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Controller Design via Freq.

Response
Proportional control (K only)
desired phase margin related to damping ratio desired static error constants adjusted by K

Lag compensators
reshape low frequency response to obtain desired error constant with required transient response

Lead compensators
reshape high frequency response to get desired phase margin

Lead Compensation
1 1 T Gc ( s) = s+ 1 T s+ <1
20 dB 0 dB

1 20 log10
decade

zc =
1 max = sin 1 1+
0

1 T

pc =

1 T

Eq. 11.11 Eq. 11.9

max =

1 T

Definition - Bandwidth
Bandwidth (BW), is the frequency at which the closed-loop frequency response is 3 dB below its zero frequency value (p. 579 of text)
zero frequency would be approximated by a very small frequency if you roughly approximated your closed loop system as first order (i.e., a low pass filter), this would be the break frequency

Peak Time and Bandwidth


6.0 5.5 "Good" Approximation

BW TP = 5. 1 1.8 *
5.0 BW *TP

4.5

4.0 True Value (Eq. 10.56) 3.5 Approximation

3.0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Damping Ratio,

Bandwidth and Open Loop Phase


See Figure 10.49, p. 588 the closed-loop bandwidth BW equals the frequency at which the openloop magnitude response is between -6 and -7.5 dB if the open-loop phase response is between -135 and -225 .

Lead Compensator Design (p. 628)


Find closed-loop bandwidth BW required for transient performance Set gain K of compensator to give desired steady-state error Find M for this gain K and determine how much phase required by lead comp. Select and T from requirements and re-draw the Bode plots Reset overall gain due to change by lead

Problem #12 - initial


R(s) +
-

1 s ( s + 5)( s + 20 )

C(s)

When Kv=10, the system has about 55% overshoot and a peak time of 0.5 sec. Find K for this initial setting.

Use Matlab

Bode Plot with K=1


0 -90 -20

~60 dB

-120 Phase Angle, degrees

Magnitude, dB

-40

-150

-60 Magnitude Phase Angle

-180

-80

-210

-100

-240

-120 1.0E-02 1.0E-01 1.0E+00 1.0E+01 1.0E+02

-270 1.0E+03

Frequency, rad/sec

Bode Plot with K=1000


60 40 20 Magnitude, dB 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 1.0E-02 1.0E-01 1.0E+00 1.0E+01 1.0E+02 Magnitude Phase Angle 0 -30 -60 -90 -120 -150 Phase Angle, degrees

Phase Margin ~20 -180


-210 -240 -270 1.0E+03

Frequency, rad/sec

Closed-Loop Bandwidth
R(s) +
-

1000

1 s ( s + 5)( s + 20 )

C(s)

Find the bandwidth ( BW) of the closedloop system at this gain of K=1000

Use Matlab

Bandwidth ~10 rad/sec


60 40 20 Magnitude, dB 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 1.0E-02 1.0E-01 1.0E+00 1.0E+01 1.0E+02 Magnitude Phase Angle 0 -30 -60

-3 dB

-90 -120 -150 -180 -210 -240 -270 1.0E+03

Frequency, rad/sec

Lead Compensation
10%OS 0.59 M 59o
We have M~ 20 need extra 39+11

1 max = 50 o = sin 1 1+ 1 Gc ( j max ) = 20 log10


T 0 .26

0.13
Gc ( j max ) = +8. 8 dB

max =

1 T

From K=1000 plot, at -9 dB, max ~ 10.5 rad/sec

Phase Angle, degrees

Lead Compensator
1 1 T Gc ( s ) = s+ 1 T s+ 1 1 .26 = 1 .13 s + .13 * .26 s+ s + 3.8 s + 29.3

Gc ( s) = 7.7

Problem #12 - w/compensator


R(s) +
-

7.7( s + 3.8) ( s + 29 .3)

1000 s ( s + 5)( s + 20 )

C(s)

Check final answer with time domain (step input) solution

Use Matlab

Phase Margin w/Compensator #2


80 60 40 20 Magnitude, dB 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 -140 1.0E-02 1.0E-01 1.0E+00 1.0E+01 1.0E+02 Magnitude uncompensated compensator Phase Angle uncompensated compensator 60 30

@~-6 dB, BW~20rad/sec

0 Phase Angle, degrees -30 -60 -90 -120 -150 -180 -210

Phase Margin ~54

-240 -270 1.0E+03

Frequency, rad/sec

Lead Compensation #2
10%OS 0.59 M 59o
We have M~ 20 need extra 39+26

1 max = 65o = sin 1 1+ 1 Gc ( j max ) = 20 log10


T 0 .34

0.05
Gc ( j max ) = +13 dB

max =

1 T

From K=1000 plot, at -13 dB, max ~ 13 rad/sec

Lead Compensator #2
1 1 T Gc ( s ) = s+ 1 T s+ 1 1 .34 = 1 .05 s + .05 * .34 s+ s+3 s + 60

Gc ( s ) = 20

Problem #12 - w/compensator #2


R(s) +
-

20 (s + 3) (s + 60 )

1000 s ( s + 5)( s + 20 )

C(s)

Check final answer with time domain (step input) solution

Use Matlab

Phase Margin w/Compensator


80 60 40 20 Magnitude, dB 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 -140 1.0E-02 1.0E-01 1.0E+00 1.0E+01 1.0E+02 Magnitude uncompensated compensator Phase Angle uncompensated compensator 60 30 0 Phase Angle, degrees -30 -60 -90 -120 -150 -180 -210

Phase Margin ~48

-240 -270 1.0E+03

Frequency, rad/sec

Bandwidth ~20 rad/sec


60 40 20 Magnitude, dB 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 1.0E-02 1.0E-01 1.0E+00 1.0E+01 1.0E+02 Magnitude Phase Angle 0 -30 -60

-3 dB

-90 -120 -150 -180 -210 -240 -270 1.0E+03

Frequency, rad/sec

Phase Angle, degrees

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