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Clasificarea Bacteriilor

Sunt organisme unicelulare, fiind cele mai vechi fiine vii, cu o structur simpl i avnd o foarte mare adaptabilitate la condiiile de mediu. Au dimensiuni cuprinde ntre 0,1 i 10, fiind vizibile la microscopul optic. Diverse forme:

sferice (coci); cilindrice (bacili); curbe/spiralate (vibrioni/spirochete).

Au un ritm de multiplicare rapid cu un ciclu de diviziune cuprins ntre 10 minute i 18 ore n medii favorabile. Sunt principalii ageni infecioi fiind implicai n afeciuni infecioase primare sau complicnd afeciuni preexistente (ca n cazul infeciilor nosocomiale). *SPOR-form de rezisten bacterian. n condiii de mediu nefavorabile unele microorganisme au capacitatea de a i diminua metabolismul i de a se transforma dintr-o form metabolic activ (vegetativ) ntr-o form de rezisten (metabolic inactiv, dar viabil din punct de vedere patogenic) Dac sporul bacterian ajunge ulterior ntr-un mediu propice se produce reacia invers, cu transformarea acestuia n forma vegetativ capabil de diviziune i multiplicare. Din punct de vedere morfologic i funcional exist 4 mari categorii de difereniere a bacteriilor: I. Coloraia Gram (bazat pe diferenele structurale ale claselor bacteriene) : 1. 2. Bacterii Gram pozitive (G+); Bacterii Gram negative (G+).

II. Nevoia de oxigen: 1. 2. Bacterii aerobe-se multiplic doar n prezena oxigenului; Bacterii anaerobe-se multiplic n lipsa oxigenului.

III. Capacitatea de a fermenta glucoza: 1. 2. Glucozo-fermentative; Glucozo-nefermentative.

IV. Microorganisme particulare (nencadrabile). I.1. Bacterii Gram pozitive (G+):

Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus agalactiae (grup B) Streptococcus pyogenes (grup A) Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis Staphylococcus sp. Enterococcus sp. Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus Bifidobacterium bifidum Lactobacillus sp. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Corynebacterium diptheriae Propionibacterium acnes Listeria monocytogenes Nocardia sp.

Rhodococcus equi Actinomyces sp. Clostridium difficile Clostridium perfringens Clostridium tetani Clostridium botulinum Peptostreptococcus sp.

I.2. Bacterii Gram negative (G-):

Neisseria gonorrhoeae Neisseria meningitidis Legionella pneumophila Pasteurella multocida Enterobacteriaceae Citrobacter sp. Enterobacter sp. Escherichia coli Klebsiella pneumoniae Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Acinetobacter baumannii Bordetella pertussis Brucella sp. Campylobacter sp. Capnocytophaga sp. Cardiobacterium hominis Eikenella corrodens Francisella tularensis Moraxella catarrhalis Veillonella sp. Haemophilus ducreyi Haemophilus influenzae Helicobacter pylori Kingella kingae Proteus sp. Salmonella enteriditis Salmonella typhi Serratia marcescens Shigella sp. Yersinia enterocolitica Yersinia pestis Aeromonas sp. Plesiomonas shigelloides Vibrio cholerae Vibrio parahaemolyticus Vibrio vulnificus Acinetobacter sp. Flavobacterium sp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Burkholderia cepacia Burkholderia pseudomallei Stenotrophomonas maltophila Bacteroides fragilis

Bacteroides sp. Prevotella sp. Fusobacterium sp. Spirillum minor

II.1. Bacterii aerobe:

Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis Staphylococcus sp. Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus agalactiae (grup B) Streptococcus pyogenes (grup A) Enterococcus sp. Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus Bifidobacterium bifidum Lactobacillus sp. Listeria monocytogenes Nocardia sp. Rhodococcus equi Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Corynebacterium diptheriae Propionibacterium acnes Neisseria gonorrhoeae Neisseria meningitidis Moraxella catarrhalis Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Acinetobacter baumannii Bordetella pertussis Brucella sp. Campylobacter sp. Capnocytophaga sp. Cardiobacterium hominis Eikenella corrodens Francisella tularensis Haemophilus ducreyi Haemophilus influenzae Helicobacter pylori Kingella kingae Legionella pneumophila Pasteurella multocida Enterobacteriaceae Citrobacter sp. Enterobacter sp. Escherichia coli Klebsiella pneumoniae Proteus sp. Salmonella enteriditis Salmonella typhi Serratia marcescens Shigella sp. Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pestis

II.2. Bacterii anaerobe:

Actinomyces sp. Clostridium botulinum Clostridium difficile Clostridium perfringens Clostridium tetani Peptostreptococcus sp. Veillonella sp. Bacteroides fragilis Bacteroides sp. Prevotella sp. Fusobacterium sp.

III.1.Bacterii glucozo-fermentative:

Aeromonas sp. Plesiomonas shigelloides Vibrio cholerae Vibrio parahaemolyticus Vibrio vulnificus

III.2. Bacterii glucozo-nefermentative:

Acinetobacter sp. Flavobacterium sp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Burkholderia cepacia Burkholderia pseudomallei Stenotrophomonas maltophila

IV. Microorganisme particulare:

Borrelia burgdorferi Borrelia recurrentis Bartonella henselae Chlamydia trachomatis Calymmatobacterium granulomatis Coxiella burnetii Ehrlichia sp. Legionella sp. Leptospira sp. Mycobacterium bovis Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mycobacterium avium Mycobacterium intracellulare Mycobacterium leprae Rickettsia rickettsii Treponema pallidum