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PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, plain&-appellee, vs. ROBERTO SALANGUIT y KO, accused-appellant. Facts:
[G.R. Nos. 133254-55. April 19, 2001] SECOND DIVISION

On December 26, 1995, Sr. Insp. Aguilar applied for a warrant in the Regional Trial Court, Branch 90, Dasmarias, Cavite, to search the residence of accused-appellant Robert Salanguit y Ko on Binhagan St., Novaliches, Quezon City. He presented as his witness SPO1 Edmund Badua, who tes[ed that as a poseur-buyer, he was able to purchase 2.12 grams of shabu from accused- appellant. The sale took place in accused-appellants room, and Badua saw that the shabu was taken by accused-appellant from a cabinet inside his room. The applica[on was granted, and a search warrant was later issued by Presiding Judge Dolores L. Espaol.

Prosecu[on Version:

At about 10:30 p.m. of December 26, 1995, a group of about 10 policemen, along with one civilian informer, went to the residence of accused-appellant to serve the warrant.
The police opera[ves knocked on accused-appellants door, but nobody opened it. They heard people inside the house, apparently panicking. The police opera[ves then forced the door open and entered the house.
A`er showing the search warrant to the occupants of the house, Lt. Cortes and his group started searching the house. They found 12 small heat-sealed transparent plas[c bags containing a white crystalline substance, a paper clip box also containing a white crystalline substance, and two bricks of dried leaves which appeared to be marijuana wrapped in newsprint having a total weight of approximately 1,255 grams. A receipt of the items seized was prepared, but the accused-appellant refused to sign it.

Version of Defense:
On the night of December 26, 1995, as they were about to leave their house, they heard a commo[on at the gate and on the roof of their house. Suddenly, about 20 men in civilian acre, brandishing long rearms, climbed over the gate and descended through an opening in the roof.
When accused-appellant demanded to be shown a search warrant, a piece of paper inside a folder was waved in front of him. As accused-appellant fumbled for his glasses, however, the paper was withdrawn and he had no chance to read it.
Accused-appellant claimed that he was ordered to stay in one place of the house while the policemen conducted a search, forcibly opening cabinets and taking his bag containing money, a licensed .45 caliber rearm, jewelry, and canned goods.


A`er the search, the accused together with the conscated contraband were taken to the police sta[on.

The RTC convicted the accused of viola[on of Sec. 16, Republic Act No. 6425 and to suer the penalty of indeterminate sentence with a minimum of six (6) months of arresto mayor and a maximum of four (4) years and two (2) months of prision correccional and in viola[on of Sec. 8 of the same law and sentenced to suer the penalty of reculsion perpetua and a ne of Php 700,000.00

1. 2. 3. Whether or not the Search Warrant issued is valid. Whether or not the marijuana seized falls under the plain view doctrine. Whether or not the force used in the raid was necessary.

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1. Accused assailed the validity of the warrant on three grounds: (1) that there was no probable cause to search for drug paraphernalia; (2) that the search warrant was issued for more than one specic oense; and (3) that the place to be searched was not described with sucient par[cularity. On the rst ground, it was tes[ed by SPO1 Edmund Badua, the intelligence ocer who acted as a poseur-buyer that when he went inside the house of the accused, he saw the accused get the shabu in the cabinet which is in the room of the accused. Hence, there was probable cause as to the shabu but no tes[mony was oered in regards to the drug paraphernalia. This does not mean however that the search warrant as a whole is void or invalid. Accordingly, it was held that the rst part of the search warrant, authorizing the search of accused-appellants house for an undetermined quan[ty of shabu, is valid, even though the second part, with respect to the search for drug paraphernalia, is not. On the second ground, the accused avers that one warrant should be issued for shabu, one warrant should be issued for marijuana and one warrant should be for drug paraphernalia. The Court held that one warrant would suce since all acts were covered under Republic Act No. 6425, a special law that deals specically with dangerous drugs which are subsumed into prohibited and regulated drugs and denes and penalizes categories of oenses which are closely related or which belong to the same class or species. On the third ground, while the address stated in the warrant is merely Binhagan St., San Jose, Quezon City, the trial court took note of the fact that the records of Search Warrant contained several documents which iden[ed the premises to be searched, to wit: 1) the applica[on for search warrant which stated that the premises to be searched was located in between No. 7 and 11 at Binhagan Street, San Jose, Quezon City; 2) the deposi[on of witness which described the premises as a house without a number located at Binhagan St., San Jose, Quezon City; and 3) the pencil sketch of the loca[on of the premises to be searched. In fact, the police ocers who raided appellants house under the leadership of Police Senior Inspector Rodolfo Aguilar could not have been mistaken as Inspector Aguilar resides in the same neighborhood in Binhagan where appellant lives and in fact Aguilars place is at the end of appellants place in Binhagan. Moreover, the house raided by Aguilars team is undeniably the house of the accused and it was really the accused who was the target. The raiding team even rst ascertained through their informant that appellant was inside his residence before they actually started their opera[on. The marijuana found was covered with newspaper and thus does not fall under the doctrine of plain view. What was in plain view were the newspaper and not the marijuana. Accordingly, the marijuana is inadmissible in evidence but the consca[on is valid and must be upheld. The occupants of the house, especially accused-appellant, refused to open the door despite the fact that the searching party knocked on the door several [mes. Furthermore, the agents saw the suspicious movements of the people inside the house. These circumstances jus[ed the searching partys forcible entry into the house, founded as it is on the apprehension that the execu[on of their mission would be frustrated unless they do so. Furthermore, no tes[monies from disinterested par[es were oered to corroborate the story of the accused that the police used excessive force in enforcing the warrant.



WHEREFORE, in Criminal Case No. Q-95-64357, the decision of the Regional Trial Court, Branch 96, Quezon City, nding accused- appellant Roberto Salanguit y Ko guilty of possession of illegal drugs under 16 of R.A. No. 6425, otherwise known as the Dangerous Drugs Act, as amended, and sentencing him to suer a prison term ranging from six (6) months of arresto mayor, as minimum, and four (4) years and two (2) months of prision correccional, as maximum, and ordering the consca[on of 11.14 grams of methamphetamine hydrochloride is AFFIRMED. In Criminal Case No. Q-95-64358, the decision of the same court nding accused-appellant Roberto Salanguit y Ko guilty of possession of prohibited drugs under 8 of R.A. No. 6425, as amended, and sentencing him to suer the penalty of reclusion perpetua and to pay a ne of P700,000.00 is hereby REVERSED and SET ASIDE and accused-appellant is ACQUITTED of the crime charged. However, the consca[on of the 1,254 grams of marijuana, as well as the 11.14 grams of methamphetamine hydrochloride, and its disposi[on as ordered by the trial court is AFFIRMED.

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