
Moment of couple = one force x perpendicular distance 2l E
= q x E x BC
= q x E x 2l x sin
= Px E x sin E x q q A
E P
Work done in the rotating the dipole in an electric field :
If the dipole is kept in the electric field so that P
and E
E P
= P x E x sin
If dipole is rotated by small angle d then amount of work done in this rotation will be dw
dw = x d
dw = P x E x sin x d
The amount of work done in rotating the dipole fromP
to P
and E
0
dw W
0
d sin PE
[ ]
o
PE cos
[ ] ) 0 cos ( cos PE
=PE[cos + 1]
[ ] cos 1 PE
Case I:  When =90
P
perpendicular to E
E P to E  P
W = P x E
Case II:  When =180
P to E  P
W = 2PE
Potential energy of an electric dipole in an electric field
q E
+q P
Dipole is displaceced
from infinity
2l
Any dipole AB having moment P= q x 2l is brought from infinity in side the electric field E
.
So that P
and E
are parallel q charge of dipole will move due to the force of electric field
sin
AB
BC
sin 2l BC C
90
but we need external agency for the motion +q. As q charge has to travel a distance 2l
more than the +q charge so net work will be performed by dipole itself.
Hence net work done by dipole in coming from infinity to the electric field will be W
W = (force on q charge) x Additional distance moved
l qE 2
E P W
so U
0
= PE
In this position dipole will be in stable equilibrium in side the field.
(2) If the dipole is rotated by any angle the work done
W= PE(1cos )
So P.E. in the condition will be
U = PE + PE(1cos )
= PE cos
=  P
. E
(3) If = 90
U
90
= PE cos 90 =0
In this case q and +q charge will move equal distance so net work done will be zero .
(4) If = 180
U
180
= PE unstable equilibrium
To find the intensity of E. F. due to electric dipole: 
On the axis of dipole
q l o l +q P

A 2l B
r
(1) Consider any electric dipole AB having charges q & +q at a distance of 2l .Let o
is the midpoint of AB. Let any point P which is at a distance of r from o. Intensity
of electric field at P is to be find out.
(2) Let E
1
is the intensity due to +q charge & E
2
is the intensity due to q charge of dipole
then
2
0
1
l) (r
q
4
1
E
along OP
2
0
2
l) (r
q
4
1
E
+
along PO
(3) Resultant of E
1
& E
2
will be E= E
1
 E
2
1
]
1
2 2
0
l) (r
1
l) (r
1
q
4
q
E
1
]
1
+
+
2 2
2 2
0
l) (r l) (r
l) (r l) (r
4
q
E
1
]
1
2 2 2
0
) l (r
4rl
4
q
E
2 2 2
0
) l (r 4
2r 2ql
E
2 2 2
0
) l (r 4
2pr
E
(4) If r>>l or
r
l
is small or
2
2
r
l
0
2
2
2
4
0
)
r
l
1 ( r 4
r 2 ql 2
E
4
0
r 4
pr 2
E
3
0
r 4
p 2
E
along BP.
) l (r
q
4
1
E
2 2
0
2
+
along PA. r
(3). Resultant of E
1
& E
2
will be calculated by law of
parallelogram or by dividing the component of E
1
& E
2
so E = E
1
cos + E
2
cos
E =
) ( 4
1
2 2
0
l r
q
+
x 2 cos
As cos =
x
l
=
2
1
2 2
) ( l r
l
+
E =
2
1
2 2 2 2
0
) )( ( 4
2
l r l r
l q
+ +
E
1
E
P
A
B l l
+q
X X
r
F
2
E
1
E
1
/ sin
P
E
1
Cos
E
2
Cos
(4) If r>>l or
r
l
is small or
2
2
r
l
0
2
3 3
3
3
0
)
r
l
(1 r 4
P
E
+
(5)
1
2
eq
axes
E
E
P
Electric potential due to electric dipole at any point p(r, ):
(1) Consider any dipole in which q charge is at A and r
1
r
2
+q charge is at B .Let middle point of AB is O .Let r
AB is O let AB=2l M
(2) Take any point P which is at a distance of r from q +q
O and angle between P and r is . A O B
(3) Draw a normal from A on the backward extended N
PO which meets at N .Similarly draw a normal from
B on the line OP which meats the line at M .
(4) By AON cos =
l
ON
AO
ON
l l
So ON = l cos
By AON OM = l cos
Now r
1
= AP = r + l cos
r
2
= BP = r  l cos
(5) Now potential due to q & +q charge of dipole will be V
1
& V
2
) cos ( 4
0
1
l r
q
V
+
) cos ( 4
0
2
l r
q
V
) cos (
1
) cos (
1
4
0
l r l r
q
V
1
]
1
+ +
) cos (
cos cos
4
2 2 2
0
l r
l r l r q
V
E =
2
3
2 2
0
) l (r 4 +
p
E = 3
0
4 r
P
E
2 E
2
/ sin
) cos ( 4
cos 2
2 2 2
0
l r
l q
V
) cos ( 4
cos
2 2 2
0
l r
P
V
Case II: when P is on equilateral line
0
eq
V
Case III: when r>>l or or
2
2
r
l
0
3
0
2
0
4 4 r
r P
r
P
V
axis
P
0
eq
V
Intensity of electric field at any point (r,) due to any dipole r
[ ]
2
3
0
cos 3 1
4
+
r
P
E
 q +q
A O B
Electric Flux:  The number of normal Electric lines of force passing through any area
kept in the Electric field is said to be Electric flux.
If A is the Area kept in Electric Field E then flux = E x A
(1) (2) A
E
Flux = E x A Flux = E A cos
= E
.
A
(3) If E is not uniform then we take a small segment of area for which E is taken as
constant / uniform. Let the small area segment is dA and E is the E.F. in which area is kept
then flux d will be
dA E d .
For the complete surface the flux will be
A d E d
.
unit of
m
Volt
or
c
m N
2
E A
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